[USC10] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter B, PART III: ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter B, PART III: ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter B—Computation of Taxable Income

PART III—ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

Sec.
101.
Certain death payments.1

        

102.
Gifts and inheritances.
103.
Interest on State and local bonds.
[103A.
Repealed.]
104.
Compensation for injuries or sickness.
105.
Amounts received under accident and health plans.
106.
Contributions by employer to accident and health plans.
107.
Rental value of parsonages.
108.
Income from discharge of indebtedness.
109.
Improvements by lessee on lessor's property.
110.
Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases.
111.
Recovery of tax benefit items.
112.
Certain combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.
[113, 114.
Repealed.]
115.
Income of States, municipalities, etc.
[116.
Repealed.]
117.
Qualified scholarships.
118.
Contributions to the capital of a corporation.
119.
Meals or lodging furnished for convenience of employer.1
[120.
Repealed.]
121.
Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence.
122.
Certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.
123.
Amounts received under insurance contracts for certain living expenses.
[124.
Repealed.]
125.
Cafeteria plans.
126.
Certain cost-sharing payments.
127.
Educational assistance programs.
[128.
Repealed.]
129.
Dependent care assistance programs.2

        

130.
Certain personal injury liability assignments.
131.
Certain foster care payments.
132.
Certain fringe benefits.
[133.
Repealed.]
134.
Certain military benefits.
135.
Income from United States savings bonds used to pay higher education tuition and fees.
136.
Energy conservation subsidies provided by public utilities.
137.
Adoption assistance programs.
138.
Medicare Advantage MSA.
139.
Disaster relief payments.
139A.
Federal subsidies for prescription drug plans.
139B.
Benefits provided to volunteer firefighters and emergency medical responders.
[139C.
Repealed.]
139D.
Indian health care benefits.
139E.
Indian general welfare benefits.
139F.
Certain amounts received by wrongfully incarcerated individuals.
139G.
Assignments to Alaska Native Settlement Trusts.
140.
Cross references to other Acts.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(7)(C), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1212, struck out item 139C "COBRA premium assistance".

2017Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13821(a)(2), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2178, added item 139G.

2015Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §304(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3088, added item 139F.

2014Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(19)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4039, which directed amendment of part III by striking out item 120 in table of sections for "such subpart", was executed by striking out item 120 "Amounts received under qualified group legal services plans" in table of sections for this part to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 113–168, §2(b), Sept. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 1884, added item 139E.

2011Pub. L. 112–10, div. B, title VIII, §1858(b)(2)(B), Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 168, struck out item 139D "Free choice vouchers".

2010Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10108(f)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 913, added item 139D relating to free choice vouchers.

Pub. L. 111–148, title IX, §9021(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 874, added item 139D relating to Indian health care benefits.

2009Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title III, §3001(a)(15)(B), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 465, added item 139C.

2007Pub. L. 110–142, §5(b), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1806, added item 139B.

2004Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(b)(3), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423, struck out item 114 "Extraterritorial income".

Pub. L. 108–311, title IV, §408(a)(5)(G), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1191, substituted "Medicare Advantage MSA" for "Medicare+Choice MSA" in item 138.

2003Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1202(c), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2480, added item 139A.

2002Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §111(b), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2433, added item 139 and redesignated former item 139 as 140.

2000Pub. L. 106–519, §4(6), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2433, added item 114.

1997Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(d)(14), title XII, §1213(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 841, 1001, added item 110 and substituted "Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence" for "One-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by individual who has attained age 55" in item 121.

Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, §4006(b)(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 334, added items 138 and 139 and struck out former item 138 "Cross reference to other Acts".

1996Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1602(b)(8), 1704(t)(4)(B), 1807(c)(7), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1834, 1887, 1902, substituted "combat zone compensation" for "combat pay" in item 112, struck out item 133 "Interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities", added items 137 and 138, and struck out former item 137 "Cross reference to other Acts".

1992Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1912(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3016, added items 136 and 137 and struck out former item 136 "Cross references to other Acts".

1990Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–522, struck out item 110 "Income taxes paid by lessee corporation", item 113 "Mustering-out payments for members of the Armed Forces", item 114 "Sports programs conducted for the American National Red Cross", item 124 "Qualified transportation provided by employer", and item 128 "Interest on certain savings certificates".

1988Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(37), title VI, §6009(c)(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3544, 3690, substituted "Interest on State and local bonds" for "Interest on certain governmental obligations" in item 103, struck out item 103A "Mortgage subsidy bonds", added item 135 and redesignated former item 135 "Cross references to other Acts" as item 136.

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §123(b)(4), title VI, §612(b)(8), title XI, §1168(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113, 2251, 2512, struck out item 116 "Partial exclusion of dividends received by individuals", substituted in item 117 "Qualified scholarships" for "Scholarships and fellowship grants", added item 134, and redesignated former item 134 as 135.

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §171(b), title V, §§531(a)(2), 543(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 699, 881, 892, substituted "Recovery of tax benefit items" for "Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, and delinquency amounts" in item 111, added items 132 (relating to certain fringe benefits) and 133 (relating to interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities), and redesignated former item 132 (relating to cross references to other Acts) as item 134.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §16(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 505, repealed an amendment made by Pub. L. 97–34, §302(c). See 1981 Amendment note below.

1983Pub. L. 97–473, title I, §101(b)(2), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2606, purported to strike out the item relating to section 130, and added items 130 (relating to certain personal injury liability assignments) and 131 (relating to cross references to other Acts).

Pub. L. 97–473, title I, §102(b), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2607, struck out item 131 (relating to cross references to other Acts) and added items 131 (relating to certain foster care payments) and 132 (relating to cross references to other Acts).

1981Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §§301(b)(1), 302(c)(1), (d)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 270, 272, 274, effective with regard to taxable years beginning after Sept. 30, 1981, redesignated item 128 "Cross References to other Acts" as 129 and added item 128 "Interest on certain savings certificates" and, section 302(c)(1), with regard to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, provided that "Partial exclusion of interest" is substituted for "Interest on certain savings certificates" in item 128. Section 16(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, repealed section 302(c) of Pub. L. 97–34, and provided that this title shall be applied and administered as if section 302(c), and the amendments made by section 302(c), had not been enacted.

1980Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1102(b), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2669, added item 103A.

Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §404(b)(1), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 306, inserted "and interest" after "dividends" in item 116.

1978Pub. L. 95–618, title II, §242(b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3194, redesignated former item 124 as 125 and added item 124.

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §§134(b), 164(c), title IV, §404(c)(3), title V, §543(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2785, 2814, 2870, 2890, in item 121 substituted "One-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by individual who has attained age 55" for "Gain from sale of exchange of residence of individual who has attained age 65", redesignated former item 124 as 128, and added items 125 to 127.

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2134(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1928, added item 120.

1969Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, §901(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 709, redesignated former item 123 as 124, and added item 123.

1966Pub. L. 89–365, §1(a)(2), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32, redesignated former item 122 as 123, and added item 122.

1964Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §206(b)(2), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 40, redesignated former item 121 as 122, and added item 121.

1958Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §3(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1607, struck out item 120 "Statutory subsistence allowance received by police".

Exclusion From Gross Income of Certain Clean Coal Power Grants to Non-Corporate Taxpayers

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §343, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3114, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—In the case of an eligible taxpayer other than a corporation, gross income for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not include any amount received under section 402 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 [42 U.S.C. 15962].

"(b) Reduction in Basis.—The basis of any property subject to the allowance for depreciation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which is acquired with any amount to which subsection (a) applies during the 12-month period beginning on the day such amount is received shall be reduced by an amount equal to such amount. The excess (if any) of such amount over the amount of the reduction under the preceding sentence shall be applied to the reduction (as of the last day of the period specified in the preceding sentence) of the basis of any other property held by the taxpayer. The particular properties to which the reductions required by this subsection are allocated shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury (or the Secretary's delegate) under regulations similar to the regulations under section 362(c)(2) of such Code.

"(c) Limitation to Amounts Which Would Be Contributions to Capital.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to any amount unless such amount, if received by a corporation, would be excluded from gross income under section 118 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

"(d) Eligible Taxpayer.—For purposes of this section, with respect to any amount received under section 402 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 [42 U.S.C. 15962], the term 'eligible taxpayer' means a taxpayer that makes a payment to the Secretary of the Treasury (or the Secretary's delegate) equal to 1.18 percent of the amount so received. Such payment shall be made at such time and in such manner as such Secretary (or the Secretary's delegate) shall prescribe. In the case of a partnership, such Secretary (or the Secretary's delegate) shall prescribe regulations to determine the allocation of such payment amount among the partners.

"(e) Effective Date.—This section shall apply to amounts received under section 402 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 [42 U.S.C. 15962] in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2011."

No Federal Income Tax on Restitution Received by Victims of the Nazi Regime or Their Heirs or Estates

Pub. L. 107–16, title VIII, §803, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 149, provided that:

"(a) In General.—For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, any excludable restitution payments received by an eligible individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) and any excludable interest—

"(1) shall not be included in gross income; and

"(2) shall not be taken into account for purposes of applying any provision of such Code which takes into account excludable income in computing adjusted gross income, including section 86 of such Code (relating to taxation of Social Security benefits).

For purposes of such Code, the basis of any property received by an eligible individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) as part of an excludable restitution payment shall be the fair market value of such property as of the time of the receipt.

"(b) Eligible Individual.—For purposes of this section, the term 'eligible individual' means a person who was persecuted on the basis of race, religion, physical or mental disability, or sexual orientation by Nazi Germany, any other Axis regime, or any other Nazi-controlled or Nazi-allied country.

"(c) Excludable Restitution Payment.—For purposes of this section, the term 'excludable restitution payment' means any payment or distribution to an individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) which—

"(1) is payable by reason of the individual's status as an eligible individual, including any amount payable by any foreign country, the United States of America, or any other foreign or domestic entity, or a fund established by any such country or entity, any amount payable as a result of a final resolution of a legal action, and any amount payable under a law providing for payments or restitution of property;

"(2) constitutes the direct or indirect return of, or compensation or reparation for, assets stolen or hidden from, or otherwise lost to, the individual before, during, or immediately after World War II by reason of the individual's status as an eligible individual, including any proceeds of insurance under policies issued on eligible individuals by European insurance companies immediately before and during World War II; or

"(3) consists of interest which is payable as part of any payment or distribution described in paragraph (1) or (2).

"(d) Excludable Interest.—For purposes of this section, the term 'excludable interest' means any interest earned by—

"(1) escrow accounts or settlement funds established pursuant to the settlement of the action entitled 'In re: Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation,' (E.D.N.Y.) C.A. No. 96–4849,

"(2) funds to benefit eligible individuals or their heirs created by the International Commission on Holocaust Insurance Claims as a result of the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the Foundation 'Remembrance, Responsibility, and Future,' dated July 17, 2000, or

"(3) similar funds subject to the administration of the United States courts created to provide excludable restitution payments to eligible individuals (or eligible individuals' heirs or estates).

"(e) Effective Date.—

"(1) In general.—This section shall apply to any amount received on or after January 1, 2000.

"(2) No inference.—Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be construed to create any inference with respect to the proper tax treatment of any amount received before January 1, 2000."

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

2 Editorially supplied. Section 129 added by Pub. L. 97–34 without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

§101. Certain death benefits

(a) Proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death

(1) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), subsection (d), subsection (f), and subsection (j), gross income does not include amounts received (whether in a single sum or otherwise) under a life insurance contract, if such amounts are paid by reason of the death of the insured.

(2) Transfer for valuable consideration

In the case of a transfer for a valuable consideration, by assignment or otherwise, of a life insurance contract or any interest therein, the amount excluded from gross income by paragraph (1) shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the actual value of such consideration and the premiums and other amounts subsequently paid by the transferee. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of such a transfer—

(A) if such contract or interest therein has a basis for determining gain or loss in the hands of a transferee determined in whole or in part by reference to such basis of such contract or interest therein in the hands of the transferor, or

(B) if such transfer is to the insured, to a partner of the insured, to a partnership in which the insured is a partner, or to a corporation in which the insured is a shareholder or officer.


The term "other amounts" in the first sentence of this paragraph includes interest paid or accrued by the transferee on indebtedness with respect to such contract or any interest therein if such interest paid or accrued is not allowable as a deduction by reason of section 264(a)(4).

(3) Exception to valuable consideration rules for commercial transfers

(A) In general

The second sentence of paragraph (2) shall not apply in the case of a transfer of a life insurance contract, or any interest therein, which is a reportable policy sale.

(B) Reportable policy sale

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "reportable policy sale" means the acquisition of an interest in a life insurance contract, directly or indirectly, if the acquirer has no substantial family, business, or financial relationship with the insured apart from the acquirer's interest in such life insurance contract. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "indirectly" applies to the acquisition of an interest in a partnership, trust, or other entity that holds an interest in the life insurance contract.

[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1402(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1789]

(c) Interest

If any amount excluded from gross income by subsection (a) is held under an agreement to pay interest thereon, the interest payments shall be included in gross income.

(d) Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date later than death

(1) General rule

The amounts held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary shall be prorated (in accordance with such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary) over the period or periods with respect to which such payments are to be made. There shall be excluded from the gross income of such beneficiary in the taxable year received any amount determined by such proration. Gross income includes, to the extent not excluded by the preceding sentence, amounts received under agreements to which this subsection applies.

(2) Amount held by an insurer

An amount held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary shall mean an amount to which subsection (a) applies which is—

(A) held by any insurer under an agreement provided for in the life insurance contract, whether as an option or otherwise, to pay such amount on a date or dates later than the death of the insured, and

(B) equal to the value of such agreement to such beneficiary

(i) as of the date of death of the insured (as if any option exercised under the life insurance contract were exercised at such time), and

(ii) as discounted on the basis of the interest rate used by the insurer in calculating payments under the agreement and mortality tables prescribed by the Secretary.

(3) Application of subsection

This subsection shall not apply to any amount to which subsection (c) is applicable.

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §421(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 794]

(f) Proceeds of flexible premium contracts issued before January 1, 1985 payable by reason of death

(1) In general

Any amount paid by reason of the death of the insured under a flexible premium life insurance contract issued before January 1, 1985 shall be excluded from gross income only if—

(A) under such contract—

(i) the sum of the premiums paid under such contract does not at any time exceed the guideline premium limitation as of such time, and

(ii) any amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) is not at any time less than the applicable percentage of the cash value of such contract at such time, or


(B) by the terms of such contract, the cash value of such contract may not at any time exceed the net single premium with respect to the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) at such time.

(2) Guideline premium limitation

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Guideline premium limitation

The term "guideline premium limitation" means, as of any date, the greater of—

(i) the guideline single premium, or

(ii) the sum of the guideline level premiums to such date.

(B) Guideline single premium

The term "guideline single premium" means the premium at issue with respect to future benefits under the contract (without regard to any qualified additional benefit), and with respect to any charges for qualified additional benefits, at the time of a determination under subparagraph (A) or (E) and which is based on—

(i) the mortality and other charges guaranteed under the contract, and

(ii) interest at the greater of an annual effective rate of 6 percent or the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue of the contract.

(C) Guideline level premium

The term "guideline level premium" means the level annual amount, payable over the longest period permitted under the contract (but ending not less than 20 years from date of issue or not later than age 95, if earlier), computed on the same basis as the guideline single premium, except that subparagraph (B)(ii) shall be applied by substituting "4 percent" for "6 percent".

(D) Computational rules

In computing the guideline single premium or guideline level premium under subparagraph (B) or (C)—

(i) the excess of the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) over the cash value of the contract shall be deemed to be not greater than such excess at the time the contract was issued,

(ii) the maturity date shall be the latest maturity date permitted under the contract, but not less than 20 years after the date of issue or (if earlier) age 95, and

(iii) the amount of any endowment benefit (or sum of endowment benefits) shall be deemed not to exceed the least amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) at any time under the contract.

(E) Adjustments

The guideline single premium and guideline level premium shall be adjusted in the event of a change in the future benefits or any qualified additional benefit under the contract which was not reflected in any guideline single premiums or guideline level premium previously determined.

(3) Other definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Flexible premium life insurance contract

The terms "flexible premium life insurance contract" and "contract" mean a life insurance contract (including any qualified additional benefits) which provides for the payment of one or more premiums which are not fixed by the insurer as to both timing and amount. Such terms do not include that portion of any contract which is treated under State law as providing any annuity benefits other than as a settlement option.

(B) Premiums paid

The term "premiums paid" means the premiums paid under the contract less any amounts (other than amounts includible in gross income) to which section 72(e) applies. If, in order to comply with the requirements of paragraph (1)(A), any portion of any premium paid during any contract year is returned by the insurance company (with interest) within 60 days after the end of a contract year—

(i) the amount so returned (excluding interest) shall be deemed to reduce the sum of the premiums paid under the contract during such year, and

(ii) notwithstanding the provisions of section 72(e), the amount of any interest so returned shall be includible in the gross income of the recipient.

(C) Applicable percentage

The term "applicable percentage" means—

(i) 140 percent in the case of an insured with an attained age at the beginning of the contract year of 40 or less, and

(ii) in the case of an insured with an attained age of more than 40 as of the beginning of the contract year, 140 percent reduced (but not below 105 percent) by one percent for each year in excess of 40.

(D) Cash value

The cash value of any contract shall be determined without regard to any deduction for any surrender charge or policy loan.

(E) Qualified additional benefits

The term "qualified additional benefits" means any—

(i) guaranteed insurability,

(ii) accidental death benefit,

(iii) family term coverage, or

(iv) waiver of premium.

(F) Premium payments not disqualifying contract

The payment of a premium which would result in the sum of the premiums paid exceeding the guideline premium limitation shall be disregarded for purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(i) if the amount of such premium does not exceed the amount necessary to prevent the termination of the contract without cash value on or before the end of the contract year.

(G) Net single premium

In computing the net single premium under paragraph (1)(B)—

(i) the mortality basis shall be that guaranteed under the contract (determined by reference to the most recent mortality table allowed under all State laws on the date of issuance),

(ii) interest shall be based on the greater of—

(I) an annual effective rate of 4 percent (3 percent for contracts issued before July 1, 1983), or

(II) the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue of the contract, and


(iii) the computational rules of paragraph (2)(D) shall apply, except that the maturity date referred to in clause (ii) thereof shall not be earlier than age 95.

(H) Correction of errors

If the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(i) the requirements described in paragraph (1) for any contract year was not satisfied due to reasonable error, and

(ii) reasonable steps are being taken to remedy the error,


the Secretary may waive the failure to satisfy such requirements.

(I) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(g) Treatment of certain accelerated death benefits

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the following amounts shall be treated as an amount paid by reason of the death of an insured:

(A) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured who is a terminally ill individual.

(B) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured who is a chronically ill individual.

(2) Treatment of viatical settlements

(A) In general

If any portion of the death benefit under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured described in paragraph (1) is sold or assigned to a viatical settlement provider, the amount paid for the sale or assignment of such portion shall be treated as an amount paid under the life insurance contract by reason of the death of such insured.

(B) Viatical settlement provider

(i) In general

The term "viatical settlement provider" means any person regularly engaged in the trade or business of purchasing, or taking assignments of, life insurance contracts on the lives of insureds described in paragraph (1) if—

(I) such person is licensed for such purposes (with respect to insureds described in the same subparagraph of paragraph (1) as the insured) in the State in which the insured resides, or

(II) in the case of an insured who resides in a State not requiring the licensing of such persons for such purposes with respect to such insured, such person meets the requirements of clause (ii) or (iii), whichever applies to such insured.

(ii) Terminally ill insureds

A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect to an insured who is a terminally ill individual if such person—

(I) meets the requirements of sections 8 and 9 of the Viatical Settlements Model Act of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, and

(II) meets the requirements of the Model Regulations of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (relating to standards for evaluation of reasonable payments) in determining amounts paid by such person in connection with such purchases or assignments.

(iii) Chronically ill insureds

A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect to an insured who is a chronically ill individual if such person—

(I) meets requirements similar to the requirements referred to in clause (ii)(I), and

(II) meets the standards (if any) of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners for evaluating the reasonableness of amounts paid by such person in connection with such purchases or assignments with respect to chronically ill individuals.

(3) Special rules for chronically ill insureds

In the case of an insured who is a chronically ill individual—

(A) In general

Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any payment received for any period unless—

(i) such payment is for costs incurred by the payee (not compensated for by insurance or otherwise) for qualified long-term care services provided for the insured for such period, and

(ii) the terms of the contract giving rise to such payment satisfy—

(I) the requirements of section 7702B(b)(1)(B), and

(II) the requirements (if any) applicable under subparagraph (B).


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the rule of section 7702B(b)(2)(B) shall apply.

(B) Other requirements

The requirements applicable under this subparagraph are—

(i) those requirements of section 7702B(g) and section 4980C which the Secretary specifies as applying to such a purchase, assignment, or other arrangement,

(ii) standards adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners which specifically apply to chronically ill individuals (and, if such standards are adopted, the analogous requirements specified under clause (i) shall cease to apply), and

(iii) standards adopted by the State in which the policyholder resides (and if such standards are adopted, the analogous requirements specified under clause (i) and (subject to section 4980C(f)) standards under clause (ii), shall cease to apply).

(C) Per diem payments

A payment shall not fail to be described in subparagraph (A) by reason of being made on a per diem or other periodic basis without regard to the expenses incurred during the period to which the payment relates.

(D) Limitation on exclusion for periodic payments

For limitation on amount of periodic payments which are treated as described in paragraph (1), see section 7702B(d).

(4) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Terminally ill individual

The term "terminally ill individual" means an individual who has been certified by a physician as having an illness or physical condition which can reasonably be expected to result in death in 24 months or less after the date of the certification.

(B) Chronically ill individual

The term "chronically ill individual" has the meaning given such term by section 7702B(c)(2); except that such term shall not include a terminally ill individual.

(C) Qualified long-term care services

The term "qualified long-term care services" has the meaning given such term by section 7702B(c).

(D) Physician

The term "physician" has the meaning given to such term by section 1861(r)(1) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395x(r)(1)).

(5) Exception for business-related policies

This subsection shall not apply in the case of any amount paid to any taxpayer other than the insured if such taxpayer has an insurable interest with respect to the life of the insured by reason of the insured being a director, officer, or employee of the taxpayer or by reason of the insured being financially interested in any trade or business carried on by the taxpayer.

(h) Survivor benefits attributable to service by a public safety officer who is killed in the line of duty

(1) In general

Gross income shall not include any amount paid as a survivor annuity on account of the death of a public safety officer (as such term is defined in section 1204 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as in effect immediately before the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013) killed in the line of duty—

(A) if such annuity is provided, under a governmental plan which meets the requirements of section 401(a), to the spouse (or a former spouse) of the public safety officer or to a child of such officer; and

(B) to the extent such annuity is attributable to such officer's service as a public safety officer.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to the death of any public safety officer if, as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968—

(A) the death was caused by the intentional misconduct of the officer or by such officer's intention to bring about such officer's death;

(B) the officer was voluntarily intoxicated (as defined in section 1204 of such Act) at the time of death;

(C) the officer was performing such officer's duties in a grossly negligent manner at the time of death; or

(D) the payment is to an individual whose actions were a substantial contributing factor to the death of the officer.

(i) Certain employee death benefits payable by reason of death of certain terrorist victims or astronauts

(1) In general

Gross income does not include amounts (whether in a single sum or otherwise) paid by an employer by reason of the death of an employee who is a specified terrorist victim (as defined in section 692(d)(4)).

(2) Limitation

(A) In general

Subject to such rules as the Secretary may prescribe, paragraph (1) shall not apply to amounts which would have been payable after death if the individual had died other than as a specified terrorist victim (as so defined).

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to incidental death benefits paid from a plan described in section 401(a) and exempt from tax under section 501(a).

(3) Treatment of self-employed individuals

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "employee" includes a self-employed individual (as defined in section 401(c)(1)).

(4) Relief with respect to astronauts

The provisions of this subsection shall apply to any astronaut whose death occurs in the line of duty.

(j) Treatment of certain employer-owned life insurance contracts

(1) General rule

In the case of an employer-owned life insurance contract, the amount excluded from gross income of an applicable policyholder by reason of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the premiums and other amounts paid by the policyholder for the contract.

(2) Exceptions

In the case of an employer-owned life insurance contract with respect to which the notice and consent requirements of paragraph (4) are met, paragraph (1) shall not apply to any of the following:

(A) Exceptions based on insured's status

Any amount received by reason of the death of an insured who, with respect to an applicable policyholder—

(i) was an employee at any time during the 12-month period before the insured's death, or

(ii) is, at the time the contract is issued—

(I) a director,

(II) a highly compensated employee within the meaning of section 414(q) (without regard to paragraph (1)(B)(ii) thereof), or

(III) a highly compensated individual within the meaning of section 105(h)(5), except that "35 percent" shall be substituted for "25 percent" in subparagraph (C) thereof.

(B) Exception for amounts paid to insured's heirs

Any amount received by reason of the death of an insured to the extent—

(i) the amount is paid to a member of the family (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of the insured, any individual who is the designated beneficiary of the insured under the contract (other than the applicable policyholder), a trust established for the benefit of any such member of the family or designated beneficiary, or the estate of the insured, or

(ii) the amount is used to purchase an equity (or capital or profits) interest in the applicable policyholder from any person described in clause (i).

(3) Employer-owned life insurance contract

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, the term "employer-owned life insurance contract" means a life insurance contract which—

(i) is owned by a person engaged in a trade or business and under which such person (or a related person described in subparagraph (B)(ii)) is directly or indirectly a beneficiary under the contract, and

(ii) covers the life of an insured who is an employee with respect to the trade or business of the applicable policyholder on the date the contract is issued.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, if coverage for each insured under a master contract is treated as a separate contract for purposes of sections 817(h), 7702, and 7702A, coverage for each such insured shall be treated as a separate contract.

(B) Applicable policyholder

For purposes of this subsection—

(i) In general

The term "applicable policyholder" means, with respect to any employer-owned life insurance contract, the person described in subparagraph (A)(i) which owns the contract.

(ii) Related persons

The term "applicable policyholder" includes any person which—

(I) bears a relationship to the person described in clause (i) which is specified in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1), or

(II) is engaged in trades or businesses with such person which are under common control (within the meaning of subsection (a) or (b) of section 52).

(4) Notice and consent requirements

The notice and consent requirements of this paragraph are met if, before the issuance of the contract, the employee—

(A) is notified in writing that the applicable policyholder intends to insure the employee's life and the maximum face amount for which the employee could be insured at the time the contract was issued,

(B) provides written consent to being insured under the contract and that such coverage may continue after the insured terminates employment, and

(C) is informed in writing that an applicable policyholder will be a beneficiary of any proceeds payable upon the death of the employee.

(5) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Employee

The term "employee" includes an officer, director, and highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q)).

(B) Insured

The term "insured" means, with respect to an employer-owned life insurance contract, an individual covered by the contract who is a United States citizen or resident. In the case of a contract covering the joint lives of 2 individuals, references to an insured include both of the individuals.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 26; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §23(d), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1622; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(c), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 89–365, §1(c), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(l), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§2005(c)(15), 2007(b)(3), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 992, 994; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(16), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§239, 266(a), (b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 514, 547, 550; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §221(b)(2), title IV, §421(b)(2), title VII, §713(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 772, 794, 958; Pub. L. 99–514, title X, §1001(a)–(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2387; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1402(a), (b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1789; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §331(a), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2067; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1084(b)(2), title XV, §1528(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 952, 1074; Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §102(a), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2429; Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §110(b)(1), (2), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §863(a), (c)(1), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1021, 1024; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(3)(B), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1968; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13522(a), (b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2151, 2152.)

References in Text

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197. Section 1204 of the Act is classified to section 10284 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement. Section 1204 of the Act, as in effect immediately before the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, means section 1204 prior to its amendment by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(1)(E), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1967. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of Title 34 and Tables.

Codification

Another section 1084(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 amended sections 805, 807, 812, and 832 of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–97, §13522(b), substituted "paragraphs (2) and (3)" for "paragraph (2)".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–97, §13522(a), added par. (3).

2013—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 112–239 inserted ", as in effect immediately before the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013" after "1968" in introductory provisions.

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–280, §863(c)(1), substituted "subsection (f), and subsection (j)" for "and subsection (f)".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–280, §863(a), added subsec. (j).

2003—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 108–121, §110(b)(2), inserted "or astronauts" after "victims" in heading.

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 108–121, §110(b)(1), added par. (4).

2002—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107–134 added subsec. (i).

1997—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1084(b)(2), inserted at end "The term 'other amounts' in the first sentence of this paragraph includes interest paid or accrued by the transferee on indebtedness with respect to such contract or any interest therein if such interest paid or accrued is not allowable as a deduction by reason of section 264(a)(4)."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–34, §1528(a), added subsec. (h).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–188, §1402(a), struck out subsec. (b) which related to employees' death benefits.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–188, §1402(b)(1), substituted "subsection (a)" for "subsection (a) or (b)".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–191 added subsec. (g).

1986—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(a), amended second sentence generally, which prior to amendment read as follows: "There shall be excluded from the gross income of such beneficiary in the taxable year received—

"(A) any amount determined by such proration, and

"(B) in the case of the surviving spouse of the insured, that portion of the excess of the amounts received under one or more agreements specified in paragraph (2)(A) (whether or not payment of any part of such amounts is guaranteed by the insurer) over the amount determined in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph which is not greater than $1,000 with respect to any insured."

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(c)(2), substituted "equal" for "is equal" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(b), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "as discounted on the basis of the interest rate and mortality tables used by the insurer in calculating payments under the agreement."

Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(c)(1), redesignated par. (4) as (3), and struck out former par. (3), "Surviving spouse", which read as follows: "For purposes of this subsection, the term 'surviving spouse' means the spouse of the insured as of the date of death, including a spouse legally separated but not under a decree of absolute divorce."

1984—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §713(e), amended subpar. (B) generally, substituting "certain distributions" for "certain lump sum distributions" in heading, substituting "amount paid or distributed" for "lump sum distribution described in the second sentence of paragraph (2)(B)" in introductory text and adding cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §421(b)(2), repealed subsec. (e) relating to payments of alimony or of income of an estate or trust in case of divorce, etc.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369, §221(b)(2)(B), inserted "issued before January 1, 1985" in heading.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §221(b)(2)(A), inserted "issued before January 1, 1985" in introductory text.

1982—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–248, §266(b), substituted ", subsection (d), and subsection (f)" for "and in subsection (d)".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97–248, §239, amended par. (3) generally, substituting "Treatment of self-employed individuals" for "Self-employed individual not considered an employee" in heading, designating existing provisions as subparagraph (A) and, as so designated, adding heading and exception for subpar. (B), and adding subparagraph (B).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–248, §266(a), added subsec. (f).

1976—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(16), struck out subsec. (f) relating to effective date of section.

1974—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 93–406, §2005(c)(15), substituted "a lump sum distribution (as defined in section 402(e)(4)" for "total distributions payable (as defined in section 402(a)(3)) which are paid to a distributee within one taxable year of the distributee by reason of the employee's death".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 93–406, §2007(b)(3), substituted "if the member or former member of the uniformed services by reason of whose death such annuity is payable" for "if the individual who made the election under such chapter".

1969—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted references to section 170(b)(1)(A) (ii) and (vi), and to religious organizations, for references to section 503(b)(1), (2), or (3).

1966—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 89–365 provided that par. (1) shall not apply in the case of an annuity under chapter 73 of title 10 if the individual who made the election under that chapter died after attaining retirement age.

1962—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 87–792, §7(c)(1), substituted "described in section 403(a)" for "which meets the requirements of paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (6) of section 401(a)".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 87–792, §7(c)(2), added par. (3).

1958—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 85–866 substituted "This subparagraph shall not apply to total distributions payable (as defined in section 402(a)(3) which are paid to a distributee within one taxable year of the distributee by reason of the employee's death—" for "(other than total distributions payable, as defined in section 402(a)(3), which are paid to distributee, by a stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), or under an annuity contract under a plan which meets the requirements of paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (6) of section 401(a), within one taxable year of the distributee by reason of the employee's death)", and added cls. (i), (ii), and (iii).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13522(c), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2152, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to transfers after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–239 effective Jan. 2, 2013, and applicable to matters pending on Jan. 2, 2013, or filed or accruing after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 1086(d) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out as a note under section 10251 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §863(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1024, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 6039I of this title and amending this section] shall apply to life insurance contracts issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], except for a contract issued after such date pursuant to an exchange described in section 1035 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for a contract issued on or prior to that date. For purposes of the preceding sentence, any material increase in the death benefit or other material change shall cause the contract to be treated as a new contract except that, in the case of a master contract (within the meaning of section 264(f)(4)(E) of such Code), the addition of covered lives shall be treated as a new contract only with respect to such additional covered lives."

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §110(b)(3), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1342, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to amounts paid after December 31, 2002, with respect to deaths occurring after such date."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §102(b), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2429, provided that:

"(1) Effective date.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending before, on, or after September 11, 2001.

"(2) Waiver of limitations.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the amendments made by this section is prevented at any time before the close of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 23, 2002] by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), such refund or credit may nevertheless be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such period."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1084(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 955, as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6010(o)(3)(B), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 816, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 264, 265, 805, 807, 812, and 832 of this title] shall apply to contracts issued after June 8, 1997, in taxable years ending after such date. For purposes of the preceding sentence, any material increase in the death benefit or other material change in the contract shall be treated as a new contract except that, in the case of a master contract (within the meaning of section 264(f)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), the addition of covered lives shall be treated as a new contract only with respect to such additional covered lives. For purposes of this subsection, an increase in the death benefit under a policy or contract issued in connection with a lapse described in section 501(d)(2) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–191, set out as a note under section 264 of this title] shall not be treated as a new contract."

Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1528(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1075, as amended by Pub. L. 107–15, §2, June 5, 2001, 115 Stat. 37, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996, with respect to individuals dying after such date, and to amounts received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001, with respect to individuals dying on or before December 31, 1996."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §331(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2069, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after December 31, 1996."

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1402(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1790, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 406, 407, and 7701 of this title] shall apply with respect to decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996]."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title X, §1001(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2387, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received with respect to deaths occurring after the date of the enactment of this section [Oct. 22, 1986] in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 221(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective Jan. 1, 1984, see section 221(d)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7702 of this title.

Amendment by section 421(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transfers after July 18, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, subject to election to have repeal apply to transfers after 1983 or to transfers pursuant to existing decrees, see section 421(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1041 of this title.

Amendment by section 713 of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §266(c)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 550, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §221(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 772, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contracts entered into before January 1, 1985."

Amendment by section 239 of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 241(b) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 416 of this title. Such amendment is applicable, in the case of amounts received under the plan of an S corporation, with respect to decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1982, notwithstanding section 241(b) of Pub. L. 97–248, see section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 97–354, Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1697, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(16) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(b)(13)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective Feb. 1, 1977, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by section 2005(c)(15) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable only with respect to distributions and payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 2007(b)(3) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable to taxable years ending on or after Sept. 21, 1972, with respect to individuals dying on or after Sept. 21, 1972, see section 2007(c) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 122 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–365 applicable with respect to individuals making an election under chapter 73 of Title 10 who died after Dec. 31, 1965, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 89–365, set out as an Effective Date note under section 122 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–866 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1957, see section 23(g) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 403 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Flexible Premium Contracts Issued During 1984 Which Meet Requirements of Section 7702 Treated as Meeting Requirements of Section 101(f)

Flexible premium contracts issued during 1984 which meet requirements of section 7702 of this title treated as meeting requirements of subsec. (f) of this section, see section 221(b)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369, as added by Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 7702 of this title.

Special Rules for Contracts Entered Into Before January 1, 1983

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §266(c)(2), (3), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 550, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(13), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(2) Special rule for contracts entered into before january 1, 1983.—Any contract entered into before January 1, 1983, which meets the requirements of section 101(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] on the date which is 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982] shall be treated as meeting the requirements of such section for any period before the date on which such contract meets such requirements. Any death benefits paid under a flexible premium life insurance contract (within the meaning of section 101(f)(3)(A) of such Code) before the date which is 1 year after such date of enactment [Sept. 3, 1982] shall be excluded from gross income.

"(3) Special rule for certain contracts.—Any contract entered into before January 1, 1983, shall be treated as meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A) of section 101(f)(1) of such Code if such contract would meet such requirements if section 101(f)(2)(C) of such Code were applied by substituting '3 percent' for '4 percent'."

§102. Gifts and inheritances

(a) General rule

Gross income does not include the value of property acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance.

(b) Income

Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income—

(1) the income from any property referred to in subsection (a); or

(2) where the gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance is of income from property, the amount of such income.


Where, under the terms of the gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance, the payment, crediting, or distribution thereof is to be made at intervals, then, to the extent that it is paid or credited or to be distributed out of income from property, it shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance of income from property. Any amount included in the gross income of a beneficiary under subchapter J shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance of income from property.

(c) Employee gifts

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income any amount transferred by or for an employer to, or for the benefit of, an employee.

(2) Cross references

For provisions excluding certain employee achievement awards from gross income, see section 74(c).

For provisions excluding certain de minimis fringes from gross income, see section 132(e).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 28; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §122(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2110.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to prizes and awards granted after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

§103. Interest on State and local bonds

(a) Exclusion

Except as provided in subsection (b), gross income does not include interest on any State or local bond.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply to—

(1) Private activity bond which is not a qualified bond

Any private activity bond which is not a qualified bond (within the meaning of section 141).

(2) Arbitrage bond

Any arbitrage bond (within the meaning of section 148).

(3) Bond not in registered form, etc.

Any bond unless such bond meets the applicable requirements of section 149.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section and part IV—

(1) State or local bond

The term "State or local bond" means an obligation of a State or political subdivision thereof.

(2) State

The term "State" includes the District of Columbia and any possession of the United States.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 29; Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §107(a), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 266; Pub. L. 90–634, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1349; Pub. L. 91–172, title VI, §601(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §315(a), (b), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 529; Pub. L. 94–164, §7(a), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 976; Pub. L. 94–182, title III, §301(a), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1056; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(17), (b)(8)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, §§2105(a)–(c), 2137(d), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1766, 1794, 1834, 1902, 1931; Pub. L. 95–339, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §§331(a), (b), 332(a), 333(a), 334(a), (b), title VII, §703(j)(1), (q)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2839–2841, 2941, 2944; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(3)(C), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §§241(a), 242(a), 244(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 281, 283, 286; Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1103, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2669; Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §§811(a), (b), 812(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349, 350; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§214(a)–(e), 215(a), (b), 217(a)–(d), 219(a), 221(a), (b), (c)(1), title III, §310(b)(1), (c)(1), (2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 466–469, 472-474, 477, 478, 596, 599; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §547(a), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2199; Pub. L. 97–473, title II, §202(b)(2), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2609; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(4), title VI, §§621–624(a), (b)(2), (3), 626(a), 627, 628(a), (c)–(e), (g), 630, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 839, 915-922, 924, 926, 928, 931-933; Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, §13209(e), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 323; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(a), title XVIII, §§1864(a)(1), (b)–(e), 1865(a), 1869(a), (b), 1870, 1871(a)(1), (b), 1899A(2)–(4), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2602, 2885, 2886, 2888, 2890, 2891, 2958; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(34)(A), (c)(12)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3544, 3547.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(6)(N). Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(c)(12)(A), amended subpar. (N), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 99–514 [Oct. 22, 1986], by redesignating cls. (ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively, and by striking out cl. (i) and inserting in lieu thereof the following new cls.:

"(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), this paragraph shall not apply to any obligation issued after December 31, 1986.

"(ii) Certain refundings.—This paragraph shall apply to any obligation (or series of obligations) issued to refund an obligation issued on or before December 31, 1986, if—

"(I) the average maturity date of the issue of which the refunding obligation is a part is not later than the average maturity date of the obligations to be refunded by such issue,

"(II) the amount of the refunding obligation does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded obligation, and

"(III) the proceeds of the refunding obligation are used to redeem the refunded obligation not later than 90 days after the date of the issuance of the refunding obligation.

For purposes of subclause (I), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with subsection (b)(14)(B)(i)."

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(34)(A), amended par. (7), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 99–514 [Oct. 22, 1986], by substituting "necessary" for "necessary".

1986Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, substituted "Interest on State and local bonds" for "Interest on certain governmental obligations" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), substituted "Exclusion" for "General rule" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Gross income does not include interest on—

"(1) the obligations of a State, a Territory, or a possession of the United States, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing, or of the District of Columbia; and

"(2) qualified scholarship funding bonds."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, substituted provision relating to exceptions for provision relating to industrial development bonds.

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 99–272 struck out par. (11) relating to pollution control facilities acquired by regional pollution control authorities.

Subsec. (b)(13), (14)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1871(b), substituted "and (6)" for "(6), and (7)".

Subsec. (b)(16)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1870, substituted "clause (ii)" for "clause (i)".

Subsec. (b)(17)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1871(b), substituted "and (6)" for "(6), and (7)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, substituted provision relating to definitions for provision relating to arbitrage.

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsecs. (d) to (g) which related to certain irrigation dams, qualified scholarship funding bonds, certain federally guaranteed obligations, and qualified steam-generating or alcohol-producing facilities, respectively.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (h) which provided that obligations must not be guaranteed.

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(2), substituted "guaranteed" for "guaranted".

Subsec. (h)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1865(a), struck out "the United States," after "program of".

Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsecs. (i) to (k) which related to obligations of certain volunteer fire departments, provided that obligations must be in registered form to be tax-exempt, and required public approval for industrial development bonds, respectively.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (l) which related to information reporting requirements for certain bonds.

Subsec. (l)(2)(F). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(d), added subpar. (F) which read: "if such obligation is a private activity bond (as defined in subsection (n)(7)), such information as the Secretary may require for purposes of determining whether the requirements of subsection (n) are met with respect to such obligation."

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (m) which related to obligations exempt other than under this title.

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1871(a)(1), substituted "(j), (k), (l), (n), and (o)" for "(k), (l), and (n)".

Subsec. (m)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(3), substituted "608(a)(6)(A)" for "608(6)(A)".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (n) which related to limitation on aggregate amount of private activity bonds issued during any calendar year.

Subsec. (n)(6)(A), (B)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(b), substituted "governmental units or other authorities" for "governmental units".

Subsec. (n)(7)(C)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(c), substituted "all of the property to be financed by the obligation" for "the property described in such paragraph".

Subsec. (n)(10)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(e), substituted "identify project" for "specify project" in heading and "identify (with reasonable specificity) the project" for "specify the project" in text of subpar. (B)(i).

Subsec. (n)(10)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(e)(2), substituted "any identification or specification" for "any specification".

Subsec. (n)(13). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(a)(1), added par. (13).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (o) relating to consumer loan bonds.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1869(a), (b)(1), substituted "Private loan bonds" for "Consumer loan bonds" in subsection and par. (2) headings, "private loan bond" for "consumer loan bond" in text of pars. (1), (2)(A) and (B), and "subsection (c)(6)(H)(i)" for "subsection (c)(6)(G)(i)" in par. (2)(C)(ii).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1869(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (o), relating to cross references, as (p).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (p) which related to cross references.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1869(b)(2), redesignated former subsec. (o), relating to cross references, as (p).

Subsec. (p)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(4), substituted "October 27, 1949 (48 U.S.C. 1403)" for "October 27, 1919 (48 U.S.C. 1403)".

1984—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(e), inserted "For purposes of subparagraph (A), any property shall not be treated as failing to be residential rental property merely because part of the building in which such property is located is used for purposes other than residential rental purposes."

Subsec. (b)(6)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(4), substituted "section 30(b)(2)(A)" for "section 44F(b)(2)(A)".

Subsec. (b)(6)(N). Pub. L. 98–369, §630, designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

Subsec. (b)(6)(P). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(c), added subpar. (P).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(g), repealed par. (7) which related to advance refunding of qualified public facilities.

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(d), inserted "For purposes of this paragraph— (A) a partnership and each of its partners (and their spouses and minor children) shall be treated as related persons, and (B) an S corporation and each of its shareholders (and their spouses and minor children) shall be treated as related persons."

Subsec. (b)(15). Pub. L. 98–369, §623, added par. (15).

Subsec. (b)(16) to (18). Pub. L. 98–369, §627, added pars. (16) to (18).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §624(b)(2), struck out "bonds" after "Arbitrage" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §624(b)(3), inserted "to arbitrage bonds" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(6), (7). Pub. L. 98–369, §624(a), added par. (6) and redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, §622, amended subsec. (h) generally, in par. (1) substituting provisions that obligations are not included in the section if they are federally guaranteed for provisions which excluded obligations guaranteed, in whole or part, by the U.S. under a program to conserve energy, or under other Federal or State programs, in par. (2) substituting provisions defining "federally guaranteed" for provisions setting forth obligations to which this subsection applies, and adding pars. (3) to (5).

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(a)(1), inserted "In the case of an obligation issued after December 31, 1983, such obligation shall not be treated as described in this paragraph unless the appropriate requirements of subsections (b), (c), (h), (k), (l), and (n) of this section and section 103A are met with respect to such obligation. For purposes of applying such requirements, a possession of the United States shall be treated as a State; except that clause (ii) of subsection (n)(4)(A) shall not apply."

Subsec. (m)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(a)(2), substituted "is exempt from tax under this title without regard to any provision of law which is not contained in this title and which is not contained in a revenue Act" for "is exempt from taxation under any provision of this title".

Subsec. (m)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(a)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 98–369, §621, added subsec. (n). Former subsec. (n), relating to cross references, redesignated (o).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 98–369, §626(a), added subsec. (o) relating to consumer loan bonds.

Pub. L. 98–369, §621, redesignated subsec. (n), relating to cross references, as (o).

1983—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97–424, §547(a), added subsec. (m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (n).

Pub. L. 97–473 amended subsec. (m) generally, adding pars. (1) and (2), redesignating former pars. (1) to (3) as (3) to (5), respectively, and striking out par. (24) which had provided reference regarding exempt-interest dividends to section 852(b)(5)(B.) See section 722(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note below.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 97–424, §547(a), redesignated former subsec. (m), relating to cross references, as (n).

1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–248, §215(b)(2), substituted "For purposes of this section" for "For purposes of this subsection".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 97–248, §§217(a)(1), (b), 221(a), (c)(1), 310(c)(1), in subpar. (A) substituted "if at all times during the qualified project period" for "if each obligation issued pursuant to the issue is in registered form and if" after "residential rental property", and struck out "(within the meaning of section 167(k)(3)(B))" after "low or moderate income", added subpar. (J), struck out provision that for purposes of subpar. (A), "targeted area project" meant a project located in a qualified census tract (within the meaning of section 103A(k)(2)) or an area of chronic economic distress (within the meaning of section 103A(k)(3)) and, in last sentence, substituted "electric energy or gas from" for "electric energy from".

Subsec. (b)(6)(C). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(a)(3), substituted "paragraph (13)" for "paragraph (7)".

Subsec. (b)(6)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 97–248, §214(d), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (b)(6)(K) to (O). Pub. L. 97–248, §214(a)–(c), (e), added subpars. (K) to (O).

Subsec. (b)(9)(A). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(c), inserted "ferry," after "rail car" in provisions preceding cl. (i), and in cl. (ii), inserted "(or, in the case of a ferry, mass transportation services)" after "mass commuting services".

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(a)(2), added par. (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (13).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(d), added par. (11).

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 97–248, §221(b), added par. (12). [Provisions of par. (12)(A) were formerly contained, as undesignated provisions, in par. (4).]

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(a)(2), redesignated former par. (10) as (13).

Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 97–248, §219(a), added par. (14).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–248, §310(c)(2), substituted "must not be guaranteed or subsidized" for "must be in registered form and not guaranteed or subsidized" in heading, and in par. (1) struck out subpar. (A) reading "such obligation is not issued in registered form", and redesignated subpars. (B) and (C) as (A) and (B), respectively.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 97–248, §310(b)(1), added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j), relating to cross references, redesignated (m).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 97–248, §215(a), added subsec. (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 97–248, §215(b)(1), added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97–248, §§215(a), (b)(1), 310(b)(1), redesignated former subsec. (j), relating to cross references, as (m).

1981—Subsec. (b)(4)(I). Pub. L. 97–34, §811(a), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (b)(9), (10). Pub. L. 97–34, §811(b), added par. (9) and redesignated former par. (9) as (10).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 97–34, §812(a), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1980—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 96–499, §1103(b), inserted before last sentence provisions defining "targeted area project" for purposes of subpar. (A).

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 96–499, §1103(a), substituted provisions relating to low or moderate income residential rental property for provisions relating to residential real property for family units.

Subsec. (b)(4)(H). Pub. L. 96–223, §242(a)(1), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (b)(6)(J). Pub. L. 96–499, §1103(c), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (b)(8), (9). Pub. L. 96–223, §242(a)(2), added par. (8) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(3)(C), amended the directory language of Pub. L. 96–500, §703(q)(1). See 1978 Amendment note below for subsec. (c)(5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–223, §241(a), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96–223, §244(a), added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96–223, §§241(a), 244(a), redesignated former subsec. (g) as (i).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(A), substituted "subsection (a)(1) or (2)" for "subsection (a)(1)" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–600, §§332(a), 333(a), in subpar. (G)(i) inserted reference to electric utility, industrial, agricultural, or commercial users and added subpar. (G)(ii) and provision following subpar. (G)(ii) relating to the local furnishing of electric energy.

Subsec. (b)(6)(D). Pub. L. 95–600, §331(a), substituted in heading and cl. (i) "$10,000,000" for "$5,000,000".

Subsec. (b)(6)(I). Pub. L. 95–600, §331(b), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (b)(7), (8). Pub. L. 95–600, §334(a), (b), added par. (7), redesignated former par. (7) as (8) and, as so redesignated, substituted "(6), and (7)" for "and (6)".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(B), substituted in heading and text "(a)(1) or (2)" for "(a)(1) or (4)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(C), substituted "subsection (a)(1) or (2)" for "subsection (a)(1) or (2) or (4)".

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(D), (q)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(3)(C), substituted "section 438 of the Higher Education Act of 1965" for "section 2 of the Emergency Insured Student Loan Act of 1969" and "paragraph (2)(A)" for "subsection (d)(2)(A)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(E), substituted "subsection (b)(4)(G)" for "subsection (c)(4)(G)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–339 redesignated second subsec. (e), relating to cross references, as (g).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–339 added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–339 redesignated second subsec. (e), relating to cross references, as (g).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(a)(17)(A), 2105(a), added par. (2) relating to qualified scholarship funding bonds. Former pars. (2) and (3), relating to obligations of the United States and to the obligations of corporations organized under an Act of Congress, were struck out.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(17)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and in par. (1) of subsec. (b) as so redesignated substituted "subsection (a)(1) or (2)" for "subsection (a)(1)". Former subsec. (b), which created an exception to the rule that gross income did not include interest on obligations of the United States, by providing that the exception did not apply to obligations of the United States (with specified exceptions) unless under the authorizing Acts such interest is wholly exempt from the taxes imposed by this subtitle, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(a)(17)(B), (D), (b)(8)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), 2105(c), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and, in subsec. (c) as so redesignated, substituted "(a)(1) or (4)" for "(a)(1)" in par. (1) and "(a)(1) or (2) or (4)" for "(a)(1)" in par. (2)(A), substituted "educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)" for "educational institution (within the meaning of section 151(e)(4))" in par. (3)(A), added par. (5), redesignated former par. (5) as (6), and in par. (6) as so redesignated substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary or his delegate". Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(17)(B), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(a)(17)(B), (E), 2105(b), 2137(d), added subsec. (e) relating to qualified scholarship funding bonds, redesignated former subsec. (f) relating to cross references as a second subsec. (e), reduced the number of cross references in subsec. (e) as so redesignated from twenty-three (which made reference to various obligations of the United States and of corporations organized under Acts of Congress) to three, relating, respectively, to Puerto Rican bonds, Virgin Islands insular and municipal bonds, and certain obligations issued under title I of the Housing Act of 1949, and inserted a fourth cross reference, designated as par. (24) relating to the treatment of exempt-interest dividends. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(17)(B), redesignated subsec. (f), relating to cross references, as (e).

1975—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 94–182 and Pub. L. 94–164 made identical amendments, adding subsec. (e) and redesignating former subsec. (e) as (f).

1971—Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(a)(1), substituted "energy or gas," for "energy, gas, or water or".

Subsec. (c)(4)(F). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(a)(2), substituted ", or" for a period.

Subsec. (c)(4)(G). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(a)(3), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(6)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(b), substituted "$1,000,000" for "$250,000".

1969—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 91–172 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1968—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–364 added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (c)(6)(D) to (H). Pub. L. 90–634 added subpars. (D) to (H).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–364 redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(34)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3544, provided that: "Subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations sold after May 2, 1978, and to which Treasury regulation section 1.103–13 (1979) was provided to apply."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1301(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Amendment by sections 1864(b)–(e), 1865(a), 1869(a), (b), 1870, and 1871(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1864(a)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2885, provided that:

"(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] in taxable years ending after such date.

"(B) At the election of the issuer (made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe), the amendment made by paragraph (1) shall apply to any obligation issued on or before the date of the enactment of this Act."

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1871(a)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2891, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after March 28, 1985, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(r)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §624(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 924, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1867(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2888, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 103A of this title] shall apply with respect to bonds issued after December 31, 1984.

"(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to obligations issued for the Essex County New Jersey Resource Recovery Project authorized by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey on November 10, 1983, as part of an agreement approved by Essex County, New Jersey, on July 7, 1981, and approved by the State of New Jersey on December 31, 1981. The aggregate face amount of bonds to which this paragraph applies shall not exceed $350,000,000."

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §626(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 927, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XIII, §1317(22), title XVIII, §1869(c)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2698, 2890; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(g)(24), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3554, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

"(2) Exceptions for certain student loan programs.—

"(A) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to obligations issued by a program described in the following table to the extent the aggregate face amount of such obligations does not exceed the amount of allowable obligations specified in the following table with respect to such program:

 
ProgramAmount of Allowable Obligations
Colorado Student Obligation Bond Authority $60 million
Connecticut Higher Education Supplementary Loan Authority $15.5 million
District of Columbia $50 million
Illinois Higher Education Authority $70 million
State of Iowa $16 million
Louisiana Public Facilities Authority $75 million
Maine Health and Higher Education Facilities Authority $5 million
Maryland Higher Education Supplemental Loan Program $24 million
Massachusetts College Student Loan Authority $90 million
Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board $60 million
New Hampshire Higher Education and Health Facilities Authority $39 million
New York Dormitory Authority $120 million
Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency $300 million
Georgia Private Colleges and University Authority $31 million
Wisconsin State Building Commission $60 million
South Dakota Health and Educational Facilities Authority $6 million

"(B) Pennsylvania higher education assistance agency.—Subparagraph (A) shall apply to obligations issued by the Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency only if such obligations are issued solely for the purpose of refunding student loan bonds outstanding on March 15, 1984.

"(3) Certain tax-exempt mortgage subsidy bonds.—For purposes of applying section 103(o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], the term 'consumer loan bond' shall not include any mortgage subsidy bond (within the meaning of section 103A(b) of such Code) to which the amendments made by section 1102 of the Mortgage Subsidy Bond Tax Act of 1980 [enacting section 103A of this title] do not apply.

"(4) Refunding exception.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation or series of obligations the proceeds of which are used exclusively to refund obligations issued before March 15, 1984, except that—

"(A) the amount of the refunding obligations may not exceed 101 percent of the aggregate face amount of the refunded obligations, and

"(B) the maturity date of any refunding obligation may not be later than the date which is 17 years after the date on which the refunded obligation was issued (or, in the case of a series of refundings, the date on which the original obligation was issued).

"(5) Exception for certain established programs.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation substantially all of the proceeds of which are used to carry out a program established under State law which has been in effect in substantially the same form during the 30-year period ending on the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], but only if such proceeds are used to make loans or to fund similar obligations—

"(A) in the same manner in which,

"(B) in the same (or lesser) amount per participant, and

"(C) for the same purposes for which,

such program was operated on March 15, 1984. This subparagraph shall not apply to obligations issued on or after March 15, 1987.

"(6) Certain bonds for renewable energy property.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligations described in section 243 of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 [Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note below].

"(7) Exception for certain downtown redevelopment project.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation which is issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide a project to acquire and redevelop a downtown area if—

"(A) on August 15, 1985, a downtown redevelopment authority adopted a resolution to issue obligations for such project,

"(B) before September 26, 1985, the city expended, or entered into binding contracts to expend, more than $10,000,000 in connection with such project, and

"(C) the State supreme court issued a ruling regarding the proposed financing structure for such project on December 11, 1985.

The aggregate face amount of obligations to which this paragraph applies shall not exceed $85,000,000 and such obligations must be issued before January 1, 1992."

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §631, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 934, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XIII, §§1316(j), 1317(43), title XVIII, §1872(a)–(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2670, 2708, 2891, 2892; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(f)(8), (g)(40), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3549, 3557, provided that:

"(a) Private Activity Bond Cap.—

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendment made by section 621 [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1983.

"(2) Inducement resolution before june 19, 1984.—The amendment made by section 621 shall not apply to any issue of obligations if—

"(A) there was an inducement resolution (or other comparable preliminary approval) for the issue before June 19, 1984, and

"(B) the issue is issued before January 1, 1985.

"(3) Certain projects preliminarily approved before october 19, 1983, given approval.—If—

"(A) there was an inducement resolution (or other comparable preliminary approval) for a project before October 19, 1983, by any issuing authority,

"(B) a substantial user of such project notifies the issuing authority within 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] that it intends to claim its rights under this paragraph, and

"(C) construction of such project began before October 19, 1983, or the substantial user was under a binding contract on such date to incur significant expenditures with respect to such project,

such issuing authority shall allocate its share of the limitation under section 103(n) of such Code for the calendar year during which the obligations were to be issued pursuant to such resolution (or other approval) first to such project. If the amount of obligations required by all projects which meet the requirements of the preceding sentence exceeds the issuing authority's share of the limitation under section 103(n) of such Code, priority under the preceding sentence shall be provided first to those projects for which substantial expenditures were incurred before October 19, 1983. If any issuing authority fails to meet the requirements of this paragraph, the limitation under section 103(n) of such Code for the issuing authority for the calendar year following such failure shall be reduced by the amount of obligations with respect to which such failure occurred.

"(3) [(4)] Exception for certain bonds for a convention center and resource recovery project.—In the case of any city, if—

"(A) the city council of such city authorized a feasibility study for a convention center on June 10, 1982, and

"(B) on November 4, 1983, a municipal authority acting for such city accepted a proposal for the construction of a facility that is capable of generating steam and electricity through the combustion of municipal waste,

the amendment made by section 621 shall not apply to any issue, issued during 1984, 1985, 1986, or 1987 and substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to finance the convention center (or access ramps and parking facilities therefor) described in subparagraph (A) or the facility described in subparagraph (B).

"(b) Property Financed With Tax-Exempt Bonds Required To Be Depreciated on Straight-Line Basis.—

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by section 628(b) [amending section 168 of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 1983, to the extent such property is financed by the proceeds of an obligation (including a refunding obligation) issued after October 18, 1983.

"(2) Exceptions.—

"(A) Construction or binding agreement.—The amendments made by section 628(b) shall not apply with respect to facilities—

"(i) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and the construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation of which began before October 19, 1983, or

"(ii) with respect to which a binding contract to incur significant expenditures was entered into before October 19, 1983.

"(B) Refunding.—

"(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), in the case of property placed in service after December 31, 1983, which is financed by the proceeds of an obligation which is issued solely to refund another obligation which was issued before October 19, 1983, the amendments made by section 628(b) shall apply only with respect to an amount equal to the basis in such property which has not been recovered before the date such refunded obligation is issued.

"(ii) Significant expenditures.—In the case of facilities the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and with respect to which significant expenditures are made before January 1, 1984, the amendments made by section 628(b) shall not apply with respect to such facilities to the extent such facilities are financed by the proceeds of an obligation issued solely to refund another obligation which was issued before October 19, 1983.

"(C) Facilities.—In the case of an inducement resolution or other comparable preliminary approval adopted by an issuing authority before October 19, 1983, for purposes of applying subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(ii) with respect to obligations described in such resolution, the term 'facilities' means the facilities described in such resolution.

"(c) Other Provisions Relating to Tax-Exempt Bonds.—

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle, the amendments made by sections 622, 623, 627, and 628(c), (d), and (e) (and the provisions of sections 625(c), 628(f), and 629(b)) [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1983.

"(2) Obligations invested in federally insured deposits.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, clause (ii) of section 103(h)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by this subtitle) shall apply to obligations issued after April 14, 1983; except that such clause shall not apply to any obligation issued pursuant to a binding contract in effect on March 4, 1983.

"(3) Exceptions.—

"(A) Construction or binding agreement.—The amendments (and provisions) referred to in paragraph (1) shall not apply to obligations with respect to facilities—

"(i) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and the construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation of which began before October 19, 1983, and was completed on or after such date,

"(ii) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and with respect to which a binding contract to incur significant expenditures for construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation was entered into before October 19, 1983, and some of such expenditures are incurred on or after such date, or

"(iii) acquired after October 19, 1983, pursuant to a binding contract entered into on or before such date.

"(B) Facilities.—Subparagraph (C) of subsection (b)(2) shall apply for purposes of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.

"(C) Exception.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to the amendment made by section 628(e) and the provisions of sections 628(f) and 629(b) [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section].

"(4) Repeal of advance refunding of qualified public facilities.—The amendment made by section 628(g) [amending this section] shall apply to refunding obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]; except that if substantially all the proceeds of the refunded issue were used to provide airports or docks, such amendment shall only apply to refunding obligations issued after December 31, 1984. In the case of refunding obligations not to exceed $100,000,000 issued after October 21, 1986, by Dade County, Florida, for the purpose of advance refunding its Aviation Revenue Bonds (Series J), the first sentence of this paragraph shall be applied by substituting 'the date which is 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 [Nov. 10, 1988]' for 'December 31, 1984' and the amendments made by section 1301 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–514, enacting sections 141 to 150 and 7703 of this title, amending this section and sections 2, 22, 25, 32, 86, 105, 152, 153, 163, 194, 269A, 414, 879, 1398, 3402, 4701, 4940, 4942, 4988, 6362, 6652, and 7871 of this title, repealing section 103A of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 141 and 148 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 103A of this title] shall not apply. In the case of refunding obligations not exceeding $100,000,000 issued by the Alabama State Docks Department, the first sentence of this paragraph shall be applied by substituting 'December 31, 1987' for 'December 31, 1984' and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be applied without regard to [former] section 149(d)(2)..[sic]

"(5) Special rule for health club facilities.—In the case of any health club facility, with respect to the amendment made by section 627(c) [amending this section]—

"(A) paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting 'April 12, 1984' for 'December 31, 1983', and

"(B) paragraph (3) shall be applied by substituting 'April 13, 1984' for 'October 19, 1983' each place it appears.

"(d) Provisions of This Subtitle Not To Apply to Certain Property.—The amendments made by this subtitle [sections 621–632 of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section and sections 103A and 168 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall not apply to any property (and shall not apply to obligations issued to finance such property) if such property is described in any of the following paragraphs:

"(1) Any property described in paragraph (5), (6), or (7) of section 31(g) of this Act [set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 168 of this title].

"(2) Any property described in paragraph (4), (8), or (17) of section 31(g) of this Act [set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 168 of this title] but only if the obligation is issued before January 1, 1985, and only if before June 19, 1984, the issuer had evidenced an intent to issue obligations exempt from taxation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in connection with such property.

"(3) Any property described in paragraph (3) of section 216(b) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 168 of this title].

"(4) Any solid waste disposal facility described in section 103(b)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 if—

"(A) a State public authority created pursuant to State legislation which took effect on June 18, 1973, took formal action before October 19, 1983, to commit development funds for such facility.

"(B) such authority issues obligations for any such facility before January 1, 1987, and

"(C) expenditures have been made for the development of any such facility before October 19, 1983.

"(5) Any solid waste disposal facility described in section 103(b)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] if—

"(A) a city government, by resolutions adopted on April 10, 1980, and December 27, 1982, took formal action to authorize the submission of a proposal for a feasibility study for such facility and to authorize the presentation to the Department of the Army (U.S. Army Missile Command) of a proposed agreement to jointly pursue construction and operation of such facility,

"(B) such city government (or a public authority on its behalf) issues obligations for such facility before January 1, 1988, and

"(C) expenditures have been made for the development of such facility before October 19, 1983. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, the amendments made by section 624 [amending sections 103 and 103A of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] (relating to arbitrage) shall apply to obligations issued to finance property described in paragraph (5).

"(e) Determination of Significant Expenditure.—

"(1) In general.—For purposes of this section, the term 'significant expenditures' means expenditures which equal or exceed the lesser of—

"(A) $15,000,000, or

"(B) 20 percent of the estimated cost of the facilities.

"(2) Certain grants treated as expenditures.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of any UDAG grant preliminarily approved on May 5, 1981, or April 4, 1983, shall be treated as an expenditure with respect to the facility for which such grant was so approved.

"(f) Exceptions for Certain Other Amendments.—If—

"(1) there was an inducement resolution (or other comparable preliminary approval) for an issue before June 19, 1984, by any issuing authority, and

"(2) such issue is issued before January 1, 1985, the following amendments shall not apply:

"(A) the amendments made by section 623 [amending this section],

"(B) the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of section 627 [amending this section] (except to the extent such amendments relate to farm land),

"(C) in the case of a race track, the amendment made by section 627(c) [amending this section], and

"(D) the amendments made by section 628(c) [amending this section]."

[Section 1872(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that the amendment of section 631(c)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out above, made by section 1872(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 is effective with respect to obligations issued after Mar. 28, 1985.]

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 97–473, see section 204(2) of Pub. L. 97–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7871 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §214(f), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 468, provided that:

"(1) Composite issues; small issue exemption.—The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

"(2) Termination.—The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

"(3) Research expenditures.—The amendment made by subsection (d) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to expenditures made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

"(4) Certain facilities.—The amendment made by subsection (e) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982."

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §215(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 470, provided that:

"(1) Public approval.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982, other than obligations issued solely to refund any obligation which—

"(A) was issued before July 1, 1982, and

"(B) has a maturity which does not exceed 3 years.

"(2) Information reporting.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982 (including any obligation issued to refund an obligation issued before such date)."

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §217(e), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 474, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §712(h), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]. For purposes of applying section 168(f)(8)(D)(v) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to agreements entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §219(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 475, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982."

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §221(d), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 478, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1104 of Pub. L. 96–499, formerly set out as a note under section 103A of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

"(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply with respect to any obligation to which the amendments made by section 1103 of the Mortgage Subsidy Bond Tax Act of 1980 [section 1103 of Pub. L. 96–499, amending this section] do not apply by reason of section 1104 of such Act [section 1104 of Pub. L. 96–499, formerly set out as a note under section 103A of this title]."

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §310(d), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 599, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(b)(2), 96 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 98–216, §6(b), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 8; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting section 4701 of this title and section 757c–5 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and amending this section and sections 103A, 163, 165, 312, and 1232 of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982.

"(2) [Repealed. Pub. L. 98–216, §6(b), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 8.]

"(3) Exception for certain warrants, etc.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting section 4701 of this title and amending this section and sections 163, 165, 312, and 1232 of this title] shall not apply to any obligations issued after December 31, 1982, on the exercise of a warrant or the conversion of a convertible obligation if such warrant or obligation was offered or sold outside the United States without registration under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] and was issued before August 10, 1982. A rule similar to the rule of the preceding sentence shall also apply in the case of any regulations issued under section 163(f)(2)(C) [now 163(f)(2)(B)] of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by this section) except that the date on which such regulations take effect shall be substituted for 'August 10, 1982'.

"(4) [Repealed. Pub. L. 98–216, §6(b), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 8.]"

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §811(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 350, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981]."

Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §812(b)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 350, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1980."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 96–499, see section 1104 of Pub. L. 96–499, set out as an Effective Date note under section 103A of this title.

Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §241(d), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 283, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) [set out as notes under this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after October 18, 1979."

Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §242(c), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 285, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and the provisions of subsection (b) [set out as a note under this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after October 18, 1979."

Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §244(b), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 286, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued on or after October 18, 1979."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–339, title II, §201(c), Aug. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 467, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 1978]."

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §331(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2840, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to—

"(A) obligations issued after December 31, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date, and

"(B) capital expenditures made after December 31, 1978, with respect to obligations issued before January 1, 1979.

"(2) The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to—

"(A) obligations issued after September 30, 1979, in taxable years ending after such date, and

"(B) capital expenditures made after September 30, 1979, with respect to obligations issued after such date."

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §332(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2840, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after April 30, 1968, but only with respect to obligations issued after such date."

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §333(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2840, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978] in taxable years ending after such date."

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §334(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2841, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978]."

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §703(q)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2944, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to payments made by the Commissioner of Education after December 31, 1976."

Amendment by section 703(j)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective on Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 46 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(17), (b)(8)(B) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(b)(13)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective Feb. 1, 1977, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2105(d), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1902, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] apply to obligations issued on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]."

Amendment by section 2137(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 2137(e) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 852 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–182, title III, §301(b), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1056, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 1975]."

Pub. L. 94–164, §7(b), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 976, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 1975]."

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §315(c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 529, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after January 1, 1969. The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to expenditures incurred after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 10, 1971]."

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–172, title VI, §601(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 657, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after October 9, 1969."

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–634, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1351, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1968]."

Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §107(b)(1), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 268, provided that: "Except as provided by paragraph (2) [set out as a note below], the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after April 30, 1968, but only with respect to obligations issued after such date."

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Commissioner of Education transferred to Secretary of Education by section 3441(a)(1) of Title 20, Education.

Coordination of Certain Amendments Made by Pub. L. 97–424 and Pub. L. 97–473

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §722(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 973, provided that: "For purposes of applying the amendments made by section 547 of the Highway Revenue Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–424, amending this section] and the amendment made by section 202(b)(2) of Public Law 97–473 [amending this section], Public Law 97–473 shall be deemed to have been enacted immediately before the Highway Revenue Act of 1982."

Validation of Sinking Fund Regulations

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(35), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3544, provided that:

"(A) Treasury Regulation section 1.103–13(g) (1979) is hereby enacted into positive law.

"(B)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), subparagraph (A) shall apply to obligations sold after May 2, 1978, and to which such regulation was provided to apply.

"(ii) Treasury Regulation section 1.103–13(g) (1979) as enacted into positive law by subparagraph (A) shall cease to apply to the extent hereafter modified by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate by regulations."

Bonds Issued To Refund Subsection (o)(3) Obligations

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(c)(15), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3548, provided that: "A bond issued to refund an obligation described in section 103(o)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Oct. 22, 1986]) shall not be treated as described in section 144(b) of the 1986 Code unless it is described in section 144(b)(1)(A) of the 1986 Code."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Treatment of Certain Guarantees by Farmers Home Administration

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1865(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2886, provided that: "An obligation shall not be treated as federally guaranteed for purposes of section 103(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] by reason of a guarantee by the Farmers Home Administration if—

"(1) such guarantee is pursuant to a commitment made by the Farmers Home Administration before July 1, 1984, and

"(2) such obligation is issued to finance a convention center project in Carbondale, Illinois."

Treatment of Certain Obligations Used To Finance Solid Waste Disposal Facility

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1865(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2886, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Any obligation which is part of an issue a substantial portion of the proceeds of which is to be used to finance a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2) shall not, for purposes of section 103(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986], be treated as an obligation which is federally guaranteed by reason of the sale of fuel, steam, electricity, or other forms of usable energy to the Federal Government or any agency or instrumentality thereof.

"(2) Solid waste disposal facility.—A solid waste disposal facility is described in this paragraph if such facility is described in section 103(b)(4)(E) of such Code and—

"(A) if—

"(i) a public State authority created pursuant to State legislation which took effect on July 1, 1980, took formal action before October 19, 1983, to commit development funds for such facility,

"(ii) such authority issues obligations for such facility before January 1, 1988, and

"(iii) expenditures have been made for the development of such facility before October 19, 1983,

"(B) if—

"(i) such facility is operated by the South Eastern Public Service Authority of Virginia, and

"(ii) on December 20, 1984, the Internal Revenue Service issued a ruling concluding that a portion of the obligations with respect to such facility would not be treated as federally guaranteed under section 103(h) of such Code by reason of the transitional rule contained in section 631(c)(3)(A)(i) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 631(c)(3)(A)(i) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note above],

"(C) if—

"(i) a political subdivision of a State took formal action on April 1, 1980, to commit development funds for such facility,

"(ii) such facility has a contract to sell steam to a naval base,

"(iii) such political subdivision issues obligations for such facility before January 1, 1988, and

"(iv) expenditures have been made for the development of such facility before October 19, 1983, or

"(D) if—

"(i) such facility is a thermal transfer facility,

"(ii) is to be built and operated by the Elk Regional Resource Authority, and

"(iii) is to be on land leased from the United States Air Force at Arnold Engineering Development Center near Tullahoma, Tennessee.

"(3) Limitations.—

"(A) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(A), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $65,000,000.

"(B) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(B), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $20,000,000. Such amount shall be in addition to the amount permitted under the Internal Revenue Service ruling referred to in paragraph (2)(B)(ii).

"(C) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(C), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $75,000,000.

"(D) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(D), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $25,000,000."

Transitional Rule for Limit on Small Issue Exception

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1866, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2887, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(m)(1)–(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3584, provided that: "The amendment made by section 623 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 623 of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation (or series of obligations) issued to refund another tax-exempt IDB to which the amendment made by such section 623 did not apply if—

"(1) the average maturity of the issue of which the refunding obligation is a part does not exceed the average maturity of the obligations to be refunded by such issue,

"(2) the amount of the refunding obligation does not exceed the amount of the refunded obligation, and

"(3) the proceeds of the refunding obligation are used to redeem the refunded obligation not later than 90 days after the date of the issuance of the refunding obligation.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'tax-exempt IDB' means any industrial development bond (as defined in section 103(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]) the interest on which is exempt from tax under section 103(a) of such Code. For purposes of paragraph (1), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with subsection (b)(14)(B)(i) of such Code."

[Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(m)(5), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3584, provided that: "A refunding obligation issued before July 1, 1987, shall be treated as meeting the requirement of paragraph (1) of section 1866 of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514, set out above] if such obligation met the requirement of such paragraph as enacted by the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514]."]

Exception From 1984 Amendment for Downtown Muskogee Revitalization Project

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1867(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2888, provided that: "The amendment made by section 624 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [amending sections 103 and 103A of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall not apply to obligations issued with respect to the Downtown Muskogee Revitalization Project for which a UDAG grant was preliminarily approved on May 5, 1981, if—

"(1) such obligation is issued before January 1, 1986, or

"(2) such obligation is issued after such date to provide additional financing for such project except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this subsection applies shall not exceed $10,000,000."

Transitional Rules

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1869(c)(1)–(4), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2889, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(n), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3584, provided that:

"(1) Treatment of certain obligations issued by the city of baltimore.—Obligations issued by the city of Baltimore, Maryland, after June 30, 1985, shall not be treated as private loan bonds for purposes of section 103(o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] (or as private activity bonds for purposes of section 103 and part IV of subchapter A of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended by title XIII of this Act [sections 1301 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514]) by reason of the use of a portion of the proceeds of such obligations to finance or refinance temporary advances made by the city of Baltimore in connection with loans to persons who are not exempt persons (within the meaning of section 103(b)(3) of such Code) if—

"(A) such obligations are not industrial development bonds (within the meaning of section 103(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]),

"(B) the portion of the proceeds of such obligations so used is attributable to debt approved by voter referendum on or before November 2, 1982,

"(C) the loans to such nonexempt persons were approved by the Board of Estimates of the city of Baltimore on or before October 19, 1983, and

"(D) the aggregate amount of such temporary advances financed or refinanced by such obligations does not exceed $27,000,000.

"(2) White pine power project.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation issued during 1984 to provide financing for the White Pine Power Project in Nevada.

"(3) Tax increment bonds.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 shall not apply to any tax increment financing obligation issued before August 16, 1986, if—

"(A) substantially all of the proceeds of the issue are to be used to finance—

"(i) sewer, street, lighting, or other governmental improvements to real property,

"(ii) the acquisition of any interest in real property (by a governmental unit having the power to exercise eminent domain), the preparation of such property for new use, or the transfer of such interest to a private developer, or

"(iii) payments of reasonable relocation costs of prior users of such real property,

"(B) all of the activities described in subparagraph (A) are pursuant to a redevelopment plan adopted by the issuing authority before the issuance of such issue,

"(C) repayment of such issue is secured exclusively by pledges of that portion of any increase in real property tax revenues (or their equivalent) attributable to the redevelopment resulting from the issue (or similar issues), and

"(D) none of the property described in subparagraph (A) is subject to a real property or other tax based on a rate or valuation method which differs from the rate and valuation method applicable to any other similar property located within the jurisdiction of the issuing authority.

"(4) Eastern maine electric cooperative.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 shall not apply to obligations issued by Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company Project No. 6 if—

"(A) such obligation is issued before January 1, 1986,

"(B) such obligation is issued after such date to refund a prior obligation for such project, except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this subparagraph applies shall not exceed $100,000,000, or

"(C) such obligation is issued after such date to provide additional financing for such project except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this subparagraph applies shall not exceed $45,000,000.

Subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any obligation issued for the advance refunding of any obligation."

Treatment of Obligations To Finance St. Johns River Power Park

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1869(c)(6), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2890, provided that:

"(A) In general.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation issued to finance the project described in subparagraph (B) if—

"(i) such obligation is issued before September 27, 1985,

"(ii) such obligation is issued after such date to refund a prior tax exemption obligation for such project, the amount of such obligation does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded obligation, and such prior tax exempt obligation is retired not later than the date 30 days after the issuance of the refunding obligation, or

"(iii) such obligation is issued after such date to provide additional financing for such project except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this clause applies shall not exceed $150,000,000.

Clause (ii) shall not apply to any obligation issued for the advance refunding of any obligation.

"(B) Description of project.—The project described in this subparagraph in the St. Johns River Power Park system in Florida which was authorized by legislation enacted by the Florida Legislature in February of 1982."

Certain Public Utilities Treated as Exempted Persons Under Section 103(b); Special Rules for Certain Railroads

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §629, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 932, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XIII, §1316(g)(8)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2670, provided that:

"(a) Certain Public Utilities.—For purposes of applying section 103(b)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code [of 1986] with respect to—

"(1) any obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], and

"(2) any obligations issued after December 31, 1969, which were treated as obligations described in section 103(a) of such Code on the day on which such obligations were issued,

the term 'exempt person' shall include a regulated public utility having any customer service area within a State served by a public power authority which was required as a condition of a Federal Power Commission license specified by an Act of Congress enacted prior to the enactment of section 107 of the Revenue and Expenditure Control Act of 1968 (Public Law 90–364) [June 28, 1968] to contract to sell power to one such utility and which is authorized by State law to sell power to other such utilities, but only with respect to the purchase by any such utility and resale to its customers of any output of any electrical generation facility or any portion thereof or any use of any electrical transmission facility or any portion thereof financed by such power authority and owned by it or by such State, and provided that by agreement between such power authority and any such utility there shall be no markup in the resale price charged by such utility of that component of the resale price which represents the price paid by such utility for such output or use. The preceding sentence shall be applied by inserting 'and a rural electric cooperative utility' after 'regulated public utility' but only if not more than 1 percent of the load of the public power authority is sold to such rural electric cooperative utility.

"(b) Certain Railroads.—Section 103(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall not apply to any obligation which is described in section 103(b)(6)(A) of such Code if—

"(1) substantially all of the proceeds of such obligation are used to acquire railroad track and right-of-way from a railroad involved in a title 11 or similar proceeding (within the meaning of section 368(a)(3)(A) of such Code), and

"(2) the Federal Railroad Administration provides joint financing for such acquisitions.

"(c) Special Rules for Subsection (a).—

"(1) Obligations subject to cap.—Any obligation described in subsection (a) shall be treated as a private activity bond for purposes of section 103(n) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

"(2) Limitation on amount of obligations to which subsection (a)(1) applies—The aggregate amount of obligations to which subsection (a)(1) applies shall not exceed $911,000,000.

"(3) Limitation on purposes.—Subsection (a)(1) shall only apply to obligations issued as part of an issue substantially all the proceeds of which are used to provide 1 or more of the following:

"(A) Cable facilities.

"(B) Small hydroelectric facilities.

"(C) The acquisition of an interest in an electrical generating facility.

"(D) Improvements to existing generating facilities.

"(E) Transmission lines.

"(F) Electric generating facilities."

Treatment of Certain Residential Real Property as Residential Rental Property

Treatment of Pub. L. 98–369, §631(d)(3), residential real property as residential rental property, see section 1809(a)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 168 of this title.

Public Approval Requirement in the Case of Public Airport

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §628(f), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 932, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "If—

"(1) the proceeds of any issue are to be used to finance a facility or facilities located on a public airport, and

"(2) the governmental unit issuing such obligations is the owner or operator of such airport,

such governmental unit shall be deemed to be the only governmental unit having jurisdiction over such airport for purposes of subsection (k) of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to public approval for industrial development bonds)."

Small Issue Limit in Case of Certain Urban Development Action Grants

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §628(h), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 932, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "In the case of any obligation issued on December 11, 1981, section 103(b)(6)(I) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall be applied by substituting '$15,000,000' for '$10,000,000' if—

"(1) such obligation is part of an issue,

"(2) substantially all of the proceeds of such issue are used to provide facilities with respect to which an urban development action grant under section 119 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5318] was preliminarily approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development on January 10, 1980, and

"(3) the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determines, at the time such grant is approved, that the amount of such grant will equal or exceed 5 percent of the total capital expenditures incurred with respect to such facilities."

Student Loan Bonds

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §625, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 924, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XVIII, §1868, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2888, provided that:

"(a) Arbitrage Regulations.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which specify the circumstances under which a qualified student loan bond shall be treated as an arbitrage bond for purposes of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]. Such regulations may provide that—

"(A) paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 103(c) of such Code shall not apply, and

"(B) rules similar to section 103(c)(6) shall apply,

to qualified student loan bonds.

"(2) Definitions.—For purposes of this subsection—

"(A) Qualified student loan bond.—The term 'qualified student loan bond' has the meaning given to such term by section 103(o)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by this Act).

"(B) Arbitrage bond.—The term 'arbitrage bond' has the meaning given to such term by section 103(c)(2).

"(3) Effective date.—

"(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, any regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall apply to obligations issued after the qualified date.

"(B) Qualified date.—

"(i) In general.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'qualified date' means the earlier of—

     "(I) the date on which the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.] expires, or

     "(II) the date, after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], on which the Higher Education Act of 1965 is reauthorized.

"(ii) Publication of regulations.—Notwithstanding clause (i), the qualified date shall not be a date which is prior to the date that is 6 months after the date on which the regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) are published in the Federal Register.

"(C) Refunding obligations.—Regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any obligation (or series of refunding obligations) issued exclusively to refund any qualified student loan bond which was issued before the qualified date, except that the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 626(b)(4) of this Act [set out in Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note above] must be met with respect to such refunding.

"(D) Fulfillment of commitments.—Regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any obligations which are needed to fulfill written commitments to acquire or finance student loans which are originated after June 30, 1984, and before the qualified date, but only if—

"(i) such commitments are binding on the qualified date, and

"(ii) the amount of such commitments is consistent with practices of the issuer which were in effect on March 15, 1984, with respect to establishing secondary markets for student loans.

"(b) Arbitrage Limitation on Student Loan Bonds Which Are Not Qualified Student Loan Bonds.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate, any student loan bond (other than a qualified student loan bond) issued after December 31, 1985, shall be treated as an obligation not described in subsection (a)(1) or (2) of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 unless the issue of which such obligation is a part meets requirements similar to those of sections 103(c)(6) and 103A(i) of such Code.

"(c) Issuance of Student Loan Bonds Which Are Not Tax-Exempt.—Any issuer who may issue obligations described in section 103(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 may elect to issue student loan bonds which are not described in such section 103(a) of such Code without prejudice to—

"(1) the status of any other obligations issued, or to be issued, by such issuer as obligations described in section 103(a) of such Code, or

"(2) the status of the issuer as an organization exempt from taxation under such Code.

"(d) Federal Executive Branch Jurisdiction Over Tax-Exempt Status.—For purposes of Federal law, any determination by the executive branch of the Federal Government of whether interest on any obligation is exempt from taxation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be exclusively within the jurisdiction of the Department of the Treasury.

"(e) Study on Tax-Exempt Student Loan Bonds.—

"(1) In general.—The Comptroller General of the United States and the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, shall conduct studies of—

"(A) the appropriate role of tax-exempt bonds which are issued in connection with the guaranteed student loan program and the PLUS program established under the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.], and

"(B) the appropriate arbitrage rules for such bonds.

"(2) Report.—The Comptroller General of the United States and the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, shall submit to the Committee on Finance and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources [now Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions] of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Education and Labor [now Committee on Education and the Workforce] of the House of Representatives reports on the studies conducted under paragraph (1) by no later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]."

Obligations Issued To Provide Solid Waste-Energy Producing Facilities

Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §241(b), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 282, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) General rule.—For purposes of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], any obligation issued by an authority for 2 or more political subdivisions of a State which is part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide solid waste-energy producing facilities shall be treated as an obligation of a political subdivision of a State which meets the requirements of section 103(b)(4)(E) of such Code (relating to solid waste disposal, etc., facilities). Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to override the limitations of section 103(c) of such Code (relating to arbitrage bonds).

"(2) Solid waste-energy producing facilities.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the term 'solid waste-energy producing facilities' means any solid waste disposal facility and any facility for the production of steam and electrical energy if—

"(A) substantially all of the fuel for the facility producing steam and electrical energy is derived from solid waste from such solid waste disposal facility,

"(B) both such solid waste disposal facility and the facility producing steam and electrical energy are owned and operated by the authority referred to in paragraph (1), and

"(C) all of the electrical energy and steam produced by the facility for producing steam and electricity which is not used by such facility is sold, for purposes other than resale, to an agency or instrumentality of the United States.

"(3) Solid waste disposal facility.—For purposes of paragraph (2), the term 'solid waste disposal facility' means any solid waste disposal facility within the meaning of section 103(b)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (determined without regard to section 103(g) of such Code).

"(4) Obligations must be in registered form.—This subsection shall not apply to any obligation which is not issued in registered form."

Alcohol-Producing Facilities

Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §241(c), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 282, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Subparagraph (C) of section 103(g)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by subsection (a)) shall not apply to any facility for the production of alcohol from solid waste if—

"(A) substantially all of the solid waste derived feedstock for such facility is produced at a facility which—

"(i) went into full production in 1977,

"(ii) is located within the limits of a city, and

"(iii) is located in the same metropolitan area as the alcohol-producing facility, and

"(B) before March 1, 1980, there were negotiations between a governmental body and an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to the utilization of a special process for the production of alcohol at such alcohol-producing facility.

"(2) Limitation.—The aggregate amount of obligations which may be issued by reason of paragraph (1) with respect to any project shall not exceed $30,000,000.

"(3) Termination.—This subsection shall not apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1985."

Hydroelectric Generating Facilities

Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §242(b), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 284, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(H) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to qualified hydroelectric generating facilities), in the case of a hydroelectric generating facility described in paragraph (2)—

"(A) the facility shall be treated as a qualified hydroelectric generating facility (as defined in section 103(b)(8)(A) of such Code) without regard to clause (ii) of section 48(l)(13)(B) of such Code (relating to maximum generating capacity), and

"(B) the fraction referred to in subparagraph (C) of section 103(b)(8) of such Code shall be deemed to be 1.

"(2) Facilities to which paragraph (1) applies.—A facility is described in this paragraph if—

"(A) it would be a qualified hydroelectric generating facility (as defined in section 103(b)(8)(A) of such Code) if clause (ii) of section 48(l)(13)(B) did not apply,

"(B) it constitutes an expansion of generating capacity at an existing hydroelectric generating facility,

"(C) such facility is located at 1 of 2 dams located in the same county where—

"(i) the rated capacity of the hydroelectric generating facilities at each such dam on October 18, 1979, was more than 750 megawatts,

"(ii) the construction of the first such dam began in 1956, power at such first dam was first generated in 1959, and full power production at such first dam began in 1961, and

"(iii) the construction of the second such dam began in 1959, power at such second dam was first generated in 1963, and full power production at such second dam began in 1964,

"(D) acquisition or construction of the existing facility referred to in subparagraph (B) was financed with the proceeds of an obligation described in section 103(a)(1) of such Code,

"(E) the existing facility is owned and operated by a State, political subdivision of a State, or agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing,

"(F) no more than 60 percent of the electric power and energy produced by such existing facility and of the qualified hydroelectric generating facility is to be sold to anyone other than an exempt person (within the meaning of section 103(b)(3) of such Code), and

"(G) the agency of the State in which the facility is located which has jurisdiction over water rights had granted, before October 18, 1979, a water right under which expanded power and energy generating capacity for the facility was contemplated."

State Obligations for Renewable Energy Property

Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §243, Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 285, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) Certain State Obligations for Renewable Energy Property.—

"(1) In general.—Paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall not apply to any obligation issued as part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide renewable energy property, if—

"(A) the obligations are general obligations of a State,

"(B) the authority for the issuance of the obligations requires that taxes be levied in sufficient amount to provide for the payment of principal and interest on such obligations,

"(C) the amount of such obligations, when added to the sum of the amounts of all such obligations previously issued by the State which are outstanding, does not exceed the smaller of—

"(i) $500,000,000 or

"(ii) one-half of 1 percent of the value of all property in the State,

"(D) such obligations are issued pursuant to a program to provide financing for small scale energy projects which was established by a State the legislature of which, before October 18, 1979, approved a constitutional amendment to provide for such a program, and

"(E) such obligations meet the requirements of paragraph (1) of section 103(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

"(2) Renewable energy property.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'renewable energy property' means property used to produce energy (including heat, electricity, and substitute fuels) from renewable energy sources (including wind, solar, and geothermal energy, waste heat, biomass, and water).

"(b) Effective Date.—Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 2, 1980]."

Disposition of Amounts Generated by Advance Refunding of Certain Governmental Obligations

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §337, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2842, as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §103(a)(8), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 212; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—The payment to a charitable organization of a refund profit held in a trust fund or escrow arrangement, or held by an underwriter or other person under a qualified agreement in accordance with that agreement—

"(1) shall not cause the refunding obligations out of which the refund profit arose to be treated as arbitrage bonds (within the meaning of section 103(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) and

"(2) may be paid without penalty imposed on the issuer of such obligations.

"(b) Rule for Governments Which Have Already Paid Arbitrage Profits to the United States.—In the case of a State or local government which, before January 1, 1977—

"(1) requested in writing a rule by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to the tax consequences of paying refund profit to charitable organizations,

"(2) failed to receive a favorable ruling and did not pay the refund profit to a charitable organization, and

which accounted to the United States for refund profit by direct payment to the United States, or by the purchase of low-interest United States obligations, the Secretary of the Treasury shall pay, out of any amounts in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, an amount equal to the refund profit for which the State or local government has accounted to the United States. Amounts paid to a State or local government under this subsection shall be distributed to such charitable organizations within 90 days after the date on which the payment is received by the State or local government in the same manner as if the refund profit had not been paid to the United States and met the requirements of subsection (a).

"(c) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) Refund profit.—The term 'Refund profit' means interest, profit, or other amounts generated by, or arising out of, the advance refunding, before September 24, 1976, of an obligation of a State or local government described in section 103 of such Code.

"(2) Charitable organization.—The term 'charitable organization' means an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of such Code and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code other than an organization described in section 509(a) of such Code.

"(3) Qualified agreement.—The term 'qualified agreement' means an agreement (whether or not enforceable) which provides for, or contemplates, the payment of refund profit to one or more charitable organizations.

"(4) Low-interest united states obligations.—The term 'low-interest United States obligations' means United States obligations which bear an interest rate lower than the highest rate of interest borne by public debt securities generally available for purchase at the time such obligations were purchased."

Transitional Provisions for Industrial Development Bonds Issued Before January 1, 1969

Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §107(b)(2), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 268, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "Section 103(c)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as amended by subsection (a) [subsec. (b)(1), formerly subsec. (c)(1) of this section], shall not apply with respect to any obligation issued before January 1, 1969, if before May 1, 1968—

"(A) the issuance of the obligation (or the project in connection with which the proceeds of the obligations are to be used) was authorized or approved by the governing body of the governmental unit issuing the obligation or by the voters of such governmental unit;

"(B) in connection with the issuance of such obligation or with the use of the proceeds to be derived from the sale of such obligation or the property to be acquired or improved with such proceeds, a governmental unit has made a significant financial commitment;

"(C) any person (other than a governmental unit) who will use the proceeds to be derived from the sale of such obligation or the property to be acquired or improved with such proceeds has expended (or has entered into a binding contract to expend) for purposes which are related to the use of such proceeds or property, an amount equal to or in excess of 20 percent of such proceeds; or

"(D) in the case of an obligation issued in conjunction with a project where financial assistance will be provided by a governmental agency concerned with economic development, such agency has approved the project or an application for financial assistance is pending."

[§103A. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

Section, added Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1102(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2660; amended Pub. L. 96–595, §5(a), (b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3467; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §220(a)–(e), title III, §310(c)(3), (4), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 475, 476, 599; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §42(a)(2), title VI, §§611(a)–(c), 612(b), 624(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 556, 901-903, 911, 924; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1861, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2883, related to mortgage subsidy bonds. See section 143 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

§104. Compensation for injuries or sickness

(a) In general

Except in the case of amounts attributable to (and not in excess of) deductions allowed under section 213 (relating to medical, etc., expenses) for any prior taxable year, gross income does not include—

(1) amounts received under workmen's compensation acts as compensation for personal injuries or sickness;

(2) the amount of any damages (other than punitive damages) received (whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sums or as periodic payments) on account of personal physical injuries or physical sickness;

(3) amounts received through accident or health insurance (or through an arrangement having the effect of accident or health insurance) for personal injuries or sickness (other than amounts received by an employee, to the extent such amounts (A) are attributable to contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee, or (B) are paid by the employer);

(4) amounts received as a pension, annuity, or similar allowance for personal injuries or sickness resulting from active service in the armed forces of any country or in the Coast and Geodetic Survey or the Public Health Service, or as a disability annuity payable under the provisions of section 808 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980;

(5) amounts received by an individual as disability income attributable to injuries incurred as a direct result of a terroristic or military action (as defined in section 692(c)(2)); and

(6) amounts received pursuant to—

(A) section 1201 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796); 1 or

(B) a program established under the laws of any State which provides monetary compensation for surviving dependents of a public safety officer who has died as the direct and proximate result of a personal injury sustained in the line of duty,


except that subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any amounts that would have been payable if death of the public safety officer had occurred other than as the direct and proximate result of a personal injury sustained in the line of duty.


For purposes of paragraph (3), in the case of an individual who is, or has been, an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals), contributions made on behalf of such individual while he was such an employee to a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), or under a plan described in section 403(a), shall, to the extent allowed as deductions under section 404, be treated as contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee. For purposes of paragraph (2), emotional distress shall not be treated as a physical injury or physical sickness. The preceding sentence shall not apply to an amount of damages not in excess of the amount paid for medical care (described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 213(d)(1)) attributable to emotional distress.

(b) Termination of application of subsection (a)(4) in certain cases

(1) In general

Subsection (a)(4) shall not apply in the case of any individual who is not described in paragraph (2).

(2) Individuals to whom subsection (a)(4) continues to apply

An individual is described in this paragraph if—

(A) on or before September 24, 1975, he was entitled to receive any amount described in subsection (a)(4),

(B) on September 24, 1975, he was a member of any organization (or reserve component thereof) referred to in subsection (a)(4) or under a binding written commitment to become such a member,

(C) he receives an amount described in subsection (a)(4) by reason of a combat-related injury, or

(D) on application therefor, he would be entitled to receive disability compensation from the Department of Veterans Affairs.

(3) Special rules for combat-related injuries

For purposes of this subsection, the term "combat-related injury" means personal injury or sickness—

(A) which is incurred—

(i) as a direct result of armed conflict,

(ii) while engaged in extrahazardous service, or

(iii) under conditions simulating war; or


(B) which is caused by an instrumentality of war.


In the case of an individual who is not described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2), except as provided in paragraph (4), the only amounts taken into account under subsection (a)(4) shall be the amounts which he receives by reason of a combat-related injury.

(4) Amount excluded to be not less than veterans' disability compensation

In the case of any individual described in paragraph (2), the amounts excludable under subsection (a)(4) for any period with respect to any individual shall not be less than the maximum amount which such individual, on application therefor, would be entitled to receive as disability compensation from the Veterans' Administration.

(c) Application of prior law in certain cases

The phrase "(other than punitive damages)" shall not apply to punitive damages awarded in a civil action—

(1) which is a wrongful death action, and

(2) with respect to which applicable State law (as in effect on September 13, 1995 and without regard to any modification after such date) provides, or has been construed to provide by a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to a decision issued on or before September 13, 1995, that only punitive damages may be awarded in such an action.


This subsection shall cease to apply to any civil action filed on or after the first date on which the applicable State law ceases to provide (or is no longer construed to provide) the treatment described in paragraph (2).

(d) Cross references

(1) For exclusion from employee's gross income of employer contributions to accident and health plans, see section 106.

(2) For exclusion of part of disability retirement pay from the application of subsection (a)(4) of this section, see section 1403 of title 10, United States Code (relating to career compensation laws).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 30; Pub. L. 86–723, §51, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(d), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(b), (e)(1), title XIX, §1901(a)(18), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1567, 1568, 1766; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2206(e)(1), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2162; Pub. L. 97–473, title I, §101(a), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2605; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7641(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1605(a)–(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1838; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §311(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2053; Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §113(a), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2435; Pub. L. 114–14, §2, May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 198; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(2)(A), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1184.)

References in Text

Section 808 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §808, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2110, which is classified to section 4048 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section 1201 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(A), was classified to section 3796 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as section 10281 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "Department of Veterans Affairs" for "Veterans' Administration".

2015—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 114–14 added par. (6).

2002—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 107–134 substituted "a terroristic or military action (as defined in section 692(c)(2))." for "a violent attack which the Secretary of State determines to be a terrorist attack and which occurred while such individual was an employee of the United States engaged in the performance of his official duties outside the United States."

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–188, §1605(b), in closing provisions, substituted "For purposes of paragraph (2), emotional distress shall not be treated as a physical injury or physical sickness. The preceding sentence shall not apply to an amount of damages not in excess of the amount paid for medical care (described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 213(d)(1)) attributable to emotional distress." for "Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any punitive damages in connection with a case not involving physical injury or physical sickness."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, §1605(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "the amount of any damages received (whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sums or as periodic payments) on account of personal injuries or sickness;".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–191 inserted "(or through an arrangement having the effect of accident or health insurance)" after "accident or health insurance".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 104–188, §1605(c), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239 inserted at end "Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any punitive damages in connection with a case not involving physical injury or physical sickness."

1983—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–473 substituted "whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sums or as periodic payments" for "whether by suit or agreement".

1980—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 96–465 substituted reference to section 808 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 for reference to section 831 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946.

1976—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(18)(A), struck out "; 60 Stat. 1021" after "(22 U.S.C. 1081".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 94–455, §505(e)(1), added par. (5).

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §505(b), added subsec. (b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c) and, as so redesignated, §1901(a)(18)(B), substituted "1403 of title 10, United States Code (relating to career compensation laws)" for "402(h) of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 (37 U.S.C. 272(h))".

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–792 inserted sentence requiring contributions made on behalf of an individual who is, or has been, an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1), while he was such an employee to a trust which is exempt from tax, or under a plan described in section 403(a), to be treated as contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee.

1960—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 86–723 provided for exclusion from gross income of amounts received as a disability annuity payable under the provisions of section 831 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946, as amended.

Change of Name

Reference to Veterans' Administration deemed to refer to Department of Veterans Affairs pursuant to section 10 of Pub. L. 100–527, set out as a Department of Veterans Affairs Act note under section 301 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

Coast and Geodetic Survey consolidated with National Weather Bureau in 1965 to form Environmental Science Services Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1965, eff. July 13, 1965, 30 FR 8819, 79 Stat. 1318. Environmental Science Services Administration abolished in 1970 and its personnel, property, records, etc., transferred to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 FR 15627, 84 Stat. 2090. By order of Acting Associate Administrator of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 35 FR 19249, Dec. 19, 1970, Coast and Geodetic Survey redesignated National Ocean Survey. See notes under section 311 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §113(c), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2435, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 692 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending on or after September 11, 2001."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §311(c), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2053, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 162 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996."

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1605(d), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1839, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996], in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any amount received under a written binding agreement, court decree, or mediation award in effect on (or issued on or before) September 13, 1995."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7641(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2379, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after July 10, 1989, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Exception.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to any amount received—

"(A) under any written binding agreement, court decree, or mediation award in effect on (or issued on or before) July 10, 1989, or

"(B) pursuant to any suit filed on or before July 10, 1989."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3901 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 505(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(e)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1568, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976."

Amendment by section 1901(a)(18)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–723, §56(e), Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 848, provided that: "The amendment made by section 51 of this Act [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to taxable years ending after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 8, 1960]."

Transfer of Functions

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 3508 of Title 20, Education.

Functions of Public Health Service, Surgeon General of Public Health Service, and all other officers and employees of Public Health Service, and functions of all agencies of or in Public Health Service transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 3, 31 F.R. 8855, 80 Stat. 1610, effective June 25, 1966, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 See References in Text note below.

§105. Amounts received under accident and health plans

(a) Amounts attributable to employer contributions

Except as otherwise provided in this section, amounts received by an employee through accident or health insurance for personal injuries or sickness shall be included in gross income to the extent such amounts (1) are attributable to contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee, or (2) are paid by the employer.

(b) Amounts expended for medical care

Except in the case of amounts attributable to (and not in excess of) deductions allowed under section 213 (relating to medical, etc., expenses) for any prior taxable year, gross income does not include amounts referred to in subsection (a) if such amounts are paid, directly or indirectly, to the taxpayer to reimburse the taxpayer for expenses incurred by him for the medical care (as defined in section 213(d)) of the taxpayer, his spouse, his dependents (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof), and any child (as defined in section 152(f)(1)) of the taxpayer who as of the end of the taxable year has not attained age 27. Any child to whom section 152(e) applies shall be treated as a dependent of both parents for purposes of this subsection.

(c) Payments unrelated to absence from work

Gross income does not include amounts referred to in subsection (a) to the extent such amounts—

(1) constitute payment for the permanent loss or loss of use of a member or function of the body, or the permanent disfigurement, of the taxpayer, his spouse, or a dependent (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof), and

(2) are computed with reference to the nature of the injury without regard to the period the employee is absent from work.

[(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87]

(e) Accident and health plans

For purposes of this section and section 104—

(1) amounts received under an accident or health plan for employees, and

(2) amounts received from a sickness and disability fund for employees maintained under the law of a State or the District of Columbia,


shall be treated as amounts received through accident or health insurance.

(f) Rules for application of section 213

For purposes of section 213(a) (relating to medical, dental, etc., expenses) amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (c) shall not be considered as compensation (by insurance or otherwise) for expenses paid for medical care.

(g) Self-employed individual not considered an employee

For purposes of this section, the term "employee" does not include an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).

(h) Amount paid to highly compensated individuals under a discriminatory self-insured medical expense reimbursement plan

(1) In general

In the case of amounts paid to a highly compensated individual under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan which does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2) for a plan year, subsection (b) shall not apply to such amounts to the extent they constitute an excess reimbursement of such highly compensated individual.

(2) Prohibition of discrimination

A self-insured medical reimbursement plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph only if—

(A) the plan does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated individuals as to eligibility to participate; and

(B) the benefits provided under the plan do not discriminate in favor of participants who are highly compensated individuals.

(3) Nondiscriminatory eligibility classifications

(A) In general

A self-insured medical reimbursement plan does not satisfy the requirements of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) unless such plan benefits—

(i) 70 percent or more of all employees, or 80 percent or more of all the employees who are eligible to benefit under the plan if 70 percent or more of all employees are eligible to benefit under the plan; or

(ii) such employees as qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of highly compensated individuals.

(B) Exclusion of certain employees

For purposes of subparagraph (A), there may be excluded from consideration—

(i) employees who have not completed 3 years of service;

(ii) employees who have not attained age 25;

(iii) part-time or seasonal employees;

(iv) employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers which the Secretary finds to be a collective bargaining agreement, if accident and health benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers; and

(v) employees who are nonresident aliens and who receive no earned income (within the meaning of section 911(d)(2)) from the employer which constitutes income from sources within the United States (within the meaning of section 861(a)(3)).

(4) Nondiscriminatory benefits

A self-insured medical reimbursement plan does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) unless all benefits provided for participants who are highly compensated individuals are provided for all other participants.

(5) Highly compensated individual defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term "highly compensated individual" means an individual who is—

(A) one of the 5 highest paid officers,

(B) a shareholder who owns (with the application of section 318) more than 10 percent in value of the stock of the employer, or

(C) among the highest paid 25 percent of all employees (other than employees described in paragraph (3)(B) who are not participants).

(6) Self-insured medical reimbursement plan

The term "self-insured medical reimbursement plan" means a plan of an employer to reimburse employees for expenses referred to in subsection (b) for which reimbursement is not provided under a policy of accident and health insurance.

(7) Excess reimbursement of highly compensated individual

For purposes of this section, the excess reimbursement of a highly compensated individual which is attributable to a self-insured medical reimbursement plan is—

(A) in the case of a benefit available to highly compensated individuals but not to all other participants (or which otherwise fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(B)), the amount reimbursed under the plan to the employee with respect to such benefit, and

(B) in the case of benefits (other than benefits described in subparagraph (A)) paid to a highly compensated individual by a plan which fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2), the total amount reimbursed to the highly compensated individual for the plan year multiplied by a fraction—

(i) the numerator of which is the total amount reimbursed to all participants who are highly compensated individuals under the plan for the plan year, and

(ii) the denominator of which is the total amount reimbursed to all employees under the plan for such plan year.


In determining the fraction under subparagraph (B), there shall not be taken into account any reimbursement which is attributable to a benefit described in subparagraph (A).

(8) Certain controlled groups, etc.

All employees who are treated as employed by a single employer under subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414 shall be treated as employed by a single employer for purposes of this section.

(9) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(10) Time of inclusion

Any amount paid for a plan year that is included in income by reason of this subsection shall be treated as received or accrued in the taxable year of the participant in which the plan year ends.

(i) Sick pay under Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, gross income includes benefits paid under section 2(a) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act for days of sickness; except to the extent such sickness (as determined in accordance with standards prescribed by the Railroad Retirement Board) is the result of on-the-job injury.

(j) Special rule for certain governmental plans

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (b), amounts paid (directly or indirectly) to a qualified taxpayer from an accident or health plan described in paragraph (2) shall not fail to be excluded from gross income solely because such plan, on or before January 1, 2008, provides for reimbursements of health care expenses of a deceased employee's beneficiary (other than an individual described in paragraph (3)(B)).

(2) Plan described

An accident or health plan is described in this paragraph if such plan is funded by a medical trust that is established in connection with a public retirement system or established by or on behalf of a State or political subdivision thereof and that—

(A) has been authorized by a State legislature, or

(B) has received a favorable ruling from the Internal Revenue Service that the trust's income is not includible in gross income under section 115 or 501(c)(9).

(3) Qualified taxpayer

For purposes of paragraph (1), with respect to an accident or health plan described in paragraph (2), the term "qualified taxpayer" means a taxpayer who is—

(A) an employee, or

(B) the spouse, dependent (as defined for purposes of subsection (b)), or child (as defined for purposes of such subsection) of an employee.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 30; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(e), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §205(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 38; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(a), title XIX, §1901(c)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1566, 1803; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §366(a), title VII, §701(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2855, 2899; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §103(a)(13)(B), (C), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 96–605, title II, §201(b)(1), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3527; Pub. L. 96–613, §5(b)(1), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3581; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§103(c)(2), 111(b)(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 188, 194; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §202(b)(3)(C), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 421; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 98–76, title II, §241(a), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 430; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §423(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1151(c)(2), title XIII, §1301(j)(9), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2503, 2658; Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 108–311, title II, §207(9), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1177; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §124(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5114; Pub. L. 111–152, title I, §1004(d)(1), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1035; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(16), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4039; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §305(a)–(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3088; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(36), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1186.)

References in Text

Section 2(a) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is classified to section 352(a) of Title 45, Railroads.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (h)(7)(B). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "subparagraph (A))" for "subparagraph (A)" in introductory provisions.

2015—Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 114–113, §305(a), substituted "a qualified taxpayer" for "the taxpayer" and "deceased employee's beneficiary (other than an individual described in paragraph (3)(B))" for "deceased plan participant's beneficiary".

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 114–113, §305(c)(1), inserted "or established by or on behalf of a State or political subdivision thereof" after "public retirement system" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B). Pub. L. 114–113, §305(c)(2), inserted "or 501(c)(9)" after "section 115".

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 114–113, §305(b), added par. (3).

2014—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–295 struck out "or (d)" after "subsection (c)".

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–152 substituted "his dependents" for "and his dependents" and inserted ", and any child (as defined in section 152(f)(1)) of the taxpayer who as of the end of the taxable year has not attained age 27" after "thereof)".

2008—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–458 added subsec. (j).

2004—Subsecs. (b), (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–311 inserted ", determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof" after "section 152".

1989—Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 101–140 amended subsecs. (h) and (i) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(2), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

1986—Subsec. (d)(5)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(9), which directed that subpar. (C) be amended by substituting "section 7703(a)" for "section 143(a)", could not be executed because subsec. (d) was previously repealed by Pub. L. 98–21. See 1983 Amendment note below.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(2), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h) and struck out former subsec. (h) which related to amount paid to highly compensated individuals under a discriminatory self-insured medical expense reimbursement plan.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369 inserted "Any child to whom section 152(e) applies shall be treated as a dependent of both parents for purposes of this subsection."

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–21 struck out subsec. (d) which provided that no deduction or credit would be allowed with respect to any expenditure which is properly associated with any amount excluded from gross income under subsec. (a).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–76 added subsec. (i).

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–248 substituted "section 213(d)" for "section 213(e)".

1981—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 97–34, §103(c)(2), substituted "this subsection and section 221" for "this subsection" in parenthetical provision.

Subsec. (h)(3)(B)(v). Pub. L. 97–34, §111(b)(4), substituted "section 911(d)(2)" for "section 911(b)".

1980—Subsec. (h)(3)(A). Pub. L. 96–222, §103(a)(13)(B), substituted "highly compensated individuals" for "highly compensated participants".

Subsec. (h)(7)(A). Pub. L. 96–222, §103(a)(13)(C), substituted "highly compensated individuals but not to all other participants (or which otherwise fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(B))" for "a highly compensated individual but not to a broad cross-section of employees".

Subsec. (h)(8). Pub. L. 96–613 and Pub. L. 96–605 made identical amendments by substituting in heading "controlled groups, etc." for "controlled groups", and by substituting in text "subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414" for "subsection (b) or (c) of section 414".

1978—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 95–600, §701 (c)(1), redesignated par. (5) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5)(A) and (C).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(c)(1), added heading and subpar. (B), redesignated former par. (4) as subpars. (A) and (C), adding subpar. (C) heading and substituting "section 143(a)" for "section 143"; and redesignated former par. (6) as subpar. (D), inserting "defined" in heading.

Subsec. (d)(6), (7). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(c)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5)(D).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–600, §366(a), added subsec. (h).

1976—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §505(a), substituted provisions relating to an exclusion of up to $5,200 a year for taxpayers retiring on disability prior to age 65; dollar-for-dollar phase out of exclusion for adjusted annual gross income (including disability income) in excess of $15,000; requirement that married couple must file joint return; defined "permanent and total disability" and "joint return"; and inserted special rule for coordination with section 72 of this title for provisions relating to wage continuation plans.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(c)(2), struck out "a territory" after "of a State".

1964—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–272 substituted provisions stating that "The preceding sentence shall not apply to amounts attributable to the first 30" days if the amounts exceed 75 percent of regular weekly wages, and if they do not exceed said 75 percent, the first sentence of this subsection shall not apply to the extent the amounts exceed $75 weekly and shall not apply to amounts attributable to the first 7 calendar days unless the employee is hospitalized for injury or sickness for at least 1 day in such period, for provisions stating that said "preceding sentence" did not apply in cases of sickness, to amounts attributable to the first 7 days unless the employee was hospitalized for sickness for at least 1 day during such period.

1962—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 87–792 added subsec. (g).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §305(d), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3089, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §124(b), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5115, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to payments before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2008]."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–140 effective as if included in section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 203(c) of Pub. L. 101–140, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1151(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Amendment by section 1301(j)(9) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 423(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–76, title II, §241(b), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 430, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date."

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, except that if an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under subsec. (d)(6) as in effect the day before Apr. 20, 1983, such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 122(d) of Pub. L. 98–21 set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 202(c) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 213 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see sections 103(d) and 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as notes under sections 62 and 911, respectively, of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendments by Pub. L. 96–605 and 96–613 applicable to years ending after Nov. 30, 1980, except in the case of a plan in existence on Nov. 30, 1980, where amendments applicable to plan years beginning after Nov. 30, 1980, see section 201(c) of Pub. L. 96–605 and section 5(c) of Pub. L. 96–613, set out as a note under section 414 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §366(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2857, as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §103(a)(13)(D), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 213, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts reimbursed after December 31, 1979. For purposes of applying such amendment, there shall not be taken into account any amount reimbursed before January 1, 1980."

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(c)(3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2900, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(A) The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2)(A) [amending this section and provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect as if included in section 105(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] as such section was amended by section 505(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976.

"(B) The amendments made by paragraph (2)(B) [amending provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect as if included in section 301 of the Tax Reduction and Simplification Act of 1977 [Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 152]."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(f), as added by Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(a), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976."

Amendment by section 1901(c)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §205(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 38, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts attributable to periods of absence commencing after December 31, 1963."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Revocation of Election

Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(c), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(c)(2)(B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2900; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "Any election made under section 105(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] or under section 505(d) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [set out below] for a taxable year beginning in 1976 may be revoked (in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations) at any time before the expiration of the period for assessing a deficiency with respect to such taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (d) of this section) [set out below]."

Period for Assessing Deficiency

Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(d), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 152, provided that: "In the case of any revocation made under subsection (c) [set out above], the period for assessing a deficiency with respect to any taxable year affected by the revocation shall not expire before the date which is 1 year after the date of the making of the revocation, and, notwithstanding any law or rule of law, such deficiency, to the extent attributable to such revocation, may be assessed at any time during such 1-year period."

Effective Date of Changes in Exclusion for Sick Pay

Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(e), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 152, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(c)(2)(B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2900; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect on October 4, 1976, but shall not apply—

"(1) with respect to any taxpayer who makes or has made an election under section 105(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] or under section 505(d) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [set out below] (as such sections were in effect before the enactment of this Act [May 23, 1977]) for a taxable year beginning in 1976, if such election is not revoked under subsection (c) of this section [set out above], and

"(2) with respect to any taxpayer (other than a taxpayer described in paragraph (1)) who has an annuity starting date at the beginning of a taxable year beginning in 1976 by reason of the amendments made by section 505 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [amending this section and section 104 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] (as in effect before the enactment of this Act [May 23, 1977]), unless such person elects (in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulations prescribe) to have such amendments apply."

Special Rule for Existing Permanent and Total Disability Cases

Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1567, as amended by Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(b)(1), (2), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(c)(2)(A), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2900; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "In the case of any individual who—

"(1) retired before January 1, 1977,

"(2) either retired on disability or was entitled to retire on disability, and

"(3) on January 1, 1976, or January 1, 1977, was permanently and totally disabled (within the meaning of section 105(d)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]),

such individual shall be deemed to have met the requirements of section 105(d)(1)(B) of such Code (as amended by subsection (a) of this section)."

Special Rule for Coordination With Section 72 of This Title

Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(d), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1568, as amended by Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(b)(3)–(5), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "In the case of an individual who—

"(1) retired on disability before January 1, 1977, and

"(2) on December 31, 1975, or December 31, 1976, was entitled to exclude any amount with respect to such retirement disability from gross income under section 105(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954],

for purposes of section 72 the annuity starting date shall not be deemed to occur before the beginning of the taxable year in which the taxpayer attains age 65, or before the beginning of an earlier taxable year for which the taxpayer makes an irrevocable election not to seek the benefits of such section 105(d) for such year and all subsequent years."

§106. Contributions by employer to accident and health plans

(a) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in this section, gross income of an employee does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan.

(b) Contributions to Archer MSAs

(1) In general

In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual, amounts contributed by such employee's employer to any Archer MSA of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 220(b)(1) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.

(2) No constructive receipt

No amount shall be included in the gross income of any employee solely because the employee may choose between the contributions referred to in paragraph (1) and employer contributions to another health plan of the employer.

(3) Special rule for deduction of employer contributions

Any employer contribution to an Archer MSA, if otherwise allowable as a deduction under this chapter, shall be allowed only for the taxable year in which paid.

(4) Employer MSA contributions required to be shown on return

Every individual required to file a return under section 6012 for the taxable year shall include on such return the aggregate amount contributed by employers to the Archer MSAs of such individual or such individual's spouse for such taxable year.

(5) MSA contributions not part of COBRA coverage

Paragraph (1) shall not apply for purposes of section 4980B.

(6) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the terms "eligible individual" and "Archer MSA" have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 220.

(7) Cross reference

For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the Archer MSAs of comparable employees, see section 4980E.

(c) Inclusion of long-term care benefits provided through flexible spending arrangements

(1) In general

Gross income of an employee shall include employer-provided coverage for qualified long-term care services (as defined in section 7702B(c)) to the extent that such coverage is provided through a flexible spending or similar arrangement.

(2) Flexible spending arrangement

For purposes of this subsection, a flexible spending arrangement is a benefit program which provides employees with coverage under which—

(A) specified incurred expenses may be reimbursed (subject to reimbursement maximums and other reasonable conditions), and

(B) the maximum amount of reimbursement which is reasonably available to a participant for such coverage is less than 500 percent of the value of such coverage.


In the case of an insured plan, the maximum amount reasonably available shall be determined on the basis of the underlying coverage.

(d) Contributions to health savings accounts

(1) In general

In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual (as defined in section 223(c)(1)), amounts contributed by such employee's employer to any health savings account (as defined in section 223(d)) of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 223(b) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.

(2) Special rules

Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of subsection (b) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.

(3) Cross reference

For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the health savings accounts of comparable employees, see section 4980G.

(e) FSA and HRA terminations to fund HSAs

(1) In general

A plan shall not fail to be treated as a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement under this section or section 105 merely because such plan provides for a qualified HSA distribution.

(2) Qualified HSA distribution

The term "qualified HSA distribution" means a distribution from a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement to the extent that such distribution—

(A) does not exceed the lesser of the balance in such arrangement on September 21, 2006, or as of the date of such distribution, and

(B) is contributed by the employer directly to the health savings account of the employee before January 1, 2012.


Such term shall not include more than 1 distribution with respect to any arrangement.

(3) Additional tax for failure to maintain high deductible health plan coverage

(A) In general

If, at any time during the testing period, the employee is not an eligible individual, then the amount of the qualified HSA distribution—

(i) shall be includible in the gross income of the employee for the taxable year in which occurs the first month in the testing period for which such employee is not an eligible individual, and

(ii) the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year on the employee shall be increased by 10 percent of the amount which is so includible.

(B) Exception for disability or death

Clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the employee ceases to be an eligible individual by reason of the death of the employee or the employee becoming disabled (within the meaning of section 72(m)(7)).

(4) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Testing period

The term "testing period" means the period beginning with the month in which the qualified HSA distribution is contributed to the health savings account and ending on the last day of the 12th month following such month.

(B) Eligible individual

The term "eligible individual" has the meaning given such term by section 223(c)(1).

(C) Treatment as rollover contribution

A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a rollover contribution described in section 223(f)(5).

(5) Tax treatment relating to distributions

For purposes of this title—

(A) In general

A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a payment described in subsection (d).

(B) Comparability excise tax

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), section 4980G shall not apply to qualified HSA distributions.

(ii) Failure to offer to all employees

In the case of a qualified HSA distribution to any employee, the failure to offer such distribution to any eligible individual covered under a high deductible health plan of the employer shall (notwithstanding section 4980G(d)) be treated for purposes of section 4980G as a failure to meet the requirements of section 4980G(b).

(f) Reimbursements for medicine restricted to prescribed drugs and insulin

For purposes of this section and section 105, reimbursement for expenses incurred for a medicine or a drug shall be treated as a reimbursement for medical expenses only if such medicine or drug is a prescribed drug (determined without regard to whether such drug is available without a prescription) or is insulin.

(g) Qualified small employer health reimbursement arrangement

For purposes of this section and section 105, payments or reimbursements from a qualified small employer health reimbursement arrangement (as defined in section 9831(d)) of an individual for medical care (as defined in section 213(d)) shall not be treated as paid or reimbursed under employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan if for the month in which such medical care is provided the individual does not have minimum essential coverage (within the meaning of section 5000A(f)).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32; Pub. L. 99–272, title X, §10001(b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§1114(b)(1), 1151(j)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2450, 2508; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(t)(7)(A), title III, §3011(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3589, 3624; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7862(c)(1)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2432; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §§301(c)(1), 321(c)(2), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2048, 2058; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2), (b)(2)(A), (6), (10)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-628, 2763A-629; Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1201(d)(1), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2476; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title III, §302(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2948; Pub. L. 111–148, title IX, §9003(c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 854; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(17), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4039; Pub. L. 114–255, div. C, title XVIII, §18001(a)(2), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1341.)

References in Text

COBRA, referred to in the heading for subsec. (b)(5), probably means the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, Pub. L. 99–272, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 82, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–255 added subsec. (g).

2014—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–295 substituted "Gross income" for "Effective on and after January 1, 1997, gross income".

2010—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–148 added subsec. (f).

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–432 added subsec. (e).

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–173 added subsec. (d).

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(6)], substituted "Archer MSAs" for "medical savings accounts" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2)], substituted "Archer MSA" for "medical savings account".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(10)], substituted "an Archer MSA" for "a Archer MSA".

Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2)], substituted "Archer MSA" for "medical savings account".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(2)(A)], substituted "Archer MSAs" for "medical savings accounts".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2)], substituted "Archer MSA" for "medical savings account".

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(2)(A)], substituted "Archer MSAs" for "medical savings accounts".

1996Pub. L. 104–191, §301(c)(1), amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Gross income of an employee does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–191, §321(c)(2), added subsec. (c).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–239 amended subsec. (b)(2) as it existed prior to general amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 by striking out the last sentence which read as follows: "Under regulations, rules similar to the rules of subsections (a) and (b) of section 52 (relating to employers under common control) shall apply for purposes of subparagraph (A)." See Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note below.

1988Pub. L. 100–647, §3011(b)(1), amended section generally, substituting a single undesignated par. for former subsec. (a) providing that gross income does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan and subsec. (b) providing for an exception for highly compensated individuals where a plan fails to provide certain continuation coverage.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(t)(7)(A), substituted "any employer-provided coverage" for "any amount contributed by an employer" and "under a group" for "to a group".

1986Pub. L. 99–272 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (a) heading and subsec. (b).

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(j)(2), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "Gross income does not include contributions by the employer to accident or health plans for compensation (through insurance or otherwise) to his employees for personal injuries or sickness."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1114(b)(1), substituted "highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q))" for "highly compensated individual (within the meaning of section 105(h)(5))".

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–255 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 2016, see section 18001(a)(7) of Pub. L. 114–255, set out as a note under section 36B of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title IX, §9003(d)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 854, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses incurred with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title III, §302(c)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2949, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006]."

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–173 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2003, see section 1201(k) of Pub. L. 108–173, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(c)(1) of Pub. L. 104–191 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 301(j) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by section 321(c)(2) of Pub. L. 104–191 applicable to contracts issued after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 321(f) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7702B of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7862(c)(1)(C), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2432, provided that: "The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 1161 of Title 29, Labor] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7863, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2434, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this subpart any amendment made by this subpart [subpart A (§§7861–7863) of part V of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, amending this section and sections 162, 411, 417, and 4980B of this title and sections 1052 to 1055, 1161, 1162, 1167, 1398, and 1461 of Title 29, Labor, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 162, 417, 1167, 4980, and 4980B of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 401 and 411 of this title and sections 1001 and 1054 of Title 29], shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514] to which such amendment relates."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1018(t)(7)(A) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 3011(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, but not applicable to any plan for any plan year to which section 162(k) of this title (as in effect on the day before Nov. 10, 1988) did not apply by reason of section 10001(e)(2) of Pub. L. 99–272, see section 3011(d) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 162 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1114(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1114(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 414 of this title.

Amendment by section 1151(j)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–272, title X, §10001(e), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 227, provided that:

"(1) General rule.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 162 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning on or after July 1, 1986.

"(2) Special rule for collective bargaining agreements.—In the case of a group health plan maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and one or more employers ratified before the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986], the amendments made by this section shall not apply to plan years beginning before the later of—

"(A) the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act), or

"(B) January 1, 1987.

For purposes of subparagraph (A), any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement added by this section shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement."

Regulations

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by section 1114 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1141 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§107. Rental value of parsonages

In the case of a minister of the gospel, gross income does not include—

(1) the rental value of a home furnished to him as part of his compensation; or

(2) the rental allowance paid to him as part of his compensation, to the extent used by him to rent or provide a home and to the extent such allowance does not exceed the fair rental value of the home, including furnishings and appurtenances such as a garage, plus the cost of utilities.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32; Pub. L. 107–181, §2(a), May 20, 2002, 116 Stat. 583.)

Amendments

2002—Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–181 inserted "and to the extent such allowance does not exceed the fair rental value of the home, including furnishings and appurtenances such as a garage, plus the cost of utilities" before period at end.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–181, §2(b), May 20, 2002, 116 Stat. 583, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.

"(2) Returns positions.—The amendment made by this section also shall apply to any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2002, for which the taxpayer—

"(A) on a return filed before April 17, 2002, limited the exclusion under section 107 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as provided in such amendment, or

"(B) filed a return after April 16, 2002.

"(3) Other years before 2002.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), notwithstanding any prior regulation, revenue ruling, or other guidance issued by the Internal Revenue Service, no person shall be subject to the limitations added to section 107 of such Code by this Act for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2002."

§108. Income from discharge of indebtedness

(a) Exclusion from gross income

(1) In general

Gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of indebtedness of the taxpayer if—

(A) the discharge occurs in a title 11 case,

(B) the discharge occurs when the taxpayer is insolvent,

(C) the indebtedness discharged is qualified farm indebtedness,

(D) in the case of a taxpayer other than a C corporation, the indebtedness discharged is qualified real property business indebtedness, or

(E) the indebtedness discharged is qualified principal residence indebtedness which is discharged—

(i) before January 1, 2018, or

(ii) subject to an arrangement that is entered into and evidenced in writing before January 1, 2018.

(2) Coordination of exclusions

(A) Title 11 exclusion takes precedence

Subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge which occurs in a title 11 case.

(B) Insolvency exclusion takes precedence over qualified farm exclusion and qualified real property business exclusion

Subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge to the extent the taxpayer is insolvent.

(C) Principal residence exclusion takes precedence over insolvency exclusion unless elected otherwise

Paragraph (1)(B) shall not apply to a discharge to which paragraph (1)(E) applies unless the taxpayer elects to apply paragraph (1)(B) in lieu of paragraph (1)(E).

(3) Insolvency exclusion limited to amount of insolvency

In the case of a discharge to which paragraph (1)(B) applies, the amount excluded under paragraph (1)(B) shall not exceed the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent.

(b) Reduction of tax attributes

(1) In general

The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the tax attributes of the taxpayer as provided in paragraph (2).

(2) Tax attributes affected; order of reduction

Except as provided in paragraph (5), the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) shall be made in the following tax attributes in the following order:

(A) NOL

Any net operating loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any net operating loss carryover to such taxable year.

(B) General business credit

Any carryover to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes for determining the amount allowable as a credit under section 38 (relating to general business credit).

(C) Minimum tax credit

The amount of the minimum tax credit available under section 53(b) as of the beginning of the taxable year immediately following the taxable year of the discharge.

(D) Capital loss carryovers

Any net capital loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any capital loss carryover to such taxable year under section 1212.

(E) Basis reduction

(i) In general

The basis of the property of the taxpayer.

(ii) Cross reference

For provisions for making the reduction described in clause (i), see section 1017.

(F) Passive activity loss and credit carryovers

Any passive activity loss or credit carryover of the taxpayer under section 469(b) from the taxable year of the discharge.

(G) Foreign tax credit carryovers

Any carryover to or from the taxable year of the discharge for purposes of determining the amount of the credit allowable under section 27.

(3) Amount of reduction

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be one dollar for each dollar excluded by subsection (a).

(B) Credit carryover reduction

The reductions described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a). The reduction described in subparagraph (F) in any passive activity credit carryover shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a).

(4) Ordering rules

(A) Reductions made after determination of tax for year

The reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be made after the determination of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge.

(B) Reductions under subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2)

The reductions described in subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2) (as the case may be) shall be made first in the loss for the taxable year of the discharge and then in the carryovers to such taxable year in the order of the taxable years from which each such carryover arose.

(C) Reductions under subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2)

The reductions described in subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2) shall be made in the order in which carryovers are taken into account under this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge.

(5) Election to apply reduction first against depreciable property

(A) In general

The taxpayer may elect to apply any portion of the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) to the reduction under section 1017 of the basis of the depreciable property of the taxpayer.

(B) Limitation

The amount to which an election under subparagraph (A) applies shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of the depreciable property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.

(C) Other tax attributes not reduced

Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any amount to which an election under this paragraph applies.

(c) Treatment of discharge of qualified real property business indebtedness

(1) Basis reduction

(A) In general

The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the basis of the depreciable real property of the taxpayer.

(B) Cross reference

For provisions making the reduction described in subparagraph (A), see section 1017.

(2) Limitations

(A) Indebtedness in excess of value

The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) with respect to any qualified real property business indebtedness shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(i) the outstanding principal amount of such indebtedness (immediately before the discharge), over

(ii) the fair market value of the real property described in paragraph (3)(A) (as of such time), reduced by the outstanding principal amount of any other qualified real property business indebtedness secured by such property (as of such time).

(B) Overall limitation

The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of depreciable real property (determined after any reductions under subsections (b) and (g)) held by the taxpayer immediately before the discharge (other than depreciable real property acquired in contemplation of such discharge).

(3) Qualified real property business indebtedness

The term "qualified real property business indebtedness" means indebtedness which—

(A) was incurred or assumed by the taxpayer in connection with real property used in a trade or business and is secured by such real property,

(B) was incurred or assumed before January 1, 1993, or if incurred or assumed on or after such date, is qualified acquisition indebtedness, and

(C) with respect to which such taxpayer makes an election to have this paragraph apply.


Such term shall not include qualified farm indebtedness. Indebtedness under subparagraph (B) shall include indebtedness resulting from the refinancing of indebtedness under subparagraph (B) (or this sentence), but only to the extent it does not exceed the amount of the indebtedness being refinanced.

(4) Qualified acquisition indebtedness

For purposes of paragraph (3)(B), the term "qualified acquisition indebtedness" means, with respect to any real property described in paragraph (3)(A), indebtedness incurred or assumed to acquire, construct, reconstruct, or substantially improve such property.

(5) Regulations

The Secretary shall issue such regulations as are necessary to carry out this subsection, including regulations preventing the abuse of this subsection through cross-collateralization or other means.

(d) Meaning of terms; special rules relating to certain provisions

(1) Indebtedness of taxpayer

For purposes of this section, the term "indebtedness of the taxpayer" means any indebtedness—

(A) for which the taxpayer is liable, or

(B) subject to which the taxpayer holds property.

(2) Title 11 case

For purposes of this section, the term "title 11 case" means a case under title 11 of the United States Code (relating to bankruptcy), but only if the taxpayer is under the jurisdiction of the court in such case and the discharge of indebtedness is granted by the court or is pursuant to a plan approved by the court.

(3) Insolvent

For purposes of this section, the term "insolvent" means the excess of liabilities over the fair market value of assets. With respect to any discharge, whether or not the taxpayer is insolvent, and the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent, shall be determined on the basis of the taxpayer's assets and liabilities immediately before the discharge.

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §822(b)(3)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

(5) Depreciable property

The term "depreciable property" has the same meaning as when used in section 1017.

(6) Certain provisions to be applied at partner level

In the case of a partnership, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the partner level.

(7) Special rules for S corporation

(A) Certain provisions to be applied at corporate level

In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the corporate level, including by not taking into account under section 1366(a) any amount excluded under subsection (a) of this section.

(B) Reduction in carryover of disallowed losses and deductions

In the case of an S corporation, for purposes of subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2), any loss or deduction which is disallowed for the taxable year of the discharge under section 1366(d)(1) shall be treated as a net operating loss for such taxable year. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(D) applies to such discharge.

(C) Coordination with basis adjustments under section 1367(b)(2)

For purposes of subsection (e)(6), a shareholder's adjusted basis in indebtedness of an S corporation shall be determined without regard to any adjustments made under section 1367(b)(2).

(8) Reductions of tax attributes in title 11 cases of individuals to be made by estate

In any case under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code to which section 1398 applies, for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (5) of subsection (b) the estate (and not the individual) shall be treated as the taxpayer. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of applying section 1017 to property transferred by the estate to the individual.

(9) Time for making election, etc.

(A) Time

An election under paragraph (5) of subsection (b) or under paragraph (3)(C) of subsection (c) shall be made on the taxpayer's return for the taxable year in which the discharge occurs or at such other time as may be permitted in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(B) Revocation only with consent

An election referred to in subparagraph (A), once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.

(C) Manner

An election referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be made in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

(10) Cross reference

For provision that no reduction is to be made in the basis of exempt property of an individual debtor, see section 1017(c)(1).

(e) General rules for discharge of indebtedness (including discharges not in title 11 cases or insolvency)

For purposes of this title—

(1) No other insolvency exception

Except as otherwise provided in this section, there shall be no insolvency exception from the general rule that gross income includes income from the discharge of indebtedness.

(2) Income not realized to extent of lost deductions

No income shall be realized from the discharge of indebtedness to the extent that payment of the liability would have given rise to a deduction.

(3) Adjustments for unamortized premium and discount

The amount taken into account with respect to any discharge shall be properly adjusted for unamortized premium and unamortized discount with respect to the indebtedness discharged.

(4) Acquisition of indebtedness by person related to debtor

(A) Treated as acquisition by debtor

For purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the acquisition of outstanding indebtedness by a person bearing a relationship to the debtor specified in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1) from a person who does not bear such a relationship to the debtor shall be treated as the acquisition of such indebtedness by the debtor. Such regulations shall provide for such adjustments in the treatment of any subsequent transactions involving the indebtedness as may be appropriate by reason of the application of the preceding sentence.

(B) Members of family

For purposes of this paragraph, sections 267(b) and 707(b)(1) shall be applied as if section 267(c)(4) provided that the family of an individual consists of the individual's spouse, the individual's children, grandchildren, and parents, and any spouse of the individual's children or grandchildren.

(C) Entities under common control treated as related

For purposes of this paragraph, two entities which are treated as a single employer under subsection (b) or (c) of section 414 shall be treated as bearing a relationship to each other which is described in section 267(b).

(5) Purchase-money debt reduction for solvent debtor treated as price reduction

If—

(A) the debt of a purchaser of property to the seller of such property which arose out of the purchase of such property is reduced,

(B) such reduction does not occur—

(i) in a title 11 case, or

(ii) when the purchaser is insolvent, and


(C) but for this paragraph, such reduction would be treated as income to the purchaser from the discharge of indebtedness,


then such reduction shall be treated as a purchase price adjustment.

(6) Indebtedness contributed to capital

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor corporation acquires its indebtedness from a shareholder as a contribution to capital—

(A) section 118 shall not apply, but

(B) such corporation shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the shareholder's adjusted basis in the indebtedness.

(7) Recapture of gain on subsequent sale of stock

(A) In general

If a creditor acquires stock of a debtor corporation in satisfaction of such corporation's indebtedness, for purposes of section 1245—

(i) such stock (and any other property the basis of which is determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such stock) shall be treated as section 1245 property,

(ii) the aggregate amount allowed to the creditor—

(I) as deductions under subsection (a) or (b) of section 166 (by reason of the worthlessness or partial worthlessness of the indebtedness), or

(II) as an ordinary loss on the exchange,


 shall be treated as an amount allowed as a deduction for depreciation, and

(iii) an exchange of such stock qualifying under section 354(a), 355(a), or 356(a) shall be treated as an exchange to which section 1245(b)(3) applies.


The amount determined under clause (ii) shall be reduced by the amount (if any) included in the creditor's gross income on the exchange.

(B) Special rule for cash basis taxpayers

In the case of any creditor who computes his taxable income under the cash receipts and disbursements method, proper adjustment shall be made in the amount taken into account under clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) for any amount which was not included in the creditor's gross income but which would have been included in such gross income if such indebtedness had been satisfied in full.

(C) Stock of parent corporation

For purposes of this paragraph, stock of a corporation in control (within the meaning of section 368(c)) of the debtor corporation shall be treated as stock of the debtor corporation.

(D) Treatment of successor corporation

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "debtor corporation" includes a successor corporation.

(E) Partnership rule

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of the foregoing subparagraphs of this paragraph shall apply with respect to the indebtedness of a partnership.

(8) Indebtedness satisfied by corporate stock or partnership interest

For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if—

(A) a debtor corporation transfers stock, or

(B) a debtor partnership transfers a capital or profits interest in such partnership,


to a creditor in satisfaction of its recourse or nonrecourse indebtedness, such corporation or partnership shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the fair market value of the stock or interest. In the case of any partnership, any discharge of indebtedness income recognized under this paragraph shall be included in the distributive shares of taxpayers which were the partners in the partnership immediately before such discharge.

(9) Discharge of indebtedness income not taken into account in determining whether entity meets REIT qualifications

Any amount included in gross income by reason of the discharge of indebtedness shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 856(c).

(10) Indebtedness satisfied by issuance of debt instrument

(A) In general

For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor issues a debt instrument in satisfaction of indebtedness, such debtor shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the issue price of such debt instrument.

(B) Issue price

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the issue price of any debt instrument shall be determined under sections 1273 and 1274. For purposes of the preceding sentence, section 1273(b)(4) shall be applied by reducing the stated redemption price of any instrument by the portion of such stated redemption price which is treated as interest for purposes of this chapter.

(f) Student loans

(1) In general

In the case of an individual, gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of any student loan if such discharge was pursuant to a provision of such loan under which all or part of the indebtedness of the individual would be discharged if the individual worked for a certain period of time in certain professions for any of a broad class of employers.

(2) Student loan

For purposes of this subsection, the term "student loan" means any loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) made by—

(A) the United States, or an instrumentality or agency thereof,

(B) a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof,

(C) a public benefit corporation—

(i) which is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3),

(ii) which has assumed control over a State, county, or municipal hospital, and

(iii) whose employees have been deemed to be public employees under State law, or


(D) any educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) if such loan is made—

(i) pursuant to an agreement with any entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) under which the funds from which the loan was made were provided to such educational organization, or

(ii) pursuant to a program of such educational organization which is designed to encourage its students to serve in occupations with unmet needs or in areas with unmet needs and under which the services provided by the students (or former students) are for or under the direction of a governmental unit or an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from tax under section 501(a).


The term "student loan" includes any loan made by an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) or by an organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) to refinance a loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending any such educational organization but only if the refinancing loan is pursuant to a program of the refinancing organization which is designed as described in subparagraph (D)(ii).

(3) Exception for discharges on account of services performed for certain lenders

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the discharge of a loan made by an organization described in paragraph (2)(D) if the discharge is on account of services performed for either such organization.

(4) Payments under national health service corps loan repayment program and certain state loan repayment programs

In the case of an individual, gross income shall not include any amount received under section 338B(g) of the Public Health Service Act, under a State program described in section 338I of such Act, or under any other State loan repayment or loan forgiveness program that is intended to provide for the increased availability of health care services in underserved or health professional shortage areas (as determined by such State).

(5) Discharges on account of death or disability

(A) In general

In the case of an individual, gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income for such taxable year by reasons of the discharge (in whole or in part) of any loan described in subparagraph (B) after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026, if such discharge was—

(i) pursuant to subsection (a) or (d) of section 437 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 or the parallel benefit under part D of title IV of such Act (relating to the repayment of loan liability),

(ii) pursuant to section 464(c)(1)(F) of such Act, or

(iii) otherwise discharged on account of the death or total and permanent disability of the student.

(B) Loans described

A loan is described in this subparagraph if such loan is—

(i) a student loan (as defined in paragraph (2)), or

(ii) a private education loan (as defined in section 140(7) 1 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 U.S.C. 1650(7) 1 )).

(g) Special rules for discharge of qualified farm indebtedness

(1) Discharge must be by qualified person

(A) In general

Subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall apply only if the discharge is by a qualified person.

(B) Qualified person

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "qualified person" has the meaning given to such term by section 49(a)(1)(D)(iv); except that such term shall include any Federal, State, or local government or agency or instrumentality thereof.

(2) Qualified farm indebtedness

For purposes of this section, indebtedness of a taxpayer shall be treated as qualified farm indebtedness if—

(A) such indebtedness was incurred directly in connection with the operation by the taxpayer of the trade or business of farming, and

(B) 50 percent or more of the aggregate gross receipts of the taxpayer for the 3 taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the discharge of such indebtedness occurs is attributable to the trade or business of farming.

(3) Amount excluded cannot exceed sum of tax attributes and business and investment assets

(A) In general

The amount excluded under subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the sum of—

(i) the adjusted tax attributes of the taxpayer, and

(ii) the aggregate adjusted bases of qualified property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.

(B) Adjusted tax attributes

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "adjusted tax attributes" means the sum of the tax attributes described in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (F), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) determined by taking into account $3 for each $1 of the attributes described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) and the attribute described in subparagraph (F) of subsection (b)(2) to the extent attributable to any passive activity credit carryover.

(C) Qualified property

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified property" means any property which is used or is held for use in a trade or business or for the production of income.

(D) Coordination with insolvency exclusion

For purposes of this paragraph, the adjusted basis of any qualified property and the amount of the adjusted tax attributes shall be determined after any reduction under subsection (b) by reason of amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (a)(1)(B).

(h) Special rules relating to qualified principal residence indebtedness

(1) Basis reduction

The amount excluded from gross income by reason of subsection (a)(1)(E) shall be applied to reduce (but not below zero) the basis of the principal residence of the taxpayer.

(2) Qualified principal residence indebtedness

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified principal residence indebtedness" means acquisition indebtedness (within the meaning of section 163(h)(3)(B), applied by substituting "$2,000,000 ($1,000,000" for "$1,000,000 ($500,000" in clause (ii) thereof) with respect to the principal residence of the taxpayer.

(3) Exception for certain discharges not related to taxpayer's financial condition

Subsection (a)(1)(E) shall not apply to the discharge of a loan if the discharge is on account of services performed for the lender or any other factor not directly related to a decline in the value of the residence or to the financial condition of the taxpayer.

(4) Ordering rule

If any loan is discharged, in whole or in part, and only a portion of such loan is qualified principal residence indebtedness, subsection (a)(1)(E) shall apply only to so much of the amount discharged as exceeds the amount of the loan (as determined immediately before such discharge) which is not qualified principal residence indebtedness.

(5) Principal residence

For purposes of this subsection, the term "principal residence" has the same meaning as when used in section 121.

(i) Deferral and ratable inclusion of income arising from business indebtedness discharged by the reacquisition of a debt instrument

(1) In general

At the election of the taxpayer, income from the discharge of indebtedness in connection with the reacquisition after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2011, of an applicable debt instrument shall be includible in gross income ratably over the 5-taxable-year period beginning with—

(A) in the case of a reacquisition occurring in 2009, the fifth taxable year following the taxable year in which the reacquisition occurs, and

(B) in the case of a reacquisition occurring in 2010, the fourth taxable year following the taxable year in which the reacquisition occurs.

(2) Deferral of deduction for original issue discount in debt for debt exchanges

(A) In general

If, as part of a reacquisition to which paragraph (1) applies, any debt instrument is issued for the applicable debt instrument being reacquired (or is treated as so issued under subsection (e)(4) and the regulations thereunder) and there is any original issue discount determined under subpart A of part V of subchapter P of this chapter with respect to the debt instrument so issued—

(i) except as provided in clause (ii), no deduction otherwise allowable under this chapter shall be allowed to the issuer of such debt instrument with respect to the portion of such original issue discount which—

(I) accrues before the 1st taxable year in the 5-taxable-year period in which income from the discharge of indebtedness attributable to the reacquisition of the debt instrument is includible under paragraph (1), and

(II) does not exceed the income from the discharge of indebtedness with respect to the debt instrument being reacquired, and


(ii) the aggregate amount of deductions disallowed under clause (i) shall be allowed as a deduction ratably over the 5-taxable-year period described in clause (i)(I).


If the amount of the original issue discount accruing before such 1st taxable year exceeds the income from the discharge of indebtedness with respect to the applicable debt instrument being reacquired, the deductions shall be disallowed in the order in which the original issue discount is accrued.

(B) Deemed debt for debt exchanges

For purposes of subparagraph (A), if any debt instrument is issued by an issuer and the proceeds of such debt instrument are used directly or indirectly by the issuer to reacquire an applicable debt instrument of the issuer, the debt instrument so issued shall be treated as issued for the debt instrument being reacquired. If only a portion of the proceeds from a debt instrument are so used, the rules of subparagraph (A) shall apply to the portion of any original issue discount on the newly issued debt instrument which is equal to the portion of the proceeds from such instrument used to reacquire the outstanding instrument.

(3) Applicable debt instrument

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Applicable debt instrument

The term "applicable debt instrument" means any debt instrument which was issued by—

(i) a C corporation, or

(ii) any other person in connection with the conduct of a trade or business by such person.

(B) Debt instrument

The term "debt instrument" means a bond, debenture, note, certificate, or any other instrument or contractual arrangement constituting indebtedness (within the meaning of section 1275(a)(1)).

(4) Reacquisition

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "reacquisition" means, with respect to any applicable debt instrument, any acquisition of the debt instrument by—

(i) the debtor which issued (or is otherwise the obligor under) the debt instrument, or

(ii) a related person to such debtor.

(B) Acquisition

The term "acquisition" shall, with respect to any applicable debt instrument, include an acquisition of the debt instrument for cash, the exchange of the debt instrument for another debt instrument (including an exchange resulting from a modification of the debt instrument), the exchange of the debt instrument for corporate stock or a partnership interest, and the contribution of the debt instrument to capital. Such term shall also include the complete forgiveness of the indebtedness by the holder of the debt instrument.

(5) Other definitions and rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Related person

The determination of whether a person is related to another person shall be made in the same manner as under subsection (e)(4).

(B) Election

(i) In general

An election under this subsection with respect to any applicable debt instrument shall be made by including with the return of tax imposed by chapter 1 for the taxable year in which the reacquisition of the debt instrument occurs a statement which—

(I) clearly identifies such instrument, and

(II) includes the amount of income to which paragraph (1) applies and such other information as the Secretary may prescribe.

(ii) Election irrevocable

Such election, once made, is irrevocable.

(iii) Pass-thru entities

In the case of a partnership, S corporation, or other pass-thru entity, the election under this subsection shall be made by the partnership, the S corporation, or other entity involved.

(C) Coordination with other exclusions

If a taxpayer elects to have this subsection apply to an applicable debt instrument, subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall not apply to the income from the discharge of such indebtedness for the taxable year of the election or any subsequent taxable year.

(D) Acceleration of deferred items

(i) In general

In the case of the death of the taxpayer, the liquidation or sale of substantially all the assets of the taxpayer (including in a title 11 or similar case), the cessation of business by the taxpayer, or similar circumstances, any item of income or deduction which is deferred under this subsection (and has not previously been taken into account) shall be taken into account in the taxable year in which such event occurs (or in the case of a title 11 or similar case, the day before the petition is filed).

(ii) Special rule for pass-thru entities

The rule of clause (i) shall also apply in the case of the sale or exchange or redemption of an interest in a partnership, S corporation, or other pass-thru entity by a partner, shareholder, or other person holding an ownership interest in such entity.

(6) Special rule for partnerships

In the case of a partnership, any income deferred under this subsection shall be allocated to the partners in the partnership immediately before the discharge in the manner such amounts would have been included in the distributive shares of such partners under section 704 if such income were recognized at such time. Any decrease in a partner's share of partnership liabilities as a result of such discharge shall not be taken into account for purposes of section 752 at the time of the discharge to the extent it would cause the partner to recognize gain under section 731. Any decrease in partnership liabilities deferred under the preceding sentence shall be taken into account by such partner at the same time, and to the extent remaining in the same amount, as income deferred under this subsection is recognized.

(7) Secretarial authority

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations, rules, or other guidance as may be necessary or appropriate for purposes of applying this subsection, including—

(A) extending the application of the rules of paragraph (5)(D) to other circumstances where appropriate,

(B) requiring reporting of the election (and such other information as the Secretary may require) on returns of tax for subsequent taxable years, and

(C) rules for the application of this subsection to partnerships, S corporations, and other pass-thru entities, including for the allocation of deferred deductions.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32; June 29, 1956, ch. 463, §5, 70 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 88–496, §1(a), June 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(2)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1836; Pub. L. 96–589, §2(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 97–354, §3(e), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1689; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §102(h)(1), title III, §304(d), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2372, 2398; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §59(a), (b)(1), title IV, §474(r)(5), title VII, §721(b)(2), title X, §1076(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 576, 839, 966, 1053; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(2), title II, §231(d)(3)(D), title IV, §405(a), title VI, §621(e)(1), title VIII, §§805(c)(2)–(4), 822(a), (b)(1)–(3), title XI, §1171(b)(4), title XVIII, §1847(b)(7), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105, 2179, 2224, 2266, 2362, 2373, 2513, 2856; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1004(a)(1)–(4), (6), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3385, 3387; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11325(a)(1), (b), 11813(b)(6), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–466, 1388-551; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13150(a)–(c)(5), 13226(a)(1), (2)(B), (b)(1)–(3), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 446–448, 487, 488; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(n)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §225(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6004(f), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §402(a), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 40; Pub. L. 108–357, title III, §320(a), title VIII, §896(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1473, 1648; Pub. L. 110–142, §2(a)–(c), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1803, 1804; Pub. L. 110–343, div. A, title III, §303(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1231(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 338; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10908(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1021; Pub. L. 112–240, title II, §202(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2323; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §102(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4013; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §151(a), (b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3065; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11031(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2081; Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40201(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 145.)

References in Text

Sections 338B(g) and 338I of the Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(4), are classified to sections 254l–1(g) and 254q–1, respectively, of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (f)(5)(A)(i), (ii), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219. Part D of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part D (§1087a et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education. Sections 437 and 464(c)(1)(F) of the Act are classified to sections 1087 and 1087dd(c)(1)(F), respectively, of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1 of Pub. L. 89–329, set out as a Short Title note under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 115–123 substituted "January 1, 2018" for "January 1, 2017" in two places.

2017—Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 115–97 added par. (5).

2015—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 114–113, §151(b), substituted "discharged—" for "discharged before January 1, 2017." and added cls. (i) and (ii).

Pub. L. 114–113, §151(a), substituted "January 1, 2017" for "January 1, 2015".

2014—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 113–295 substituted "January 1, 2015" for "January 1, 2014".

2013—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "January 1, 2014" for "January 1, 2013".

2010—Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 111–148 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of an individual, gross income shall not include any amount received under section 338B(g) of the Public Health Service Act or under a State program described in section 338I of such Act."

2009—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–5 added subsec. (i).

2008—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted "January 1, 2013" for "January 1, 2010".

2007—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(c)(1), substituted "(D), and (E)" for "and (D)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(c)(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(b), added subsec. (h).

2004—Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 108–357, §896(a), amended heading and text of par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor corporation transfers stock to a creditor in satisfaction of its indebtedness, such corporation shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the fair market value of the stock."

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 108–357, §320(a), added par. (4).

2002—Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 107–147 inserted ", including by not taking into account under section 1366(a) any amount excluded under subsection (a) of this section" before period at end.

1998—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, §6004(f)(1), amended concluding provisions generally. Prior to amendment, concluding provisions read as follows: "The term 'student loan' includes any loan made by an educational organization so described or by an organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) to refinance a loan meeting the requirements of the preceding sentence."

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §6004(f)(2), struck out "(or by an organization described in paragraph (2)(E) from funds provided by an organization described in paragraph (2)(D))" after "paragraph (2)(D)".

1997—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §225(a)(1), added subpar. (D) and concluding provisions and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "any educational organization so described pursuant to an agreement with any entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) under which the funds from which the loan was made were provided to such educational organization."

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §225(a)(1), struck out "or" at end.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §225(a)(2), added par. (3).

1996—Subsec. (d)(9)(A). Pub. L. 104–188 substituted "paragraph (3)(C)" for "paragraph (3)(B)".

1993—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(1), substituted ", (C), and (D)" for "and (C)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(2), amended heading and text of subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge to the extent the taxpayer is insolvent."

Subsec. (b)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(1), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpars. (C) and (D) as (D) and (E), respectively. Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(2), added subpar. (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(1), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (b)(2)(G). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(2), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G).

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(A), amended heading and text of subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The reductions described in subparagraphs (B) and (E) of paragraph (2) shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a)."

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(B), substituted "(D)" for "(C)" in heading and text.

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(C), substituted "(G)" for "(E)" in heading and text.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(b), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(3)(B), substituted "certain provisions" for "subsections (a), (b) and (g)" in heading.

Subsec. (d)(6), (7)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(3)(A), (C), substituted "Certain provisions" for "Subsections (a), (b) and (g)" in heading and "subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g)" for "subsections (a), (b), and (g)" in text.

Subsec. (d)(7)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(4), inserted at end "The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(D) applies to such discharge."

Subsec. (d)(9)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(5), inserted "or under paragraph (3)(B) of subsection (c)" after "subsection (b)".

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(a)(2)(B), substituted "Except as provided in regulations, for" for "For".

Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(a)(1)(B), amended heading and text of par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, the stock for debt exception shall not apply—

"(A) to the issuance of nominal or token shares, or

"(B) with respect to an unsecured creditor, where the ratio of the value of the stock received by such unsecured creditor to the amount of his indebtedness cancelled or exchanged for stock in the workout is less than 50 percent of a similar ratio computed for all unsecured creditors participating in the workout.

Any stock which is disqualified stock (as defined in paragraph (10)(B)(ii)) shall not be treated as stock for purposes of this paragraph."

Subsec. (e)(10), (11). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (11) as (10) and struck out former par. (10) which related to satisfaction of indebtedness by transfer of corporation's stock.

Subsec. (g)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(D), substituted "subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (F), and (G)" for "subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (E)" and "subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G)" for "subparagraphs (B) and (E)" and inserted before period at end "and the attribute described in subparagraph (F) of subsection (b)(2) to the extent attributable to any passive activity credit carryover".

1990—Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 101–508, §11325(b)(2), inserted provision at end that any stock which is a disqualified stock, as so defined, not be treated as stock for purposes of this paragraph.

Subsec. (e)(10)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11325(b)(1), substituted heading for one which read: "Exception for title 11 cases and insolvent debtors" and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of a debtor in a title 11 case or to the extent the debtor is insolvent."

Subsec. (e)(11). Pub. L. 101–508, §11325(a)(1), added par. (11).

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(6), substituted "section 49(a)(1)(D)(iv)" for "section 46(c)(8)(D)(iv)".

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge which occurs in a title 11 case."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(3), struck out "in title 11 case or insolvency" after "Reduction of tax attributes" in heading and substituted "subparagraph (A), (B), or (C)" for "subparagraph (A) or (B)" in text of par. (1).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(6)(B), which directed amendment of subsec. (d) heading by substituting "subsections (a), (b), and (g)" for "subsections (a), and (b)", was executed by making the substitution for "subsections (a) and (b)" as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(6)(A), (C), substituted "Subsections (a), (b), and (g)" for "Subsections (a) and (b)" in heading and "subsections (a), (b), and (g)" for "subsections (a) and (b)" in text.

Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(6)(A), (C), substituted "Subsections (a), (b), and (g)" for "Subsections (a) and (b)" in heading and "subsections (a), (b), and (g)" for "subsections (a) and (b)" in text.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(4), substituted "indebtedness" for "indebtedness of solvent farmers" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) In general.—For purposes of this section and section 1017, the discharge by a qualified person of qualified farm indebtedness of a taxpayer who is not insolvent at the time of the discharge shall be treated in the same manner as if the discharge had occurred when the taxpayer was insolvent.

"(2) Qualified farm indebtedness.—For purposes of this subsection, indebtedness of a taxpayer shall be treated as qualified farm indebtedness if—

"(A) such indebtedness was incurred directly in connection with the operation by the taxpayer of the trade or business of farming, and

"(B) 50 percent or more of the average annual gross receipts of the taxpayer for the 3 taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the discharge of such indebtedness occurs is attributable to the trade or business of farming.

"(3) Qualified person.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'qualified person' means a person described in section 46(c)(8)(D)(iv)."

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(a), struck out subpar. (C) relating to exclusion from gross income if the indebtedness discharged is qualified business indebtedness.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(1), substituted "Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1)" for "Subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1)" in subpar. (A), struck out subpar. (A) designation and heading, and struck out subpar. (B) providing that insolvency exclusion takes precedence over qualified business exclusion.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §231(d)(3)(D), substituted "General business credit" for "Research credit and general business credit" in heading and amended text, as amended by this Act (Pub. L. 99–514, §1171(b)(4) (see below)), generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any carryover to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes of determining the amount allowable as a credit under—

"(i) section 30 (relating to credit for increasing research activities), or

"(ii) section 38 (relating to general business credit).

For purposes of this subparagraph, there shall not be taken into account any portion of a carryover which is attributable to the employee stock ownership credit determined under section 41."

Pub. L. 99–514, §1171(b)(4), struck out last sentence which had been eliminated by the general amendment of subpar. (B) by Pub. L. 99–514, §231(d)(3)(D). See above.

Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 99–514, §1847(b)(7), substituted "section 27" for "section 33".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(2), substituted "331/3 cents" for "50 cents".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(2), struck out subsec. (c) relating to tax treatment of discharge of qualified business indebtedness.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(B), struck out reference to subsec. (c) in heading.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(A), struck out par. (4) relating to treatment of indebtedness as qualified business indebtedness.

Subsec. (d)(6), (7)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(B), struck out reference to subsec. (c) in heading and text.

Subsec. (d)(7)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(C), struck out "The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(C) applies to such discharge."

Subsec. (d)(9)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(D), struck out "under paragraph (4) of this subsection or" after "An election".

Subsec. (e)(7)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 99–514, §805(c)(2), substituted "subsection (a) or (b) of section 166" for "subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 166".

Subsec. (e)(7)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 99–514, §805(c)(3), redesignated subpars. (C) to (E) as (B) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which related to taxpayers on reserve method.

Subsec. (e)(7)(E), (F). Pub. L. 99–514, §805(c)(3), (4), redesignated subpar. (F) as (E) and substituted "the foregoing subparagraphs" for "subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E)". Former subpar. (E) redesignated (D).

Subsec. (e)(10)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §621(e), repealed the amendment by Pub. L. 98–369, §59(b)(1), which had added subpar. (C) creating an exception for transfers in certain workouts of the satisfaction of indebtedness by corporation's stock. See 1984 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–514, §405(a), added subsec. (g).

1984—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(5), substituted provisions relating to research credits and general business credits covering carryovers to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes of determining the amount allowable as a credit under section 30 (relating to credit for increasing research activities), or section 38 (relating to general business credit), and directing that there shall not be taken into account any portion of a carryover which is attributable to the employee stock ownership credit determined under section 41 for former provisions covering carryovers to or from the taxable year of the discharge of an amount for purposes of determining the amount of a credit allowable under section 38 (relating to investment in certain depreciable property), section 40 (relating to expenses of work incentive programs), section 44B (relating to credit for employment of certain new employees), section 44E (relating to alcohol used as a fuel), or section 44F (relating to credit for increasing research activities), and directing that, for purposes of clause (i), there could not be taken into account any portion of a carryover which was attributable to the employee plan credit (within the meaning of section 48(o)(3)).

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(b)(2), struck out "or S corporation shareholder level" in heading and second sentence which provided that "In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), and (c) shall apply at the shareholder level.". See par. (7)(A).

Subsec. (d)(7) to (10). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(b)(2), added par. (7) and redesignated former pars. (7) to (9) as (8) to (10), respectively.

Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 98–369, §59(a), added par. (10).

Subsec. (e)(10)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §59(b)(1), which added subpar. (C), effective as if included in the amendments made by section 806(e) and (f) of Pub. L. 94–455, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–514, §621(e), (f)(2), eff. Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369, §1076(a), added subsec. (f).

1983—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 97–448, §102(h)(1), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (e)(7)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 97–448, §304(d), added cl. (iii).

1982—Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 97–354 inserted "or S corporation shareholder level" in heading and inserted "In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), and (c) shall be applied at the shareholder level."

1980Pub. L. 96–589 completely revised and expanded provisions by specifying the types of indebtedness and by setting out priorities among the exclusions, to reflect the revision of Title 11, Bankruptcy, in 1978.

1976Pub. L. 94–455, §1951(b)(2)(A), struck out "(a) Special rule of exclusion.—" after "Income from discharge of indebtedness" and struck out subsec. (b) which related to discharge, cancellation, or modification of indebtedness of certain railroad corporations.

Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1960—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–496 provided that if the discharge, cancellation, or modification of any indebtedness is effected pursuant to a court order in a receivership proceeding or in a proceeding under section 77 of the Bankruptcy Act, commenced before Jan. 1, 1960, then no amount is to be included in gross income with respect to it, and struck out provisions which made subsection inapplicable to discharges occurring in a taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1957.

1956—Subsec. (b). Act June 29, 1956, substituted "December 31, 1957" for "December 31, 1955".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40201(b), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 145, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after December 31, 2016."

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11031(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2081, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §151(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3066, provided that:

"(1) Extension.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after December 31, 2014.

"(2) Modification.—The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after December 31, 2015."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §102(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4013, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to indebtedness discharged after December 31, 2013."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title II, §202(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2323, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to indebtedness discharged after December 31, 2012."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10908(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1021, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received by an individual in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1231(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 341, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges in taxable years ending after December 31, 2008."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. A, title III, §303(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3807, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness occurring on or after January 1, 2010."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–142, §2(d), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1804, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness on or after January 1, 2007."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title III, §320(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1473, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 3121, 3231, 3306, and 3401 of this title, and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to amounts received by an individual in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003."

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §896(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1649, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to cancellations of indebtedness occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §402(b), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 40, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after October 11, 2001, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Exception.—The amendment made by this section shall not apply to any discharge of indebtedness before March 1, 2002, pursuant to a plan of reorganization filed with a bankruptcy court on or before October 11, 2001."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §225(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 820, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, §§13001–13444, to which such amendment relates, see section 1703(o) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 39 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13150(d), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 448, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 703 and 1017 of this title] shall apply to discharges after December 31, 1992, in taxable years ending after such date."

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13226(a)(3), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 487, provided that:

"(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 382 of this title] shall apply to stock transferred after December 31, 1994, in satisfaction of any indebtedness.

"(B) Exception for title 11 cases.—The amendments made by this subsection shall not apply to stock transferred in satisfaction of any indebtedness if such transfer is in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) which was filed on or before December 31, 1993."

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13226(b)(4), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 488, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11325(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–466, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1275 of this title] shall apply to debt instruments issued, and stock transferred, after October 9, 1990, in satisfaction of any indebtedness.

"(2) Exceptions.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any debt instrument issued, or stock transferred, in satisfaction of any indebtedness if such issuance or transfer (as the case may be)—

"(A) is in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) which was filed on or before October 9, 1990,

"(B) is pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on October 9, 1990, and at all times thereafter before such issuance or transfer,

"(C) is pursuant to a transaction which was described in documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before October 9, 1990, or

"(D) is pursuant to a transaction—

"(i) the material terms of which were described in a written public announcement on or before October 9, 1990,

"(ii) which was the subject of a prior filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and

"(iii) which is the subject of a subsequent filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission before January 1, 1991."

Amendment by section 11813(b)(6) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1990, but not applicable to any transition property (as defined in section 49(e) of this title), any property with respect to which qualified progress expenditures were previously taken into account under section 46(d) of this title, and any property described in section 46(b)(2)(C) of this title, as such sections were in effect on Nov. 4, 1990, see section 11813(c) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 231(d)(3)(D) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1985, see section 231(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 41 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title IV, §405(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2224, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1017 of this title] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness occurring after April 9, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date."

Repeal by section 621(e)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 of amendment by section 59(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–369, which was effective as if included in the amendments made by section 806(e) and (f) of Pub. L. 94–455, effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 621(f)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 382 of this title.

Amendment by section 805(c)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain changes required in method of accounting, see section 805(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 166 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §822(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1017 of this title] shall apply to discharges after December 31, 1986."

Amendment by section 1171(b)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to compensation paid or accrued after Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1171(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 38 of this title.

Amendment by section 1847(b)(7) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §59(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 577, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if it had been included in the amendments made by subsections (e) and (f) of section 806 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [Pub. L. 94–455]." See Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 382 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §59(b)[(c)], July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 577, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Transitional rule.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to the transfer by a corporation of its stock in exchange for debt of the corporation after the date of the enactment of this Act if such transfer is—

"(A) pursuant to a written contract requiring such transfer which was binding on the corporation at all times on June 7, 1984, and at all times after such date but only if the transfer takes place before January 1, 1985, and only if the transferee held the debt at all times on June 7, 1984, or

"(B) pursuant to the exercise of an option to exchange debt for stock but only if such option was in effect at all times on June 7, 1984, and at all times after such date and only if at all times on June 7, 1984, the option and the debt were held by the same person.

"(3) Certain transfers to controlling shareholder.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to any transfer before January 1, 1985, by a corporation of its stock in exchange for debt of such corporation if—

"(A) such transfer is to another corporation which at all times on June 7, 1984, owned 75 percent or more of the total value of the stock of the corporation making such transfer, and

"(B) immediately after such transfer, the transferee corporation owns 80 percent or more of the total value of the stock of the transferor corporation.

"(4) Certain transfers pursuant to debt restructure agreement.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to the transfer by a corporation of its stock in exchange for debt of the corporation after the date of the enactment of this Act and before January 1, 1985, if—

"(A) such transfer is covered by a debt restructure agreement entered into by the corporation during November 1983, and

"(B) such agreement was specified in a registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the corporation on March 7, 1984."

Amendment by section 474(r)(5) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 721(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to contributions to capital after Dec. 31, 1980, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 721(y)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1076(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1054, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness made on or after January 1, 1983."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by title I of Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–354 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–589, §7, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3411, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) For Section 2 (Relating to Tax Treatment of Discharge of Indebtedness).—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 2 [amending this section and sections 111, 118, 382, 703 and 1017 of this title] shall apply to any transaction which occurs after December 31, 1980, other than a transaction which occurs in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding (or in a proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act) [Title 11, Bankruptcy] commencing on or before December 31, 1980.

"(2) Transitional rule.—In the case of any discharge of indebtedness to which subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 108(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to exclusion from gross income), as amended by section 2, applies and which occurs before January 1, 1982, or which occurs in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceedings commencing before January 1, 1982, then—

"(A) section 108(b)(2) of the such Code (relating to reduction of tax attributes), as so amended, shall be applied without regard to subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (E) thereof, and

"(B) the basis of any property shall not be reduced under section 1017 of such Code (relating to reduction in basis in connection with discharges of indebtedness), as so amended, below the fair market value of such property on the date the debt is discharged.

"(b) For Section 3 (Relating to Rules Relating to Title 11 Cases for Individuals).—The amendments made by section 3 [enacting sections 1398 and 1399 of this title and amending sections 443, 6012 and 6103 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case commencing more than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 24, 1980].

"(c) For Section 4 (Relating to Corporate Reorganization Provisions).—

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by section 4 [enacting section 370 of this title and amending sections 354, 355, 357, 368 and 381 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding commencing after December 31, 1980.

"(2) Exchanges of property for accrued interest.—The amendments made by subsection (e) of section 4 [amending sections 354 and 355 of this title] (relating to treatment of property attributable to accrued interest) shall also apply to any exchange—

"(A) which occurs after December 31, 1980, and

"(B) which does not occur in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding (or in a proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act) commenced on or before December 31, 1980.

"(d) For Section 5 (Relating to Miscellaneous Corporate Amendments).—

"(1) For subsection (a) (relating to exemption from personal holding company tax).—The amendments made by subsection (a) of section 5 [amending section 542 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding commenced after December 31, 1980.

"(2) For subsection (b) (relating to repeal of special treatment for certain railroad redemptions).—The amendments made by subsection (b) of section 5 [amending section 302 of this title] shall apply to stock which is issued after December 31, 1980 (other than stock issued pursuant to a plan of reorganization approved on or before that date).

"(3) For subsection (c) (relating to application of 12-month liquidation rule).—The amendment made by subsection (c) of section 5 [amending section 337 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding commenced after December 31, 1980.

"(4) For subsection (d) (relating to permitting bankruptcy estate to be subchapter s shareholder).—The amendment made by subsection (d) of section 5 [amending section 1371 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case commenced on or after October 1, 1979.

"(5) For subsection (e) (relating to certain transfers to controlled corporations).—The amendments made by subsection (e) of section 5 [amending section 351 of this title] shall apply as provided in subsection (a) of this section.

"(6) For subsection (f) (relating to effect of debt discharge on earnings and profits).—The amendment made by subsection (f) of section 5 [amending section 312 of this title] shall apply as provided in subsection (a) of this section.

"(e) For Section 6 (Relating to Changes in Tax Procedures).—The amendments made by section 6 [enacting sections 6658 and 7464 of this title, amending sections 128, 354, 422, 1023, 3302, 6012, 6036, 6155, 6161, 6212, 6213, 6216, 6326 [now 6327], 6404, 6503, 6512, 6532, 6871, 6872, 6873, 7430, and 7508 of this title, repealing section 1018 of this title, and redesignating former section 7464 of this title as 7465] shall take effect on October 1, 1979, but shall not apply to any proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act [Title 11] commenced before October 1, 1979.

"(f) Election To Substitute September 30, 1979, for December 31, 1980.—

"(1) In general.—The debtor (or debtors) in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding may (with the approval of the court) elect to apply subsections (a), (c), and (d) by substituting 'September 30, 1979' for 'December 31, 1980' each place it appears in such subsections.

"(2) Effect of election.—Any election made under paragraph (1) with respect to any proceeding shall apply to all parties to the proceeding.

"(3) Revocation only with consent.—Any election under this subsection may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate.

"(4) Time and manner of election.—Any election under this subsection shall be made at such time, and in such manner, as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulations prescribe.

"(g) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) Bankruptcy case.—The term 'bankruptcy case' means any case under title 11 of the United States Code (as recodified by Public Law 95–598).

"(2) Similar judicial proceeding.—The term 'similar judicial proceeding' means a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding in a Federal or State court (as modified by section 368(a)(3)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986)."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1951(b)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1951(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–496, §1(b), June 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 164, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1959, but only with respect to discharges occurring after such date."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11813 of Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1951(b)(2)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1837, provided that: "If any discharge, cancellation, or modification of indebtedness of a railroad corporation occurs in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1976, pursuant to an order of a court in a proceeding referred to in section 108(b)(A) or (B) which commenced before January 1, 1960, then, notwithstanding the amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] the provisions of subsection (b) of section 108 shall be considered as not repealed with respect to such discharge, cancellation, or modification of indebtedness."

Exclusion of Certain Cancellations of Indebtedness

Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §105, Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2432, provided that:

"(a) In General.—For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986—

"(1) gross income shall not include any amount which (but for this section) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of indebtedness of any taxpayer if the discharge is by reason of the death of an individual incurred as the result of the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, or as the result of illness incurred as a result of an attack involving anthrax occurring on or after September 11, 2001, and before January 1, 2002; and

"(2) return requirements under section 6050P of such Code shall not apply to any discharge described in paragraph (1).

"(b) Effective Date.—This section shall apply to discharges made on or after September 11, 2001, and before January 1, 2002."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

1 So in original. The designation "(7)" probably should be preceded by "(a)".

§109. Improvements by lessee on lessor's property

Gross income does not include income (other than rent) derived by a lessor of real property on the termination of a lease, representing the value of such property attributable to buildings erected or other improvements made by the lessee.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 33.)

§110. Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

(a) In general

Gross income of a lessee does not include any amount received in cash (or treated as a rent reduction) by a lessee from a lessor—

(1) under a short-term lease of retail space, and

(2) for the purpose of such lessee's constructing or improving qualified long-term real property for use in such lessee's trade or business at such retail space,


but only to the extent that such amount does not exceed the amount expended by the lessee for such construction or improvement.

(b) Consistent treatment by lessor

Qualified long-term real property constructed or improved in connection with any amount excluded from a lessee's income by reason of subsection (a) shall be treated as nonresidential real property of the lessor (including for purposes of section 168(i)(8)(B)).

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified long-term real property

The term "qualified long-term real property" means nonresidential real property which is part of, or otherwise present at, the retail space referred to in subsection (a) and which reverts to the lessor at the termination of the lease.

(2) Short-term lease

The term "short-term lease" means a lease (or other agreement for occupancy or use) of retail space for 15 years or less (as determined under the rules of section 168(i)(3)).

(3) Retail space

The term "retail space" means real property leased, occupied, or otherwise used by a lessee in its trade or business of selling tangible personal property or services to the general public.

(d) Information required to be furnished to Secretary

Under regulations, the lessee and lessor described in subsection (a) shall, at such times and in such manner as may be provided in such regulations, furnish to the Secretary—

(1) information concerning the amounts received (or treated as a rent reduction) and expended as described in subsection (a), and

(2) any other information which the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1213(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1000.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 110, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 33, related to income taxes paid by lessee corporations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(6), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1213(e), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1001, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 168 and 6724 of this title] shall apply to leases entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997]."

§111. Recovery of tax benefit items

(a) Deductions

Gross income does not include income attributable to the recovery during the taxable year of any amount deducted in any prior taxable year to the extent such amount did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter.

(b) Credits

(1) In general

If—

(A) a credit was allowable with respect to any amount for any prior taxable year, and

(B) during the taxable year there is a downward price adjustment or similar adjustment,


the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year shall be increased by the amount of the credit attributable to the adjustment.

(2) Exception where credit did not reduce tax

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that the credit allowable for the recovered amount did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter.

(3) Exception for investment tax credit and foreign tax credit

This subsection shall not apply with respect to the credit determined under section 46 and the foreign tax credit.

(c) Treatment of carryovers

For purposes of this section, an increase in a carryover which has not expired before the beginning of the taxable year in which the recovery or adjustment takes place shall be treated as reducing tax imposed by this chapter.

(d) Special rules for accumulated earnings tax and for personal holding company tax

In applying subsection (a) for the purpose of determining the accumulated earnings tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541 (relating to personal holding companies)—

(1) any excluded amount under subsection (a) allowed for the purposes of this subtitle (other than section 531 or section 541) shall be allowed whether or not such amount resulted in a reduction of the tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541 for the prior taxable year; and

(2) where any excluded amount under subsection (a) was not allowable as a deduction for the prior taxable year for purposes of this subtitle other than of section 531 or section 541 but was allowable for the same taxable year under section 531 or section 541, then such excluded amount shall be allowable if it did not result in a reduction of the tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 33; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–589, §2(c), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §171(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 698; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1812(a)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2833.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(a)(1), substituted "did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter" for "did not reduce income subject to tax".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(a)(2), substituted "reducing tax imposed by this chapter" for "reducing income subject to tax or reducing tax imposed by this chapter, as the case may be".

1984Pub. L. 98–369 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to recovery of tax benefit items for provisions relating to recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, and delinquency amounts.

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–589 added subsec. (d).

1976—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §171(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 699, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts recovered after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to transactions which occur after Dec. 31, 1980, other than transactions which occur in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding or in a proceeding under Title 11 commencing on or after Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to transactions occurring after Sept. 30, 1979, in a specified manner, see section 7(a)(1), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§112. Certain combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces

(a) Enlisted personnel

Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as a member below the grade of commissioned officer in the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such member—

(1) served in a combat zone, or

(2) was hospitalized as a result of wounds, disease, or injury incurred while serving in a combat zone; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone.


With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month after January 1978.

(b) Commissioned officers

Gross income does not include so much of the compensation as does not exceed the maximum enlisted amount received for active service as a commissioned officer in the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such officer—

(1) served in a combat zone, or

(2) was hospitalized as a result of wounds, disease, or injury incurred while serving in a combat zone; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone.


With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month after January 1978.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term "commissioned officer" does not include a commissioned warrant officer.

(2) The term "combat zone" means any area which the President of the United States by Executive Order designates, for purposes of this section or corresponding provisions of prior income tax laws, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are or have engaged in combat.

(3) Service is performed in a combat zone only if performed on or after the date designated by the President by Executive Order as the date of the commencing of combatant activities in such zone, and on or before the date designated by the President by Executive Order as the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone.

(4) The term "compensation" does not include pensions and retirement pay.

(5) The term "maximum enlisted amount" means, for any month, the sum of—

(A) the highest rate of basic pay payable for such month to any enlisted member of the Armed Forces of the United States at the highest pay grade applicable to enlisted members, and

(B) in the case of an officer entitled to special pay under section 310, or paragraph (1) or (3) of section 351(a), of title 37, United States Code, for such month, the amount of such special pay payable to such officer for such month.

(d) Prisoners of war, etc.

(1) Members of the Armed Forces

Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such member is in a missing status (as defined in section 551(2) of title 37, United States Code) during the Vietnam conflict as a result of such conflict, other than a period with respect to which it is officially determined under section 552(c) of such title 37 that he is officially absent from his post of duty without authority.

(2) Civilian employees

Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as an employee for any month during any part of which such employee is in a missing status during the Vietnam conflict as a result of such conflict. For purposes of this paragraph, the terms "active service", "employee", and "missing status" have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 5561 of title 5 of the United States Code.

(3) Period of conflict

For purposes of this subsection, the Vietnam conflict began February 28, 1961, and ends on the date designated by the President by Executive order as the date of the termination of combatant activities in Vietnam. For purposes of this subsection, an individual is in a missing status as a result of the Vietnam conflict if immediately before such status began he was performing service in Vietnam or was performing service in Southeast Asia in direct support of military operations in Vietnam.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 34; Pub. L. 89–739, §1, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1165; Pub. L. 92–279, §1, Apr. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a), (b), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1950; Pub. L. 94–569, §3(b), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2699; Pub. L. 104–117, §1(d), Mar. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(4)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1887; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(18), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4039; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VI, §618(k), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2161.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 114–328 inserted ", or paragraph (1) or (3) of section 351(a)," after "section 310".

2014—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(18)(A), struck out "(after June 24, 1950)" after "are or have".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(18)(B), substituted "such zone." for "such zone; except that June 25, 1950, shall be considered the date of the commencing of combatant activities in the combat zone designated in Executive Order 10195."

1996Pub. L. 104–188 substituted "combat zone compensation" for "combat pay" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–117, §1(d)(1), substituted "the maximum enlisted amount" for "$500" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 104–117, §1(d)(2), added par. (5).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–569 substituted "after January 1978" for "beginning more than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this sentence" after "With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–569 substituted "after January 1978" for "beginning more than 2 years after the date of enactment of this sentence" after "With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month".

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(3), inserted provision relating to the applicability of par. (2) with respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(1), struck out "during an induction period" after "served in a combat zone".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(2), substituted "; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone" for "during an induction period; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month during any part of which there are no combatant activities in any combat zone as determined under subsection (c)(3) of this section".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(3), inserted provision relating to applicability of par. (2) with respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(1), struck out "during an induction period" after "served in a combat zone".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(2), substituted "; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone" for "during an induction period; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month during any part of which there are no combatant activities in any combat zone as determined under subsection (c)(3) of this section".

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(b), struck out par. (5) which defined "induction period".

1972—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–279 added subsec. (d).

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–739 substituted "$500" for "$200".

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–597, §2(c), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1950, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 1973."

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–279, §3(a)(1), Apr. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 125, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending on or after February 28, 1961."

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–739, §2, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1165, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to compensation received in taxable years ending after December 31, 1965, for periods of active service after such date."

Treatment of Certain Individuals Performing Services in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11026, Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2076, provided that:

"(a) In General.—For purposes of the following provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, with respect to the applicable period, a qualified hazardous duty area shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a combat zone (as determined under section 112 of such Code):

"(1) Section 2(a)(3) (relating to special rule where deceased spouse was in missing status).

"(2) Section 112 (relating to the exclusion of certain combat pay of members of the Armed Forces).

"(3) Section 692 (relating to income taxes of members of Armed Forces on death).

"(4) Section 2201 (relating to members of the Armed Forces dying in combat zone or by reason of combat-zone-incurred wounds, etc.).

"(5) Section 3401(a)(1) (defining wages relating to combat pay for members of the Armed Forces).

"(6) Section 4253(d) (relating to the taxation of phone service originating from a combat zone from members of the Armed Forces).

"(7) Section 6013(f)(1) (relating to joint return where individual is in missing status).

"(8) Section 7508 (relating to time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of service in combat zone).

"(b) Qualified Hazardous Duty Area.—For purposes of this section, the term 'qualified hazardous duty area' means the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, if as of the date of the enactment of this section [Dec. 22, 2017] any member of the Armed Forces of the United States is entitled to special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code (relating to special pay; duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger), for services performed in such location. Such term includes such location only during the period such entitlement is in effect.

"(c) Applicable Period.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the applicable period is—

"(A) the portion of the first taxable year ending after June 9, 2015, which begins on such date, and

"(B) any subsequent taxable year beginning before January 1, 2026.

"(2) Withholding.—In the case of subsection (a)(5), the applicable period is—

"(A) the portion of the first taxable year ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2017] which begins on such date, and

"(B) any subsequent taxable year beginning before January 1, 2026.

"(d) Effective Date.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the provisions of this section shall take effect on June 9, 2015.

"(2) Withholding.—Subsection (a)(5) shall apply to remuneration paid after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Sense of Congress Regarding Tax Treatment of Members Receiving Special Pay for Duty Subject to Hostile Fire or Imminent Danger

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1089], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-294, provided that: "It is the sense of Congress that members of the Armed Forces who receive special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code, for duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger should receive the same treatment under Federal income tax laws as members serving in combat zones."

Sense of Congress Regarding Treatment Under Internal Revenue Code of Members Receiving Hostile Fire or Imminent Danger Special Pay During Contingency Operations

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VI, §677, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 676, provided that: "It is the sense of Congress that a member of the Armed Forces who is receiving special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code, while assigned to duty in support of a contingency operation should be treated under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in the same manner as a member of the Armed Forces serving in a combat zone (as defined in section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986)."

Availability of Certain Tax Benefits for Services as Part of Operation Allied Force

Pub. L. 106–21, §1, Apr. 19, 1999, 113 Stat. 34, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—For purposes of the following provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a qualified hazardous duty area shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a combat zone (as determined under section 112 of such Code):

"(1) Section 2(a)(3) (relating to special rule where deceased spouse was in missing status).

"(2) Section 112 (relating to the exclusion of certain combat pay of members of the Armed Forces).

"(3) Section 692 (relating to income taxes of members of Armed Forces on death).

"(4) Section 2201 (relating to members of the Armed Forces dying in combat zone or by reason of combat-zone-incurred wounds, etc.).

"(5) Section 3401(a)(1) (defining wages relating to combat pay for members of the Armed Forces).

"(6) Section 4253(d) (relating to the taxation of phone service originating from a combat zone from members of the Armed Forces).

"(7) Section 6013(f)(1) (relating to joint return where individual is in missing status).

"(8) Section 7508 (relating to time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of service in combat zone).

"(b) Qualified Hazardous Duty Area.—For purposes of this section, the term 'qualified hazardous duty area' means any area of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia/Montenegro), Albania, the Adriatic Sea, and the northern Ionian Sea (above the 39th parallel) during the period (which includes the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 19, 1999]) that any member of the Armed Forces of the United States is entitled to special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code (relating to special pay: duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger) for services performed in such area.

"(c) Special Rule for Section 7508.—Solely for purposes of applying section 7508 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, in the case of an individual who is performing services as part of Operation Allied Force outside the United States while deployed away from such individual's permanent duty station, the term 'qualified hazardous duty area' includes, during the period for which the entitlement referred to in subsection (b) is in effect, any area in which such services are performed.

"(d) Effective Dates.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section shall take effect on March 24, 1999.

"(2) Withholding.—Subsection (a)(5) shall apply to remuneration paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 19, 1999]."

Treatment of Certain Individuals Performing Services in Certain Hazardous Duty Areas; Effective Date

Pub. L. 104–117, §1, Mar. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 827, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—For purposes of the following provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a qualified hazardous duty area shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a combat zone (as determined under section 112 of such Code):

"(1) Section 2(a)(3) (relating to special rule where deceased spouse was in missing status).

"(2) Section 112 (relating to the exclusion of certain combat pay of members of the Armed Forces).

"(3) Section 692 (relating to income taxes of members of Armed Forces on death).

"(4) Section 2201 (relating to members of the Armed Forces dying in combat zone or by reason of combat-zone-incurred wounds, etc.).

"(5) Section 3401(a)(1) (defining wages relating to combat pay for members of the Armed Forces).

"(6) Section 4253(d) (relating to the taxation of phone service originating from a combat zone from members of the Armed Forces).

"(7) Section 6013(f)(1) (relating to joint return where individual is in missing status).

"(8) Section 7508 (relating to time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of service in combat zone).

"(b) Qualified Hazardous Duty Area.—For purposes of this section, the term 'qualified hazardous duty area' means Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, or Macedonia, if as of the date of the enactment of this section [Mar. 20, 1996] any member of the Armed Forces of the United States is entitled to special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code (relating to special pay; duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger) for services performed in such country. Such term includes any such country only during the period such entitlement is in effect. Solely for purposes of applying section 7508 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, in the case of an individual who is performing services as part of Operation Joint Endeavor outside the United States while deployed away from such individual's permanent duty station, the term 'qualified hazardous duty area' includes, during the period for which such entitlement is in effect, any area in which such services are performed.

"(c) Exclusion of Combat Pay From Withholding Limited to Amount Excludable From Gross Income.—[Amended section 3401 of this title.]

"(d) Increase in Combat Pay Exclusion for Officers to Highest Amount Applicable to Enlisted Personnel.—

"(1) In general.—[Amended this section.]

"(2) Maximum enlisted amount.—[Amended this section.]

"(e) Effective Date.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the provisions of and amendments made by this section shall take effect on November 21, 1995.

"(2) Withholding.—Subsection (a)(5) and the amendment made by subsection (c) shall apply to remuneration paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 20, 1996]."

Refund or Credit of Overpayment; Applicable Period

Pub. L. 92–279, §3(a)(2), (3), Apr. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 125, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(2) If refund or credit of any overpayment for any taxable year resulting from the application of the amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] (including interest, additions to the tax, and additional amounts) is prevented at any time before the expiration of the applicable period specified in paragraph (3) by the operation of any law or rule of law, such refund or credit of such overpayment may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the expiration of such applicable period.

"(3) For purposes of paragraph (2), the applicable period for any individual with respect to any compensation is the period ending on whichever of the following days is the later:

"(A) the day which is one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 26, 1972], or

"(B) the day which is 2 years after the date on which it is determined that the individual's missing status (within the meaning of section 112(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) has terminated for purposes of such section 112."

Ex. Ord. No. 10585. Termination of Combatant Activities in Korea

Ex. Ord. No. 10585, Jan. 1, 1955, 20 F.R. 17, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 112(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now I.R.C. 1986], January 31, 1955, as of midnight thereof, is hereby designated as the date of termination of combatant activities in the zone comprised of the area described in Executive Order No. 10195 of December 20, 1950 (15 F.R. 9177).

Dwight D. Eisenhower.      

Ex. Ord. No. 11216. Designation of Vietnam and Adjacent Waters as Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 11216, Apr. 24, 1965, 30 F.R. 5817, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now I.R.C. 1986], I hereby designate, for the purposes of that section, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat:

Vietnam, including the waters adjacent thereto within the following-described limits: From a point on the East Coast of Vietnam at the juncture of Vietnam with China southeastward to 21° N Lat., 108°15′ E Long.; thence southward to 18° N Lat., 108°15′ E Long.; thence southeastward to 17°30 N Lat., 111° E Long.; thence southward to 11° N Lat., 111° E Long.; thence southwestward to 7° N Lat., 105° E Long.; thence westward to 7° N Lat., 103° E Long.; thence northward to 9°30′ N Lat., 103° E Long.; thence northeastward to 10°15′ N Lat., 104°27′ E Long.; thence northward to a point on the West Coast of Vietnam at the juncture of Vietnam with Cambodia.

The date of the commencing of combatant activities in such area is hereby designated as January 1, 1964.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12744. Designation of Arabian Peninsula Areas, Airspace, and Adjacent Waters as Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 12744, Jan. 21, 1991, 56 F.R. 2663, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112), I hereby designate, for purposes of that section, the following locations, including the airspace above such locations, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat:

—the Persian Gulf

—the Red Sea

—the Gulf of Oman

—that portion of the Arabian Sea that lies north of 10 degrees north latitude and west of 68 degrees east longitude

—the Gulf of Aden

—the total land areas of Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates.

For the purposes of this order, the date of the commencing of combatant activities in such zone is hereby designated as January 17, 1991.

George Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13002. Termination of Combat Zone Designation in Vietnam and Waters Adjacent Thereto

Ex. Ord. No. 13002, May 13, 1996, 61 F.R. 24665, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 112(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112(c)(3)), June 30, 1996, as of midnight thereof, is hereby designated as the date of termination of combatant activities in the zone comprised of the area described in Executive Order No. 11216 of April 24, 1965 [set out above].

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13119. Designation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia/Montenegro), Albania, the Airspace Above, and Adjacent Waters as a Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 13119, April 13, 1999, 64 F.R. 18797, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112), I designate, for the purposes of that section, the following locations, including the airspace above such locations, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat:

—The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia/Montenegro);

—Albania;

—the Adriatic Sea;

—the Ionian Sea north of the 39th parallel.

For the purposes of this order, I designate March 24, 1999, as the date of the commencement of combatant activities in such zone.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13239. Designation of Afghanistan and the Airspace Above as a Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 13239, Dec. 12, 2001, 66 F.R. 64907, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112), I designate, for purposes of that section, Afghanistan, including the airspace above, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat.

For purposes of this order, I designate September 19, 2001, as the date of the commencement of combatant activities in such zone.

George W. Bush.      

[§113. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(7), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520]

Section, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35, related to mustering-out payments for members of Armed Forces.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in repeal by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

[§114. Repealed. Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423]

Section, added Pub. L. 106–519, §3(a), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2423, related to exclusion of extraterritorial income from gross income.

A prior section 114, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35, related to sports programs conducted for American National Red Cross, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(8), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendments note under section 56 of this title.

Transition Provisions

Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(d)–(f), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423, 1424, as amended by Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §513(b), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §219(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4035, provided that:

"(d) Transitional Rule for 2005 and 2006.—

"(1) In general.—In the case of transactions during 2005 or 2006, the amount includible in gross income by reason of the amendments made by this section [amending sections 56, 275, 864, 903, and 999 of this title and repealing this section and sections 941 to 943 of this title] shall not exceed the applicable percentage of the amount which would have been so included but for this subsection.

"(2) Applicable percentage.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable percentage shall be as follows:

"(A) For 2005, the applicable percentage shall be 20 percent.

"(B) For 2006, the applicable percentage shall be 40 percent.

"(3) Coordination with section 199.—This subsection shall be applied without regard to any deduction allowable under section 199 [probably means former section 199 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986].

"(e) Revocation of Election To Be Treated as Domestic Corporation.—If, during the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004], a corporation for which an election is in effect under section 943(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 revokes such election, no gain or loss shall be recognized with respect to property treated as transferred under clause (ii) of section 943(e)(4)(B) of such Code to the extent such property—

"(1) was treated as transferred under clause (i) thereof, or

"(2) was acquired during a taxable year to which such election applies and before May 1, 2003, in the ordinary course of its trade or business.

The Secretary of the Treasury (or such Secretary's delegate) may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to prevent the abuse of the purposes of this subsection.

"[(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §513(b), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 366.]"

§115. Income of States, municipalities, etc.

Gross income does not include—

(1) income derived from any public utility or the exercise of any essential governmental function and accruing to a State or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia; or

(2) income accruing to the government of any possession of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(19), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1766.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "(a) General rule" before "Gross income does not include", struck out subsecs. (b) and (c) which related to contracts concerning public utilities made before Sept. 8, 1916, and contracts concerning bridge acquisition made before May 29, 1928, respectively, and in par. (1) of former subsec. (a), struck out "or territory" after "accruing to a State".

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Tax Treatment of State Ownership of Railroad Real Estate Investment Trust

Pub. L. 109–59, title XI, §11146, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1966, provided that:

"(a) In General.—If a State owns all of the outstanding stock of a corporation—

"(1) which is a real estate investment trust on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005],

"(2) which is a non-operating class III railroad, and

"(3) substantially all of the activities of which consist of the ownership, leasing, and operation by such corporation of facilities, equipment, and other property used by the corporation or other persons for railroad transportation and for economic development purposes for the benefit of the State and its citizens, then, to the extent such activities are of a type which are an essential governmental function within the meaning of section 115 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, income derived from such activities by the corporation shall be treated as accruing to the State for purposes of section 115 of such Code.

"(b) Gain or Loss not Recognized on Conversion.—Notwithstanding section 337(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986—

"(1) no gain or loss shall be recognized under section 336 or 337 of such Code, and

"(2) no change in basis of the property of such corporation shall occur, because of any change of status of a corporation to a tax-exempt entity by reason of the application of subsection (a).

"(c) Tax-Exempt Financing.—

"(1) In general.—Any obligation issued by a corporation described in subsection (a) at least 95 percent of the net proceeds (as defined in section 150(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) of which are to be used to provide for the acquisition, construction, or improvement of railroad transportation infrastructure (including railroad terminal facilities)—

"(A) shall be treated as a State or local bond (within the meaning of section 103(c) of such Code), and

"(B) shall not be treated as a private activity bond (within the meaning of section 103(b)(1) of such Code) solely by reason of the ownership or use of such railroad transportation infrastructure by the corporation.

"(2) No inference.—Except as provided in paragraph (1), nothing in this subsection shall be construed to affect the treatment of the private use of proceeds or property financed with obligations issued by the corporation for purposes of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and part IV of subchapter B [probably means part IV of subchapter B of chapter 1] of such Code.

"(d) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

"(1) Real estate investment trust.—The term 'real estate investment trust' has the meaning given such term by section 856(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

"(2) Non-operating class iii railroad.—The term 'non-operating class III railroad' has the meaning given such term by part A of subtitle IV of title 49, United States Code (49 U.S.C. 10101 et seq.), and the regulations thereunder.

"(3) State.—The term 'State' includes—

"(A) the District of Columbia and any possession of the United States, and

"(B) any authority, agency, or public corporation of a State.

"(e) Applicability.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section shall apply on and after the date on which a State becomes the owner of all of the outstanding stock of a corporation described in subsection (a) through action of such corporation's board of directors.

"(2) Exception.—This section shall not apply to any State which—

"(A) becomes the owner of all of the voting stock of a corporation described in subsection (a) after December 31, 2003, or

"(B) becomes the owner of all of the outstanding stock of a corporation described in subsection (a) after December 31, 2006."

[§116. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §612(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2250]

Section, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 37; June 25, 1959, Pub. L. 86–69, §3(a)(2), 73 Stat. 139; Sept. 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–779, §10(f), 74 Stat. 1009; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(c), (d)(6)(C), 78 Stat. 32; Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(g), 80 Stat. 1552; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1051(h)(2), 1053(d)(1), title XIX, §1901(a)(20), 90 Stat. 1647, 1649, 1766; Apr. 2, 1980, Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §404(a), 94 Stat. 305; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §302(b)(2), 95 Stat. 272; July 18, 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §542(b), 98 Stat. 891, authorized partial exclusion of dividends received by individuals.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 612(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 301 of this title.

§117. Qualified scholarships

(a) General rule

Gross income does not include any amount received as a qualified scholarship by an individual who is a candidate for a degree at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii).

(b) Qualified scholarship

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "qualified scholarship" means any amount received by an individual as a scholarship or fellowship grant to the extent the individual establishes that, in accordance with the conditions of the grant, such amount was used for qualified tuition and related expenses.

(2) Qualified tuition and related expenses

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "qualified tuition and related expenses" means—

(A) tuition and fees required for the enrollment or attendance of a student at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), and

(B) fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for courses of instruction at such an educational organization.

(c) Limitation

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsections (a) and (d) shall not apply to that portion of any amount received which represents payment for teaching, research, or other services by the student required as a condition for receiving the qualified scholarship or qualified tuition reduction.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any amount received by an individual under—

(A) the National Health Service Corps Scholarship Program under section 338A(g)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act,

(B) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship and Financial Assistance program under subchapter I of chapter 105 of title 10, United States Code, or

(C) a comprehensive student work-learning-service program (as defined in section 448(e) of the Higher Education Act of 1965) operated by a work college (as defined in such section).

(d) Qualified tuition reduction

(1) In general

Gross income shall not include any qualified tuition reduction.

(2) Qualified tuition reduction

For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified tuition reduction" means the amount of any reduction in tuition provided to an employee of an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) for the education (below the graduate level) at such organization (or another organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)) of—

(A) such employee, or

(B) any person treated as an employee (or whose use is treated as an employee use) under the rules of section 132(h).

(3) Reduction must not discriminate in favor of highly compensated, etc.

Paragraph (1) shall apply with respect to any qualified tuition reduction provided with respect to any highly compensated employee only if such reduction is available on substantially the same terms to each member of a group of employees which is defined under a reasonable classification set up by the employer which does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414(q)). For purposes of this paragraph, the term "highly compensated employee" has the meaning given such term by section 414(q).

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), (2), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830]

(5) Special rules for teaching and research assistants

In the case of the education of an individual who is a graduate student at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) and who is engaged in teaching or research activities for such organization, paragraph (2) shall be applied as if it did not contain the phrase "(below the graduate level)".

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 38; Pub. L. 87–256, §110(a), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(8)(A), (c)(3), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1794, 1803; Pub. L. 96–541, §5(a)(1), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3205; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §532(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 887; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §123(a), title XI, §§1114(b)(2), 1151(g)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2112, 2450, 2506; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011B(a)(31)(B), title IV, §4001(b)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3488, 3643; Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), (2), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(n)(14), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1878; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §413(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 64; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §301(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3086.)

References in Text

Section 338A(g)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), is classified to section 254l(g)(1)(A) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Section 448(e) of the Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C), is classified to section 1087–58(e) of Title 20, Education.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 114–113 added subpar. (C).

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–16 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsections (a)" for "Subsections (a)", and added par. (2).

1996—Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–188 substituted "section 132(h)" for "section 132(f)".

1989—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(2), amended par. (4) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 100–647, §1011B(a)(31)(B), had not been enacted, see 1988 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(1), amended subsec. (d) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(g)(2), which added par. (4), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

1988—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011B(a)(31)(B), substituted "there shall" for "there may" and "who are" for "who may be".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §4001(b)(2), added par. (5).

1986Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending section generally, substituted "Qualified scholarships" for "Scholarships and fellowship grants" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "In the case of an individual, gross income does not include—

"(1) any amount received—

"(A) as a scholarship at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), or

"(B) as a fellowship grant, including the value of contributed services and accommodations; and

"(2) any amount received to cover expenses for—

"(A) travel,

"(B) research,

"(C) clerical help, or

"(D) equipment,

which are incident to such a scholarship or to a fellowship grant, but only to the extent that the amount is so expended by the recipient."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending subsec. (b) generally, substituted qualified scholarship provision for former limitations provision, which related in par. (1) to individuals who were candidates for degrees, and in par. (2) to individuals who were not candidates for degrees, describing in subpar. (A) conditions for exclusion and in subpar. (B) extent of exclusion, such detailed provision now covered in subsec. (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending subsec. (c) generally, substituted limitation provision for former provision relating to Federal grants for tuition and related expenses not includable merely because there was requirement of future service as Federal employee.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending subsec. (d) generally, substituted "reduction" for "reductions" in heading and inserted "(within the meaning of section 414(q))" after "highly compensated employees" in par. (3).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1114(b)(2), struck out "officer, owner, or" after "with respect to any" and "officers, owners, or" after "in favor of" and inserted at end "For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'highly compensated employee' has the meaning given such term by section 414(q)."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(g)(2), added par. (4).

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (d).

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–541 added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(8)(A), substituted "educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)" for "educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4))" after "scholarship at an".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(c)(3), struck out "a territory" after "or a State".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(8)(A), substituted "educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)" for "educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4))" after "degree at an".

1961—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 87–256 included cases where the grantor of the scholarship or fellowship grant is a foreign government, an international organization, or a binational or multinational educational and cultural foundation or commission created or continued pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §301(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3086, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received in taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §413(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 64, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, §§13001–13444, to which such amendment relates, see section 1703(o) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 39 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–140 effective as if included in section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 203(c) of Pub. L. 101–140, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1011B(a)(31)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 100–647, title IV, §4001(c), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3643, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 127 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 123(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in the case of scholarships and fellowships granted after Aug. 16, 1986, see section 151(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1114(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1114(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 414 of this title.

Amendment by section 1151(g)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §532(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 887, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to qualified tuition reductions (as defined in section 117(d)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) for education furnished after June 30, 1985, in taxable years ending after such date."

Provisions of subsec. (d) treated as in effect on and after Jan. 1, 1984, in case of education described in section 127(c)(8) of this title, see section 1(g)(5) of Pub. L. 98–611, set out as a note under section 127 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–541, §5(a)(2), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3206, provided: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1980."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–256, §110(h)(1), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 537, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section [amending this section and sections 871 and 872 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1961."

Regulations

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by section 1114 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1141 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Public Law 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendment by section 123(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Transitional Rules for Treatment of Certain Reductions in Tuition

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1853(f), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2872, provided that:

"(1) A tuition reduction plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 117(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] if—

"(A) such plan would have met the requirements of such section (as amended by this section but without regard to the lack of evidence that benefits under such plan were the subject of good faith bargaining) on the day on which eligibility to participate in the plan was closed,

"(B) at all times thereafter, the tuition reductions available under such plan are available on substantially the same terms to all employees eligible to participate in such plan, and

"(C) the eligibility to participate in such plan closed on June 30, 1972, June 30, 1974, or December 31, 1975.

"(2) For purposes of applying section 117(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to all tuition reduction plans of an employer with at least 1 such plan described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, there shall be excluded from consideration employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement that the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and 1 or more employers, if, with respect to plans other than plans described in paragraph (1), there is evidence that such benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining.

"(3) Any reduction in tuition provided with respect to a full-time course of education furnished at the graduate level before July 1, 1988, shall not be included in gross income if—

"(A) such reduction would not be included in gross income under the Internal Revenue Service regulations in effect on the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [July 18, 1984], and

"(B) such reduction is provided with respect to a student who was accepted for admission to such course of education before July 1, 1984, and began such course of education before June 30, 1985."

National Research Service Awards

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §161(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2810, as amended by Pub. L. 96–167, §9(b), Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1278; Pub. L. 96–541, §5(b), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3206; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §285, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 569; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that any amount paid to, or on behalf of, an individual as a national research service award under former section 289l–1 of title 42 during calendar years 1974 through 1983 was to be treated as a scholarship or fellowship grant under this section.

Scholarship Programs for Members of the Uniformed Services

Pub. L. 93–483, §4, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1458, as amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2130, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1922; Pub. L. 95–171, §5, Nov. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1355; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §161(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2810; Pub. L. 95–615, title I, §6, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3098; Pub. L. 96–167, §9(a), Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1278; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Any amount received from appropriated funds as a scholarship, including the value of contributed services and accommodations, by a member of a uniformed service who is receiving training under the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program (or any other program determined by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to have substantially similar objectives) from an educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) [see section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title] shall be treated as a scholarship under section 117 of such Code [this section], whether that member is receiving training while on active duty or in an off-duty or inactive status, and without regard to whether a period of active duty is required of the member as a condition of receiving those payments.

"(b) Definition of Uniformed Services.—For purposes of this section, the term 'uniformed service' has the meaning given it by section 101(3) of title 37, United States Code.

"(c) Effective Date.—The provisions of this section shall apply with respect to amounts received during calendar years 1973, 1974, and 1975, and, in the case of a member of a uniformed service receiving training after 1975 and before 1981 in programs described in subsection (a), with respect to amounts received after 1975 and before 1985."

[Section 6 of Pub. L. 95–615, which reenacted §4(c) of Pub. L. 93–483 without change, to cease to have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978, see section 210(a) of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 61 of this title.]

§118. Contributions to the capital of a corporation

(a) General rule

In the case of a corporation, gross income does not include any contribution to the capital of the taxpayer.

(b) Exceptions

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "contribution to the capital of the taxpayer" does not include—

(1) any contribution in aid of construction or any other contribution as a customer or potential customer, and

(2) any contribution by any governmental entity or civic group (other than a contribution made by a shareholder as such).

(c) Regulations

The Secretary shall issue such regulations or other guidance as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this section, including regulations or other guidance for determining whether any contribution constitutes a contribution in aid of construction.

(d) Cross references

(1) For basis of property acquired by a corporation through a contribution to its capital, see section 362.

(2) For special rules in the case of contributions of indebtedness, see section 108(e)(6).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 39; Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2120(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1912; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §364(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2854; Pub. L. 96–589, §2(e)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §163(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 697; Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §824(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2374; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1613(a)(1), (2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1848–1850; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13312(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2132.)

Amendments

2017—Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 115–97 added subsecs. (b) and (c), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d), and struck out former subsecs. (b) to (d) which related to contributions in aid of construction, special rules for water and sewerage disposal utilities, and statute of limitations for assessment of deficiencies, respectively.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–188, §1613(a)(2), inserted "except as provided in subsection (c)," before "the term".

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 104–188, §1613(a)(1), added subsecs. (c) and (d) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (e).

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §824(a), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) relating to contributions in aid of construction, containing par. (1) general rule, par. (2) expenditure rule, par. (3) definitions, and par. (4) disallowance of deductions and investment credit; adjusted basis.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §824(a), redesignated former subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c), statute of limitations, which read as follows: "If the taxpayer for any taxable year treats an amount as a contribution to the capital of the taxpayer described in subsection (b), then—

"(1) the statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to any part of such amount shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) of—

"(A) the amount of the expenditure referred to in subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2),

"(B) the taxpayer's intention not to make the expenditures referred to in such subparagraph, or

"(C) a failure to make such expenditure within the period described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(2); and

"(2) such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment."

1984—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–589 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(1), (2), substituted in provisions preceding subpar. (A) "electric energy, gas (through a local distribution system or transportation by pipeline), water," for "water" and in subpar. (B) "electric energy, gas, steam, water," for "water".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(3), substituted "electric energy, gas, steam, water," for "water".

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(4), substituted "line to an electric line, a gas main, a steam line, or a main water or sewer line" for "property to a main water or sewer line".

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(5), substituted "electric energy, gas, water," for "water" and inserted "(including in the case of a gas transmission utility, the provision of gas services by sale for resale to the general public)" after "members of the general public".

1976—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §2120(a), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13312(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2132, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending