[USC07] 22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER III, Part III: Miscellaneous Provisions
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22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER III, Part III: Miscellaneous Provisions
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 32—FOREIGN ASSISTANCESUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Part III—Miscellaneous Provisions

§2401. Effective date; identification of programs

This chapter shall take effect on September 4, 1961. Programs under this chapter shall be identified appropriately overseas as "American Aid".

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §641, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

§2402. Saving provisions

(a) Determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, etc., under prior law

Except as may be expressly provided to the contrary in this chapter, all determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of any provision of law repealed by section 642(a) and the Foreign Assistance Act of 1969 shall continue in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority.

(b) Compliance with similar provisions of prior law as compliance with this chapter

Wherever provisions of this chapter establish conditions which must be complied with before use may be made of authority contained in, or funds authorized by, this chapter, compliance with, or satisfaction of, substantially similar conditions under Acts listed in section 642(a) and the Foreign Assistance Act of 1969 or Acts repealed by those Acts shall be deemed to constitute compliance with the conditions established by this chapter.

(c) Continued availability of funds appropriated pursuant to prior law

Funds made available pursuant to provisions of law repealed by section 642(a)(2) and the Foreign Assistance Act of 1969 shall, unless otherwise authorized or provided by law, remain available for their original purposes in accordance with the provisions of law originally applicable thereto, or in accordance with the provisions of law currently applicable to those purposes.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §643, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §303(a), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 263; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §308, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 821.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Section 642(a), referred to in text, means section 642(a) of Pub. L. 87–195, which is set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1969, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c), is Pub. L. 91–175, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 805, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–175 inserted "and Foreign Assistance Act of 1969" after "section 642(a)," and "section 642(a)(2)".

1962—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–565 repealed subsec. (d) which provided that nothing in the chapter was to affect the Peace Corps pending enactment of the Peace Corps Act or adjournment of the first session of the 87th Congress, whichever was earlier.

§2403. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(a) "Agency of the United States Government" includes any agency, department, board, wholly or partly owned corporation, instrumentality, commission, or establishment of the United States Government.

(b) "Armed Forces" of the United States means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.

(c) "Commodity" includes any material, article, supply, goods, or equipment used for the purposes of furnishing nonmilitary assistance.

(d) "Defense article" includes—

(1) any weapon, weapons system, munition, aircraft, vessel, boat or other implement of war;

(2) any property, installation, commodity, material, equipment, supply, or goods used for the purposes of furnishing military assistance;

(3) any machinery, facility, tool, material supply, or other item necessary for the manufacture, production, processing repair, servicing, storage, construction, transportation, operation, or use of any article listed in this subsection; or

(4) any component or part of any article listed in this subsection; but


shall not include merchant vessels or, as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011), source material (except uranium depleted in the isotope 235 which is incorporated in defense articles solely to take advantage of high density or pyrophoric characteristics unrelated to radioactivity), by-product material, special nuclear material, production facilities, utilization facilities, or atomic weapons or articles involving Restricted Data.

(e) "Defense information" includes any document, writing, sketch, photograph, plan, model, specification, design, prototype, or other recorded or oral information relating to any defense article or defense service, but shall not include Restricted Data as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], and data removed from the Restricted Data category under section 142d of that Act [42 U.S.C. 2162(d)].

(f) "Defense service" includes any service, test, inspection, repair, publication, or technical or other assistance or defense information used for the purposes of furnishing military assistance, but does not include military educational and training activities under part V of subchapter II of this chapter.

(g) "Excess defense articles" means the quantity of defense articles (other than construction equipment, including tractors, scrapers, loaders, graders, bulldozers, dump trucks, generators, and compressors) owned by the United States Government, and not procured in anticipation of military assistance or sales requirements, or pursuant to a military assistance or sales order, which is in excess of the Approved Force Acquisition Objective and Approved Force Retention Stock of all Department of Defense Components at the time such articles are dropped from inventory by the supplying agency for delivery to countries or international organizations under this chapter.

(h) "Function" includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, discretion, or activity.

(i) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–189, §22(2), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 726.

(j) "Officer or employee" means civilian personnel and members of the Armed Forces of the United States Government.

(k) "Services" include any service, repair, training of personnel, or technical or other assistance or information used for the purposes of furnishing nonmilitary assistance.

(l) "Surplus agricultural commodity" means any agricultural commodity or product thereof, class, kind, type, or other specification thereof, produced in the United States, either publicly or privately owned, which is in excess of domestic requirements, adequate carryover, and anticipated exports for United States dollars, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(m) "Value" means—

(1) with respect to an excess defense article, the actual value of the article plus the gross cost incurred by the United States Government in repairing, rehabilitating, or modifying the article, except that for purposes of section 2392(d) of this title such actual value shall not be taken into account;

(2) with respect to a nonexcess defense article delivered from inventory to foreign countries or international organizations under this chapter, the acquisition cost to the United States Government, adjusted as appropriate for condition and market value;

(3) with respect to a nonexcess defense article delivered from new procurement to foreign countries or international organizations under this chapter, the contract or production costs of such article;

(4) with respect to a defense service, the cost to the United States Government of such service; and

(5) with respect to military education and training or services provided under part VIII of subchapter II of this chapter, the additional costs that are incurred by the United States Government in furnishing such assistance.


(n) "Military education and training" includes formal or informal instruction of foreign students in the United States or overseas by officers or employees of the United States, contract technicians, contractors (including instruction at civilian institutions), or by correspondence courses, technical, educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aids, orientation, and military advice to foreign military units and forces.

(o) "Agriculture" includes aquaculture and fisheries.

(p) "Farmers" includes fishermen and other persons employed in cultivating and harvesting food resources from salt and fresh waters.

(q) "Major non-NATO ally" means a country which is designated in accordance with section 2321k of this title as a major non-NATO ally for purposes of this chapter and the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §644, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 461; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §303(b), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 263; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §303, Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §303(b), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 661; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §303(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 462; Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(b)(5), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(c)(1), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 93–189, §22, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(6), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §103(b), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 96–92, §22, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §115(b)(1), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3140; Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; Pub. L. 102–583, §9(b), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4934; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §147(a)(2), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1435.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, referred to in subsecs. (d) and (e), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (q), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

The 1983 amendment by Pub. L. 98–151 is based on section 202(b) of H.R. 2992, Ninety-eighth Congress, 1st Session, as reported May 17, 1983, which was enacted into permanent law by Pub. L. 98–151.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 104–164 added subsec. (q).

1992—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–583 inserted "(other than construction equipment, including tractors, scrapers, loaders, graders, bulldozers, dump trucks, generators, and compressors)" after second reference to "articles".

1983—Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 98–151 inserted "or services provided under part VIII of subchapter II of this chapter".

1980—Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 96–533 added par. (5).

1979—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–92 defined "defense article" to include uranium depleted in the isotope 235 which is incorporated in defense articles solely to take advantage of high density or pyrophoric characteristics unrelated to radioactivity.

1978—Subsecs. (o), (p). Pub. L. 95–424 added subsecs. (o) and (p).

1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(6)(A), struck out "training" after "inspection, repair", inserted "but does not include military educational and training activities under part V of subchapter II", and struck out definition of "Training".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(6)(B), added subsec. (n).

1973—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–189, §22(1), substituted "Approved Force Acquisition Objective and Approved Force Retention Stock of all Department of Defense Components" for "mobilization reserve".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 93–189, §22(2), struck out subsec. (i) which defined "mobilization reserve".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 93–189, §22(3), amended subsec. (m) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (m) read as follows: " 'Value' means, other than in section 2417 of this title

"(1) with respect to excess defense articles, the gross cost incurred by the United States Government in repairing, rehabilitating, or modifying such articles;

"(2) with respect to nonexcess defense articles delivered from inventory to countries or international organizations under this chapter, the standard price in effect at the time such articles are dropped from inventory by the supplying agency. Such standard price shall be the same price (including authorized reduced prices) used for transfers or sales of such articles in or between the Armed Forces of the United States Government, or, where such articles are not transferred or sold in or between the Armed Forces of the United States, the gross cost to the United States Government adjusted as appropriate for condition and market value; and

"(3) with respect to nonexcess defense articles delivered from new procurement to countries or international organizations under this chapter, the contract or production costs of such articles.

Military assistance programs and orders shall be based upon the best estimates of stock status and prevailing prices; reimbursements to the supplying agency shall be made on the basis of the stock status and prices determined pursuant to this section. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, the Secretary of Defense may prescribe regulations authorizing reimbursements to the supplying agency based on negotiated prices for aircraft, vessels, plant equipment, and such other major items as he may specify: Provided, That such articles are not excess at the time such prices are negotiated: Provided further, That such prices are negotiated at the time firm orders are placed with the supplying agency."

1972—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 92–226 substituted " 'Value' means, other than in section 2417 of this title" for " 'Value' means".

1968—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 90–629 struck out "and sales" before "programs" in text following par. (3).

1967—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–137, §303(a)(1), excluded production facilities, utilization facilities, and articles involving Restricted Data from definition of "defense articles".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–137, §303(a)(2), struck out "and formerly Restricted Data" before "as defined" and excluded data removed from the Restricted Data category under section 142d of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (classified to section 2162(d) of Title 42) from definition of "defense information".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 90–137, §303(a)(3), excluded the transfer of limited quantities of defense articles for test, evaluation, or standardization purposes from definition of "defense service" and defined "training", incorporating existing references to orientation and training aid.

1965—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89–171, §303(b)(1), inserted "and not procured in anticipation of military assistance or sales requirements, or pursuant to a military assistance or sales order", and struck out "as grant assistance" after "international organizations".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 89–171, §303(b)(2), (3), in par. (2) substituted "Such standard price shall be the same price (including authorized reduced prices)" for "Such price shall be the same standard price", and in unnumbered par. after par. (3) substituted "Military Assistance and sales programs" for "Military assistance programs" and struck out "by the military assistance program" after "supplying agency".

1963—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 88–205 inserted "including orientation".

1962—Subsec. (m)(2), (3). Pub. L. 87–565 struck out "as grant assistance" after "international organizations".

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–226 applicable with respect to each fiscal year commencing on or after July 1, 1971, see section 304(c)(3) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2394 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–629 effective on July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2404. Unexpended balances

Unexpended balances of funds made available pursuant to this chapter, the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, or the Latin American Development Act, as amended, are hereby authorized to be continued available for the general purposes for which appropriated, and may at any time be consolidated, and, in addition, may be consolidated with appropriations made available for the same general purposes under the authority of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §645, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 462; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §303(c), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 263; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §304, Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 390; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §303(c), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 661.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Mutual Security Act of 1954, referred to in text, is act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended by acts July 8, 1955, ch. 301, 69 Stat. 283; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §§2–11, 70 Stat. 555; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–141, 71 Stat. 355; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85–477, ch. 1, §§101–103, ch. II, §§201–205, ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401, ch. V, §501, 72 Stat. 261; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86–108, §2, ch. 1, §101, ch. II, §§201–205(a)–(i), (k)–(n), ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401(a)–(k), (m), 73 Stat. 246; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. I to V, 74 Stat. 134, which was principally classified to chapter 24 (§1750 et seq.) of this title and which was repealed by act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §8(m), 70 Stat. 559, Pub. L. 85–141, §§2(e), 3, 4(b), 11(d), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 356, Pub. L. 86–108, ch. II, §§205(j), ch. IV, 401(1), July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 250, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. II, §§203(d), 204(k), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 138, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460, Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §212(b)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 745, Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §228, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 963, except for sections 1754, 1783, 1796, 1853, 1928, and 1937 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1754 of this title and Tables.

The Latin American Development Act, as amended, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 86–735, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 869, as amended, which enacted sections 1942 to 1945 of this title and amended section 1753a of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1942 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1965Pub. L. 89–171 substituted "the Latin American Development Act, as amended" for "Public Law 86–735".

1963Pub. L. 88–205 included balances of funds made available under Public Law 86–735.

1962Pub. L. 87–565 inserted "this chapter" after "pursuant to".

§2405. Separability

If any provision of this chapter or the application of any provision to any circumstances or persons shall be held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this chapter, and of the applicability of such provision to other circumstances or persons shall not be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §646, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 462.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

§2406. Development programs for dependable fuel supplies

It is of paramount importance that long-range economic plans take cognizance of the need for a dependable supply of fuels, which is necessary to orderly and stable development and growth, and that dependence not be placed upon sources which are inherently hostile to free countries and the ultimate well-being of economically underdeveloped countries and which might exploit such dependence for ultimate political domination. The agencies of government in the United States are directed to work with other countries in developing plans for basing development programs on the use of the large and stable supply of relatively low cost fuels available in the free world.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §647, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 462.)

Prohibition on Assistance for Nuclear Powerplants for Fiscal Year 1978

Pub. L. 95–92, §14, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 622, which prohibited any funds made available to carry out this chapter for fiscal year 1978 from being used to finance the construction of, the operation or maintenance of, or the supply of fuel for any nuclear powerplant under an agreement of cooperation between the United States and any other country, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(13), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

Nuclear Powerplants in Israel or Egypt

Pub. L. 93–559, §43, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1813, which prohibited any funds authorized under Pub. L. 93–559 from being used to finance the construction of, the operation or maintenance of, or the supply of fuel for any nuclear powerplant in Israel or Egypt, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(8), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

§2407. Special authorization for use of foreign currencies

Subject to the provisions of section 1306 of title 31, the President is authorized, as a demonstration of good will on the part of the people of the United States for the Polish and Italian people, to use foreign currencies accruing to the United States Government under this chapter or any other Act, for assistance on such terms and conditions as he may specify, in the repair, rehabilitation, improvement, and maintenance of cemeteries in Italy serving as the burial place of members of the armed forces of Poland who died in combat in Italy during World War II.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §648, as added Pub. L. 88–633, pt. III, §303, Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1014.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

"Section 1306 of title 31" substituted in text for "section 1415 of the Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1953, [31 U.S.C. 724]" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2408. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §604, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §649, as added Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §303(d), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 661, related to aggregate of total amounts authorized to be appropriated under this chapter.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

§2409. Use of United States Armed Forces

The furnishing of economic, military, or other assistance under this chapter shall not be construed as creating a new commitment or as affecting any existing commitment to use Armed Forces of the United States for the defense of any foreign country.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §650, as added Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §303(b), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 462.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

§2410. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §604, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §651, as added Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §303, Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 966, related to sale of supersonic planes to Israel.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

§2410a. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(15), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

Section, Pub. L. 91–672, §7, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2054, restricted sale, grant, loan, or transfer of International Fighter aircraft to any foreign country, or agency thereof, other than South Vietnam.

§2411. Limitation upon exercise of special authorities

The President shall not exercise any special authority granted to him under section 2318(a), 2348a(c)(2), or 2360(a) of this title unless the President, before he intends to exercise any such authority, notifies the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate in writing of each such intended exercise, the section of this chapter under which such authority is to be exercised, and the justification for, and the extent of, the exercise of such authority.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §652, as added Pub. L. 91–652, §8, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1943; amended Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(a)(1), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §117(b), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3141; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §105(b)(2), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §103(c), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1424.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–164 substituted "before he intends" for "prior to the date he intends".

1985Pub. L. 99–83 inserted reference to section 2348a(c)(2) of this title.

1980Pub. L. 96–533 struck out reference to section 2364(a) of this title.

1972Pub. L. 92–226 struck out provision which limited exercise of special authority for purpose of providing additional assistance to Cambodia and which required thirty days notice to congressional committee (ten days in emergencies requiring immediate assistance) of intention to exercise such authority.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Funds Not To Be Used To Finance Introduction of United States Ground Combat Troops Into Cambodia or Provide Advisers for Security or Intelligence Forces in Cambodia; Assistance to Cambodia Not To Be Construed as Commitment by United States to Cambodia for Its Defense

Pub. L. 91–652, §7, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1943, as amended by Pub. L. 92–226, pt. IV, §408, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 35, provided that:

"(a) In line with the expressed intention of the President of the United States, none of the funds authorized or appropriated pursuant to this or any other Act may be used to finance the introduction of United States ground combat troops into Cambodia, or to provide United States advisers to or for military, paramilitary, police, or other security or intelligence forces in Cambodia.

"(b) Military and economic assistance provided by the United States to Cambodia and authorized or appropriated pursuant to this or any other Act shall not be construed as a commitment by the United States to Cambodia for its defense."

§2412. Limitation on foreign assistance appropriations

(a) Restrictions on appropriations in absence of or in excess of prior authorizations

Notwithstanding any provision of law enacted before January 12, 1971, no money appropriated for foreign assistance (including foreign military sales) shall be available for obligation or expenditure—

(1) unless the appropriation thereof has been previously authorized by law; or

(2) in excess of an amount previously prescribed by law.

(b) Exception

To the extent that legislation enacted after the making of an appropriation for foreign assistance (including foreign military sales) authorizes the obligation or expenditure thereof, the limitation contained in subsection (a) shall have no effect.

(c) Specific repeal or modification of section

The provisions of this section shall not be superseded except by a provision of law enacted after January 12, 1971, which specifically repeals or modifies the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 91–672, §10, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2055.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, which comprises this chapter.

§2413. Changes in allocation of foreign assistance

(a) Notification by President to foreign country

Not later than thirty days after the enactment of any law appropriating funds to carry out any provision of this chapter (other than section 2261 or 2397 of this title) or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], the President shall notify the Congress of each foreign country and international organization to which the United States Government intends to provide any portion of the funds under such law and of the amount of funds under that law, by category of assistance, that the United States Government intends to provide to each.

(b) Application of provisions to continuing appropriations; waiver of provisions

The provisions of this section shall not apply in the case of any law making continuing appropriations and may not be waived under the provisions of section 2364(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §653, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 28; amended Pub. L. 93–559, §21, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1801; Pub. L. 95–384, §§10(b)(3), 12(c)(2), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 735, 737; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1209(b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 279.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–83, §1209(b)(1), inserted reference to the Arms Export Control Act.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 99–83, §1209(b)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b). Former subsec. (b), relating to report to Congress prior to grant of assistance with excess funds, was struck out.

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–384 substituted in provisions preceding par. (1) in two places and in par. (2) "assistance under part IV of subchapter II of this chapter" for "security supporting assistance" and in provisions preceding par. (1) in two places "part VI of subchapter II" for "subchapter IV" and inserted in par. (2) "or assistance under part VI of subchapter II of this chapter" before ", the President includes".

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–559, §21(1), struck out provisions limiting the military grant assistance or security supporting assistance to any foreign country or international organization to an amount not more than 10 percent of funds authorized under any law unless the President determines that it would be in the security interests of the United States to provide excess funds and reports to Congress the identity of the recipient, the amount of excess funds provided, and the justification for additional assistance. See subsec. (b) of this section.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 93–559, §21(2), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2414. Presidential findings and determinations

(a) Report to Congress

In any case in which the President is required to make a report to the Congress, or to any committee or officer of either House of Congress, concerning any finding or determination under any provision of this chapter, the Foreign Military Sales Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], or the Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriation Act for each fiscal year, that finding or determination shall be reduced to writing and signed by the President.

(b) Action prohibition prior to execution of report

No action shall be taken pursuant to any such finding or determination prior to the date on which that finding or determination has been reduced to writing and signed by the President.

(c) Publication in Federal Register

Each such finding or determination shall be published in the Federal Register as soon as practicable after it has been reduced to writing and signed by the President. In any case in which the President concludes that such publication would be harmful to the national security of the United States, only a statement that a determination or finding has been made by the President, including the name and section of the Act under which it was made, shall be published.

(d) Information accessible to Congress prior to transmission of report

No committee or officer of either House of Congress shall be denied any requested information relating to any finding or determination which the President is required to report to the Congress, or to any committee or officer of either House of Congress, under any provision of this chapter, the Foreign Military Sales Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], or the Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriation Act for each fiscal year, even though such report has not yet been transmitted to the appropriate committee or officer of either House of Congress.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §654, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 29.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Military Sales Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), is Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 1, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, known as the Arms Export Control Act, on authority of section 201(b) of Pub. L. 94–329, title II, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 734, and is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2414a. Annual report to Congress on voting practices at United Nations

(a) In general

Not later than March 31 of each year, the Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a full and complete annual report which assesses for the preceding calendar year, with respect to each foreign country member of the United Nations, the voting practices of the governments of such countries at the United Nations, and which evaluates General Assembly and Security Council actions and the responsiveness of those governments to United States policy on issues of special importance to the United States.

(b) Information on voting practices in United Nations

Such report shall include, with respect to voting practices and plenary actions in the United Nations during the preceding calendar year, information to be compiled and supplied by the Permanent Representative of the United States to the United Nations, consisting of—

(1) an analysis and discussion, prepared in consultation with the Secretary of State, of the extent to which member countries supported United States policy objectives at the United Nations;

(2) an analysis and discussion, prepared in consultation with the Secretary of State, of actions taken by the United Nations by consensus;

(3) with respect to plenary votes of the United Nations General Assembly—

(A) a listing of all such votes on issues which directly affected important United States interests and on which the United States lobbied extensively and a brief description of the issues involved in each such vote;

(B) a listing of the votes described in subparagraph (A) which provides a comparison of the vote cast by each member country with the vote cast by the United States;

(C) a country-by-country listing of votes described in subparagraph (A); and

(D) a listing of votes described in subparagraph (A) displayed in terms of United Nations regional caucus groups;


(4) a listing of all plenary votes cast by member countries of the United Nations in the General Assembly which provides a comparison of the votes cast by each member country with the vote cast by the United States, including a separate listing of all plenary votes cast by member countries of the United Nations in the General Assembly on resolutions specifically related to Israel that are opposed by the United States;

(5) an analysis and discussion, prepared in consultation with the Secretary of State, of the extent to which other members supported United States policy objectives in the Security Council and a separate listing of all Security Council votes of each member country in comparison with the United States; and

(6) a side-by-side comparison of agreement on important and overall votes for each member country and the United States.

(c) Format

Information required pursuant to subsection (b)(3) shall also be submitted, together with an explanation of the statistical methodology, in a format identical to that contained in chapter II of the Report to Congress on Voting Practices in the United Nations, dated March 14, 1988.

(d) Statement by Secretary of State

Each report under subsection (a) shall contain a statement by the Secretary of State discussing the measures which have been taken to inform United States diplomatic missions of United Nations General Assembly and Security Council activities.

(Pub. L. 101–246, title IV, §406, Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 66; Pub. L. 108–447, div. D, title V, §534(k), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3007.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 406 of Pub. L. 101–246. Subsec. (e) of section 406 of Pub. L. 101–246 repealed provisions contained in prior appropriation acts which had been formerly set out as this section. See Similar Provisions note below.

Section was enacted as part of the appropriation act cited as the credit to this section, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–447 inserted before semicolon at end ", including a separate listing of all plenary votes cast by member countries of the United Nations in the General Assembly on resolutions specifically related to Israel that are opposed by the United States".

Similar Provisions

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §527, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1223.

Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §527, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–26; repealed by Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §527(e)(6), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1224, and Pub. L. 101–246, title IV, §406(e)(5), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §528], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-158; repealed by Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §527(e)(5), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1224, and Pub. L. 101–246, title IV, §406(e)(4), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(f) [title V, §528], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–213, 1783-230, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(f) [title V, §528], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–214, 3341-230; repealed by Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §527(e)(4), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1224, and Pub. L. 101–246, title IV, §406(e)(3), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 99–190, §101(i) [title V, §529], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1291, 1307; repealed by Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §527(e)(3), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1224, and Pub. L. 101–246, title IV, §406(e)(2), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(1) [title V, §530], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1884, 1900; repealed by Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §527(e)(2), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1224.

Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(1), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 967; repealed by Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §527(e)(1), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1224, and Pub. L. 101–246, title IV, §406(e)(1), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 67.

Statement of Policy on Member State's Voting Practices at the United Nations

Pub. L. 114–323, title III, §309, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1924, provided that: "It is the policy of the United States to strongly consider a Member State's voting practices at the United Nations before entering into any agreements with the Member State."

Requirement for Disclosure of Foreign Aid in Report of Secretary of State

Pub. L. 106–429, §101(a) [title V, §559], Nov. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 1900, 1900A-45, which required that the report submitted to Congress under subsec. (a) of this section include, in addition to the voting practices of a foreign country, a side-by-side comparison of individual countries' overall support for the United States at the United Nations and the amount of United States assistance, as defined in section 2291(e)(4) of this title, provided to such country in fiscal year 2000, was from the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §560], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-104.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §562], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681-193.

Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §563, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2427.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §580], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009-170.

§2415. Annual military assistance report

(a) Report required

Not later than February 1 of each year, the President shall transmit to the Congress an annual report for the fiscal year ending the previous September 30.

(b) Information relating to military assistance and military exports

Each such report shall show the aggregate dollar value and quantity of defense articles (including excess defense articles), defense services, and international military education and training activities authorized by the United States and of such articles, services, and activities provided by the United States, excluding any activity that is reportable under title V of the National Security Act of 1947 [50 U.S.C. 3091 et seq.], to each foreign country and international organization. The report shall specify, by category, whether such defense articles—

(1) were furnished by grant under part II or part V of subchapter II of this chapter or under any other authority of law or by sale under chapter 2 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2761 et seq.];

(2) were furnished with the financial assistance of the United States Government, including through loans and guarantees; or

(3) were licensed for export under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778] and, if so, a specification of those defense articles that were exported during the fiscal year covered by the report, including, in the case of defense articles that are firearms controlled under category I of the United States Munitions List, a statement of the aggregate dollar value and quantity of semiautomatic assault weapons, or spare parts for such weapons, the manufacture, transfer, or possession of which is unlawful under section 922 of title 18, that were licensed for export during the period covered by the report.

(c) Availability on Internet

All unclassified portions of such report shall be made available to the public on the Internet through the Department of State.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §655, as added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, §1324(c), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 481; amended Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §148, July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1435; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XIII, §1306], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-512; Pub. L. 106–280, title VII, §702, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 861; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §§1205(c), 1262(b), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1428, 1434.)

References in Text

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (b), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, which was formerly classified principally to chapter 15 (§401 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification in chapter 44 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 50. Title V of the Act is now classified generally to subchapter III (§3091 et seq.) of chapter 44 of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended. Chapter 2 of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§2761 et seq.) of chapter 39 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2415, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §655, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 29; amended Pub. L. 93–559, §39(a), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1810; Pub. L. 94–329, title IV, §413(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 761, related to limitation in amounts to be expended for assistance to Cambodia, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §§604, 605, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961, effective Oct. 1, 1978.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–228, §1205(c), inserted before period at end ", including, in the case of defense articles that are firearms controlled under category I of the United States Munitions List, a statement of the aggregate dollar value and quantity of semiautomatic assault weapons, or spare parts for such weapons, the manufacture, transfer, or possession of which is unlawful under section 922 of title 18, that were licensed for export during the period covered by the report".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 107–228, §1262(b), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c). Text read as follows: "Each such report shall also include the total amount of military items manufactured outside the United States that were imported into the United States during the fiscal year covered by the report. For each country of origin the report shall show the type of item being imported and the total amount of the items."

2000—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–280 inserted before the period at end "and, if so, a specification of those defense articles that were exported during the fiscal year covered by the report".

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1306(a)], reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Each such report shall show the aggregate dollar value and quantity of defense articles (including excess defense articles), defense services, and international military education and training authorized by the United States, excluding that which is pursuant to activies reportable under title V of the National Security Act of 1947, to each foreign country and international organization. The report shall specify, by category, whether such defense articles—

"(1) were furnished by grant under part II or part V of subchapter II of this chapter or under any other authority of law or by sale under chapter 2 of the Arms Export Control Act; or

"(2) were licensed for export under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1306(b)], added subsec. (d).

1996Pub. L. 104–164 substituted "Annual military assistance report" for "Annual report on military assistance, military exports, and military imports" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) Report Required.—Not later than February 1 of each of 1996 and 1997, the President shall transmit to Congress a report concerning military assistance authorized or furnished for the fiscal year ending the previous September 30.

"(b) Information Relating to Military Assistance and Military Exports.—Each such report shall show the aggregate dollar value and quantity of defense articles (including excess defense articles) and defense services, and of military education and training, authorized or furnished by the United States to each foreign country and international organization. The report shall specify, by category, whether those articles and services, and that education and training, were furnished by grant under part II or part V of subchapter II of this chapter or by sale under chapter 2 of the Arms Export Control Act or were authorized by commercial sale licensed under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act.

"(c) Information Relating to Military Imports.—Each such report shall also include the total amount of military items of non-United States manufacture that were imported into the United States during the fiscal year covered by the report. The report shall show the country of origin, the type of item being imported, and the total amount of items."

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2416. Annual foreign military training report

(a) Annual report

(1) In general

Not later than January 31 of each year, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State shall jointly prepare and submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on all military training provided to foreign military personnel by the Department of Defense and the Department of State during the previous fiscal year and all such training proposed for the current fiscal year.

(2) Exception for certain countries

Paragraph (1) does not apply to any NATO member, Australia, Japan, or New Zealand, unless one of the appropriate congressional committees has specifically requested, in writing, inclusion of such country in the report. Such request shall be made not later than 90 calendar days prior to the date on which the report is required to be transmitted.

(b) Contents

The report described in subsection (a) shall include the following:

(1) For each military training activity, the foreign policy justification and purpose for the activity, the number of foreign military personnel provided training and their units of operation, and the location of the training.

(2) For each country, the aggregate number of students trained and the aggregate cost of the military training activities.

(3) With respect to United States personnel, the operational benefits to United States forces derived from each military training activity and the United States military units involved in each activity.

(c) Form

The report described in subsection (a) shall be in unclassified form but may include a classified annex.

(d) Availability on Internet

All unclassified portions of the report described in subsection (a) shall be made available to the public on the Internet through the Department of State.

(e) Definition

In this section, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(1) the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives; and

(2) the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §656, as added Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XIII, §1307], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-512; amended Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1262(a), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1434.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2416, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §656, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 30; amended Pub. L. 93–559, §39(b), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1810; Pub. L. 94–329, title IV, §413(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 761, related to limitation on number of United States personnel in Cambodia, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §§604, 605, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961, effective Oct. 1, 1978.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–228 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, and added par. (2).

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

§2417. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §657, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §14, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 739, required annual Presidential reports for fiscal year ending previous Sept. 30 respecting military assistance, military education and training assistance, foreign military sales, and commercial military sales. See sections 2394 and 2765 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2417, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §657, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 30; amended Pub. L. 93–189, §23, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 94–273, §5(2), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 377; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §216, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 747, related to an annual report by the President to Congress showing the dollar value of foreign assistance including military sales, education and training, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(d)(1), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959, effective Oct. 1, 1978.

§2418. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §604, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §658, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 32, related to certification by the Comptroller General of the release of previously impounded funds prior to the expenditure of funds appropriated to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

§2419. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §659, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §29(a), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1803, prohibited aid to any country containing a military base constructed, maintained, or used by the United States if access to such base was denied unduly to bona fide media correspondents of the United States by the country in question.

§2420. Police training prohibition

(a) Effective date of prohibition

On and after July 1, 1975, none of the funds made available to carry out this chapter, and none of the local currencies generated under this chapter, shall be used to provide training or advice, or provide any financial support, for police, prisons, or other law enforcement forces for any foreign government or any program of internal intelligence or surveillance on behalf of any foreign government within the United States or abroad.

(b) Exception; qualification

Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply—

(1) with respect to assistance rendered under section 515(c) of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968,1 with respect to any authority of the Drug Enforcement Administration or the Federal Bureau of Investigation which relates to crimes of the nature which are unlawful under the laws of the United States, or with respect to assistance authorized under section 2291a of this title;

(2) to any contract entered into prior to December 30, 1974, with any person, organization, or agency of the United States Government to provide personnel to conduct, or assist in conducting, any such program;

(3) with respect to assistance, including training, in maritime law enforcement and other maritime skills;

(4) with respect to assistance provided to police forces in connection with their participation in the regional security system of the Eastern Caribbean states; or 2

(5) with respect to assistance, including training, relating to sanctions monitoring and enforcement;

(6) with respect to assistance provided to reconstitute civilian police authority and capability in the post-conflict restoration of host nation infrastructure for the purposes of supporting a nation emerging from instability, and the provision of professional public safety training, to include training in internationally recognized standards of human rights, the rule of law, anti-corruption, and the promotion of civilian police roles that support democracy;

(7) with respect to assistance provided to customs authorities and personnel, including training, technical assistance and equipment, for customs law enforcement and the improvement of customs laws, systems and procedures.


Notwithstanding clause (2), subsection (a) shall apply to any renewal or extension of any contract referred to in such paragraph entered into on or after December 30, 1974.

(c) Country with longstanding democratic tradition, etc.

Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to a country which has a longstanding democratic tradition, does not have standing armed forces, and does not engage in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights.

(d) Assistance to Honduras or El Salvador

Notwithstanding the prohibition contained in subsection (a) assistance may be provided to Honduras or El Salvador for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 if, at least 30 days before providing assistance, the President notifies the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications pursuant to section 2394–1 of this title, that he has determined that the government of the recipient country has made significant progress, during the preceding six months, in eliminating any human rights violations including torture, incommunicado detention, detention of persons solely for the nonviolent expression of their political views, or prolonged detention without trial. Any such notification shall include a full description of the assistance which is proposed to be provided and of the purposes to which it is to be directed.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §660, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §30(a), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1803; amended Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §127(b), title VII, §711, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205, 243; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §594, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2060; Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §540A(d), Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 737; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §574], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-111.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Section 515(c) of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is section 515(c) of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 207, which was formerly classified to section 3763(c) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Section 515 was omitted in the general revision of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1167.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 106–113 added par. (7).

1996—Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 104–107 added pars. (5) and (6).

1990—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–513, which directed the amendment of this section by adding par. (4) at "the end of the subsection", was executed by adding par. (4) after par. (3) in subsec. (b) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1985—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–83, §127(b), added par. (3).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 99–83, §711, added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Exemption of Narcotics-Related Military Assistance for Specific Fiscal Years From Prohibition on Assistance for Law Enforcement Agencies

Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §104, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4694, provided that:

"(a) Exemption.—For fiscal year 1995, section 660 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2420) shall not apply with respect to—

"(1) transfers of excess defense articles under section 517 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2321k);

"(2) funds made available for the 'Foreign Military Financing Program' under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763) that are used for assistance provided for narcotics-related purposes; or

"(3) international military education and training under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2347 and following) that is provided for narcotics-related purposes.

"(b) Notification to Congress.—At least 15 days before any transfer under subsection (a)(1) or any obligation of funds under subsection (a)(2) or (a)(3), the President shall notify the appropriate congressional committees (as defined in section 481(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2291(e))[)] in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 634A of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2394) [22 U.S.C. 2394–1].

"(c) Coordination With International Narcotics Control Assistance Program.—Assistance provided pursuant to this section shall be coordinated with international narcotics control assistance under chapter 8 of part 1 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2291 et seq.)."

Pub. L. 102–583, §7, Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4933, provided for exemption of narcotics-related military assistance for fiscal years 1993 and 1994 from prohibition on assistance for law enforcement agencies, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §103(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4693.

Assistance to Public Security Forces of El Salvador; Delegation of Functions

Determination of President of the United States, No. 86–2, Oct. 29, 1985, 50 F.R. 48073, provided:

Memorandum for the Honorable George P. Shultz, the Secretary of State

Pursuant to Section 660(d) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2420(d)], I hereby determine that the Government of El Salvador has made significant progress, during the six month period preceding this determination, in eliminating any human rights violations including torture, incommunicado detention, detention of persons solely for the non-violent expression of their political views, or prolonged detention without trial.

You are requested to report this determination to the Congress immediately, together with a full description of the assistance to be provided and of the purposes to which it is to be directed. None of the assistance so provided shall be furnished until 30 days after such a report has been made, as required by law.

I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State authority to make such determinations and reports as called for in the future under Section 660(d).

This determination shall be published in the Federal Register.

Ronald Reagan.      

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. The word "or" probably should appear at end of par. (6).

§2421. Trade and Development Agency

(a) Purpose

The Trade and Development Agency shall be an agency of the United States under the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State. The purpose of the Trade and Development Agency is to promote United States private sector participation in development projects in developing and middle-income countries, with special emphasis on economic sectors with significant United States export potential, such as energy, transportation, telecommunications, and environment.

(b) Authority to provide assistance

(1) Authority

The Director of the Trade and Development Agency is authorized to work with foreign countries, including those in which the United States development programs have been concluded or those not receiving assistance under subchapter I of this chapter, to carry out the purpose of this section by providing funds for feasibility studies, architectural and engineering design, and other activities related to development projects which provide opportunities for the use of United States exports.

(2) Use of funds

Funds under this section may be used to provide support for feasibility studies for the planning, development, and management of, and procurement for, bilateral and multilateral development projects, including training activities undertaken in connection with a project, for the purpose of promoting the use of United States goods and services in such projects. Funds under this section may also be used for architectural and engineering design, including—

(A) concept design, which establishes the basic technical and operational criteria for a project, such as architectural drawings for a proposed facility, evaluation of site constraints, procurement requirements, and equipment specifications; and

(B) detail design, which sets forth specific dimensions and criteria for structural, mechanical, electrical, and architectural operations, and identifies other resources required for project operations.

(3) Information dissemination

(A) The Trade and Development Agency shall disseminate information about its project activities to the private sector.

(B) Other agencies of the United States Government shall cooperate with the Trade and Development Agency in order for the Agency to provide more effectively informational services to persons in the private sector concerning trade development and export promotion related to development projects.

(4) Nonapplicability of other provisions

Any funds used for purposes of this section may be used notwithstanding any other provision of law.

(5) Contributions to costs

The Trade and Development Agency shall, to the maximum extent practicable, require corporations and other entities to—

(A) share the costs of feasibility studies and other project planning services funded under this section; and

(B) reimburse the Trade and Development Agency those funds provided under this section, if the corporation or entity concerned succeeds in project implementation.

(c) Director and personnel

(1) Director

There shall be at the head of the Trade and Development Agency a Director who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) Officers and employees

(A) The Director may appoint such officers and employees of the Trade and Development Agency as the Director considers appropriate.

(B) The officers and employees appointed under this paragraph shall have such functions as the Director may determine.

(C) Of the officers and employees appointed under this paragraph, 2 may be appointed without regard to the provisions of title 5, governing appointments in the competitive service, and may be compensated without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 or subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title.

(D) Under such regulations as the President may prescribe, any individual appointed under subparagraph (C) may be entitled, upon removal (except for cause) from the position to which the appointment was made, to reinstatement to the position occupied by that individual at the time of appointment or to a position of comparable grade and pay.

(d) Annual report

The President shall, not later than December 31 of each year, submit to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on the activities of the Trade and Development Agency in the preceding fiscal year.

(e) Audits

(1) In general

The Trade and Development Agency shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 35 of title 31, except as otherwise provided in this section.

(2) Independent audit

An independent certified public accountant shall perform a financial and compliance audit of the financial statements of the Trade and Development Agency each year, in accordance with generally accepted Government auditing standards for a financial and compliance audit, taking into consideration any standards recommended by the Comptroller General. The independent certified public accountant shall report the results of such audit to the Director of the Trade and Development Agency. The financial statements of the Trade and Development Agency shall be presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. These financial statements and the report of the accountant shall be included in a report which contains, to the extent applicable, the information identified in section 3512 of title 31, and which the Trade and Development Agency shall submit to the Congress not later than 6½ months after the end of the last fiscal year covered by the audit. The Comptroller General may review the audit conducted by the accountant and the report to the Congress in the manner and at such times as the Comptroller General considers necessary.

(3) Audit by Comptroller General

In lieu of the financial and compliance audit required by paragraph (2), the Comptroller General shall, if the Comptroller General considers it necessary or upon the request of the Congress, audit the financial statements of the Trade and Development Agency in the manner provided in paragraph (2).

(4) Availability of information

All books, accounts, financial records, reports, files, workpapers, and property belonging to or in use by the Trade and Development Agency and the accountant who conducts the audit under paragraph (2), which are necessary for purposes of this subsection, shall be made available to the representatives of the Government Accountability Office designated by the Comptroller General.

(f) Funding

(1) Authorization

(A) There are authorized to be appropriated for purposes of this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $48,000,000 for fiscal year 2000 and such sums as may be necessary for each fiscal year thereafter.

(B) Amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under subparagraph (A) are authorized to remain available until expended.

(2) Funding for technical assistance grants by multilateral development banks

(A) The Trade and Development Agency should, in carrying out its program, provide, as appropriate, funds to multilateral development banks for technical assistance grants.

(B) As used in subparagraph (A)—

(i) the term "technical assistance grants" means funding by multilateral development banks of services from the United States in connection with projects and programs supported by such banks, including, but not limited to, engineering, design, and consulting services; and

(ii) the term "multilateral development bank" has the meaning given that term in section 262r(c) of this title.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §661, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §31, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1804; amended Pub. L. 94–161, title III, §316, Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §128, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 543; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §121, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 954; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §119, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 96–533, title III, §311, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3148; Pub. L. 97–113, title III, §312, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1536; Pub. L. 99–83, title IV, §405, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 219; Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2204(b)(1), (2), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1329; Pub. L. 102–549, title II, §201, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3655; Pub. L. 103–392, title II, §201, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4099; Pub. L. 106–158, §5, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1746; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted "Government Accountability Office" for "General Accounting Office".

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–158, §5(a), inserted before period at end: ", with special emphasis on economic sectors with significant United States export potential, such as energy, transportation, telecommunications, and environment".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 106–158, §5(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–158, §5(c)(1), substituted "$48,000,000 for fiscal year 2000 and such sums as may be necessary for each fiscal year thereafter" for "$77,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 and such sums as are necessary for fiscal year 1996".

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 106–158, §5(c)(2), substituted "in carrying out its program, provide, as appropriate, funds" for "in fiscal years 1993 and 1994, substantially increase the amount of funds it provides".

1994—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–392 redesignated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted "$77,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 and such sums as are necessary for fiscal year 1996." for "$55,000,000 for fiscal year 1993 and $65,000,000 for fiscal year 1994.", and added subpar. (B).

1992Pub. L. 102–549 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) which authorized a trade and development program to facilitate access to natural resources of interest to the United States and to stimulate reimbursable aid programs, established an agency called the Trade and Development Program to carry out the program, established an advisory board, and authorized appropriations for purposes of section.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §2204(b)(1), inserted sentence providing for use of funds for project planning, development, management, and procurement for bilateral and multilateral projects, for purpose of promoting use of United States exports in such projects.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 100–418, §2204(b)(2), added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–83 amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations of $20,000,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, for provisions authorizing appropriations of $6,907,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.

1981Pub. L. 97–113, §312(b), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), struck out provision for use of $4,000,000 of funds made available for fiscal year 1981 for purposes of this chapter, and added subsec. (b).

1980Pub. L. 96–533 substituted authorization for use of $4,000,000 of available funds for fiscal year 1981 for such authorization for use of $3,800,000 of available funds for fiscal year 1980 for reimbursable development programs.

1979Pub. L. 96–53 substituted "$3,800,000" for "$3,000,000" and "1980" for "1979".

1978Pub. L. 95–424 substituted "$3,000,000 of the funds made available for the purposes of this chapter for the fiscal year 1979" for "$2,000,000 of the funds made available for the purposes of this chapter. In the fiscal year 1977 and $2,000,000 of the funds made available for the purposes of this chapter in the fiscal year 1978,".

1977Pub. L. 95–88 struck out provisions authorizing the President to use up to $1,000,000 of the funds made available for the purposes of this chapter in the fiscal year 1975 and $2,000,000 in the fiscal year 1976, and inserted provisions authorizing the President to use $2,000,000 of the funds made available for the purposes of this chapter in the fiscal year 1978.

1975Pub. L. 94–161 increased usable funds in fiscal year 1976 to $2,000,000 from $1,000,000 and authorized use of $2,000,000 in fiscal year 1977.

Change of Name

Pub. L. 102–549, title II, §202(a), (e), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3657, 3658, provided that:

"(a) Renaming of Trade and Development Program.—The Trade and Development Program shall, on or after the effective date of this section [Oct. 28, 1992], be known as the Trade and Development Agency.

"(e) Reference in Other Laws.—Any reference in any law to the Trade and Development Program shall be deemed to be a reference to the Trade and Development Agency."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Appointment of Present Director Not Affected

Pub. L. 102–549, title II, §202(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3657, provided that: "The enactment of this title [amending this section and section 5401 of this title, section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 635q to 635s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, enacting provisions set out as a note above, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 2151 of this title] shall not affect the appointment of the individual who is the Director of the Trade and Development Program on the effective date of this section [Oct. 28, 1992]."

Trade and Development Program Activities for Poland and Hungary

Pub. L. 101–179, title III, §305, Nov. 28, 1989, 103 Stat. 1314, authorized appropriation of an additional $6,000,000 for the 3-year period beginning Oct. 1, 1989, to carry out this section, in order to permit expansion of the Trade and Development Program [now Agency] into Poland and Hungary.

Trade and Development Program; Reaffirmation of Support

Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2204(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1328, provided that: "The Congress reaffirms its support for the Trade and Development Program [now Trade and Development Agency], and believes that the Program's [Agency's] ability to support high priority development projects in developing countries would be enhanced by an increase in the funds authorized for the Program as well as by a clarification of the Program's status as a separate component of the International Development Cooperation Agency."

§2421a. Capital projects office within Agency for International Development

(a) Establishment of office

The Administrator of AID shall establish a capital projects office to carry out the purposes described in subsection (b).

(b) Purposes of office

The purposes referred to in subsection (a) are—

(1) to develop an AID program that would focus solely on developmentally sound capital projects, taking into consideration development needs of the host country and the export opportunities for the United States; and

(2) to consider specifically opportunities for United States high-technology firms, including small- and medium-sized firms, in supporting capital projects for developing countries and for countries making the transition from nonmarket to market economies.

(c) Activities of AID

The Administrator of AID (acting through the capital projects office), in coordination with the appropriate members of the Trade Promotion Coordination Committee—

(1) shall support capital projects in developing countries and in countries making the transition from nonmarket to market economies;

(2) shall periodically review infrastructure needs in developing countries and countries making the transition from nonmarket to market economies and shall explore opportunities for United States firms in the development of new capital projects in these countries, keeping both United States firms and the Congress informed of these reviews;

(3) shall ensure that each capital project for which AID provides funding is developmentally sound, as determined under the criteria developed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development;

(4) shall coordinate its activities with other AID offices, and work with AID country missions, in developing capital projects that provide opportunities for United States firms consistent with AID's primary mission to help developing countries with traditional development projects;

(5) shall coordinate, where appropriate, funds available to AID for tied-aid purposes; and

(6) shall play a special role in helping to meet the infrastructure needs of countries making the transition from nonmarket to market economies by meeting the challenge of infrastructure assistance provided by foreign governments to those countries, including by undertaking a comprehensive study of the infrastructure needs of the various countries making the transition from nonmarket to market economies—

(A) to identify those sectors in the economies of these countries that are most in need of rebuilding, and

(B) to identify the state of technology in these countries and the opportunity for United States high technology firms to help develop a technological infrastructure in these countries, including an assessment of export opportunities for United States high technology companies.


The results of the study conducted pursuant to paragraph (6) shall be reported to the appropriate congressional committees within 12 months after October 28, 1992.

(Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §302, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3658.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992 and also as part of the Jobs Through Exports Act of 1992, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §301, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3658, provided that: "This title [enacting this section and sections 2421b to 2421e of this title and provisions set out as notes below] may be cited as the 'Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992'."

Reports to Congress on Capital Projects

Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §305, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3660, directed President, not later than May 1, 1993, to submit to Congress a report describing the extent to which United States Government resources have been expended specifically to support specified projects in developing countries and countries making the transition from nonmarket to market economies, the extent to which the activities of the United States Government have been coordinated, and the extent to which United States Government capital projects and tied-aid credit programs have affected United States exports.

Report on Feasibility of AID Credit Guarantees To Finance Capital Projects

Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §307, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3660, directed President, not later than May 1, 1993, to submit to Committee on Foreign Affairs and Committee on Appropriations of House of Representatives and Committee on Foreign Relations and Committee on Appropriations of Senate a report on feasibility of allowing AID to offer credit guarantees for financing of capital projects.

§2421b. Capital projects for poverty alleviation and environmental safety and sustainability

(a) Purposes

The Administrator of AID shall develop a program, in accordance with subsection (b), that focuses on developmentally sound capital projects for basic infrastructure that will measurably alleviate the worst manifestations of poverty or directly promote environmental safety and sustainability at the community level, taking into consideration development needs of the host country and export opportunities for services and goods from the United States.

(b) Activities of AID

In order to carry out subsection (a), the Administrator of AID shall, working with AID technical support staff, regional bureau staff, and country missions, identify and provide funding for capital projects to alleviate the worst manifestations of poverty or to promote environmental safety and sustainability at the community level in countries receiving assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.]. Such projects may include basic sanitation systems, basic water supply and treatment, pollution control, and rural infrastructure benefiting poor communities or establishing environmentally sustainable patterns of rural development. Such projects should have measurable positive effects on indicators of human and environmental health.

(Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §303, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3659.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424. Part I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§2151 et seq.) of chapter 32 of this title. For provisions deeming references to subchapter I to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 32, see section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992 and also as part of the Jobs Through Exports Act of 1992, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

§2421c. Coordination

The President shall use the Trade Promotion Coordination Committee to coordinate activities under sections 2421a to 2421e of this title with other relevant activities of the United States Government.

(Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §304, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3659.)

References in Text

Sections 2421a to 2421e of this title, referred to in text, was in the original "this title" meaning title III of Pub. L. 102–549, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3658, known as the Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992, which enacted sections 2421a to 2421e of this title and provisions set out as notes under section 2421a of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2421a of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992 and also as part of the Jobs Through Exports Act of 1992, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

§2421d. Funding for capital projects

(a) Funding level

The Congress strongly urges the President to use at least $650,000,000 for fiscal year 1993 and at least $700,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 of the total amounts made available for assistance under chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.] (relating to the economic support fund), assistance under the Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 [22 U.S.C. 5401 et seq.], assistance under the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992, and assistance under the Multilateral Assistance Initiative for the Philippines, for grants for developmentally sound capital projects. Such grants may be combined with financing offered by private financial entities or other entities.

(b) Development assistance capital projects

Funds appropriated to carry out chapter 1 or chapter 10 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq., 2293 et seq.] (relating to development assistance and the Development Fund for Africa) may not be used for capital projects that do not meet the criteria contained in section 2421b of this title. This subsection does not apply with respect to capital projects for which funds have been obligated or expended before October 28, 1992.

(Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §306, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3660.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended. Chapter 10 of part I of the Act is classified generally to part X (§2293 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 32 of this title. Chapter 4 of part II of the Act is classified generally to part IV (§2346 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 32 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 101–179, Nov. 28, 1989, 103 Stat. 1298, which is classified principally to chapter 63 (§5401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5401 of this title and Tables.

The Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 102–511, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3320, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992 and also as part of the Jobs Through Exports Act of 1992, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

§2421e. Definitions

For purposes of sections 2421a to 2421e of this title

(1) the term "AID" means the Agency for International Development; and

(2) the term "capital project" means a project involving the construction, expansion, alteration of, or the acquisition of equipment for, a physical facility or physical infrastructure, including related engineering design (concept and detail) and other services, the procurement of equipment (including any related services), and feasibility studies or similar engineering and economic services.

(Pub. L. 102–549, title III, §308, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3660.)

References in Text

Sections 2421a to 2421e of this title, referred to in text, was in the original "this title" meaning title III of Pub. L. 102–549, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3658, known as the Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992, which enacted sections 2421a to 2421e of this title and provisions set out as notes under section 2421a of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2421a of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1992 and also as part of the Jobs Through Exports Act of 1992, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

§2421f. Sustainability requirements for certain capital projects in connection with overseas contingency operations

(a) Limitation

(1) In general

Commencing 60 days after January 2, 2013—

(A) amounts authorized to be appropriated for the Department of Defense may not be obligated or expended for a capital project described in subsection (b) unless the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the United States commander of military operations in the country in which the project will be carried out, completes an assessment on the necessity and sustainability of the project;

(B) amounts authorized to be appropriated for the Department of State may not be obligated or expended for a capital project described in subsection (b) unless the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Chief of Mission in the country in which the project will be carried out, completes an assessment on the necessity and sustainability of the project; and

(C) amounts authorized to be appropriated for the United States Agency for International Development may not be obligated or expended for a capital project described in subsection (b) unless the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, in consultation with the Mission Director and the Chief of Mission in the country in which the project will be carried out, completes an assessment on the necessity and sustainability of the project.

(2) Elements

Each assessment on a capital project under this subsection shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

(A) An estimate of the total cost of the completed project to the United States.

(B) An estimate of the financial and other requirements necessary for the host government to sustain the project on an annual basis after completion of the project.

(C) An assessment whether the host government has the capacity (in both financial and human resources) to maintain and use the project after completion.

(D) A description of any arrangements for the sustainment of the project following its completion if the host government lacks the capacity (in financial or human resources) to maintain the project.

(E) An assessment whether the host government has requested or expressed its need for the project, and an explanation of the decision to proceed with the project absent such request or need.

(F) An assessment by the Secretary of Defense, where applicable, of the effect of the project on the military mission of the United States in the country concerned.

(b) Covered capital projects

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), a capital project described in this subsection is any capital project overseas for an overseas contingency operation for the benefit of a host country and funded by the Department of Defense, the Department of State, or the United States Agency for International Development, as applicable, if the capital project—

(A) in the case of a project that directly supports building the capacity of indigenous security forces in the host country, has an estimated value in excess of $10,000,000;

(B) in the case of any project not covered by subparagraph (A) that is to be funded by the Department of State or the United States Agency for International Development, has an estimated value in excess of $5,000,000; or

(C) in the case of any other project, has an estimated value in excess of $2,000,000.

(2) Exclusion

A capital project described in this subsection does not include any project for military construction (as that term is defined in section 114(b) of title 10) or a military family housing project under section 2821 of such title.

(c) Waiver

The Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, or the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, as applicable, may waive the limitation in subsection (a) in order to initiate a capital project if such Secretary or the Administrator, as the case may be, determines that the project is in the national security, diplomatic, or humanitarian interests of the United States. In the first report submitted under subsection (d) after any waiver under this subsection, such Secretary or the Administrator shall include a detailed justification of such waiver. Not later than 90 days after issuing a waiver under this subsection, such Secretary or the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the assessment described in subsection (a) with respect to the capital project concerned.

(d) Semi-annual reports

(1) In general

Not later than 30 days after the end of any fiscal-year half-year in which the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, or the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development conducts an assessment under subsection (a), such Secretary or the Administrator, as the case may be, shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report setting forth each assessment so conducted during such fiscal-year half-year, including the elements of each capital project so assessed specified in subsection (a)(2).

(2) Additional elements

In addition to the matters provided for in paragraph (1), each report under that paragraph shall include the following:

(A) For each capital project covered by such report, an evaluation (other than by amount of funds expended) of the effectiveness of such project, including, at a minimum, the following:

(i) The stated goals of the project.

(ii) The actions taken to assess and verify whether the project has met the stated goals of the project or is on track to meet such goals when completed.

(iii) The current and anticipated levels of involvement of local governments, communities, and individuals in the project.


(B) For each country or region in which a capital project covered by such report is being carried out, an assessment of the current and anticipated risks of corruption or fraud in connection with such project.

(3) Form

Each report shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(e) Definitions

In this section:

(1) The term "appropriate committees of Congress" means—

(A) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.


(2) The term "capital project" has the meaning given that term in section 2421e of this title.

(3) The term "overseas contingency operation" means a military operation outside the United States and its territories and possessions that is a contingency operation (as that term is defined in section 101(a)(13) of title 10).

(Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XII, §1273, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2023.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

§2422. Repealed. Pub. L. 102–88, title VI, §601, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 441

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §662, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §32, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1804, and amended Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §407(a), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1981, prohibited funding of activities of the Central Intelligence Agency, other than intelligence gathering, without Presidential finding of importance to national security of United States and defined such activities as significant anticipated intelligence activities for purpose of section 413 of Title 50, War and National Defense. See section 3094 of Title 50.

§2423. Exchanges of certain materials

(a) Agreement for necessary or strategic raw material; definition

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever the President determines it is in the United States national interest, he shall furnish assistance under this chapter or shall furnish defense articles or services under the Foreign Military Sales Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et. seq.], pursuant to an agreement with the recipient of such assistance, articles, or services which provides that such recipient may only obtain such assistance, articles, or services in exchange for any necessary or strategic raw material controlled by such recipient. For the purposes of this section, the term "necessary or strategic raw material" includes petroleum, other fossil fuels, metals, minerals, or any other natural substance which the President determines is in short supply in the United States.

(b) Allocation of raw materials to Federal agencies

The President shall allocate any necessary or strategic raw material transferred to the United States under this section to any appropriate agency of the United States Government for stockpiling, sale, transfer, disposal, or any other purpose authorized by law.

(c) Deposits in United States Treasury of funds from disposal of materials

Funds received from any disposal of materials under subsection (b) shall be deposited as miscellaneous receipts in the United States Treasury.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §663, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §32, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1805.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Military Sales Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 1, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, known as the Arms Export Control Act, on authority of section 201(b) of Pub. L. 94–329, title II, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 734, and is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2424. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §123(c), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §664, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §33, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1805, authorized the President to waive provisions which prohibited assistance to countries trading with designated countries.

§2425. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §604, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §665, as added Pub. L. 94–161, title III, §317, Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 867, authorized appropriations for the interim period July 1, 1976 through Sept. 30, 1976 of such amounts as were necessary to conduct programs for which funding was authorized for fiscal year 1976 by the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1975 provided the total amount authorized not exceed one-fourth of the total authorized for fiscal year 1976 for such programs and activities.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

§2426. Discrimination against United States personnel

(a) Assignment of personnel on basis of ability and experience

The President shall not take into account, in assigning officers and employees of the United States to carry out any economic development assistance programs funded under this chapter in any foreign country, the race, religion, national origin, or sex of any such officer or employee. Such assignments shall be made solely on the basis of ability and relevant experience.

(b) Prohibition on use of funds in country practicing discrimination

Effective six months after December 20, 1975, or on such earlier date as the President may determine, none of the funds made available under this chapter may be used to provide economic development assistance to any country which objects to the presence of any officer or employee of the United States who is present in such country for the purpose of carrying out any program of economic development assistance authorized by the provisions of this chapter on the basis of the race, religion, national origin, or sex of such officer or employee.

(c) Rules and regulations

The Secretary of State shall promulgate such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §666, as added Pub. L. 94–161, title III, §318, Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 868.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2427. Operating expenses

(a) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes—

(1) $387,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $387,000,000 for fiscal year 1987 for necessary operating expenses of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, of which $21,750,000 for the fiscal year 1987 is authorized for the necessary operating expenses of the Office of the Inspector General of the Agency for International Development and the remaining amount for the fiscal year is authorized for other necessary operating expenses of that agency; and

(2) such amounts as may be necessary for increases in salary, pay, retirement, and other employee benefits authorized by law, and for other nondiscretionary costs of such agency.

(b) Continuing availability of funds

Amounts appropriated under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §667, as added Pub. L. 94–161, title III, §319, Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 868; amended Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §129(a), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 543; Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §506, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 960; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §120, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §709, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3159; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §706, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 99–83, title IV, §406, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 219; Pub. L. 99–529, title IV, §402, Oct. 24, 1986, 100 Stat. 3019.)

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–529 inserted ", of which $21,750,000 for the fiscal year 1987 is authorized for the necessary operating expenses of the Office of the Inspector General of the Agency for International Development and the remaining amount for the fiscal year is authorized for other necessary operating expenses of that agency".

1985—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–83 amended par. (1) generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations of $387,000,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, for provisions authorizing appropriations of $335,600,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out from provision preceding par. (1) ", for the fiscal year 1981" after "for such purposes" and substituted in par. (1) "$335,600,000 for the fiscal year 1982 and $335,600,000 for the fiscal year 1983" for "$293,800,000".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–533 substituted in provisions preceding par. (1) "1981" for "1980" and in par. (1) "$293,800,000" for "$263,000,000".

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–53 substituted in provisions preceding par. (1) "1980" for "1979" and in par. (1) "$263,000,000" for "$261,000,000".

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–424 substituted in provisions preceding par. (1) "1979" for "1978" and in par. (1) "$261,000,000" for "$220,200,000".

1977Pub. L. 95–88 substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal year 1978 for provisions stating that nothing in this chapter was intended to preclude the Committees on Appropriations from setting a ceiling on operating expenses of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter or limiting the availability of other sums therefor.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2428. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §668, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title IV, §411, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 760, required annual reports respecting the Republic of Korea's armed forces modernization and self-sufficiency program, the role of the United States in the security of the Republic of Korea, and prospects for a withdrawal of United States forces from the country. See section 2375 of this title.

§2428a. Congressional declaration of policy toward Korea; transmittal of report to Speaker of the House and Congressional committees

(a) The Congress declares that—

(1) United States policy toward Korea should continue to be arrived at by joint decision of the President and the Congress;

(2) in any implementation of the President's policy of gradual and phased reduction of United States ground forces from the Republic of Korea, the United States should seek to accomplish such reduction in stages consistent with United States interests in Asia, notably Japan, and with the security interests of the Republic of Korea;

(3) any implementation of this policy should be carried out with a careful regard to the interest of the United States in continuing its close relationship with the people and government of Japan, in fostering democratic practices in the Republic of Korea, and in maintaining stable relations among the countries of East Asia; and

(4) these interests can be served most effectively by a policy which involves consultations by the United States Government, as appropriate, with the governments of the region, particularly those directly involved.


(b)(1) Any implementation of the foregoing policy shall be carried out in regular consultation with the Congress.

(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §139(5), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 398.

(Pub. L. 95–105, title V, §512, Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 861; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §139(5), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 398.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1978, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–236 struck out par. (2) which read as follows: "Not later than February 15, 1978, and not later than February 15 of each year thereafter until any such withdrawal is completed, the President shall transmit a report in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Foreign Relations, Armed Services, and Intelligence of the Senate assessing the implementation of the foregoing policy."

§2428b. Special security assistance for modernization of Armed Forces of Korea

(a) Transfer authority of President of defense articles and services located in Korea; applicable terms and conditions; reimbursement

(1) The President is authorized until December 31, 1982—

(A) to transfer, without reimbursement, to the Republic of Korea, only in conjunction with the withdrawal of the 2d Infantry Division and support forces from Korea, such United States Government-owned defense articles as he may determine which are located in Korea in the custody of units of the United States Army scheduled to depart from Korea; and

(B) to furnish to the Republic of Korea, without reimbursement, defense services (including technical and operational training) in Korea directly related to the United States Government-owned defense articles transferred to the Republic of Korea under this subsection.


(2) Any transfer under the authority of this section shall be made in accordance with all the terms and conditions of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] applicable to the furnishing of defense articles and defense services under chapter 2 of part II of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq.], except that no funds heretofore or hereafter appropriated under that Act shall be available to reimburse any agency of the United States Government for any such transfer or related services.

(b) Additional transfer authority of President of defense articles located outside of Korea; prerequisites for determinations respecting transfers; report by President to Congress of determinations

In order that transfers of defense articles under subsection (a) will not cause significant adverse impact on the readiness of the Armed Forces of the United States, the President is authorized, in lieu of such transfers, to transfer additional defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, wherever located, to the Republic of Korea to compensate for the military capability of defense articles withdrawn from Korea in any case where he determines that—

(1) the transfer of specific defense articles located in Korea would have a significant adverse impact on the readiness of the United States Armed Forces;

(2) the defense capability provided by those defense articles is needed by the Armed Forces of the Republic of Korea in order to maintain the military balance on the Korean peninsula; and

(3) a comparable defense capability could be provided by less advanced defense articles in the stocks of the Department of Defense which could be transferred without significant adverse impact on the readiness of the United States Armed Forces.


The President shall report to the Congress each determination made under this subsection prior to the transfer of the defense articles described in such determination.

(c) Report by President to Congress of types, etc., of transferred defense articles

The President shall transmit to the Congress, together with the presentation materials for security assistance programs proposed for each fiscal year through and including the fiscal year 1983, a report describing the types, quantities, and value of defense articles furnished or intended to be furnished to the Republic of Korea under this section.

(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(12), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

(e) Congressional policy respecting further troop withdrawals

(1) It is the sense of the Congress that further withdrawal of ground forces of the United States from the Republic of Korea may seriously risk upsetting the military balance in that region and requires full advance consultation with the Congress.

(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(12), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

(Pub. L. 95–384, §23, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 743; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(12), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§2151 et seq.). Chapter 2 of part II of that Act is classified generally to part II (§2311 et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Security Assistance Act of 1978, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out subsec. (d) which required Presidential reports to Congress respecting viability of troop withdrawals from Korea.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out par. (2) which required Presidential reports to Congress respecting effect of further troop withdrawals from Korea.

§§2429, 2429a. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–236, title VIII, §826(b), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 519

Section 2429, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §669, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title III, §305, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 755; amended Pub. L. 95–92, §12, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 620; Pub. L. 95–384, §§10(b)(4), 12(c)(3), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 735, 737; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §737(b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1562, related to nuclear enrichment transfers by or to recipients of economic, military or security supporting assistance from the United States. See section 2799aa of this title.

Section 2429a, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §670, as added Pub. L. 95–92, §12, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 620; amended Pub. L. 95–384, §§10(b)(4), 12(c)(3), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 735, 737; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §737(c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1562; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1204(a), (b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 277, prohibited assistance to countries involved in transfer of nuclear reprocessing equipment, materials, or technology. See section 2799aa–1 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by section 826(b) of Pub. L. 103–236 effective 60 days after Apr. 30, 1994, see section 831 of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.

§2429a–1. Annual report on nuclear transfer activities

Beginning with the fiscal year 1983 and for each fiscal year thereafter, the President shall prepare and transmit to the Congress, as part of the presentation materials for foreign assistance programs proposed for that fiscal year, a classified report describing the nuclear programs and related activities of any country for which a waiver of section 2799aa or 2799aa–1 of this title is in effect, including an assessment of—

(1) the extent and effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards at that country's nuclear facilities; and

(2) the capability, actions, and intentions of the government of that country with respect to the manufacture or acquisition of a nuclear explosive device.

(Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §735, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 103–236, title VIII, §826(c), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 519.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–236 substituted "section 2799aa or 2799aa–1" for "section 2429 or 2429a".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 effective 60 days after Apr. 30, 1994, see section 831 of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.

§2429a–2. Enforcement of nonproliferation treaties

(a) Policy

It is the sense of the Congress that the President should instruct the United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations to enhance the role of that institution in the enforcement of nonproliferation treaties through the passage of a United Nations Security Council resolution which would state that, any non-nuclear weapon state that is found by the United Nations Security Council, in consultation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), to have terminated, abrogated, or materially violated an IAEA full-scope safeguards agreement would be subjected to international economic sanctions, the scope of which to be determined by the United Nations Security Council.

(b) Prohibition

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no United States assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] shall be provided to any non-nuclear weapon state that is found by the President to have terminated, abrogated, or materially violated an IAEA full-scope safeguard agreement or materially violated a bilateral United States nuclear cooperation agreement entered into after March 10, 1978.

(c) Waiver

The President may waive the application of subsection (b) if—

(1) the President determines that the termination of such assistance would be seriously prejudicial to the achievement of United States nonproliferation objectives or otherwise jeopardize the common defense and security; and

(2) the President reports such determination to the Congress at least 15 days in advance of any resumption of assistance to that state.

(Pub. L. 103–236, title V, §530, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 479.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§2151 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of State by par. (1) of Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 23, 2007, 72 F.R. 18103, set out in a note under section 635 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

§2429b. Transferred

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §671, as added Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §130, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 543, which related to notification of program changes, was transferred to section 2394–1 of this title.