[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 68, Subchapter B, PART I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
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26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 68, Subchapter B, PART I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle F—Procedure and AdministrationCHAPTER 68—ADDITIONS TO THE TAX, ADDITIONAL AMOUNTS, AND ASSESSABLE PENALTIESSubchapter B—Assessable Penalties

PART I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
6671.
Rules for application of assessable penalties.
6672.
Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax.
6673.
Sanctions and costs awarded by courts.
6674.
Fraudulent statement or failure to furnish statement to employee.
6675.
Excessive claims with respect to the use of certain fuels.
6676.
Erroneous claim for refund or credit.
6677.
Failure to file information with respect to certain foreign trusts.
[6678.
Repealed.]
6679.
Failure to file returns, etc., with respect to foreign corporations or foreign partnerships.
[6680, 6681. Repealed.]
6682.
False information with respect to withholding.
[6683.
Repealed.]
6684.
Assessable penalties with respect to liability for tax under chapter 42.
6685.
Assessable penalty with respect to public inspection requirements for certain tax-exempt organizations.
6686.
Failure to file returns or supply information by DISC or former FSC.
[6687.
Repealed.]
6688.
Assessable penalties with respect to information required to be furnished under section 7654.
6689.
Failure to file notice of redetermination of foreign tax.
6690.
Fraudulent statement or failure to furnish statement to plan participant.
[6691.
Reserved.]
6692.
Failure to file actuarial report.
6693.
Failure to provide reports on certain tax-favored accounts or annuities; penalties relating to designated nondeductible contributions.
6694.
Understatement of taxpayer's liability by tax return preparer.
6695.
Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons.
6695A.
Substantial and gross valuation misstatements attributable to incorrect appraisals.
6696.
Rules applicable with respect to sections 6694, 6695, and 6695A.
[6697.
Repealed.]
6698.
Failure to file partnership return.
[6698A.
Repealed.]
6699.
Failure to file S corporation return.
6700.
Promoting abusive tax shelters, etc.
6701.
Penalties for aiding and abetting understatement of tax liability.
6702.
Frivolous tax submissions.
6703.
Rules applicable to penalties under sections 6700, 6701, and 6702.
6704.
Failure to keep records necessary to meet reporting requirements under section 6047(d).
6705.
Failure by broker to provide notice to payors.
6706.
Original issue discount information requirements.
6707.
Failure to furnish information regarding reportable transactions.
6707A.
Penalty for failure to include reportable transaction information with return.
6708.
Failure to maintain lists of advisees with respect to reportable transactions.
6709.
Penalties with respect to mortgage credit certificates.
6710.
Failure to disclose that contributions are nondeductible.
6711.
Failure by tax-exempt organization to disclose that certain information or service available from Federal Government.
6712.
Failure to disclose treaty-based return positions.
6713.
Disclosure or use of information by preparers of returns.
6714.
Failure to meet disclosure requirements applicable to quid pro quo contributions.
6715.
Dyed fuel sold for use or used in taxable use, etc.
6715A.
Tampering with or failing to maintain security requirements for mechanical dye injection systems.
[6716.
Repealed.]
6717.
Refusal of entry.
6718.
Failure to display tax registration on vessels.
6719.
Failure to register or reregister.
6720.
Fraudulent acknowledgments with respect to donations of motor vehicles, boats, and airplanes.
6720A.
Penalty with respect to certain adulterated fuels.
6720B.
Fraudulent identification of exempt use property.
[6720C.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(306), (307), (d)(7)(B), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1199, 1212, substituted "Assessable penalties with respect to liability for tax under chapter 42" for "Repeated liability for tax under chapter 42" in item 6684 and "Failure to file returns or supply information by DISC or former FSC" for "Failure to file returns or supply information by DISC or FSC" in item 6686 and struck out item 6720C "Penalty for failure to notify health plan of cessation of eligibility for COBRA premium assistance".

2010Pub. L. 111–325, title V, §501(a), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3554, struck out item 6697 "Assessable penalties with respect to liability for tax of regulated investment companies".

Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §301(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300, amended analysis to read as if amendment by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(b)(5)(A), had never been enacted. See 2001 Amendment note below.

2009Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title III, §3001(a)(13)(B), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 465, added item 6720C.

2007Pub. L. 110–142, §9(b), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1807, which directed amendment of the analysis for this part by adding item 6699 at the end, was executed by inserting item 6699 after item 6698, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §§8246(a)(2)(F)(ii), (G)(iii), 8247(b), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 202, 204, added item 6676, substituted "tax return preparer" for "income tax return preparer" in item 6694, and struck out "income" before "tax returns" in item 6695.

2006Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §407(e), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2962, substituted "tax submissions" for "income tax return" in item 6702.

Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §§1215(c)(2), 1219(b)(3), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1079, 1084, which directed amendment of the analysis for part I of subchapter B of chapter 68 by adding items 6695A and 6720B and substituting "6694, 6695, and 6695A" for "6694 and 6695" in item 6696, without specifying the act to be amended, was executed by making the amendments to this analysis, which is part of chapter 68 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2005Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(n)(3)(B), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2626, struck out item 6683 "Failure of foreign corporation to file return of personal holding company tax".

Pub. L. 109–59, title XI, §§11164(b)(4), 11167(c), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1976, 1977, inserted "or reregister" after "register" in item 6719 and added item 6720A.

2004Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §§811(b), 815(b)(5)(B), 816(b), 854(c)(2), 859(b)(2), 861(b)(2), 863(c)(2), 884(b)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1577, 1583, 1584, 1616, 1618-1620, 1634, added items 6707A, 6715A, and 6717 to 6720 and substituted "reportable transactions" for "tax shelters" in item 6707 and "advisees with respect to reportable transactions" for "investors in potentially abusive tax shelters" in item 6708.

2001Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(b)(5)(A), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 83, added item 6716 "Failure to file information with respect to certain transfers at death and gifts".

1997Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §211(e)(2)(D), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 812, substituted "certain tax-favored" for "individual retirement" in item 6693.

1996Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1703(n)(9)(B), 1901(c)(3), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877, 1908, substituted "information" for "information returns" in item 6677 and redesignated item 6714, relating to dyed fuel sold for use or used in taxable use, etc., as item 6715.

1993Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13242(b)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 521, added item 6714 "Dyed fuel sold for use or used in taxable use, etc.".

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13173(c)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 457, added item 6714 "Failure to meet disclosure requirements applicable to quid pro quo contributions".

1989Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7711(b)(4), 7731(c), 7816(v)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2393, 2401, 2423, substituted "Sanctions and costs awarded by courts" for "Damages assessable for instituting proceedings before the Tax Court primarily for delay, etc." in item 6673, struck out items 6676 "Failure to supply identifying numbers" and 6687 "Failure to supply information with respect to place of residence", and redesignated item 6712 "Disclosure or use of information by preparers of returns" as 6713.

1988Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011(b)(4)(B)(ii), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3457, substituted "penalties relating to" for "overstatement of" in item 6693.

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6242(c), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3749, added item 6712 "Disclosure or use of information by preparers of returns".

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(aa)(5)(C)(ii), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3533, added item 6712 "Failure to disclose treaty-based return positions".

1987Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §§10701(c)(2), 10704(b)(2), 10705(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–459, 1330-463, 1330-464, substituted "Assessable penalty with respect to public inspection requirements for certain tax-exempt organizations" for "Assessable penalties with respect to private foundation annual returns" in item 6685 and added items 6710 and 6711.

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §667(b)(2), title XI, §§1102(d)(2)(C), 1171(b)(7)(B), title XV, §1501(d)(3), (4), title XVIII, §§1848(e)(3), 1862(d)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2306, 2416, 2513, 2740, 2858, 2884, inserted analysis of parts comprising subchapter B, inserted heading for Part I, struck out item 6678 "Failure to furnish certain statements", inserted "; overstatement of designated nondeductible contributions" in item 6693, substituted "regulated investment companies" for "qualified investment entities" in item 6697, struck out item 6699 "Assessable penalties relating to tax credit employee stock ownership plan", substituted "section 6047(d)" for "section 6047(e)" in item 6704, and redesignated item 6708, relating to penalties with respect to mortgage credit certificates, as 6709.

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §§41(c)(2), 141(c)(2), title VIII, §801(d)(15)(B), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 556, 680, 997, added items 6686, 6706, and 6707.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §612(d)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 912, added item 6708 "Penalties with respect to mortgage credit certificates".

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §142(c)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 682, added item 6708 "Failure to maintain lists of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters".

1983Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §104(c)(2), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 379, added item 6705.

Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(11)(D), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182, struck out "or lubricating oil" after "certain fuels" in item 6675.

1982Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §292(d)(2)(B), title III, §§320(b), 322(b), 324(b), 326(b), 334(c)(2), 340(b)(3), title IV, §405(c)(3), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 574, 612, 613, 616, 617, 627, 634, 670, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(c)(2)(B), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2406, substituted "primarily for delay, etc." for "merely for delay." in item 6673, substituted "returns, etc., with respect to foreign corporations or foreign partnerships" for "returns as to organization or reorganization of foreign corporations and as to acquisitions of their stock" in item 6679, and added items 6700 to 6704.

1981Pub. L. 97–34, title VII, §721(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 341, struck out "allowances based on itemized deductions" after "withholding" in item 6682.

1980Pub. L. 96–603, §§1(e)(3), 2(d)(2), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3505, 3510, substituted "returns" for "reports" in item 6685 and added item 6689.

Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 299, repealed Pub. L. 94–455, §2005(e)(4), and Pub. L. 95–600, §702(r)(1)(C), and the amendments made thereby, which resulted in striking out item 6698A "Failure to file information with respect to carryover basis property", which had been added as item 6694 in 1976 and redesignated as item 6698 in 1978. Pub. L. 96–222, §§107(a)(2)(E), 201, redesignated item 6698 as 6698A, effective as if included in Pub. L. 95–600.

Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §§101(a)(7)(L)(v)(X), 107(a)(2)(E), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 201, 223, redesignated item 6698, relating to failure to file information with respect to carry-over basis property, as 6698A and substituted "tax credit employee stock ownership plan" for "ESOP" in item 6699.

1978Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(r)(1)(C), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2938, which redesignated item 6694 "Failure to file information with respect to carryover basis property" as item 6698, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–223, §401(a). See section 401(b), (e) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendments and Revival of Prior Law note under section 1023 of this title.

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §141(c)(2), title II, §211(b), title III, §362(d)(9), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2794, 2818, 2852, substituted "qualified investment entities" for "real estate investment trusts" in item 6697, and added item 6698 "Failure to file partnership return" and item 6699 "Assessable penalties relating to ESOP".

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2005(e)(4), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1878, which added item 6694 "Failure to file information with respect to carryover basis property", was repealed by Pub. L. 96–223, §401(a). See section 401(b), (e) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendments and Revival of Prior Law note under section 1023 of this title.

Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1203(i)(3), title XVI, §1601(b)(2), title XIX, §1904(b)(10)(A)(vi)(II), (D)(ii), (E)(ii), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1694, 1746, 1817, struck out item 6680 "Failure to file interest equalization tax returns", item 6681 "False equalization tax certificates" and item 6689 "Failure by certain foreign issuers and obligors to comply with United States investment equalization tax requirements" and added item 6694 "Understatement of taxpayer's liability by income tax return preparer" and items 6695 to 6697.

1974Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§1016(b)(3), 1031(b)(2)(B), 1033(d), 2002(h)(4), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 932, 946, 948, 971, substituted "6688" for "6687" as section number in item relating to assessable penalties with respect to information required to be furnished under section 7654, and added items 6690, 6692, and 6693.

1973Pub. L. 93–17, §3(d)(3)(B), Apr. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 17, added item 6689.

1972Pub. L. 92–606, §1(f)(7), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497, added item 6687 relating to assessable penalties with respect to information required to be furnished under section 7654.

Pub. L. 92–512, title I, §144(b)(2), Oct. 20, 1972, 86 Stat. 936, added item 6687 relating to failure to supply information with respect to place of residence.

1970Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(d)(13), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 249, substituted "fuels" for "gasoline" in item 6675.

1969Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(60), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 532, added items 6684 and 6685.

1966Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(h)(4)(B), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1560, added item 6683.

Pub. L. 89–368, title I, §101(e)(4)(B), Mar. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 62, added item 6682.

1965Pub. L. 89–44, title II, §202(c)(3)(B), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 139, inserted "or lubricating oil" after "certain gasoline" in item 6675.

1964Pub. L. 88–563, §6(c)(1), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 847, added items 6680 and 6681.

1962Pub. L. 87–834, §§7(i)(3), 19(g)(2), 20(d)(3), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 989, 1058, 1063, added items 6677 to 6679.

1961Pub. L. 87–397, §1(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 829, added item 6676.

1956—Act June 29, 1956, ch. 462, title II, §208(e)(8), 70 Stat. 397, substituted "Excessive claims with respect to the use of certain gasoline" for "Excessive claims for gasoline used on farms" in item 6675.

Act Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 160, §4(g), 70 Stat. 91, added item 6675.

§6671. Rules for application of assessable penalties

(a) Penalty assessed as tax

The penalties and liabilities provided by this subchapter shall be paid upon notice and demand by the Secretary, and shall be assessed and collected in the same manner as taxes. Except as otherwise provided, any reference in this title to "tax" imposed by this title shall be deemed also to refer to the penalties and liabilities provided by this subchapter.

(b) Person defined

The term "person", as used in this subchapter, includes an officer or employee of a corporation, or a member or employee of a partnership, who as such officer, employee, or member is under a duty to perform the act in respect of which the violation occurs.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 828; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

§6672. Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax

(a) General rule

Any person required to collect, truthfully account for, and pay over any tax imposed by this title who willfully fails to collect such tax, or truthfully account for and pay over such tax, or willfully attempts in any manner to evade or defeat any such tax or the payment thereof, shall, in addition to other penalties provided by law, be liable to a penalty equal to the total amount of the tax evaded, or not collected, or not accounted for and paid over. No penalty shall be imposed under section 6653 or part II of subchapter A of chapter 68 for any offense to which this section is applicable.

(b) Preliminary notice requirement

(1) In general

No penalty shall be imposed under subsection (a) unless the Secretary notifies the taxpayer in writing by mail to an address as determined under section 6212(b) or in person that the taxpayer shall be subject to an assessment of such penalty.

(2) Timing of notice

The mailing of the notice described in paragraph (1) (or, in the case of such a notice delivered in person, such delivery) shall precede any notice and demand of any penalty under subsection (a) by at least 60 days.

(3) Statute of limitations

If a notice described in paragraph (1) with respect to any penalty is mailed or delivered in person before the expiration of the period provided by section 6501 for the assessment of such penalty (determined without regard to this paragraph), the period provided by such section for the assessment of such penalty shall not expire before the later of—

(A) the date 90 days after the date on which such notice was mailed or delivered in person, or

(B) if there is a timely protest of the proposed assessment, the date 30 days after the Secretary makes a final administrative determination with respect to such protest.

(4) Exception for jeopardy

This subsection shall not apply if the Secretary finds that the collection of the penalty is in jeopardy.

(c) Extension of period of collection where bond is filed

(1) In general

If, within 30 days after the day on which notice and demand of any penalty under subsection (a) is made against any person, such person—

(A) pays an amount which is not less than the minimum amount required to commence a proceeding in court with respect to his liability for such penalty,

(B) files a claim for refund of the amount so paid, and

(C) furnishes a bond which meets the requirements of paragraph (3),


no levy or proceeding in court for the collection of the remainder of such penalty shall be made, begun, or prosecuted until a final resolution of a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2). Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the beginning of such proceeding or levy during the time such prohibition is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2).

(2) Suit must be brought to determine liability for penalty

If, within 30 days after the day on which his claim for refund with respect to any penalty under subsection (a) is denied, the person described in paragraph (1) fails to begin a proceeding in the appropriate United States district court (or in the Court of Federal Claims) for the determination of his liability for such penalty, paragraph (1) shall cease to apply with respect to such penalty, effective on the day following the close of the 30-day period referred to in this paragraph.

(3) Bond

The bond referred to in paragraph (1) shall be in such form and with such sureties as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe and shall be in an amount equal to 1½ times the amount of excess of the penalty assessed over the payment described in paragraph (1).

(4) Suspension of running of period of limitations on collection

The running of the period of limitations provided in section 6502 on the collection by levy or by a proceeding in court in respect of any penalty described in paragraph (1) shall be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court.

(5) Jeopardy collection

If the Secretary makes a finding that the collection of the penalty is in jeopardy, nothing in this subsection shall prevent the immediate collection of such penalty.

(d) Right of contribution where more than 1 person liable for penalty

If more than 1 person is liable for the penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any tax, each person who paid such penalty shall be entitled to recover from other persons who are liable for such penalty an amount equal to the excess of the amount paid by such person over such person's proportionate share of the penalty. Any claim for such a recovery may be made only in a proceeding which is separate from, and is not joined or consolidated with—

(1) an action for collection of such penalty brought by the United States, or

(2) a proceeding in which the United States files a counterclaim or third-party complaint for the collection of such penalty.

(e) Exception for voluntary board members of tax-exempt organizations

No penalty shall be imposed by subsection (a) on any unpaid, volunteer member of any board of trustees or directors of an organization exempt from tax under subtitle A if such member—

(1) is solely serving in an honorary capacity,

(2) does not participate in the day-to-day or financial operations of the organization, and

(3) does not have actual knowledge of the failure on which such penalty is imposed.


The preceding sentence shall not apply if it results in no person being liable for the penalty imposed by subsection (a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 828; Pub. L. 95–628, §9(a), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3633; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7721(c)(9), 7737(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2400, 2404; Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, §§901(a), 903(a), 904(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1465–1467; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3307(a), (b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 744; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(325)(D), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1200.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "Court of Federal Claims" for "Court of Claims".

1998—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, §3307(a), inserted "or in person" after "section 6212(b)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, §3307(b)(1), inserted "(or, in the case of such a notice delivered in person, such delivery)" after "paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §3307(b)(2), inserted "or delivered in person" after "mailed" in introductory provisions and in subpar. (A).

1996—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 104–168, §901(a), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–168, §903(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–168, §904(a), added subsec. (e).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239, §7721(c)(9), inserted "or part II of subchapter A of chapter 68" after "under section 6653".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7737(a), inserted at end "Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2)."

1978Pub. L. 95–628 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added subsec. (a) heading, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3307(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 744, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, §901(b), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1466, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to proposed assessments made after June 30, 1996."

Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, §903(b), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1466, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to penalties assessed after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 30, 1996]."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7721(c)(9) of Pub. L. 101–239 applicable to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 7721(d) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 461 of this title.

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7737(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2404, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 6694 and 6703 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 1989]."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–628, §9(c), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3633, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 7103 and 7421 of this title] shall apply with respect to penalties assessed more than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1978]."

Public Information To Ensure Employee Awareness of Responsibilities and Liabilities Under Tax Depository System

Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, §904(b), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1467, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the 'Secretary') shall take such actions as may be appropriate to ensure that employees are aware of their responsibilities under the Federal tax depository system, the circumstances under which employees may be liable for the penalty imposed by section 6672 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and the responsibility to promptly report to the Internal Revenue Service any failure referred to in subsection (a) of such section 6672. Such actions shall include—

"(A) printing of a warning on deposit coupon booklets and the appropriate tax returns that certain employees may be liable for the penalty imposed by such section 6672, and

"(B) the development of a special information packet.

"(2) Development of explanatory materials.—The Secretary shall develop materials explaining the circumstances under which board members of tax-exempt organizations (including voluntary and honorary members) may be subject to penalty under section 6672 of such Code. Such materials shall be made available to tax-exempt organizations.

"(3) IRS instructions.—The Secretary shall clarify the instructions to Internal Revenue Service employees on the application of the penalty under section 6672 of such Code with regard to voluntary members of boards of trustees or directors of tax-exempt organizations."

§6673. Sanctions and costs awarded by courts

(a) Tax court proceedings

(1) Procedures instituted primarily for delay, etc.

Whenever it appears to the Tax Court that—

(A) proceedings before it have been instituted or maintained by the taxpayer primarily for delay,

(B) the taxpayer's position in such proceeding is frivolous or groundless, or

(C) the taxpayer unreasonably failed to pursue available administrative remedies,


the Tax Court, in its decision, may require the taxpayer to pay to the United States a penalty not in excess of $25,000.

(2) Counsel's liability for excessive costs

Whenever it appears to the Tax Court that any attorney or other person admitted to practice before the Tax Court has multiplied the proceedings in any case unreasonably and vexatiously, the Tax Court may require—

(A) that such attorney or other person pay personally the excess costs, expenses, and attorneys' fees reasonably incurred because of such conduct, or

(B) if such attorney is appearing on behalf of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, that the United States pay such excess costs, expenses, and attorneys' fees in the same manner as such an award by a district court.

(b) Proceedings in other courts

(1) Claims under section 7433

Whenever it appears to the court that the taxpayer's position in the proceedings before the court instituted or maintained by such taxpayer under section 7433 is frivolous or groundless, the court may require the taxpayer to pay to the United States a penalty not in excess of $10,000.

(2) Collection of sanctions and costs

In any civil proceeding before any court (other than the Tax Court) which is brought by or against the United States in connection with the determination, collection, or refund of any tax, interest, or penalty under this title, any monetary sanctions, penalties, or costs awarded by the court to the United States may be assessed by the Secretary and, upon notice and demand, may be collected in the same manner as a tax.

(3) Sanctions and costs awarded by a court of appeals

In connection with any appeal from a proceeding in the Tax Court or a civil proceeding described in paragraph (2), an order of a United States Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court awarding monetary sanctions, penalties or court costs to the United States may be registered in a district court upon filing a certified copy of such order and shall be enforceable as other district court judgments. Any such sanctions, penalties, or costs may be assessed by the Secretary and, upon notice and demand, may be collected in the same manner as a tax.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 828; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §292(b), (d)(2)(A), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 574; Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1552(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2753; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6241(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3748; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7731(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2400.)

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "Sanctions and costs awarded by courts" for "Damages assessable for instituting proceedings before the Court primarily for delay, etc." in section catchline and amended text generally, making changes in substance and structure of subsecs. (a) and (b).

1988Pub. L. 100–647 struck out "Tax" after "before the" in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsec. (b).

1986Pub. L. 99–514 substituted ", that the taxpayer's position in such proceeding is frivolous or groundless, or that the taxpayer unreasonably failed to pursue available administrative remedies" for "or that the taxpayer's position in such proceedings is frivolous or groundless".

1982Pub. L. 97–248, §292(d)(2)(A), substituted "primarily for delay, etc." for "merely for delay" after "Tax Court" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–248, §292(b), substituted "or maintained by the taxpayer primarily for delay or that the taxpayer's position in such proceedings is frivolous or groundless, damages in an amount not in excess of $5,000" for "by the taxpayer merely for delay, damages in an amount not in excess of $500" in first sentence.

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7731(d), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2402, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 7482 of this title] shall apply to positions taken after December 31, 1989, in proceedings which are pending on, or commenced after such date."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6241(d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3749, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 7433 of this title and amending this section] shall apply to actions by officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1552(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2753, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to proceedings commenced after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to any action or proceeding in the Tax Court commenced after Dec. 31, 1982, or pending in the Tax Court on the day 120 days after July 18, 1984, see section 292(e)(2) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7430 of this title.

§6674. Fraudulent statement or failure to furnish statement to employee

In addition to the criminal penalty provided by section 7204, any person required under the provisions of section 6051 or 6053(b) to furnish a statement to an employee who willfully furnishes a false or fraudulent statement, or who willfully fails to furnish a statement in the manner, at the time, and showing the information required under section 6051 or 6053(b), or regulations prescribed thereunder, shall for each such failure be subject to a penalty under this subchapter of $50, which shall be assessed and collected in the same manner as the tax on employers imposed by section 3111.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 828; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §313(e)(2)(C), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 385.)

Amendments

1965Pub. L. 89–97 substituted "6051 or 6053(b)" for "6051" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by section 313 of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable only with respect to tips received by employees after 1965, see section 313(f) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 6053 of this title.

§6675. Excessive claims with respect to the use of certain fuels

(a) Civil penalty

In addition to any criminal penalty provided by law, if a claim is made under section 6416(a)(4) (relating to certain sales of gasoline), section 6420 (relating to gasoline used on farms), 6421 (relating to gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes or by local transit systems), or 6427 (relating to fuels not used for taxable purposes) for an excessive amount, unless it is shown that the claim for such excessive amount is due to reasonable cause, the person making such claim shall be liable to a penalty in an amount equal to whichever of the following is the greater:

(1) Two times the excessive amount; or

(2) $10.

(b) Excessive amount defined

For purposes of this section, the term "excessive amount" means in the case of any person the amount by which—

(1) the amount claimed under section 6416(a)(4), 6420, 6421, or 6427, as the case may be, for any period, exceeds

(2) the amount allowable under such section for such period.

(c) Assessment and collection of penalty

For assessment and collection of penalty provided by subsection (a), see section 6206.

(Added Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 160, §3, 70 Stat. 90; amended June 29, 1956, ch. 462, title II, §208(d)(2), 70 Stat. 396; Pub. L. 89–44, title II, §202(c)(3)(A), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(d)(8), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 249; Pub. L. 95–618, title II, §233(b)(2)(D), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3191; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(11)(A)–(C), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 109–59, title XI, §11163(d)(2), (3), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1975.)

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §11163(d)(2), inserted "section 6416(a)(4) (relating to certain sales of gasoline)," after "made under" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §11163(d)(3), inserted "6416(a)(4)," after "under section".

1983Pub. L. 97–424, §515(b)(11)(C), struck out "or lubricating oil" after "fuels" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–424, §515(b)(11)(A), struck out "6424 (relating to lubricating oil used for certain nontaxable purposes)," after "systems),".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–424, §515(b)(11)(B), struck out "6424," after "6421,".

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–618 substituted "used for certain nontaxable purposes" for "not used in highway motor vehicles".

1970Pub. L. 91–258, §207(d)(8)(A), substituted "fuels" for "gasoline" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–258, §207(d)(8)(B), inserted reference to section 6427 relating to fuels not used for taxable purposes.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–258, §207(d)(8)(C), inserted reference to section 6427.

1965Pub. L. 89–44, §202(c)(3)(A)(i), inserted "or lubricating oil" after "gasoline" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–44, §202(c)(3)(A)(ii), inserted reference to claims made under section 6424.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 89–44, §202(c)(3)(A)(iii), inserted reference to amounts claimed under section 6424.

1956—Act June 29, 1956, §208(d)(2)(A), substituted "with respect to the use of certain gasoline" for "for gasoline used on farms" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Act June 29, 1956, §208(d)(2)(B), inserted reference to claims made under section 6421.

Subsec. (b). Act June 29, 1956, §208(d)(2)(C), inserted reference to amounts claimed under section 6421.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–59 applicable to sales after Dec. 31, 2005, see section 11163(e) of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as a note under section 4101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–424 applicable with respect to articles sold after Jan. 6, 1983, see section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–618 effective on first day of first calendar month which begins more than 10 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 233(d) of Pub. L. 95–618, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–258 effective July 1, 1970, see section 211(a) of Pub. L. 91–258, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 effective Jan. 1, 1966, see section 701(a)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 4161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act June 29, 1956, effective June 29, 1956, see section 211 of act June 29, 1956, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

§6676. Erroneous claim for refund or credit

(a) Civil penalty

If a claim for refund or credit with respect to income tax is made for an excessive amount, unless it is shown that the claim for such excessive amount is due to reasonable cause, the person making such claim shall be liable for a penalty in an amount equal to 20 percent of the excessive amount.

(b) Excessive amount

For purposes of this section, the term "excessive amount" means in the case of any person the amount by which the amount of the claim for refund or credit for any taxable year exceeds the amount of such claim allowable under this title for such taxable year.

(c) Noneconomic substance transactions treated as lacking reasonable cause

For purposes of this section, any excessive amount which is attributable to any transaction described in section 6662(b)(6) shall not be treated as due to reasonable cause.

(d) Coordination with other penalties

This section shall not apply to any portion of the excessive amount of a claim for refund or credit which is subject to a penalty imposed under part II of subchapter A of chapter 68.

(Added Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §8247(a), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 204; amended Pub. L. 111–152, title I, §1409(d), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1070; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §209(b), (c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3084, 3085; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(305), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1199.)

Codification

Section 1409(d) of Pub. L. 111–152, which directed the amendment of section 6676 without specifying the act to be amended, was executed to this section, which is section 6676 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 2010 Amendment note below.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6676, added Pub. L. 87–397, §1(b), Oct. 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 828; amended Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(52), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 531; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(20), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §316(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 607; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §105(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §422(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 798; Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §§1501(b), 1523(b)(3), 1524(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2736, 2748, 2749; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1015(g), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3570, related to failure to supply identifying numbers, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7711(b)(1), (c), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2393, applicable to returns and statements the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1989.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "reasonable cause" for "reasonable basis" in heading.

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–113, §209(c)(1), substituted "is due to reasonable cause" for "has a reasonable basis".

Pub. L. 114–113, §209(b), struck out "(other than a claim for a refund or credit relating to the earned income credit under section 32)" after "income tax".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–113, §209(c)(2), substituted "due to reasonable cause" for "having a reasonable basis".

2010—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 111–152 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d). See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §209(d)(2), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3085, as amended by Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(k), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1162, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) [amending this section] shall apply to claims filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–152 applicable to refunds and credits attributable to transactions entered into after Mar. 30, 2010, see section 1409(e)(4) of Pub. L. 111–152, set out as a note under section 6662 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §8247(c), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 204, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to any claim filed or submitted after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 25, 2007]."

§6677. Failure to file information with respect to certain foreign trusts

(a) Civil penalty

In addition to any criminal penalty provided by law, if any notice or return required to be filed by section 6048—

(1) is not filed on or before the time provided in such section, or

(2) does not include all the information required pursuant to such section or includes incorrect information,


the person required to file such notice or return shall pay a penalty equal to the greater of $10,000 or 35 percent of the gross reportable amount. If any failure described in the preceding sentence continues for more than 90 days after the day on which the Secretary mails notice of such failure to the person required to pay such penalty, such person shall pay a penalty (in addition to the amount determined under the preceding sentence) of $10,000 for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) during which such failure continues after the expiration of such 90-day period. At such time as the gross reportable amount with respect to any failure can be determined by the Secretary, any subsequent penalty imposed under this subsection with respect to such failure shall be reduced as necessary to assure that the aggregate amount of such penalties do not exceed the gross reportable amount (and to the extent that such aggregate amount already exceeds the gross reportable amount the Secretary shall refund such excess to the taxpayer).

(b) Special rules for returns under section 6048(b)

In the case of a return required under section 6048(b)—

(1) the United States person referred to in such section shall be liable for the penalty imposed by subsection (a), and

(2) subsection (a) shall be applied by substituting "5 percent" for "35 percent".

(c) Gross reportable amount

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "gross reportable amount" means—

(1) the gross value of the property involved in the event (determined as of the date of the event) in the case of a failure relating to section 6048(a),

(2) the gross value of the portion of the trust's assets at the close of the year treated as owned by the United States person in the case of a failure relating to section 6048(b)(1), and

(3) the gross amount of the distributions in the case of a failure relating to section 6048(c).

(d) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed by this section on any failure which is shown to be due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The fact that a foreign jurisdiction would impose a civil or criminal penalty on the taxpayer (or any other person) for disclosing the required information is not reasonable cause.

(e) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply in respect of the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §7(g), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 988; amended Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(53), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 531; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(21), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1013(d)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1616; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1901(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1907; Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §535(a), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 115.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–147, in concluding provisions, inserted "the greater of $10,000 or" before "35 percent" and substituted "At such time as the gross reportable amount with respect to any failure can be determined by the Secretary, any subsequent penalty imposed under this subsection with respect to such failure shall be reduced as necessary to assure that the aggregate amount of such penalties do not exceed the gross reportable amount (and to the extent that such aggregate amount already exceeds the gross reportable amount the Secretary shall refund such excess to the taxpayer)." for "In no event shall the penalty under this subsection with respect to any failure exceed the gross reportable amount."

1996Pub. L. 104–188, §1901(b), substituted "information" for "information returns" in section catchline and amended text generally, substituting present provisions for former provisions which related to civil penalty in subsec. (a) and nonapplicability of deficiency procedures in subsec. (b).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455 inserted "(or, in the case of a failure with respect to section 6048(c), equal to 5 percent of the value of the corpus of the trust at the close of the taxable year)" after "transferred to a trust".

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–406 substituted "and certain excise" for "chapter 42".

1969—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172 inserted reference to chapter 42 taxes.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §535(b), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 115, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to notices and returns required to be filed after December 31, 2009."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188, to the extent related to section 6048(a) of this title, applicable to reportable events (as defined in such section) occurring after Aug. 20, 1996, to the extent related to section 6048(b) of this title, applicable to taxable years of United States persons beginning after Dec. 31, 1995, and to the extent related to section 6048(c) of this title, applicable to distributions received after Aug. 20, 1996, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 6048 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, but only in the case of foreign trusts created after May 21, 1974 and transfer of property to foreign trusts after May 21, 1974, see section 1013(f)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 679 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

[§6678. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1501(d)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2740]

Section, added Pub. L. 87–834, §19(e), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1058; amended Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §§204(c)(2), 221(b)(3), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 37, 75; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–167, §7(b)(2), Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1277; Pub. L. 97–34, title VII, §723(a)(2), (b)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 343, 344; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§309(b)(3), 311(a)(2), 312(b), 314(b), 315(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 595, 600, 602, 605, 607; Pub. L. 97–448, title II, §201(i)(3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2395; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §105(b)(2), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 381; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §§145(b)(3), 146(b)(3), 148(b)(3), 149(b)(2), (3), 155(b)(2)(B), title VII, §714(f), (q)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 685, 686, 689, 690, 693, 961, 966; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1811(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2833, related to penalties for failure to furnish certain statements.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1501(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6721 of this title.

§6679. Failure to file returns, etc., with respect to foreign corporations or foreign partnerships

(a) Civil penalty

(1) In general

In addition to any criminal penalty provided by law, any person required to file a return under section 6046 or 6046A who fails to file such return at the time provided in such section, or who files a return which does not show the information required pursuant to such section, shall pay a penalty of $10,000, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(2) Increase in penalty where failure continues after notification

If any failure described in paragraph (1) continues for more than 90 days after the day on which the Secretary mails notice of such failure to the United States person, such person shall pay a penalty (in addition to the amount required under paragraph (1)) of $10,000 for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) during which such failure continues after the expiration of such 90-day period. The increase in any penalty under this paragraph shall not exceed $50,000.

(b) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedure for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply in respect of the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §20(c), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1062; amended Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(54), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(22), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §340(b)(1), (2), title IV, §405(b), (c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 634, 670; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(c)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2406; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1143(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 983; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §413(c)(29), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1509; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(308), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1199.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "section 6046 or 6046A" for "section 6046 and 6046A".

2004—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 108–357, §413(c)(29)(A), which directed substitution of "6046 and 6046A" for "6035, 6046, and 6046A" was executed by making the substitution for "6035, 6046, or 6046A" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108–357, §413(c)(29)(B), struck out heading and text of par. (3). Text read as follows: "In the case of a return required under section 6035, paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting '$1,000' for '$10,000', and paragraph (2) shall not apply."

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–34 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In addition to any criminal penalty provided by law, any person required to file a return under section 6035, 6046, or 6046A who fails to file such return at the time provided in such section, or who files a return which does not show the information required pursuant to such section, shall pay a penalty of $1,000, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause."

1983Pub. L. 97–448 amended language of Pub. L. 97–248, §405(b), (c)(2), to clarify an ambiguity created by the conflicting language of §§340(b)(1), (2) and 405(b), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

1982Pub. L. 97–248, §§340(b)(2), 405(c)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, §306(c)(2)(B), substituted "Failure to file returns, etc., with respect to foreign corporations or foreign partnerships" for "Failure to file returns as to organization or reorganization of foreign corporations and as to acquisitions of their stock" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–248, §§340(b)(1), 405(b), as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, §306(a)(2)(A), substituted "section 6035, 6046, or 6046A" for "section 6046".

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–406 substituted "and certain excise" for "chapter 42".

1969—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172 inserted reference to chapter 42 taxes.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 413(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendments note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to transfers and changes after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1143(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 6046A of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective as if included in the provisions of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 311(d) of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §340(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 634, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section and section 6035 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]."

Amendment by section 405(b), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable with respect to acquisitions or dispositions of, or substantial changes in, interests in foreign partnerships occurring after Sept. 3, 1982, see section 407(b) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6046A of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

[§6680. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1904(b)(10)(A)(vi)(I), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1817]

Section, added Pub. L. 88–563, §6(a), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 845; amended Pub. L. 91–128, §4(h)(1), Nov. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 268; Pub. L. 92–9, §3(j)(2), Apr. 1, 1971, 85 Stat. 22, related to failure to file interest equalization tax returns.

[§6681. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1904(b)(10)(D)(i), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1817]

Section, added Pub. L. 88–563, §6(a), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 845; amended Pub. L. 90–59, §4(d), July 1, 1967, 81 Stat. 155; Pub. L. 90–73, §2(d), Aug. 29, 1967, 81 Stat. 176; Pub. L. 92–9, §3(k)(1)–(3), Apr. 1, 1971, 85 Stat. 22, related to false equalization tax certificates.

Effective Date of Repeal

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1904(b)(10)(D)(iii), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1817, provided that: "The amendments made by this subparagraph [repealing this section] shall apply with respect to actions occurring after June 30, 1974."

§6682. False information with respect to withholding

(a) Civil penalty

In addition to any criminal penalty provided by law, if—

(1) any individual makes a statement under section 3402 or section 3406 which results in a decrease in the amounts deducted and withheld under chapter 24, and

(2) as of the time such statement was made, there was no reasonable basis for such statement,


such individual shall pay a penalty of $500 for such statement.

(b) Exception

The Secretary may waive (in whole or in part) the penalty imposed under subsection (a) if the taxes imposed with respect to the individual under subtitle A for the taxable year are equal to or less than the sum of—

(1) the credits against such taxes allowed by part IV of subchapter A of chapter 1, and

(2) the payments of estimated tax which are considered payments on account of such taxes.

(c) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply in respect to the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 89–368, title I, §101(e)(4)(A), Mar. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 61; amended Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(55), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(23), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 97–34, title VII, §721(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 340; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§306(a), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 588, 591; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §§102(a), 107(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, 382.)

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–67 inserted reference to section 3406 and repealed amendments made by Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

1982—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–248 provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983, par. (1) is amended by inserting "or section 3452(f)(1)(A)" after "section 3402". Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1981Pub. L. 97–34 struck out "allowances based on itemized deductions" after "withholding" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted provisions relating to imposition of penalty of $500 for statement under section 3402 resulting in decreased amounts withheld under chapter 24 and no reasonable basis existed for making such statement at the time it was made, for provisions relating to imposition of penalty of $50 for statement under section 3402(f)(1)(F) concerning amount of wages under chapter 24, or itemized deductions under section 3402(m), and provisions setting forth conditions for mitigation of such penalty.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 97–34 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–406 substituted "and certain excise" for "chapter 42."

1969—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172 inserted reference to chapter 42 taxes.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by section 107(a) of Pub. L. 98–67 effective Aug. 5, 1983, see section 110(c) of Pub. L. 98–67, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title VII, §721(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 341, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending sections 6682 and 7205 of this title] shall apply to acts and failures to act after December 31, 1981."

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

[§6683. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(n)(3)(A), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2626]

Section, added Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(h)(4)(A), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1560; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1281(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1037, related to failure of foreign corporation to file return of personal holding company tax.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective as if included in the provisions of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which it relates, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as an Effective Date of 2005 Amendment note under section 26 of this title.

§6684. Assessable penalties with respect to liability for tax under chapter 42

If any person becomes liable for tax under any section of chapter 42 (relating to private foundations and certain other tax-exempt organizations) by reason of any act or failure to act which is not due to reasonable cause and either—

(1) such person has theretofore been liable for tax under such chapter, or

(2) such act or failure to act is both willful and flagrant,


then such person shall be liable for a penalty equal to the amount of such tax.

(Added Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(c), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 519; amended Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10712(c)(4), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–467.)

Amendments

1987Pub. L. 100–203 inserted "and certain other tax-exempt organizations" after "private foundations" in parenthetical.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 22, 1987, see section 10712(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4955 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 4940 of this title.

§6685. Assessable penalty with respect to public inspection requirements for certain tax-exempt organizations

In addition to the penalty imposed by section 7207 (relating to fraudulent returns, statements, or other documents), any person who is required to comply with the requirements of subsection (d) of section 6104 and who fails to so comply with respect to any return or application, if such failure is willful, shall pay a penalty of $5,000 with respect to each such return or application.

(Added Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(e)(4), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 524; amended Pub. L. 96–603, §1(d)(4), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3504; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10704(b)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–462; Pub. L. 104–168, title XIII, §1313(b), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1480; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title I, §1004(b)(2)(D), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–890.)

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–277 struck out "or (e)" after "subsection (d)".

1996Pub. L. 104–168 substituted "$5,000" for "$1,000".

1987Pub. L. 100–203 substituted current section catchline for "Assessable penalties with respect to private foundation annual returns" and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In addition to the penalty imposed by section 7207 (relating to fraudulent returns, statements, or other documents), any person who is required to comply with the requirements of section 6104(d) (relating to private foundations' annual returns) and who fails to so comply with respect to any return, if such failure is willful, shall pay a penalty of $1,000 with respect to each such return."

1980Pub. L. 96–603 substituted in section catchline "returns" for "reports", and in text "required to comply" for "required to file the report and the notice required under section 6056 (relating to annual reports by private foundations) or to comply", "(relating to private foundations' annual returns) and who fails to so comply with respect to any return" for "(relating to public inspection of private foundations' annual reports) and who fails so to file or comply", and "each such return" for "each such report or notice".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 applicable to requests made after the later of Dec. 31, 1998, or the 60th day after the Secretary of the Treasury first issues the regulations referred to in section 6104(d)(4) of this title, see section 1004(b)(3) of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 6104 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–168 applicable to requests made on or after 60th day after Secretary of the Treasury first issues regulations referred to in section 6104(e)(3) of this title, see section 1313(c) of Pub. L. 104–168, set out as a note under section 6104 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable to returns for years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, and on and after Dec. 22, 1987, in case of applications submitted after July 15, 1987, or on or before July 15, 1987, if the organization has a copy of the application on July 15, 1987, see section 10704(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 6652 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–603 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1980, see section 1(f) of Pub. L. 96–603, set out as a note under section 6033 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 4940 of this title.

§6686. Failure to file returns or supply information by DISC or former FSC

In addition to the penalty imposed by section 7203 (relating to willful failure to file return, supply information, or pay tax) any person required to supply information or to file a return under section 6011(c) who fails to supply such information or file such return at the time prescribed by the Secretary, or who files a return which does not show the information required, shall pay a penalty of $100 for each failure to supply information (but the total amount imposed on the delinquent person for all such failures during any calendar year shall not exceed $25,000) or a penalty of $1,000 for each failure to file a return, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(Added Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §504(d), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 551; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(d)(15)(A), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(21), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2491.)

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–172 inserted "former" before "FSC" in section catchline.

1984Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "Failure to file returns or supply information by DISC or FSC" for "Failure of DISC to file returns" in section catchline, and in text substituted "section 6011(c)" for "section 6011(e)".

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1971, except that a corporation may not be a DISC for any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1972, see section 507 of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as a note under section 991 of this title.

[§6687. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7711(b)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2393]

Section, added Pub. L. 92–512, title I, §144(b)(1), Oct. 20, 1972, 86 Stat. 936, related to failure to supply information with respect to place of residence.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to returns and statements the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 7711(c) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as an Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note under section 6721 of this title.

§6688. Assessable penalties with respect to information required to be furnished under section 7654

In addition to any criminal penalty provided by law, any person described in section 7654(a) who is required under section 937(c) or by regulations prescribed under section 7654 to furnish information and who fails to comply with such requirement at the time prescribed by such regulations unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, shall pay (upon notice and demand by the Secretary and in the same manner as tax) a penalty of $1,000 for each such failure.

(Added Pub. L. 92–606, §1(c), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1496, §6687; renumbered §6688, Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(b)(4), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 932; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–357 inserted "under section 937(c) or" before "by regulations" and substituted "$1,000" for "$100".

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1972, see section 2 of Pub. L. 92–606, set out in part as a note under section 931 of this title.

§6689. Failure to file notice of redetermination of foreign tax

(a) Civil penalty

If the taxpayer fails to notify the Secretary (on or before the date prescribed by regulations for giving such notice) of a foreign tax redetermination, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, there shall be added to the deficiency attributable to such redetermination an amount (not in excess of 25 percent of the deficiency) determined as follows—

(1) 5 percent of the deficiency if the failure is for not more than 1 month, with

(2) an additional 5 percent of the deficiency for each month (or fraction thereof) during which the failure continues.

(b) Foreign tax redetermination defined

For purposes of this section, the term "foreign tax redetermination" means any redetermination for which a notice is required under subsection (c) of section 905 or paragraph (2) of section 404A(g).

(Added Pub. L. 96–603, §2(c)(2), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3509.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6689, added Pub. L. 93–17, §3(d)(2), Apr. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 16, related to failure by certain foreign issuers and obligors to comply with United States investment equalization tax requirements, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1904(b)(10)(E)(i), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1817.

Effective Date

For applicability of section with respect to employer contributions or accruals for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1979, election to apply amendments retroactively with respect to foreign subsidiaries, allowance of prior deductions in case of certain funded branch plans, and time and manner for making elections, see section 2(e) of Pub. L. 96–603, set out as a note under section 404A of this title.

§6690. Fraudulent statement or failure to furnish statement to plan participant

Any person required under section 6057(e) to furnish a statement to a participant who willfully furnishes a false or fraudulent statement, or who willfully fails to furnish a statement in the manner, at the time, and showing the information required under section 6057(e), or regulations prescribed thereunder, shall for each such act, or for each such failure, be subject to a penalty under this subchapter of $50, which shall be assessed and collected in the same manner as the tax on employers imposed by section 3111.

(Added Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1031(b)(2)(A), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 946.)

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 2, 1974, see section 1034 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 6057 of this title.

[§6691. Reserved]

§6692. Failure to file actuarial report

The plan administrator (as defined in section 414(g)) of each defined benefit plan to which section 412 applies who fails to file the report required by section 6059 at the time and in the manner required by section 6059, shall pay a penalty of $1,000 for each such failure unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(Added Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1033(b), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 948.)

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 2, 1974, see section 1034 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 6057 of this title.

§6693. Failure to provide reports on certain tax-favored accounts or annuities; penalties relating to designated nondeductible contributions

(a) Reports

(1) In general

If a person required to file a report under a provision referred to in paragraph (2) fails to file such report at the time and in the manner required by such provision, such person shall pay a penalty of $50 for each failure unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(2) Provisions

The provisions referred to in this paragraph are—

(A) subsections (i) and (l) of section 408 (relating to individual retirement plans),

(B) section 220(h) (relating to Archer MSAs),

(C) section 223(h) (relating to health savings accounts),

(D) section 529(d) (relating to qualified tuition programs),

(E) section 529A(d) (relating to qualified ABLE programs), and

(F) section 530(h) (relating to Coverdell education savings accounts).


This subsection shall not apply to any report which is an information return described in section 6724(d)(1)(C)(i) or a payee statement described in section 6724(d)(2)(X).

(b) Penalties relating to nondeductible contributions

(1) Overstatement of designated nondeductible contributions

Any individual who—

(A) is required to furnish information under section 408(o)(4) as to the amount of designated nondeductible contributions made for any taxable year, and

(B) overstates the amount of such contributions made for such taxable year,


shall pay a penalty of $100 for each such overstatement unless it is shown that such overstatement is due to reasonable cause.

(2) Failure to file form

Any individual who fails to file a form required to be filed by the Secretary under section 408(o)(4) shall pay a penalty of $50 for each such failure unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(c) Penalties relating to simple retirement accounts

(1) Employer penalties

An employer who fails to provide 1 or more notices required by section 408(l)(2)(C) shall pay a penalty of $50 for each day on which such failures continue.

(2) Trustee and issuer penalties

A trustee or issuer who fails—

(A) to provide 1 or more statements required by the last sentence of section 408(i) shall pay a penalty of $50 for each day on which such failures continue, or

(B) to provide 1 or more summary descriptions required by section 408(l)(2)(B) shall pay a penalty of $50 for each day on which such failures continue.

(3) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed under this subsection with respect to any failure which the taxpayer shows was due to reasonable cause.

(d) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) does not apply to the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by this section.

(Added Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §2002(f), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 967; amended Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §101(a)(10)(H), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 203; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §147(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 687; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1102(d)(1), (2)(A), (B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2416; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011(b)(4)(A), (B)(i), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3456, 3457; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1421(b)(4)(B), 1455(d)(3), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1796, 1818; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §301(g), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2052; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §§211(e)(2)(B), (C), 213(c), title XVI, §§1601(d)(1)(C)(ii), 1602(a)(4), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 812, 816, 1087, 1094; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4006(c)(4), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–913; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(2)(E)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-629; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §402(a)(4)(A), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 60; Pub. L. 107–22, §1(b)(2)(C), July 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1201(g), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2479; Pub. L. 113–295, div. B, title I, §102(c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4062.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(2)(E), (F). Pub. L. 113–295 added subpar. (E) and redesignated former subpar. (E) as (F).

2003—Subsec. (a)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 108–173 added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpars. (C) and (D) as (D) and (E), respectively.

2001—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 107–16 substituted "qualified tuition" for "qualified State tuition".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 107–22 substituted "Coverdell education savings" for "education individual retirement".

2000—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted "Archer MSAs" for "medical savings accounts".

1998—Subsec. (a)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted "section" for "Section".

1997Pub. L. 105–34, §211(e)(2)(C), substituted "certain tax-favored" for "individual retirement" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–34, §1602(a)(4), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §211(e)(2)(B), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 105–34, §213(c), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(d)(1)(C)(ii), inserted "and issuer" before "penalties" in heading and "or issuer" before "who fails" in introductory provisions.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–191 inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The person required by subsection (i) or (l) of section 408 to file a report regarding an individual retirement account or individual retirement annuity at the time and in the manner required by such subsection shall pay a penalty of $50 for each failure unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause. This subsection shall not apply to any report which is an information return described in section 6724(d)(1)(C)(i) or a payee statement described in section 6724(d)(2)(W)."

Pub. L. 104–188, §1455(d)(3), inserted at end "This subsection shall not apply to any report which is an information return described in section 6724(d)(1)(C)(i) or a payee statement described in section 6724(d)(2)(W)."

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 104–188, §1421(b)(4)(B), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1988Pub. L. 100–647, §1011(b)(4)(B)(i), substituted "penalties relating to" for "overstatement of" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011(b)(4)(A), substituted "Penalties relating to" for "Overstatement of designated" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any individual who—

"(1) is required to furnish information under section 408(o)(4) as to the amount of designated nondeductible contributions made for any taxable year, and

"(2) overstates the amount of such contributions made for such taxable year,

shall pay a penalty of $100 for each such overstatement unless it is shown that such overstatement is due to reasonable cause."

1986Pub. L. 99–514, §1102(d)(2)(B), inserted "; overstatement of designated nondeductible contributions" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1102(d)(1), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1102(d)(1), (2)(A), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c) and substituted "this section" for "subsection (a)".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "$50" for "$10".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–222 substituted "subsection (i) or (l) of section 408 to file" for "section 408(i) to file", and "such subsection shall pay" for "section 408(i) shall pay".

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2014, see section 102(f)(1) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–173 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2003, see section 1201(k) of Pub. L. 108–173, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–22 effective July 26, 2001, see section 1(c) of Pub. L. 107–22, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 26 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 402(h) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 211(e)(2)(B), (C) of Pub. L. 105–34 effective Jan. 1, 1998, see section 211(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 529 of this title.

Amendment by section 213(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 213(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Amendment by section 1601(d)(1)(C)(ii) of Pub. L. 105–34 effective as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–188, to which it relates, see section 1601(j) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 1602(a)(4) of Pub. L. 105–34 effective as if included in the provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–191, to which such amendment relates, see section 1602(i) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–191 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 301(j) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by section 1421(b)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1421(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Amendment by section 1455(d)(3) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to returns, reports, and other statements the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1455(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 408 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to contributions and distributions for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1102(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 219 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to failures occurring after July 18, 1984, see section 147(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 219 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §101(b)(1)(F), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 205, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (I) of subsection (a)(10) [probably means subpar. (H) of subsec. (a)(10), which amended this section] shall apply with respect to failures occuring [sic] after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 1, 1980]."

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1975, see section 2002(i)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 4973 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§6694. Understatement of taxpayer's liability by tax return preparer

(a) Understatement due to unreasonable positions

(1) In general

If a tax return preparer—

(A) prepares any return or claim of refund with respect to which any part of an understatement of liability is due to a position described in paragraph (2), and

(B) knew (or reasonably should have known) of the position,


such tax return preparer shall pay a penalty with respect to each such return or claim in an amount equal to the greater of $1,000 or 50 percent of the income derived (or to be derived) by the tax return preparer with respect to the return or claim.

(2) Unreasonable position

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, a position is described in this paragraph unless there is or was substantial authority for the position.

(B) Disclosed positions

If the position was disclosed as provided in section 6662(d)(2)(B)(ii)(I) and is not a position to which subparagraph (C) applies, the position is described in this paragraph unless there is a reasonable basis for the position.

(C) Tax shelters and reportable transactions

If the position is with respect to a tax shelter (as defined in section 6662(d)(2)(C)(ii)) or a reportable transaction to which section 6662A applies, the position is described in this paragraph unless it is reasonable to believe that the position would more likely than not be sustained on its merits.

(3) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed under this subsection if it is shown that there is reasonable cause for the understatement and the tax return preparer acted in good faith.

(b) Understatement due to willful or reckless conduct

(1) In general

Any tax return preparer who prepares any return or claim for refund with respect to which any part of an understatement of liability is due to a conduct described in paragraph (2) shall pay a penalty with respect to each such return or claim in an amount equal to the greater of—

(A) $5,000, or

(B) 75 percent of the income derived (or to be derived) by the tax return preparer with respect to the return or claim.

(2) Willful or reckless conduct

Conduct described in this paragraph is conduct by the tax return preparer which is—

(A) a willful attempt in any manner to understate the liability for tax on the return or claim, or

(B) a reckless or intentional disregard of rules or regulations.

(3) Reduction in penalty

The amount of any penalty payable by any person by reason of this subsection for any return or claim for refund shall be reduced by the amount of the penalty paid by such person by reason of subsection (a).

(c) Extension of period of collection where preparer pays 15 percent of penalty

(1) In general

If, within 30 days after the day on which notice and demand of any penalty under subsection (a) or (b) is made against any person who is a tax return preparer, such person pays an amount which is not less than 15 percent of the amount of such penalty and files a claim for refund of the amount so paid, no levy or proceeding in court for the collection of the remainder of such penalty shall be made, begun, or prosecuted until the final resolution of a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2). Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the beginning of such proceeding or levy during the time such prohibition is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2).

(2) Preparer must bring suit in district court to determine his liability for penalty

If, within 30 days after the day on which his claim for refund of any partial payment of any penalty under subsection (a) or (b) is denied (or, if earlier, within 30 days after the expiration of 6 months after the day on which he filed the claim for refund), the tax return preparer fails to begin a proceeding in the appropriate United States district court for the determination of his liability for such penalty, paragraph (1) shall cease to apply with respect to such penalty, effective on the day following the close of the applicable 30-day period referred to in this paragraph.

(3) Suspension of running of period of limitations on collection

The running of the period of limitations provided in section 6502 on the collection by levy or by a proceeding in court in respect of any penalty described in paragraph (1) shall be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court.

(d) Abatement of penalty where taxpayer's liability not understated

If at any time there is a final administrative determination or a final judicial decision that there was no understatement of liability in the case of any return or claim for refund with respect to which a penalty under subsection (a) or (b) has been assessed, such assessment shall be abated, and if any portion of such penalty has been paid the amount so paid shall be refunded to the person who made such payment as an overpayment of tax without regard to any period of limitations which, but for this subsection, would apply to the making of such refund.

(e) Understatement of liability defined

For purposes of this section, the term "understatement of liability" means any understatement of the net amount payable with respect to any tax imposed by this title or any overstatement of the net amount creditable or refundable with respect to any such tax. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d), the determination of whether or not there is an understatement of liability shall be made without regard to any administrative or judicial action involving the taxpayer.

(f) Cross reference

For definition of tax return preparer, see section 7701(a)(36).

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1203(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1689; amended Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7732(a), 7737(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2402, 2404; Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §8246(a)(2)(F)(i), (b), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 201, 203; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title V, §506(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3880; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §210(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3085.)

Codification

Another section 6694, relating to failure to file information with respect to carryover basis property, which was added by Pub. L. 94–455, §2005(d)(2), was renumbered section 6698 by Pub. L. 95–600, renumbered section 6698A by Pub. L. 96–222, and repealed by Pub. L. 96–223.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–113 substituted "75 percent" for "50 percent".

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–343 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) provided penalty for understatement due to unreasonable positions.

2007Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(F)(i)(I), substituted "tax return preparer" for "income tax return preparer" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(b), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If—

"(1) any part of any understatement of liability with respect to any return or claim for refund is due to a position for which there was not a realistic possibility of being sustained on its merits,

"(2) any person who is an income tax return preparer with respect to such return or claim knew (or reasonably should have known) of such position, and

"(3) such position was not disclosed as provided in section 6662(d)(2)(B)(ii) or was frivolous,

such person shall pay a penalty of $250 with respect to such return or claim unless it is shown that there is reasonable cause for the understatement and such person acted in good faith."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(b), amended heading and text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If any part of any understatement of liability with respect to any return or claim for refund is due—

"(1) to a willful attempt in any manner to understate the liability for tax by a person who is an income tax return preparer with respect to such return or claim, or

"(2) to any reckless or intentional disregard of rules or regulations by any such person,

such person shall pay a penalty of $1,000 with respect to such return or claim. With respect to any return or claim, the amount of the penalty payable by any person by reason of this subsection shall be reduced by the amount of the penalty paid by such person by reason of subsection (a)."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(F)(i)(II), substituted "a tax return preparer" for "an income tax return preparer".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(F)(i)(III), substituted "the tax return preparer" for "the income tax return preparer".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(F)(i)(IV), substituted "this title" for "subtitle A".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(F)(i)(V), substituted "tax return preparer" for "income tax return preparer".

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239, §7732(a), substituted "Understatements due to unrealistic positions" for "Negligent or intentional disregard of rules and regulations" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If any part of any understatement of liability with respect to any return or claim for refund is due to the negligent or intentional disregard of rules and regulations by any person who is an income tax return preparer with respect to such return or claim, such person shall pay a penalty of $100 with respect to such return or claim."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239, §7732(a), substituted "Willful or reckless conduct" for "Willful understatement of liability" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If any part of any understatement of liability with respect to any return or claim for refund is due to a willful attempt in any manner to understate the liability for a tax by a person who is an income tax return preparer with respect to such return or claim, such person shall pay a penalty of $500 with respect to such return or claim. With respect to any return or claim, the amount of the penalty payable by any person by reason of this subsection shall be reduced by the amount of the penalty paid by such person by reason of subsection (a)."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7737(a), inserted at end "Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2)."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §210(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3085, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to returns prepared for taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title V, §506(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3880, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply—

"(1) in the case of a position other than a position described in subparagraph (C) of section 6694(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by this section), to returns prepared after May 25, 2007, and

"(2) in the case of a position described in such subparagraph (C), to returns prepared for taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 3, 2008]."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–28 applicable to returns prepared after May 25, 2007, see section 8246(c) of Pub. L. 110–28, set out as a note under section 6060 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7732(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2402, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to documents prepared after December 31, 1989."

§6695. Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

(a) Failure to furnish copy to taxpayer

Any person who is a tax return preparer with respect to any return or claim for refund who fails to comply with section 6107(a) with respect to such return or claim shall pay a penalty of $50 for such failure, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on any person with respect to documents filed during any calendar year shall not exceed $25,000.

(b) Failure to sign return

Any person who is a tax return preparer with respect to any return or claim for refund, who is required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary to sign such return or claim, and who fails to comply with such regulations with respect to such return or claim shall pay a penalty of $50 for such failure, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on any person with respect to documents filed during any calendar year shall not exceed $25,000.

(c) Failure to furnish identifying number

Any person who is a tax return preparer with respect to any return or claim for refund and who fails to comply with section 6109(a)(4) with respect to such return or claim shall pay a penalty of $50 for such failure, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on any person with respect to documents filed during any calendar year shall not exceed $25,000.

(d) Failure to retain copy or list

Any person who is a tax return preparer with respect to any return or claim for refund who fails to comply with section 6107(b) with respect to such return or claim shall pay a penalty of $50 for each such failure, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on any person with respect to any return period shall not exceed $25,000.

(e) Failure to file correct information returns

Any person required to make a return under section 6060 who fails to comply with the requirements of such section shall pay a penalty of $50 for—

(1) each failure to file a return as required under such section, and

(2) each failure to set forth an item in the return as required under section,


unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on any person with respect to any return period shall not exceed $25,000.

(f) Negotiation of check

Any person who is a tax return preparer who endorses or otherwise negotiates (directly or through an agent) any check made in respect of the taxes imposed by this title which is issued to a taxpayer (other than the tax return preparer) shall pay a penalty of $500 with respect to each such check. The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to the deposit by a bank (within the meaning of section 581) of the full amount of the check in the taxpayer's account in such bank for the benefit of the taxpayer.

(g) Failure to be diligent in determining eligibility for certain tax benefits

Any person who is a tax return preparer with respect to any return or claim for refund who fails to comply with due diligence requirements imposed by the Secretary by regulations with respect to determining—

(1) eligibility to file as a head of household (as defined in section 2(b)) on the return, or

(2) eligibility for, or the amount of, the credit allowable by section 24, 25A(a)(1), or 32,


shall pay a penalty of $500 for each such failure.

(h) Adjustment for inflation

(1) In general

In the case of any failure relating to a return or claim for refund filed in a calendar year beginning after 2014, each of the dollar amounts under subsections (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g) shall be increased by an amount equal to such dollar amount multiplied by the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year determined by substituting "calendar year 2013" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.

(2) Rounding

If any amount adjusted under paragraph (1)—

(A) is not less than $5,000 and is not a multiple of $500, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $500, and

(B) is not described in subparagraph (A) and is not a multiple of $5, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $5.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1203(f), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1692; amended Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(cc)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2923; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §179(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 718; Pub. L. 99–44, §1(b), May 24, 1985, 99 Stat. 77; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7733(a)–(d), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2402, 2403; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1085(a)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §8246(a)(2)(G)(i), (ii), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 112–41, title V, §501(a), Oct. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 113–295, div. B, title II, §208(c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4073; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §207(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3082; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §§11001(b), 11002(d)(1)(MM), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2058, 2060; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(299)(C), (309), (310), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1198, 1199.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(299)(C), inserted "an amount equal to" after "increased by" and "for the calendar year" after "section 1(f)(3)".

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(309), substituted "paragraph (1)" for "subparagraph (A)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(310), substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "clause (i)".

2017—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–97, §11001(b), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any person who is a tax return preparer with respect to any return or claim for refund who fails to comply with due diligence requirements imposed by the Secretary by regulations with respect to determining eligibility for, or the amount of, the credit allowable by section 24, 25A(a)(1), or 32 shall pay a penalty of $500 for each such failure."

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 115–97, §11002(d)(1)(MM), substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2015—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–113 inserted "child tax credit; American Opportunity Tax Credit; and" before "earned income credit" in heading and substituted "section 24, 25A(a)(1), or 32" for "section 32" in text.

2014—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 113–295 added subsec. (h).

2011—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 112–41 substituted "$500" for "$100".

2007Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(G)(i)(I), struck out "income" before "tax" in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a) to (d). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(G)(i)(II), substituted "a tax return preparer" for "an income tax return preparer".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(G)(i)(II), (ii), substituted "a tax return preparer" for "an income tax return preparer", "this title" for "subtitle A", and "the tax return preparer" for "the income tax return preparer".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–28, §8246(a)(2)(G)(i)(II), substituted "a tax return preparer" for "an income tax return preparer".

1997—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (g).

1989—Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 101–239, §7733(a)–(c), substituted "$50" for "$25" and inserted at end "The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on any person with respect to documents filed during any calendar year shall not exceed $25,000."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–239, §7733(d), substituted "returns" for "return" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any person required to make a return under section 6060 who fails to comply with the requirements of such section shall pay a penalty of—

"(1) $100 for each failure to file a return as required under such section, and

"(2) $5 for each failure to set forth an item in the return as required under such section,

unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on any person with respect to any return period shall not exceed $20,000."

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–44 repealed Pub. L. 98–369, §179(b)(2), which amended subsec. (b), and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered as if section 179(b)(2) (and the amendments made by such section) had not been enacted. See 1984 Amendment note and Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369 amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions dealing with failure to inform taxpayer of certain recordkeeping requirements of section 274(d) of this title or to sign returns, for provisions dealing with failure to sign returns. See 1985 Amendment note above.

1978—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–600 inserted provision relating to deposits by a bank.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by section 11001(b) of Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11001(c) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 11002(d)(1)(MM) of Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §207(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3083, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 applicable to returns or claims for refund filed after Dec. 31, 2014, see section 208(h) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 6651 of this title.

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–41 applicable to returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 501(b) of Pub. L. 112–41, set out in a note under section 3805 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–28 applicable to returns prepared after May 25, 2007, see section 8246(c) of Pub. L. 110–28, set out as a note under section 6060 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1085(e)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7733(e), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2403, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to documents prepared after December 31, 1989."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–44 effective as if included in the amendments made by section 179(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 99–44, set out as a note under section 274 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 179(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 280F of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(cc)(3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2924, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 7701 of this title] shall apply to documents prepared after December 31, 1976."

Repeal of Regulations Covering Substantiation by Adequate Contemporaneous Records

Regulations issued before May 24, 1985, to carry out the amendment of subsec. (b) of this section by section 179(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 to have no force and effect, see section 1(c) of Pub. L. 99–44, set out as a note under section 274 of this title.

§6695A. Substantial and gross valuation misstatements attributable to incorrect appraisals

(a) Imposition of penalty

If—

(1) a person prepares an appraisal of the value of property and such person knows, or reasonably should have known, that the appraisal would be used in connection with a return or a claim for refund, and

(2) the claimed value of the property on a return or claim for refund which is based on such appraisal results in a substantial valuation misstatement under chapter 1 (within the meaning of section 6662(e)), a substantial estate or gift tax valuation understatement (within the meaning of section 6662(g)), or a gross valuation misstatement (within the meaning of section 6662(h)), with respect to such property,


then such person shall pay a penalty in the amount determined under subsection (b).

(b) Amount of penalty

The amount of the penalty imposed under subsection (a) on any person with respect to an appraisal shall be equal to the lesser of—

(1) the greater of—

(A) 10 percent of the amount of the underpayment (as defined in section 6664(a)) attributable to the misstatement described in subsection (a)(2), or

(B) $1,000, or


(2) 125 percent of the gross income received by the person described in subsection (a)(1) from the preparation of the appraisal.

(c) Exception

No penalty shall be imposed under subsection (a) if the person establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the value established in the appraisal was more likely than not the proper value.

(Added Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1219(b)(1), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1084; amended Pub. L. 110–172, §§3(e)(1), 11(a)(40), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2474, 2488.)

Codification

Section 1219(b)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280, which directed the addition of section 6695A at the end of part I of subchapter B of chapter 68, without specifying the act to be amended, was executed by adding section 6695A at the end of part I of subchapter B of chapter 68 of this title, which consists of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(40), designated the words "then such person shall pay a penalty in the amount determined under subsection (b).", appearing in par. (2), as concluding provisions of subsec. (a).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–172, §3(e)(1), inserted "a substantial estate or gift tax valuation understatement (within the meaning of section 6662(g))," before "or a gross valuation misstatement".

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by section 3(e)(1) of Pub. L. 110–172 effective as if included in the provisions of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–280, to which such amendment relates, see section 3(j) of Pub. L. 110–172, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to appraisals prepared with respect to returns or submissions filed after Aug. 17, 2006, with special rule for certain easements, see section 1219(e)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendments note under section 170 of this title.

§6696. Rules applicable with respect to sections 6694, 6695, and 6695A

(a) Penalties to be additional to any other penalties

The penalties provided by sections 6694, 6695, and 6695A shall be in addition to any other penalties provided by law.

(b) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply with respect to the assessment or collection of the penalties provided by sections 6694, 6695, and 6695A.

(c) Procedure for claiming refund

Any claim for credit or refund of any penalty paid under section 6694, 6695, or 6695A shall be filed in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Periods of limitation

(1) Assessment

The amount of any penalty under section 6694(a), 6695, or 6695A shall be assessed within 3 years after the return or claim for refund with respect to which the penalty is assessed was filed, and no proceeding in court without assessment for the collection of such tax shall be begun after the expiration of such period. In the case of any penalty under section 6694(b), the penalty may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of the penalty may be begun without assessment, at any time.

(2) Claim for refund

Except as provided in section 6694(d), any claim for refund of an overpayment of any penalty assessed under section 6694, 6695, or 6695A shall be filed within 3 years from the time the penalty was paid.

(e) Definitions

For purposes of sections 6694, 6695, and 6695A—

(1) Return

The term "return" means any return of any tax imposed by this title, any administrative adjustment request under section 6227, and any partnership adjustment tracking report under section 6226(b)(4)(A).

(2) Claim for refund

The term "claim for refund" means a claim for refund of, or credit against, any tax imposed by this title.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1203(f), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1693; amended Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1219(b)(2), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1084; Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §8246(a)(2)(H), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 110–172, §3(e)(2), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2474; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title II, §206(n)(3), title IV, §401(a)(311), (312), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1182, 1199.)

Codification

Section 1219(b)(2) of Pub. L. 109–280, which directed the amendment of section 6696 without specifying the act to be amended, was executed to this section, which is section 6696 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(311), substituted "sections 6694," for "section 6694,".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(312), substituted "6695," for "section 6695,".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §206(n)(3), inserted ", any administrative adjustment request under section 6227, and any partnership adjustment tracking report under section 6226(b)(4)(A)" before period at end.

2007—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–172 substituted ", section 6695, or 6695A" for "or under section 6695".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–28 substituted "this title" for "subtitle A" in pars. (1) and (2).

2006Pub. L. 109–280 substituted "6694, 6695, and 6695A" for "6694 and 6695" wherever appearing in section catchline and text and "6694, 6695, or 6695A" for "6694 or 6695" wherever appearing in text. See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 206(n)(3) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in section 1101 of Pub. L. 114–74, see section 207 of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 6031 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–172 effective as if included in the provisions of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–280, to which such amendment relates, see section 3(j) of Pub. L. 110–172, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–28 applicable to returns prepared after May 25, 2007, see section 8246(c) of Pub. L. 110–28, set out as a note under section 6060 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to appraisals prepared with respect to returns or submissions filed after Aug. 17, 2006, with special rule for certain easements, see section 1219(e)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

[§6697. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–325, title V, §501(a), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3554]

Section, added Pub. L. 94–455, title XVI, §1601(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1745; amended Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §362(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2851; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §667(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2305, related to assessable penalties with respect to liability for tax of regulated investment companies.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 22, 2010, see section 501(c) of Pub. L. 111–325, set out as an Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note under section 860 of this title.

§6698. Failure to file partnership return

(a) General rule

In addition to the penalty imposed by section 7203 (relating to willful failure to file return, supply information, or pay tax), if any partnership required to file a return under section 6031, or a partnership adjustment tracking report under section 6226(b)(4)(A), for any taxable year—

(1) fails to file such return, or such report, at the time prescribed therefor (determined with regard to any extension of time for filing), or

(2) files a return or a report which fails to show the information required under section 6031 or 6226(b)(4)(A), respectively,


such partnership shall be liable for a penalty determined under subsection (b) for each month (or fraction thereof) during which such failure continues (but not to exceed 12 months), unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(b) Amount per month

For purposes of subsection (a), the amount determined under this subsection for any month is the product of—

(1) $195, multiplied by

(2) the number of persons who were partners in the partnership during any part of the taxable year.

(c) Assessment of penalty

The penalty imposed by subsection (a) shall be assessed against the partnership.

(d) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply in respect of the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by subsection (a).

(e) Adjustment for inflation

(1) In general

In the case of any return required to be filed in a calendar year beginning after 2014, the $195 dollar amount under subsection (b)(1) shall be increased by an amount equal to such dollar amount multiplied by the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year determined by substituting "calendar year 2013" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.

(2) Rounding

If any amount adjusted under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $5, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $5.

(Added Pub. L. 95–600, title II, §211(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2817; amended Pub. L. 110–142, §8(a), (b), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1806; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §127(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5116; Pub. L. 111–92, §16(a), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2996; Pub. L. 113–295, div. B, title II, §208(d), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4073; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11002(d)(1)(NN), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2061; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title II, §206(n)(2), title IV, §401(a)(299)(D), (313), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1182, 1198, 1199.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Codification

Another section 6698, formerly section 6694, relating to failure to file information with respect to carryover basis property, which was added by Pub. L. 94–455, §2005(d)(2), was renumbered section 6698 by Pub. L. 95–600, renumbered section 6698A by Pub. L. 96–222, and repealed by Pub. L. 96–223.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–141, §206(n)(2)(A), inserted ", or a partnership adjustment tracking report under section 6226(b)(4)(A)," after "under section 6031" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §206(n)(2)(B), inserted ", or such report," after "such return".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §206(n)(2)(C), inserted "or a report" after "a return" and "or 6226(b)(4)(A), respectively" after "section 6031".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(313), inserted period at end.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(299)(D), inserted "an amount equal to" after "increased by" and "for the calendar year" after "section 1(f)(3)".

2017—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2014—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–295 added subsec. (e).

2009—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–92 substituted "$195" for "$89".

2008—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–458 substituted "$89" for "$85".

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–142, §8(a), substituted "12 months" for "5 months" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–142, §8(b), substituted "$85" for "$50".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 206(n)(2) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in section 1101 of Pub. L. 114–74, see section 207 of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 6031 of this title.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 applicable to returns required to be filed, and statements required to be furnished, after Dec. 31, 2014, see section 208(h) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 6651 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–92, §16(b), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2996, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6699 of this title] shall apply to returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §127(b), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5116, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to returns required to be filed after December 31, 2008."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–142, §8(d), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1807, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall apply to returns required to be filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2007]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 95–600, title II, §211(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2818, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978."

Modification of Penalty for Failure To File Partnership Returns

Pub. L. 110–141, §2, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1802, provided that: "For any return of a partnership required to be filed under section 6031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for a taxable year beginning in 2008, the dollar amount in effect under section 6698(b)(1) of such Code shall be increased by $1."

[§6698A. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 299]

Section, added Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2005(d)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1878, §6694; renumbered §6698 and amended Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(r)(1)(A), (B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2938; renumbered §6698A, Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(2)(D), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223, related to failure of an executor to file information with respect to carryover basis property. Repeal was achieved by repealing section 2005(d)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 and section 702(r)(1)(A), (B) of Pub. L. 95–600 and the amendments made by those sections.

Effective Date of Repeal and Revival of Prior Law

Repeal applicable in respect of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976, and, except for certain elections, this title to be applied and administered as if this section had not been enacted, see section 401(b), (e) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment and Revival of Prior Law note under section 1023 of this title.

§6699. Failure to file S corporation return

(a) General rule

In addition to the penalty imposed by section 7203 (relating to willful failure to file return, supply information, or pay tax), if any S corporation required to file a return under section 6037 for any taxable year—

(1) fails to file such return at the time prescribed therefor (determined with regard to any extension of time for filing), or

(2) files a return which fails to show the information required under section 6037,


such S corporation shall be liable for a penalty determined under subsection (b) for each month (or fraction thereof) during which such failure continues (but not to exceed 12 months), unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(b) Amount per month

For purposes of subsection (a), the amount determined under this subsection for any month is the product of—

(1) $195, multiplied by

(2) the number of persons who were shareholders in the S corporation during any part of the taxable year.

(c) Assessment of penalty

The penalty imposed by subsection (a) shall be assessed against the S corporation.

(d) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply in respect of the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by subsection (a).

(e) Adjustment for inflation

(1) In general

In the case of any return required to be filed in a calendar year beginning after 2014, the $195 dollar amount under subsection (b)(1) shall be increased by an amount equal to such dollar amount multiplied by the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year determined by substituting "calendar year 2013" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.

(2) Rounding

If any amount adjusted under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $5, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $5.

(Added Pub. L. 110–142, §9(a), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1807; amended Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §128(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5116; Pub. L. 111–92, §16(a), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2996; Pub. L. 113–295, div. B, title II, §208(e), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4073; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11002(d)(1)(OO), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2061; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(299)(E), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1198.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Codification

Section 9(a) of Pub. L. 110–142, which directed amendment of this part by adding this section at the end, was executed by inserting this section after section 6698, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6699, added Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §141(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2794; amended Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §101(a)(7)(L)(iii)(VI), (v)(IX), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 200; Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §331(c)(3), (4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 293, 294; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §103(g)(2)(B)–(D), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(e)(9), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 853; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1847(b)(9), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2857, related to assessable penalties applicable to tax credit employee stock ownership plans, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1171(b)(7)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2513. For effective date of repeal, see section 1171(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–141 inserted "an amount equal to" after "increased by" and "for the calendar year" after "section 1(f)(3)".

2017—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2014—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–295 added subsec. (e).

2009—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–92 substituted "$195" for "$89".

2008—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–458 substituted "$89" for "$85".

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 applicable to returns required to be filed, and statements required to be furnished, after Dec. 31, 2014, see section 208(h) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 6651 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–92 applicable to returns for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 16(b) of Pub. L. 111–92, set out as a note under section 6698 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §128(b), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5116, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to returns required to be filed after December 31, 2008."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 110–142, §9(c), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1808, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to returns required to be filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2007]."

§6700. Promoting abusive tax shelters, etc.

(a) Imposition of penalty

Any person who—

(1)(A) organizes (or assists in the organization of)—

(i) a partnership or other entity,

(ii) any investment plan or arrangement, or

(iii) any other plan or arrangement, or


(B) participates (directly or indirectly) in the sale of any interest in an entity or plan or arrangement referred to in subparagraph (A), and

(2) makes or furnishes or causes another person to make or furnish (in connection with such organization or sale)—

(A) a statement with respect to the allowability of any deduction or credit, the excludability of any income, or the securing of any other tax benefit by reason of holding an interest in the entity or participating in the plan or arrangement which the person knows or has reason to know is false or fraudulent as to any material matter, or

(B) a gross valuation overstatement as to any material matter,


shall pay, with respect to each activity described in paragraph (1), a penalty equal to $1,000 or, if the person establishes that it is lesser, 100 percent of the gross income derived (or to be derived) by such person from such activity. For purposes of the preceding sentence, activities described in paragraph (1)(A) with respect to each entity or arrangement shall be treated as a separate activity and participation in each sale described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be so treated. Notwithstanding the first sentence, if an activity with respect to which a penalty imposed under this subsection involves a statement described in paragraph (2)(A), the amount of the penalty shall be equal to 50 percent of the gross income derived (or to be derived) from such activity by the person on which the penalty is imposed.

(b) Rules relating to penalty for gross valuation overstatements

(1) Gross valuation overstatement defined

For purposes of this section, the term "gross valuation overstatement" means any statement as to the value of any property or services if—

(A) the value so stated exceeds 200 percent of the amount determined to be the correct valuation, and

(B) the value of such property or services is directly related to the amount of any deduction or credit allowable under chapter 1 to any participant.

(2) Authority to waive

The Secretary may waive all or any part of the penalty provided by subsection (a) with respect to any gross valuation overstatement on a showing that there was a reasonable basis for the valuation and that such valuation was made in good faith.

(c) Penalty in addition to other penalties

The penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty provided by law.

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §320(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 611; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §143(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 682; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7734(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §818(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(314), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1199.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "$1,000" for "the $1,000" in concluding provisions.

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–357 inserted at end of concluding provisions "Notwithstanding the first sentence, if an activity with respect to which a penalty imposed under this subsection involves a statement described in paragraph (2)(A), the amount of the penalty shall be equal to 50 percent of the gross income derived (or to be derived) from such activity by the person on which the penalty is imposed."

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239, §7734(a)(3), added concluding provision and struck out former concluding provision which read as follows: "shall pay a penalty equal to the greater of $1,000 or 20 percent of the gross income derived or to be derived by such person from such activity."

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7734(a)(1), inserted "(directly or indirectly)" after "participates".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7734(a)(2), inserted "or causes another person to make or furnish" after "makes or furnishes" in introductory provisions.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "20 percent" for "10 percent".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §818(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1584, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to activities after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7734(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2403, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to activities after December 31, 1989."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §143(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 682, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 7408 of this title] shall take effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §320(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 612, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]."

§6701. Penalties for aiding and abetting understatement of tax liability

(a) Imposition of penalty

Any person—

(1) who aids or assists in, procures, or advises with respect to, the preparation or presentation of any portion of a return, affidavit, claim, or other document,

(2) who knows (or has reason to believe) that such portion will be used in connection with any material matter arising under the internal revenue laws, and

(3) who knows that such portion (if so used) would result in an understatement of the liability for tax of another person,


shall pay a penalty with respect to each such document in the amount determined under subsection (b).

(b) Amount of penalty

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amount of the penalty imposed by subsection (a) shall be $1,000.

(2) Corporations

If the return, affidavit, claim, or other document relates to the tax liability of a corporation, the amount of the penalty imposed by subsection (a) shall be $10,000.

(3) Only 1 penalty per person per period

If any person is subject to a penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any document relating to any taxpayer for any taxable period (or where there is no taxable period, any taxable event), such person shall not be subject to a penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any other document relating to such taxpayer for such taxable period (or event).

(c) Activities of subordinates

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "procures" includes—

(A) ordering (or otherwise causing) a subordinate to do an act, and

(B) knowing of, and not attempting to prevent, participation by a subordinate in an act.

(2) Subordinate

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "subordinate" means any other person (whether or not a director, officer, employee, or agent of the taxpayer involved) over whose activities the person has direction, supervision, or control.

(d) Taxpayer not required to have knowledge

Subsection (a) shall apply whether or not the understatement is with the knowledge or consent of the persons authorized or required to present the return, affidavit, claim, or other document.

(e) Certain actions not treated as aid or assistance

For purposes of subsection (a)(1), a person furnishing typing, reproducing, or other mechanical assistance with respect to a document shall not be treated as having aided or assisted in the preparation of such document by reason of such assistance.

(f) Penalty in addition to other penalties

(1) In general

Except as provided by paragraphs (2) and (3), the penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty provided by law.

(2) Coordination with return preparer penalties

No penalty shall be assessed under subsection (a) or (b) of section 6694 on any person with respect to any document for which a penalty is assessed on such person under subsection (a).

(3) Coordination with section 6700

No penalty shall be assessed under section 6700 on any person with respect to any document for which a penalty is assessed on such person under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §324(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 615; amended Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7735(a), (b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2403.)

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7735(a)(1), struck out "in connection with any matter arising under the internal revenue laws" after "other document".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7735(a)(2), inserted "(or has reason to believe)" after "who knows".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §7735(a)(3), substituted "would result" for "will result".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7735(b)(2), substituted "paragraphs (2) and (3)" for "paragraph (2)".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §7735(b)(1), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7735(c), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2404, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on December 31, 1989."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §324(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 616, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]."

§6702. Frivolous tax submissions

(a) Civil penalty for frivolous tax returns

A person shall pay a penalty of $5,000 if—

(1) such person files what purports to be a return of a tax imposed by this title but which—

(A) does not contain information on which the substantial correctness of the self-assessment may be judged, or

(B) contains information that on its face indicates that the self-assessment is substantially incorrect, and


(2) the conduct referred to in paragraph (1)—

(A) is based on a position which the Secretary has identified as frivolous under subsection (c), or

(B) reflects a desire to delay or impede the administration of Federal tax laws.

(b) Civil penalty for specified frivolous submissions

(1) Imposition of penalty

Except as provided in paragraph (3), any person who submits a specified frivolous submission shall pay a penalty of $5,000.

(2) Specified frivolous submission

For purposes of this section—

(A) Specified frivolous submission

The term "specified frivolous submission" means a specified submission if any portion of such submission—

(i) is based on a position which the Secretary has identified as frivolous under subsection (c), or

(ii) reflects a desire to delay or impede the administration of Federal tax laws.

(B) Specified submission

The term "specified submission" means—

(i) a request for a hearing under—

(I) section 6320 (relating to notice and opportunity for hearing upon filing of notice of lien), or

(II) section 6330 (relating to notice and opportunity for hearing before levy), and


(ii) an application under—

(I) section 6159 (relating to agreements for payment of tax liability in installments),

(II) section 7122 (relating to compromises), or

(III) section 7811 (relating to taxpayer assistance orders).

(3) Opportunity to withdraw submission

If the Secretary provides a person with notice that a submission is a specified frivolous submission and such person withdraws such submission within 30 days after such notice, the penalty imposed under paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to such submission.

(c) Listing of frivolous positions

The Secretary shall prescribe (and periodically revise) a list of positions which the Secretary has identified as being frivolous for purposes of this subsection. The Secretary shall not include in such list any position that the Secretary determines meets the requirement of section 6662(d)(2)(B)(ii)(II).

(d) Reduction of penalty

The Secretary may reduce the amount of any penalty imposed under this section if the Secretary determines that such reduction would promote compliance with and administration of the Federal tax laws.

(e) Penalties in addition to other penalties

The penalties imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty provided by law.

(f) Partnership adjustments

An administrative adjustment request under section 6227 and a partnership adjustment tracking report under section 6226(b)(4)(A) shall be treated as a return for purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §326(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 617; amended Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §407(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2960; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title II, §206(n)(4), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1182.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–141 added subsec. (f).

2006Pub. L. 109–432 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to civil penalties for frivolous tax returns and submissions, listing of frivolous positions, reduction of penalty to promote compliance with tax laws, and application of other penalties, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (e), for provisions relating to civil penalty for frivolous tax returns and application of other penalties, consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in section 1101 of Pub. L. 114–74, see section 207 of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 6031 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–432 applicable to submissions made and issues raised after the date on which the Secretary first prescribes a list under subsec. (c) of this section, see section 407(f) of Pub. L. 109–432, set out as a note under section 6320 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §326(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 617, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to documents filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]."

§6703. Rules applicable to penalties under sections 6700, 6701, and 6702

(a) Burden of proof

In any proceeding involving the issue of whether or not any person is liable for a penalty under section 6700, 6701, or 6702, the burden of proof with respect to such issue shall be on the Secretary.

(b) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures) shall not apply with respect to the assessment or collection of the penalties provided by sections 6700, 6701, and 6702.

(c) Extension of period of collection where person pays 15 percent of penalty

(1) In general

If, within 30 days after the day on which notice and demand of any penalty under section 6700 or 6701 is made against any person, such person pays an amount which is not less than 15 percent of the amount of such penalty and files a claim for refund of the amount so paid, no levy or proceeding in court for the collection of the remainder of such penalty shall be made, begun, or prosecuted until the final resolution of a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2). Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the beginning of such proceeding or levy during the time such prohibition is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2).

(2) Person must bring suit in district court to determine his liability for penalty

If, within 30 days after the day on which his claim for refund of any partial payment of any penalty under section 6700 or 6701 is denied (or, if earlier, within 30 days after the expiration of 6 months after the day on which he filed the claim for refund), the person fails to begin a proceeding in the appropriate United States district court for the determination of his liability for such penalty, paragraph (1) shall cease to apply with respect to such penalty, effective on the day following the close of the applicable 30-day period referred to in this paragraph.

(3) Suspension of running of period of limitations on collection

The running of the period of limitations provided in section 6502 on the collection by levy or by a proceeding in court in respect of any penalty described in paragraph (1) shall be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court.

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §322(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 612; amended Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7736(a), 7737(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2404.)

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7737(a), inserted at end "Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2)."

Pub. L. 101–239, §7736(a), substituted "section 6700 or 6701" for "section 6700, 6701, or 6702".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7736(a), substituted "section 6700 or 6701" for "section 6700, 6701, or 6702".

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7736(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2404, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to returns filed after December 31, 1989."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §322(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 613, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]."

§6704. Failure to keep records necessary to meet reporting requirements under section 6047(d)

(a) Liability for penalty

Any person who—

(1) has a duty to report or may have a duty to report any information under section 6047(d), and

(2) fails to keep such records as may be required by regulations prescribed under section 6047(d) for the purpose of providing the necessary data base for either current reporting or future reporting,


shall pay a penalty for each calendar year for which there is any failure to keep such records.

(b) Amount of penalty

(1) In general

The penalty of any person for any calendar year shall be $50, multiplied by the number of individuals with respect to whom such failure occurs in such year.

(2) Maximum amount

The penalty under this section of any person for any calendar year shall not exceed $50,000.

(c) Exceptions

(1) Reasonable cause

No penalty shall be imposed by this section on any person for any failure which is shown to be due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect.

(2) Inability to correct previous failure

No penalty shall be imposed by this section on any failure by a person if such failure is attributable to a prior failure which has been penalized under this section and with respect to which the person has made all reasonable efforts to correct the failure.

(3) Pre-1983 failures

No penalty shall be imposed by this section on any person for any failure which is attributable to a failure occurring before January 1, 1983, if the person has made all reasonable efforts to correct such pre-1983 failure.

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §334(c)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 627; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1848(e)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2857.)

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "section 6047(d)" for "section 6047(e)" in section catchline and in subsec. (a).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1985, see section 334(e)(3) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 3405 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§6705. Failure by broker to provide notice to payors

(a) In general

Any person required under section 3406(d)(2)(B) to provide notice to any payor who willfully fails to provide such notice to such payor shall pay a penalty of $500 for each such failure.

(b) Penalty in addition to other penalties

Any penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty provided by law.

(Added Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §104(c)(1), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 379.)

Effective Date

Section effective with respect to payments made after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 98–67, set out as an Effective Date of 1983 Amendment note under section 31 of this title.

§6706. Original issue discount information requirements

(a) Failure to show information on debt instrument

In the case of a failure to set forth on a debt instrument the information required to be set forth on such instrument under section 1275(c)(1), unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, the issuer shall pay a penalty of $50 for each instrument with respect to which such a failure exists.

(b) Failure to furnish information to Secretary

Any issuer who fails to furnish information required under section 1275(c)(2) with respect to any issue of debt instruments on the date prescribed therefor (determined with regard to any extension of time for filing) shall pay a penalty equal to 1 percent of the aggregate issue price of such issue, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. The amount of the penalty imposed under the preceding sentence with respect to any issue of debt instruments shall not exceed $50,000 for such issue.

(c) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply in respect of the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by this section.

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §41(c)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 555.)

Effective Date

Section effective on day 30 days after July 18, 1984, see section 44(h) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 1271 of this title.

§6707. Failure to furnish information regarding reportable transactions

(a) In general

If a person who is required to file a return under section 6111(a) with respect to any reportable transaction—

(1) fails to file such return on or before the date prescribed therefor, or

(2) files false or incomplete information with the Secretary with respect to such transaction,


such person shall pay a penalty with respect to such return in the amount determined under subsection (b).

(b) Amount of penalty

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the penalty imposed under subsection (a) with respect to any failure shall be $50,000.

(2) Listed transactions

The penalty imposed under subsection (a) with respect to any listed transaction shall be an amount equal to the greater of—

(A) $200,000, or

(B) 50 percent of the gross income derived by such person with respect to aid, assistance, or advice which is provided with respect to the listed transaction before the date the return is filed under section 6111.


Subparagraph (B) shall be applied by substituting "75 percent" for "50 percent" in the case of an intentional failure or act described in subsection (a).

(c) Rescission authority

The provisions of section 6707A(d) (relating to authority of Commissioner to rescind penalty) shall apply to any penalty imposed under this section.

(d) Reportable and listed transactions

For purposes of this section, the terms "reportable transaction" and "listed transaction" have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 6707A(c).

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §141(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 680; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §§1532(a), 1533(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2750; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1028(b), (d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 927, 928; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §816(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1583.)

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–357 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to penalty for failure to furnish information regarding reportable transactions for provisions relating to penalty for failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters.

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, §1028(d)(2), which directed the substitution of "paragraph (2) or (3), as the case may be" for "paragraph (2)" in subpar. (A) of par. (1), was executed by making the substitution in the concluding provisions of par. (1) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1028(d)(1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (3), the penalty" for "The penalty".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §1028(b), added par. (3).

1986—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1532(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The penalty imposed under paragraph (1) with respect to any tax shelter shall be an amount equal to the greater of—

"(A) $500, or

"(B) the lesser of (i) 1 percent of the aggregate amount invested in such tax shelter, or (ii) $10,000.

The $10,000 limitation in subparagraph (B) shall not apply where there is an intentional disregard of the requirements of section 6111(a)."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1533(a), substituted "$250" for "$50".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §816(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1584, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to returns the due date for which is after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to any tax shelter, as defined in section 6111(d) of this title, interests in which are offered to potential participants after Secretary of the Treasury prescribes guidance with respect to meeting requirements added by amendments made by Pub. L. 105–34, §1028, see section 1028(e) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 6111 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1532(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2750, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to failures with respect to tax shelters interests in which are first offered for sale after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1533(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2750, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to returns filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct 22, 1986]."

Effective Date

Section applicable to tax shelters (within the meaning of section 6111 of this title), any interest in which is first sold to any investor after Aug. 31, 1984, see section 141(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6111 of this title.

§6707A. Penalty for failure to include reportable transaction information with return

(a) Imposition of penalty

Any person who fails to include on any return or statement any information with respect to a reportable transaction which is required under section 6011 to be included with such return or statement shall pay a penalty in the amount determined under subsection (b).

(b) Amount of penalty

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amount of the penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any reportable transaction shall be 75 percent of the decrease in tax shown on the return as a result of such transaction (or which would have resulted from such transaction if such transaction were respected for Federal tax purposes).

(2) Maximum penalty

The amount of the penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any reportable transaction shall not exceed—

(A) in the case of a listed transaction, $200,000 ($100,000 in the case of a natural person), or

(B) in the case of any other reportable transaction, $50,000 ($10,000 in the case of a natural person).

(3) Minimum penalty

The amount of the penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any transaction shall not be less than $10,000 ($5,000 in the case of a natural person).

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Reportable transaction

The term "reportable transaction" means any transaction with respect to which information is required to be included with a return or statement because, as determined under regulations prescribed under section 6011, such transaction is of a type which the Secretary determines as having a potential for tax avoidance or evasion.

(2) Listed transaction

The term "listed transaction" means a reportable transaction which is the same as, or substantially similar to, a transaction specifically identified by the Secretary as a tax avoidance transaction for purposes of section 6011.

(d) Authority to rescind penalty

(1) In general

The Commissioner of Internal Revenue may rescind all or any portion of any penalty imposed by this section with respect to any violation if—

(A) the violation is with respect to a reportable transaction other than a listed transaction, and

(B) rescinding the penalty would promote compliance with the requirements of this title and effective tax administration.

(2) No judicial appeal

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any determination under this subsection may not be reviewed in any judicial proceeding.

(3) Records

If a penalty is rescinded under paragraph (1), the Commissioner shall place in the file in the Office of the Commissioner the opinion of the Commissioner with respect to the determination, including—

(A) a statement of the facts and circumstances relating to the violation,

(B) the reasons for the rescission, and

(C) the amount of the penalty rescinded.

(e) Penalty reported to SEC

In the case of a person—

(1) which is required to file periodic reports under section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or is required to be consolidated with another person for purposes of such reports, and

(2) which—

(A) is required to pay a penalty under this section with respect to a listed transaction,

(B) is required to pay a penalty under section 6662A with respect to any reportable transaction at a rate prescribed under section 6662A(c), or

(C) is required to pay a penalty under section 6662(h) with respect to any reportable transaction and would (but for section 6662A(e)(2)(B)) have been subject to penalty under section 6662A at a rate prescribed under section 6662A(c),


the requirement to pay such penalty shall be disclosed in such reports filed by such person for such periods as the Secretary shall specify. Failure to make a disclosure in accordance with the preceding sentence shall be treated as a failure to which the penalty under subsection (b)(2) applies.

(f) Coordination with other penalties

The penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty imposed by this title.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §811(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1575; amended Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(41), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2488; Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2041(a), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2560.)

References in Text

Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), are classified to sections 78m and 78o(d), respectively, of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–240 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) specified the amount of the penalty under subsec. (a), both in general and with respect to a listed transaction, in the case of a natural person or in any other case.

2007—Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 110–172 substituted "section 6662A(e)(2)(B)" for "section 6662A(e)(2)(C)".

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2041(b), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2560, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to penalties assessed after December 31, 2006."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §811(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1577, as amended by Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(w), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2629, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to returns and statements the due date for which is after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004] and which were not filed before such date."

Report

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §811(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1577, provided that: "The Commissioner of Internal Revenue shall annually report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate—

"(1) a summary of the total number and aggregate amount of penalties imposed, and rescinded, under section 6707A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and

"(2) a description of each penalty rescinded under section 6707(c) of such Code and the reasons therefor."

§6708. Failure to maintain lists of advisees with respect to reportable transactions

(a) Imposition of penalty

(1) In general

If any person who is required to maintain a list under section 6112(a) fails to make such list available upon written request to the Secretary in accordance with section 6112(b) within 20 business days after the date of such request, such person shall pay a penalty of $10,000 for each day of such failure after such 20th day.

(2) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed by paragraph (1) with respect to the failure on any day if such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(b) Penalty in addition to other penalties

The penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty provided by law.

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §142(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 682; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1534(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2750; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §§815(b)(5)(A), 817(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1583, 1584.)

Codification

Another section 6708 was renumbered section 6709 of this title.

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–357, §815(b)(5)(A), substituted "advisees with respect to reportable transactions" for "investors in potentially abusive tax shelters" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–357, §817(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any person who fails to meet any requirement imposed by section 6112 shall pay a penalty of $50 for each person with respect to whom there is such a failure, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection for any calendar year shall not exceed $100,000."

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "$100,000" for "$50,000".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 815(b)(5)(A) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to transactions with respect to which material aid, assistance, or advice referred to in section 6111(b)(1)(A)(i) of this title is provided after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 815(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 6111 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §817(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1584, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to requests made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1534(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2750, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to failures occurring or continuing after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Effective Date

Section applicable to any interest which is first sold to any investor after Aug. 31, 1984, see section 142(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6112 of this title.

§6709. Penalties with respect to mortgage credit certificates

(a) Negligence

If—

(1) any person makes a material misstatement in any verified written statement made under penalties of perjury with respect to the issuance of a mortgage credit certificate, and

(2) such misstatement is due to the negligence of such person,


such person shall pay a penalty of $1,000 for each mortgage credit certificate with respect to which such a misstatement was made.

(b) Fraud

If a misstatement described in subsection (a)(1) is due to fraud on the part of the person making such misstatement, in addition to any criminal penalty, such person shall pay a penalty of $10,000 for each mortgage credit certificate with respect to which such a misstatement is made.

(c) Reports

Any person required by section 25(g) to file a report with the Secretary who fails to file the report with respect to any mortgage credit certificate at the time and in the manner required by the Secretary shall pay a penalty of $200 for such failure unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. In the case of any report required under the second sentence of section 25(g), the aggregate amount of the penalty imposed by the preceding sentence shall not exceed $2,000.

(d) Mortgage credit certificate

The term "mortgage credit certificate" has the meaning given to such term by section 25(c).

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §612(d)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 912, §6708; renumbered §6709, Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1862(d)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2884.)

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to interest paid or accrued after Dec. 31, 1984, on indebtedness incurred after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 612(g) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 25 of this title.

§6710. Failure to disclose that contributions are nondeductible

(a) Imposition of penalty

If there is a failure to meet the requirement of section 6113 with respect to a fundraising solicitation by (or on behalf of) an organization to which section 6113 applies, such organization shall pay a penalty of $1,000 for each day on which such a failure occurred. The maximum penalty imposed under this subsection on failures by any organization during any calendar year shall not exceed $10,000.

(b) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed under this section with respect to any failure if it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(c) $10,000 limitation not to apply where intentional disregard

If any failure to which subsection (a) applies is due to intentional disregard of the requirement of section 6113—

(1) the penalty under subsection (a) for the day on which such failure occurred shall be the greater of—

(A) $1,000, or

(B) 50 percent of the aggregate cost of the solicitations which occurred on such day and with respect to which there was such a failure,


(2) the $10,000 limitation of subsection (a) shall not apply to any penalty under subsection (a) for the day on which such failure occurred, and

(3) such penalty shall not be taken into account in applying such limitation to other penalties under subsection (a).

(d) Day on which failure occurs

For purposes of this section, any failure to meet the requirement of section 6113 with respect to a solicitation—

(1) by television or radio, shall be treated as occurring when the solicitation was telecast or broadcast,

(2) by mail, shall be treated as occurring when the solicitation was mailed,

(3) not by mail but in written or printed form, shall be treated as occurring when the solicitation was distributed, or

(4) by telephone, shall be treated as occurring when the solicitation was made.

(Added Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10701(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–458.)

Effective Date

Section applicable to solicitations after Jan. 31, 1988, see section 10701(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 6113 of this title.

§6711. Failure by tax-exempt organization to disclose that certain information or service available from Federal Government

(a) Imposition of penalty

If—

(1) a tax-exempt organization offers to sell (or solicits money for) specific information or a routine service for any individual which could be readily obtained by such individual free of charge (or for a nominal charge) from an agency of the Federal Government,

(2) the tax-exempt organization, when making such offer or solicitation, fails to make an express statement (in a conspicuous and easily recognizable format) that the information or service can be so obtained, and

(3) such failure is due to intentional disregard of the requirements of this subsection,


such organization shall pay a penalty determined under subsection (b) for each day on which such a failure occurred.

(b) Amount of penalty

The penalty under subsection (a) for any day on which a failure referred to in such subsection occurred shall be the greater of—

(1) $1,000, or

(2) 50 percent of the aggregate cost of the offers and solicitations referred to in subsection (a)(1) which occurred on such day and with respect to which there was such a failure.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Tax-exempt organization

The term "tax-exempt organization" means any organization which—

(A) is described in subsection (c) or (d) of section 501 and exempt from taxation under section 501(a), or

(B) is a political organization (as defined in section 527(e)).

(2) Day on which failure occurs

The day on which any failure referred to in subsection (a) occurs shall be determined under rules similar to the rules of section 6710(d).

(Added Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10705(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–463.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10705(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–464, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to offers and solicitations after January 31, 1988."

§6712. Failure to disclose treaty-based return positions

(a) General rule

If a taxpayer fails to meet the requirements of section 6114, there is hereby imposed a penalty equal to $1,000 ($10,000 in the case of a C corporation) on each such failure.

(b) Authority to waive

The Secretary may waive all or any part of the penalty provided by this section on a showing by the taxpayer that there was reasonable cause for the failure and that the taxpayer acted in good faith.

(c) Penalty in addition to other penalties

The penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty imposed by law.

(Added Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(aa)(5)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3532.)

Codification

Another section 6712 was renumbered section 6713 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable periods the due date for filing returns for which (without extension) occurs after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1012(aa)(5)(D) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 6114 of this title.

§6713. Disclosure or use of information by preparers of returns

(a) Imposition of penalty

If any person who is engaged in the business of preparing, or providing services in connection with the preparation of, returns of tax imposed by chapter 1, or any person who for compensation prepares any such return for any other person, and who—

(1) discloses any information furnished to him for, or in connection with, the preparation of any such return, or

(2) uses any such information for any purpose other than to prepare, or assist in preparing, any such return,


shall pay a penalty of $250 for each such disclosure or use, but the total amount imposed under this subsection on such a person for any calendar year shall not exceed $10,000.

(b) Enhanced penalty for improper use or disclosure relating to identity theft

(1) In general

In the case of a disclosure or use described in subsection (a) that is made in connection with a crime relating to the misappropriation of another person's taxpayer identity (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)), whether or not such crime involves any tax filing, subsection (a) shall be applied—

(A) by substituting "$1,000" for "$250", and

(B) by substituting "$50,000" for "$10,000".

(2) Separate application of total penalty limitation

The limitation on the total amount of the penalty under subsection (a) shall be applied separately with respect to disclosures or uses to which this subsection applies and to which it does not apply.

(c) Exceptions

The rules of section 7216(b) shall apply for purposes of this section.

(d) Deficiency procedures not to apply

Subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes) shall not apply in respect of the assessment or collection of any penalty imposed by this section.

(Added Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6242(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3749, §6712; renumbered §6713, Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7816(v)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2423; amended Pub. L. 116–25, title II, §2009(a), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 1007.)

Amendments

2019—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 116–25 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

Effective Date of 2019 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–25, title II, §2009(c), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 1007, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 7216 of this title] shall apply to disclosures or uses on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 1, 2019]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6242(d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3749, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 7216 of this title] shall apply to disclosures or uses after December 31, 1988."

§6714. Failure to meet disclosure requirements applicable to quid pro quo contributions

(a) Imposition of penalty

If an organization fails to meet the disclosure requirement of section 6115 with respect to a quid pro quo contribution, such organization shall pay a penalty of $10 for each contribution in respect of which the organization fails to make the required disclosure, except that the total penalty imposed by this subsection with respect to a particular fundraising event or mailing shall not exceed $5,000.

(b) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed under this section with respect to any failure if it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(Added Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13173(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 456.)

Codification

Another section 6714 was renumbered section 6715 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to quid pro quo contributions made on or after Jan. 1, 1994, see section 13173(d) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 6115 of this title.

§6715. Dyed fuel sold for use or used in taxable use, etc.

(a) Imposition of penalty

If—

(1) any dyed fuel is sold or held for sale by any person for any use which such person knows or has reason to know is not a nontaxable use of such fuel,

(2) any dyed fuel is held for use or used by any person for a use other than a nontaxable use and such person knew, or had reason to know, that such fuel was so dyed,

(3) any person willfully alters, chemically or otherwise, or attempts to so alter, the strength or composition of any dye or marking done pursuant to section 4082 in any dyed fuel, or

(4) any person who has knowledge that a dyed fuel which has been altered as described in paragraph (3) sells or holds for sale such fuel for any use which the person knows or has reason to know is not a nontaxable use of such fuel,


then such person shall pay a penalty in addition to the tax (if any).

(b) Amount of penalty

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amount of the penalty under subsection (a) on each act shall be the greater of—

(A) $1,000, or

(B) $10 for each gallon of the dyed fuel involved.

(2) Multiple violations

In determining the penalty under subsection (a) on any person, paragraph (1) shall be applied by increasing the amount in paragraph (1)(A) by the product of such amount and the number of prior penalties (if any) imposed by this section on such person (or a related person or any predecessor of such person or related person).

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Dyed fuel

The term "dyed fuel" means any dyed diesel fuel or kerosene, whether or not the fuel was dyed pursuant to section 4082.

(2) Nontaxable use

The term "nontaxable use" has the meaning given such term by section 4082(b).

(d) Joint and several liability of certain officers and employees

If a penalty is imposed under this section on any business entity, each officer, employee, or agent of such entity who willfully participated in any act giving rise to such penalty shall be jointly and severally liable with such entity for such penalty.

(e) No administrative appeal for third and subsequent violations

In the case of any person who is found to be subject to the penalty under this section after a chemical analysis of such fuel and who has been penalized under this section at least twice after the date of the enactment of this subsection, no administrative appeal or review shall be allowed with respect to such finding except in the case of a claim regarding—

(1) fraud or mistake in the chemical analysis, or

(2) mathematical calculation of the amount of the penalty.

(Added Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13242(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 520, §6714; renumbered §6715, Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(n)(9)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877; amended Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1032(e)(11), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 935; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §§855(a), 856(a), (b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1616, 1617.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–357, §856(a), which directed amendment of par. (2) by striking "or", was executed by striking "or" at the end.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108–357, §856(b), substituted "alters, chemically or otherwise, or attempts to so alter," for "alters, or attempts to alter,".

Pub. L. 108–357, §856(a), inserted "or" at end.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 108–357, §856(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–357, §855(a), added subsec. (e).

1997—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–34 inserted "or kerosene" after "diesel fuel".

1996Pub. L. 104–188 renumbered section 6714 of this title as this section.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §855(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1616, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to penalties assessed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §856(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1617, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 effective July 1, 1998, see section 1032(f)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1994, see section 13242(e) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as an Effective Date of 1993 Amendment note under section 4041 of this title.

§6715A. Tampering with or failing to maintain security requirements for mechanical dye injection systems

(a) Imposition of penalty

(1) Tampering

If any person tampers with a mechanical dye injection system used to indelibly dye fuel for purposes of section 4082, such person shall pay a penalty in addition to the tax (if any).

(2) Failure to maintain security requirements

If any operator of a mechanical dye injection system used to indelibly dye fuel for purposes of section 4082 fails to maintain the security standards for such system as established by the Secretary, then such operator shall pay a penalty in addition to the tax (if any).

(b) Amount of penalty

The amount of the penalty under subsection (a) shall be—

(1) for each violation described in paragraph (1), the greater of—

(A) $25,000, or

(B) $10 for each gallon of fuel involved, and


(2) for each—

(A) failure to maintain security standards described in paragraph (2), $1,000, and

(B) failure to correct a violation described in paragraph (2), $1,000 per day for each day after which such violation was discovered or such person should have reasonably known of such violation.

(c) Joint and several liability

(1) In general

If a penalty is imposed under this section on any business entity, each officer, employee, or agent of such entity or other contracting party who willfully participated in any act giving rise to such penalty shall be jointly and severally liable with such entity for such penalty.

(2) Affiliated groups

If a business entity described in paragraph (1) is part of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a)), the parent corporation of such entity shall be jointly and severally liable with such entity for the penalty imposed under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §854(c)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1615.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the 180th day after the date on which the Secretary of the Treasury issues the regulations described in section 854(b) of Pub. L. 108–357, see section 854(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment note under section 4082 of this title.

[§6716. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §301(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300]

Section, added Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(b)(4), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 83, related to failure to file information with respect to certain transfers at death and gifts.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of section applicable to estates of decedents dying, and transfers made after Dec. 31, 2009, except as otherwise provided, see section 301(e) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note under section 121 of this title.

§6717. Refusal of entry

(a) In general

In addition to any other penalty provided by law, any person who refuses to admit entry or refuses to permit any other action by the Secretary authorized by section 4083(d)(1) shall pay a penalty of $1,000 for such refusal.

(b) Joint and several liability

(1) In general

If a penalty is imposed under this section on any business entity, each officer, employee, or agent of such entity or other contracting party who willfully participated in any act giving rise to such penalty shall be jointly and severally liable with such entity for such penalty.

(2) Affiliated groups

If a business entity described in paragraph (1) is part of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a)), the parent corporation of such entity shall be jointly and severally liable with such entity for the penalty imposed under this section.

(c) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed under this section with respect to any failure if it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §859(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1617.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2005, see section 859(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment note under section 4083 of this title.

§6718. Failure to display tax registration on vessels

(a) Failure to display registration

Every operator of a vessel who fails to display proof of registration pursuant to section 4101(a)(3) shall pay a penalty of $500 for each such failure. With respect to any vessel, only one penalty shall be imposed by this section during any calendar month.

(b) Multiple violations

In determining the penalty under subsection (a) on any person, subsection (a) shall be applied by increasing the amount in subsection (a) by the product of such amount and the aggregate number of penalties (if any) imposed with respect to prior months by this section on such person (or a related person or any predecessor of such person or related person).

(c) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed under this section with respect to any failure if it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §§861(b)(1), 862(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1618, 1619.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–357, §862(b), substituted "section 4101(a)(3)" for "section 4101(a)(2)".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 862(b) of Pub. L. 108–357 effective Jan. 1, 2005, see section 862(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 4101 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §861(c)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1619, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting this section] shall apply to penalties imposed after December 31, 2004."

§6719. Failure to register or reregister

(a) Failure to register or reregister

Every person who is required to register or reregister under section 4101 and fails to do so shall pay a penalty in addition to the tax (if any).

(b) Amount of penalty

The amount of the penalty under subsection (a) shall be—

(1) $10,000 for each initial failure to register or reregister, and

(2) $1,000 for each day thereafter such person fails to register or reregister.

(c) Reasonable cause exception

No penalty shall be imposed under this section with respect to any failure if it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §863(c)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1620; amended Pub. L. 109–59, title XI, §11164(b)(1), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1975.)

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59, §11164(b)(1)(C), inserted "or reregister" after "register" in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §11164(b)(1)(A), (B), inserted "or reregister" after "register" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–59 applicable to actions, or failures to act, after Aug. 10, 2005, see section 11164(c) of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as a note under section 4101 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §863(e), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1620, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6725 of this title and amending sections 7232 and 7272 of this title] shall apply to penalties imposed after December 31, 2004."

§6720. Fraudulent acknowledgments with respect to donations of motor vehicles, boats, and airplanes

Any donee organization required under section 170(f)(12)(A) to furnish a contemporaneous written acknowledgment to a donor which knowingly furnishes a false or fraudulent acknowledgment, or which knowingly fails to furnish such acknowledgment in the manner, at the time, and showing the information required under section 170(f)(12), or regulations prescribed thereunder, shall for each such act, or for each such failure, be subject to a penalty equal to—

(1) in the case of an acknowledgment with respect to a qualified vehicle to which section 170(f)(12)(A)(ii) applies, the greater of—

(A) the product of the highest rate of tax specified in section 1 and the sales price stated on the acknowledgment, or

(B) the gross proceeds from the sale of such vehicle, and


(2) in the case of an acknowledgment with respect to any other qualified vehicle to which section 170(f)(12) applies, the greater of—

(A) the product of the highest rate of tax specified in section 1 and the claimed value of the vehicle, or

(B) $5,000.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §884(b)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1634.)

Effective Date

Section applicable to contributions made after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 884(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendments note under section 170 of this title.

§6720A. Penalty with respect to certain adulterated fuels

(a) In general

Any person who knowingly transfers for resale, sells for resale, or holds out for resale any liquid for use in a diesel-powered highway vehicle or a diesel-powered train which does not meet applicable EPA regulations (as defined in section 45H(c)(3)), shall pay a penalty of $10,000 for each such transfer, sale, or holding out for resale, in addition to the tax on such liquid (if any).

(b) Penalty in the case of retailers

Any person who knowingly holds out for sale (other than for resale) any liquid described in subsection (a), shall pay a penalty of $10,000 for each such holding out for sale, in addition to the tax on such liquid (if any).

(Added Pub. L. 109–59, title XI, §11167(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1977.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–59, title XI, §11167(d), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1978, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 9503 of this title] shall apply to any transfer, sale, or holding out for sale or resale occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005]."

§6720B. Fraudulent identification of exempt use property

In addition to any criminal penalty provided by law, any person who identifies applicable property (as defined in section 170(e)(7)(C)) as having a use which is related to a purpose or function constituting the basis for the donee's exemption under section 501 and who knows that such property is not intended for such a use shall pay a penalty of $10,000.

(Added Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1215(c)(1), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1079.)

Codification

Section 1215(c)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280, which directed the addition of section 6720B at the end of part I of subchapter B of chapter 68, without specifying the act to be amended, was executed by adding section 6720B at the end of part I of subchapter B of chapter 68 of this title, which consists of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1215(d)(3), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1079, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (c) [enacting this section] shall apply to identifications made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006]."

[§6720C. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(7)(B), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1212]

Section, added Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title III, §3001(a)(13)(A), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 464; amended Pub. L. 111–144, §3(b)(5)(D), Mar. 2, 2010, 124 Stat. 45, related to penalty for failure to notify health plan of cessation of eligibility for COBRA premium assistance.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in repeal by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.