[USC04] 22 USC Ch. 48: TAIWAN RELATIONS
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22 USC Ch. 48: TAIWAN RELATIONS
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 48—TAIWAN RELATIONS

Sec.
3301.
Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
3302.
Implementation of United States policy with regard to Taiwan.
3303.
Application to Taiwan of laws and international agreements.
3304.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
3305.
The American Institute in Taiwan.
3306.
Services to United States citizens on Taiwan.
3307.
Exemption from taxation.
3308.
Activities of United States Government agencies.
3309.
Taiwan instrumentality.
3310.
Employment of United States Government agency personnel.
3310a.
Commercial personnel at American Institute of Taiwan.
3311.
Reporting requirements.
3312.
Rules and regulations.
3313.
Congressional oversight.
3314.
Definitions.
3315.
Authorization of appropriations.
3316.
Severability.

        

§3301. Congressional findings and declaration of policy

(a) Findings

The President having terminated governmental relations between the United States and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, the Congress finds that the enactment of this chapter is necessary—

(1) to help maintain peace, security, and stability in the Western Pacific; and

(2) to promote the foreign policy of the United States by authorizing the continuation of commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan.

(b) Policy

It is the policy of the United States—

(1) to preserve and promote extensive, close, and friendly commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan, as well as the people on the China mainland and all other peoples of the Western Pacific area;

(2) to declare that peace and stability in the area are in the political, security, and economic interests of the United States, and are matters of international concern;

(3) to make clear that the United States decision to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China rests upon the expectation that the future of Taiwan will be determined by peaceful means;

(4) to consider any effort to determine the future of Taiwan by other than peaceful means, including by boycotts or embargoes, a threat to the peace and security of the Western Pacific area and of grave concern to the United States;

(5) to provide Taiwan with arms of a defensive character; and

(6) to maintain the capacity of the United States to resist any resort to force or other forms of coercion that would jeopardize the security, or the social or economic system, of the people on Taiwan.

(c) Human rights

Nothing contained in this chapter shall contravene the interest of the United States in human rights, especially with respect to the human rights of all the approximately eighteen million inhabitants of Taiwan. The preservation and enhancement of the human rights of all the people on Taiwan are hereby reaffirmed as objectives of the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §2, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 14.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 96–8, §18, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 21, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] shall be effective as of January 1, 1979."

Short Title

Pub. L. 96–8, §1, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 14, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Taiwan Relations Act'."

Strengthening the Defense Partnership Between the United States and Taiwan

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XII, §1259, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1685, provided that:

"(a) Statement of Policy.—It is the policy of the United States to reinforce its commitments to Taiwan under the Taiwan Relations Act [Pub. L. 96–8, 22 U.S.C. 3301 et seq.] and consistent with the 'Six Assurances' as both governments work to improve Taiwan's self-defense capability.

"(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that the United States should—

"(1) strengthen and enhance its longstanding partnership and cooperation with Taiwan;

"(2) conduct regular transfers of defense articles and defense services necessary to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability, based solely on the needs of Taiwan;

"(3) invite the military forces of Taiwan to participate in military exercises, such as the 'Red Flag' exercises;

"(4) carry out a program of exchanges of senior military officers and senior officials with Taiwan to improve military-to-military relations, as expressed in section 1284 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114–328; 130 Stat. 2544);

"(5) support expanded exchanges focused on practical training for Taiwan personnel by and with United States military units, including exchanges among services;

"(6) conduct bilateral naval exercises, to include pre-sail conferences, in the western Pacific Ocean with the Taiwan navy; and

"(7) consider the advisability and feasibility of reestablishing port of call exchanges between the United States navy and the Taiwan navy."

Executive Order No. 12143

Ex. Ord. No. 12143, June 22, 1979, 44 F.R. 37191, which provided for facilitation of the maintenance of commercial, cultural, and other relations between the peoples of the United States and Taiwan, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 13014, Aug. 15, 1996, 61 F.R. 42963, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 13014. Maintaining Unofficial Relations With the People on Taiwan

Ex. Ord. No. 13014, Aug. 15, 1996, 61 F.R. 42963, provided:

In light of the recognition of the People's Republic of China by the United States of America as the sole legal government of China, and by the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by the Taiwan Relations Act (Public Law 96-8, 22 U.S.C. 3301 et seq.) ("Act"), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, in order to facilitate the maintenance of commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan without official representation or diplomatic relations, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Delegation and Reservation of Functions.

1–101. Exclusive of the functions otherwise delegated, or reserved to the President by this order, there are delegated to the Secretary of State ("Secretary") all functions conferred upon the President by the Act, including the authority under section 7(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 3306(a)] to specify which laws of the United States relative to the provision of consular services may be administered by employees of the American Institute on Taiwan ("Institute"). In carrying out these functions, the Secretary may redelegate his authority, and shall consult with other departments and agencies as he deems appropriate.

1–102. There are delegated to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management the functions conferred upon the President by paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 11(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 3310(a)]. These functions shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary.

1–103. There are reserved to the President the functions conferred upon the President by section 3 [22 U.S.C. 3302], the second sentence of section 9(b) [22 U.S.C. 3308(b)], and the determinations specified in section 10(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 3309(a)].

Sec. 2. Specification of Laws and Determinations.

2–201. Pursuant to section 9(b) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 3308(b)], and in furtherance of the purposes of the Act, the procurement of services may be effected by the Institute without regard to the following provisions of law and limitations of authority as they may be amended from time to time:

(a) Sections 1301(d) and 1341 of title 31, United States Code, and section 3732 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 11) to the extent necessary to permit the indemnification of contractors against unusually hazardous risks, as defined in Institute contracts, consistent, to the extent practicable, with section 52.228-7 of the Federal Acquisition Regulations;

(b) Section 3324 of title 31, United States Code;

(c) Sections 3709, 3710, and 3735 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U.S.C. 5, 8, and 13);

(d) Section 2 of title III of the Act of March 3, 1933 (41 U.S.C. 10a);

(e) Title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (41 U.S.C. 251-260);

(f) The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, as amended (41 U.S.C. 601-613);

(g) Chapter 137 of title 10, United States Code (10 U.S.C. 2301-2316);

(h) The Act of May 11, 1954 (the "Anti-Wunderlich Act") (41 U.S.C. 321, 322); and

(i) Section (f) of 41 U.S.C. 423.

2–202. (a) With respect to cost-type contracts with the Institute under which no fee is charged or paid, amendments and modifications of such contracts may be made with or without consideration and may be utilized to accomplish the same things as any original contract could have accomplished, irrespective of the time or circumstances of the making, or the form of the contract amended or modified, or of the amending or modifying contract and irrespective of rights that may have accrued under the contractor [contract] the amendments or modifications thereof.

(b) With respect to contracts heretofore or hereafter made under the Act, other than those described in subsection (a) of this section, amendments and modifications of such contracts may be made with or without consideration and may be utilized to accomplish the same things as any original contract could have accomplished, irrespective of the time or circumstances of the making, or the form of the contract amended or modified, or of the amending or modifying contract, and irrespective of rights that may have accrued under the contract or the amendments or modifications thereof, if the Secretary determines in each case that such action is necessary to protect the foreign policy interests of the United States.

2–203. Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 3309(a)], the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States ("TECRO"), formerly the Coordination Council for North America Affairs ("CCNAA"), is determined to be the instrumentality established by the people on Taiwan having the necessary authority under the laws applied by the people on Taiwan to provide assurances and take other actions on behalf of Taiwan in accordance with the Act. Nothing contained in this determination or order shall affect, or be construed to affect, the continued validity of agreements, contracts, or other undertakings, of whatever kind or nature, entered into previously by CCNAA.

Sec. 3. President's Memorandum of December 30, 1978.

3–301. Agreements and arrangements referred to in paragraph (B) of President Carter's memorandum of December 30, 1978, entitled "Relations With the People on Taiwan" (44 FR 1075) shall, unless otherwise terminated or modified in accordance with law, continue in force and be performed in accordance with the Act and this order.

Sec. 4. General. This order supersedes Executive Order No. 12143 of June 22, 1979.

William J. Clinton.      

§3302. Implementation of United States policy with regard to Taiwan

(a) Defense articles and services

In furtherance of the policy set forth in section 3301 of this title, the United States will make available to Taiwan such defense articles and defense services in such quantity as may be necessary to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability.

(b) Determination of Taiwan's defense needs

The President and the Congress shall determine the nature and quantity of such defense articles and services based solely upon their judgment of the needs of Taiwan, in accordance with procedures established by law. Such determination of Taiwan's defense needs shall include review by United States military authorities in connection with recommendations to the President and the Congress.

(c) United States response to threats to Taiwan or dangers to United States interests

The President is directed to inform the Congress promptly of any threat to the security or the social or economic system of the people on Taiwan and any danger to the interests of the United States arising therefrom. The President and the Congress shall determine, in accordance with constitutional processes, appropriate action by the United States in response to any such danger.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §3, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 15.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

Normalizing the Transfer of Defense Articles and Defense Services to Taiwan

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XII, §1259A, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1685, provided that:

"(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that any requests from the Government of Taiwan for defense articles and defense services should receive a case-by-case review by the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of State, that is consistent with the standard processes and procedures in an effort to normalize the arms sales process with Taiwan.

"(b) Report.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date on which the Secretary of Defense receives a Letter of Request from Taiwan with respect to the transfer of a defense article or defense service to Taiwan, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

"(A) the status of such request;

"(B) if the transfer of such article or service would require a certification or report to Congress pursuant to any applicable provision of section 36 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2776), the status of any Letter of Offer and Acceptance the Secretary of Defense intends to issue with respect to such request; and

"(C) an assessment of whether the transfer of such article or service would be consistent with United States obligations under the Taiwan Relations Act (Public Law 96–8; 22 U.S.C. 3301 et seq.).

"(2) Elements.—Each report required under paragraph (1) shall specify the following:

"(A) The date the Secretary of Defense received the Letter of Request.

"(B) The value of the sale proposed by such Letter of Request.

"(C) A description of the defense article or defense service proposed to be transferred.

"(D) The view of the Secretary of Defense with respect to such proposed sale and whether such sale would be consistent with United States defense initiatives with Taiwan.

"(3) Form.—Each report required under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

"(c) Briefing.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], and every 180 days thereafter, the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretary of State, shall provide a briefing to the appropriate congressional committees with respect to the security challenges faced by Taiwan and the military cooperation between the United States and Taiwan, including a description of any requests from Taiwan for the transfer of defense articles or defense services and the status, whether signed or unsigned, of any Letters of Offer and Acceptance with respect to such requests.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives; and

"(B) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

"(2) Defense article; defense service.—The terms 'defense article' and 'defense service' have the meanings given such terms in section 47 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2794).

"(3) Letter of request; letter of offer and acceptance.—The terms 'Letter of Request' and 'Letter of Offer and Acceptance' have the meanings given such terms for purposes of Chapter 5 of the Security Assistance Management Manual of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act."

Consultation With Congress With Regard to Taiwan

Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1263, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1434, provided that: "Beginning 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 2002], and every 180 days thereafter, the President shall provide detailed briefings to and consult with the appropriate congressional committees regarding the United States security assistance to Taiwan, including the provision of defense articles and defense services."

[For definitions of "appropriate congressional committees", "defense article", and "defense service" as used in section 1263 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 3 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2651 of this title and section 1002 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.]

Transfer of War Reserve Materiel and Other Property to Taiwan

Pub. L. 96–92, §23, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 710, authorized President, during calendar year 1980, to transfer to Taiwan, under such terms and conditions as he may deem appropriate, United States war reserve materiel that was located on Taiwan on Jan. 1, 1979, and during calendar years 1979 and 1980, to transfer to Taiwan, under such terms and conditions as he may deem appropriate, rights of the United States in property (other than war reserve materiel) that was located on Taiwan on Jan. 1, 1979.

§3303. Application to Taiwan of laws and international agreements

(a) Application of United States laws generally

The absence of diplomatic relations or recognition shall not affect the application of the laws of the United States with respect to Taiwan, and the laws of the United States shall apply with respect to Taiwan in the manner that the laws of the United States applied with respect to Taiwan prior to January 1, 1979.

(b) Application of United States laws in specific and enumerated areas

The application of subsection (a) of this section shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following:

(1) Whenever the laws of the United States refer or relate to foreign countries, nations, states, governments, or similar entities, such terms shall include and such laws shall apply with respect to Taiwan.

(2) Whenever authorized by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to conduct or carry out programs, transactions, or other relations with respect to foreign countries, nations, states, governments, or similar entities, the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized to conduct and carry out, in accordance with section 3305 of this title, such programs, transactions, and other relations with respect to Taiwan (including, but not limited to, the performance of services for the United States through contracts with commercial entities on Taiwan), in accordance with the applicable laws of the United States.

(3)(A) The absence of diplomatic relations and recognition with respect to Taiwan shall not abrogate, infringe, modify, deny, or otherwise affect in any way any rights or obligations (including but not limited to those involving contracts, debts, or property interests of any kind) under the laws of the United States heretofore or hereafter acquired by or with respect to Taiwan.

(B) For all purposes under the laws of the United States, including actions in any court in the United States, recognition of the People's Republic of China shall not affect in any way the ownership of or other rights or interests in properties, tangible and intangible, and other things of value, owned or held on or prior to December 31, 1978, or thereafter acquired or earned by the governing authorities on Taiwan.

(4) Whenever the application of the laws of the United States depends upon the law that is or was applicable on Taiwan or compliance therewith, the law applied by the people on Taiwan shall be considered the applicable law for that purpose.

(5) Nothing in this chapter, nor the facts of the President's action in extending diplomatic recognition to the People's Republic of China, the absence of diplomatic relations between the people on Taiwan and the United States, or the lack of recognition by the United States, and attendant circumstances thereto, shall be construed in any administrative or judicial proceeding as a basis for any United States Government agency, commission, or department to make a finding of fact or determination of law, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 [22 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.], to deny an export license application or to revoke an existing export license for nuclear exports to Taiwan.

(6) For purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], Taiwan may be treated in the manner specified in the first sentence of section 202(b) of that Act [8 U.S.C. 1152(b)].

(7) The capacity of Taiwan to sue and be sued in courts in the United States, in accordance with the laws of the United States, shall not be abrogated, infringed, modified, denied, or otherwise affected in any way by the absence of diplomatic relations or recognition.

(8) No requirement, whether expressed or implied, under the laws of the United States with respect to maintenance of diplomatic relations or recognition shall be applicable with respect to Taiwan.

(c) Treaties and other international agreements

For all purposes, including actions in any court in the United States, the Congress approves the continuation in force of all treaties and other international agreements, including multilateral conventions, entered into by the United States and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, and in force between them on December 31, 1978, unless and until terminated in accordance with law.

(d) Membership in international financial institutions and other international organizations

Nothing in this chapter may be construed as a basis for supporting the exclusion or expulsion of Taiwan from continued membership in any international financial institution or any other international organization.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §4, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 15.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), is Pub. L. 95–242, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 120, which is classified principally to chapter 47 (§3201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3201 of this title and Tables.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

Concerning the Participation of Taiwan in the International Civil Aviation Organization

Pub. L. 113–17, §1, July 12, 2013, 127 Stat. 480, directed the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to obtain observer status for Taiwan at the triennial International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Assembly and other related meetings, activities, and mechanisms thereafter, to instruct the United States Mission to the ICAO to officially request observer status for Taiwan at such Assembly, meetings, activities, and mechanisms, to actively urge ICAO member states to support such observer status and participation for Taiwan, and to submit a report to Congress on the strategy developed by not later than 30 days after July 12, 2013.

Semiannual Reports on United States Support for Membership or Participation of Taiwan in International Organizations

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. A, title VII, §704], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-460, provided that:

"(a) Reports Required.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1999], and every 6 months thereafter for fiscal years 2000 and 2001, the Secretary of State shall submit to Congress a report in a classified and unclassified manner on the status of efforts by the United States Government to support—

"(1) the membership of Taiwan in international organizations that do not require statehood as a prerequisite to such membership; and

"(2) the appropriate level of participation by Taiwan in international organizations that may require statehood as a prerequisite to full membership.

"(b) Report Elements.—Each report under subsection (a) shall—

"(1) set forth a comprehensive list of the international organizations in which the United States Government supports the membership or participation of Taiwan;

"(2) describe in detail the efforts of the United States Government to achieve the membership or participation of Taiwan in each organization listed; and

"(3) identify the obstacles to the membership or participation of Taiwan in each organization listed, including a list of any governments that do not support the membership or participation of Taiwan in each such organization."

§3304. Overseas Private Investment Corporation

(a) Removal of per capita income restriction on Corporation activities with respect to investment projects on Taiwan

During the three-year period beginning on April 10, 1979, the $1,000 per capita income restriction in clause (2) of the second undesignated paragraph of section 2191 of this title shall not restrict the activities of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation in determining whether to provide any insurance, reinsurance, loans, or guaranties with respect to investment projects on Taiwan.

(b) Application by Corporation of other criteria

Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, in issuing insurance, reinsurance, loans, or guaranties with respect to investment projects on Taiwan, the Overseas Private Insurance 1 Corporation shall apply the same criteria as those applicable in other parts of the world.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §5, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 16.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Investment".

§3305. The American Institute in Taiwan

(a) Conduct of programs, transactions, or other relations with respect to Taiwan

Programs, transactions, and other relations conducted or carried out by the President or any agency of the United States Government with respect to Taiwan shall, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, be conducted and carried out by or through—

(1) The American Institute in Taiwan, a nonprofit corporation incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia, or

(2) such comparable successor nongovernmental entity as the President may designate,


(hereafter in this chapter referred to as the "Institute").

(b) Agreements or transactions relative to Taiwan entered into, performed, and enforced

Whenever the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized or required by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to enter into, perform, enforce, or have in force an agreement or transaction relative to Taiwan, such agreement or transaction shall be entered into, performed, and enforced, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, by or through the Institute.

(c) Preemption of laws, rules, regulations, or ordinances of District of Columbia, States, or political subdivisions of States

To the extent that any law, rule, regulation, or ordinance of the District of Columbia, or of any State or political subdivision thereof in which the Institute is incorporated or doing business, impedes or otherwise interferes with the performance of the functions of the Institute pursuant to this chapter, such law, rule, regulation, or ordinance shall be deemed to be preempted by this chapter.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §6, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 17.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3306. Services to United States citizens on Taiwan

(a) Authorized services

The Institute may authorize any of its employees on Taiwan—

(1) to administer to or take from any person an oath, affirmation, affidavit, or deposition, and to perform any notarial act which any notary public is required or authorized by law to perform within the United States;

(2) To 1 act as provisional conservator of the personal estates of deceased United States citizens; and

(3) to assist and protect the interests of United States persons by performing other acts such as are authorized to be performed outside the United States for consular purposes by such laws of the United States as the President may specify.

(b) Acts by authorized employees

Acts performed by authorized employees of the Institute under this section shall be valid, and of like force and effect within the United States, as if performed by any other person authorized under the laws of the United States to perform such acts.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §7, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 17.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§3307. Exemption from taxation

(a) United States, State, or local taxes

The Institute, its property, and its income are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed by the United States (except to the extent that section 3310(a)(3) of this title requires the imposition of taxes imposed under chapter 21 of title 26, relating to the Federal Insurance Contributions Act) or by any State or local taxing authority of the United States.

(b) Charitable contributions; transfers for public, charitable, and religious uses; charitable and similar gifts

For purposes of title 26, the Institute shall be treated as an organization described in sections 170(b)(1)(A), 170(c), 2055(a), 2106(a)(2)(A), 2522(a), and 2522(b) of title 26.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §8, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

References in Text

The Federal Insurance Contributions Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, §§3101, 3102, 3111, 3112, 3121 to 3128, 68A Stat. 415, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 21 (§3101 et seq.) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 3128 of Title 26 and Tables.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514 substituted in subsecs. (a) and (b) "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3308. Activities of United States Government agencies

(a) Sale, loans, or lease of property; administrative and technical support functions and services

Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to sell, loan, or lease property (including interests therein) to, and to perform administrative and technical support functions and services for the operations of, the Institute upon such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Reimbursements to agencies under this subsection shall be credited to the current applicable appropriation of the agency concerned.

(b) Acquisition and acceptance of services

Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to acquire and accept services from the Institute upon such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the procurement of services by such agencies from the Institute may be effected without regard to such laws of the United States normally applicable to the acquisition of services by such agencies as the President may specify by Executive order.

(c) Institute books and records; access; audit

Any agency of the United States Government making funds available to the Institute in accordance with this chapter shall make arrangements with the Institute for the Comptroller General of the United States to have access to the books and records of the Institute and the opportunity to audit the operations of the Institute.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §9, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 18.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3309. Taiwan instrumentality

(a) Establishment of instrumentality; Presidential determination of necessary authority

Whenever the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized or required by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to render or provide to or to receive or accept from Taiwan, any performance, communication, assurance, undertaking, or other action, such action shall, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, be rendered or provided to, or received or accepted from, an instrumentality established by Taiwan which the President determines has the necessary authority under the laws applied by the people on Taiwan to provide assurances and take other actions on behalf of Taiwan in accordance with this chapter.

(b) Offices and personnel

The President is requested to extend to the instrumentality established by Taiwan the same number of offices and complement of personnel as were previously operated in the United States by the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979.

(c) Privileges and immunities

Upon the granting by Taiwan of comparable privileges and immunities with respect to the Institute and its appropriate personnel, the President is authorized to extend with respect to the Taiwan instrumentality and its appropriate personnel, such privileges and immunities (subject to appropriate conditions and obligations) as may be necessary for the effective performance of their functions.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §10, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 18.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3310. Employment of United States Government agency personnel

(a) Separation from Government service; reemployment or reinstatement upon termination of Institute employment; benefits

(1) Under such terms and conditions as the President may direct, any agency of the United States Government may separate from Government service for a specified period any officer or employee of that agency who accepts employment with the Institute.

(2) An officer or employee separated by an agency under paragraph (1) of this subsection for employment with the Institute shall be entitled upon termination of such employment to reemployment or reinstatement with such agency (or a successor agency) in an appropriate position with the attendant rights, privileges, and benefits with 1 the officer or employee would have had or acquired had he or she not been so separated, subject to such time period and other conditions as the President may prescribe.

(3) An officer or employee entitled to reemployment or reinstatement rights under paragraph (2) of this subsection shall, while continuously employed by the Institute with no break in continuity of service, continue to participate in any benefit program in which such officer or employee was participating prior to employment by the Institute, including programs for compensation for job-related death, injury, or illness; programs for health and life insurance; programs for annual, sick, and other statutory leave; and programs for retirement under any system established by the laws of the United States; except that employment with the Institute shall be the basis for participation in such programs only to the extent that employee deductions and employer contributions, as required, in payment for such participation for the period of employment with the Institute, are currently deposited in the program's or system's fund or depository. Death or retirement of any such officer or employee during approved service with the Institute and prior to reemployment or reinstatement shall be considered a death in or retirement from Government service for purposes of any employee or survivor benefits acquired by reason of service with an agency of the United States Government.

(4) Any officer or employee of an agency of the United States Government who entered into service with the Institute on approved leave of absence without pay prior to April 10, 1979, shall receive the benefits of this section for the period of such service.

(b) Employment of aliens on Taiwan

Any agency of the United States Government employing alien personnel on Taiwan may transfer such personnel, with accrued allowances, benefits, and rights, to the Institute without a break in service for purposes of retirement and other benefits, including continued participation in any system established by the laws of the United States for the retirement of employees in which the alien was participating prior to the transfer to the Institute, except that employment with the Institute shall be creditable for retirement purposes only to the extent that employee deductions and employer contributions, as required, in payment for such participation for the period of employment with the Institute, are currently deposited in the system's fund or depository.

(c) Institute employees not deemed United States employees

Employees of the Institute shall not be employees of the United States and, in representing the Institute, shall be exempt from section 207 of title 18.

(d) Tax treatment of amounts paid Institute employees

(1) For purposes of sections 911 and 913 2 of title 26, amounts paid by the Institute to its employees shall not be treated as earned income. Amounts received by employees of the Institute shall not be included in gross income, and shall be exempt from taxation, to the extent that they are equivalent to amounts received by civilian officers and employees of the Government of the United States as allowances and benefits which are exempt from taxation under section 912 of title 26.

(2) Except to the extent required by subsection (a)(3) of this section, service performed in the employ of the Institute shall not constitute employment for purposes of chapter 21 of title 26 and title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 96–8, §11, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 18; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

References in Text

Section 913 of title 26, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §112(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 194.

Chapter 21 (§3101 et seq.) of title 26, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is known as the Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 13054. Eligibility of Certain Overseas Employees for Noncompetitive Appointments

Ex. Ord. No. 13054, July 7, 1997, 62 F.R. 36965, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13062, §6, Sept. 29, 1997, 62 F.R. 51756, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 3301 and 3302 of title 5 and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and in order to permit certain overseas employees to acquire competitive status upon returning to the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. A United States citizen who is a family member of a Federal civilian employee who has separated from Federal service to accept employment with the American Institute in Taiwan pursuant to section 11 of Public Law 96–8 (22 U.S.C. 3310(a)) may be appointed noncompetitively in a manner similar to noncompetitive appointments under Executive Order 12721 [5 U.S.C. 3301 note] and implementing regulations of the Office of Personnel Management to a competitive service position in the executive branch, provided such family member meets the qualifications and other requirements established by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, including an appropriate period of satisfactory overseas employment with the American Institute in Taiwan.

Sec. 2. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to implement this order.

Sec. 3. This order shall be effective upon publication in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

1 So in original. Probably should be "which".

2 See References in Text note below.

§3310a. Commercial personnel at American Institute of Taiwan

The American Institute of Taiwan shall employ personnel to perform duties similar to those performed by personnel of the United States and Foreign Commercial Service. The number of individuals employed shall be commensurate with the number of United States personnel of the Commercial Service who are permanently assigned to the United States diplomatic mission to South Korea.

(Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1327.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 and as part of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, and not as part of the Taiwan Relations Act which comprises this chapter.

§3311. Reporting requirements

(a) Texts of agreements to be transmitted to Congress; secret agreements to be transmitted to Senate Foreign Relations Committee and House Foreign Affairs Committee

The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Congress the text of any agreement to which the Institute is a party. However, any such agreement the immediate public disclosure of which would, in the opinion of the President, be prejudicial to the national security of the United States shall not be so transmitted to the Congress but shall be transmitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives under an appropriate injunction of secrecy to be removed only upon due notice from the President.

(b) Agreements

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "agreement" includes—

(1) any agreement entered into between the Institute and the governing authorities on Taiwan or the instrumentality established by Taiwan; and

(2) any agreement entered into between the Institute and an agency of the United States Government.

(c) Congressional notification, review, and approval requirements and procedures

Agreements and transactions made or to be made by or through the Institute shall be subject to the same congressional notification, review, and approval requirements and procedures as if such agreements and transactions were made by or through the agency of the United States Government on behalf of which the Institute is acting.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §12, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 20; Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1011(a)(3), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1061.)

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–164 struck out subsec. (d) which required the Secretary of State to make semi-annual reports respecting economic relations between the United States and Taiwan.

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3312. Rules and regulations

The President is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem appropriate to carry out the purposes of this chapter. During the three-year period beginning on January 1, 1979, such rules and regulations shall be transmitted promptly to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. Such action shall not, however, relieve the Institute of the responsibilities placed upon it by this chapter.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §13, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 20.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3313. Congressional oversight

(a) Monitoring activities of Senate Foreign Relations Committee, House Foreign Affairs Committee, and other Congressional committees

The Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and other appropriate committees of the Congress shall monitor—

(1) the implementation of the provisions of this chapter;

(2) the operation and procedures of the Institute;

(3) the legal and technical aspects of the continuing relationship between the United States and Taiwan; and

(4) the implementation of the policies of the United States concerning security and cooperation in East Asia.

(b) Committee reports to their respective Houses

Such committees shall report, as appropriate, to their respective Houses on the results of their monitoring.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §14, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 20.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3314. Definitions

For purposes of this chapter—

(1) the term "laws of the United States" includes any statute, rule, regulation, ordinance, order, or judicial rule of decision of the United States or any political subdivision thereof; and

(2) the term "Taiwan" includes, as the context may require, the islands of Taiwan and the Pescadores, the people on those islands, corporations and other entities and associations created or organized under the laws applied on those islands, and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, and any successor governing authorities (including political subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities thereof).

(Pub. L. 96–8, §15, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 20.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3315. Authorization of appropriations

In addition to funds otherwise available to carry out the provisions of this chapter, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of State for the fiscal year 1980 such funds as may be necessary to carry out such provisions. Such funds are authorized to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §16, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 21.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.

§3316. Severability

If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the chapter and the application of such provision to any other person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 96–8, §17, Apr. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 21.)

Effective Date

Section effective as of January 1, 1979, see section 18 of Pub. L. 96–8, set out as a note under section 3301 of this title.