[USC10] 26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 63, Subchapter B: Deficiency Procedures in the Case of Income, Estate, Gift, and Certain Excise Taxes
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26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 63, Subchapter B: Deficiency Procedures in the Case of Income, Estate, Gift, and Certain Excise Taxes
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle F—Procedure and AdministrationCHAPTER 63—ASSESSMENT

Subchapter B—Deficiency Procedures in the Case of Income, Estate, Gift, and Certain Excise Taxes

Sec.
6211.
Definition of a deficiency.
6212.
Notice of deficiency.
6213.
Restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court.
6214.
Determinations by Tax Court.
6215.
Assessment of deficiency found by Tax Court.
6216.
Cross references.

        

Amendments

1969Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(62), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 532, inserted reference to certain excise taxes in subchapter heading.

§6211. Definition of a deficiency

(a) In general

For purposes of this title in the case of income, estate, and gift taxes imposed by subtitles A and B and excise taxes imposed by chapters 41, 42, 43, and 44 the term "deficiency" means the amount by which the tax imposed by subtitle A or B, or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 exceeds the excess of—

(1) the sum of

(A) the amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer upon his return, if a return was made by the taxpayer and an amount was shown as the tax by the taxpayer thereon, plus

(B) the amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency, over—


(2) the amount of rebates, as defined in subsection (b)(2), made.

(b) Rules for application of subsection (a)

For purposes of this section—

(1) The tax imposed by subtitle A and the tax shown on the return shall both be determined without regard to payments on account of estimated tax, without regard to the credit under section 31, without regard to the credit under section 33, and without regard to any credits resulting from the collection of amounts assessed under section 6851 or 6852 (relating to termination assessments).

(2) The term "rebate" means so much of an abatement, credit, refund, or other repayment, as was made on the ground that the tax imposed by subtitle A or B or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 was less than the excess of the amount specified in subsection (a)(1) over the rebates previously made.

(3) The computation by the Secretary, pursuant to section 6014, of the tax imposed by chapter 1 shall be considered as having been made by the taxpayer and the tax so computed considered as shown by the taxpayer upon his return.

(4) For purposes of subsection (a)—

(A) any excess of the sum of the credits allowable under sections 24(d), 25A by reason of subsection (i) thereof, 32, 34, 35, 36, and 1 36B, 168(k)(4) 2 over the tax imposed by subtitle A (determined without regard to such credits), and

(B) any excess of the sum of such credits as shown by the taxpayer on his return over the amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer on such return (determined without regard to such credits),


shall be taken into account as negative amounts of tax.

(c) Coordination with subchapter C

In determining the amount of any deficiency for purposes of this subchapter, adjustments to partnership-related items shall be made only as provided in subchapter C.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 770; Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, §809(d)(5)(A), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 168; Pub. L. 89–368, title I, §102(b)(4), Mar. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 64; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(f)(1), (j)(39), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 524, 530; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(9), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1204(c)(4), title XIII, §1307(d)(2)(E), (F)(i), title XVI, §1605(b)(4), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1698, 1728, 1754, 1834; Pub. L. 96–223, title I, §101(f)(1)(A), (B), (2), (3), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 252; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(33), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 845; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10713(b)(2)(B), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–470; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1941(b)(2)(B)(i), (ii), (C), (D), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1015(r)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3572; Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1231(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6012(f), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §314(a)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-643; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §402(b)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2954; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(35), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2487; Pub. L. 110–185, title I, §101(b)(1), Feb. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 615; Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3011(b)(2), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2891; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1001(e)(1), 1004(b)(7), 1201(a)(3)(B), (b)(2), 1531(c)(4), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 312, 314, 334, 360; Pub. L. 111–148, title I, §1401(d)(3), as added title X, §§10105(d), 10909(b)(2)(N), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 906, 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(5)(B), (8)(B), (112)(B), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037, 4038, 4054; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13404(c)(3), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2138; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §§101(l)(17), 106(a), title II, §201(c)(1), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1165, 1170, 1172.)

References in Text

Section 25A(i)(6), referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A), was redesignated section 25A(i)(5) by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(D)(i), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2322.

Section 168(k)(4), referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §12001(b)(13), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2094.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(17), substituted "subsection (i)" for "subsection (i)(5)".

Pub. L. 115–141, §106(a), substituted "subsection (i)(5)" for "subsection (i)(6)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–141, §201(c)(1), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In determining the amount of any deficiency for purposes of this subchapter, adjustments to partnership items shall be made only as provided in subchapters C and D."

2017—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 115–97 inserted "and" before "36B" and struck out ", and 6431" after "168(k)(4)".

2014—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(112)(B), struck out "6428," after "168(k)(4),".

Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(8)(B), struck out ", 53(e)" after "36B".

Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(5)(B), struck out ", 36A" after "36".

2010—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(N), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily inserted "36C," before "53(e)". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 111–148, §1401(d)(3), as added by Pub. L. 111–148, §10105(d), inserted "36B," after "36A,".

2009—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 111–5, §1531(c)(4), substituted "6428, and 6431" for "and 6428".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1201(a)(3)(B), (b)(2), amended subpar. (A) identically, inserting "168(k)(4)," after "53(e),".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1004(b)(7), inserted "25A by reason of subsection (i)(6) thereof," after "24(d),".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1001(e)(1), inserted "36A," after "36,".

2008—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 110–289 substituted "34, 35, 36, 53(e), and 6428" for "34, 35, 53(e), and 6428".

Pub. L. 110–185 substituted "53(e), and 6428" for "and 53(e)".

2007—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 110–172, which directed amendment of subpar. (A) by substituting "34, and 35" for "and 34", was executed by inserting "35," after "34,", to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the amendment of subpar. (A) by section 402(b)(1) of Pub. L. 109–432. See 2006 Amendment note below.

2006—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 109–432 substituted "34, and 53(e)" for "and 34".

2000—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted "sections 24(d), 32, and 34" for "sections 32 and 34".

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted "subchapters C and D" for "subchapter C" in heading and in text.

1997—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (c).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(B)(i), (C), in introductory provisions, substituted "and 44" for "44, and 45" and "or 44" for "44, or 45".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(B)(ii), substituted "or 44" for "44, or 45".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1015(r)(2), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "The tax imposed by subtitle A and the tax shown on the return shall both be determined without regard to the credit under section 34, unless, without regard to such credit, the tax imposed by subtitle A exceeds the excess of the amount specified in subsection (a)(1) over the amount specified in subsection (a)(2)."

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(D), struck out pars. (5) and (6) which read as follows:

"(5) The amount withheld under section 4995(a) from amounts payable to any producer for crude oil removed during any taxable period (as defined in section 4996(b)(7)) which is not otherwise shown on a return by such producer shall be treated as tax shown by the producer on a return for the taxable period.

"(6) Any liability to pay amounts required to be withheld under section 4995(a) shall not be treated as a tax imposed by chapter 45."

1987—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted reference to section 6852.

1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(33)(A), substituted "without regard to the credit under section 33" for "without regard to so much of the credit under section 32 as exceeds 2 percent of the interest on obligations described in section 1451".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(33)(B), substituted "section 34" for "section 39".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(1)(A), (2), inserted references to chapter 45 in provisions preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(1)(B), inserted reference to chapter 45.

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(3), added pars. (5) and (6).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1307(d)(2)(E), (F)(i), 1605(b)(4)(A), (B), substituted "chapters 41, 42, 43, and 44" for "chapters 42 and 43" after "taxes imposed by" and "chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44" for "chapter 42 or 43" after "A or B, or".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(c)(4), struck out "and" after "31" and inserted ", and without regard to any credits resulting from the collection of amounts assessed under section 6851 (relating to termination assessments)" after "section 1451".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1307(d)(2)(F)(i), 1605(b)(4)(C), substituted "chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44" for "chapter 42 or 43" after "A or B or".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(9)(A), inserted reference in introductory provisions to taxes imposed by chapter 43.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(9)(B), inserted reference to taxes imposed by chapter 43.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(f)(1), inserted references to excise taxes and chapter 42.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(j)(39), inserted reference to chapter 42.

1966—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 89–368 substituted "subtitle A" for "chapter 1".

1965—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 89–44 added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(l)(17) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in the provision of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, div. Q of Pub. L. 114–113, to which such amendment relates, see section 101(s) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §106(b), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1170, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 104 of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 [Pub. L. 112–240]."

Amendment by section 201(c)(1) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in section 1101 of Pub. L. 114–74, see section 207 of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 6031 of this title.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to bonds issued after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 13404(d) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as an Effective Date of Repeal note under former section 54 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 1401(d)(3) of Pub. L. 111–148, as added by section 10105(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 2013, see section 1401(e) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as an Effective Date note under section 36B of this title.

Amendment by section 10909(b)(2)(N) of Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 10909(b)(2)(N) of Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1001(f), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 312, provided that: "This section [enacting section 36A of this title, amending this section and section 6213 of this title and section 1324 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 36A of this title], and the amendments made by this section, shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Amendment by section 1004(b)(7) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1201(a)(3)(B), (b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years ending after Mar. 31, 2008, see section 1201(c)(2) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as a note under section 168 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1531(e), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 360, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting subpart J of part IV of subchapter A of this chapter and section 6431 of this title and amending this section, sections 54, 54A, 1397E, 1400N, and 6401 of this title, and section 1324 of Title 31, Money and Finance] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 17, 2009]."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–289 applicable to residences purchased on or after Apr. 9, 2008, in taxable years ending on or after such date, see section 3011(c) of Pub. L. 110–289, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–432 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 20, 2006, see section 402(c) of Pub. L. 109–432, set out as a note under section 53 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–554 effective as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 1(a)(7) [title III, §314(g)] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1231(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1023, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 6234 of this title and amending this section] shall apply to partnership taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to notices of deficiencies mailed after Nov. 10, 1988, see section 1015(r)(4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 6201 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to crude oil removed from the premises on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1941(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 applicable to periods after Feb. 29, 1980, see section 101(i) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1204(c)(4) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to action taken under section 6851, 6861, or 6862 of this title where the notice and demand takes place after Feb. 28, 1977, see section 1204(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended, set out as a note under section 6851 of this title.

Amendment by section 1307(d)(2)(E), (F)(i) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on and after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1307(e)(6) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

For effective date of amendment by section 1605(b)(4) of Pub. L. 94–455, see section 1608(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 856 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–368 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 102(d) of Pub. L. 89–368, set out as a note under section 6654 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 applicable to taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 1965, see section 809(f) of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 6420 of this title.

1 So in original.

2 See References in Text note below.

§6212. Notice of deficiency

(a) In general

If the Secretary determines that there is a deficiency in respect of any tax imposed by subtitles A or B or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 he is authorized to send notice of such deficiency to the taxpayer by certified mail or registered mail. Such notice shall include a notice to the taxpayer of the taxpayer's right to contact a local office of the taxpayer advocate and the location and phone number of the appropriate office.

(b) Address for notice of deficiency

(1) Income and gift taxes and certain excise taxes

In the absence of notice to the Secretary under section 6903 of the existence of a fiduciary relationship, notice of a deficiency in respect of a tax imposed by subtitle A, chapter 12, chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, or chapter 44 if mailed to the taxpayer at his last known address, shall be sufficient for purposes of subtitle A, chapter 12, chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, chapter 44, and this chapter even if such taxpayer is deceased, or is under a legal disability, or, in the case of a corporation, has terminated its existence.

(2) Joint income tax return

In the case of a joint income tax return filed by husband and wife, such notice of deficiency may be a single joint notice, except that if the Secretary has been notified by either spouse that separate residences have been established, then, in lieu of the single joint notice, a duplicate original of the joint notice shall be sent by certified mail or registered mail to each spouse at his last known address.

(3) Estate tax

In the absence of notice to the Secretary under section 6903 of the existence of a fiduciary relationship, notice of a deficiency in respect of a tax imposed by chapter 11, if addressed in the name of the decedent or other person subject to liability and mailed to his last known address, shall be sufficient for purposes of chapter 11 and of this chapter.

(c) Further deficiency letters restricted

(1) General rule

If the Secretary has mailed to the taxpayer a notice of deficiency as provided in subsection (a), and the taxpayer files a petition with the Tax Court within the time prescribed in section 6213(a), the Secretary shall have no right to determine any additional deficiency of income tax for the same taxable year, of gift tax for the same calendar year, of estate tax in respect of the taxable estate of the same decedent, of chapter 41 tax for the same taxable year, of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable year, of chapter 44 tax for the same taxable year, of section 4940 tax for the same taxable year, or of chapter 42 tax, (other than under section 4940) with respect to any act (or failure to act) to which such petition relates, except in the case of fraud, and except as provided in section 6214(a) (relating to assertion of greater deficiencies before the Tax Court), in section 6213(b)(1) (relating to mathematical or clerical errors), in section 6851 or 6852 (relating to termination assessments), or in section 6861(c) (relating to the making of jeopardy assessments).

(2) Cross references

For assessment as a deficiency notwithstanding the prohibition of further deficiency letters, in the case of—

(A) Deficiency attributable to change of treatment with respect to itemized deductions, see section 63(e)(3).

(B) Deficiency attributable to gain on involuntary conversion, see section 1033(a)(2)(C) and (D).

(C) Deficiency attributable to activities not engaged in for profit, see section 183(e)(4).


For provisions allowing determination of tax in title 11 cases, see section 505(a) of title 11 of the United States Code.

(d) Authority to rescind notice of deficiency with taxpayer's consent

The Secretary may, with the consent of the taxpayer, rescind any notice of deficiency mailed to the taxpayer. Any notice so rescinded shall not be treated as a notice of deficiency for purposes of subsection (c)(1) (relating to further deficiency letters restricted), section 6213(a) (relating to restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court), and section 6512(a) (relating to limitations in case of petition to Tax Court), and the taxpayer shall have no right to file a petition with the Tax Court based on such notice. Nothing in this subsection shall affect any suspension of the running of any period of limitations during any period during which the rescinded notice was outstanding.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 770; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §§76, 89(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1661, 1665; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §112(d)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 24; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(f)(2), (j)(40), (41), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 524, 530; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §102(d)(5), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1842; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(10), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 94–455, title II, §214(b), title XII, §§1204(c)(5), 1206(c)(3), title XIII, §1307(d)(2)(F)(ii), (G), title XVI, §1605(b)(5), title XIX, §§1901(b)(31)(C), (37)(C), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1549, 1698, 1704, 1728, 1754, 1800, 1803, 1834; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(15), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §405(c)(5), title VII, §701(t)(3)(C), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2871, 2912; Pub. L. 96–223, title I, §101(f)(1)(C), (4), (5), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 252, 253; Pub. L. 96–589, §6(d)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3408; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §442(d)(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 323; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(17), title XV, §1562(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2106, 2761; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10713(b)(2)(C), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–470; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1941(b)(2)(B)(iii), (E), (F), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1015(m), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3572; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(d)(12), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 105–206, title I, §1102(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 703.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–206 inserted at end "Such notice shall include a notice to the taxpayer of the taxpayer's right to contact a local office of the taxpayer advocate and the location and phone number of the appropriate office."

1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 105–34, which directed the amendment of par. (2) by striking out subpar. (C) and redesignating succeeding subpars. accordingly, was executed by redesignating subpar. (E) as (C) and striking out former subpar. (C). Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "Deficiency attributable to gain on sale or exchange of principal residence, see section 1034(j)." Former subpar. (D) was repealed previously.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(B)(iii), substituted "or 44" for "44, or 45".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(E), substituted "or chapter 44" for "chapter 44, or chapter 45" and "chapter 44, and this chapter" for "chapter 44, chapter 45, and this chapter".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(F), substituted "or of chapter 42 tax" for "of chapter 42 tax" and struck out ", or of chapter 45 tax for the same taxable period" after "such petition relates".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted sentence at end that nothing in this subsection shall affect suspension of running of period of limitations during period during which rescinded notice was outstanding.

1987—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted reference to section 6852.

1986—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(17), amended subpar. (A) generally, substituting ", see section 63(e)(3)" for "and zero bracket amount, see section 63(g)(5)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1562(a), added subsec. (d).

1981—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted "calendar year" for "calendar quarter".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(1)(C), inserted reference to chapter 45.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(4), substituted "and certain excise taxes" for "taxes imposed by chapter 42" in section catchline and inserted references to chapter 45 in two places in text.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(5), substituted "of chapter 42 tax" for "or of chapter 42 tax" and inserted ", or of chapter 45 tax for the same taxable period" after "to which such petition relates".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–589 inserted cross reference to section 505(a) of title 11 for provisions allowing determination of tax in title 11 cases.

1978—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(t)(3)(C), substituted "same taxable year" for "same taxable years" in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 95–600, §405(c)(5), substituted "principal residence" for "personal residence".

1977—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–30 substituted "change of treatment with respect to itemized deductions and zero bracket amount, see section 63(g)(5)" for "change of election with respect to the standard deduction where taxpayer and his spouse made separate returns, see section 144(b)".

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1307(d)(2)(F)(ii), 1605(b)(5)(A), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary", and substituted "chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44" for "chapter 42 or 43".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1307(d)(2)(G)(i), 1605(b)(5)(B), (C), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary", and substituted "chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, or chapter 44" for "chapter 42, or chapter 43", and "chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, chapter 44, and this chapter" for "chapter 42, chapter 43, and this chapter".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1204(c)(5), 1206(c)(3), 1307(d)(2)(G)(ii), 1605(b)(5)(D), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing, substituted "of chapter 41 tax for the same taxable year, of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable years, of chapter 44 tax for the same taxable years" for "of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable years", and "(relating to mathematical or clerical errors), in section 6851 (relating to termination assessments)" for "(relating to mathematical errors)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(31)(C), substituted "1033(a)(2)(C) and (D)" for "1033(a)(3)(C) and (D)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(37)(C), struck out subsec. (c)(2)(D) which set forth a cross reference to section 1335 of this title relating to a deficiency attributable to war loss recoveries where prior benefit rule is elected.

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 94–455, §214(b), added subpar. (E).

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(10)(A), inserted reference to taxes imposed by chapter 43.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(10)(B), (C), inserted reference to chapter 43 in two places.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(10)(D), substituted "of the same decedent, of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable years," for "of the same decedent,".

1970—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–614 substituted "calendar quarter" for "calendar year".

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(j)(40), inserted reference to chapter 42.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(j)(41), inserted reference to chapter 42 taxes in heading and text.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(f)(2), included section 4940 tax and chapter 42 tax (other than under section 4940), among the classes of taxes with respect to which the Secretary cannot determine additional deficiencies after the taxpayer has filed a petition for redetermination of any deficiency about which he has been notified.

1964—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 88–272 substituted "with respect to the" for "to take".

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–866, §89(b), inserted "certified mail or" before "registered mail".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 85–866, §76, substituted "subtitle A or chapter 12" for "chapter 1 or 12" and "subtitle A, chapter 12," for "such chapter".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 85–866, §89(b), inserted "certified mail or" before "registered mail".

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to crude oil removed from the premises on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1941(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b)(17) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1562(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2762, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to notices of deficiency issued on or after January 1, 1986."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 442(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 applicable to periods after Feb. 29, 1980, see section 101(i) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 405(c)(5) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to sales and exchanges of residences after July 26, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 405(d) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1038 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(t)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective Oct. 4, 1976, see section 701(t)(5) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 859 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 214(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, except that such amendments shall not apply to any taxable year ending before Oct. 4, 1976 with respect to which the period for assessing a deficiency has expired before Oct. 4, 1976, see section 214(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 183 of this title.

Amendment by section 1204(c)(5) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to action taken under section 6851, 6861, or 6862 of this title where the notice and demand takes place after Feb. 28, 1977, see section 1204(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended, set out as a note under section 6851 of this title.

Amendment by section 1206(c)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to returns filed after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1206(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6213 of this title.

Amendment by section 1307(d)(2)(F)(ii), (G) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on and after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1307(e)(6) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

For effective date of amendment by section 1605(b)(5) of Pub. L. 94–455, see section 1608(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 856 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(31)(C), (37)(C) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–614 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 102(e) of Pub. L. 91–614, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272, except for purposes of section 21 of this title, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 131 of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by section 76 of Pub. L. 85–866 effective Aug. 17, 1954, see section 1(c)(2) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 165 of this title.

Amendment by section 89(b) of Pub. L. 85–866 applicable only if mailing occurs after Sept. 2, 1958, see section 89(d) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 7502 of this title.

Notice of Deficiency To Specify Deadlines for Filing Tax Court Petition

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3463(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 767, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate shall include on each notice of deficiency under section 6212 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 the date determined by such Secretary (or delegate) as the last day on which the taxpayer may file a petition with the Tax Court."

[Section 3463(a) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out above, applicable to notices mailed after Dec. 31, 1998, see section 3463(c) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 6213 of this title.]

Explanations of Appeals and Collection Process

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3504, July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 771, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate shall, as soon as practicable, but not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998], include with any first letter of proposed deficiency which allows the taxpayer an opportunity for administrative review in the Internal Revenue Service Office of Appeals an explanation of the entire process from examination through collection with respect to such proposed deficiency, including the assistance available to the taxpayer from the National Taxpayer Advocate at various points in the process."

§6213. Restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court

(a) Time for filing petition and restriction on assessment

Within 90 days, or 150 days if the notice is addressed to a person outside the United States, after the notice of deficiency authorized in section 6212 is mailed (not counting Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday in the District of Columbia as the last day), the taxpayer may file a petition with the Tax Court for a redetermination of the deficiency. Except as otherwise provided in section 6851, 6852, or 6861 no assessment of a deficiency in respect of any tax imposed by subtitle A, or B, chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 and no levy or proceeding in court for its collection shall be made, begun, or prosecuted until such notice has been mailed to the taxpayer, nor until the expiration of such 90-day or 150-day period, as the case may be, nor, if a petition has been filed with the Tax Court, until the decision of the Tax Court has become final. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the making of such assessment or the beginning of such proceeding or levy during the time such prohibition is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court, including the Tax Court, and a refund may be ordered by such court of any amount collected within the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or through a proceeding in court under the provisions of this subsection. The Tax Court shall have no jurisdiction to enjoin any action or proceeding or order any refund under this subsection unless a timely petition for a redetermination of the deficiency has been filed and then only in respect of the deficiency that is the subject of such petition. Any petition filed with the Tax Court on or before the last date specified for filing such petition by the Secretary in the notice of deficiency shall be treated as timely filed.

(b) Exceptions to restrictions on assessment

(1) Assessments arising out of mathematical or clerical errors

If the taxpayer is notified that, on account of a mathematical or clerical error appearing on the return, an amount of tax in excess of that shown on the return is due, and that an assessment of the tax has been or will be made on the basis of what would have been the correct amount of tax but for the mathematical or clerical error, such notice shall not be considered as a notice of deficiency for the purposes of subsection (a) (prohibiting assessment and collection until notice of the deficiency has been mailed), or of section 6212(c)(1) (restricting further deficiency letters), or of section 6512(a) (prohibiting credits or refunds after petition to the Tax Court), and the taxpayer shall have no right to file a petition with the Tax Court based on such notice, nor shall such assessment or collection be prohibited by the provisions of subsection (a) of this section. Each notice under this paragraph shall set forth the error alleged and an explanation thereof.

(2) Abatement of assessment of mathematical or clerical errors

(A) Request for abatement

Notwithstanding section 6404(b), a taxpayer may file with the Secretary within 60 days after notice is sent under paragraph (1) a request for an abatement of any assessment specified in such notice, and upon receipt of such request, the Secretary shall abate the assessment. Any reassessment of the tax with respect to which an abatement is made under this subparagraph shall be subject to the deficiency procedures prescribed by this subchapter.

(B) Stay of collection

In the case of any assessment referred to in paragraph (1), notwithstanding paragraph (1), no levy or proceeding in court for the collection of such assessment shall be made, begun, or prosecuted during the period in which such assessment may be abated under this paragraph.

(3) Assessments arising out of tentative carryback or refund adjustments

If the Secretary determines that the amount applied, credited, or refunded under section 6411 is in excess of the overassessment attributable to the carryback or the amount described in section 1341(b)(1) with respect to which such amount was applied, credited, or refunded, he may assess without regard to the provisions of paragraph (2) the amount of the excess as a deficiency as if it were due to a mathematical or clerical error appearing on the return.

(4) Assessment of amount paid

Any amount paid as a tax or in respect of a tax may be assessed upon the receipt of such payment notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a). In any case where such amount is paid after the mailing of a notice of deficiency under section 6212, such payment shall not deprive the Tax Court of jurisdiction over such deficiency determined under section 6211 without regard to such assessment.

(5) Certain orders of criminal restitution

If the taxpayer is notified that an assessment has been or will be made pursuant to section 6201(a)(4)—

(A) such notice shall not be considered as a notice of deficiency for the purposes of subsection (a) (prohibiting assessment and collection until notice of the deficiency has been mailed), section 6212(c)(1) (restricting further deficiency letters), or section 6512(a) (prohibiting credits or refunds after petition to the Tax Court), and

(B) subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to the amount of such assessment.

(c) Failure to file petition

If the taxpayer does not file a petition with the Tax Court within the time prescribed in subsection (a), the deficiency, notice of which has been mailed to the taxpayer, shall be assessed, and shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(d) Waiver of restrictions

The taxpayer shall at any time (whether or not a notice of deficiency has been issued) have the right, by a signed notice in writing filed with the Secretary, to waive the restrictions provided in subsection (a) on the assessment and collection of the whole or any part of the deficiency.

(e) Suspension of filing period for certain excise taxes

The running of the time prescribed by subsection (a) for filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to the taxes imposed by section 4941 (relating to taxes on self-dealing), 4942 (relating to taxes on failure to distribute income), 4943 (relating to taxes on excess business holdings), 4944 (relating to investments which jeopardize charitable purpose), 4945 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures), 4951 (relating to taxes on self-dealing), or 4952 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures), 4955 (relating to taxes on political expenditures), 4958 (relating to private excess benefit), 4971 (relating to excise taxes on failure to meet minimum funding standard), 4975 (relating to excise taxes on prohibited transactions) shall be suspended for any period during which the Secretary has extended the time allowed for making correction under section 4963(e).

(f) Coordination with title 11

(1) Suspension of running of period for filing petition in title 11 cases

In any case under title 11 of the United States Code, the running of the time prescribed by subsection (a) for filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to any deficiency shall be suspended for the period during which the debtor is prohibited by reason of such case from filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to such deficiency, and for 60 days thereafter.

(2) Certain action not taken into account

For purposes of the second and third sentences of subsection (a), the filing of a proof of claim or request for payment (or the taking of any other action) in a case under title 11 of the United States Code shall not be treated as action prohibited by such second sentence.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Return

The term "return" includes any return, statement, schedule, or list, and any amendment or supplement thereto, filed with respect to any tax imposed by subtitle A or B, or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44.

(2) Mathematical or clerical error

The term "mathematical or clerical error" means—

(A) an error in addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division shown on any return,

(B) an incorrect use of any table provided by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to any return if such incorrect use is apparent from the existence of other information on the return,

(C) an entry on a return of an item which is inconsistent with another entry of the same or another item on such return,

(D) an omission of information which is required to be supplied on the return to substantiate an entry on the return,

(E) an entry on a return of a deduction or credit in an amount which exceeds a statutory limit imposed by subtitle A or B, or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44, if such limit is expressed—

(i) as a specified monetary amount, or

(ii) as a percentage, ratio, or fraction,


and if the items entering into the application of such limit appear on such return,

(F) an omission of a correct taxpayer identification number required under section 32 (relating to the earned income credit) to be included on a return,

(G) an entry on a return claiming the credit under section 32 with respect to net earnings from self-employment described in section 32(c)(2)(A) to the extent the tax imposed by section 1401 (relating to self-employment tax) on such net earnings has not been paid,

(H) an omission of a correct TIN required under section 21 (relating to expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment) or section 151 (relating to allowance of deductions for personal exemptions),

(I) an omission of a correct TIN required under section 24(e) (relating to child tax credit) to be included on a return,

(J) an omission of a correct TIN required under section 25A(g)(1) (relating to higher education tuition and related expenses) to be included on a return,

(K) an omission of information required by section 32(k)(2) (relating to taxpayers making improper prior claims of earned income credit) or an entry on the return claiming the credit under section 32 for a taxable year for which the credit is disallowed under subsection (k)(1) thereof,

(L) the inclusion on a return of a TIN required to be included on the return under section 21, 24, or 32 if—

(i) such TIN is of an individual whose age affects the amount of the credit under such section, and

(ii) the computation of the credit on the return reflects the treatment of such individual as being of an age different from the individual's age based on such TIN,


(M) the entry on the return claiming the credit under section 32 with respect to a child if, according to the Federal Case Registry of Child Support Orders established under section 453(h) of the Social Security Act, the taxpayer is a noncustodial parent of such child,

(N) an omission of any increase required under section 36(f) with respect to the recapture of a credit allowed under section 36,

(O) the inclusion on a return of an individual taxpayer identification number issued under section 6109(i) which has expired, been revoked by the Secretary, or is otherwise invalid,

(P) an omission of information required by section 24(g)(2) or an entry on the return claiming the credit under section 24 for a taxable year for which the credit is disallowed under subsection (g)(1) thereof, and

(Q) an omission of information required by section 25A(b)(4)(B) or an entry on the return claiming the American Opportunity Tax Credit for a taxable year for which such credit is disallowed under section 25A(b)(4)(A).


A taxpayer shall be treated as having omitted a correct TIN for purposes of the preceding sentence if information provided by the taxpayer on the return with respect to the individual whose TIN was provided differs from the information the Secretary obtains from the person issuing the TIN.

(h) Cross references

(1) For assessment as if a mathematical error on the return, in the case of erroneous claims for income tax prepayment credits, see section 6201(a)(3).

(2) For assessments without regard to restrictions imposed by this section in the case of—

(A) Recovery of foreign income taxes, see section 905(c).

(B) Recovery of foreign estate tax, see section 2016.

(3) For provisions relating to application of this subchapter in the case of certain partnership items, etc., see section 6230(a).1

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 771; Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, §809(d)(4)(B), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 168; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(f)(3), (j)(42), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 524, 530; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(11), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §§1204(c)(6), 1206(a)–(c)(1), title XIII, §1307(d)(2)(F)(iii), title XVI, §1605(b)(6), title XIX, §§1906(a)(15), (b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1698, 1703, 1704, 1728, 1755, 1825, 1834; Pub. L. 95–227, §4(d)(1), (2), Feb. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 23; Pub. L. 95–600, title V, §504(b)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2881; Pub. L. 96–223, title I, §101(f)(1)(D), (E), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 252; Pub. L. 96–589, §6(b)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3407; Pub. L. 96–596, §2(a)(4)(C), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3472; Pub. L. 97–248, title IV, §402(c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 98–369, title III, §305(b)(4), title IV, §474(r)(34), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 784, 845; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1875(d)(2)(B)(i), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2896; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §§10712(c)(1), 10713(b)(2)(D), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–467, 1330-470; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1941(b)(2)(B)(iv), (v), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1015(r)(3), title VI, §6243(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3573, 3749; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(k)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412; Pub. L. 104–168, title XIII, §1311(c)(3), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1478; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1615(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1853; Pub. L. 104–193, title IV, §451(c), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2277; Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(d)(2), title II, §201(b), title X, §1085(a)(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799, 803, 956; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §§3463(b), 3464(a), title VI, §6010(p)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 767, 817; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title III, §3003(a), (b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–905; Pub. L. 107–16, title III, §303(g), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 56; Pub. L. 110–185, title I, §101(b)(2), Feb. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 616; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1001(d), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 312; Pub. L. 111–92, §§11(h), 12(d), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2991, 2992; Pub. L. 111–237, §3(b)(1), Aug. 16, 2010, 124 Stat. 2498; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §§214(a), 221(a)(4), (5)(C), (112)(C), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4034, 4037, 4038, 4054; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §§203(e), 208(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3080, 3084; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(l)(18), title IV, §401(a)(277), (278), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1165, 1197.)

References in Text

Section 453(h) of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(M), is classified to section 653(h) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Section 6230, referred to in subsec. (h)(3), was repealed by Pub. L. 114–74, title XI, §1101(a), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 625.

Codification

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §214(a)(2), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4034, which directed that subsec. (g)(2) of this section be amended by striking "and" at the end of subpar. (O), by striking the period at the end of subpar. (P) and inserting ", and", and by inserting after subpar. (P) a new subpar. (Q), effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 110–185 to which the amendments relate, could not literally be executed insofar as it directed the amendments to subpars. (O) and (P) because subsec. (g)(2), at the time of enactment of Pub. L. 110–185, did not contain subpars. (N) to (P). However, the amendment was considered to be executed by making the conforming amendments to subpars. (O) and (P) as added by sections 11(h) and 12(d) of Pub. L. 111–92, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and to allow for additional amendments by Pub. L. 113–295, which presume that such conforming amendments had taken place. See 2014 Amendment notes below.

Amendments

Subsec. (g)(2)(O). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(277), inserted comma at end.

Subsec. (g)(2)(P). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(278), substituted "section 24(g)(2)" for "section 24(h)(2)" and "subsection (g)(1)" for "subsection (h)(1)".

Subsec. (g)(2)(Q). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(18), amended subpar. (Q) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (Q) read as follows: "an omission of information required by section 25A(i)(8)(B) or an entry on the return claiming the credit determined under section 25A(i) for a taxable year for which the credit is disallowed under paragraph (8)(A) thereof."

2015—Subsec. (g)(2)(K). Pub. L. 114–113, §208(b)(1), inserted "or an entry on the return claiming the credit under section 32 for a taxable year for which the credit is disallowed under subsection (k)(1) thereof" before comma at end.

Subsec. (g)(2)(O). Pub. L. 114–113, §203(e), added subpar. (O).

Subsec. (g)(2)(P), (Q). Pub. L. 114–113, §208(b)(2), added subpars. (P) and (Q).

2014—Subsec. (g)(2)(L). Pub. L. 113–295, §214(a)(1), substituted "or 32" for "32, or 6428" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g)(2)(M). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(112)(C), inserted "and" at end.

Subsec. (g)(2)(N). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(112)(C), redesignated subpar. (O) as (N) and substituted period for comma at end.

Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(5)(C), struck out subpar. (N) which read as follows: "an omission of the reduction required under section 36A(c) with respect to the credit allowed under section 36A or an omission of the correct social security account number required under section 36A(d)(1)(B),".

Subsec. (g)(2)(O). Pub. L. 113–295, §214(a)(2), struck out "and" at end. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (g)(2)(P). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(4), struck out subpar. (P) which read as follows: "an entry on a return claiming the credit under section 36 if—

"(i) the Secretary obtains information from the person issuing the TIN of the taxpayer that indicates that the taxpayer does not meet the age requirement of section 36(b)(4),

"(ii) information provided to the Secretary by the taxpayer on an income tax return for at least one of the 2 preceding taxable years is inconsistent with eligibility for such credit, or

"(iii) the taxpayer fails to attach to the return the form described in section 36(d)(4), and".

Pub. L. 113–295, §214(a)(2), substituted ", and" for period at end. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (g)(2)(Q). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(112)(C), struck out subpar. (Q) which read as follows: "an omission of a correct valid identification number required under section 6428(h) (relating to 2008 recovery rebates for individuals) to be included on a return."

Pub. L. 113–295, §214(a)(2), added subpar. (Q). See Codification note above.

2010—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 111–237 added par. (5).

2009—Subsec. (g)(2)(N). Pub. L. 111–5 added subpar. (N).

Subsec. (g)(2)(O). Pub. L. 111–92, §11(h), added subpar. (O).

Subsec. (g)(2)(P). Pub. L. 111–92, §12(d), added subpar. (P).

2008—Subsec. (g)(2)(L). Pub. L. 110–185 substituted "32, or 6428" for "or 32" in introductory provisions.

2001—Subsec. (g)(2)(M). Pub. L. 107–16 added subpar. (M).

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–206, §3464(a), substituted ", including the Tax Court, and a refund may be ordered by such court of any amount collected within the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or through a proceeding in court under the provisions of this subsection." for ", including the Tax Court." and "to enjoin any action or proceeding or order any refund" for "to enjoin any action or proceeding".

Pub. L. 105–206, §3463(b), inserted at end "Any petition filed with the Tax Court on or before the last date specified for filing such petition by the Secretary in the notice of deficiency shall be treated as timely filed."

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 105–277, §3003(a), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (g)(2)(K). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(3), amended Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(3). See 1997 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (g)(2)(L). Pub. L. 105–277, §3003(b), added subpar. (L).

1997—Subsec. (g)(2)(I). Pub. L. 105–34, §101(d)(2), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (g)(2)(J). Pub. L. 105–34, §201(b), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (g)(2)(K). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(3), added subpar. (K).

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–168 inserted "4958 (relating to private excess benefit)," before "4971".

Subsec. (g)(2)(F), (G). Pub. L. 104–193 added subpars. (F) and (G).

Subsec. (g)(2)(H). Pub. L. 104–188 added subpar. (H).

1989—Subsec. (h)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–239 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 100–647, §1015(r)(3), see 1988 Amendment note below.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–647, §6243(a), substituted for period at end ", including the Tax Court. The Tax Court shall have no jurisdiction to enjoin any action or proceeding under this subsection unless a timely petition for a redetermination of the deficiency has been filed and then only in respect of the deficiency that is the subject of such petition."

Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(B)(iv), substituted "or 44" for "44, or 45".

Subsec. (g)(1), (2)(E). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(B)(v), substituted "or 44" for "44, or 45".

Subsec. (h)(3), (4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1015(r)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "For assessment as if a mathematical error on the return, in the case of erroneous claims for credits under section 32 or 34, see section 6201(a)(4)."

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–203, §10713(b)(2)(D), inserted reference to section 6852.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–203, §10712(c)(1), inserted "4955 (relating to taxes on political expenditures),".

1986—Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 99–514 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "For provision that this subchapter shall not apply in the case of computational adjustments attributable to partnership items, see section 6230(a)."

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §305(b)(4), substituted "section 4963(e)" for "section 4962(e)".

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(34), substituted "section 32 or 34" for "section 39".

1982—Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 97–248 added par. (4).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(1)(D), inserted reference to chapter 45.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–596 substituted "section 4962(e)" for "section 4941(e)(4), 4942(j)(2), 4943(d)(3), 4944(e)(3), 4945(i)(2), 4951(e)(4), 4952(e)(2), 4971(c)(3), or 4975(f)(6)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–589 added subsec. (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (f)(1), (2)(E). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(1)(E), inserted reference to chapter 45.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 96–589 redesignated former subsecs. (f) and (g) as (g) and (h), respectively.

1978—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–600 inserted "or refund" after "carryback" in heading, and "or the amount described in section 1341(b)(1)" after "carryback" in text.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–227, §4(d)(1), inserted provisions relating to sections 4951 and 4952 of this title, and substituted "4975(f)(6)" for "4975(f)(4)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–227, §4(d)(2), inserted references to chapters 41 and 44.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1204(c)(6), 1307(d)(2)(F)(iii), 1605(b)(6), 1906(a)(15), inserted "section 6851 or" before "section 6861" and references to chapter 41 and chapter 44 and substituted "United States" for "States of the Union and the District of Columbia".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1206(a)(2), substituted in heading "Assessments arising out of mathematical or clerical errors" for "Mathematical errors" and in text inserted "or clerical" after "mathematical" in two places and inserted provision that each notice under this paragraph shall set forth the error alleged and an explanation thereof.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1206(a)(2), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1206(a)(1), (c)(1), 1906(b)(13)(A), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and as so redesignated, struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" and inserted "without regard to the provisions of paragraph (2)" after "he may assess" and "or clerical" after "mathematical". Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 94–455, §1206(a)(1), redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 94–455, §1206(b), added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(11)(A), inserted reference to tax imposed by chapter 43.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(11)(B)–(D), substituted "excise taxes" for "chapter 42 taxes" in heading, and in text substituted "4945 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures), 4971 (relating to excise taxes on failure to meet minimum funding standard), 4975 (relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions)" for "or 4945 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures)" and ", 4945(i)(2), 4971(c)(3), or 4975(f)(4)" for "or 4945(h)(2)".

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(j)(42), inserted reference to chapter 42.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(f)(3), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1965—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 89–44 added par. (3).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(l)(18) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in the provision of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, div. Q of Pub. L. 114–113, to which such amendment relates, see section 101(s) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by section 203(e) of Pub. L. 114–113 applicable to applications for individual taxpayer identification numbers made after Dec. 18, 2015, except to the extent provided in section 6109(i)(3) of this title, see section 203(f) of Pub. L. 114–113, set out as a note under section 6109 of this title.

Amendment by section 208(b) of Pub. L. 114–113 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2015, see section 208(c) of Pub. L. 114–113, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by section 214(a) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–185, to which such amendment relates, see section 214(c) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 168 of this title.

Amendment by section 221(a)(4), (5)(C), 112(C) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–237 applicable to restitution ordered after Aug. 16, 2010, see section 3(c) of Pub. L. 111–237, set out as a note under section 6201 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–92, §11(j)(4), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2991, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (h) [amending this section] shall apply to returns for taxable years ending on or after April 9, 2008."

Amendment by section 12(d) of Pub. L. 111–92 applicable to returns for taxable years ending on or after Apr. 9, 2008, see section 12(e) of Pub. L. 111–92, set out as a note under section 36 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1001(f) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as a note under section 6211 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 effective Jan. 1, 2004, see section 303(i) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title III, §3003(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–905, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3463(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 767, provided that: "Subsection (a) and the amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 6212 of this title] shall apply to notices mailed after December 31, 1998."

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3464(d), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 767, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6512 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998]."

Amendment by section 6010(p)(3) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(d)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as an Effective Date note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 201(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to expenses paid after Dec. 31, 1997 (in taxable years ending after such date), for education furnished in academic periods beginning after such date, see section 201(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as an Effective Date note under section 25A of this title.

Amendment by section 1085(a)(3) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1085(e)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 applicable with respect to returns the due date for which (without regard to extensions) is more than 30 days after Aug. 22, 1996, see section 451(d) of Pub. L. 104–193, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable with respect to returns the due date for which, without regard to extensions, is on or after the 30th day after Aug. 20, 1996, with special rule for 1995 and 1996, see section 1615(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–168 applicable to excess benefit transactions occurring on or after Sept. 14, 1995, and not applicable to any benefit arising from a transaction pursuant to any written contract which was binding on Sept. 13, 1995, and at all times thereafter before such transaction occurred, see section 1311(d)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 104–168, set out as a note under section 4955 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by section 1015(r)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to notices of deficiencies mailed after Nov. 10, 1988, see section 1015(r)(4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 6201 of this title.

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6243(c), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3750, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 7482 of this title] shall apply to orders entered after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to crude oil removed from premises on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1941(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by section 10712(c)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 22, 1987, see section 10712(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4955 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1875(d)(2)(C), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2896, provided that: "The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and sections 6230 and 6503 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–248]."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 305(b)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable events occurring after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 305(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4962 of this title.

Amendment by section 474(r)(34) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to partnership taxable years beginning after Sept. 3, 1982, with provision for the applicability of the amendment to any partnership taxable year ending after Sept. 3, 1982, if the partnership, each partner, and each indirect partner requests such application and the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate consents to such application, see section 407(a)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 702 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 96–596 with respect to any first tier tax and to any second tier tax, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 96–596, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4961 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 applicable to periods after Feb. 29, 1980, see section 101(i) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to tentative refund claims filed on and after Nov. 6, 1978, see section 504(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 6411 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–227 applicable with respect to contributions, acts, and expenditures made after Dec. 31, 1977, in and for taxable years beginning after such date, see section 4(f) of Pub. L. 95–227, set out as an Effective Date note under section 192 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1204(c)(6) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to action taken under section 6851, 6861, or 6862 of this title where the notice and demand takes place after Feb. 28, 1977, see section 1204(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended, set out as a note under section 6851 of this title.

Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1206(d), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1704, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6201 and 6212 of this title] shall apply with respect to returns (within the meaning of section 6213(f)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) filed after December 31, 1976."

Amendment by section 1307(d)(2)(F)(iii) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on and after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1307(e)(6) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

For effective date of amendment by section 1605(b)(6) of Pub. L. 94–455, see section 1608(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 856 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(a)(15), (b)(13)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on first day of first month which begins more than 90 days after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 applicable to taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 1965, see section 809(f) of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 6420 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§6214. Determinations by Tax Court

(a) Jurisdiction as to increase of deficiency, additional amounts, or additions to the tax

Except as provided by section 7463, the Tax Court shall have jurisdiction to redetermine the correct amount of the deficiency even if the amount so redetermined is greater than the amount of the deficiency, notice of which has been mailed to the taxpayer, and to determine whether any additional amount, or any addition to the tax should be assessed, if claim therefor is asserted by the Secretary at or before the hearing or a rehearing.

(b) Jurisdiction over other years and quarters

The Tax Court in redetermining a deficiency of income tax for any taxable year or of gift tax for any calendar year or calendar quarter shall consider such facts with relation to the taxes for other years or calendar quarters as may be necessary correctly to redetermine the amount of such deficiency, but in so doing shall have no jurisdiction to determine whether or not the tax for any other year or calendar quarter has been overpaid or underpaid. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Tax Court may apply the doctrine of equitable recoupment to the same extent that it is available in civil tax cases before the district courts of the United States and the United States Court of Federal Claims.

(c) Taxes imposed by section 507 or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44

The Tax Court, in redetermining a deficiency of any tax imposed by section 507 or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 for any period, act, or failure to act, shall consider such facts with relation to the taxes under chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 for other periods, acts, or failures to act as may be necessary correctly to redetermine the amount of such deficiency, but in so doing shall have no jurisdiction to determine whether or not the taxes under chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 for any other period, act, or failure to act have been overpaid or underpaid. The Tax Court, in redetermining a deficiency of any second tier tax (as defined in section 4963(b)), shall make a determination with respect to whether the taxable event has been corrected.

(d) Final decisions of Tax Court

For purposes of this chapter, chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44, and subtitles A or B the date on which a decision of the Tax Court becomes final shall be determined according to the provisions of section 7481.

(e) Cross reference

For provision giving Tax Court jurisdiction to order a refund of an overpayment and to award sanctions, see section 6512(b)(2).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 773; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(43), (44), title IX, §960(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 530, 531, 734; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §102(d)(6), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1842; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(12), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIII, §1307(d)(2)(F)(iv), (H), title XVI, §1605(b)(7), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1728, 1755, 1834; Pub. L. 96–223, title I, §101(f)(1)(F), (G), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 252; Pub. L. 96–596, §2(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3472; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §144(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 683; Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §§1511(c)(8), 1554(a), title XVIII, §1833, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2745, 2754, 2852; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1941(b)(2)(B)(vi), (vii), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6244(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3750; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(16), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1888; Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §858(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1020.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–280 inserted at end "Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Tax Court may apply the doctrine of equitable recoupment to the same extent that it is available in civil tax cases before the district courts of the United States and the United States Court of Federal Claims."

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–188 amended subsec. (e) generally, striking par. (2) designation and par. (1) which provided cross reference to section 6621(c)(4) of this title for provision giving Tax Court jurisdiction to determine whether any portion of deficiency is a substantial underpayment attributable to tax motivated transactions.

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(B)(vi), substituted "or 44" for "44, or 45" in heading and wherever appearing in text.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–418, §1941(b)(2)(B)(vii), substituted "or 44" for "44, or 45".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "references" for "reference" in heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), and added par. (2).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1554(a), substituted "any addition to the tax" for "addition to the tax".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1833, substituted "section 4963(b)" for "section 4962(b)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1511(c)(8), substituted "section 6621(c)(4)" for "section 6621(d)(4)".

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (e).

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–596 inserted provision directing the Tax Court, in redetermining a deficiency of any second tier tax, to make a determination with respect to whether the taxable event has been corrected.

Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(1)(F), inserted reference to chapter 45.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–223, §101(f)(1)(G), inserted reference to chapter 45.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1307(d)(2)(F)(iv), (H), 1605(b)(7)(A), (B), substituted in heading and in text "41, 42, 43, or 44" for "42 or 43".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1307(d)(2)(F)(iv), 1605(b)(7)(C), substituted "41, 42, 43, or 44" for "42 or 43".

1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(12)(A), (B), inserted reference to chapter 43 in heading and in text.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–406, §1016(a)(12)(C), inserted reference to chapter 43.

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–614 inserted reference to calendar quarters in heading and in text in regard to gift tax deficiencies.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §960(a), inserted reference to exception provided for in section 7463 of this title.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 91–172, §101(j)(43), (44), added subsec. (c), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d), and, in subsec. (d) as so redesignated, inserted reference to chapter 42.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §858(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1020, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any action or proceeding in the United States Tax Court with respect to which a decision has not become final (as determined under section 7481 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6244(c), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3750, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6512 of this title] shall apply to overpayments determined by the Tax Court which have not yet been refunded by the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to crude oil removed from the premises on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1941(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1511(c)(8) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable for purposes of determining interest for periods after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1511(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 47 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1554(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2754, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any action or proceeding in the Tax Court with respect to which a decision has not become final (as determined under section 7481 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]) before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Amendment by section 1833 of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to interest accruing after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 144(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 96–596 with respect to any first tier tax and to any second tier tax, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 96–596, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4961 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 applicable to periods after Feb. 29, 1980, see section 101(i) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1307(d)(2)(F)(iv), (H) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on and after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1307(e)(6) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

For effective date of amendment by section 1605(b)(7) of Pub. L. 94–455, see section 1608(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 856 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–614 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 102(e) of Pub. L. 91–614, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(j)(43), (44) of Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Amendment by section 960(a) of Pub. L. 91–172 effective one year after Dec. 30, 1969, see section 962(e) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7463 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§6215. Assessment of deficiency found by Tax Court

(a) General rule

If the taxpayer files a petition with the Tax Court, the entire amount redetermined as the deficiency by the decision of the Tax Court which has become final shall be assessed and shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary. No part of the amount determined as a deficiency by the Secretary but disallowed as such by the decision of the Tax Court which has become final shall be assessed or be collected by levy or by proceeding in court with or without assessment.

(b) Cross references

(1) For assessment or collection of the amount of the deficiency determined by the Tax Court pending appellate court review, see section 7485.

(2) For dismissal of petition by Tax Court as affirmation of deficiency as determined by the Secretary, see section 7459(d).

(3) For decision of Tax Court that tax is barred by limitation as its decision that there is no deficiency, see section 7459(e).

(4) For assessment of damages awarded by Tax Court for instituting proceedings merely for delay, see section 6673.

(5) For rules applicable to Tax Court proceedings, see generally subchapter C of chapter 76.

(6) For extension of time for paying amount determined as deficiency, see section 6161(b).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 773; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(a)(16), (b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1825, 1834; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIV, §1404(c)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2714; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(b)(46), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1204.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 115–141 redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (5) and (6), respectively, and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "For treatment of certain deficiencies as having been paid, in connection with sale of surplus war-built vessels, see section 9(b)(8) of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 (50 U.S.C. App. 1742)."

1986—Subsec. (b)(7), (8). Pub. L. 99–514 redesignated par. (8) as (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "For proration of deficiency to installments, see section 6152(c)."

1976Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(a)(16), struck out "60 Stat. 48;" before "50 U.S.C. App. 1742".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1404(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 643 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

§6216. Cross references

(1) For procedures relating to receivership proceedings, see subchapter B of chapter 70.

(2) For procedures relating to jeopardy assessments, see subchapter A of chapter 70.

(3) For procedures relating to claims against transferees and fiduciaries, see chapter 71.

(4) For procedures relating to partnership items, see subchapter C.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 773; Pub. L. 96–589, §6(i)(9), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3411; Pub. L. 97–248, title IV, §402(c)(3), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 667.)

Amendments

1982—Par. (4). Pub. L. 97–248 added par. (4).

1980—Par. (1). Pub. L. 96–589 struck out reference to bankruptcy proceedings.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to partnership taxable years beginning after Sept. 3, 1982, with provision for the applicability of the amendment to any partnership taxable year ending after Sept. 3, 1982, if the partnership, each partner, and each indirect partner requests such application and the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate consents to such application, see section 407(a)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 702 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.