[USC10] 22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER III: GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS
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22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER III: GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 32—FOREIGN ASSISTANCE

SUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Part I—General Provisions

§2351. Encouragement of free enterprise and private participation

(a) Policy of United States

The Congress of the United States recognizes the vital role of free enterprise in achieving rising levels of production and standards of living essential to economic progress and development. Accordingly, it is declared to be the policy of the United States to encourage the efforts of other countries to increase the flow of international trade, to foster private initiative and competition, to encourage the development and use of cooperatives, credit unions, and savings and loan associations, to discourage monopolistic practices, to improve the technical efficiency of their industry, agriculture, and commerce, and to strengthen free labor unions; and to encourage the contribution of United States enterprise toward economic strength of less developed friendly countries, through private trade and investment abroad, private participation in programs carried out under this chapter (including the use of private trade channels to the maximum extent practicable in carrying out such programs), and exchange of ideas and technical information on the matters covered by this subsection.

(b) Action by President to facilitate participation to maximum extent

In order to encourage and facilitate participation by private enterprise to the maximum extent practicable in achieving any of the purposes of this chapter, the President shall—

(1) make arrangements to find, and draw the attention of private enterprise to, opportunities for investment and development in less-developed friendly countries and areas;

(2) establish an effective system for obtaining adequate information with respect to the activities of, and opportunities for, nongovernmental participation in the development process, and for utilizing such information in the planning, direction, and execution of programs carried out under this chapter, and in the coordination of such programs with the ever-increasing developmental activities of nongovernmental United States institutions;

(3) accelerate a program of negotiating treaties for commerce and trade, including tax treaties, which shall include provisions to encourage and facilitate the flow of private investment to, and its equitable treatment in, friendly countries and areas participating in programs under this chapter;

(4) seek, consistent with the national interest, compliance by other countries or areas with all treaties for commerce and trade and taxes, and take all reasonable measures under this chapter or other authority to secure compliance therewith and to assist United States citizens in obtaining just compensation for losses sustained by them or payments exacted from them as a result of measures taken or imposed by any country or area thereof in violation of any such treaty;

(5) to the maximum extent practicable carry out programs of assistance through private channels and to the extent practicable in conjunction with local private or governmental participation, including loans under the authority of section 2151t of this title to any individual, corporation, or other body of persons;

(6) take appropriate steps to discourage nationalization, expropriation, confiscation, seizure of ownership or control, of private investment and discriminatory or other actions having the effect thereof, undertaken by countries receiving assistance under this chapter, which divert available resources essential to create new wealth, employment, and productivity in those countries and otherwise impair the climate for new private investment essential to the stable economic growth and development of those countries;

(7) utilize wherever practicable the services of United States private enterprise (including, but not limited to, the services of experts and consultants in technical fields such as engineering); and

(8) utilize wherever practicable the services of United States private enterprise on a cost-plus incentive fee contract basis to provide the necessary skills to develop and operate a specific project or program of assistance in a less developed friendly country or area in any case in which direct private investment is not readily encouraged, and provide where appropriate for the transfer of equity ownership in such project or program to private investors at the earliest feasible time.

(c) International Private Investment Advisory Council on Foreign Aid; establishment; composition; selection of members by Administrator; duration of service; Chairman; duties of Council; compensation; travel and other expenses; funds for payment of expenses of Council

(1) There is hereby established an International Private Investment Advisory Council on Foreign Aid to be composed of such number of leading American business specialists as may be selected, from time to time, by the Administrator of the Agency for International Development for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this subsection. The members of the Council shall serve at the pleasure of the Administrator, who shall designate one member to serve as Chairman.

(2) It shall be the duty of the Council, at the request of the Administrator, to make recommendations to the Administrator with respect to particular aspects of programs and activities under this chapter where private enterprise can play a contributing role and to act as liaison for the Administrator to involve specific private enterprises in such programs and activities.

(3) The members of the Advisory Council shall receive no compensation for their services but shall be entitled to reimbursement in accordance with section 5703 of title 5 for travel and other expenses incurred by them in the performance of their functions under this subsection.

(4) The expenses of the Advisory Council shall be paid by the Administrator from funds otherwise available under this chapter.

(d) Engineering and professional services of United States firms

It is the sense of Congress that the Agency for International Development should continue to encourage, to the maximum extent consistent with the national interest, the utilization of engineering and professional services of United States firms (including, but not limited to, any corporation, company, partnership, or other association) or by an affiliate of such United States firms in connection with capital projects financed by funds authorized under this chapter.

(e) Contracts on basis of competitive selection procedures

(1) The Congress finds that significantly greater effort must be made in carrying out programs under subchapter I of this chapter to award contracts on the basis of competitive selection procedures. All such contracts should be let on the basis of competitive selection procedures except in those limited cases in which the procurement regulations governing the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter allow noncompetitive procedures to be used.

(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §601, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 438; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §301(a), (b), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 385; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. III, §301(a), (b), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1012; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §301(a), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §301(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §102(g)(2)(B), title V, §501, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 942, 956; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out par. (2) which required reports to Congress on Agency for International Development contracts over $100,000 entered into without competitive selection. See section 2394(a)(2)(F) of this title.

1978—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 95–424 substituted "section 2151t" for "section 2161".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–424 added subsec. (e).

1967—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 90–137 substituted reference to section 5703 for former section 73b–2 of title 5.

1966—Subsec. (b)(2) to (8). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(a)(1)–(3), added par. (2), redesignated former pars. (2) to (6) as (3) to (7), respectively, and added par. (8).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(a)(4), substituted provisions relating to International Private Investment Advisory Council on Foreign Aid for former provisions relating to Advisory Committee on Private Enterprise in Foreign Aid.

1964—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 88–633, §301(a), substituted "June 30, 1965" for "December 31, 1964".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–633, §301(b), added subsec. (d).

1963—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–205, §301(a), substituted "to the maximum extent practicable" for "wherever appropriate" in par. (4), and added pars. (5) and (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–205, §301(b), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Council

Advisory council in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a council established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such council is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a council established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§2352. Small business

(a) Assistance for participation in furnishing of commodities, defense articles, and services

Insofar as practicable and to the maximum extent consistent with the accomplishment of the purposes of this chapter, the President shall assist American small business to participate equitably in the furnishing of commodities, defense articles, and services (including defense services) financed with funds made available under this chapter—

(1) by causing to be made available to suppliers in the United States, and particularly to small independent enterprises, information, as far in advance as possible, with respect to purchases proposed to be financed with such funds;

(2) by causing to be made available to prospective purchasers in the countries and areas receiving assistance under this chapter information as to such commodities, articles, and services produced by small independent enterprises in the United States; and

(3) by providing for additional services to give small business better opportunities to participate in the furnishing of such commodities, articles, and services financed with such funds.

(b) Office of Small Business

There shall be an Office of Small Business, headed by a Special Assistant for Small Business, in such agency of the United States Government as the President may direct, to assist in carrying out the provisions of subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Information with respect to certain purchases by Department of Defense

The Secretary of Defense shall assure that there is made available to suppliers in the United States, and particularly to small independent enterprises, information with respect to purchases made by the Department of Defense pursuant to subchapter II of this chapter, such information to be furnished as far in advance as possible.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §602, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 439.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Reports on Participation by Small Businesses in Procurement Contracts of USAID

Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title VI, §687, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1411, provided that:

"(a) Initial Report.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 2002], the Administrator shall submit to the designated congressional committees a report that contains the following:

"(1) For each of the fiscal years 2000, 2001, and 2002:

"(A) The total number of the contracts that were awarded by the Agency to—

"(i) all small businesses;

"(ii) small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals;

"(iii) small business concerns owned and controlled by women;

"(iv) small businesses participating in the program under section 8(a) of such Act [probably means section 8(a) of the Small Business Act] (15 U.S.C. 637(a)); and

"(v) qualified HUBZone small business concerns.

"(B) The percentage of all contracts awarded by the Agency that were awarded to the small businesses in each category of small businesses specified in clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A), as computed on the basis of dollar amounts.

"(C) Of all contracts awarded by the Agency for performance in the United States, the percentage of the contracts that were awarded to the small businesses in each category of small businesses specified in clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A), as computed on the basis of dollar amounts.

"(D) To the extent available—

"(i) the total number of grant and cooperative agreements that were made by the Agency to the small businesses in each category of small businesses specified in clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A);

"(ii) the percentage of all grant and cooperative agreements awarded by the Agency that were awarded to small businesses in each category of small businesses specified in clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A), as computed on the basis of dollar amounts; and

"(iii) of all grant and cooperative agreements made by the Agency to entities in the United States, the percentage of the grant and cooperative agreements that were awarded to small businesses in each category of small businesses specified in clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A), as computed on the basis of dollar amounts.

"(E) To the extent available—

"(i) the total dollar amount of all subcontracts entered into with the small businesses in each category specified in clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A) by the prime contractors for contracts entered into by the Agency; and

"(ii) the percentage of all contracts entered into by the Agency that were performed under subcontracts described in clause (i), as computed on the basis of dollar amounts.

"(2) An analysis of any specific industries or sectors that are underrepresented by small businesses in the awarding of contracts by the Agency and, to the extent such information is available, such analysis pertaining to the making of grants and cooperative agreements by the Agency.

"(3) A specific plan of outreach, including measurable achievement milestones, to increase the total number of contracts that are awarded by the Agency, and the percentage of all contracts awarded by the Agency (computed on the basis of dollar amount) that are awarded, to—

"(A) all small businesses;

"(B) small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals;

"(C) small business concerns owned and controlled by women;

"(D) small businesses participating in the program under section 8(a) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 637(a)); and

"(E) qualified HUBZone small business concerns,

in order to meet the statutory and voluntary targets established by the Agency and the Small Business Administration, with a particular focus on the industries or sectors identified in paragraph (2).

"(4) Any other information the Administrator determines appropriate.

"(b) Plan To Increase Small Business Contracting.—The plan required for the report under subsection (a)(3) shall include the following matters:

"(1) Proposals and milestones that apply to all contracts entered into by or on behalf of the Agency in Washington, D.C., and proposals and milestones that apply to all contracts entered into by or on behalf of the Agency by offices outside Washington, D.C.

"(2) Proposals and milestones of the Agency to increase the amount of subcontracting to businesses described in such subsection (a)(3) by the prime contractors of the Agency.

"(3) With the milestones described in paragraph (2), a description of how the Administrator plans to use the failure of a prime contractor to meet goals as a ranking factor for evaluating any other submission from the contractor for future contracts by the Agency.

"(c) Annual Reports.—Not later than January 31, 2004, January 31, 2005, and January 31, 2006, the Administrator shall submit to the designated congressional committees a report for the preceding fiscal year that contains a description of the percentage of total contract and grant and cooperative agreement dollar amounts that were entered into by the Agency, and the total number of contracts and grants and cooperative agreements that were awarded by the Agency, to small businesses in each category specified in clauses (i) through (v) of subsection (a)(1)(A) during such fiscal year. The report for a fiscal year shall include, separately stated for contracts and grant and cooperative agreements entered into by the Agency, the percentage of the contracts and grant and cooperative agreements, respectively, that were awarded to small businesses in each such category, as computed on the basis of dollar amounts. The report shall also include a description of achievements toward measurable milestones for direct contracts of the Agency entered into by offices outside of Washington, D.C., and for subcontracting by prime contractors of the Agency.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Administrator.—The term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.

"(2) Agency.—The term 'Agency' means the United States Agency for International Development.

"(3) Designated congressional committees.—The term 'designated congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs] and the Committee on Small Business of the House of Representatives; and

"(B) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Small Business [now Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship] of the Senate."

Office in Agency for International Development

For location of the Office of Small Business, provided for in subsec. (b), in the United States Agency for International Development, see section 1–200(d) of Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Procurements From Small Businesses

Pub. L. 94–329, title VI, §602, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 766, provided that: "In order to encourage procurements from small business concerns under chapter 4 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [part IV of subchapter II of this chapter], the Administrator of the Agency for International Development shall report to the Congress every six months on the extent to which small businesses have participated in procurements under such chapter [part] and on what efforts the Agency has made to foster such procurements from small business concerns. The Small Business Administration shall lend all available assistance to the Agency for the purposes of carrying out this section."

[For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in section 602 of Pub. L. 94–329, set out above, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 130 of House Document No. 103–7.]

§2353. Shipping on United States vessels

The ocean transportation between foreign countries of commodities and defense articles purchased with foreign currencies made available or derived from funds made available under this chapter or the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], and transfers of fresh fruit and products thereof under this chapter, shall not be governed by the provisions of section 55305 of title 46, or any other law relating to the ocean transportation of commodities on United States flag vessels.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §603, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 439; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Food for Peace Act, as amended, referred to in text, is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

Codification

In text, "section 55305 of title 46" substituted for "section 901(b) of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 1241)" on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted section 55305 of Title 46, Shipping.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

§2354. Procurement

(a) Limitations on procurement outside United States

(1) Funds made available for assistance under this chapter may be used by the President for procurement—

(A) only in the United States, the recipient country, or developing countries; or

(B) in any other country but only if—

(i) the provision of such assistance requires commodities or services of a type that are not produced in and available for purchase in any country specified in subparagraph (A); or

(ii) the President determines, on a case-by-case basis, that procurement in such other country is necessary—

(I) to meet unforeseen circumstances, such as emergency situations, where it is important to permit procurement in a country not specified in subparagraph (A); or

(II) to promote efficiency in the use of United States foreign assistance resources, including to avoid impairment of foreign assistance objectives.


(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term "developing countries" shall not include advanced developing countries.

(b) Purchases in bulk

No funds made available under this chapter shall be used for the purchase in bulk of any commodities at prices higher than the market price prevailing in the United States at the time of purchase, adjusted for differences in the cost of transportation to destination, quality, and terms of payment.

(c) Agricultural commodities or products thereof available for disposition under Food for Peace Act

In providing for the procurement of any agricultural commodity or product thereof available for disposition under the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], for transfer by grant under this chapter to any recipient country in accordance with its requirements, the President shall, insofar as practicable and when in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, authorize the procurement of such agricultural commodity only within the United States except to the extent that such agricultural commodity is not available in the United States in sufficient quantities to supply emergency requirements of recipients under this chapter.

(d) Marine insurance

In providing assistance in the procurement of commodities in the United States, United States dollars shall be made available for marine insurance on such commodities where such insurance is placed on a competitive basis in accordance with normal trade practice prevailing prior to the outbreak of World War II: Provided, That in the event a participating country, by statute, decree, rule, or regulation, discriminates against any marine insurance company authorized to do business in any State of the United States, then commodities purchased with funds provided hereunder and destined for such country shall be insured in the United States against marine risk with a company or companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United States.

(e) Parity for domestic commodities prior to use of funds outside United States

No funds made available under this chapter shall be used for the procurement of any agricultural commodity or product thereof outside the United States when the domestic price of such commodity is less than parity, unless the commodity to be financed could not reasonably be procured in the United States in fulfillment of the objectives of a particular assistance program under which such commodity procurement is to be financed.

(f) Commodity eligibility

No funds authorized to be made available to carry out subchapter I of this chapter shall be used under any commodity import program to make any payment to a supplier unless the supplier has certified to the agency primarily responsible for administering such subchapter I, such information as such agency shall by regulation prescribe, including but not limited to, a description of the commodity supplied by him and its condition, and, on the basis of such information such agency shall have approved such commodity as eligible and suitable for financing under this chapter.

(g) Construction or engineering services; applicability to advanced developing country

(1) None of the funds authorized to be appropriated or made available for obligation or expenditure under this chapter may be made available for the procurement of construction or engineering services from advanced developing countries, eligible under the Geographic Code 941, which have attained a competitive capability in international markets for construction services or engineering services.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply with respect to an advanced developing country which—

(A) is receiving direct economic assistance under part I of subchapter I of this chapter or part IV of subchapter II of this chapter, and

(B) if the country has its own foreign assistance programs which finance the procurement of construction or engineering services, permits United States firms to compete for those services.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §604, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 439; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §301(b), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 804; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §301(a), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 963; Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §705, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3157; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1207, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §597, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1694; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c) and (e) to (g)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Food for Peace Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (c), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–391 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "Funds made available under this chapter may be used for procurement outside the United States only if the President determines that such procurement will not result in adverse effects upon the economy of the United States or the industrial mobilization base, with special reference to any areas of labor surplus or to the net position of the United States in its balance of payments with the rest of the world, which outweigh the economic or other advantages to the United States of less costly procurement outside the United States, and only if the price of any commodity procured in bulk is lower than the market price prevailing in the United States at the time of procurement, adjusted for differences in the cost of transportation to destination, quality, and terms of payment."

1985—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–83 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1980—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–533, §705(a), authorized use of funds for procurement of a commodity outside the United States when the commodity to be financed could not reasonably be procured in the United States in fulfillment of objectives of a particular assistance program under which such commodity procurement is to be financed.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–533, §705(b), added subsec. (g).

1968—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 90–554 added subsec. (f).

1966—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(b)(1), struck out "surplus" before "agricultural commodity" in three places and inserted "or products thereof available for disposition under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended," after "commodity" where first appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(b)(2), added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2355. Retention and use of certain items and funds

(a) Commodities and defense articles; disposal to prevent spoilage or wastage or to conserve usefulness; funds realized from disposal or transfer

Any commodities and defense articles procured to carry out this chapter shall be retained by, or upon reimbursement, transferred to, and for the use of, such agency of the United States Government as the President may determine in lieu of being disposed of to a foreign country or international organization, whenever in the judgment of the President the best interests of the United States will be served thereby, or whenever such retention is called for by concurrent resolution. Any commodities or defense articles so retained may be disposed of without regard to provisions of law relating to the disposal of property owned by the United States Government, when necessary to prevent spoilage or wastage of such commodities or defense articles or to conserve the usefulness thereof. Funds realized from any disposal or transfer shall revert to the respective appropriation, fund, or account used to procure such commodities or defense articles or to the appropriation, fund, or account currently available for the same general purpose.

(b) Commodities transferred as repayment of assistance

Whenever commodities are transferred to the United States Government as repayment of assistance under this chapter, such commodities may be used in furtherance of the purposes and within the limitations of this chapter.

(c) Funds realized as result of illegal transactions

Funds realized as a result of any failure of a transaction financed under authority of subchapter I of this chapter to conform to the requirements of this chapter, or to applicable rules and regulations of the United States Government, or to the terms of any agreement or contract entered into under authority of subchapter I of this chapter, shall revert to the respective appropriation, fund, or account used to finance such transaction or to the appropriation, fund, or account currently available for the same general purpose.

(d) Funds realized from sale, transfer, or disposal of returned defense articles

Funds realized by the United States Government from the sale, transfer, or disposal of defense articles returned to the United States Government by a recipient country or international organization as no longer needed for the purpose for which furnished shall be credited to the respective appropriation, fund, or account used to procure such defense articles or to the appropriation, fund, or account currently available for the same general purpose.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §605, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 440; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §301(a), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 658.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1965—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 89–171 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2356. Patents and technical information

(a) Practice of invention or disclosure of information; suits against United States for reasonable compensation; jurisdiction; limitation of action; defenses

Whenever, in connection with the furnishing of assistance under this chapter—

(1) an invention or discovery covered by a patent issued by the United States Government is practiced within the United States without the authorization of the owner, or

(2) information, which is (A) protected by law, and (B) held by the United States Government subject to restrictions imposed by the owner, is disclosed by the United States Government or any of its officers, employees, or agents in violation of such restrictions,


the exclusive remedy of the owner, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, is to sue the United States Government for reasonable and entire compensation for such practice or disclosure in the district court of the United States for the district in which such owner is a resident, or in the United States Court of Federal Claims, within six years after the cause of action arises. Any period during which the United States Government is in possession of a written claim under subsection (b) of this section before mailing a notice of denial of that claim does not count in computing the six years. In any such suit, the United States Government may plead any defense that may be pleaded by a private person in such an action. The last paragraph of section 1498(a) of title 28 shall apply to inventions and information covered by this section.

(b) Settlement of claims

Before suit against the United States Government has been instituted, the head of the agency of the United States Government concerned may settle and pay any claim arising under the circumstances described in subsection (a) of this section. No claim may be paid under this subsection unless the amount tendered is accepted by the claimant in full satisfaction.

(c) Drug products manufactured outside the United States

Funds appropriated pursuant to this chapter shall not be expended by the United States Government for the acquisition of any drug product or pharmaceutical product manufactured outside the United States if the manufacture of such drug product or pharmaceutical product in the United States would involve the use of, or be covered by, an unexpired patent of the United States which has not previously been held invalid by an unappealed or unappealable judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction, unless such manufacture is expressly authorized by the owner of such patent.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §606, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 440; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §160(a)(6), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 48; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted "United States Court of Federal Claims" for "United States Claims Court".

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted "United States Claims Court" for "Court of Claims".

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§2357. Furnishing of services and commodities

(a) Advance-of-funds or reimbursement basis

Whenever the President determines it to be consistent with and in furtherance of the purposes of subchapter I of this chapter and within the limitations of this chapter, any agency of the United States Government is authorized to furnish services and commodities on an advance-of-funds or reimbursement basis to friendly countries, international organizations, the American Red Cross, and voluntary nonprofit relief agencies registered with and approved by the Agency for International Development (including foreign voluntary nonprofit relief agencies so registered and approved when no United States voluntary nonprofit relief agency is available). Such advances or reimbursements may be credited to the currently applicable appropriation, account, or fund of the agency concerned and shall be available for the purposes for which such appropriation, account, or fund is authorized to be used, under the following circumstances:

(1) Advances or reimbursements which are received under this section within one hundred and eighty days after the close of the fiscal year in which such services and commodities are delivered.

(2) Advances or reimbursements received pursuant to agreements executed under this section in which reimbursement will not be completed within one hundred and eighty days after the close of the fiscal year in which such services and commodities are delivered: Provided, That such agreements require the payment of interest at the current rate established pursuant to section 635(b)(1)(B) of title 12, and repayment of such principal and interest does not exceed a period of three years from the date of signing of the agreement to provide the service: Provided further, That funds available for this paragraph in any fiscal year shall not exceed $1,000,000 of the total funds authorized for use in such fiscal year by part I of subchapter I of this chapter, and shall be available only to the extent provided in appropriation Acts. Interest shall accrue as of the date of disbursement to the agency or organization providing such services.

(b) Agency contracts with individuals to perform services

When any agency of the United States Government provides services on an advance-of-funds or reimbursable basis under this section, such agency may contract with individuals for personal service abroad or in the United States to perform such services or to replace officers or employees of the United States Government who are assigned by the agency to provide such services. Such individuals shall not be regarded as employees of the United States Government for the purpose of any law administered by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management.

(c) Excess property

(1) Except as provided in subsection (d), no Government-owned excess property shall be made available under this section, section 2358 of this title, or otherwise in furtherance of the purposes of subchapter I of this chapter, unless, before the shipment of such property for use in a specified country (or transfer, if the property is already in such country), the agency administering such subchapter I has approved such shipment (or transfer) and made a written determination—

(A) that there is a need for such property in the quantity requested and that such property is suitable for the purpose requested;

(B) as to the status and responsibility of the designated end-user and his ability effectively to use and maintain such property; and

(C) that the residual value, serviceability, and appearance of such property would not reflect unfavorably on the image of the United States and would justify the costs of packing, crating, handling, transportation, and other accessorial costs, and that the residual value at least equals the total of these costs.


(2) For purposes of transferring property described in this subsection in furtherance of the provisions of part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, the phrase "the agency administering such subchapter I" shall be considered to refer to the Department of State.

(d) Transfer of Government-owned excess property to enhance environmental protection in foreign countries

The Secretary of State, acting through the Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, is authorized to transfer to any friendly country, international organization, the American Red Cross, or other voluntary nonprofit relief agency described in subsection (a), Government-owned excess property made available under this section or section 2358 of this title in order to support activities carried out under subchapter I of this chapter which are designed to enhance environmental protection in foreign countries if the Secretary of State makes a written determination—

(1) that there is a need for such property in the quantity requested and that such property is suitable for the purpose requested;

(2) as to the status and responsibility of the designated end-user and his ability effectively to use and maintain such property; and

(3) that the residual value, serviceability, and appearance of such property would not reflect unfavorably on the image of the United States and would justify the costs of packing, crating, handling, transportation, and other accessorial costs, and that the residual value at least equals the total of these costs.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §607, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §301(b), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 963; Pub. L. 94–161, title III, §315, Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §122(a), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541; Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §503, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959; 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §102, eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §121, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 99–93, title I, §129, Aug. 16, 1985, 99 Stat. 419.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–93, §129(1)(A), (B), designated existing provisions of subsec. (c) as par. (1), redesignated existing pars. (1), (2), and (3) as subpars. (A), (B), and (C), respectively, and in introductory provisions of par. (1) as so designated substituted "Except as provided in subsection (d), no" for "No".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–93, §129(1)(C), added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–93, §129(2), added subsec. (d).

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–53 substituted "Agency for International Development" for "Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid".

1978—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 95–424 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–88 inserted "(including foreign voluntary nonprofit relief agencies so registered and approved when no United States voluntary nonprofit relief agency is available)" after "and voluntary nonprofit relief agencies registered with and approved by the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid" in provisions preceding par. (1).

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–161 substituted "currently" for "current", incorporated text following "Such advances or reimbursements" in provisions designated cl. (1) and added cl. (2).

1968Pub. L. 90–554 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §122(b), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541, provided that: "For purposes of implementing the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section], the President shall issue regulations governing registration with and approval by the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid of foreign voluntary nonprofit agencies."

Transfer of Functions

"Director of the Office of Personnel Management" substituted for "Civil Service Commission" in subsec. (b) pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1978, §102, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783, set out under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which transferred all functions vested by statute in the United States Civil Service Commission to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management (except as otherwise specified), effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–102 of Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, set out under section 1101 of Title 5.

Authority of Secretary of State

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of this title and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Delegation of Authority

Memorandum of President of the United States, Feb. 16, 1995, 60 F.R. 10793, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Administrator of the Agency for International Development

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate as follows certain authorities vested in the President:

(A) the functions under section 607 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (FAA) [22 U.S.C. 2357], to the Secretary of State and to the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, respectively, for matters within their respective areas of responsibility; and

(B) the functions in the first proviso under the heading "Population, Development Assistance," contained in title II of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1995 (Public Law 103–306) [108 Stat. 1611], and in comparable provisions in successor legislation, to the Secretary of State relating to those organizations and programs for which the Secretary of State has funding responsibility.

The delegations of authority described in subparagraph (A) are in addition to other delegations of such authority to the International Development Cooperation Agency.

The delegation of authority described above in subparagraph (B) shall be exercised in lieu of the delegation of the comparable authority to the Administrator of the Agency for International Development by section 1–102(a)(7) of Executive Order No. 12163, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2381 note].

Any reference in this memorandum to any Act, order, determination, or delegation of authority shall be deemed to be a reference to such Act, order, determination, or delegation of authority as amended from time to time.

The functions delegated by this memorandum may be redelegated within the Department of State or the Agency for International Development, as appropriate.

The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§2358. Foreign and domestic excess property

(a) Advance acquisition of property; special account for payment of costs; limitation; use of property

It is the sense of the Congress that in furnishing assistance under subchapter I of this chapter excess personal property, or (if a substantial savings would occur) other property already owned by an agency of the United States Government, shall be utilized wherever practicable in lieu of or supplementary to the procurement of new items for United States-assisted projects and programs. The President is authorized to maintain in a separate account, which shall, notwithstanding section 1535(d) of title 31, be free from fiscal year limitation, $5,000,000 of funds made available under part I of subchapter I of this chapter, which may be used to pay costs (including personnel costs) of acquisition, storage, renovation and rehabilitation, packing, crating, handling, transportation, and related costs of property classified as domestic or foreign excess property pursuant to chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41, any property available from an agency of the United States Government, or other property, in advance of known requirements therefor for use in furtherance of the purposes of subchapter I of this chapter: Provided, That the amount of property classified as domestic excess property pursuant to chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41 held at any one time pursuant to this section shall not exceed $15,000,000 in total original acquisition cost. Property acquired pursuant to the preceding sentence may be furnished (1) pursuant to any provision of subchapter I of this chapter for which funds are authorized for the furnishing of assistance, in which case the separate account established pursuant to this section shall be repaid from funds made available for such provision for all costs incurred, or (2) pursuant to section 2357 of this title, in which case such separate account shall be repaid in accordance with the provisions of that section for all costs incurred.

(b) Transfer of domestic excess property

Property classified as domestic excess property under chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41 shall not be transferred to the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter for use pursuant to the provisions of subchapter I of this chapter or section 2357 of this title unless (1) such property is transferred for use exclusively by an agency of the United States Government, or (2) it has been determined in the same manner as provided for surplus property in section 549(a) to (e) of title 40, that such property is not needed for donation pursuant to those subsections. The foregoing restrictions shall not apply to the transfer in any fiscal year for use pursuant to the provisions of subchapter I of this chapter of amounts of such property with a total original acquisition cost to the United States Government not exceeding $45,000,000.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §608, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §301(c), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 804; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §301(b), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §102(g)(2)(C), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 942; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §701, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1543.)

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Codification

In text, "chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41" substituted for references to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended, on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, which Act enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (a), "section 1535(d) of title 31" substituted for "section 1210 of the General Appropriation Act, 1951 (64 Stat. 765) [31 U.S.C. 686–1]" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

In subsec. (b), "section 549(a) to (e) of title 40" substituted for "section 203(j) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended" and "those subsections" substituted for "that subsection" on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113 authorized for subchapter I assistance use of property already owned by an agency of the United States (if a substantial savings would occur) as supplementary to procurement of new items for United States-assisted projects and programs and use of separate account funds for payment of costs of any property available from an agency of the United States.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–424 substituted "part 1 of subchapter 1 of this chapter" for "section 2172 of this title".

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–137 required, in furnishing assistance under subchapter I of this chapter, utilization of excess personal property wherever practicable in lieu of new items for United States-assisted projects and programs.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–583 permitted personnel costs attributable to the excess property program to be charged to the separate account for the advance acquisition of property.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2359. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §533(a)(5)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681-180

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §609, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 442, related to special accounts for proceeds from sales of commodities furnished on a grant basis.

§2360. Transfer of funds between accounts

(a) Necessity of transfer; limitations

Whenever the President determines it to be necessary for the purposes of this chapter, not to exceed 10 per centum of the funds made available for any provision of this chapter (except funds made available pursuant to subpart IV of part II of subchapter I of this chapter or for section 2763 of this title) may be transferred to, and consolidated with, the funds made available for any provision of this chapter (except funds made available under part II of subchapter II of this chapter), and may be used for any of the purposes for which such funds may be used, except that the total in the provision for the benefit of which the transfer is made shall not be increased by more than 20 per centum of the amount of funds made available for such provision.

(b) Augmentation of other appropriations

The authority contained in this section and in sections 2261, 2318 and 2364 of this title, shall not be used to augment appropriations made available pursuant to sections 2396(g)(1) and 2397 of this title or used otherwise to finance activities which normally would be financed from appropriations for administrative expenses.

(c) Military and development assistance purposes

Any funds which the President has notified Congress pursuant to section 2413 of this title that he intends to provide in military assistance to any country may be transferred to, and consolidated with, any other funds he has notified Congress pursuant to such section that he intends to provide to that country for development assistance purposes.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §610, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 442; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §301(a), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 89–371, §3, Mar. 18, 1966, 80 Stat. 74; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §301(d), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 804; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §301(c), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §301, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 93–559, §19(a), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1800; Pub. L. 95–384, §10(b)(2), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 735; Pub. L. 101–623, §10(a), Nov. 21, 1990, 104 Stat. 3356.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–623 inserted "or for section 2763 of this title" after "subchapter I of this chapter" and struck out "other" after second reference to "funds made available for any".

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–384 struck out provisions authorizing transfer and consolidation of not to exceed $9,000,000 of the funds appropriated under section 2242 of this title with the funds appropriated under section 2397(a) of this title to be available solely for additional administrative expenses incurred in connection with programs in Vietnam.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–559, §19(a)(1), inserted provisions excepting funds made available under part II of subchapter II of this chapter from the designation of funds subject to consolidation.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–559, §19(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–175 inserted provision excepting funds made available pursuant to subpart IV of part II of subchapter I of this chapter form the designation of funds subject to consolidation.

1967—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–137 increased limitation on funds available for transfer from $5,000,000 to $9,000,000.

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–583 substituted provisions authorizing transfer of $5,000,000 for administrative expenses for any fiscal year incurred in connection with programs in Vietnam for provisions authorizing transfer of $1,400,000 for administrative expenses for fiscal year 1966 incurred in connection with programs in the Republic of Vietnam.

Pub. L. 89–371 authorized transfer of $1,400,000 for administrative expenses for fiscal year 1966 incurred in connection with programs in the Republic of Vietnam.

1962Pub. L. 87–565 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–623, §10(b), Nov. 21, 1990, 104 Stat. 3356, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] apply with respect to funds made available for fiscal year 1991 or any fiscal year thereafter."

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2361. Completion of plans and cost estimates

(a) Restriction on agreements or grants

No agreement or grant which constitutes an obligation of the United States Government in excess of $500,000 under section 1501 of title 31 shall be made for any assistance authorized under part I of subchapter I of this chapter, subpart II of part II of subchapter I of this chapter, or part IV of subchapter II of this chapter—

(1) if such agreement or grant requires substantive technical or financial planning, until engineering, financial, and other plans necessary to carry out such assistance, and a reasonably firm estimate of the cost to the United States Government of providing such assistance, have been completed; and

(2) if such agreement or grant requires legislative action within the recipient country, unless such legislative action may reasonably be anticipated to be completed in time to permit the orderly accomplishment of the purposes of such agreement or grant.

(b) Plans for water or related land resource construction projects; computation of benefits and costs

Plans required under subsection (a) of this section for any water or related land resource construction project or program shall include a computation of benefits and costs made insofar as practicable in accordance with the principles, standards, and procedures established pursuant to the Water Resources Planning Act (42 U.S.C. 1962, et seq.) or acts amendatory or supplementary thereto.

(c) Contracts for construction outside United States; competitive basis

To the maximum extent practicable, all contracts for construction outside the United States made in connection with any agreement or grant subject to subsection (a) of this section shall be made on a competitive basis.

(d) Engineering, financial, and other plans

Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any assistance furnished for the sole purpose of preparation of engineering, financial, and other plans.

(e) Certification of country capability to maintain and utilize projects as prerequisite to assistance for capital projects exceeding cost limitations

In addition to any other requirements of this section, no assistance authorized under part I of subchapter I of this chapter, subpart II of part II of subchapter I of this chapter, or part IV of subchapter II of this chapter shall be furnished with respect to any capital assistance project estimated to cost in excess of $1,000,000 until the head of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter has received and taken into consideration a certification from the principal officer of such agency in the country in which the project is located as to the capability of the country (both financial and human resources) to effectively maintain and utilize the project taking into account among other things the maintenance and utilization of projects in such country previously financed or assisted by the United States.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §611, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 442; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §301(b), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §301(c), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 385; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §301(d), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §102(g)(2)(D), (E), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 943; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §117, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §§1208, 1211(b)(2), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 278, 279.)

References in Text

The Water Resources Planning Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 89–80, July 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 244, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 19B (§1962 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1962 of Title 42 and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–83, §1208(1), substituted "$500,000" for "$100,000".

Pub. L. 99–83, §1211(b)(2), substituted reference to section 1501 of title 31, for reference to section 1311 of the Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1955.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–83, §1208(2), substituted "the principles, standards, and procedures established pursuant to the Water Resources Planning Act (42 U.S.C. 1962, et seq.) or acts amendatory or supplementary thereto" for "the procedures set forth in the Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources, dated October 25, 1973, with respect to such computations".

1979—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–53 substituted "Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources, dated October 25, 1973" for "Memorandum of the President dated May 15, 1962".

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–424, §102(g)(2)(D), substituted "part I of subchapter I of this chapter, subpart II of part II of subchapter I of this chapter, or part IV of subchapter II of this chapter" for "subparts I, II, and VI of part II and part IV of subchapter I of this chapter".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–424, §102(g)(2)(E), substituted "part I of subchapter I of this chapter, subpart II of part II of subchapter I of this chapter, or part IV of subchapter II of this chapter" for "subparts I, II, or VI of part II or part IV of subchapter I of this chapter".

1967—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–137 added subsec. (e).

1963—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–205 substituted "the Memorandum of the President dated May 15, 1962," for "circular A–47 of the Bureau of the Budget."

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–565 included subpart VI of part II of subchapter I of this chapter within the restriction.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

§2362. Use of foreign currencies

(a) Currencies received in payment for nonmilitary assistance; foreign obligations

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter or other Acts, foreign currencies received either (1) as a result of the furnishing of nonmilitary assistance under the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, or any Act repealed thereby, and unobligated on September 3, 1961, or (2) on or after September 4, 1961, as a result of the furnishing of nonmilitary assistance under the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, or any Act repealed thereby, or (3) as a result of the furnishing of assistance under subchapter I of this chapter, which are in excess of amounts reserved under authority of section 2455(d) of this title or any other Act relating to educational and cultural exchanges, may be sold by the Secretary of the Treasury to agencies of the United States Government for payment of their obligations outside the United States, and the United States dollars received as reimbursement shall be deposited into miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury. Foreign currencies so received which are in excess of the amounts so reserved and of the requirements of the United States Government in payment of its obligations outside the United States, as such requirements may be determined from time to time by the President, shall be available for the authorized purposes of subchapter I of this chapter in such amounts as may be specified from time to time in appropriation Acts.

(b) United States operations abroad; excess foreign currencies

Any Act of the Congress making appropriations to carry out programs under this chapter or any other Act for United States operations abroad is hereby authorized to provide for the utilization of United States-owned excess foreign currencies to carry out any such operations authorized by law.

As used in this subsection, the term "excess foreign currencies" means foreign currencies or credits owned by or owed to the United States which are, under applicable agreements with the foreign country concerned, available for the use of the United States Government and are determined by the President to be excess to the normal requirements of departments and agencies of the United States for such currencies or credits and are not prohibited from use under this subsection by an agreement entered into with the foreign country concerned.

The President shall take all appropriate steps to assure that, to the maximum extent possible, United States-owned foreign currencies are utilized in lieu of dollars. Dollar funds made available pursuant to this chapter shall not be expended for goods and services when United States-owned foreign currencies are available for such purposes unless the administrative official approving the voucher certifies as to the reason for the use of dollars in each case.

(c) Voluntary family planning programs; limitation

In addition to funds otherwise available, excess foreign currencies, as defined in subsection (b), may be made available to friendly foreign governments and to private, nonprofit United States organizations to carry out voluntary family planning programs in countries which request such assistance. No such program shall be assisted unless the President has received assurances that in the administration of such program the recipient will take reasonable precautions to insure that no person receives any family planning assistance or supplies unless he desires such services. The excess foreign currencies made available under this subsection shall not, in any one year, exceed 5 per centum of the aggregate of all excess foreign currencies. As used in this subsection, the term "voluntary family planning program" includes, but is not limited to, demographic studies, medical and psychological research, personnel training, the construction and staffing of clinics and rural health centers, specialized training of doctors and paramedical personnel, the manufacture of medical supplies, and the dissemination of family planning information, medical assistance, and supplies to individuals who desire such assistance.

(d) Reciprocal release of dollar value equivalents

In furnishing assistance under this chapter to the government of any country in which the United States owns excess foreign currencies as defined in subsection (b) of this section, except those currencies generated under the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], the President shall endeavor to obtain from the recipient country an agreement for the release, on such terms and conditions as the President shall determine, of an amount of such currencies up to the equivalent of the dollar value of assistance furnished by the United States for programs as may be mutually agreed upon by the recipient country and the United States to carry out the purposes for which new funds authorized by this chapter would themselves be available.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §612, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 443; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §301(d), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 385; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. III, §301(c), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1012; Pub. L. 88–638, §2(1), Oct. 8, 1964, 78 Stat. 1037; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §301(b), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 659; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §301(e), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 805; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §302, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Mutual Security Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended by acts July 8, 1955, ch. 301, 69 Stat. 283; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §§2 to 11, 70 Stat. 555; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–141, 71 Stat. 355; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85–477, ch. 1, §§101 to 103, ch. II, §§201 to 205, ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401, ch. V, §501, 72 Stat. 261; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86–108, §2, ch. 1, §101, ch. II, §§201 to 205(a) to (i), (k) to (n), ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401(a) to (k), (m), 73 Stat. 246; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. I to V, 74 Stat. 134, which was principally classified to chapter 24 (§1750 et seq.) of this title and which was repealed by act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §8(m), 70 Stat. 559, Pub. L. 85–141, §§2(e), 3, 4(b), 11(d), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 356, Pub. L. 86–108, ch. II, §§205(j), ch. IV, 401(1), July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 250, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. II, §§203(d), 204(k), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 138, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460, Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §212(b)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 745, Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §228, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 963, except for sections 1754, 1783, 1796, 1853, 1928, and 1937 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1754 of this title and Tables.

The Food for Peace Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (d), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".

1969—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–175 added subsec. (d).

1966—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–583 added subsec. (c).

1965—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 89–171 redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and prohibited dollar funds made available pursuant to this chapter from being expended for goods and services when United States-owned foreign currencies are available for such purposes unless the administrative official approving the voucher certifies as to the reason for the use of dollars in each case.

1964—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–638 redesignated subsec. (b), as added by Pub. L. 88–205, as subsec. (t) of section 1704 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–633 added subsec. (c).

1963Pub. L. 88–205 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Separate Accounts for Local Currencies and Cash Transfers

Pub. L. 115–141, div. K, title VII, §7026, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 877, provided that:

"(a) Separate Accounts for Local Currencies.—

"(1) Agreements.—If assistance is furnished to the government of a foreign country under chapters 1 and 10 of part I [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq., 2293 et seq.] or chapter 4 of part II [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.] of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 under agreements which result in the generation of local currencies of that country, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall—

"(A) require that local currencies be deposited in a separate account established by that government;

"(B) enter into an agreement with that government which sets forth—

"(i) the amount of the local currencies to be generated; and

"(ii) the terms and conditions under which the currencies so deposited may be utilized, consistent with this section; and

"(C) establish by agreement with that government the responsibilities of USAID [United States Agency for International Development] and that government to monitor and account for deposits into and disbursements from the separate account.

"(2) Uses of local currencies.—As may be agreed upon with the foreign government, local currencies deposited in a separate account pursuant to subsection (a), or an equivalent amount of local currencies, shall be used only—

"(A) to carry out chapter 1 or 10 of part I or chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (as the case may be), for such purposes as—

"(i) project and sector assistance activities; or

"(ii) debt and deficit financing; or

"(B) for the administrative requirements of the United States Government.

"(3) Programming accountability.—USAID shall take all necessary steps to ensure that the equivalent of the local currencies disbursed pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(A) from the separate account established pursuant to subsection (a)(1) are used for the purposes agreed upon pursuant to subsection (a)(2).

"(4) Termination of assistance programs.—Upon termination of assistance to a country under chapter 1 or 10 of part I or chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (as the case may be), any unencumbered balances of funds which remain in a separate account established pursuant to subsection (a) shall be disposed of for such purposes as may be agreed to by the government of that country and the United States Government.

"(5) Report.—The USAID Administrator shall report as part of the congressional budget justification submitted to the Committees on Appropriations on the use of local currencies for the administrative requirements of the United States Government as authorized in subsection (a)(2)(B), and such report shall include the amount of local currency (and United States dollar equivalent) used or to be used for such purpose in each applicable country.

"(b) Separate Accounts for Cash Transfers.—

"(1) In general.—If assistance is made available to the government of a foreign country, under chapter 1 or 10 of part I [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq., 2293 et seq.] or chapter 4 of part II [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.] of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as cash transfer assistance or as nonproject sector assistance, that country shall be required to maintain such funds in a separate account and not commingle with any other funds.

"(2) Applicability of other provisions of law.—Such funds may be obligated and expended notwithstanding provisions of law which are inconsistent with the nature of this assistance including provisions which are referenced in the Joint Explanatory Statement of the Committee of Conference accompanying House Joint Resolution 648 (House Report No. 98–1159).

"(3) Notification.—At least 15 days prior to obligating any such cash transfer or nonproject sector assistance, the President shall submit a notification through the regular notification procedures of the Committees on Appropriations, which shall include a detailed description of how the funds proposed to be made available will be used, with a discussion of the United States interests that will be served by such assistance (including, as appropriate, a description of the economic policy reforms that will be promoted by such assistance).

"(4) Exemption.—Nonproject sector assistance funds may be exempt from the requirements of paragraph (1) only through the regular notification procedures of the Committees on Appropriations."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 115–31, div. J, title VII, §7026, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 633.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. K, title VII, §7026, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2748.

Pub. L. 113–235, div. J, title VII, §7026, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2614.

Pub. L. 113–76, div. K, title VII, §7026, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 505.

Pub. L. 112–74, div. I, title VII, §7026, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1206.

Pub. L. 111–117, div. F, title VII, §7027, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3355.

Pub. L. 111–8, div. H, title VII, §7027, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 871.

Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, §628, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2325.

Pub. L. 109–102, title V, §529, Nov. 14, 2005, 119 Stat. 2206.

Pub. L. 108–447, div. D, title V, §529, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3003.

Pub. L. 108–199, div. D, title V, §529, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 178.

Pub. L. 108–7, div. E, title V, §529, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 190.

Pub. L. 107–115, title V, §529, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2148.

Pub. L. 106–429, §101(a) [title V, §532], Nov. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 1900, 1900A-32.

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §532], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-91.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §533], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681-179.

Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §532, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2414.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §531], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009-150.

Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §532, Feb. 12, 1996, 108 Stat. 732.

Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §536, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1637.

Pub. L. 103–87, title V, §537, Sept. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 955.

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §571, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1681.

Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §575, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2042.

Pub. L. 101–167, title II, title V, §592, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1207, 1253.

Pub. L. 100–461, title II, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–12.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title II], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-143.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(f) [title II], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–213, 1783-221, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(f) [title II], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–214, 3341-221.

§2363. Accounting, valuation, reporting, and administration of foreign currencies

(a) Responsibility of Secretary of the Treasury; regulations

Under the direction of the President, the Secretary of the Treasury shall have responsibility for valuation and central accounting with respect to foreign credits (including currencies) owed to or owned by the United States. In order to carry out such responsibility the Secretary shall issue regulations binding upon all agencies of the Government.

(b) Establishment of exchange rates

The Secretary of the Treasury shall have sole authority to establish for all foreign currencies or credits the exchange rates at which such currencies are to be reported by all agencies of the Government.

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

(d) Interest income on foreign currency proceeds; regulations; waiver; report to Congress

In cases where assistance is to be furnished to any recipient country in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter or any other Act on a basis which will result in the accrual of foreign currency proceeds to the United States, the Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations requiring that agreements, in respect of such assistance, include provisions for the receipt of interest income on the foreign currency proceeds deposited in authorized depositaries: Provided, That whenever the Secretary of State determines it not to be in the national interest to conclude arrangements for the receipt of interest income he may waive the requirement thereof: Provided further, That the Secretary of State, or his delegate, shall promptly make a complete report to the Congress on each such determination and the reasons therefor.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §613, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 443; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §301(c), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 659; Pub. L. 94–273, §46, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out subsec. (c) which provided for semi-annual reports on foreign currencies acquired without payment of dollars by the United States. See section 2394(a)(8) of this title.

1976—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–273 inserted provision relating to reports after Dec. 31, 1975.

1965—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–171 added subsec. (d).

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2364. Special authorities

(a) Furnishing of assistance and arms export sales, credits, and guaranties upon determination and notification of Congress of importance and vitality of such action to security interests and national security interests of United States; policy justification; fiscal year limitations; transfers between accounts

(1) The President may authorize the furnishing of assistance under this chapter without regard to any provision of this chapter, the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], any law relating to receipts and credits accruing to the United States, and any Act authorizing or appropriating funds for use under this chapter, in furtherance of any of the purposes of this chapter, when the President determines, and so notifies in writing the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, that to do so is important to the security interests of the United States.

(2) The President may make sales, extend credit, and issue guaranties under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], without regard to any provision of this chapter, the Arms Export Control Act, any law relating to receipts and credits accruing to the United States, and any Act authorizing or appropriating funds for use under the Arms Export Control Act, in furtherance of any of the purposes of such Act, when the President determines, and so notifies in writing the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, that to do so is vital to the national security interests of the United States.

(3) Before exercising the authority granted in this subsection, the President shall consult with, and shall provide a written policy justification to, the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

(4)(A) The authority of this subsection may not be used in any fiscal year to authorize—

(i) more than $750,000,000 in sales to be made under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.];

(ii) the use of more than $250,000,000 of funds made available for use under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act; and

(iii) the use of more than $100,000,000 of foreign currencies accruing under this chapter or any other law.


(B) If the authority of this subsection is used both to authorize a sale under the Arms Export Control Act and to authorize funds to be used under the Arms Export Control Act or under this chapter with respect to the financing of that sale, then the use of the funds shall be counted against the limitation in subparagraph (A)(ii) and the portion, if any, of the sale which is not so financed shall be counted against the limitation in subparagraph (A)(i).

(C) Not more than $50,000,000 of the $250,000,000 limitation provided in subparagraph (A)(ii) may be allocated to any one country in any fiscal year unless that country is a victim of active aggression, and not more than $500,000,000 of the aggregate limitation of $1,000,000,000 provided in subparagraphs (A)(i) and (A)(ii) may be allocated to any one country in any fiscal year.

(5) The authority of this section may not be used to waive the limitations on transfers contained in section 2360(a) of this title.

(b) United States obligations in West Germany

Whenever the President determines it to be important to the national interest, he may use funds available for the purposes of part IV of subchapter I of this chapter in order to meet the responsibilities or objectives of the United States in Germany, including West Berlin, and without regard to such provisions of law as he determines should be disregarded to achieve this purpose.

(c) Certification by President of inadvisability to specify nature of use of funds; reports to Congress

The President is authorized to use amounts not to exceed $50,000,000 of the funds made available under this chapter pursuant to his certification that it is inadvisable to specify the nature of the use of such funds, which certification shall be deemed to be a sufficient voucher for such amounts. The President shall fully inform the chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate of each use of funds under this subsection prior to the use of such funds.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §614, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §301(f), (g), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 805; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §301(e), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 93–559, §19(b), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1800; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §117(a), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3140; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §128, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 206; Pub. L. 101–222, §8, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1899; Pub. L. 103–199, title VII, §705(2), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2328.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (2), (4)(A), (B), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

References to Part IV of Subchapter I Deemed References to Part IV of Subchapter II

Part IV of subchapter I (§2241 et seq.) of this chapter has been repealed. References to part IV of subchapter I, or any sections thereof, are deemed references to part IV of subchapter II (§2346 et seq.) of this chapter, or to appropriate sections thereof. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 103–199 struck out "Communist or Communist-supported" after "victim of active".

1989—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–222 amended second sentence generally. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: "The President shall promptly and fully inform the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate of each use of funds under this subsection."

1985—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–83 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), added cl. (i) and designations "(ii)" and "(iii)", struck out fiscal year limitation for any one country, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–533, in revising subsec. (a), incorporated part of existing first sentence in provisions designated par. (1), inserted reference to Arms Export Control Act, struck out reference to Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951, required notification of the Speaker of the House and chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and substituted "security interests" for "security"; inserted pars. (2) and (3); incorporated part of existing first sentence, second sentence, and substance of third sentence in provisions designated par. (4) and inserted reference to the Arms Export Control Act; and designated fourth sentence as par. (5) and substituted therein "may not" for "shall not".

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–559 provided that the authority of the section shall not be used to waive the limitations on transfers contained in section 2360(a) of this title.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–137 substituted "506" for "510", classified to the Code as section 2318 of this title.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(f), provided that the $50,000,000 limitation on allocation of funds to any country in any one fiscal year shall not apply to any country which is a victim of active Communist or Communist-supported aggression.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(g), inserted provision for reports to Congress of use of funds under this subsec.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2365. Contract authority

Provisions of this chapter authorizing the appropriation of funds shall be construed to authorize the granting in any appropriation Act of authority to enter into contracts, within the amounts so authorized to be appropriated, creating obligations in advance of appropriations.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §615, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 444.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

§2366. Availability of funds

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, funds shall be available to carry out the provisions of this chapter as authorized and appropriated to the President each fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §616, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 444.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Administration of Funds

Pub. L. 87–329, title I, §112, Sept. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 719, provided that funds appropriated under Pub. L. 87–329, popularly known as the Foreign Assistance and Related Agencies Appropriation Act, 1962, should be administered with a favorable view toward those recipient nations which share the view of the United States on the world crisis.

§2367. Termination expenses

(a) In general

Funds made available under this chapter and the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], may remain available for obligation for a period not to exceed 8 months from the date of any termination of assistance under such chapter or Act for the necessary expenses of winding up programs related to such termination and may remain available until expended. Funds obligated under the authority of such chapter or Act prior to the effective date of the termination of assistance may remain available for expenditure for the necessary expenses of winding up programs related to such termination notwithstanding any provision of law restricting the expenditure of funds. In order to ensure the effectiveness of such assistance, such expenses for orderly termination of programs may include the obligation and expenditure of funds to complete the training or studies outside their countries of origin of students whose course of study or training program began before assistance was terminated.

(b) Liability to contractors

For the purpose of making an equitable settlement of termination claims under extraordinary contractual relief standards, the President is authorized to adopt as a contract or other obligation of the United States Government, and assume (in whole or in part) any liabilities arising thereunder, any contract with a United States or third-country contractor that had been funded with assistance under such chapter or Act prior to the termination of assistance.

(c) Termination expenses

Amounts certified as having been obligated for assistance subsequently terminated by the President, or pursuant to any provision of law, shall continue to remain available and may be reobligated to meet any necessary expenses arising from the termination of such assistance.

(d) Guaranty programs

Provisions of this chapter or any other Act requiring the termination of assistance under this chapter or any other Act shall not be construed to require the termination of guarantee commitments that were entered into prior to the effective date of the termination of assistance.

(e) Relation to other provisions

Unless specifically made inapplicable by another provision of law, the provisions of this section shall be applicable to the termination of assistance pursuant to any provision of law.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §617, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 93–189, §14, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 96–533, title III, §310, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3148; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, §1221], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-498; Pub. L. 106–264, title III, §302, Aug. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 760.)

References in Text

This chapter and such chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (d), were in the original references to this Act and such Act, respectively, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act and such Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–264 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "Assistance under any provision of this chapter may, unless sooner terminated by the President, be terminated by concurrent resolution. Funds made available under this chapter shall remain available for a period not to exceed eight months from the date of termination of assistance under this chapter for the necessary expenses of winding up programs related thereto. In order to ensure the effectiveness of assistance under this chapter, such expenses for orderly termination of programs may include the obligation and expenditure of funds to complete the training or studies outside their countries of origin of students whose course of study or training program began before assistance was terminated. Such expenses for orderly termination of programs under the Arms Export Control Act may include the obligation and expenditure of funds to complete the training or studies outside the countries of origin of students whose course of study or training program began before assistance was terminated, as long as the origin country's termination was not a result of activities beyond default of financial responsibilities."

1999Pub. L. 106–113 inserted at end "Such expenses for orderly termination of programs under the Arms Export Control Act may include the obligation and expenditure of funds to complete the training or studies outside the countries of origin of students whose course of study or training program began before assistance was terminated, as long as the origin country's termination was not a result of activities beyond default of financial responsibilities."

1980Pub. L. 96–533 authorized expenses for termination of programs to include completion of training or studies for students commenced outside their countries of origin prior to such termination.

1973Pub. L. 93–189 substituted "eight months" for "twelve months".

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2368. Assistance for a reconstruction and stabilization crisis

(a) Assistance

(1) In general

If the President determines that it is in the national security interests of the United States for United States civilian agencies or non-Federal employees to assist in reconstructing and stabilizing a country or region that is at risk of, in, or is in transition from, conflict or civil strife, the President may, in accordance with the provisions set forth in section 2364(a)(3) of this title, but notwithstanding any other provision of law, and on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, furnish assistance to such country or region for reconstruction or stabilization using funds described in paragraph (2).

(2) Funds described

The funds referred to in paragraph (1) are funds made available under any other provision of this chapter, and transferred or reprogrammed for purposes of this section, and such transfer or reprogramming shall be subject to the procedures applicable to a notification under section 2394–1 of this title.

(3) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to provide authority to transfer funds between accounts or between Federal departments or agencies.

(b) Limitation

The authority contained in this section may be exercised only during fiscal years 2009, 2010, and 2011.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §618, as added Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title XVI, §1604, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4654.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2368, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §618, as added Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §301(c), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 260, related to payment to the United States regarding the Settlement of Postwar Economic Assistance to Japan, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §§604, 605, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961, effective Oct. 1, 1978.

Another prior section 2368, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §618, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 444, related to economic assistance to Latin America, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §301(c), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 260.

Findings

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title XVI, §1602, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4653, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(e)(18), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4375, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) In June 2004, the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (referred to as the 'Coordinator') was established in the Department of State with the mandate to lead, coordinate, and institutionalize United States Government civilian capacity to prevent or prepare for post-conflict situations and help reconstruct and stabilize a country or region that is at risk of, in, or is in transition from, conflict or civil strife.

"(2) In December 2005, the Coordinator's mandate was reaffirmed by the National Security Presidential Directive 44, which instructed the Secretary of State, and at the Secretary's direction, the Coordinator, to coordinate and lead integrated United States Government efforts, involving all United States departments and agencies with relevant capabilities, to prepare, plan for, and conduct reconstruction and stabilization operations.

"(3) National Security Presidential Directive 44 assigns to the Secretary, with the Coordinator's assistance, the lead role to develop reconstruction and stabilization strategies, ensure civilian interagency program and policy coordination, coordinate interagency processes to identify countries at risk of instability, provide decision-makers with detailed options for an integrated United States Government response in connection with reconstruction and stabilization operations, and carry out a wide range of other actions, including the development of a civilian surge capacity to meet reconstruction and stabilization emergencies. The Secretary and the Coordinator are also charged with coordinating with the Department of Defense on reconstruction and stabilization responses, and integrating planning and implementing procedures.

"(4) The Department of Defense issued Directive 3000.05, which establishes that stability operations are a core United States military mission that the Department of Defense must be prepared to conduct and support, provides guidance on stability operations that will evolve over time, and assigns responsibilities within the Department of Defense for planning, training, and preparing to conduct and support stability operations.

"(5) The President's Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request to Congress includes $248.6 million for a Civilian Stabilization Initiative that would vastly improve civilian partnership with United States Armed Forces in post-conflict stabilization situations, including by establishing an Active Response Corps of 250 persons, a Standby Response Corps of 2,000 persons, and a Civilian Response Corps of 2,000 persons."

Reconstruction and Stabilization Strategy

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title XVI, §1607, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4657, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, shall develop an interagency strategy to respond to reconstruction and stabilization operations.

"(b) Contents.—The strategy required under subsection (a) shall include the following:

"(1) Identification of and efforts to improve the skills sets needed to respond to and support reconstruction and stabilization operations in countries or regions that are at risk of, in, or are in transition from, conflict or civil strife.

"(2) Identification of specific agencies that can adequately satisfy the skills sets referred to in paragraph (1).

"(3) Efforts to increase training of Federal civilian personnel to carry out reconstruction and stabilization activities.

"(4) Efforts to develop a database of proven and best practices based on previous reconstruction and stabilization operations.

"(5) A plan to coordinate the activities of agencies involved in reconstruction and stabilization operations."

[For definition of "personnel" as used in section 1607 of Pub. L. 110–417, set out above, see section 1603 of Pub. L. 110–417, set out as a note under section 2734a of this title.]

§2369. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §604, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §619, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 444, related to assistance to newly independent countries.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

§2370. Prohibitions against furnishing assistance

(a) Cuba; embargo on all trade

(1) No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter to the present government of Cuba. As an additional means of implementing and carrying into effect the policy of the preceding sentence, the President is authorized to establish and maintain a total embargo upon all trade between the United States and Cuba.

(2) Except as may be deemed necessary by the President in the interest of the United States, no assistance shall be furnished under this chapter to any government of Cuba, nor shall Cuba be entitled to receive any quota authorizing the importation of Cuban sugar into the United States or to receive any other benefit under any law of the United States, until the President determines that such government has taken appropriate steps according to international law standards to return to United States citizens, and to entities not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or to provide equitable compensation to such citizens and entities for property taken from such citizens and entities on or after January 1, 1959, by the Government of Cuba.

(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

(c) Indebtedness of foreign country to United States citizen or person

No assistance shall be provided under this chapter to the government of any country which is indebted to any United States citizen or person for goods or services furnished or ordered where (i) such citizen or person has exhausted available legal remedies, which shall include arbitration, or (ii) the debt is not denied or contested by such government, or (iii) such indebtedness arises under an unconditional guaranty of payment given by such government, or any predecessor government, directly or indirectly, through any controlled entity: Provided, That the President does not find such action contrary to the national security.

(d) Productive enterprises competing with United States enterprise; conditions on assistance; import controls; waiver of restriction by President

No assistance shall be furnished on a loan basis under part I of subchapter I of this chapter for construction or operation of any productive enterprise in any country where such enterprise will compete with United States enterprise unless such country has agreed that it will establish appropriate procedures to prevent the exportation for use or consumption in the United States of more than twenty per centum of the annual production of such facility during the life of the loan. In case of failure to implement such agreement by the other contracting party, the President is authorized to establish necessary import controls to effectuate the agreement. The restrictions imposed by or pursuant to this subsection may be waived by the President where he determines that such waiver is in the national security interest.

(e) Nationalization, expropriation or seizure of property of United States citizens, or taxation or other exaction having same effect; failure to compensate or to provide relief from taxes, exactions, or conditions; report on full value of property by Foreign Claims Settlement Commission; act of state doctrine

(1) The President shall suspend assistance to the government of any country to which assistance is provided under this chapter or any other Act when the government of such country or any government agency or subdivision within such country on or after January 1, 1962—

(A) has nationalized or expropriated or seized ownership or control of property owned by any United States citizen or by any corporation, partnership, or association not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or

(B) has taken steps to repudiate or nullify existing contracts or agreements with any United States citizen or any corporation, partnership, or association not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or

(C) has imposed or enforced discriminatory taxes or other exactions, or restrictive maintenance or operational conditions, or has taken other actions, which have the effect of nationalizing, expropriating, or otherwise seizing ownership or control of property so owned,


and such country, government agency, or government subdivision fails within a reasonable time (not more than six months after such action, or, in the event of a referral to the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States within such period as provided herein, not more than twenty days after the report of the Commission is received) to take appropriate steps, which may include arbitration, to discharge its obligations under international law toward such citizen or entity, including speedy compensation for such property in convertible foreign exchange, equivalent to the full value thereof, as required by international law, or fails to take steps designed to provide relief from such taxes, exactions, or conditions, as the case may be; and such suspension shall continue until the President is satisfied that appropriate steps are being taken, and provisions of this subsection shall not be waived with respect to any country unless the President determines and certifies that such a waiver is important to the national interests of the United States. Such certification shall be reported immediately to Congress.

Upon request of the President (within seventy days after such action referred to in subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph, the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States (established pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1954, 68 Stat. 1279) is hereby authorized to evaluate expropriated property, determining the full value of any property nationalized, expropriated, or seized, or subjected to discriminatory or other actions as aforesaid, for purposes of this subsection and to render an advisory report to the President within ninety days after such request. Unless authorized by the President, the Commission shall not publish its advisory report except to the citizen or entity owning such property. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated such amount, to remain available until expended, as may be necessary from time to time to enable the Commission to carry out expeditiously its functions under this subsection.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no court in the United States shall decline on the ground of the federal act of state doctrine to make a determination on the merits giving effect to the principles of international law in a case in which a claim of title or other rights to property is asserted by any party including a foreign state (or a party claiming through such state) based upon (or traced through) a confiscation or other taking after January 1, 1959, by an act of that state in violation of the principles of international law, including the principles of compensation and the other standards set out in this subsection: Provided, That this subparagraph shall not be applicable (1) in any case in which an act of a foreign state is not contrary to international law or with respect to a claim of title or other right to property acquired pursuant to an irrevocable letter of credit of not more than 180 days duration issued in good faith prior to the time of the confiscation or other taking, or (2) in any case with respect to which the President determines that application of the act of state doctrine is required in that particular case by the foreign policy interests of the United States and a suggestion to this effect is filed on his behalf in that case with the court.

(f) Prohibition against assistance to Communist countries; conditions for waiver of restriction by President; enumeration of Communist countries; removal from application of provisions; preconditions

(1) No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter, (except section 2174(b) of this title) to any Communist country. This restriction may not be waived pursuant to any authority contained in this chapter unless the President finds and promptly reports to Congress that: (A) such assistance is vital to the security of the United States; (B) the recipient country is not controlled by the international Communist conspiracy; and (C) such assistance will further promote the independence of the recipient country from international communism. For the purposes of this subsection, the phrase "Communist country" includes specifically, but is not limited to, the following countries:

Democratic People's Republic of Korea,

People's Republic of China,

Republic of Cuba,

Socialist Republic of Vietnam,

Tibet,1


(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the President may remove a country, for such period as the President determines, from the application of this subsection, and other provisions which reference this subsection, if the President determines and reports to the Congress that such action is important to the national interest of the United States. It is the sense of the Congress that when consideration is given to authorizing assistance to a country removed from the application of this subsection, one of the factors to be weighed, among others, is whether the country in question is giving evidence of fostering the establishment of a genuinely democratic system, with respect for internationally recognized human rights.

(g) Use of assistance funds to compensate owners for expropriated or nationalized property; waiver for land reform programs

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no monetary assistance shall be made available under this chapter to any government or political subdivision or agency of such government which will be used to compensate owners for expropriated or nationalized property and, upon finding by the President that such assistance has been used by any government for such purpose, no further assistance under this chapter shall be furnished to such government until appropriate reimbursement is made to the United States for sums so diverted. This prohibition shall not apply to monetary assistance made available for use by a government (or a political subdivision or agency of a government) to compensate nationals of that country in accordance with a land reform program, if the President determines that monetary assistance for such land reform program will further the national interests of the United States.

(h) Regulations and procedures to insure aid is not used contrary to the best interests of the United States

The President shall adopt regulations and establish procedures to insure that United States foreign aid is not used in a manner which, contrary to the best interests of the United States, promotes or assists the foreign aid projects or activities of any country that is a Communist country for purposes of subsection (f).

(i) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

(j) Damage or destruction by mob action of United States property; termination of assistance

The President shall consider terminating assistance under this chapter or any other Act to any country which permits, or fails to take adequate measures to prevent, the damage or destruction by mob action of United States property within such country, and fails to take appropriate measures to prevent a recurrence thereof and to provide adequate compensation for such damage or destruction.

(k) Maximum amount of assistance, including military assistance to individual countries without approval of or presentation to Congress

Without the express approval of Congress, no assistance shall be furnished under this chapter to any country for construction of any productive enterprise with respect to which the aggregate value of assistance to be furnished by the United States will exceed $100,000,000, except that this sentence does not apply with respect to assistance for construction of any productive enterprise in Egypt which is described in the presentation materials to Congress. Except as otherwise provided in section 2318 of this title, no military assistance shall be furnished to any country under this chapter for carrying out any program, with respect to which the aggregate value of assistance to be furnished beginning July 1, 1966, by the United States will exceed $100,000,000 unless such program has been included in the presentation to the Congress during its consideration of authorizations for appropriations under this chapter or of appropriations pursuant to authorizations contained in this chapter. No provision of this chapter or any other Act shall be construed to authorize the President to waive the provisions of this subsection.

(l) Institution of investment guaranty program

The President shall consider denying assistance under this chapter to the government of any less developed country which, after December 31, 1966, has failed to enter into an agreement with the President to institute the investment guaranty program under section 2194(a)(1) of this title, providing protection against the specific risks of inconvertibility under subparagraph (A), and expropriation or confiscation under subparagraph (B), of such section 2194(a)(1).

(m) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

(n) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §123(b), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541

(o) Exclusion from assistance of countries seizing or imposing penalties or sanctions against United States fishing vessels

In determining whether or not to furnish assistance under this chapter, consideration shall be given to excluding from such assistance any country which hereafter seizes, or imposes any penalty or sanction against, any United States fishing vessel on account of its fishing activities in international waters. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable in any case governed by international agreement to which the United States is a party.

(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–559, §44, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1813

(q) Defaults in principal or interest payments on loans; meeting obligations under loans; notice to Congressional committees

No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter to any country which is in default, during a period in excess of six calendar months, in payment to the United States of principal or interest on any loan made to such country under this chapter, unless such country meets its obligations under the loan or unless the President determines that assistance to such country is in the national interest and notifies the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate of such determination.

(r) Liability for repayment of principal or interest on loans outstanding after September 19, 1966

No recipient of a loan made under the authority of this chapter, any part of which is outstanding on or after September 19, 1966, shall be relieved of liability for the repayment of any part of the principal of or interest on such loan.

(s) Restraint of arms races and proliferation of sophisticated weapons

(1) In order to restrain arms races and proliferation of sophisticated weapons, and to ensure that resources intended for economic development are not diverted to military purposes, the President shall take into account before furnishing development loans, Alliance loans or supporting assistance to any country under this chapter, and before making sales under the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.]:

(A) the percentage of the recipient or purchasing country's budget which is devoted to military purposes; and

(B) the degree to which the recipient or purchasing country is using its foreign exchange or other resources to acquire military equipment.


(2) Omitted.

(t) Diplomatic relations; severance, resumption, and negotiation of agreements

No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter or any other Act, and no sales shall be made under the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], in or to any country which has severed or hereafter severs diplomatic relations with the United States or with which the United States has severed or hereafter severs diplomatic relations, unless (1) diplomatic relations have been resumed with such country and (2) agreements for the furnishing of such assistance or the making of such sales, as the case may be, have been negotiated and entered into after the resumption of diplomatic relations with such country.

(u) Status of country with respect to obligations to the United Nations; report to Congress

In any decision to provide or continue to provide any program of assistance to any country under this chapter, there shall be taken into account the status of the country with respect to its dues, assessments, and other obligations to the United Nations; and where such country is delinquent with respect to any such obligations for the purposes of the first sentence of Article 19 of the United Nations Charter, the President shall furnish the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives a report setting forth the assurance given by the government of the country concerned of paying all of its arrearages and of placing its payments of such obligations on a current basis, or a full explanation of the unusual or exceptional circumstances which render it economically incapable of giving such assurance.

(v) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–559, §24, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1802

(w) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(d)(1), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959

(x) Omitted

(y) Limitation on assistance to countries aiding Cuba nuclear development

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the President shall withhold from amounts made available under this chapter or any other Act and allocated for a country for a fiscal year an amount equal to the aggregate value of nuclear fuel and related assistance and credits provided by that country, or any entity of that country, to Cuba during the preceding fiscal year.

(2) The requirement to withhold assistance for a country for a fiscal year under paragraph (1) shall not apply if Cuba—

(A) has ratified the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (21 UST 483) or the Treaty of Tlatelelco, and Cuba is in compliance with the requirements of either such Treaty;

(B) has negotiated and is in compliance with full-scope safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency not later than two years after ratification by Cuba of such Treaty; and

(C) incorporates and is in compliance with internationally accepted nuclear safety standards.


(3) The Secretary of State shall prepare and submit to the Congress each year a report containing a description of the amount of nuclear fuel and related assistance and credits provided by any country, or any entity of a country, to Cuba during the preceding year, including the terms of each transfer of such fuel, assistance, or credits.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §301(d), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §301(e), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 386; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. III, §301(d)–(g), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1013; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §301(d), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 659; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §301(h), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 805, 806; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §301(f), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §301(c), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 963; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §303, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §301, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 27; Pub. L. 93–189, §15, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 93–559, §§22–24, 44, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1801, 1802, 1813; Pub. L. 94–104, §2(c)(1), (2), Oct. 6, 1975, 89 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 94–329, title IV, §403, title VI, §606, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 757, 768; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §123(a), (b), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541; Pub. L. 95–92, §22(d), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 624; Pub. L. 95–384, §13(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §§102(g)(2)(F), 115(k), title V, §502(d)(1), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 943, 952, 959; Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §203, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3145; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §§702, 707, 734(a)(1), (13), (b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1544, 1546, 1560; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §§1202, 1203, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 276, 277; Pub. L. 102–511, title IX, §901, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3355; Pub. L. 103–199, title VII, §705(3), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2328; Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §573, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1653; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXVIII, §2810(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–850; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 104–114, title II, §204(d)(1), (2), Mar. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 810, provided that on date on which President submits determination under section 6063(c)(3) of this title that democratically elected government in Cuba is in power, this section is amended by repealing subsec. (a) and by striking out "Republic of Cuba" in subsec. (f).

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c), (e), (f)(1), (g), (j) to (l), (o), (q) to (t), (u), and (y), was in the original "this Act", except in subsec. (u), where it was "the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1954, 68 Stat. 1279, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Food for Peace Act, referred to in subsecs. (s)(1) and (t), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Codification

Subsec. (s)(2) of this section, which required the President to report annually to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on actions taken to carry out this provision, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 26 of House Document No. 103–7.

Subsec. (x) was omitted pursuant to Pub. L. 95–384, §13(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737, which provided that subsec. (x) be of no further force and effect upon the President's determination and certification of certain conditions precedent which was made by Presidential Memorandum dated Sept. 26, 1978. See notes set out below.

Amendments

2008—Subsecs. (s)(1), (t). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".

1998—Subsec. (y). Pub. L. 105–277 added subsec. (y).

1994—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–306, which directed the amendment of par. (1) by striking out from the list of countries "Mongolian People's Republic.", was executed by striking out "Mongolian People's Republic," to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1993—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–199 substituted "any country that is a Communist country for purposes of subsection (f)" for "the Communist-bloc countries".

1992—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 102–511, which directed the amendment of par. (1) by striking out from the list of countries "Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.", "Estonia.", "German Democratic Republic.", "Hungarian People's Republic.", "Latvia.", "Lithuania.", "People's Republic of Albania.", "People's Republic of Bulgaria.", "Polish People's Republic.", "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.", "Socialist Republic of Romania.", and "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (including its captive constituent republics).", was executed by striking out those countries and the comma which followed each country in the original and not a period as shown in the directory language.

1985—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–83, §1202, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and redesignated cls. (1), (2), and (3) as (A), (B), and (C), respectively, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–83, §1203, inserted provisions relating to waiver of prohibitions in cases of land reform programs.

1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–113, §734(a)(1), struck out subsec. (b) which prohibited aid to countries unless the President determined that they were not dominated by the international Communist movement. See subsec. (f) of this section.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–113, §707, substituted "includes specifically, but is not limited to" for "shall include specifically, but not be limited to", repeated in a different sequence the list of countries included within the phrase "Communist country", and substituted "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" for "North Korean Peoples Republic", "German Democratic Republic" for "German Democratic Republic (East Germany)", "Mongolian People's Republic" for "Outer Mongolia-Mongolian Peoples Republic", "Republic of Cuba" for "Cuba", "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" for "Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia", "Socialist Republic of Romania" for "Rumanian Peoples Republic", and "Socialist Republic of Vietnam" for "North Vietnam".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–113, §734(a)(1), struck out subsec. (i) which prohibited aid to countries determined by the President to be engaging in or prepared for aggressive military efforts, insurrection, or subversion against the United States or any country receiving United States aid.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 97–113, §702, struck out "for fiscal year 1977, fiscal year 1980, or fiscal year 1981" after "presentation materials to Congress".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97–113, §734(a)(1), struck out subsec. (m) which prohibited grant assistance, except for International Military Education and Training, to any economically developed nation capable of sustaining its own defense burden and economic growth.

Subsec. (s)(1). Pub. L. 97–113, §734(b), substituted in subpar. (B) "foreign exchange or other resources" for "foreign exchange resources" and struck out subpar. (C), which directed the President to take into account the amount spent by the recipient or purchasing country for the purchase of sophisticated weapons systems, such as missile systems and jet aircraft for military purposes, from any country.

1980—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 96–533 exempted from express Congressional approval productive enterprises in Egypt described in the presentation to Congress for fiscal years 1980 and 1981.

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–424, §102(g)(2)(F), substituted "on a loan basis under part I of subchapter I of this chapter" for "under section 2161 of this title".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 95–424, §115(k), substituted "2194(a)(1)" for "2181(b)(1)" in two places.

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 95–424, §502(d)(1), struck out subsec. (w) relating to suspension and future resumption of military, economic, etc., assistance to the Government of Pakistan.

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–88, §123(a)(1), struck out provision that no assistance be furnished to any country which furnished assistance to the government of Cuba unless the President determined that assistance to the supplying country was in the national interest of the United States.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–88, §123(a)(2), struck out par. (3) which had directed that no funds be used to furnish assistance to countries which had not taken steps to prevent ships or aircraft of their registry from transporting equipment, materials, or commodities to Cuba.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 95–88, §123(b), struck out subsec. (n) which had prohibited the giving of aid to countries that sold or furnished to North Vietnam, or permitted their ships or aircraft to carry to or from North Vietnam, equipment, materials, or commodities, unless the President determined that the giving of aid was in the national interest.

Subsec. (x)(1). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted "1978" for "1976, the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending September 30, 1976, and the fiscal year 1977," and provisions authorizing $175,000,000 during the fiscal year 1978 for Turkey as the total value of defense articles and services sold to such country, for provisions authorizing $125,000,000 during the fiscal year 1976, and the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending Sept. 30, 1976, and $125,000,000 during the fiscal year 1977 for Turkey as the total value of defense articles and services sold to such country.

1976—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 94–329, §606, inserted provision exempting from the condition of express approval of Congress any productive enterprise in Egypt which is described in the presentation to Congress for fiscal year 1977.

Subsec. (x)(1). Pub. L. 94–329, §403, further modified existing restrictions on assistance to Turkey by allowing the procurement under specified conditions of $125 million in defense articles and defense services by Turkey, provided that the President determines that such articles and services are necessary to enable Turkey to fulfill her defense responsibilities as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

1975—Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 94–104 redesignated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted provisions authorizing the President to suspend the provisions of this section and of section 2753(c) of this title with respect to sales, credits, and guaranties under the Foreign Military Sales Act, for the procurement of defense articles and services certified by the President to be necessary to enable Turkey to fulfill her defense responsibilities as a member of NATO and that such suspension shall be effective only while Turkey observes the cease-fire and neither increases its forces on Cyprus nor transfers to Cyprus any United States supplied arms, ammunition, and implements of war for provisions authorizing the President to suspend the provisions of this section and certain other Acts if he determined that such suspension would further negotiations for a peaceful solution of the Cyprus conflict and that such suspension shall be effective only until Feb. 5, 1975, and if, during that time, Turkey observed cease-fire and neither increased its forces on Cyprus nor transferred to Cyprus any United States supplied implements of war, and added par. (2).

1974—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 93–559, §23, authorized assistance when determined by the President to be in the national interest of the United States.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 93–559, §44, repealed subsec. (p) relating to assistance to United Arab Republic if essential to national interest of United States, and without any aid to aggressive actions by the United Arab Republic, and reports to Congressional committees.

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 93–559, §24, repealed subsec. (v) relating to prohibition against assistance to Greece, waiver of the restriction by the President, report to Congress, and fiscal year limitation of assistance made available to Greece.

Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 93–559, §22, added subsec. (x).

1973—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 93–189 substituted "the provisions of this subsection shall not be waived with respect to any country unless the President determines and certifies that such a waiver is important to the national interest of the United States. Such certification shall be reported immediately to Congress", for "no other provision of this chapter shall be so construed to authorize the President to waive the provisions of this subsection".

1972—Subsecs. (v), (w). Pub. L. 92–226 added subsecs. (v) and (w).

1969—Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 91–175, §303(a), struck out provision empowering President to terminate assistance when he finds it is being diverted to military expenditures, continued provision requiring President to take military expenditures into account when furnishing assistance under this chapter and under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended, inserted provision requiring President to take into account amount spent by recipient on sophisticated weapons systems, and inserted provision requiring President to report annually to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate his actions in carrying out this section.

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 91–175, §303(b), repealed subsec. (v) covering the withholding of assistance to countries with expenditures for weapons systems. See subsec. (s) of this section.

1968—Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 90–554, added subsec. (v).

1967—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 90–137, §301(f)(1), substituted provisions for termination of assistance to countries because of damage or destruction by mob action of United States property (incorporated from former penultimate paragraph of section 2151 of this title) for former provisions for assistance to Indonesia if essential to national interests of United States and reports thereof to Congress.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 90–137, §301(f)(2), substituted "506" for "510", classified to the Code as section 2318 of this title.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 90–137, §301(f)(3), restated the prohibition against assistance to define the kind of assistance meant, that is, loans, credits, guarantees, or grants or other assistance, to extend the prohibition to assistance under any other Act and to sales under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, and to eliminate specific reference to such items of transportation as items of economic assistance, and war materials, such as arms, ammunition and implements of war, atomic energy materials, petroleum, transportation materials of strategic value, and items of primary strategic significance used in production of arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

Subsecs. (s) to (u). Pub. L. 90–137, §301(f)(4), added subsecs. (s) to (u).

1966—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(h)(1), provided for denial of assistance to any country which hereafter is officially represented at any international conference when that representation includes planning of activities involving insurrection or subversion, which military efforts, insurrection, or subversion are directed as described in the subsec., for Executive determination that such representation has ceased and for report to Congress that such representation will not be renewed or repeated.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(h)(2), made permanent the temporary (calendar year 1965) prohibition against the initiation of projects exceeding $100,000,000 without the express approval of Congress and included military assistance amounting in the aggregate to more than $100,000,000.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(h)(3), substituted "The President shall consider denying assistance under this chapter to the government of any less developed country which, after December 31, 1966," for "No assistance shall be provided under this chapter after December 31, 1966, to the government of any less developed country which".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(h)(4), substituted "no assistance shall be furnished" and "September 19, 1966" for "the President shall consider denying assistance" and "September 6, 1965", respectively.

Subsecs. (p) to (r). Pub. L. 89–583, §301(h)(5), added subsecs. (p) to (r).

1965—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 89–171, §301(d)(2), substituted "other right to property" for "other right" in two places and deleted cl. (3) which made this subparagraph inapplicable in any case in which the proceedings are commenced after Jan. 1, 1966.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 89–171, §301(d)(3), substituted "December 31, 1966" for "December 31, 1965".

Subsecs. (n), (o). Pub. L. 89–171, §301(d)(4), added subsecs. (n) and (o).

1964—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 88–633, §301(d), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated subpars. (1) to (3) thereof as subpars. (A) to (C), substituted therein "subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph" for "paragraphs (1), (2), or (3) of this subsection", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 88–633, §301(e), inserted "(including its captive constituent republics)" after "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 88–633, §301(f), substituted "1965" for "1964" in two places.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 88–633, §301(g), substituted "during each fiscal year" for "during fiscal year 1964" and "$500,000" for "$1,000,000".

1963—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–205, §301(e)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 88–205, §301(e)(2), empowered the President to suspend assistance provided under any other act as well as under this chapter, inserted references to the repudiation or nullification of existing contracts or agreements with U.S. citizens or corporations, partnerships or associations not less than 50 percent beneficially owned by U.S. citizens, substituted "in the event of a referral to the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States within such period as provided herein, not more than twenty days after the report of the Commission is received" for "after August 1, 1962, whichever is later", required compensation for property to be "equivalent to the full value thereof", and authorized the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission to determine the full value of property nationalized, expropriated, or seized upon the President's request, and to render an advisory report to him thereon.

Subsecs. (i) to (m). Pub. L. 88–205, §301(e)(3), added subsecs. (i) to (m).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–565, §301(d)(1), prohibited assistance to any country which furnishes assistance to the present government of Cuba unless the President determines that such assistance is in the national interest of the United States.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–565, §301(d)(2), extended the prohibition against providing assistance to cases where the goods or services have been ordered, and where the indebtedness arises under an unconditional guaranty of payment, provided the President does not find such action contrary to the national security, and inserted "which shall include arbitration" after "exhausted available legal remedies".

Subsecs. (e) to (h). Pub. L. 87–565, §301(d)(3), added subsecs. (e) to (h).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXVIII, §2810(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–851, provided that: "Section 620(y) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2370(y)], as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to assistance provided in fiscal years beginning on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–104, §2(c)(5), Oct. 6, 1975, 89 Stat. 510, provided that: "This subsection [amending this section] shall become effective only upon enactment of foreign assistance legislation authorizing sales, credits, and guaranties under the Foreign Military Sales Act [section 2751 et seq. of this title] for fiscal year 1976."

Repeals

Pub. L. 95–92, §22(d), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 624, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(13), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Assistance and Sales to Argentina

Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §725(b), (c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1553, related to the provision of assistance and credits, loan guarantees, defense articles and services, export licenses, etc., by United States to Argentina, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–162, title V, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1030.

Limitations on Assistance, Sales, Credits, and Export Licenses to Chile

Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §726(b), (c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1554, as amended by Pub. L. 99–83, title VII, §715, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §544(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2019, provided that:

"(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law—

"(1) no assistance may be furnished under chapter 2, 4, 5, or 6 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq., 2346 et seq., 2347 et seq., 2348 et seq.] to Chile;

"(2) no sale of defense articles or services may be made under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] to Chile;

"(3) no credits (including participation in credits) may be extended and no loan may be guaranteed under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] with respect to Chile; and

"(4) no export licenses may be issued under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778] to or for the Government of Chile;

unless and until the President submits to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a detailed report certifying—

"(A) that the Government of Chile has made significant progress in complying with internationally recognized principles of human rights;

"(B) that the provision of such assistance, articles or services is in the national interest of the United States; and

"(C) that the Government of Chile is not aiding or abetting international terrorism and has taken appropriate steps to cooperate to bring to justice by all legal means available in the United States or Chile those indicted by a United States grand jury in connection with the murders of Orlando Letelier and Ronni Moffitt.

"(c) The prohibition contained in subsection (b) does not prohibit the sale, or the licensing for export, of cartridge actuated devices, propellant actuated devices, components, parts, tools, technical manuals, time compliance to technical orders (TCTOs), or TCTO retrofits for aircraft of the F–5E/F, A/T–37, or C–130E/H type owned by the Chilean Air Force, so long as the items are provided only for purposes of enhancing the safety of the aircraft crew."

Pub. L. 94–329, title IV, §406, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 758, as amended by Pub. L. 95–384, §§10(b)(5), 12(c)(5), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 735, 737, set forth limitations with respect to assistance, sales and credit for Chile, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §726(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1554.

Pub. L. 93–559, §25, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1802, provided that notwithstanding any other provision of law, the total amount of assistance that was to be made available for Chile under this chapter, and the Foreign Military Sales Act, section 2751 et seq. of this title, during fiscal year 1975, was not to exceed $25,000,000, none of which was to be made available for the purpose of providing military assistance (including security supporting assistance, sales, credit sales, or guaranties or the furnishing by any means of excess defense articles or items from stockpiles of the Department of Defense), prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(8), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

Assistance for El Salvador

Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §531, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2009, as amended by Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §139(22), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 399, provided that:

"(a) Statement of Policy.—United States military assistance to the Government of El Salvador shall seek three principal foreign policy objectives, as follows: (1) to promote a permanent settlement and cease-fire to the conflict in El Salvador, with the Secretary General of the United Nations serving as an active mediator between the opposing parties; (2) to foster greater respect for basic human rights, and the rule of law; and (3) to advance political accommodation and national reconciliation.

"(b) Maximum Level of Military Assistance.—Of the funds available for United States military assistance for fiscal year 1991, not more than $85,000,000 shall be made available for El Salvador.

"(c) Prohibition of Military Assistance.—(1) Prohibition.—Subject to paragraph (2), no United States military assistance may be furnished to the Government of El Salvador if the President determines and reports in writing to the Congress that—

"(A) after he has consulted with the Secretary General of the United Nations, the Government of El Salvador has declined to participate in good faith in negotiations for a permanent settlement and cease-fire to the armed conflict of El Salvador;

"(B) the Government of El Salvador has rejected or otherwise failed to support an active role for the Secretary General of the United Nations in mediating that settlement;

"(C) the Government of El Salvador has rejected a plan for the settlement of the conflict which—

"(i) has been put forward by the Secretary General of the United Nations in accordance with the terms and procedures in the April 4, 1990 Geneva Communique and the May 21, 1990 Caracas Accord between the Government of El Salvador and the FMLN;

"(ii) includes a proposal for an internationally monitored cease-fire; and

"(iii) has been accepted, within 15 days from its announcement, by the FMLN and is being complied with by the FMLN;

"(D) the Government of El Salvador has failed to conduct a thorough and professional investigation into, and prosecution of those responsible for the eight murders at the University of Central America on November 16, 1989; or

"(E) the military and security forces of El Salvador are assassinating or abducting civilian noncombatants, are engaging in other acts of violence directed at civilian targets, or are failing to control such activities by elements subject to the control of those forces; or

"(F) the Government of El Salvador has failed to actively seek and encourage a law enforcement service from outside El Salvador, such as Scotland Yard or INTERPOL, to accompany and monitor investigators of the Government of El Salvador in their investigation into the eight murders at the University of Central America on November 16, 1989.

"(2) Requirement for resumption of assistance.—Assistance prohibited under paragraph (1) may only be resumed pursuant to a law subsequently enacted by the Congress.

"(d) Withholding of Military Assistance.—(1) In General.—Fifty per centum of the total United States military assistance allocated for El Salvador for fiscal year 1991 shall be withheld from obligation or expenditure (as the case may be) except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3).

"(2) Release of Assistance.—The United States military assistance withheld pursuant to paragraph (1) may be obligated and expended only if the President determines and reports in writing to the Congress that—

"(A) after he has consulted with the Secretary General of the United Nations, the representatives of the FMLN—

"(i) have declined to participate in good faith in negotiations for a permanent settlement and cease-fire to the armed conflict in El Salvador, or

"(ii) have rejected or otherwise failed to support an active role for the Secretary General of the United Nations in mediating that settlement;

"(B) the FMLN has rejected a plan for the settlement of the conflict which—

"(i) has been put forward by the Secretary General of the United Nations in accordance with the terms and procedures in the April 4, 1990 Geneva Communique and the May 21, 1990 Caracas Accord between the Government of El Salvador and the FMLN;

"(ii) includes a proposal for an internationally monitored cease-fire; and

"(iii) has been accepted, within 15 days from its announcement, by the Government of El Salvador and is being complied with by the Government of El Salvador;

"(C) the survival of the constitutional Government of El Salvador is being jeopardized by substantial and sustained offensive military actions or operations by the FMLN;

"(D) proof exists that the FMLN is continuing to acquire or receive significant shipments of lethal military assistance from outside El Salvador, and this proof has been shared with the Congress; or

"(E) the FMLN is assassinating or abducting civilian noncombatants, is engaging in other acts of violence directed at civilian targets, or is failing to control such activities by elements subject to FMLN control.

"(3) Exception.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, funds withheld pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection may be disbursed to pay the cost of any contract penalties which may be incurred as a result of such withholding of funds under this subsection.

"(e) Condition for Termination of All United States Assistance.—(1) Prohibition.—Subject to paragraph (2), no United States assistance may be furnished to El Salvador if the duly-elected head of Government of El Salvador is deposed by military coup or decree.

"(2) Requirement for Resumption of Assistance.—Assistance prohibited under paragraph (1) may only be resumed pursuant to a law subsequently enacted by the Congress.

"(f) Establishment of a Fund for Cease-Fire Monitoring, Demobilization, and Transition to Peace.—(1) Establishment of Fund.—There is hereby established in the Treasury of the United States a fund to assist with the costs of monitoring a permanent settlement of the conflict, including a cease-fire, and the demobilization of combatants in the conflict in El Salvador, and their transition to peaceful pursuits, which shall be known as the 'Demobilization and Transition Fund' (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Fund'). Amounts in this Fund shall be available for obligation and expenditure only upon notification by the President to the Congress that the Government of El Salvador and representatives of the FMLN have reached a permanent settlement of the conflict, including a final agreement on a cease-fire.

"(2) Transfer of Certain Military Assistance Funds.—Upon notification of the Congress of a permanent settlement of the conflict, including an agreement on a cease-fire, or on September 30, 1991, if no such notification has occurred prior to that date, the President shall transfer to the Fund any United States military assistance funds withheld pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

"(3) Use of the Fund.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, amounts in the Fund shall be available for El Salvador solely to support costs of demobilization, retraining, relocation, and reemployment in civilian pursuits of former combatants in the conflict in El Salvador, and of the monitoring of the permanent settlement and cease-fire.

"(4) Duration of Availability of Funds.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, amounts transferred to the Fund shall remain available until expended.

"(g) Strengthening Civilian Control Over the Military.—In order to strengthen the control of the democratically-elected civilian Government of El Salvador over the armed forces of that country, United States military assistance for any fiscal year may be delivered to the armed forces of El Salvador only with the prior approval of the duly elected President of El Salvador.

"(h) Support for Democracy.—(1) Establishing a Program.—The Secretary of State, through agreement with the National Endowment for Democracy or other qualified organizations, shall establish and carry out a program of education, training, and dialogue for the purpose of strengthening democratic political and legal institutions in El Salvador.

"(2) Election Monitoring.—Of the amounts made available to carry out this subsection, up to $2,000,000 may be used for support for monitoring the 1991 municipal and National Assembly elections in El Salvador, and for monitoring the registration and campaign processes leading up to those elections, by appropriate organizations such as the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Carter Center, the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, the National Republican Institute for International Affairs, and the Center for Electoral Assistance and Promotion (CAPEL) of San Jose, Costa Rica.

"(3) Assistance.—Up to $10,000,000 of funds appropriated under the heading 'Economic Support Fund' for fiscal year 1991 may be used to carry out this subsection.

"(i) [Repealed. Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §139(22), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 399.]

"(j) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) the term 'United States assistance' has the same meaning as is given to such term by section 481(i)(4) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2291(i)(4)) and includes United States military assistance as defined in paragraph (2); and

"(2) the term 'United States military assistance' means—

"(A) assistance to carry out chapter 2 (relating to grant military assistance) or chapter 5 (relating to international military education and training) of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq., 2347 et seq.]; and

"(B) assistance to carry out section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2763]."

[For Presidential determination required by section 531(d) of Pub. L. 101–513, set out above, and for delegation of functions of President under section 531(i) of Pub. L. 101–513, see Determination of President, No. 91–15, Jan. 15, 1991, 56 F.R. 4713.]

Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §728, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1555, as amended by Pub. L. 97–233, Aug. 10, 1982, 96 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 98–53, July 15, 1983, 97 Stat. 287, set forth findings of Congress concerning recent civil strife in El Salvador and need for substantial assistance to El Salvador and for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, restricted funds that could be obligated for assistance for El Salvador under chapter 2 or 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq., 2347 et seq.), letters of offer that could be issued and credits and guarantees that could be extended for El Salvador under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), and members of the Armed Forces that could be assigned or detailed to El Salvador to carry out functions under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (this chapter) or the Arms Export Control Act, only if not later than thirty days after Dec. 29, 1981, and every one hundred and eighty days thereafter, the President makes a specific certification.

Caribbean Development Bank; Assumption of Member Loans

Pub. L. 96–533, title III, §315, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3148, provided: "Notwithstanding section 620(r) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [subsec. (r) of this section], the President may, after consultation with the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, make arrangements at his discretion for the assumption by the recipient members of the Caribbean Development Bank of any loans made to the Bank under the authority of that Act [this chapter]."

Soviet Military Personnel and Activities in Cuba; Reports to Congress

Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §714, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3161, required reports respecting Soviet military activity in Cuba, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(2), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

Cuban Presence in Africa

Pub. L. 95–426, title VI, §613, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 990, as amended by Pub. L. 97–241, title V, §505(a)(2), (b)(1), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 299, provided that: "The Congress finds that—

"(1) the President authorized the exchange of notes of May 30, 1977, between the Governments of the United States and Cuba which established an Interests Section for the United States in the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana and an Interests Section for Cuba in the Embassy of Czechoslovakia in Washington;

"(2) the President has the authority under the Export Administration Act of 1969 [50 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.] to limit trade with Cuba being conducted by subsidiaries of American firms operating in third countries;

"(3) the President has the power to sever all diplomatic and economic relations with Cuba; and

"(4) there has been a sharp increase in the number of Cuban military personnel serving in Africa in the past year."

Resumption of Military Assistance to Turkey; Determination and Certification to Congress by President of Military Cooperation as in Best Interests of United States and NATO

Pub. L. 95–384, §13(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737, provided that: "Section 620(x) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [subsec. (x) of this section] shall be of no further force and effect upon the President's determination and certification to the Congress that the resumption of full military cooperation with Turkey is in the national interest of the United States and in the interest of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and that the Government of Turkey is acting in good faith to achieve a just and peaceful settlement of the Cyprus problem, the early peaceable return of refugees to their homes and properties, and continued removal of Turkish military troops from Cyprus in the context of a solution to the Cyprus problem, and the early serious resumption of inter-communal talks aimed at a just, negotiated settlement."

Determination and Certification Regarding Resumption of Full Military Cooperation With Turkey

Memorandum of the President of the United States, dated Sept. 26, 1978, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by Section 13(a) of the International Security Assistance Act of 1978, I hereby determine and certify:

(1) that the resumption of full military cooperation with Turkey is in the national interest of the United States and in the interest of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; and

(2) that the Government of Turkey is acting in good faith to achieve a just and peaceful settlement of the Cyprus problem, the early peaceable return of refugees to their homes and properties, and continued removal of Turkish military troops from Cyprus in the context of a solution to the Cyprus problem, and the early serious resumption of inter-communal talks aimed at a just, negotiated settlement.

You are requested on my behalf to report this determination and certification to the Congress.

This determination and certification shall be published in the Federal Register.

Jimmy Carter.      

Restrictions on Assistance During Fiscal Year 1978 Involving Military or Paramilitary Operations in Zaire

Pub. L. 95–92, §25, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 625, required a Presidential determination that furnishing aid to Zaire during fiscal year 1978 was in the national interest and submission to the Congress of a Presidential certification for such aid, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(13), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

Restrictions on Assistance to India

Pub. L. 93–559, §27, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1802, provided that the total amount of assistance provided under this chapter and of credit sales made or guaranteed under the Foreign Military Sales Act, section 2751 et seq. of this title, for India was not to exceed $50,000,000 in fiscal year 1975, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(8), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

Restrictions on Military Assistance and Excess Defense Articles to Korea

Pub. L. 93–559, §26, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1802, provided that the aggregated amount of funds obligated or reserved for military assistance, including supply operations, under part II of subchapter II of this chapter, the acquisition cost of excess defense articles, if any, ordered under subchapter II of this chapter and not charged against appropriations for military assistance, credits including participations in credits, extended pursuant to section 2763 of this title, and the principal amount of loans guaranteed pursuant to section 2764(a) of this title, with respect to South Korea was not to exceed $145,000,000 for fiscal year 1975 until the President submitted a report to the Congress after Dec. 30, 1974, stating that the government of South Korea was making substantial progress in the observance of internationally recognized standards of human rights, after which the aggregate amount described above, with respect to South Korea, was not to exceed $165,000,000 for fiscal year 1975, with provisions of sections 2318 and 2364 of this title, or of any other law, not to be used to exceed these limitations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(8), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

Repayment of Loans in Default

Pub. L. 93–559, §56, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1820, provided that: "It is the sense of the Congress that any country receiving assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this chapter] which is in default, at least 90 days prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 30, 1974], of any payment of principal or interest due on any loan or credit received from the United States shall promptly pay all such principal and interest. It is further the sense of the Congress that the President shall promptly enter into negotiations with each such country to help effectuate the payment of such principal and interest, or to effectuate the transfer by such country to the United States of goods, services, concessions, or actions beneficial to the United States, in lieu of the payment of such principal and interest."

Restrictions on Assistance to Nations Whose Government Is Based Upon Communism

Pub. L. 91–194, title I, §109, Feb. 9, 1970, 84 Stat. 8, provided that:

"(a) No assistance shall be furnished to any nation, whose government is based upon that theory of government known as communism under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [this chapter], for any arms, ammunition, implements of war, atomic energy materials, or any articles, materials, or supplies, such as petroleum, transportation materials of strategic value, and items of primary strategic significance used in the production of arms, ammunition, and implements of war, contained on the list maintained by the Administrator pursuant to title I of the Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951, as amended [section 1611 et seq. of this title].

"(b) No economic assistance shall be furnished to any nation whose government is based upon that theory of government known as communism under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [this chapter] except section 214(b) [section 2174(b) of this title], unless the President determines that the withholding of such assistance would be contrary to the national interest and reports such determination to the House of Representatives and the Senate. Reports made pursuant to this subsection shall be published in the Federal Register within seven days of submission to the committees and shall contain a statement by the President of the reasons for such determination."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior acts:

Pub. L. 90–581, title I, §109, Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1140.

Pub. L. 90–249, title I, §109, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 939.

Pub. L. 89–691, title I, §109, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 1020.

Pub. L. 89–273, title I, §109, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 1004.

Pub. L. 88–634, title I, §109, Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1018.

Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §109, Jan. 6, 1964, 77 Stat. 859.

Pub. L. 87–872, title I, §109, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1165.

Restrictions on Assistance to Countries Selling, Furnishing, or Permitting Ships To Carry Certain Items to Cuba or to North Vietnam

Pub. L. 91–194, title I, §107, Feb. 9, 1970, 84 Stat. 8, provided that:

"(a) No assistance shall be furnished under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [this chapter], to any country which sells, furnishes, or permits any ships under its registry to carry to Cuba, so long as it is governed by the Castro regime, in addition to those items contained on the list maintained by the Administrator pursuant to title I of the Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951, as amended [section 1611 et seq. of this title], any arms, ammunition, implements of war, atomic energy materials, or any other articles, materials, or supplies of primary strategic significance used in the production of arms, ammunition, and implements of war or of strategic significance to the conduct of war, including petroleum products.

"(b) No economic assistance shall be furnished under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [this chapter], to any country which sells, furnishes, or permits any ships under its registry to carry items of economic assistance to Cuba, so long as it is governed by the Castro regime, or to North Vietnam."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior acts:

Pub. L. 90–581, title I, §107, Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1139.

Pub. L. 90–249, title I, §107, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 938.

Pub. L. 89–691, title I, §107, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 1020.

Pub. L. 89–273, title I, §107, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 1004.

Pub. L. 88–634, title I, §107, Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1018.

Pub. L. 88–258, title I, §107, Jan. 6, 1964, 77 Stat. 859.

Pub. L. 87–872, title I, §107, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1165.

Restrictions on Assistance to Countries Selling, Furnishing or Permitting Ships To Carry Certain Items to North Vietnam

Pub. L. 91–194, title I, §116, Feb. 9, 1970, 84 Stat. 10, forbid assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, to any country that sold, furnished or permitted any ships under its registry to carry to North Vietnam certain enumerated items unless the President determined that the withholding of such assistance was contrary to the national interest of the United States and reported such determination to Congress.

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior acts:

Pub. L. 90–581, title I, §116, Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1141.

Pub. L. 90–249, title I, §116, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 940.

Pub. L. 89–691, title I, §116, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 1022.

Pub. L. 89–273, title I, §116, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 1005.

Interdiction of the Delivery of Offensive Weapons to Cuba

For Presidential proclamation prohibiting the delivery of offensive weapons to Cuba, see Proc. No. 3504, Oct. 23, 1962, 27 F.R. 10401, set out as a note preceding section 1 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Proc. No. 3447. Embargo on Trade With Cuba

Proc. No. 3447, Feb. 3, 1962, 27 F.R. 1085, provided:

WHEREAS the Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in Application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, in its Final Act resolved that the present Government of Cuba is incompatible with the principles and objectives of the Inter-American system; and, in light of the subversive offensive of Sino-Soviet Communism with which the Government of Cuba is publicly aligned, urged the member states to take those steps that they may consider appropriate for their individual and collective self-defense;

WHEREAS the Congress of the United States, in section 620(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 445), as amended [subsection (a) of this section], has authorized the President to establish and maintain an embargo upon all trade between the United States and Cuba; and

WHEREAS the United States, in accordance with its international obligations, is prepared to take all necessary actions to promote national and hemispheric security by isolating the present Government of Cuba and thereby reducing the threat posed by its alignment with the communist powers:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of the United States of America, acting under the authority of section 620(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 445), as amended [subsection (a) of this section], do

1. Hereby proclaim an embargo upon trade between the United States and Cuba in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 of this proclamation.

2. Hereby prohibit, effective 12:01 A.M., Eastern Standard Time, February 7, 1962, the importation into the United States of all goods of Cuban origin and all goods imported from or through Cuba; and I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of the Treasury to carry out such prohibition, to make such exceptions thereto, by license or otherwise, as he determines to be consistent with the effective operation of the embargo hereby proclaimed, and to promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to perform such functions.

3. AND FURTHER, I do hereby direct the Secretary of Commerce, under the provisions of the Export Control Act of 1949, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2021–2032), to continue to carry out the prohibition of all exports from the United States to Cuba, and I hereby authorize him, under that Act, to continue, make, modify or revoke exceptions from such prohibition.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.

DONE at the City of Washington this third day of February, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-sixth.

[SEAL]

John F. Kennedy.      

1 So in original. The comma probably should be a period.

§2370a. Expropriation of United States property

(a) Prohibition

None of the funds made available to carry out this Act, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] may be provided to a government or any agency or instrumentality thereof, if the government of such country (other than a country described if 1 subsection (d))—

(1) has on or after January 1, 1956—

(A) nationalized or expropriated the property of any United States person,

(B) repudiated or nullified any contract with any United States person, or

(C) taken any other action (such as the imposition of discriminatory taxes or other exactions) which has the effect of seizing ownership or control of the property of any United States person, and


(2) has not, within the period specified in subsection (c), either—

(A) returned the property,

(B) provided adequate and effective compensation for such property in convertible foreign exchange or other mutually acceptable compensation equivalent to the full value thereof, as required by international law,

(C) offered a domestic procedure providing prompt, adequate and effective compensation in accordance with international law, or

(D) submitted the dispute to arbitration under the rules of the Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes or other mutually agreeable binding international arbitration procedure.

(b) Other actions

The President shall instruct the United States Executive Directors of each multilateral development bank and international financial institution to vote against any loan or other utilization of the funds of such bank or institution for the benefit of any country to which assistance is prohibited under subsection (a), unless such assistance is directed specifically to programs which serve the basic human needs of the citizens of that country.

(c) Period for settlement of claims

The period of time described in subsection (a)(2) is the latest of the following—

(1) 3 years after the date on which a claim was filed,

(2) in the case of a country that has a totalitarian or authoritarian government at the time of the action described in subsection (a)(1), 3 years after the date of installation of a democratically elected government, or

(3) 90 days after April 30, 1994.

(d) Excepted countries and territories

This section shall not apply to any country established by international mandate through the United Nations or to any territory recognized by the United States Government to be in dispute.

(e) Resumption of assistance

A prohibition or termination of assistance under subsection (a) and an instruction to vote against loans under subsection (b) shall cease to be effective when the President certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that such government has taken one of the steps described in subsection (a)(2).

(f) Reporting requirement

Not later than 90 days after April 30, 1994, and at the beginning of each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, a report containing the following:

(1) A list of every country in which the United States Government is aware that a United States person has an outstanding expropriation claim.

(2) The total number of such outstanding expropriation claims made by United States persons against each such country.

(3) The period of time in which each such claim has been outstanding.

(4) The status of each case and efforts made by the United States Government and the government of the country in which such claim has been made, to take one or more of the steps described in subsection (a)(2).

(5) Each project a United States Executive Director voted against as a result of the action described in subsection (b).

(g) Waiver

The President may waive the prohibitions in subsections (a) and (b) for a country, on an annual basis, if the President determines and so notifies Congress that it is in the national interest to do so.

(h) "United States person" defined

For the purpose of this section, the term "United States person" means a United States citizen or corporation, partnership, or association at least 50 percent beneficially owned by United States citizens.

(i) Certain claims for expropriation by the Government of Nicaragua

(1) Any action of the types set forth in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of subsection (a)(1) that was taken by the Government of Nicaragua during the period beginning on January 1, 1956, and ending on January 9, 2002, shall not be considered in implementing the prohibition under subsection (a) unless the action has been presented in accordance with the procedure set forth in paragraph (2).

(2) An action shall be deemed presented for purposes of paragraph (1) if it is—

(A) in writing; and

(B) received by the United States Department of State on or before 120 days after the date specified in paragraph (3) at—

(i) the headquarters of the United States Department of State in Washington, D.C.; or

(ii) the Embassy of the United States of America to Nicaragua.


(3) The date to which paragraph (2) refers is a date after December 8, 2004, that is specified by the Secretary of State, in the Secretary's discretion, in a notice published in the Federal Register.

(Pub. L. 103–236, title V, §527, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 475; Pub. L. 108–447, div. D, title V, §584(c), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3032.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 103–236, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 382, known as the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 2651 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§2151 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 108–447 added subsec. (i).

Delegation of Responsibilities Under Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995

Memorandum of President of the United States, July 26, 1994, 59 F.R. 40205, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the functions vested in the President by the following provisions of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (Public Law 103–236) (the "Act"): sections 102(g) [22 U.S.C. 287e note], 161(c) [22 U.S.C. 2651a note], 401(b) [108 Stat. 446], 407(a) [22 U.S.C. 287b note], 409 [22 U.S.C. 287e note], 431(b) [108 Stat. 459], 514(b) [22 U.S.C. 1928 note], 523 [108 Stat. 473], 527(e) and (g) [22 U.S.C. 2370a(e), (g)], 528 [108 Stat. 477], 532(a) [108 Stat. 480], 574 [22 U.S.C. 2656 note], 583(b)(1) and (b)(6) [108 Stat. 489, 490], 733 [22 U.S.C. 2779a] and 735(d) [22 U.S.C. 2797b–1].

The functions under section 407(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 287b note] shall be exercised in coordination with the Secretary of Defense.

The functions under section 527(e) and (g) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2370a(e), (g)] shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the heads of other departments and agencies, as appropriate.

Any reference in this memorandum to any act, order, determination, or delegation of authority shall be deemed to be a reference to such act, order, determination, or delegation of authority as amended from time to time.

The functions delegated by this memorandum may be redelegated within the Department of State.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      


Memorandum of President of the United States, Jan. 4, 1995, 60 F.R. 3335, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of the Treasury

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of the Treasury the functions under section 527(b) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (Public Law 103–236) [22 U.S.C. 2370a(b)].

Any reference in this memorandum to any Act, order, determination, or delegation of authority shall be deemed to be a reference to such Act, order, determination, or delegation of authority as amended.

The functions delegated by this memorandum may be redelegated within the Department of the Treasury.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

1 So in original. Probably should be "in".

§2370b. Humanitarian assistance code of conduct

(a) In general

None of the funds made available for foreign operations, export financing, and related programs under the headings "Migration and Refugee Assistance", "United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund", "International Disaster and Famine Assistance", or "Transition Initiatives" may be obligated to an organization that fails to adopt a code of conduct that provides for the protection of beneficiaries of assistance under any such heading from sexual exploitation and abuse in humanitarian relief operations.

(b) Consistency with United Nations principles

The code of conduct referred to in subsection (a) shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be consistent with the six core principles of the United Nations Inter-Agency Standing Committee Task Force on Protection From Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises.

(c) Reports

Not later than 180 days after May 11, 2005, and not later than one year after May 11, 2005, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the implementation of this section.

(d) Effective Date

This section shall take effect 60 days after May 11, 2005, and shall apply to funds obligated after such date for fiscal year 2005 and any subsequent fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 109–13, div. A, title II, §2110, May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 268.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Assignment of Functions Relating to the Report to the Congress on Implementation of Humanitarian Assistance Code of Conduct

Memorandum of President of the United States, May 12, 2006, 71 F.R. 30549, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the functions of the President under section 2110(c) of the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005 (title II of Public Law 109–13) (22 U.S.C. 2370b), are assigned to the Secretary of State.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

George W. Bush.      

§2370c. Definitions

In sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;

(B) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

(C) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives; and

(D) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(2) Child soldier

Consistent with the provisions of the Optional Protocol to the Convention of the Rights of the Child, the term "child soldier"—

(A) means—

(i) any person under 18 years of age who takes a direct part in hostilities as a member of governmental armed forces;

(ii) any person under 18 years of age who has been compulsorily recruited into governmental armed forces;

(iii) any person under 15 years of age who has been voluntarily recruited into governmental armed forces; or

(iv) any person under 18 years of age who has been recruited or used in hostilities by armed forces distinct from the armed forces of a state; and


(B) includes any person described in clauses 1 (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subparagraph (A) who is serving in any capacity, including in a support role such as a cook, porter, messenger, medic, guard, or sex slave.

(Pub. L. 110–457, title IV, §402, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5088.)

References in Text

Sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title IV of Pub. L. 110–457, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087, known as the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, which is classified principally to sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, and also as part of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 110–457, title IV, §407, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5091, provided that: "This title [enacting this section and sections 2370c–1 and 2370c–2 of this title, amending section 4028 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2151 of this title], and the amendments made by this title, shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2008]."

1 So in original. Probably should be "clause".

§2370c–1. Prohibition

(a) In general

Subject to subsections (b) through (f), the authorities contained in sections 2321j, 2347, and 2348 of this title or section 2763 of this title may not be used to provide assistance to, and no licenses for direct commercial sales of military equipment may be issued to, the government of a country that is clearly identified, pursuant to subsection (b), for the most recent year preceding the fiscal year in which the authorities or license would have been used or issued in the absence of a violation of sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title, as having governmental armed forces or government-supported armed groups, including paramilitaries, militias, or civil defense forces, that recruit and use child soldiers.

(b) Identification and notification to countries in violation of standards

(1) Publication of list of foreign governments

The Secretary of State shall include a list of the foreign governments that have violated the standards under sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title and are subject to the prohibition in subsection (a) in the report required under section 7107(b) of this title.

(2) Notification of foreign countries

The Secretary of State shall formally notify any government identified pursuant to subsection (a).

(c) National interest waiver

(1) Waiver

The President may waive the application to a country of the prohibition in subsection (a) if the President determines that such waiver is in the national interest of the United States.

(2) Publication and notification

Not later than 45 days after each waiver is granted under paragraph (1), the President shall notify the appropriate congressional committees of the waiver and the justification for granting such waiver.

(d) Reinstatement of assistance

The President may provide to a country assistance otherwise prohibited under subsection (a) upon certifying to the appropriate congressional committees that the government of such country—

(1) has implemented measures that include an action plan and actual steps to come into compliance with the standards outlined in subsection (b); and

(2) has implemented policies and mechanisms to prohibit and prevent future government or government-supported use of child soldiers and to ensure that no children are recruited, conscripted, or otherwise compelled to serve as child soldiers.

(e) Exception for programs directly related to addressing the problem of child soldiers or professionalization of the military

(1) In general

The President may provide assistance to a country for international military education, training, and nonlethal supplies (as defined in section 2557(d)(1)(B) of title 10) otherwise prohibited under subsection (a) upon certifying to the appropriate congressional committees that—

(A) the government of such country is taking reasonable steps to implement effective measures to demobilize child soldiers in its forces or in government-supported paramilitaries and is taking reasonable steps within the context of its national resources to provide demobilization, rehabilitation, and reintegration assistance to those former child soldiers; and

(B) the assistance provided by the United States Government to the government of such country will go to programs that will directly support professionalization of the military.

(2) Limitation

The exception under paragraph (1) may not remain in effect for a country for more than 5 years.

(f) Exception for peacekeeping operations

The limitation set forth in subsection (a) that relates to section 2348 of this title shall not apply to programs that support military professionalization, security sector reform, heightened respect for human rights, peacekeeping preparation, or the demobilization and reintegration of child soldiers.

(Pub. L. 110–457, title IV, §404, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5089; Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1208, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 142.)

References in Text

Sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(1), was in the original "this title", meaning title IV of Pub. L. 110–457, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087, known as the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, which is classified principally to sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, and also as part of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–4, §1208(1), substituted "(b) through (f), the authorities contained in sections 2321j, 2347, and 2348 of this title" for "(b), (c), and (d), the authorities contained in section 2321j or 2347 of this title".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–4, §1208(2), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date

Section effective 180 days after Dec. 23, 2008, see section 407 of Pub. L. 110–457, set out as a note under section 2370c of this title.

§2370c–2. Reports

(a) Investigation of allegations regarding child soldiers

United States missions abroad shall thoroughly investigate reports of the use of child soldiers.

(b) Information for annual Human Rights Reports

In preparing those portions of the annual Human Rights Report that relate to child soldiers under sections 2151n and 2304 of this title, the Secretary of State shall ensure that such reports include a description of the use of child soldiers in each foreign country, including—

(1) trends toward improvement in such country of the status of child soldiers or the continued or increased tolerance of such practices; and

(2) the role of the government of such country in engaging in or tolerating the use of child soldiers.

(c) Annual report to Congress

If, during any of the 5 years following December 23, 2008, a country is notified pursuant to section 2370c–1(b)(2) of this title, or a wavier 1 is granted pursuant to section 2370c–1(c)(1) of this title, the President shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees not later than June 15 of the following year. The report shall include—

(1) a list of the countries receiving notification that they are in violation of the standards under sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title;

(2) a list of any waivers or exceptions exercised under sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title;

(3) justification for any such waivers and exceptions; and

(4) a description of any assistance provided under sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title pursuant to the issuance of such waiver.

(Pub. L. 110–457, title IV, §405, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5090.)

References in Text

Sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), (2), (4), was in the original "this title", meaning title IV of Pub. L. 110–457, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087, known as the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, which is classified principally to sections 2370c to 2370c–2 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, and also as part of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective 180 days after Dec. 23, 2008, see section 407 of Pub. L. 110–457, set out as a note under section 2370c of this title.

Delegation of Authority

Memorandum of President of the United States, June 14, 2012, 77 F.R. 37551, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section 405(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, title IV of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110–457).

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

1 So in original. Probably should be "waiver".

§2371. Prohibition on assistance to governments supporting international terrorism

(a) Prohibition

The United States shall not provide any assistance under this chapter, the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], the Peace Corps Act [22 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], or the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 [12 U.S.C. 635 et seq.] to any country if the Secretary of State determines that the government of that country has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism.

(b) Publication of determinations

Each determination of the Secretary of State under subsection (a), including each determination in effect on December 12, 1989, shall be published in the Federal Register.

(c) Rescission

A determination made by the Secretary of State under subsection (a) may not be rescinded unless the President submits to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate—

(1) before the proposed rescission would take effect, a report certifying that—

(A) there has been a fundamental change in the leadership and policies of the government of the country concerned;

(B) that government is not supporting acts of international terrorism; and

(C) that government has provided assurances that it will not support acts of international terrorism in the future; or


(2) at least 45 days before the proposed rescission would take effect, a report justifying the rescission and certifying that—

(A) the government concerned has not provided any support for international terrorism during the preceding 6-month period; and

(B) the government concerned has provided assurances that it will not support acts of international terrorism in the future.

(d) Waiver

Assistance prohibited by subsection (a) may be provided to a country described in that subsection if—

(1) the President determines that national security interests or humanitarian reasons justify a waiver of subsection (a), except that humanitarian reasons may not be used to justify assistance under subchapter II of this chapter (including part IV, part VI, and part VIII), or the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 [12 U.S.C. 635 et seq.]; and

(2) at least 15 days before the waiver takes effect, the President consults with the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate regarding the proposed waiver and submits a report to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate containing—

(A) the name of the recipient country;

(B) a description of the national security interests or humanitarian reasons which require the waiver;

(C) the type and amount of and the justification for the assistance to be provided pursuant to the waiver; and

(D) the period of time during which such waiver will be effective.


The waiver authority granted in this subsection may not be used to provide any assistance under this chapter which is also prohibited by section 2780 of this title.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620A, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title III, §303, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 753; amended Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §503(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 220; Pub. L. 99–190, §101(i) [title V, §521], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1291, 1305; Pub. L. 101–222, §5, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1897; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), was in the original "this Act" and "the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961", respectively, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Food for Peace Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Peace Corps Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87–293, Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 612, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 34 (§2501 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2501 of this title and Tables.

The Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d)(1), is act July 31, 1945, ch. 341, 59 Stat. 526, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§635 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 635 of Title 12 and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".

1989Pub. L. 101–222 amended section generally, in subsec. (a) substituting provisions prohibiting assistance if Secretary of State determines country has repeatedly supported terrorism, for provisions prohibiting assistance if President determines country grants sanctuary to terrorists or otherwise supports terrorism; redesignating subsec. (b) as (d) and inserting provisions prohibiting justification of waiver of assistance under specified Acts and provisions describing contents of report on proposed waiver; adding subsecs. (b) and (c); and striking out subsec. (c) which related to imposition of sanction by other countries.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–190 inserted reference to the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945.

Pub. L. 99–83 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting provisions relating to covered programs and Presidential determinations respecting termination of assistance, for provisions relating to termination of assistance to countries granting sanctuary to international terrorists and period of ineligibility.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–83 amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions relating to waiver of application of subsec. (a), for provisions relating to reports respecting continuation of assistance to any country falling within provisions of former subsec. (a) of this section.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–83, in amending section generally, added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Self-Defense in Accordance With International Law

Pub. L. 101–222, §10, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1900, provided that: "The use by any government of armed force in the exercise of individual or collective self-defense in accordance with applicable international agreements and customary international law shall not be considered an act of international terrorism for purposes of the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1989 Amendment note, set out under section 2151 of this title]."

§2372. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §725(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1553

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620B, as added Pub. L. 95–92, §11, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 619; amended Pub. L. 95–384, §12(c)(1), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737, prohibited assistance and sales to Argentina.

§2372a. Renewal, reissuance, etc., of export licenses to or for Argentina

Any export license referred to in section 2372 1 of this title which is issued initially on or before September 30, 1978 may from time to time thereafter be renewed, reissued or modified (or in the event of lapse of such license, replacement licenses may be issued), provided that any such renewal, reissuance or modification (or any such replacement license) does not change significantly any such license as initially issued.

(Pub. L. 95–240, title II, §210, Mar. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 118.)

References in Text

Section 2372 of this title, referred to in text, was in the original "Section 11 of Public Law 95–92", meaning section 11 of Pub. L. 95–92, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 619, which added section 620B of Pub. L. 87–195. Section 620B of Pub. L. 87–195 was classified to section 2372 of this title and was repealed by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §725(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1553.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1978, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2373. Eastern Mediterranean policy requirements

(a) Congressional declaration and statement of findings

The Congress declares that the achievement of a just and lasting Cyprus settlement is and will remain a central objective of United States foreign policy. The Congress further declares that any action of the United States with respect to section 2370(x) 1 of this title shall not signify a lessening of the United States commitment to a just solution to the conflict on Cyprus but is authorized in the expectation that this action will be conducive to achievement of a Cyprus solution and a general improvement in relations among Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus and between those countries and the United States. The Congress finds that—

(1) a just settlement on Cyprus must involve the establishment of a free and independent government on Cyprus and must guarantee that the human rights of all of the people of Cyprus are fully protected;

(2) a just settlement on Cyprus must include the withdrawal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus;

(3) the guidelines for inter-communal talks agreed to in Nicosia in February 1977 and the United Nations resolutions regarding Cyprus provide a sound basis for negotiation of a just settlement on Cyprus;

(4) serious negotiations, under United Nations auspices, will be necessary to achieve agreement on, and implementation of, constitutional and territorial terms within such guidelines; and

(5) the recent proposals by both Cypriot communities regarding the return of the refugees to the city of New Famagusta (Varosha) constitute a positive step and the United States should actively support the efforts of the Secretary General of the United Nations with respect to this issue.

(b) Governing principles

United States policy regarding Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey shall be directed toward the restoration of a stable and peaceful atmosphere in the Eastern Mediterranean region and shall therefore be governed by the following principles:

(1) The United States shall actively support the resolution of differences through negotiations and internationally established peaceful procedures, shall encourage all parties to avoid provocative actions, and shall strongly oppose any attempt to resolve disputes through force or threat of force.

(2) The United States will accord full support and high priority to efforts, particularly those of the United Nations, to bring about a prompt, peaceful settlement on Cyprus.

(3) All defense articles furnished by the United States to countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region will be used only in accordance with the requirements of this chapter, the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], and the agreements under which those defense articles were furnished.

(4) The United States will furnish security assistance for Greece and Turkey only when furnishing that assistance is intended solely for defensive purposes, including when necessary to enable the recipient country to fulfill its responsibilities as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and shall be designed to ensure that the present balance of military strength among countries of the region, including between Greece and Turkey, is preserved. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit the transfer of defense articles to Greece or Turkey for legitimate self defense or to enable Greece or Turkey to fulfill their North Atlantic Treaty Organization obligations.

(5) The United States shall use its influence to ensure the continuation of the ceasefire on Cyprus until an equitable negotiated settlement is reached.

(6) The United States shall use its influence to achieve the withdrawal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus in the context of a solution to the Cyprus problem.

(c) Review of policy; report to Congress

Because progress toward a Cyprus settlement is a high priority of United States policy in the Eastern Mediterranean, the President and the Congress shall continually review that progress and shall determine United States policy in the region accordingly. To facilitate such a review the President shall, within 60 days after the date of enactment of this section and at the end of each succeeding 60-day period, transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on progress made toward the conclusion of a negotiated solution of the Cyprus problem. Such transmissions shall include any relevant reports prepared by the Secretary General of the United Nations for the Security Council.

(d) Certification by President to Congress of assistance to Greece and Turkey

In order to ensure that United States assistance is furnished consistent with the policies established in this section, the President shall, whenever requesting any funds for security assistance under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] for Greece and Turkey, transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate his certification, with a full explanation thereof, that the furnishing of such assistance will be consistent with the principles set forth in subsection (b). The President shall also submit such a certification with any notification to the Congress, pursuant to section 36(b) of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2776(b)], of a proposed sale of defense articles or services to Greece or Turkey.

(e) Arms sales agreements to prohibit transfer to Cyprus

(1) Any agreement for the sale or provision of any article on the United States Munitions List (established pursuant to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778]) entered into by the United States after December 22, 1987, shall expressly state that the article is being provided by the United States only with the understanding that it will not be transferred to Cyprus or otherwise used to further the severance or division of Cyprus.

(2) The President shall report to Congress any substantial evidence that equipment provided under any such agreement has been used in a manner inconsistent with the purposes of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620C, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §13(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737; amended Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §562], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-171.)

References in Text

Section 2370(x) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was omitted. See Codification note set out under section 2370 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3) and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3) and (d), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsec. (e) of this section were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §557, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1676.

Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §560, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2026.

Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §570, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1245.

Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §579, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–48.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–202 added subsec. (e).

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of congressional reporting functions of President under subsec. (c) of this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13313, July 31, 2003, 68 F.R. 46073, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Special Ambassadorial Commission for Cyprus and the Aegean

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §586], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-185, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

"(1) the inability to achieve a just and lasting Cyprus settlement will continue to affect relations among the United States and its close NATO allies, Greece and Turkey, to the detriment of larger, mutually shared, security interests in the Eastern Mediterranean region;

"(2) it is of paramount importance that Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey resolve their differences through negotiations and otherwise peaceful procedures, and that the United States should support the resolution of these differences through all the diplomatic means at its disposal;

"(3) it is in the national interest of the United States that the President make a significant new diplomatic demarche towards bringing this dispute to a resolution; and

"(4) it is also in the national interest of the United States to undertake a diplomatic initiative to promote the peaceful and equitable resolution of differences between Greece and Turkey in the Aegean by fostering a renewed and sustained bilateral dialogue between those countries on such issues as: the delineation of the continental shelf, the definition of the territorial seas, air traffic control over the Aegean, NATO command and control arrangements in the Aegean, and the status of Lemnos and NATO exercises in the Aegean.

"(b) Appointment of Special Ambassador.—The President is authorized to appoint a special ambassadorial level envoy who shall be responsible for representing the United States in direct negotiations with the parties to the Cyprus dispute, for representing the United States in negotiations through international intermediaries and, generally, lending the good offices of the United States to the parties in this dispute in order to facilitate a peaceful settlement on Cyprus. As agreed to by Greece and Turkey, the special envoy shall also represent the United States in promoting mutual discussions between those countries concerning their differences on Aegean issues. The special ambassador appointed under this section shall have available the services of two deputies (one to specialize on the Cyprus question, the other on general Aegean issues) and such senior level Department of State personnel as may be required by the special ambassador in order to carry out his responsibilities.

"(c) Report.—Not later than June 1, 1988, the President shall submit a report to the Congress describing in detail the activities being undertaken by the special ambassador, the progress being made toward achievement of a peaceful resolution of the Cyprus dispute, an assessment of the obstacles to achievement of such a resolution and of the future role of the United States in acheiving [sic] a settlement on Cyprus, and an assessment of the progress being made toward resolution of issues affecting the Aegean region.

"(d) Funding.—Up to $500,000 of the funds appropriated under any heading of this Act [Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1988, as enacted by section 101(e) of Pub. L. 101–202] which are allocated for Greece and up to $500,000 of the funds appropriated under any heading of this Act which are allocated for Turkey, may be used by the Department of State for any administrative costs associated with the activities of the special ambassador and supporting personnel, including transportation, salaries and per diem."

1 See References in Text note below.

§2374. Repealed. Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7104(l), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3788

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620D, as added Pub. L. 96–53, title V, §505, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 378, related to prohibition on assistance to Afghanistan.

§2375. Assistance to Pakistan

(a) Congressional policy, findings, and goals

The Congress recognizes that Soviet forces occupying Afghanistan pose a security threat to Pakistan. The Congress also recognizes that an independent and democratic Pakistan with continued friendly ties with the United States is in the interest of both nations. The Congress finds that United States assistance will help Pakistan maintain its independence. Assistance to Pakistan is intended to benefit the people of Pakistan by helping them meet the burdens imposed by the presence of Soviet forces in Afghanistan and by promoting economic development. In authorizing assistance to Pakistan, it is the intent of Congress to promote the expeditious restoration of full civil liberties and representative government in Pakistan. The Congress further recognizes that it is in the mutual interest of Pakistan and the United States to avoid the profoundly destabilizing effects of the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices or the capacity to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear devices.

(b) Reaffirmation of 1959 bilateral agreement

The United States reaffirms the commitment made in its 1959 bilateral agreement with Pakistan relating to aggression from a Communist or Communist-dominated state.

(c) Availability; defensive aspects of assistance

Security assistance for Pakistan shall be made available in order to assist Pakistan in dealing with the threat to its security posed by the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. The United States will take appropriate steps to ensure that defense articles provided by the United States to Pakistan are used for defensive purposes.

(d) Waiver of limitations respecting nuclear transfers

The President may waive the prohibitions of section 2799aa of this title with respect to any grounds for the prohibition of assistance under that section arising before the effective date of part B of the Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act of 1994 to provide assistance to Pakistan if he determines that to do so is in the national interest of the United States.

(e) Nuclear non-proliferation conditions on military assistance; exception

(1) No military assistance shall be furnished to Pakistan and no military equipment or technology shall be sold or transferred to Pakistan, pursuant to the authorities contained in this chapter or any other Act, unless the President shall have certified in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, during the fiscal year in which military assistance is to be furnished or military equipment or technology is to be sold or transferred, that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear explosive device and that the proposed United States military assistance program will reduce significantly the risk that Pakistan will possess a nuclear explosive device.

(2) The prohibitions in this section do not apply to any assistance or transfer provided for the purposes of:

(A) International narcotics control (including part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter) or any provision of law available for providing assistance for counternarcotics purposes.

(B) Facilitating military-to-military contact, training (including part V of subchapter II of this chapter) and humanitarian and civic assistance projects.

(C) Peacekeeping and other multilateral operations (including part VI of subchapter II of this chapter relating to peacekeeping) or any provision of law available for providing assistance for peacekeeping purposes, except that lethal military equipment provided under this subparagraph shall be provided on a lease or loan basis only and shall be returned upon completion of the operation for which it was provided.

(D) Antiterrorism assistance (including part VIII of subchapter II of this chapter relating to antiterrorism assistance) or any provision of law available for antiterrorism assistance purposes.


(3) The restrictions of this subsection shall continue to apply to contracts for the delivery of F–16 aircraft to Pakistan.

(4) Notwithstanding the restrictions contained in this subsection, military equipment, technology, or defense services, other than F–16 aircraft, may be transferred to Pakistan pursuant to contracts or cases entered into before October 1, 1990.

(f) Storage costs

The President may release the Government of Pakistan of its contractual obligation to pay the United States Government for the storage costs of items purchased prior to October 1, 1990, but not delivered by the United States Government pursuant to subsection (e) and may reimburse the Government of Pakistan for any such amount paid, on such terms and conditions as the President may prescribe: Provided, That such payments have no budgetary impact.

(g) Inapplicability of restrictions to previously owned items

Subsection (e) does not apply to broken, worn or unupgraded items or their equivalent which Pakistan paid for and took possession of prior to October 1, 1990 and which the Government of Pakistan sent to the United States for repair or upgrade. Such equipment or its equivalent may be returned to the Government of Pakistan: Provided, That the President determines and so certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that such equipment or equivalent neither constitutes nor has received any significant qualitative upgrade since being transferred to the United States and that its total value does not exceed $25,000,000.

(h) Ballistic missile sanctions not affected

Nothing contained herein shall affect sanctions for transfers of missile equipment or technology required under section 4612 of title 50 or section 2797b of this title.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620E, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §736, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1561; amended Pub. L. 99–83, title IX, §902, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 267; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §557], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-170; Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §591, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1253; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §574(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2042; Pub. L. 102–145, §118, as added Pub. L. 102–266, §102, Apr. 1, 1992, 106 Stat. 93; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §570(a), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1681; Pub. L. 103–87, title V, §536(a), Sept. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 955; Pub. L. 103–236, title VIII, §822(b)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §559(a), Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 743.)

References in Text

For effective date of part B of the Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (d), as the date 60 days after Apr. 30, 1994, see section 831 of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (e), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–145 is based on section 572(a) of H.R. 2621, One Hundred Second Congress, 1st Session, as passed by the House of Representatives on June 19, 1991, which was enacted into law by Pub. L. 102–145, §118, as added by Pub. L. 102–266, §102, Apr. 1, 1992, 106 Stat. 93. Section 118 of Pub. L. 102–145 provided that the authority and conditions provided in such section 572 shall be applicable to funds appropriated by Pub. L. 102–145 (and are hereby enacted) in lieu of the authority and conditions provided in section 574 of Pub. L. 101–513. See 1990, 1991, and 1992 Amendment notes below.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–107, §559(a)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "military assistance" for "assistance" wherever appearing, and added par. (2).

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 104–107, §559(a)(2), added subsecs. (f) to (h).

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–236 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "The President may waive the prohibitions of section 2429 of this title at any time during the period beginning on December 29, 1981, and ending on September 30, 1994, to provide assistance to Pakistan during that period if he determines that to do so is in the national interest of the United States."

1993—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–87, which directed the substitution of "September 30, 1994" for the date specified in subsec. (d), was executed by substituting "September 30, 1994" for "September 30, 1993". See 1992 Amendment note below.

1992—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–391, which directed the substitution of "September 30, 1993" for the date specified in subsec. (d), was executed by substituting "September 30, 1993" for "April 1, 1993". See 1991 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 102–266 added Pub. L. 102–145, §118. See 1991 Amendment note below.

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–145, §118, as added by Pub. L. 102–266, which directed the amendment of subsec. (d) by substituting "April 1, 1993" for "April 1, 1991" in lieu of amendment by Pub. L. 101–513, §574(a), was executed by substituting "April 1, 1993" for "April 1, 1992" to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See Codification note above and 1990 Amendment note below.

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–513 substituted "April 1, 1992" for "April 1, 1991".

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–167 substituted "April 1, 1991" for "April 1, 1990".

1987—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–202 substituted "April 1, 1990" for "September 30, 1987".

1985—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–83 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 effective 60 days after Apr. 30, 1994, see section 831 of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Strategy for the United States Relationship With Pakistan

Pub. L. 110–53, title XX, §2042(a)–(f), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 520–523, provided that:

"(a) Congressional Findings.—Congress finds the following:

"(1) A democratic, stable, and prosperous Pakistan that is a full and reliable partner in the struggle against the Taliban, al Qaeda, and other terrorist groups, and is a responsible steward of its nuclear weapons and technology, is vital to the national security of the United States.

"(2) Since September 11, 2001, the Government of Pakistan has been a critical ally and an important partner in removing the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and combating al Qaeda.

"(3) Pakistan has made great sacrifices in the shared struggle against al Qaeda-affiliated terrorist groups, engaging in military operations that have led to the deaths of hundreds of Pakistani security personnel and enduring acts of terrorism that have killed hundreds of Pakistani civilians.

"(4) Publicly-stated goals of the Government of Pakistan and the national interests of the United States are in close agreement in many areas, including—

"(A) curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology;

"(B) combating poverty and corruption;

"(C) enabling effective government institutions, including public education;

"(D) promoting democracy and the rule of law, particularly at the national level;

"(E) addressing the continued presence of Taliban and other violent extremist forces throughout the country;

"(F) maintaining the authority of the Government of Pakistan in all parts of its national territory;

"(G) securing the borders of Pakistan to prevent the movement of militants and terrorists into other countries and territories; and

"(H) effectively dealing with violent extremism.

"(5) The opportunity exists for shared effort in helping to achieve correlative goals with the Government of Pakistan, particularly—

"(A) increased United States assistance to Pakistan, as appropriate, to achieve progress in meeting the goals of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of paragraph (4);

"(B) increased commitment on the part of the Government of Pakistan to achieve the goals of paragraph (4)(D), particularly given continued concerns, based on the conduct of previous elections, regarding whether parliamentary elections scheduled for 2007 will be free, fair, and inclusive of all political parties and carried out in full accordance with internationally-recognized democratic norms; and

"(C) increased commitment on the part of the Government of Pakistan to take actions described in paragraph (4)(E), particularly given—

"(i) the continued operation of the Taliban's Quetta shura, as noted by then-North Atlantic Treaty Organization Supreme Allied Commander General James Jones in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on September 21, 2006; and

"(ii) the continued operation of al Qaeda affiliates Lashkar-e Taiba and Jaish-e Muhammad, sometimes under different names, as demonstrated by the lack of meaningful action taken against Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Maulana Masood Azhar, and other known leaders and members of such terrorist organizations; and

"(D) increased commitment on the part of the Government of the United States in regard to working with all elements of Pakistan [sic] society in helping to achieve the correlative goals described in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of paragraph (4).

"(b) Statements of Policy.—The following shall be the policy of the United States:

"(1) To maintain and deepen its friendship and long-term strategic relationship with Pakistan.

"(2) To work with the Government of Pakistan to combat international terrorism, especially in the frontier provinces of Pakistan, and to end the use of Pakistan as a safe haven for terrorist groups, including those associated with al Qaeda or the Taliban.

"(3) To support robust funding for programs of the United States Agency for International Development and the Department of State that assist the Government of Pakistan in working toward the goals described in subsection (a)(4), as the Government of Pakistan demonstrates a clear commitment to building a moderate, democratic state.

"(4) To work with the international community to secure additional financial and political support to effectively implement the policies set forth in this subsection.

"(5) To facilitate a just resolution of the dispute over the territory of Kashmir, to the extent that such facilitation is invited and welcomed by the Governments of Pakistan and India and by the people of Kashmir.

"(6) To facilitate greater communication and cooperation between the Governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan for the improvement of bilateral relations and cooperation in combating terrorism in both countries.

"(7) To work with the Government of Pakistan to dismantle existing proliferation networks and prevent the proliferation of nuclear technology.

"(c) Strategy Relating to Pakistan.—

"(1) Requirement for report on strategy.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 3, 2007], the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that describes the long-term strategy of the United States to engage with the Government of Pakistan to achieve the goals described in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of subsection (a)(4) and to carry out the policies described in subsection (b).

"(2) Form.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall be transmitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex, if necessary.

"(d) Limitation on United States Security Assistance to Pakistan.—

"(1) Limitation.—For fiscal year 2008, United States assistance under chapter 2 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq.) or section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763) may not be provided to, and a license for any item controlled under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) may not be approved for, Pakistan until the President transmits to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains a determination of the President that the Government of Pakistan—

"(A) is committed to eliminating from Pakistani territory any organization such as the Taliban, al Qaeda, or any successor, engaged in military, insurgent, or terrorist activities in Afghanistan;

"(B) is undertaking a comprehensive military, legal, economic, and political campaign to achieving the goal described in subparagraph (A); and

"(C) is currently making demonstrated, significant, and sustained progress toward eliminating support or safe haven for terrorists.

"(2) Memorandum of justification.—The President shall include in the report required by paragraph (1) a memorandum of justification setting forth the basis for the President's determination under paragraph (1).

"(3) Form.—The report required by paragraph (1) and the memorandum of justification required by paragraph (2) shall be transmitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex, if necessary.

"(e) Nuclear Proliferation.—

"(1) Congressional finding.—Congress finds that the maintenance by any country of a procurement or supply network for the illicit proliferation of nuclear and missile technologies would be inconsistent with that country being considered an ally of the United States.

"(2) Sense of congress.—It is the sense of Congress that the national security interest of the United States will best be served if the United States develops and implements a long-term strategy to improve the United States relationship with Pakistan and works with the Government of Pakistan to stop nuclear proliferation.

"(f) Authorization of Appropriations.—

"(1) In general.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the President such sums as may be necessary to provide assistance described in subsection (d)(1) for Pakistan for fiscal year 2008 in accordance with the requirements of subsection (d)(1).

"(2) Other funds.—Amounts authorized to be appropriated under this subsection are in addition to amounts otherwise available for such purposes.

"(3) Declaration of policy.—Congress declares that the amount of funds appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under paragraph (1) and for subsequent fiscal years shall be determined by the extent to which the Government of Pakistan displays demonstrable progress in—

"(A) preventing al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations from operating in the territory of Pakistan, including eliminating terrorist training camps or facilities, arresting members and leaders of terrorist organizations, and countering recruitment efforts;

"(B) preventing the Taliban from using the territory of Pakistan as a sanctuary from which to launch attacks within Afghanistan, including by arresting Taliban leaders, stopping cross-border incursions, and countering recruitment efforts; and

"(C) implementing democratic reforms, including allowing free, fair, and inclusive elections at all levels of government in accordance with internationally-recognized democratic norms, and respecting the independence of the press and judiciary.

"(4) Biannual reports to congress.—

"(A) In general.—The Secretary of State shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a biannual report describing in detail the extent to which the Government of Pakistan has displayed demonstrable progress in meeting the goals described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of paragraph (3).

"(B) Schedule for submission.—The report required by subparagraph (A) shall be submitted not later than April 15 and October 15 of each year until October 15, 2009.

"(C) Form.—The report required by subparagraph (A) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex, if necessary."

[For definition of "appropriate congressional committees" as used in section 2042(a)–(f) of Pub. L. 110–53, set out above, see section 2002 of Pub. L. 110–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.]

[Functions of President under section 2042(c)(1), (d) of Pub. L. 110–53, set out above, assigned to Secretary of State by Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 28, 2007, 72 F.R. 56871, set out as a note under section 2228 of this title.]

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Conditions on Assistance for Pakistan

Determination of President of the United States, No. 90–15, Mar. 28, 1990, 55 F.R. 17417, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 620E(d) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended ("the Act") (22 U.S.C. 2375(d)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 620E(d) of the Act, that provision of assistance to Pakistan under the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] through April 1, 1991, is in the national interest of the United States, and therefore waive the prohibitions of section 669 of the Act (22 U.S.C. 2429) with respect to that period.

You are authorized and directed to transmit this determination, together with the statement setting forth specific reasons therefor, to the Congress immediately.

This determination shall be published in the Federal Register.

George Bush.      


Prior determinations and certifications were contained in the following:

Determination of President of the United States, No. 90–1, Oct. 5, 1989, 54 F.R. 43797.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 89–7, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 49111.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 88–5, Jan. 15, 1988, 53 F.R. 3325.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 88–4, Dec. 17, 1987, 53 F.R. 773.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 87–3, Oct. 27, 1986, 51 F.R. 40301.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 86–03, Nov. 25, 1985, 50 F.R. 50273.

Waiver of Sanctions

Sanctions contained in subsec. (e) waived in certain regards with respect to India by Determination of President of the United States, No. 2000–18, Mar. 16, 2000, 65 F.R. 16297, set out as a note under section 2799aa–1 of this title.

Sanctions contained in subsec. (e) waived in certain regards by Determination of President of the United States, No. 2000–4, Oct. 27, 1999, 64 F.R. 60649, set out as a note under section 2799aa–1 of this title.

§2376. Nuclear non-proliferation policy in South Asia

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction remains one of the most serious threats to international peace and stability;

(2) South Asia, in particular, is an area where the threat of a regional nuclear exchange remains high due to continued Indo-Pakistani tensions over issues such as Kashmir;

(3) to date, United States efforts to halt proliferation in South Asia have failed;

(4) although global disarmament is a desirable goal which should be vigorously pursued, both regional and sub-regional security arrangements can serve to decrease tensions and promote non-proliferation in certain areas;

(5) thus far, there has been some success on a regional basis, such as the South Pacific Nuclear Weapons Free Zone and the Treaty of Tlatelolco in Latin America;

(6) in particular, in Latin America, the Treaty of Tlatelolco has been signed by all the nuclear powers;

(7) a critical part of this treaty is Protocol II which prohibits nuclear attacks by nuclear weapons states on signatories to the treaty;

(8) in 1991, a proposal was made for a regional conference on non-proliferation in South Asia which would include Pakistan, India, the People's Republic of China, the Soviet Union, and the United States; and

(9) thus far, Pakistan, China, Russia, and the United States have expressed interest in attending such a conference, whereas India has refused to attend.

(b) Policy

It is the sense of the Congress that the President should pursue a policy which seeks a regional negotiated solution to the issue of nuclear non-proliferation in South Asia at the earliest possible time, including a protocol to be signed by all nuclear weapons states, prohibiting nuclear attacks by nuclear weapons states on countries in the region. Such a policy should have as its ultimate goal concurrent accession by Pakistan and India to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and should also include as needed a phased approach to that goal through a series of agreements among the parties on nuclear issues, such as the agreement reached by Pakistan and India not to attack one another's nuclear facilities.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620F, as added Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §585(a), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1688; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXII, §2219(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–817; Pub. L. 113–188, title XIV, §1401, Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2023.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–188 struck out subsec. (c). Text read as follows: "Not later than April 1 of each year, the President shall submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, on nuclear proliferation in South Asia, including efforts taken by the United States to achieve a regional agreement on nuclear non-proliferation, and including a comprehensive list of the obstacles to concluding such a regional agreement."

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–277, which directed the substitution of "Not later than April 1 of each year," for "Not later than April 1, 1993 and every six months thereafter," was executed by making the substitution for text which contained a comma after "1993" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Delegation of Authority With Respect to Reports to Congress Concerning Progress Toward Nonproliferation in South Asia

Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 30, 1994, 59 F.R. 17229, delegated to the Secretary of State the reporting functions vested in the President by former subsec. (c) of this section.

§2377. Prohibition on assistance to countries that aid terrorist states

(a) Withholding of assistance

The President shall withhold assistance under this chapter to the government of any country that provides assistance to the government of any other country for which the Secretary of State has made a determination under section 2371 of this title.

(b) Waiver

Assistance prohibited by this section may be furnished to a foreign government described in subsection (a) if the President determines that furnishing such assistance is important to the national interests of the United States and, not later than 15 days before obligating such assistance, furnishes a report to the appropriate committees of Congress including—

(1) a statement of the determination;

(2) a detailed explanation of the assistance to be provided;

(3) the estimated dollar amount of the assistance; and

(4) an explanation of how the assistance furthers United States national interests.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620G, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §325, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1256.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Another section 620G of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 620J and is classified to section 2378a of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Congressional Findings

Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §324, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1255, provided that: "The Congress finds that—

"(1) international terrorism is among the most serious transnational threats faced by the United States and its allies, far eclipsing the dangers posed by population growth or pollution;

"(2) the President should continue to make efforts to counter international terrorism a national security priority;

"(3) because the United Nations has been an inadequate forum for the discussion of cooperative, multilateral responses to the threat of international terrorism, the President should undertake immediate efforts to develop effective multilateral responses to international terrorism as a complement to national counter terrorist efforts;

"(4) the President should use all necessary means, including covert action and military force, to disrupt, dismantle, and destroy international infrastructure used by international terrorists, including overseas terrorist training facilities and safe havens;

"(5) the Congress deplores decisions to ease, evade, or end international sanctions on state sponsors of terrorism, including the recent decision by the United Nations Sanctions Committee to allow airline flights to and from Libya despite Libya's noncompliance with United Nations resolutions; and

"(6) the President should continue to undertake efforts to increase the international isolation of state sponsors of international terrorism, including efforts to strengthen international sanctions, and should oppose any future initiatives to ease sanctions on Libya or other state sponsors of terrorism."

"Assistance" Defined

Assistance defined for purposes of title III of Pub. L. 104–132, see section 329 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2349aa–10 of this title.

§2378. Prohibition on assistance to countries that provide military equipment to terrorist states

(a) Prohibition

(1) In general

The President shall withhold assistance under this chapter to the government of any country that provides lethal military equipment to a country the government of which the Secretary of State has determined is a terrorist government for the purposes of section 4605(j) of title 50, or 2371 of this title.

(2) Applicability

The prohibition under this section with respect to a foreign government shall terminate 1 year after that government ceases to provide lethal military equipment. This section applies with respect to lethal military equipment provided under a contract entered into after April 24, 1996.

(b) Waiver

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, assistance may be furnished to a foreign government described in subsection (a) if the President determines that furnishing such assistance is important to the national interests of the United States and, not later than 15 days before obligating such assistance, furnishes a report to the appropriate committees of Congress including—

(1) a statement of the determination;

(2) a detailed explanation of the assistance to be provided;

(3) the estimated dollar amount of the assistance; and

(4) an explanation of how the assistance furthers United States national interests.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620H, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §326, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1256.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

April 24, 1966, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was in the original "the date of enactment of this Act", which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–132, which enacted this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

"Assistance" Defined

Assistance defined for purposes of title III of Pub. L. 104–132, see section 329 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2349aa–10 of this title.

§2378–1. Prohibition on assistance to countries that restrict United States humanitarian assistance

(a) In general

No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] to any country when it is made known to the President that the government of such country prohibits or otherwise restricts, directly or indirectly, the transport or delivery of United States humanitarian assistance.

(b) Exception

Assistance may be furnished without regard to the restriction in subsection (a) if the President determines that to do so is in the national security interest of the United States.

(c) Notice

Prior to making any determination under subsection (b), the President shall notify the Committee on International Relations, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives of his intention to make such a determination, the effective date of the determination, and the reasons for making the determination.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620I, as added Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §559], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009-161.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2378a. Depleted uranium ammunition

(a) Prohibition

Except as provided in subsection (b), none of the funds made available to carry out this chapter or any other Act may be made available to facilitate in any way the sale of M–833 antitank shells or any comparable antitank shells containing a depleted uranium penetrating component to any country other than—

(1) a country that is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization;

(2) a country that has been designated as a major non-NATO ally (as defined in section 2403(q) of this title); or

(3) Taiwan.

(b) Exception

The prohibition contained in subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to the use of funds to facilitate the sale of antitank shells to a country if the President determines that to do so is in the national security interest of the United States.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620J, formerly §620G, as added Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §149, July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1436; renumbered §620J, Pub. L. 109–446, §2(b)(1), Dec. 21, 2006, 120 Stat. 3318.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Another section 620J of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 620m and is classified to section 2378d of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2378b. Limitation on assistance to the Palestinian authority

(a) Limitation

Assistance may be provided under this chapter to the Hamas-controlled Palestinian Authority only during a period for which a certification described in subsection (b) is in effect.

(b) Certification

A certification described in subsection (a) is a certification transmitted by the President to Congress that contains a determination of the President that—

(1) no ministry, agency, or instrumentality of the Palestinian Authority is effectively controlled by Hamas, unless the Hamas-controlled Palestinian Authority has—

(A) publicly acknowledged the Jewish state of Israel's right to exist; and

(B) committed itself and is adhering to all previous agreements and understandings with the United States Government, with the Government of Israel, and with the international community, including agreements and understandings pursuant to the Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (commonly referred to as the "Roadmap"); and


(2) the Hamas-controlled Palestinian Authority has made demonstrable progress toward—

(A) completing the process of purging from its security services individuals with ties to terrorism;

(B) dismantling all terrorist infrastructure within its jurisdiction, confiscating unauthorized weapons, arresting and bringing terrorists to justice, destroying unauthorized arms factories, thwarting and preempting terrorist attacks, and fully cooperating with Israel's security services;

(C) halting all anti-American and anti-Israel incitement in Palestinian Authority-controlled electronic and print media and in schools, mosques, and other institutions it controls, and replacing educational materials, including textbooks, with materials that promote peace, tolerance, and coexistence with Israel;

(D) ensuring democracy, the rule of law, and an independent judiciary, and adopting other reforms such as ensuring transparent and accountable governance; and

(E) ensuring the financial transparency and accountability of all government ministries and operations.

(c) Recertifications

Not later than 90 days after the date on which the President transmits to Congress an initial certification under subsection (b), and every six months thereafter—

(1) the President shall transmit to Congress a recertification that the conditions described in subsection (b) are continuing to be met; or

(2) if the President is unable to make such a recertification, the President shall transmit to Congress a report that contains the reasons therefor.

(d) Congressional notification

Assistance made available under this chapter to the Palestinian Authority may not be provided until 15 days after the date on which the President has provided notice thereof to the appropriate congressional committees in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1(a) of this title.

(e) National security waiver

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the President may waive subsection (a) with respect to—

(A) the administrative and personal security costs of the Office of the President of the Palestinian Authority;

(B) the activities of the President of the Palestinian Authority to fulfill his or her duties as President, including to maintain control of the management and security of border crossings, to foster the Middle East peace process, and to promote democracy and the rule of law; and

(C) assistance for the judiciary branch of the Palestinian Authority and other entities.

(2) Certification

The President may only exercise the waiver authority under paragraph (1) after—

(A) consulting with, and submitting a written policy justification to, the appropriate congressional committees; and

(B) certifying to the appropriate congressional committees that—

(i) it is in the national security interest of the United States to provide assistance otherwise prohibited under subsection (a); and

(ii) the individual or entity for which assistance is proposed to be provided is not a member of, or effectively controlled by (as the case may be), Hamas or any other foreign terrorist organization.

(3) Report

Not later than 10 days after exercising the waiver authority under paragraph (1), the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report describing how the funds provided pursuant to such waiver will be spent and detailing the accounting procedures that are in place to ensure proper oversight and accountability.

(4) Treatment of certification as notification of program change

For purposes of this subsection, the certification required under paragraph (2)(B) shall be deemed to be a notification under section 2394–1 of this title and shall be considered in accordance with the procedures applicable to notifications submitted pursuant to that section.

(f) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on International Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and

(B) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

(2) Foreign terrorist organization

The term "foreign terrorist organization" means an organization designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 1189(a) of title 8.

(3) Palestinian Authority

The term "Palestinian Authority" means the interim Palestinian administrative organization that governs part of the West Bank and all of the Gaza Strip (or any successor Palestinian governing entity), including the Palestinian Legislative Council.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620K, as added, Pub. L. 109–446, §2(b)(2), Dec. 21, 2006, 120 Stat. 3318.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006

Pub. L. 109–446, Dec. 21, 2006, 120 Stat. 3318, as amended by Pub. L. 114–323, title VII, §715(b)(3), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1946, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006'.

"SEC. 2. LIMITATION ON ASSISTANCE TO THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY.

"(a) Declaration of Policy.—It shall be the policy of the United States—

"(1) to support a peaceful, two-state solution to end the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians in accordance with the Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (commonly referred to as the 'Roadmap');

"(2) to oppose those organizations, individuals, and countries that support terrorism and violently reject a two-state solution to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict;

"(3) to promote the rule of law, democracy, the cessation of terrorism and incitement, and good governance in institutions and territories controlled by the Palestinian Authority; and

"(4) to urge members of the international community to avoid contact with and refrain from supporting the terrorist organization Hamas until it agrees to recognize Israel, renounce violence, disarm, and accept prior agreements, including the Roadmap.

"(b) Amendments.—

"(1) [Amended section 2378a of this title.]

"(2) [Enacted this section.]

"(c) Previously Obligated Funds.—The provisions of section 620K of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b], as added by subsection (b), shall be applicable to the unexpended balances of funds obligated prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2006].

"SEC. 3. LIMITATION ON ASSISTANCE FOR THE WEST BANK AND GAZA.

"(a) Amendment.—[Enacted section 2378c of this title.]

"(b) Oversight and Related Requirements.—

"(1) Oversight.—For each of the fiscal years 2007 and 2008, the Secretary of State shall certify to the appropriate congressional committees not later than 30 days prior to the initial obligation of amounts for assistance to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank or Gaza under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] that procedures have been established to ensure that the Comptroller General of the United States will have access to appropriate United States financial information in order to review the use of such assistance.

"(2) Vetting.—Prior to any obligation of amounts for each of the fiscal years 2007 and 2008 for assistance to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank or Gaza under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the Secretary of State shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that such assistance is not provided to or through any individual or entity that the Secretary knows, or has reason to believe, advocates, plans, sponsors, engages in, or has engaged in, terrorist activity. The Secretary shall, as appropriate, establish procedures specifying the steps to be taken in carrying out this paragraph and shall terminate assistance to any individual or entity that the Secretary has determined advocates, plans, sponsors, or engages in terrorist activity.

"(3) Prohibition.—No amounts made available for fiscal year 2007 or 2008 for assistance to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank or Gaza under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 may be made available for the purpose of recognizing or otherwise honoring individuals who commit, or have committed, acts of terrorism.

"(4) Audits.—

"(A) In general.—The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall ensure that Federal or non-Federal audits of all contractors and grantees, and significant subcontractors and subgrantees, that receive amounts for assistance to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank or Gaza under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 are conducted for each of the fiscal years 2007 and 2008 to ensure, among other things, compliance with this subsection.

"(B) Audits by inspector general of usaid.—Of the amounts available for each of the fiscal years 2007 and 2008 for assistance to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank or Gaza under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, up to $1,000,000 for each such fiscal year may be used by the Office of the Inspector General of the United States Agency for International Development for audits, inspections, and other activities in furtherance of the requirements of subparagraph (A). Such amounts are in addition to amounts otherwise available for such purposes.

"SEC. 4. DESIGNATION OF TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AS TERRORIST SANCTUARY.

"It is the sense of Congress that, during any period for which a certification described in section 620K(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b(b)] (as added by section 2(b)(2) of this Act) is not in effect with respect to the Palestinian Authority, the territory controlled by the Palestinian Authority should be deemed to be in use as a sanctuary for terrorists or terrorist organizations for purposes of section 6(j)(5) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)(5)) [now 50 U.S.C. 4605(j)(5)] and section 140 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (22 U.S.C. 2656f).

"SEC. 5. DENIAL OF VISAS FOR OFFICIALS OF THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY.

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), a visa should not be issued to any alien who is an official of, under the control of, or serving as a representative of the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority during any period for which a certification described in section 620K(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b(b)] (as added by section 2(b)(2) of this Act) is not in effect with respect to the Palestinian Authority.

"(b) Exception.—The restriction under subsection (a) should not apply to—

"(1) the President of the Palestinian Authority and his or her personal representatives, provided that the President and his or her personal representatives are not affiliated with Hamas or any other foreign terrorist organization; and

"(2) members of the Palestinian Legislative Council who are not members of Hamas or any other foreign terrorist organization.

"SEC. 6. TRAVEL RESTRICTIONS ON OFFICIALS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND THE PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION STATIONED AT THE UNITED NATIONS IN NEW YORK CITY.

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and except as provided in subsection (b), the President should restrict the travel of officials and representatives of the Palestinian Authority and of the Palestine Liberation Organization, who are stationed at the United Nations in New York City to a 25-mile radius of the United Nations headquarters building during any period for which a certification described in section 620K(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b(b)] (as added by section 2(b)(2) of this Act) is not in effect with respect to the Palestinian Authority.

"(b) Exception.—The travel restrictions described in subsection (a) should not apply to the President of the Palestinian Authority and his or her personal representatives, provided that the President and his or her personal representatives are not affiliated with Hamas or any other foreign terrorist organization.

"SEC. 7. PROHIBITION ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

"(a) Prohibition.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it shall be unlawful to establish or maintain an office, headquarters, premises, or other facilities or establishments within the jurisdiction of the United States at the behest or direction of, or with funds provided by, the Palestinian Authority during any period for which a certification described in section 620K(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b(b)] (as added by section 2(b)(2) of this Act) is not in effect with respect to the Palestinian Authority.

"(b) Enforcement.—

"(1) Attorney general.—The Attorney General shall take the necessary steps and institute the necessary legal action to effectuate the policies and provisions of subsection (a).

"(2) Relief.—Any district court of the United States for a district in which a violation of subsection (a) occurs shall have authority, upon petition of relief by the Attorney General, to grant injunctive and such other equitable relief as it shall deem necessary to enforce the provisions of subsection (a).

"(c) Waiver.—Subsection (a) shall not apply if the President determines and certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that the establishment or maintenance of an office, headquarters, premises, or other facilities is vital to the national security interests of the United States.

"SEC. 8. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

"(a) Requirement.—The President should direct the United States Executive Director at each international financial institution to use the voice, vote, and influence of the United States to prohibit assistance to the Palestinian Authority (other than assistance described under subsection (b)) during any period for which a certification described in section 620K(b) of the Foreign Assistance of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b(b)] (as added by section 2(b)(2) of this Act) is not in effect with respect to the Palestinian Authority.

"(b) Exceptions.—The prohibition on assistance described in subsection (a) should not apply with respect to the following types of assistance:

"(1) Assistance to meet food, water, medicine, or sanitation needs, or other assistance to meet basic human needs.

"(2) Assistance to promote democracy, human rights, freedom of the press, non-violence, reconciliation, and peaceful coexistence, provided that such assistance does not directly benefit Hamas or other foreign terrorist organizations.

"(c) Definition.—In this section, the term 'international financial institution' has the meaning given the term in section 1701(c)(2) of the International Financial Institutions Act (22 U.S.C. 262r(c)(2)).

"SEC. 9. DIPLOMATIC CONTACTS WITH PALESTINIAN TERROR ORGANIZATIONS.

"No funds authorized or available to the Department of State may be used for or by any officer or employee of the United States Government to negotiate with members or official representatives of Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, or any other Palestinian terrorist organization (except in emergency or humanitarian situations), unless and until such organization—

"(1) recognizes Israel's right to exist;

"(2) renounces the use of terrorism;

"(3) dismantles the infrastructure in areas within its jurisdiction necessary to carry out terrorist acts, including the disarming of militias and the elimination of all instruments of terror; and

"(4) recognizes and accepts all previous agreements and understandings between the State of Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

"SEC. 10. ISRAELI–PALESTINIAN PEACE, RECONCILIATION AND DEMOCRACY FUND.

"(a) Establishment of Fund.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2006], the Secretary of State shall establish a fund to be known as the 'Israeli-Palestinian Peace, Reconciliation and Democracy Fund' (in this section referred to as the 'Fund'). The purpose of the Fund shall be to support, primarily, through Palestinian and Israeli organizations, the promotion of democracy, human rights, freedom of the press, and non-violence among Palestinians, and peaceful coexistence and reconciliation between Israelis and Palestinians.

"(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of State $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2007 for purposes of the Fund.

"SEC. 11. REPORTING REQUIREMENT.

"Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2006], and annually thereafter, the Secretary of State shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that—

"(1) describes the steps that have been taken by the United States Government to ensure that other countries and international organizations, including multilateral development banks, do not provide direct assistance to the Palestinian Authority for any period for which a certification described in section 620K(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b(b)] (as added by section 2(b)(2) of this Act) is not in effect with respect to the Palestinian Authority; and

"(2) identifies any countries and international organizations, including multilateral development banks, that are providing direct assistance to the Palestinian Authority during such a period, and describes the nature and amount of such assistance.

"SEC. 12. DEFINITIONS.

"In this Act:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs] and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and

"(B) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

"(2) Palestinian authority.—The term 'Palestinian Authority' has the meaning given the term in section 620K(e)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2378b(e)(2)] (as added by section 2(b)(2) of this Act)."

Assistance for the West Bank and Gaza

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2007–20, June 1, 2007, 72 F.R. 34973, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 550(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (FOAA)(Public Law 109–102), as amended by the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006 (Public Law 109–234), sections 620K(e) and 620L(b)(4) of the Foreign Assistance Act [of 1961], as added by the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006 (Public Law 109–446), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby certify and report that:

With respect to the provision of assistance for the administrative and personal security costs of the Office of the President of the Palestinian Authority; for the activities of the President of the Palestinian Authority to promote democracy, peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the rule of law and to fulfill his duties as President, including, among other things, to maintain control of the management and security of border crossings and to foster the Middle East peace process; and, with respect to independent agencies:

• it is in the national security interest of the United States to provide such assistance;

• as the case may be, the President of the Palestinian Authority, the President's party, and independent agencies and any members thereof, including any individual or entity for which assistance is proposed to be provided, are not members of, appointed by, or effectively controlled by Hamas or any other foreign terrorist organization; and

• such assistance provided hereunder will not be transferred or retransferred to any member of Hamas or other foreign terrorist organization or to any entity effectively controlled by Hamas or other foreign terrorist organization.

Accordingly, I hereby waive section 550(a) of the FOAA, as amended, and section 620K(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act, as amended, with respect to such assistance, and authorize such assistance for the above purposes.

Furthermore, I hereby determine that, with respect to assistance to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank and Gaza other than assistance covered by paragraphs (b)(1), (2), and (3) of section 620L of the Foreign Assistance Act, as amended, it is in the national security interest of the United States to provide such assistance as the Secretary of State deems appropriate, and assign to the Secretary of State the functions under section 620L(b)(4)(B) regarding the specific programs, projects, and activities to be carried out using such assistance.

I also hereby assign the functions of the President under section 550(b) and (c) of the FOAA, as amended and as carried forward under the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law 110–5), to the Secretary of State.

You are hereby authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress and publish it in the Federal Register.

George W. Bush.      

§2378c. Limitation on assistance for the West Bank and Gaza

(a) Limitation

Assistance may be provided under this chapter to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank and Gaza only during a period for which a certification described in section 2378b(b) of this title is in effect with respect to the Palestinian Authority.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to the following:

(1) Assistance to meet basic human needs

Assistance to meet food, water, medicine, health, or sanitation needs, or other assistance to meet basic human needs.

(2) Assistance to promote democracy

Assistance to promote democracy, human rights, freedom of the press, non-violence, reconciliation, and peaceful coexistence, provided that such assistance does not directly benefit Hamas or any other foreign terrorist organization.

(3) Assistance for individual members of the Palestinian Legislative Council

Assistance, other than funding of salaries or salary supplements, to individual members of the Palestinian Legislative Council who the President determines are not members of Hamas or any other foreign terrorist organization, for the purposes of facilitating the attendance of such members in programs for the development of institutions of democratic governance, including enhancing the transparent and accountable operations of such institutions, and providing support for the Middle East peace process.

(4) Other types of assistance

Any other type of assistance if the President—

(A) determines that the provision of such assistance is in the national security interest of the United States; and

(B) not less than 30 days prior to the obligation of amounts for the provision of such assistance—

(i) consults with the appropriate congressional committees regarding the specific programs, projects, and activities to be carried out using such assistance; and

(ii) submits to the appropriate congressional committees a written memorandum that contains the determination of the President under subparagraph (A).

(c) Marking requirement

Assistance provided under this chapter to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank and Gaza shall be marked as assistance from the American people or the United States Government unless the Secretary of State or, as appropriate, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, determines that such marking will endanger the lives or safety of persons delivering such assistance or would have an adverse effect on the implementation of that assistance.

(d) Congressional notification

Assistance made available under this chapter to nongovernmental organizations for the West Bank and Gaza may not be provided until 15 days after the date on which the President has provided notice thereof to the Committee on International Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1(a) of this title.

(e) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

the 1 term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on International Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and

(B) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

(2) Foreign terrorist organization

The term "foreign terrorist organization" means an organization designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 1189(a) of title 8.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620L, as added Pub. L. 109–446, §3(a), Dec. 21, 2006, 120 Stat. 3320.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c), and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (b)(4)(B) of this section delegated to Secretary of State by Determination of President of the United States, No. 2007–20, June 1, 2007, 72 F.R. 34973, set out as a note under section 2378b of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§2378c–1. Limitation on assistance to the West Bank and Gaza

(a) Limitation

(1) In general

Funds authorized to be appropriated or otherwise made available for assistance under chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.; relating to Economic Support Fund) and available for assistance for the West Bank and Gaza that directly benefits the Palestinian Authority may only be made available for such purpose if, except as provided in subsection (d), not later than 30 days after March 23, 2018, and every 180 days thereafter, the Secretary of State certifies in writing to the appropriate congressional committees that the Palestinian Authority, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and any successor or affiliated organizations—

(A) are taking credible steps to end acts of violence against Israeli citizens and United States citizens that are perpetrated or materially assisted by individuals under their jurisdictional control, such as the March 2016 attack that killed former United States Army officer Taylor Force, a veteran of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan;

(B) have terminated payments for acts of terrorism against Israeli citizens and United States citizens to any individual, after being fairly tried, who has been imprisoned for such acts of terrorism and to any individual who died committing such acts of terrorism, including to a family member of such individuals;

(C) have revoked any law, decree, regulation, or document authorizing or implementing a system of compensation for imprisoned individuals that uses the sentence or period of incarceration of an individual imprisoned for an act of terrorism to determine the level of compensation paid, or have taken comparable action that has the effect of invalidating any such law, decree, regulation, or document; and

(D) are publicly condemning such acts of violence and are taking steps to investigate or are cooperating in investigations of such acts to bring the perpetrators to justice.

(2) Additional certification requirement

The Secretary of State shall include in the certification required under paragraph (1) the definition of "acts of terrorism" that the Secretary used for purposes of making the determination in subparagraph (B) of such paragraph.

(b) Exception

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the limitation on assistance under subsection (a) shall not apply to—

(A) payments made to the East Jerusalem Hospital Network;

(B) assistance for wastewater projects not exceeding $5,000,000 in any one fiscal year; and

(C) assistance for any other program, project, or activity that provides vaccinations to children not exceeding $500,000 in any one fiscal year.

(2) Notification

The Secretary of State shall notify in writing the appropriate congressional committees not later than 15 days prior to making funds available for assistance under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1).

(c) Rule of construction

Funds withheld pursuant to this section—

(1) shall be deemed to satisfy any similar withholding or reduction required under any other provision of law relating to the Palestinian Authority's payments for acts of terrorism; and

(2) shall be in an amount that is not less than the total amount required by such other provision of law.

(d) Initial use and disposition of withheld funds

(1) Period of availability

Funds withheld pursuant to this section are authorized to remain available for an additional 2 years from the date on which the availability of such funds would otherwise have expired.

(2) Use of funds

Funds withheld pursuant to this section may be made available for assistance for the West Bank and Gaza that directly benefits the Palestinian Authority upon a certification by the Secretary of State that the Palestinian Authority, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and any successor or affiliated organizations have met the conditions set forth in subsection (a). Except as provided in paragraph (3), such funds may not be made available for any purpose other than for assistance for the West Bank and Gaza that directly benefits the Palestinian Authority.

(3) Disposition of unused funds

Beginning on the date that is 180 days after the last day on which the initial availability of funds withheld pursuant to this section would otherwise have expired, such funds are authorized to be made available to the Department of State for assistance under chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.; relating to Economic Support Fund) in the following manner—

(A) 50 percent for purposes of assistance other than that deemed benefiting the Palestinian Authority; and

(B) 50 percent for purposes other than assistance for the West Bank and Gaza.

(e) Report

(1) In general

If the Secretary of State is unable to certify in writing to the appropriate congressional committees that the Palestinian Authority, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and any successor or affiliated organizations have met the conditions described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall, not later than 15 days after the date on which the Secretary is unable to make such certification, submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains the following:

(A) The reasons why the Secretary was unable to certify in writing that such organizations have met such requirements.

(B) The definition of "acts of terrorism" that the Secretary used for purposes of making the determination in subparagraph (B) of subsection (a)(1).

(C) The total amount of funds to be withheld.

(2) Form

The report required by this subsection shall be submitted in unclassified form but may include a classified annex.

(f) List of criteria

(1) In general

Not later than 15 days after March 23, 2018, the Secretary of State shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a list of the criteria that the Secretary uses to determine whether assistance for the West Bank and Gaza is assistance that directly benefits the Palestinian Authority for purposes of carrying out this section.

(2) Update

The Secretary of State shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an updated list under paragraph (1) not later than 15 days after the date on which the Secretary makes any modification to the list.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. S, title X, §1004, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1144.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (d)(3), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424. Chapter 4 of part II of the Act is classified generally to part IV (§2346 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 32 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Taylor Force Act, and also as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Findings

Pub. L. 115–141, div. S, title X, §1002, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1143, provided that: "Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) The Palestinian Authority's practice of paying salaries to terrorists serving in Israeli prisons, as well as to the families of deceased terrorists, is an incentive to commit acts of terror.

"(2) The United States does not provide direct budgetary support to the Palestinian Authority. The United States does pay certain debts held by the Palestinian Authority and funds programs for which the Palestinian Authority would otherwise be responsible.

"(3) The United States Government supports community-based programs in the West Bank and Gaza that provide for basic human needs, such as food, water, health, shelter, protection, education, and livelihoods, and that promote peace and development.

"(4) Since fiscal year 2015, annual appropriations legislation has mandated the reduction of Economic Support Fund aid for the Palestinian Authority as a result of their payments for acts of terrorism including, in fiscal year 2017, a reduction 'by an amount the Secretary determines is equivalent to the amount expended by the Palestinian Authority, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and any successor or affiliated organizations with such entities as payments for acts of terrorism by individuals who are imprisoned after being fairly tried and convicted for acts of terrorism and by individuals who died committing acts of terrorism during the previous calendar year'."

Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined

Pub. L. 115–141, div. S, title X, §1007, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1147, provided that: "In this title [see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title], the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(1) the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives; and

"(2) the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate."

§2378d. Limitation on assistance to security forces

(a) In general

No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] to any unit of the security forces of a foreign country if the Secretary of State has credible information that such unit has committed a gross violation of human rights.

(b) Exception

The prohibition in subsection (a) shall not apply if the Secretary determines and reports to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations that the government of such country is taking effective steps to bring the responsible members of the security forces unit to justice.

(c) Duty to inform

In the event that funds are withheld from any unit pursuant to this section, the Secretary of State shall promptly inform the foreign government of the basis for such action and shall, to the maximum extent practicable, assist the foreign government in taking effective measures to bring the responsible members of the security forces to justice.

(d) Credible information

The Secretary shall establish, and periodically update, procedures to—

(1) ensure that for each country the Department of State has a current list of all security force units receiving United States training, equipment, or other types of assistance;

(2) facilitate receipt by the Department of State and United States embassies of information from individuals and organizations outside the United States Government about gross violations of human rights by security force units;

(3) routinely request and obtain such information from the Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, and other United States Government sources;

(4) ensure that such information is evaluated and preserved;

(5) ensure that when an individual is designated to receive United States training, equipment, or other types of assistance the individual's unit is vetted as well as the individual;

(6) seek to identify the unit involved when credible information of a gross violation exists but the identity of the unit is lacking; and

(7) make publicly available, to the maximum extent practicable, the identity of those units for which no assistance shall be furnished pursuant to subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620M, formerly §620J, as added Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, §651, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2341; renumbered §620M and amended Pub. L. 112–74, div. I, title VII, §7034(k), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1216; Pub. L. 113–76, div. K, title VII, §7034(l), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 515.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 113–76 substituted "an individual is designated to receive United States training, equipment, or other types of assistance the individual's unit is vetted as well as the individual;" for "when vetting an individual for eligibility to receive United States training the individual's unit is also vetted;".

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–74, §7034(k)(2), substituted "information" for "evidence" and "a gross violation" for "gross violations".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–74, §7034(k)(3), substituted "steps" for "measures".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–74, §7034(k)(4), added subsec. (d).

Part II—Administrative Provisions

§2381. Exercise of functions

(a) Delegation by President; rules and regulations; utilization of goods and services from private enterprise, and facilities and resources of Federal agencies when not competitive with private enterprise

The President may exercise any functions conferred upon him by this chapter through such agency or officer of the United States Government as he shall direct. The head of any such agency or such officer may from time to time promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out such functions, and may delegate authority to perform any such functions, including, if he shall so specify, the authority successively to redelegate any of such functions to any of his subordinates. In providing technical assistance under this chapter, the head of any such agency or such officer shall utilize, to the fullest extent practicable, goods and professional and other services from private enterprise on a contract basis. In such fields as education, health, housing, or agriculture, the facilities and resources of other Federal agencies shall be utilized when such facilities are particularly or uniquely suitable for technical assistance, are not competitive with private enterprise, and can be made available without interfering unduly with domestic programs.

(b) Eligibility of suppliers; debarment period; causes for debarment; conditions for reinstatement; periodic review

The President shall issue and enforce regulations determining the eligibility of any person to receive funds made available under this chapter. A person may be suspended under such regulations for a temporary period pending the completion of an investigation and any resulting judicial or debarment proceedings, upon cause for belief that such person or an affiliate thereof probably has undertaken conduct which constitutes a cause for debarment; and, after an opportunity has been afforded to such person for a hearing, he may be debarred for an additional period, not to exceed three years. Among the causes for debarment shall be (1) offering or accepting a bribe or other illegal payment or credit in connection with any transaction financed with funds made available under this chapter; or (2) committing a fraud in the procurement or performance of any contract financed with funds made available under this chapter; or (3) acting in any other manner which shows a lack of integrity or honesty in connection with any transaction financed with funds made available under this chapter. Reinstatement of eligibility in each particular case shall be subject to such conditions as the President shall direct. Each person whose eligibility is denied or suspended under this subsection shall, upon request, be entitled to a review of his eligibility not less often than once every two years.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §621, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(a), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(a), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 388; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §302(a), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 964.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–554 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1963Pub. L. 88–205 provided that goods and professional and other services from private enterprise should be utilized on a contract basis, and that Federal agencies be utilized only when not competitive with private enterprise and available without interfering unduly with domestic programs.

1962Pub. L. 87–565 struck out designation "(a)" from provisions of subsec. (a), and repealed subsecs. (b) to (e) which related to the abolition of the Development Loan Fund, International Cooperation Administration, and the Office of Inspector General and Comptroller, the transfer of their functions, and the transfer of the function of the Export-Import Bank under section 1704(e) of title 7.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out below.

AID Office of Security

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §587], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681-204, as amended by Pub. L. 106–31, title V, §5002(b), May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 109, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Office.—There shall be established within the Office of the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, an Office of Security. Such Office of Security shall, notwithstanding any other provision of law except section 207 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3927] and section 103 of Public Law 99–339 [22 U.S.C. 4802], have the responsibility for the supervision, direction, and control of all security activities relating to the programs and operations of that Agency.

"(b) Transfer and Allocation of Appropriations and Personnel.—There are transferred to the Office of Security all security functions exercised by the Office of Inspector General of the Agency for International Development exercised before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]. The Administrator shall transfer from the Office of the Inspector General of such Agency to the Office of Security established by subsection (a), the personnel (including the Senior Executive Service position designated for the Assistant Inspector General for Security), assets, liabilities, grants, contracts, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, and other funds held, used, available to, or to be made available in connection with such functions. Unexpended balances of appropriations, and other funds made available or to be made available in connection with such functions, shall be transferred to and merged with funds appropriated by this Act under the heading 'Operating Expenses of the Agency for International Development' [112 Stat. 2681–157].

"(c) Transfer of Employees.—Any employee in the career service who is transferred pursuant to this section shall be placed in a position in the Office of Security established by subsection (a) which is comparable to the position the employee held in the Office of the Inspector General of the Agency for International Development."

Agency for International Development Budget Submission

Pub. L. 106–429, §101(a) [title V, §576], Nov. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 1900, 1900A-54, provided that: "The Agency for International Development shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a detailed budget justification that is consistent with the requirements of section 515 [114 Stat. 1900A–26], for each fiscal year. The Agency shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a proposed budget justification format no later than November 15, 2000, or 30 days after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 2000], whichever occurs later. The proposed format shall include how the Agency's budget justification will address: (1) estimated levels of obligations for the current fiscal year and actual levels for the 2 previous fiscal years; (2) the President's request for new budget authority and estimated carryover obligational authority for the budget year; (3) the disaggregation of budget data and staff levels by program and activity for each bureau, field mission, and central office; and (4) the need for a user-friendly, transparent budget narrative."

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §581], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-116, provided that: "Beginning with the fiscal year 2001 budget, the Agency for International Development shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a detailed budget for each fiscal year. The Agency shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a proposed budget format no later than October 31, 1999, or 30 days after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1999], whichever occurs later. The proposed format shall include how the Agency's budget submission will address: (1) estimated levels of obligations for the current fiscal year and actual levels for the two previous fiscal years; (2) the President's request for new budget authority and estimated carryover obligational authority for the budget year; (3) the disaggregation of budget data by program and activity for each bureau, field mission, and central office; and (4) staff levels identified by program."

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §599E, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1698, provided that: "The President shall include with each budget for a fiscal year submitted to the Congress under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, materials that shall identify clearly and separately the amounts requested in the budget for appropriation for that fiscal year for salaries and expenses related to administrative activities of the Agency for International Development."

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 2 OF 1979

Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979, 44 F.R. 41165, 93 Stat. 1378, which established the United States International Development Cooperation Agency, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIV, §§1401, 1422(a)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–790, 2681-792, effective Apr. 1, 1999.

Executive Order No. 10973

Ex. Ord. No. 10973, Nov. 3, 1961, 26 F.R. 10469, as amended, which related to the administration of foreign assistance and related functions, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12163, §1–903(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56679, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 10973, Nov. 3, 1961, 26 F.R. 10469, as amended, was superseded insofar as any provision therein was in conflict with any provision of Ex. Ord. No. 11579, Jan. 19, 1971, 36 F.R. 969, set out as a note under section 2191 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 12163. Administration of Foreign Assistance and Related Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12226, July 22, 1980, 45 F.R. 49235; Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968; Ex. Ord. No. 12321, Sept. 14, 1981, 46 F.R. 46109; Ex. Ord. No. 12365, May 24, 1982, 47 F.R. 22933; Ex. Ord. No. 12423, May 26, 1983, 48 F.R. 24025; Ex. Ord. No. 12458, Jan. 14, 1984, 49 F.R. 1977; Ex. Ord. No. 12500, Jan. 24, 1985, 50 F.R. 3733; Ex. Ord. No. 12560, May 24, 1986, 51 F.R. 19159; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617; Ex. Ord. No. 12620, Dec. 24, 1987, 52 F.R. 49135; Ex. Ord. No. 12639, May 6, 1988, 53 F.R. 16691; Ex. Ord. No. 12680, July 5, 1989, 54 F.R. 28995; Ex. Ord. No. 12695, Nov. 1, 1989, 54 F.R. 46589; Ex. Ord. No. 12738, §§1–6, Dec. 14, 1990, 55 F.R. 52033; Ex. Ord. No. 13030, §1, Dec. 12, 1996, 61 F.R. 66187; Ex. Ord. No. 13091, §2, June 29, 1998, 63 F.R. 36153; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIV, §1422(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–792; Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §§1–9, Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16595–16598; Ex. Ord. No. 13346, §3, July 8, 2004, 69 F.R. 41905; Ex. Ord. No. 13361, Nov. 16, 2004, 69 F.R. 67633; Ex. Ord. No. 13656, §6, Jan. 17, 2014, 79 F.R. 4263, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this chapter], Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979 [set out above], the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 [see Short Title of 1979 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title], and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–1. Department of State

1–100. Delegation of Functions. (a) Exclusive of the functions otherwise delegated, or reserved to the President, by this order, Executive Order 12884 [22 U.S.C. 5812 note], Executive Order 11579 [22 U.S.C. 2191 note], and Executive Order 12757 [former 7 U.S.C. 1738 note], and subject to the provisions of such orders, there are hereby delegated to the Secretary of State (referred to in this Part as the "Secretary") all functions conferred upon the President by:

(1) the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) ("Act");

(i) except that with respect to section 505(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2314(a)], such functions only insofar as those functions relate to other provisions which may be required by the President or only insofar as they relate to consent;

(ii) except that with respect to section 505(b) of the Act, such functions only insofar as those functions pertain to countries that agree to the conditions set forth therein;

(2) section 1205(b) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 ("ISDCA of 1985") [Pub. L. 99–83, 22 U.S.C. 2346 note];

(3) section 8(d) of the Act of January 12, 1971 (22 U.S.C. 2321b(d));

(4) section 607 of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976 (22 U.S.C. 2394a);

(5) section 402(b)(2) of title 10, United States Code, which shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of Defense;

(6) the third proviso under the heading "Development Assistance" contained in title II of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–153];

(7) section 572 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1989 (Public Law 100–461) [22 U.S.C. 2151v note];

(8) sections 508, 517 [22 U.S.C. 5814 note], 518, 528(a), 535 [50 U.S.C. 1701 note], 539 [50 U.S.C. 1701 note], 544, 561, 563, 572, 574, 575, 585, 594 [22 U.S.C. 2753 note] of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681–171, 2681–174, 2681–176, 2681–178, 2681–181, 2681–182, 2681–185, 2681–191, 2681–193, 2681–198, 2681–199, 2681–203, 2681–215];

(9) section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–177], which shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury;

(10) section 551 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–187];

(11) section 591 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105–118) [111 Stat. 2439], and the provisions of law referenced therein;

(12) section 821(b) of the Western Hemisphere Drug Elimination Act (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [22 U.S.C. 2291 note];

(13) title II of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107–115), under the heading "Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, [sic]" in subsections (g)(4) and (6) [22 U.S.C. 5812 note];

(14) section 512 of Division D of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004 (Public Law 108–199) [118 Stat. 170];

(15) sections 5(c) and 6 of the Anglo-Irish Agreement Support Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–415), as amended [100 Stat. 948, 949];

(16) the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003 (Public Law 108–25) (the "HIV/AIDS Act"), as amended [22 U.S.C. 7601 et seq.], and amendments made by the HIV/AIDS Act, which the Secretary shall perform, in the case of section 304 [22 U.S.C. 7634], after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(b) The functions under section 653 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2413] delegated to the Secretary shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, insofar as they relate to functions under the Act administered by the Department of Defense, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(c) The functions under sections 239(f), 620(e), 620(g), 620(j), 620(q), and 620(s) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2199(f), 2370(e), (g), (j), (q), (s)] delegated to the Secretary shall be exercised in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.

(d) The Secretary shall perform all public information functions abroad with respect to the foreign assistance, aid, and development programs of the United States Government, to the extent such functions are not specifically assigned by statute to be performed by a different officer.

(e) The Secretary may redelegate to any other officer or agency of the Executive branch functions delegated to the Secretary by this order to the extent such delegation is not otherwise prohibited by law.

1–2. United States Agency for International Development

1–200. United States Agency for International Development.

(a) The United States Agency for International Development is an independent establishment within the Executive branch. Any reference in the Act to the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], or to the Administrator of such agency, shall be deemed to be a reference to the United States Agency for International Development or to the Administrator of that agency, as appropriate.

(b) The United States Agency for International Development shall be headed by an Administrator appointed pursuant to section 624(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2384(a)].

(c) The officers provided for in section 624(a) of the Act shall serve in the United States Agency for International Development.

(d) The Office of Small Business provided for in section 602(b) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2352(b)] shall be in the United States Agency for International Development.

(e) To the extent practicable, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development will exercise functions relating to Foreign Service personnel in a manner that will assure maximum compatibility among agencies authorized by law to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system. To this end, the Administrator shall consult regularly with the Secretary of State.

1–3. Department of Defense

1–301. Delegation of Functions. Subject to the provisions of this order, there are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Defense:

(a) The functions conferred upon the President by Part II [22 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.] (except chapters 4, 6 and 8 thereof) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq., 2348 et seq., 2349aa et seq.] not otherwise delegated or reserved to the President.

(b) To the extent that they relate to other functions under the Act [this chapter] administered by the Department of Defense, the functions conferred upon the President by sections 602(a), 605(a), 625(a), 625(d)(1), 625(h), 627, 628, 630(3), 631(a), 634(B), 635(b) (except with respect to negotiation, conclusion, and termination of international agreements), 635(d), 635(g), and 636(i) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2352(a), 2355(a), 2385(a), (d)(1), (h), 2387, 2388, 2390(3), 2391(a), 2394–1a, 2395(b), (d), (g), and 2396(i)].

(c) Those functions under section 634A of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2394–1], to the extent they relate to notifications to the Congress concerning changes in programs under chapters 2 and 5 of part II of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq., 2347 et seq.] and under the Arms Export Control Act, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], subject to prior consultation with the Secretary of State.

(d) The functions under sections 627, 628, and 630(3) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2387, 2388, and 2390(3)] delegated to the Secretary of Defense shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of State.

(e) the functions under section 655 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2415] insofar as they relate to defense articles, defense services, and international military education and training furnished by grant or sale by the Secretary of Defense, except to the extent otherwise delegated.

(f) Those functions conferred upon the President under section 616 of the ISDCA of 1985 [Pub. L. 99–83, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 232].

(g) The functions conferred upon the President under section 573 [22 U.S.C. 2321j note] and section 581(b)(2) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990 (Public Law 101–167) [Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1246, 1250].

(h) The functions conferred upon the President under section 3 of the International Narcotics Control Act of 1989 (Public Law 101–231) [Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1955], which shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of State.

1–302. Reports and Information. In carrying out the functions under section 514 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2321h] delegated to him by section 301 of this order, the Secretary of Defense shall consult with the Secretary of State.

1–4. Institute for Scientific and Technological Cooperation

[Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §4, Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16596]

1–5. Other Agencies

1–501. Department of the Treasury. (a) There are delegated to the Secretary of the Treasury the functions conferred upon the President by:

(1) section 305 [22 U.S.C. 2225], insofar as it relates to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Fund, and the International Monetary Fund;

(2) the second sentence of section 612(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2362(a)];

(3) section 502 of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 (22 U.S.C. 1754); and

(4) section 655(c) of the Act [former 22 U.S.C. 2415(c)].

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury shall continue to administer any open special foreign country accounts established pursuant to former section 514 of the Act as enacted by section 201(f) of Public Law 92–226 (86 Stat. 25) and repealed by Section 12(b)(5) of Public Law 93–189 (87 Stat. 722) [22 U.S.C. 2321g].

(c) The functions under section 305 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2225] delegated to the Secretary of the Treasury shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of State.

1–502. Department of Commerce. There is hereby delegated to the Secretary of Commerce so much of the functions conferred upon the President by section 601(b)(1) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2351(b)(1)] as consists of drawing the attention of private enterprise to opportunities for investment and development in less developed friendly countries and areas.

1–503. Office of Personnel Management. There is hereby delegated to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management the function of prescribing regulations conferred upon the President by the proviso contained in section 625(b) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2385(b)].

[1–504. Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §5(2), Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16597.]

1–505. Trade and Development Agency. There is delegated to the Director of the Trade and Development Agency the functions conferred upon the President by section 661(d) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2421(d)].

[1–506. Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §5(4), Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16597.]

1–6. Additional Delegations and Limitations of Authority; Consultation

1–601. General Delegation of Functions. There are hereby delegated to the heads of agencies having responsibilities for carrying out the provisions of the Act [this chapter] all functions conferred upon the President by:

(a) section 654 [22 U.S.C. 2414] (except as reserved to the President); and

(b) those provisions of acts appropriating funds under the authority of the Act [this chapter] that relate to the Act, or other acts authorizing such funds, insofar as they relate to the functions delegated by this order.

1–602. Personnel. (a) In carrying out the functions conferred upon the President by the provisions of section 625(d) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2385(d)], and by this order delegated to the Secretary of State, the Secretary shall authorize such of the agencies that administer programs under the Act [this chapter] as he may deem appropriate to perform any of the functions under section 625(d) of the Act to the extent that the said functions relate to the programs administered by the respective agencies.

(b) Persons appointed, employed, or assigned after May 19, 1959, under section 527(c) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [former 22 U.S.C. 1787(c)] or section 625(d) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2385(d)] for the purpose of performing functions under such Acts outside the United States shall not, unless otherwise agreed by the agency in which such benefits may be exercised, be entitled to the benefits provided by section 310 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3950) in cases in which their service under the appointment, employment, or assignment exceeds thirty months.

1–603. Special Missions and Staffs Abroad. The maintenance of special missions or staffs abroad, the fixing of the ranks of the chiefs thereof after the chiefs of the United States diplomatic missions, and the authorization of the same compensation and allowances authorized for a chief of mission as defined in section 102(a)(3) of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3902(a)(3)), all under section 631 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2391], shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary of State.

1–604. International Agreements. The negotiation, conclusion, and termination of international agreements pursuant to the Act [this chapter] shall be subject to the requirements of 1 U.S.C. 112b and to applicable regulations and procedures.

1–605. Interagency Consultation. Each officer to whom functions are delegated by this order, shall, in carrying out such functions, consult with the heads of other departments and agencies, including the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, on matters pertaining to the responsibilities of departments and agencies other than his or her own.

1–7. Reserved Functions

1–701. Reservation of Functions to the President. There are hereby excluded from the functions delegated by the foregoing provisions of this order:

(a) The functions conferred upon the President by sections 122(e), 298(a), 493, 504(b), 613(a), 614(a), 620(a), 620(d), 620(x), 620A, 620C(c), 621(a), 622(b), 622(c), 633(a), 633(b), 640B, and 663(b) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151t(e), 2220c(a), 2292b, 2312(b), 2363(a), 2364(a), 2370(a), (d), (x), 2371, 2373(c), 2381(a), 2382(b), (c), 2393(a), (b), 2399c, and 2423(b)].

(b) The functions conferred upon the President by the Act [this chapter] and section 408(b) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [22 U.S.C. 1928] with respect to the appointment of officers required to be appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and with respect to the appointment of officers pursuant to sections 233(b) and 624(c) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2193(b), 2384(c)].

(c) The functions conferred upon the President with respect to determinations, certifications, directives, or transfers of funds, as the case may be, by sections 209(d), 303, 465(b), 490(h), 505(d)(2)(A), 505(d)(3), 506(a), 552(c), 552(e), 610, 614(c), 620E, 632(b), 633A, 663(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2169(d), 2223, 2275(b), 2291j(h), 2314(d)(2)(A), (d)(3), 2318(a), 2348a(c), (e), 2360, 2364(c), 2375, 2392(b), 2393a, 2423(a)].

[(d) Redesignated (c).]

(e) The following-described functions conferred upon the President:

(1) Those under section 503(a) [22 U.S.C. 2311(a)] that relate to findings: Provided, that the Secretary of State, in the implementation of the functions delegated to him under section 505(a)(1), (a)(4), and (e) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2314(a)(1), (a)(4), and (e)], is authorized to find, in the case of a proposed transfer of a defense article or related training or a related defense service by a foreign country or international organization to a foreign country or international organization not otherwise eligible under section 503(a) of the Act, whether the proposed transfer will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace.

(2) Those under section 505(b) [22 U.S.C. 2314(b)] in respect of countries that do not agree to the conditions set forth therein.

(3) That under section 614(b) [22 U.S.C. 2364(b)] with respect to determining any provisions of law to be disregarded to achieve the purpose of that section.

(4) That under the second sentence of section 654(c) [22 U.S.C. 2414(c)] with respect to the publication in the Federal Register of any findings or determination reserved to the President: Provided, that any officer to whom there is delegated the function of making any finding or determination within the purview of section 654(a) [22 U.S.C. 2414(a)] is also authorized to reach the conclusion specified in performance of the function delegated to him.

(f) That under section 523(d) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 (22 U.S.C. 1783(d)).

(g) Those under sections 130 [Pub. L. 99–83, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 207], 504 and 505 [22 U.S.C. 2349aa–8, 2349aa–9] of the ISDCA of 1985[.]

(h) Those functions conferred by section 1(f)(1) and section 1(f)(2)(B)(ii)(VII) [now IX] of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2651a).

(i) Those functions conferred by section 202(d)(4)(C)(i) and (ii) of the HIV/AIDS Act, as amended [22 U.S.C. 7622(d)(4)(C)(i), (ii)].

1–702. Subsequent Amendments. Functions conferred upon the President by subsequent amendments to the Act [this chapter] are delegated to the Secretary only insofar as they do not relate directly and necessarily to the conduct of programs and activities that either the President or an agency other than the Department of State is authorized to administer pursuant to express reservation or delegation of authorities in a statute or in this or another Executive order.

1–703. Office of Management and Budget. In this order the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall retain all authorities related to the implementation of his budgetary and policy coordination functions, including the authority to:

(a) request and receive information from any agency that is subject to this delegation;

(b) carry out all responsibilities associated with implementing the Government Performance and Results Act [Pub. L. 103–62, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31, Money and Finance], the Government Management Reform Act [Pub. L. 103–356, see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 3301 of Title 31], and other comparable government-wide statutes dealing with management; and

(c) carry out all statutory budget and policy coordination responsibilities assigned to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget by statute or Executive order.

1–8. Funds

1–800. Allocation of Funds. Funds described below that are appropriated or otherwise made available to the President shall be deemed to be allocated without any further action of the President, as follows:

(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), there are allocated to the Secretary all funds made available for carrying out the Act, including any funds appropriated under the heading "Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs".

(b) There are allocated to the Secretary of Defense all funds made available for carrying out chapters 2 and 5 of Part II of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq., 2347 et seq.].

(c) There are allocated to the Secretary of the Treasury all funds made available for carrying out section 129 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151aa].

(d) The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of the Treasury may allocate or transfer as appropriate any funds received under subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section, respectively, to any agency or part thereof for obligation or expenditure thereby consistent with applicable law.

1–9. General Provisions

1–901. Definition. As used in this order, the word "function" includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, discretion, or activity.

1–902. References to Orders and Acts. Except as may for any reason be inappropriate:

(a) References in this order or in any other Executive order to (1) the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this chapter] (including references herein to "the Act"), (2) unrepealed provisions of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended], or (3) any other act that relates to the subject of this order shall be deemed to include references to any subsequent amendments thereto.

(b) References in any prior Executive order to the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended] or any provisions thereof shall be deemed to be references to the Act [this chapter] or the corresponding provision, if any, thereof.

(c) References in this order to provisions of any Act, and references in any other Executive order or in any memorandum delegation to provisions of any Act related to the subject of this order shall be deemed to include references to any provision of law that is the same or substantially the same as such provisions, respectively.

(d) References in this order or in any other Executive order to this order or to any provision thereof shall be deemed to include references thereto, respectively, as amended from time to time.

(e) References in any prior Executive order not superseded by this order to any provisions of any Executive order so superseded shall hereafter be deemed to be references to the corresponding provisions, if any, of this order.

1–903. Prior Executive Orders. (a) The following are revoked:

(1) Executive Order No. 10973 [22 U.S.C. 2381 note] of November 3, 1961, as amended;

(2) section 2(a) of Executive Order No. 11579 [22 U.S.C. 2191 note], of January 19, 1971; and

(3) Executive Order No. 10893 [22 U.S.C. 2382 note] of November 8, 1960.

(b) The following are amended:

(1) section 3(a) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, as amended [19 U.S.C. 2111 note], by adding the following new paragraph (12) after paragraph (11):

"(12) The Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency";

(2) section 1–202 of [former] Executive Order 12065 of June 28, 1978, by striking out "The Administrator, Agency for International Development" and inserting in lieu thereof "The Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency";

(3) section 2(a) of Executive Order No. 11958 of January 18, 1977 [22 U.S.C. 2751 note], by striking out "the Administrator of the Agency for International Development" and inserting in lieu thereof "the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency";

(4) section 3 of Executive Order 10900 of January 5, 1961 [7 U.S.C. 1691 note], by adding thereto the following new subsection:

"(d) The Secretary of State may redelegate to the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency, or to any other officer or agency of the Executive branch, functions delegated to such Secretary by this order.";

(5) section 4 of Executive Order 11223 of May 12, 1965 [22 U.S.C. 2393 note], by inserting immediately following "the Secretary of State" the words "or the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency (with respect to functions vested in or delegated to the Director)"; and

(6) the President's memorandum of October 18, 1961, entitled "Determination Under Section 604(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961" (26 FR 10543) is amended by inserting after "the Secretary of State" each time it appears in such memorandum the words "or the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency (with respect to non-military programs administered by such Agency)".

[(c), (d) Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §9, Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16598.]

1–904. Saving Provisions. Except to the extent inconsistent with this order, all delegations of authority, determinations, authorizations, regulations, rulings, certificates, orders, directives, contracts, agreements, and other actions made, issued, or entered into with respect to any function affected by this order and not revoked, superseded, or otherwise made inapplicable before the date of this order, shall continue in full force and effect until amended, modified, or terminated by appropriate authority.

1–905. Effective Date. The provisions of this order shall become effective as of October 1, 1979.

1–906. Implementation. In carrying out this order, officers of the United States shall ensure that all actions taken by them are consistent with the President's constitutional authority to: (a) conduct the foreign affairs of the United States; (b) withhold information the disclosure of which could impair the foreign relations, the national security, the deliberative processes of the Executive, or the performance of the Executive's constitutional duties; (c) recommend for congressional consideration such measures as the President may judge necessary and expedient; and (d) supervise the unitary executive branch.

[Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIV, §1422(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–792, provided that sections 1–101 through 1–103, 1–401 through 1–403, and 1–801(a), and other provisions of Ex. Ord. No. 12163 that relate to the United States International Development Cooperation Agency or the Director thereof were repealed.]

§2381a. Strengthened management practices

(a) Declaration of beliefs

The Congress believes that United States foreign aid funds could be utilized more effectively by the application of advanced management decisionmaking, information and analysis techniques such as systems analysis, automatic data processing, benefit-cost studies, and information retrieval.

(b) Management system; establishment; scope

To meet this need, the President shall establish a management system that includes: the definition of objectives and programs for United States foreign assistance; the development of quantitative indicators of progress toward these objectives; the orderly consideration of alternative means for accomplishing such objectives; and the adoption of methods for comparing actual results of programs and projects with those anticipated when they were undertaken. The system should provide information to the agency and to Congress that relates agency resources, expenditures, and budget projections to such objectives and results in order to assist in the evaluation of program performance, the review of budgetary requests, and the setting of program priorities.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §621A, as added Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §302(b), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 964; amended Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(d)(1), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959.)

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–424 struck out subsec. (c) relating to annual reports to Congress by the President evaluating the progress made toward implementation of this section.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2382. Coordination with foreign policy

(a) Powers or functions of Secretary of State

Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to infringe upon the powers or functions of the Secretary of State.

(b) Coordination among representatives of United States

The President shall prescribe appropriate procedures to assure coordination among representatives of the United States Government in each country, under the leadership of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission. The Chief of the diplomatic mission shall make sure that recommendations of such representatives pertaining to military assistance (including civic action) and military education and training programs are coordinated with political and economic considerations, and his comments shall accompany such recommendations if he so desires.

(c) Responsibility for supervision and general direction of assistance programs

Under the direction of the President, the Secretary of State shall be responsible for the continuous supervision and general direction of economic assistance, military assistance, and military education and training programs, including but not limited to determining whether there shall be a military assistance (including civic action) or a military education and training program for a country and the value thereof, to the end that such programs are effectively integrated both at home and abroad and the foreign policy of the United States is best served thereby.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §622, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(a), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §302(a), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 807; Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(b)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(2), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(2)(A), inserted "and military education and training" after "(including civic action)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(2)(B), inserted reference to military education and training programs in two places.

1968—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–629, §45(b)(1), struck out "or sales" before "programs".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–629, §45(b)(2), struck out "and sales" and "or sales" before "programs" and "program", respectively.

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–583, §302(a)(1), substituted "(including civic action) or sales programs" for "(including any civic action and sales program)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–583, §302(a)(2), substituted "economic assistance and military assistance and sales programs" and "military assistance (including civic action) or sales program" for "the assistance programs authorized by this chapter" and "military assistance program (including civic action and sales program)", respectively.

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(a)(1), inserted "(including any civic action and sales program)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(a)(2), inserted "including any civic action and sales program)".

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–629 effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 10338. Coordination Procedures

Ex. Ord. No. 10338, Apr. 4, 1952, 17 F.R. 3009, provided:

Section 1. Functions of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission. (a) The Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission in each country, as the representative of the President and acting on his behalf, shall coordinate the activities of the United States representatives (including the chiefs of economic missions, military assistance advisory groups, and other representatives of agencies of the United States Government) in such country engaged in carrying out programs under the Mutual Security Act of 1951 (hereinafter referred to as the Act) [section 1509 et seq. of this title], and he shall assume responsibility for assuring the unified development and execution of the said programs in such country. More particularly, the functions of each Chief of United States Diplomatic Mission shall include, with respect to the programs and country concerned:

(1) Exercising general direction and leadership of the entire effort.

(2) Assuring that recommendations and prospective plans and actions of the United States representatives are effectively coordinated and are consistent with and in furtherance of the established policy of the United States.

(3) Assuring that the interpretations and application of instructions received by the United States representatives from higher authority are in accordance with the established policy of the United States.

(4) Guiding the United States representatives in working out measures to prevent duplication in their efforts and to promote the most effective and efficient use of all United States officers and employees having mutual security responsibilities.

(5) Keeping the United States representatives fully informed as to current and prospective United States policies.

(6) Prescribing procedures governing the coordination of the activities of the United States representatives, and assuring that these representatives shall have access to all available information essential to the accomplishment of their prescribed duties.

(7) Preparing and submitting such reports on the operation and status of the programs under the Act as may be directed by the Director for Mutual Security.

(b) Each Chief of United States Diplomatic Mission shall perform his functions under this order in accordance with instructions from higher authority and subject to established policies and programs of the United States.

(c) No Chief of United States Diplomatic Mission shall delegate any function conferred upon him by the provisions of this order which directly involves the exercise of direction, coordination, or authority.

Sec. 2. Referral of unresolved matters. The Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission in each country shall initiate steps to reconcile any divergent views arising in the country concerned with respect to programs under the Act. If agreement cannot be reached the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission shall recommend a course of action, and such course of action shall be followed unless a United States representative requests that the issue be referred to higher authority for decision. If such a request is made, the parties concerned shall promptly refer the issue to higher authority for resolution prior to taking action at the country level. The Director for Mutual Security shall assure expeditious decisions on matters so submitted.

Sec. 3. Effect of order on United States representatives. (a) All United States representatives in each country shall be subject to the responsibilities imposed upon the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission in such country by section 507 of the Mutual Security Act of 1951 [section 1658 of this title] and by this order.

(b) Subject to compliance with the provisions of this order and with the prescribed procedures of their respective agencies, all United States representatives affected by this order (1) shall have direct communication with their respective agencies and with such other parties and in such manner as may be authorized by their respective agencies, (2) shall keep the respective Chiefs of United States Diplomatic Missions and each other fully and currently informed on all matters, including prospective plans, recommendations, and actions, relating to programs under the Act, and (3) shall furnish to the respective Chiefs of United States Diplomatic Missions, upon their request, documents and information concerning the said programs.

Sec. 4. Further coordination procedures. The Director for Mutual Security shall be responsible for assuring the carrying out of the provisions of this order. He is authorized to prescribe, after consultation with the interested Government agencies, any additional procedures he may find necessary to carry out the provisions of this order.

Sec. 5. Prior orders. (a) To the extent that provisions of any prior order are inconsistent with the provisions of this order, the latter shall control, and any such prior provisions are amended accordingly. All orders, regulations, rulings, certificates, directives, and other actions relating to any function affected by this order shall remain in effect except as they are inconsistent herewith or are hereafter amended or revoked under proper authority.

(b) Nothing in this order shall affect Executive Orders Nos. 10062, 10063, and 10144 of June 6, 1949, June 13, 1949, and July 21, 1950, respectively.

(c) Executive Orders Nos. 9857, 9862, 9864, 9914, 9944, 9960, 10208, and 10259 of May 22, 1947, May 31, 1947, December 26, 1947, April 9, 1948, May 19, 1948, January 25, 1951, and June 27, 1951, respectively, are hereby revoked.

Executive Order No. 10893

Ex. Ord. No. 10893, Nov. 8, 1960, 25 F.R. 10731, as amended, which related to the administration of mutual security and related functions, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12163, §1–903(a)(3), Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56679, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title. Ex. Ord. No. 10893 was also revoked, except section 201 thereof, by section 1–501(h) of Ex. Ord. No. 12220, June 27, 1980, 45 F.R. 44247, formerly set out as a note under section 1691 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Executive Order No. 12066

Ex. Ord. No. 12066, June 29, 1978, 43 F.R. 28965, which related to the inspection of foreign assistance programs, was revoked by section 10(k) of Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968, set out as a note under section 3901 of this title.

§2383. Responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense; priorities in procurement, delivery, and allocation of military equipment

(a) In the case of assistance under subchapter II of this chapter, the Secretary of Defense shall have primary responsibility for—

(1) the determination of military end-item requirements;

(2) the procurement of military equipment in a manner which permits its integration with service programs;

(3) the supervision of end-item use by the recipient countries;

(4) the supervision of the training of foreign military and related civilian personnel;

(5) the movement and delivery of military end-items; and

(6) within the Department of Defense, the performance of any other functions with respect to the furnishing of military assistance, education and training.


(b) The establishment of priorities in the procurement, delivery, and allocation of military equipment shall be determined by the Secretary of Defense.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §623, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(3), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733.)

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(3)(A), inserted "and related civilian" after "military".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(3)(B), inserted "education and training" after "assistance".

§2384. Statutory officers

(a) Appointment

The President may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, twelve officers in the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, and in the selection of one of such persons due consideration shall be given to persons qualified as professional engineers.

(b) Rate of compensation; title of officers; order of succession

Within the limitations established by subsection (a) of this section, the President may fix the rate of compensation, and may designate the title of, any officer appointed pursuant to the authority contained in that subsection. The President may also fix the order of succession among the officers provided for in subsection (a) of this section in the event of the absence, death, resignation, or disability of one or more of said officers.

(c) Appointment of certain statutory officers to comparable positions

Any person who was appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to any statutory position authorized by any provision of law repealed by section 642(a) and who is serving in one of such positions at the time of transfer of functions pursuant to subsections (c) and (d) of section 2381 of this title, may be appointed by the President to a comparable position authorized by subsection (a) of this section on the date of the establishment of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, without further action by the Senate.

(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541

(e) Coordinator for security assistance

In addition to the officers otherwise provided for in this section, the President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, one officer for the purpose of coordinating security assistance programs.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §624, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 447; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(b), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(b), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 388; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(33), (42), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 426, 428; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(b), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §302(b), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 807; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §304, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §302, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 94–329, title III, §301(b), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 750; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(1), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §504, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959; Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §706, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3158; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §705(b)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1002(b), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(4), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405.)

References in Text

Section 642(a), referred to in subsec. (c), means section 642(a) of Pub. L. 87–195, which is set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–236 struck out subsec. (f) which provided for an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and prescribed the Assistant Secretary's duties.

1983—Subsec. (f)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–164 inserted provisions relating to providing advice to the Administrator of the Agency for International Development on policy framework.

1981—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out subsec. (g) which related to the Inspector General and the duties, responsibilities, and compensation of such official. See sections 2, 8A, and 11 of the Inspector General Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1980—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–533 substituted in pars. (1) to (5) "Inspector General" for "Auditor General" wherever appearing; in par. (3), imposed upon the Inspector General requirement of supervising, directing, and controlling security activities, including audit, investigative, and security activities relating to programs and operations within the United States International Development Cooperation Agency; in par. (4) required submission of an annual report to the Director; and added pars. (6) to (9).

1978—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–424 added subsec. (g).

1977—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–88 struck out subsec. (d) which provided for an Inspector General, Foreign Assistance.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 95–105, §109(a)(1)(A), substituted references to the Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs for references to the Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 95–105, §109(a)(1)(B), substituted "Assistant Secretary of State" for "Coordinator".

1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–329 added subsec. (f).

1972—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–226 added subsec. (e).

1969—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 91–175, §304(1), inserted provision including the Overseas Private Investment Corporation in Inspector General's reviews and audits, and inserted provision authorizing the conduct of such reviews and audits for programs under section 290f of this title.

Subsec. (d)(5), (7). Pub. L. 91–175, §304(2), (3), included section 290f of this title within provisions of this section.

1967—Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 90–137 struck out "of assistance" after "programs" in two places.

1966—Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 89–583 added par. (8).

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(b)(1), struck out "paragraph (3) of" before "subsection (a) of this section" the second time it appears and substituted "of one or more of said officers" for "of the officers provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2) of that subsection".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A), (5), (7). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(b)(2), substituted "the Latin American Development Act, as amended" for "Public Law 86–735".

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–426, §305(42), repealed provisions which related to the appointment of an Under Secretary, Deputy Under Secretary and ten Assistant Secretaries and prescribed their rates of compensation.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 88–426, §305(33), repealed provisions which prescribed the compensation of the Inspector General, Deputy Inspector General and Assistant Inspector Generals. See section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1963—Subsecs. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 88–205, §302(b)(1), (2), reduced the number of Deputy Under Secretaries from two to one in par. (2), and increased the number of Assistant Secretaries from 9 to 10 in par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–205, §302(b)(3), made conforming changes in language to reflect that only one Deputy Under Secretary may now be appointed.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 88–205, §302(b)(4), inserted "who shall be appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate," and increased the salary of the Deputy Inspector General, Foreign Assistance, from $19,500 to $20,000.

1962—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 87–565 redesignated subsec. (e) as (d), inserted ", and programs being conducted by United States Government Agencies under sections 1942 to 1945 of this title," in par. 2(A), and ", and sections 1942 to 1945 of this title," in pars. (5) and (7), and repealed former subsec. (d) which related to the temporary continuation of certain statutory positions.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 applicable with respect to officials, offices, and bureaus of Department of State when executive orders, regulations, or departmental directives implementing the amendments by sections 161 and 162 of Pub. L. 103–236 become effective, or 90 days after Apr. 30, 1994, whichever comes earlier, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 103–236, as amended, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(c), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on July 1, 1978."

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–426 effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after July 1, 1964, except to the extent provided in section 501(c) of Pub. L. 88–426, see Pub. L. 88–426, title V, §501, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 435.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Assistant Administrator for Management

Pub. L. 112–166, §2(v)(1), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1288, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 624(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2384(a)), the appointment by the President of the Assistant Administrator for Management at the United States Agency for International Development shall not be subject to the advice and consent of the Senate."

Assumption of Duties by Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs

Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(6), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846, provided that: "The individual holding the position of Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs on the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 17, 1977] shall assume the duties of the Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and shall not be required to be reappointed by reason of the enactment of this section."

Report to Speaker of the House and Congressional Committees on Office of Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs

Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(7), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 847, which required the Secretary of State, not later than Jan. 31, 1978, to transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and the Senate Committee on the Judiciary a comprehensive report on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, including its current mandate and operations, the mandate and operations of its predecessor offices, and proposals for the reorganization of the Department of State that would strengthen human rights and humanitarian considerations in the conduct of United States foreign policy and promote the ability of the United States to participate effectively in international humanitarian efforts, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–241, title V, §505(a)(3), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 299, and Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1011(a)(5), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1061.

Assignment of Duties and Responsibilities to Inspector General, Foreign Service

Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(a)(2), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542, which provided that the President (A) may assign to the Inspector General, Foreign Service, any of the duties and responsibilities vested by such section 624(d) [subsec. (d) of this section] in the Inspector General, Foreign Assistance, and (B) may authorize the Inspector General, Foreign Service, to exercise such of the authorities granted by such section 624(d) [subsec. (d) of this section] to the Inspector General, Foreign Assistance, as the President determines are necessary to carry out any duties or responsibilities so assigned, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2205(11), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2160. See section 3929 of this title.

Agency for International Development

For appointments under subsec. (a) to United States Agency for International Development, see section 1–200(b) and (c) of Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2385. Employment of personnel

(a) Authorization

Any agency or officer of the United States Government carrying out functions under this chapter is authorized to employ such personnel as the President deems necessary to carry out the provisions and purposes of this chapter.

(b) Appointments excepted from civil-service laws; supergrade positions; reinstatement

Of the personnel employed in the United States to carry out subchapter I of this chapter or coordinate subchapter I and subchapter II of this chapter, not to exceed one hundred and ten may be appointed, compensated, or removed without regard to the provisions of any law, of whom not to exceed fifty-one may be compensated at rates higher than those provided for grade 15 of the general schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule: Provided, That, under such regulations as the President shall prescribe, officers and employees of the United States Government who are appointed to any of the above positions may be entitled, upon removal from such position, to reinstatement to the position occupied at the time of appointment or to a position of comparable grade and salary. Such positions shall be in addition to those authorized by law to be filled by Presidential appointment, and in addition to the number authorized by section 5108 of title 5.

(c) Additional supergrade positions

Of the personnel employed in the United States to carry out subchapter II of this chapter, or any Act superseding subchapter II of this chapter in whole or in part, not to exceed eight may be compensated at rates higher than those provided for grade 15 of the general schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule. Such positions shall be in addition to those authorized by law to be filled by Presidential appointment, and in addition to the number authorized by section 5108 of title 5.

(d) Employment or assignment of officers and employees to perform functions outside United States

For the purpose of performing functions under this chapter outside the United States, the President may employ or assign individuals, or may authorize the employment or assignment of officers or employees by agencies of the United States Government which are not authorized to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system, who shall receive compensation at any of the rates provided for under section 402 or section 403 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3962, 3963], or under chapter 53 of title 5, or at any other rate authorized by law, together with allowances and benefits under the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.]. Individuals so employed or assigned shall be entitled, except to the extent that the President may specify otherwise in cases in which the period of employment or assignment exceeds thirty months, to the same benefits as are provided by section 310 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 3950] for individuals appointed to the Foreign Service.

(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2205(8), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2160

(f) Funds for personnel services

Funds provided for in agreements with foreign countries for the furnishing of services under this chapter with respect to specific projects shall be deemed to be obligated for the services of personnel employed by agencies of the United States Government (other than the agencies primarily responsible for administering subchapter I or II of this chapter) as well as personnel not employed by the United States Government.

(g) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2205(8), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2160

(h) Acceptance of compensation or other benefits from foreign countries; arrangements for reimbursement

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, officers and employees of the United States Government performing functions under this chapter shall not accept from any foreign country any compensation or other benefits. Arrangements may be made by the President with such countries for reimbursement to the United States Government or other sharing of the cost of performing such functions.

(i) Assignment based on competency

To the maximum extent practicable officers and employees performing functions under this chapter abroad shall be assigned to countries and positions for which they have special competence, such as appropriate language and practical experience.

(j) Reemployment of annuitants under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees' Retirement System

(1)(A) To facilitate the assignment of persons to Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan or to posts vacated by members of the Service assigned to Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development may waive the application of the provisions of section 8344 or 8468 of title 5 on a case-by-case basis for employment of an annuitant in a position in the United States Agency for International Development for which there is exceptional difficulty in recruiting or retaining a qualified employee, or when a temporary emergency hiring need exists.

(B) The authority of the Administrator under subparagraph (A) shall terminate on October 1, 2010. An annuitant reemployed pursuant to such authority prior to such termination date may be employed for a period ending not later than one year after such date.

(2) The Administrator should prescribe procedures for the exercise of any authority under this subsection, including criteria for any exercise of authority and procedures for a delegation of authority.

(3) An employee for whom a waiver under this section is in effect shall not be considered an employee for purposes of subchapter III of chapter 83, or chapter 84 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §625, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 449; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(c), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 87–793, pt. II, §1001(k), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 865; Pub. L. 88–663, pt. III, §302(a), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1014; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(c), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(b)–(d), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 90–554, title III, §302(c), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 965; Pub. L. 93–189, §16, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §125, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §§2203(a), 2205(8), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2158, 2160; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §703, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1544; Pub. L.