[USC10] 31 USC SUBTITLE II, CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER III: LIMITATIONS, EXCEPTIONS, AND PENALTIES
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31 USC SUBTITLE II, CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER III: LIMITATIONS, EXCEPTIONS, AND PENALTIES
From Title 31—MONEY AND FINANCESUBTITLE II—THE BUDGET PROCESSCHAPTER 13—APPROPRIATIONS

SUBCHAPTER III—LIMITATIONS, EXCEPTIONS, AND PENALTIES

Short Title

Certain provisions of this subchapter and subchapter II of chapter 15 of this title were originally enacted as section 3679 of the Revised Statutes, popularly known as the Anti-Deficiency Act. That section was repealed as part of the general revision of this title by Pub. L. 97–258, and its provisions restated in sections 1341, 1342, 1349 to 1351, and 1511 to 1519 of this title.

§1341. Limitations on expending and obligating amounts

(a)(1) An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government may not—

(A) make or authorize an expenditure or obligation exceeding an amount available in an appropriation or fund for the expenditure or obligation;

(B) involve either government in a contract or obligation for the payment of money before an appropriation is made unless authorized by law;

(C) make or authorize an expenditure or obligation of funds required to be sequestered under section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985; or

(D) involve either government in a contract or obligation for the payment of money required to be sequestered under section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.


(2) This subsection does not apply to a corporation getting amounts to make loans (except paid in capital amounts) without legal liability of the United States Government.

(b) An article to be used by an executive department in the District of Columbia that could be bought out of an appropriation made to a regular contingent fund of the department may not be bought out of another amount available for obligation.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 923; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13213(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–621.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1341(a) 31:665(a), (d)(2)(last sentence related to spending and obligations). R.S. §3679(a), (d)(2)(last sentence related to spending and obligations); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 765.
1341(b) 31:669(words after semicolon). Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 350, §6(words after semicolon), 37 Stat. 414.

In subsection (b), the words "another amount available for obligation" are substituted for "any other fund" for consistency in the revised title.

References in Text

Section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), (D), is classified to section 902 of Title 2, The Congress.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101–508 added subpars. (C) and (D).

§1342. Limitation on voluntary services

An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government may not accept voluntary services for either government or employ personal services exceeding that authorized by law except for emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property. This section does not apply to a corporation getting amounts to make loans (except paid in capital amounts) without legal liability of the United States Government. As used in this section, the term "emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property" does not include ongoing, regular functions of government the suspension of which would not imminently threaten the safety of human life or the protection of property.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 923; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13213(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–621; Pub. L. 104–92, title III, §310(a), Jan. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 20.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1342 31:665(b). R.S. §3679(b), (d)(2)(last sentence related to voluntary services); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 765.
  31:665(d)(2)(last sentence related to voluntary services).

The words "District of Columbia government" are added because of section 47–105 of the D.C. Code.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–92 temporarily amended section by inserting "All officers and employees of the United States Government or the District of Columbia government shall be deemed to be performing services relating to emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property." after first sentence and by striking out at end "As used in this section, the term 'emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property' does not include ongoing, regular functions of government the suspension of which would not imminently threaten the safety of human life or the protection of property". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment note below.

1990Pub. L. 101–508 inserted at end "As used in this section, the term 'emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property' does not include ongoing, regular functions of government the suspension of which would not imminently threaten the safety of human life or the protection of property."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–92, title III, §310(a), Jan. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 20, provided that the amendment made by that section is for the period Dec. 15, 1995, through Jan. 26, 1996.

§1343. Buying and leasing passenger motor vehicles and aircraft

(a) In this section, buying a passenger motor vehicle or aircraft includes a transfer of the vehicle or aircraft between agencies.

(b) An appropriation may be expended to buy or lease passenger motor vehicles only—

(1) for the use of—

(A) the President;

(B) the secretaries to the President; or

(C) the heads of executive departments listed in section 101 of title 5; or


(2) as specifically provided by law.


(c)(1) Except as specifically provided by law, an agency may use an appropriation to buy a passenger motor vehicle (except a bus or ambulance) only at a total cost (except costs required only for transportation) that—

(A) includes the price of systems and equipment the Administrator of General Services decides is incorporated customarily in standard passenger motor vehicles completely equipped for ordinary operation;

(B) includes the value of a vehicle used in exchange;

(C) is not more than the maximum price established by the agency having authority under law to establish a maximum price; and

(D) is not more than the amount specified in a law.


(2) Additional systems and equipment may be bought for a passenger motor vehicle if the Administrator decides the purchase is appropriate. The price of additional systems or equipment is not included in deciding whether the cost of the vehicle is within a maximum price specified in a law.

(d) An appropriation (except an appropriation for the armed forces) is available to buy, maintain, or operate an aircraft only if the appropriation specifically authorizes the purchase, maintenance, or operation.

(e) This section does not apply to—

(1) buying, maintaining, and repairing passenger motor vehicles by the United States Capitol Police;

(2) buying, maintaining, and repairing vehicles necessary to carry out projects to improve, preserve, and protect rivers and harbors; or

(3) leasing, maintaining, repairing, or operating motor passenger vehicles necessary in the field work of the Department of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 924.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1343(a) 31:638a(e). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(a), (b), (e), 38 Stat. 508; restated Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810, 811.
1343(b) 31:638a(a).
1343(c) 31:638a(c)(1). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(c)(1), 38 Stat. 508; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810; restated Sept. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–423, 84 Stat. 879.
1343(d) 31:638a(b).
1343(e) 31:638a–1. July 25, 1975, Pub. L. 94–59, §1108, 89 Stat. 300.
  31:638d. Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 142, §10, 38 Stat. 1054.
  31:638e. Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313(last proviso on p. 491), 39 Stat. 491.

In subsection (a), the word "agency" is substituted for "department of the Government" because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency with the other source provisions restated in the section.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "buy or lease" are substituted for "purchase or hire" for consistency. In clause (1)(C), the words "section 101 of title 5" are used because of section 7(b) of the Act of September 6, 1966 (Pub. L. 89–554, 80 Stat. 631).

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the word "agency" is substituted for "department" for consistency. The words "total cost" are substituted for "cost" because of the restatement. The words "(except costs required only for transportation)" are substituted for "which shall be in addition to the amount required for transportation" for clarity. Clause (A) is substituted for "completely equipped for operation" and 31:638a(c)(1)(2d sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "Notwithstanding any other provisions of law" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words "armed forces" are substituted for "Military and Naval Establishments" for consistency.

In subsection (e)(2), the words "motor boats, trucks" in 31:638d are omitted as being included in "vehicles". The words "adopted by Congress" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(3), the words "horse-drawn" in 31:638e are omitted because the section applies only to motor vehicles and aircraft described in 31:638a and also is obsolete. The words "motor boats" are omitted as being included in "vehicles".

Motor Vehicles Purchased for Intelligence Activities; Exception From Monetary Limitations

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8105, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1464, provided that: "During the current fiscal year and thereafter, monetary limitations on the purchase price of a passenger motor vehicle shall not apply to vehicles purchased for intelligence activities conducted pursuant to Executive Order 12333 [50 U.S.C. 3001 note] or successor orders."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9038, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1910.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8038, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1180.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8039, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1883.

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9049, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1139.

Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8086, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–32.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8119], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329-84.

Maximum Purchase Price of Motor Vehicles; Exceptions

Pub. L. 115–141, div. E, title VII, §702, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 588, provided that: "Unless otherwise specifically provided, the maximum amount allowable during the current fiscal year in accordance with subsection [sic] 1343(c) of title 31, United States Code, for the purchase of any passenger motor vehicle (exclusive of buses, ambulances, law enforcement vehicles, protective vehicles, and undercover surveillance vehicles), is hereby fixed at $19,947 except station wagons for which the maximum shall be $19,997: Provided, That these limits may be exceeded by not to exceed $7,250 for police-type vehicles: Provided further, That the limits set forth in this section may not be exceeded by more than 5 percent for electric or hybrid vehicles purchased for demonstration under the provisions of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 [15 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.]: Provided further, That the limits set forth in this section may be exceeded by the incremental cost of clean alternative fuels vehicles acquired pursuant to Public Law 101–549 [see Tables for classification] over the cost of comparable conventionally fueled vehicles: Provided further, That the limits set forth in this section shall not apply to any vehicle that is a commercial item and which operates on alternative fuel, including but not limited to electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 115–31, div. E, title VII, §702, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 377.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. E, title VII, §702, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2473.

Pub. L. 113–235, div. E, title VII, §702, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2379.

Pub. L. 113–76, div. E, title VII, §702, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 230.

Pub. L. 112–74, div. C, title VII, §702, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 928.

Pub. L. 111–117, div. C, title VII, §702, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3205.

Pub. L. 111–8, div. D, title VII, §702, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 680.

Pub. L. 110–161, div. D, title VII, §703, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2019.

Pub. L. 109–115, div. A, title VIII, §803, Nov. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2495.

Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title VI, §603, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3272.

Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title VI, §603, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 350.

Pub. L. 108–7, div. J, title VI, §603, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 463.

Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §603, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 545.

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(3) [title VI, §603], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-155.

Pub. L. 106–58, title VI, §603, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 466.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(h) [title VI, §604], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681-513.

Pub. L. 105–61, title VI, §604, Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1308.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §604], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-353.

Pub. L. 104–52, title VI, §604, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 497.

Pub. L. 103–329, title VI, §604, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2416.

Pub. L. 103–123, title VI, §604, Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1259.

Pub. L. 102–393, title VI, §605, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1766.

Pub. L. 102–141, title VI, §605, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 868.

Pub. L. 101–509, title VI, §601, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1470.

Pub. L. 101–136, title VI, §601, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 816.

Pub. L. 100–440, title VI, §601, Sept. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1751.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(m) [title VI, §601], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–390, 1329-419.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(m) [title VI, §601], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, 1783-328, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(m) [title VI, §601], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308, 3341-328.

Pub. L. 99–190, §101(h) [H.R. 3036, title VI, §601], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1291.

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(j) [H.R. 5798, title VI, §602], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1963.

Pub. L. 98–151, §101(f) [H.R. 4139, title VI, §602], Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 973.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(a) [H.R. 7158, title VI, §602], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1830.

Pub. L. 97–92, §101(a) [H.R. 4121, title VI, §602], Dec. 15, 1981, 95 Stat. 1183.

Pub. L. 96–536, §113, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3171.

Pub. L. 96–74, title VI, §601, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 573.

Pub. L. 95–429, title VI, §601, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1015.

Pub. L. 95–81, title VI, §601, July 31, 1977, 91 Stat. 354.

Pub. L. 94–363, title VI, §601, July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 977.

Pub. L. 94–91, title VI, §601, Aug. 9, 1975, 89 Stat. 458.

Pub. L. 93–381, title VI, §601, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 630.

Pub. L. 93–143, title VI, §601, Oct. 30, 1973, 87 Stat. 524.

Pub. L. 92–351, title VI, §601, July 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 487.

Pub. L. 92–49, title VI, §601, July 9, 1971, 85 Stat. 122.

Pub. L. 91–439, title V, §501, Oct. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 902.

Pub. L. 91–144, title V, §501, Dec. 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 336.

Pub. L. 90–479, title V, §501, Aug. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 717.

Pub. L. 90–147, title V, §501, Nov. 20, 1967, 81 Stat. 482.

Pub. L. 89–689, title V, §501, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 1014.

Pub. L. 89–299, title V, §501, Oct. 28, 1965, 79 Stat. 1108.

Pub. L. 88–511, title V, §501, Aug. 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 693.

Pub. L. 88–257, title V, §501, Dec. 31, 1963, 77 Stat. 855.

Pub. L. 87–880, title V, §501, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1227.

Pub. L. 87–125, title V, §501, Aug. 3, 1961, 75 Stat. 282.

Pub. L. 86–642, title II, §201, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 476.

Pub. L. 86–79, title II, §201, July 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 165.

Pub. L. 85–468, title II, §201, June 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 224.

Pub. L. 85–48, title II, §201, June 5, 1957, 71 Stat. 53.

June 13, 1956, ch. 385, title II, §201, 70 Stat. 279.

June 29, 1955, ch. 226, title II, §201, 69 Stat. 195.

Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 935, Ch. XIII, §1301, 68 Stat. 828.

Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 340, Ch. XIII, §1301, 67 Stat. 435.

July 15, 1952, ch. 758, Ch. XIV, §1401, 66 Stat. 659.

Nov. 1, 1951, ch. 664, Ch. XIII, §1301, 65 Stat. 755.

Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. XII, §1201, 64 Stat. 763.

Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title III, §301, 63 Stat. 661.

Apr. 20, 1948, ch. 219, title II, §201, 62 Stat. 193.

July 30, 1947, ch. 359, title II, §201, 61 Stat. 608.

§1344. Passenger carrier use

(a)(1) Funds available to a Federal agency, by appropriation or otherwise, may be expended by the Federal agency for the maintenance, operation, or repair of any passenger carrier only to the extent that such carrier is used to provide transportation for official purposes. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, transporting any individual other than the individuals listed in subsections (b) and (c) of this section between such individual's residence and such individual's place of employment is not transportation for an official purpose.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), transportation between the residence of an officer or employee and various locations that is—

(A) required for the performance of field work, in accordance with regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (e) of this section, or

(B) essential for the safe and efficient performance of intelligence, counterintelligence, protective services, or criminal law enforcement duties,


is transportation for an official purpose, when approved in writing by the head of the Federal agency.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), the transportation of an individual between such individual's place of employment and a mass transit facility pursuant to subsection (g) is transportation for an official purpose.

(b) A passenger carrier may be used to transport between residence and place of employment the following officers and employees of Federal agencies:

(1)(A) the President and the Vice President;

(B) no more than 6 officers or employees in the Executive Office of the President, as designated by the President; and

(C) no more than 10 additional officers or employees of Federal agencies, as designated by the President;

(2) the Chief Justice and the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court;

(3)(A) officers compensated at Level I of the Executive Schedule pursuant to section 5312 of title 5; and

(B) a single principal deputy to an officer described in subclause (A) of this clause, when a determination is made by such officer that such transportation is appropriate;

(4) principal diplomatic and consular officials abroad, and the United States Ambassador to the United Nations;

(5) the Deputy Secretary of Defense and Under Secretaries of Defense, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the members and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Commandant of the Coast Guard;

(6) the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives 1 the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

(7) the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System;

(8) the Comptroller General of the United States and the Postmaster General of the United States; and

(9) an officer or employee with regard to whom the head of a Federal agency makes a determination, in accordance with subsection (d) of this section and with regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (e), that highly unusual circumstances present a clear and present danger, that an emergency exists, or that other compelling operational considerations make such transportation essential to the conduct of official business.


Except as provided in paragraph (2) of subsection (d), any authorization made pursuant to clause (9) of this subsection to permit the use of a passenger carrier to transport an officer or employee between residence and place of employment shall be effective for not more than 15 calendar days.

(c) A passenger carrier may be used to transport between residence and place of employment any person for whom protection is specifically authorized pursuant to section 3056(a) of title 18 or for whom transportation is authorized pursuant to section 28 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, section 2637 of title 10, or section 8(a)(1) of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949.

(d)(1) Any determination made under subsection (b)(9) of this section shall be in writing and shall include the name and title of the officer or employee affected, the reason for such determination, and the duration of the authorization for such officer or employee to use a passenger carrier for transportation between residence and place of employment.

(2) If a clear and present danger, an emergency, or a compelling operational consideration described in subsection (b)(9) of this section extends or may extend for a period in excess of 15 calendar days, the head of the Federal agency shall determine whether an authorization under such paragraph shall be extended in excess of 15 calendar days for a period of not more than 90 additional calendar days. Determinations made under this paragraph may be reviewed by the head of such agency at the end of each such period, and, where appropriate, a subsequent determination may be made whether such danger, emergency, or consideration continues to exist and whether an additional extension, not to exceed 90 calendar days, may be authorized. Determinations made under this paragraph shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (e).

(3) The authority to make designations under subsection (b)(1) of this section and to make determinations pursuant to subsections (a)(2) and (b)(3)(B) and (9) of this section and pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection may not be delegated, except that, with respect to the Executive Office of the President, the President may delegate the authority of the President under subsection (b)(9) of this section to an officer in the Executive Office of the President. No designation or determination under this section may be made solely or principally for the comfort or convenience of the officer or employee.

(4) Notification of each designation or determination made under subsection (b)(1), (3)(B), and (9) of this section and under paragraph (2) of this subsection, including the name and title of the officer or employee affected, the reason for any determination under subsection (b)(9), and the expected duration of any authorization under subsection (b)(9), shall be transmitted promptly to the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate.

(e)(1) Not later than March 15, 1987, the Administrator of General Services, after consultation with the Comptroller General, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, shall promulgate regulations governing the heads of all Federal agencies in making the determinations authorized by subsections (a)(2)(A), (b)(9), and (d)(2) of this section. Such regulations shall specify that the comfort and convenience of an officer or employee is not sufficient justification for authorizations of transportation under this section.

(2) In promulgating regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Administrator of General Services shall provide criteria defining the term "field work" for purposes of subsection (a)(2)(A) of this section. Such criteria shall ensure that transportation between an employee's residence and the location of the field work will be authorized only to the extent that such transportation will substantially increase the efficiency and economy of the Government.

(f) Each Federal agency shall maintain logs or other records necessary to establish the official purpose for Government transportation provided between an individual's residence and such individual's place of employment pursuant to this section.

(g)(1) If and to the extent that the head of a Federal agency, in his or her sole discretion, deems it appropriate, a passenger carrier may be used to transport an officer or employee of a Federal agency between the officer's or employee's place of employment and a mass transit facility (whether or not publicly owned) in accordance with succeeding provisions of this subsection.

(2) Notwithstanding section 1343, a Federal agency that provides transportation services under this subsection (including by passenger carrier) may absorb the costs of such services using any funds available to such agency, whether by appropriation or otherwise.

(3) In carrying out this subsection, a Federal agency, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent with sound budget policy, should—

(A) use alternative fuel vehicles for the provision of transportation services;

(B) to the extent consistent with the purposes of this subsection, provide transportation services in a manner that does not result in additional gross income for Federal income tax purposes; and

(C) coordinate with other Federal agencies to share, and otherwise avoid duplication of, transportation services provided under this subsection.


(4) For purposes of any determination under chapter 81 of title 5 or chapter 171 of title 28, an individual shall not be considered to be in the "performance of duty" or "acting within the scope of his or her office or employment" by virtue of the fact that such individual is receiving transportation services under this subsection. Nor shall any time during which an individual uses such services be considered when calculating the hours of work or employment for that individual for purposes of title 5 of the United States Code, including chapter 55 of that title.

(5)(A) The Administrator of General Services, after consultation with the appropriate agencies, shall prescribe any regulations necessary to carry out this subsection.

(B) Transportation services under this subsection shall be subject neither to the last sentence of subsection (d)(3) nor to any regulations under the last sentence of subsection (e)(1).

(6) In this subsection, the term "passenger carrier" means a passenger motor vehicle or similar means of transportation that is owned, leased, or provided pursuant to contract by the United States Government.

(h) As used in this section—

(1) the term "passenger carrier" means a passenger motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, ship, or other similar means of transportation that is owned or leased by the United States Government; and

(2) the term "Federal agency" means—

(A) a department—

(i) including independent establishments, other agencies, and wholly owned Government corporations; but

(ii) not including the Senate, House of Representatives, or Architect of the Capitol, or the officers or employees thereof;


(B) an Executive department (as such term is defined in section 101 of title 5);

(C) a military department (as such term is defined in section 102 of title 5);

(D) a Government corporation (as such term is defined in section 103(1) of title 5);

(E) a Government controlled corporation (as such term is defined in section 103(2) of title 5);

(F) a mixed-ownership Government corporation (as such term is defined in section 9101(2) of this title);

(G) any establishment in the executive branch of the Government (including the Executive Office of the President);

(H) any independent regulatory agency (including an independent regulatory agency specified in section 3502(10) 2 of title 44);

(I) the Smithsonian Institution; and

(J) any nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the United States,


except that such term does not include the government of the District of Columbia.


(i) Notwithstanding section 410(a) of title 39, this section applies to the United States Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 924; Pub. L. 99–550, §1(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3067; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1314(d)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329, 1329-26; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title III, §326(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1531; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(2), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1363; Pub. L. 104–91, title I, §101(a), Jan. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 11, amended Pub. L. 104–99, title II, §211, Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 37; Pub. L. 108–7, div. K, title IV, §423, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title I, §117, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2870; Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §3049(b)(1), (2), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1712, 1713; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(h)(4), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3849.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1344(a) 31:638a(c)(2)(1st sentence). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(c)(2)(1st, last sentences), 38 Stat. 508; restated Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810.
1344(b) 31:638a(c)(2)(last sentence).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "officers and employees of the Government" are substituted for "officers and employees" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "performing field work requiring transportation" are substituted for "engaged in field work the character of whose duties makes such transportation necessary" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "agency" is substituted for "department" because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency with the source provisions restated in the section and section 1341.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "section 101 of title 5" are used because of section 7(b) of the Act of September 6, 1966 (Pub. L. 89–554, 80 Stat. 631).

In subsection (b)(3), the words "ambassadors, ministers, charges d'affaires" are omitted as being included in "principal diplomatic and consular officials".

References in Text

Section 28 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, referred to in subsec. (c), is classified to section 2700 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section 8(a)(1) of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (c), is classified to section 3510(a)(1) of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), (4), was redesignated subsec. (b)(3)(B) by Pub. L. 100–202. See 1987 Amendment note below.

Section 3502 of title 44, referred to in subsec. (h)(2)(H), which in par. (10) defined "independent regulatory agency", was omitted in the general amendment of chapter 35 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, by Pub. L. 104–13, §2, May 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 163. Pub. L. 104–13 enacted a new section 3502 of Title 44 which also defines "independent regulatory agency".

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–91 is based on section 118 of H.R. 2076, One Hundred Fourth Congress, as passed by the House of Representatives on Dec. 6, 1995, which was enacted into law by Pub. L. 104–91.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–350 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "a department (as such term is defined in section 18 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (41 U.S.C. 5a));".

2005—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 109–59, §3049(b)(2), added par. (3).

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 109–59, §3049(b)(1), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsecs. (g) and (h) as (h) and (i), respectively.

2004—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 108–447 inserted "Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives" after "Federal Bureau of Investigation,".

2003—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 108–7 added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration;".

1996—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 104–91, as amended by Pub. L. 104–99, amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation;".

1994—Subsecs. (b), (d), (e). Pub. L. 103–272 amended Pub. L. 100–202. See 1987 Amendment notes below.

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510 inserted ", section 2637 of title 10," after "Act of 1956".

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(1)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, added cl. (2), redesignated former cl. (2) as (3) and in subcl. (B) substituted "subclause (A) of this clause" for "subparagraph (A) of this paragraph", redesignated former cls. (3) to (8) as (4) to (9), respectively, and in last sentence substituted "clause (9)" for "paragraph (8)".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–180 inserted "the members and Vice Chairman of" before "the Joint Chiefs of Staff".

Subsec. (d)(1), (2). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(2)(A)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted "subsection (b)(9) of this section" for "paragraph (8) of subsection (b)".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(2)(B)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted "subsections (a)(2) and (b)(3)(B) and (9)" for "subsections (a)(2), (b)(2)(B), and (b)(8)" and "subsection (b)(9)" for "subsection (b)(8)".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(2)(C)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted "subsection (b)(1), (3)(B), and (9) of this section" and "subsection (b)(9), and the expected duration of any authorization under subsection (b)(9)" for "paragraphs (1), (2)(B), and (8) of subsection (b)" and "paragraph (8) of subsection (b), and the expected duration of any authorization under such paragraph", respectively.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(3)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted "(b)(9)" for "(b)(8)".

1986Pub. L. 99–550 substituted "carrier" for "motor vehicle and aircraft" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) Except as specifically provided by law, an appropriation may be expended to maintain, operate, and repair passenger motor vehicles or aircraft of the United States Government that are used only for an official purpose. An official purpose does not include transporting officers or employees of the Government between their domiciles and places of employment except—

"(1) medical officers on out-patient medical service; and

"(2) officers or employees performing field work requiring transportation between their domiciles and places of employment when the transportation is approved by the head of the agency.

"(b) This section does not apply to a motor vehicle or aircraft for the official use of—

"(1) the President;

"(2) the heads of executive departments listed in section 101 of title 5; or

"(3) principal diplomatic and consular officials."

Change of Name

Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.

Committee on Government Operations of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Government Reform of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 6, 1999. Committee on Government Reform of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title I, §117, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2870, provided in part that: "This amendment [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on January 1, 2004."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(2), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1363, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Dec. 22, 1987.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Coordination

Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §3049(b)(3), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1713, provided that: "The authority to provide transportation services under section 1344(g) of title 31, United States Code (as amended by paragraph (1)) shall be in addition to any authority otherwise available to the agency involved."

Use of Government Vehicles

Pub. L. 101–194, title V, §503, Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1755, as amended by Pub. L. 101–280, §6(b), May 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 160, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the head of each department, agency, or other entity of each branch of the Government may prescribe by rule appropriate conditions for the incidental use, for other than official business, of vehicles owned or leased by the Government. Such use with respect to vehicles owned or leased by, or the cost of which is reimbursed by, the House of Representatives or the Senate shall be only as prescribed by rule of the House of Representatives or the Senate, as applicable."

Use of Official Vehicles of House of Representatives

Pub. L. 101–194, title VIII, §802(d), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1773, as amended by Pub. L. 104–186, title II, §219(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1747, provided that: "The Committee on House Oversight [now Committee on House Administration] of the House of Representatives shall take such action as may be necessary to carry out section 503 [set out above] with respect to vehicles of the House of Representatives."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

§1345. Expenses of meetings

Except as specifically provided by law, an appropriation may not be used for travel, transportation, and subsistence expenses for a meeting. This section does not prohibit—

(1) an agency from paying the expenses of an officer or employee of the United States Government carrying out an official duty; and

(2) the Secretary of Agriculture from paying necessary expenses for a meeting called by the Secretary for 4–H Boys and Girls Clubs as part of the cooperative extension work of the Department of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 925.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1345 31:551. Feb. 2, 1935, ch. 4, 49 Stat. 19.
  31:552. June 17, 1935, ch. 271, 49 Stat. 387.

In the section, before clause (1), the word "appropriation" is substituted for "no moneys from funds appropriated for any purpose" in 31:551 for consistency in the revised title. The words "travel, transportation, and subsistence expenses for a meeting" are substituted for "the purpose of lodging, feeding, conveying, or furnishing transportation to, any conventions or other form of assemblage or gathering" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "to be held in the District of Columbia or elsewhere" are omitted as unnecessary.

In clause (1), the words "agency from paying" are substituted for "the payment of" for clarity and because of section 101 of the revised title.

Availability of Appropriations for Expenses of Attending Meetings

Pub. L. 102–394, title V, §505, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1825, provided that: "Appropriations contained in this Act or subsequent Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Acts, available for salaries and expenses, shall be available for expenses of attendance at meetings which are concerned with the functions or activities for which the appropriation is made or which will contribute to improved conduct, supervision, or management of those functions or activities."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–170, title V, §505, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1141.

Pub. L. 101–517, title V, §505, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2221.

Pub. L. 101–166, title V, §505, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1189.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(h) [title V, §505], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–256, 1329-287.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(i) [H.R. 5233, title V, §505], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–287, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(i) [H.R. 5233, title V, §505], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–287.

Pub. L. 99–178, title V, §505, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1132.

Pub. L. 98–619, title V, §505, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3333.

Pub. L. 98–139, title V, §505, Oct. 31, 1983, 97 Stat. 899.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(e)(1) [title V, §505], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1878, 1904.

§1346. Commissions, councils, boards, and interagency and similar groups

(a) Except as provided in this section—

(1) public money and appropriations are not available to pay—

(A) the pay or expenses of a commission, council, board, or similar group, or a member of that group;

(B) expenses related to the work or the results of work or action of that group; or

(C) for the detail or cost of personal services of an officer or employee from an executive agency in connection with that group; and


(2) an accounting or disbursing official, absent a special appropriation to pay the account or charge, may not allow or pay an account or charge related to that group.


(b) Appropriations of an executive agency are available for the expenses of an interagency group conducting activities of interest common to executive agencies when the group includes a representative of the agency. The representatives receive no additional pay because of membership in the group. An officer or employee of an executive agency not a representative of the group may not receive additional pay for providing services for the group.

(c) Subject to section 1347 of this title, this section does not apply to—

(1) commissions, councils, boards, or similar groups authorized by law;

(2) courts-martial or courts of inquiry of the armed forces; or

(3) the contingent fund related to foreign relations at the disposal of the President.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 925.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1346(a) 31:672(1st sentence less words between 4th and 5th commas). R.S. §3681.
  31:673(less words between 11th comma and semicolon). Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 299, §9, 35 Stat. 1027.
1346(b) 31:691. May 3, 1945, ch. 106, §214, 59 Stat. 134.
1346(c) 31:672(1st sentence words between 4th and 5th commas), (last sentence).
  31:673(words between 11th comma and semicolon).

In the section, the words "executive agency" are substituted for "any executive department or other Government establishment" for clarity and because of section 102 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1), before subclause (A), the words "made by Congress" are omitted as surplus. In subclause (C), the words "the detail or cost of personal services of an officer" are substituted for "by detail, hereafter or heretofore made, or otherwise personal services" to eliminate unnecessary words and for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "of the Government" are omitted as surplus. The words "absent a special appropriation" are substituted for "until special appropriations shall have been made by law" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words "On or after May 3, 1945" are omitted as executed. The words "interagency group" are substituted for "committees, boards, or other interagency groups" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "includes a representative of the agency" are substituted for "composed in whole or in part of representatives thereof" for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "authorized by law" are substituted for "unless the creation . . . shall be or shall have been authorized by law" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "armed forces" are substituted for "military or naval service of the United States" for consistency.

Subsection (c)(3) is substituted for the last sentence of 31:672 to eliminate unnecessary words.

§1347. Appropriations or authorizations required for agencies in existence for more than one year

(a) An agency in existence for more than one year may not use amounts otherwise available for obligation to pay its expenses without a specific appropriation or specific authorization by law. If the principal duties and powers of the agency are substantially the same as or similar to the duties and powers of an agency established by executive order, the agency established later is deemed to have been in existence from the date the agency established by the order came into existence.

(b) Except as specifically authorized by law, another agency may not use amounts available for obligation to pay expenses to carry out duties and powers substantially the same as or similar to the principal duties and powers of an agency that is prohibited from using amounts under this section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 925.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1347(a) 31:696(1st, 2d sentences). June 27, 1944, ch. 286, §213, 58 Stat. 387.
1347(b) 31:696(last sentence).

In the section, the word "agency" is substituted for "agency or instrumentality" because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency. The words "amounts otherwise available for obligation" are substituted for "any appropriation or fund made available by this or any other Act", and the words "duties and powers" are substituted for "functions", for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words "After January 1, 1945" are omitted as executed. The words "including those established by Executive order" are omitted the first time they appear as surplus. The words "from the date . . . came into existence" are substituted for "during the existence" for clarity.

In subsection (b), the word "amounts" is substituted for "appropriations" for consistency in the revised title.

§1348. Telephone installation and charges

(a)(1) Except as provided in this section, appropriations are not available to install telephones in private residences or for tolls or other charges for telephone service from private residences.

(2) Under regulations of the Secretary of State, appropriations may be used to install and pay for the use of telephones in residences owned or leased by the United States Government in foreign countries for the use of the Foreign Service.

(b) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army on recommendation of the Chief of Engineers, not more than $30,000 may be expended each fiscal year to install and use in private residences telephones required for official business in constructing and operating locks and dams for navigation, flood control, and related water uses.

(c) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense are available to install, repair, and maintain telephone wiring in residences owned or leased by the United States Government and, if necessary for national defense purposes, in other private residences.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926; Pub. L. 98–407, title VIII, §811(a), Aug. 28, 1984, 98 Stat. 1523; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XVII, §1721, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2758.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1348(a)(1) 31:679(words before 2d comma). Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 350, §7(less proviso), 37 Stat. 414.
1348(a)(2) 31:679(proviso). Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 350, 37 Stat. 360, §7(proviso); added Apr. 30, 1940, ch. 175, 54 Stat. 175.
1348(b) 31:679(words between 2d comma and proviso).
  31:680a. May 10, 1939, ch. 119, §4, 53 Stat. 738.
1348(c) 31:680. Sept. 22, 1922, ch. 427, §7, 42 Stat. 1042; May 17, 1950, ch. 188, §203, 64 Stat. 170; restated June 28, 1955, ch. 198, 69 Stat. 188.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "or private apartment" are omitted as being included in "private residences".

In subsection (a)(2), the word "appropriations" is substituted for "Government funds", and the word "calls" is substituted for "tolls", for consistency. The word "official" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "On and after May 10, 1939" in 31:680a are omitted as executed. The word "agency" is substituted for "executive department, establishment, or agency" for clarity and because of section 101 of the revised title. The words "official business" are substituted for "public business" in 31:679 and "transaction of public business which the interests of the Government require to be so transacted" in 31:680a to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "division, bureau, or office" in 31:679 are omitted as being included in "agency". The words "or such subordinates as he may specially designate" in 31:680a are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words "On and after September 22, 1922 the provisions of section 679 of this title, or any other law prohibiting the expenditure of public money . . . shall not be construed to apply to or forbid" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §1721(1), struck out at end "Subsection (b) of this section applies to long-distance calls made on those telephones."

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 104–201, §1721(2), (3), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (b) and (c), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: "Appropriations of an agency are available to pay charges for a long-distance call if required for official business and the voucher to pay for the call is sworn to by the head of the agency. Appropriations of an executive agency are available only if the head of the agency also certifies that the call is necessary in the interest of the Government."

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–407 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–201 effective 180 days after Sept. 23, 1996, see section 1725(a) of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 5722 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–407, title VIII, §811(b), Aug. 28, 1984, 98 Stat. 1523, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective as of January 1, 1984. Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may be used to reimburse persons for expenditures made after December 31, 1983, for the installation, repair, and maintenance of telephone wiring in any Government-owned or leased housing unit before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1984]."

Employees Authorized To Work at Home

Pub. L. 104–52, title VI, §620, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 501, provided that: "Notwithstanding any provisions of this or any other Act, during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996, and hereafter, any department, division, bureau, or office may use funds appropriated by this or any other Act to install telephone lines, and necessary equipment, and to pay monthly charges, in any private residence or private apartment of an employee who has been authorized to work at home in accordance with guidelines issued by the Office of Personnel Management: Provided, That the head of the department, division, bureau, or office certifies that adequate safeguards against private misuse exist, and that the service is necessary for direct support of the agency's mission."

§1349. Adverse personnel actions

(a) An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government violating section 1341(a) or 1342 of this title shall be subject to appropriate administrative discipline including, when circumstances warrant, suspension from duty without pay or removal from office.

(b) An officer or employee who willfully uses or authorizes the use of a passenger motor vehicle or aircraft owned or leased by the United States Government (except for an official purpose authorized by section 1344 of this title) or otherwise violates section 1344 shall be suspended without pay by the head of the agency. The officer or employee shall be suspended for at least one month, and when circumstances warrant, for a longer period or summarily removed from office.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1349(a) 31:665(i)(1)(words before semicolon related to (a), (b)). R.S. §3679(i)(1)(words before semicolon related to (a), (b)); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 768.
1349(b) 31:638a(c)(2)(2d sentence). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(c)(2)(2d sentence), 38 Stat. 508; restated Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810.

In subsection (a), the words "In addition to any penalty or liability under other law" are omitted as surplus. The words "District of Columbia government" are added because of section 47–105 of the D.C. Code.

In subsection (b), the words "of the Government" and "from duty" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The word "pay" is substituted for "compensation" for consistency. The word "agency" is substituted for "department" because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency.

§1350. Criminal penalty

An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government knowingly and willfully violating section 1341(a) or 1342 of this title shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1350 31:665(i)(1)(words after semicolon related to (a), (b)). R.S. §3679(i)(1)(words after semicolon related to (a), (b)); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 768.

The words "District of Columbia government" are added because of section 47–105 of the D.C. Code. The words "upon conviction" are omitted as surplus.

§1351. Reports on violations

If an officer or employee of an executive agency or an officer or employee of the District of Columbia government violates section 1341(a) or 1342 of this title, the head of the agency or the Mayor of the District of Columbia, as the case may be, shall report immediately to the President and Congress all relevant facts and a statement of actions taken. A copy of each report shall also be transmitted to the Comptroller General on the same date the report is transmitted to the President and Congress.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926; Pub. L. 108–447, div. G, title I, §1401(a), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3192.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1351 31:665(i)(2)(related to (a), (b)). R.S. §3679(i)(2)(related to (a), (b)); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1404, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 768.

The words "executive agency" are substituted for "agency" because the definition of "agency" in 31:665(d)(2) applies to the source provisions restated in the section and because of section 102 of the revised title. The word "Mayor" is used because of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1967 (eff. Aug. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 948) and sections 421, 422, and 771 of the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganization Act (Pub. L. 93–198, 87 Stat. 789, 818). The word "President" is substituted for "President, through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget" because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President.

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–447 inserted at end "A copy of each report shall also be transmitted to the Comptroller General on the same date the report is transmitted to the President and Congress."

§1352. Limitation on use of appropriated funds to influence certain Federal contracting and financial transactions

(a)(1) None of the funds appropriated by any Act may be expended by the recipient of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement to pay any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with any Federal action described in paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(2) The prohibition in paragraph (1) of this subsection applies with respect to the following Federal actions:

(A) The awarding of any Federal contract.

(B) The making of any Federal grant.

(C) The making of any Federal loan.

(D) The entering into of any cooperative agreement.

(E) The extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.


(b)(1) Each person who requests or receives a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement from an agency or requests or receives from an agency a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan shall file with that agency, in accordance with paragraph (4) of this subsection—

(A) a written declaration described in paragraph (2) or (3) of this subsection, as the case may be; and

(B) copies of all declarations received by such person under paragraph (5).


(2) A declaration filed by a person pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection in connection with a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement shall contain—

(A) the name of any registrant under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 who has made lobbying contacts on behalf of the person with respect to that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement; and

(B) a certification that the person making the declaration has not made, and will not make, any payment prohibited by subsection (a).


(3) A declaration filed by a person pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection in connection with a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan shall contain the name of any registrant under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 who has made lobbying contacts on behalf of the person in connection with that loan insurance or guarantee.

(4) A person referred to in paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall file a declaration referred to in that paragraph—

(A) with each submission by such person that initiates agency consideration of such person for award of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, or for grant of a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan;

(B) upon receipt by such person of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or of a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, unless such person previously filed a declaration with respect to such contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement or commitment pursuant to clause (A); and

(C) at the end of each calendar quarter in which there occurs any event that materially affects the accuracy of the information contained in any declaration previously filed by such person in connection with such Federal contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement, loan insurance commitment, or loan guaranty commitment.


(5) Any person who requests or receives from a person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection a subcontract under a Federal contract, a subgrant or contract under a Federal grant, a contract or subcontract to carry out any purpose for which a particular Federal loan is made, or a contract under a Federal cooperative agreement shall be required to file with the person referred to in such paragraph a written declaration referred to in clause (A) of such paragraph.

(6) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, after consulting with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives, shall issue guidance for agency implementation of, and compliance with, the requirements of this section.

(c)(1) Any person who makes an expenditure prohibited by subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such expenditure.

(2)(A) Any person who fails to file or amend a declaration required to be filed or amended under subsection (b) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure.

(B) A filing of a declaration of a declaration amendment on or after the date on which an administrative action for the imposition of a civil penalty under this subsection is commenced does not prevent the imposition of such civil penalty for a failure occurring before that date. For the purposes of this subparagraph, an administrative action is commenced with respect to a failure when an investigating official determines in writing to commence an investigation of an allegation of such failure.

(3) Sections 3803 (except for subsection (c)), 3804, 3805, 3806, 3807, 3808, and 3812 of this title shall be applied, consistent with the requirements of this section, to the imposition and collection of civil penalties under this subsection.

(4) An imposition of a civil penalty under this subsection does not prevent the United States from seeking any other remedy that the United States may have for the same conduct that is the basis for the imposition of such civil penalty.

(d)(1)(A) Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not apply in the case of a payment of reasonable compensation made to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement to the extent that the payment is for agency and legislative liaison activities not directly related to a Federal action referred to in subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(B) Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not prohibit any reasonable payment to a person in connection with, or any payment of reasonable compensation to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving, a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or an extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement if the payment is for professional or technical services rendered directly in the preparation, submission, or negotiation of any bid, proposal, or application for that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or for meeting requirements imposed by or pursuant to law as a condition for receiving that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.

(C) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as permitting the use of appropriated funds for making any payment prohibited in or pursuant to any other provision of law.

(2) The reporting requirement in subsection (b) of this section shall not apply to any person with respect to—

(A) payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly employed officers or employees of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan;

(B) a request for or receipt of a contract (other than a contract referred to in clause (C)), grant, cooperative agreement, subcontract (other than a subcontract referred to in clause (C)), or subgrant that does not exceed $100,000; and

(C) a request for or receipt of a loan, or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, that does not exceed $150,000, or the single family maximum mortgage limit for affected programs, whichever is greater, including a contract or subcontract to carry out any purpose for which such a loan is made.


(e) The Secretary of Defense may exempt a Federal action described in subsection (a)(2) from the prohibition in subsection (a)(1) whenever the Secretary determines, in writing, that such an exemption is in the national interest. The Secretary shall transmit a copy of each such written exemption to Congress immediately after making such determination.

(f) The head of each Federal agency shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the provisions of this section are vigorously implemented and enforced in such agency.

(g) As used in this section:

(1) The term "recipient", with respect to funds received in connection with a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement—

(A) includes the contractors, subcontractors, or subgrantees (as the case may be) of the recipient; but

(B) does not include an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or any other Indian organization eligible to receive Federal contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or loans from an agency but only with respect to expenditures that are by such tribe or organization for purposes specified in subsection (a) and are permitted by other Federal law.


(2) The term "agency" has the same meaning provided for such term in section 552(f) of title 5, and includes a Government corporation, as defined in section 9101(1) of this title.

(3) The term "person"—

(A) includes an individual, corporation, company, association, authority, firm, partnership, society, State, and local government, regardless of whether such entity is operated for profit or not for profit; but

(B) does not include an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or any other Indian organization eligible to receive Federal contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or loans from an agency but only with respect to expenditures by such tribe or organization that are made for purposes specified in subsection (a) and are permitted by other Federal law.


(4) The term "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a territory or possession of the United States, an agency or instrumentality of a State, and a multi-State, regional, or interstate entity having governmental duties and powers.

(5) The term "local government" means a unit of government in a State and, if chartered, established, or otherwise recognized by a State for the performance of a governmental duty, the following entities:

(A) A local public authority.

(B) A special district.

(C) An intrastate district.

(D) A council of governments.

(E) A sponsor group representative organization.

(F) Any other instrumentality of a local government.


(6)(A) The terms "Federal contract", "Federal grant", "Federal cooperative agreement" mean, respectively—

(i) a contract awarded by an agency;

(ii) a grant made by an agency or a direct appropriation made by law to any person; and

(iii) a cooperative agreement entered into by an agency.


(B) Such terms do not include—

(i) direct United States cash assistance to an individual;

(ii) a loan;

(iii) loan insurance; or

(iv) a loan guaranty.


(7) The term "Federal loan" means a loan made by an agency. Such term does not include loan insurance or a loan guaranty.

(8) The term "reasonable payment" means, with respect to professional and other technical services, a payment in an amount that is consistent with the amount normally paid for such services in the private sector.

(9) The term "reasonable compensation" means, with respect to a regularly employed officer or employee of any person, compensation that is consistent with the normal compensation for such officer or employee for work that is not furnished to, not funded by, or not furnished in cooperation with the Federal Government.

(10) The term "regularly employed", with respect to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, means an officer or employee who is employed by such person for at least 130 working days within one year immediately preceding the date of the submission that initiates agency consideration of such person for receipt of such contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement, loan insurance commitment, or loan guaranty commitment.

(11) The terms "Indian tribe" and "tribal organization" have the meaning provided in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b).1

(Added Pub. L. 101–121, title III, §319(a)(1), Oct. 23, 1989, 103 Stat. 750; amended Pub. L. 101–512, title III, §320, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1977; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(F), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1362; Pub. L. 104–65, §10, Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 700; Pub. L. 104–66, title III, §3001(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 734; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1064(c), div. D, title XLIII, §4301(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 445, 656.)

References in Text

The Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A), (3), is Pub. L. 104–65, Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 691, which is classified principally to chapter 26 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 2, The Congress. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 2 and Tables.

Section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b), referred to in subsec. (g)(11), was classified to section 450b of Title 25, Indians, prior to editorial reclassification as section 5304 of Title 25.

Codification

Another section 1352 was renumbered section 1353 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–106, §4301(a)(2), which directed amendment of par. (2) by inserting "and" after the semicolon at the end of subpar. (A) and by striking out subpar. (C), was not executed because subsec. (b)(2) did not contain a subpar. (C) subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 104–65, §10(a)(1). See 1995 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 104–106, §1064(c)(1), which directed insertion of "(other than the Secretary of Defense and Secretary of a military department)" after "The head of each agency", could not be executed because subsec. (b)(6) did not contain a subpar. (A) subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 104–65, §10(a)(3). See 1995 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §1064(c)(2), which directed the insertion of "(other than in the case of the Department of Defense or a military department)" after "paragraph (3) of this subsection", could not be executed because subsec. (d)(1) did not contain phrase "paragraph (3) of this subsection" subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 104–65, §10(b). See 1995 Amendment note below.

1995—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–65, §10(a)(1), added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) to (C) which read as follows:

"(A) a statement setting forth whether such person—

"(i) has made any payment with respect to that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, using funds other than appropriated funds, which would be prohibited by subsection (a) of this section if the payment were paid for with appropriated funds; or

"(ii) has agreed to make any such payment;

"(B) with respect to each such payment (if any) and each such agreement (if any)—

"(i) the name and address of each person paid, to be paid, or reasonably expected to be paid;

"(ii) the name and address of each individual performing the services for which such payment is made, to be made, or reasonably expected to be made;

"(iii) the amount paid, to be paid, or reasonably expected to be paid;

"(iv) how the person was paid, is to be paid, or is reasonably expected to be paid; and

"(v) the activity for which the person was paid, is to be paid, or is reasonably expected to be paid; and

"(C) a certification that the person making the declaration has not made, and will not make, any payment prohibited by subsection (a)."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–65, §10(a)(2), substituted "shall contain the name of any registrant under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 who has made lobbying contacts on behalf of the person in connection with that  loan  insurance  or  guarantee."  for  "shall  contain—" and struck out subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) a statement setting forth whether such person—

"(i) has made any payment to influence or attempt to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with that loan insurance or guaranty; or

"(ii) has agreed to make any such payment; and

"(B) with respect to each such payment (if any) and each such agreement (if any), the information described in paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection."

Subsec. (b)(6), (7). Pub. L. 104–65, §10(a)(3), redesignated par. (7) as (6), and struck out former par. (6) which directed head of each agency to collect and compile detailed information on any unappropriated payments under Federal contracts, and report such information to the appropriate congressional officer or committee.

Subsecs. (d) to (h). Pub. L. 104–65, §10(b), and Pub. L. 104–66, §3001(b), amended section identically, redesignating subsecs. (e) to (h) as (d) to (g), respectively, and striking out former subsec. (d) which directed the Inspector General or official of each agency to submit annual reports to Congress on the compliance of each agency with the requirements imposed by this section.

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(F)(i), substituted "(c)(1) Any person" for "(C)(1) Any person".

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(F)(ii), substituted "appropriated" for "appropirated" and inserted period at end.

Subsec. (h)(7). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(F)(iii), inserted periods after "agency" and "guaranty".

1990—Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–512 inserted "or the single family maximum mortgage limit for affected programs, whichever is greater," after "$150,000,".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 104–106, see section 4401 of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 2302 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–65 effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided, see section 24 of Pub. L. 104–65, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1601 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 101–121, title III, §319(d), Oct. 23, 1989, 103 Stat. 756, provided that: "Section 1352 of title 31, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), shall take effect with respect to Federal contracts, grants, loans, cooperative agreements, loan insurance commitments, and loan guaranty commitments that are entered into or made more than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1989]."

First Report on May 31, 1990; Content

Pub. L. 101–121, title III, §319(b), Oct. 23, 1989, 103 Stat. 756, provided that the first report submitted under former subsec. (b)(6) of this section was to be submitted on May 31, 1990, and was to contain a compilation relating to the statements received under subsec. (b) of this section during the six-month period beginning on Oct. 1, 1989.

Notification of Compliance Date; Guidance for Agency Implementation

Pub. L. 101–121, title III, §319(c), Oct. 23, 1989, 103 Stat. 756, provided that: "The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall notify the head of each agency that section 1352 of title 31, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), is to be complied with commencing 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1989]. Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall issue the guidance required by subsection (b)(7) [now (b)(6)] of such section."

1 See References in Text note below.

§1353. Acceptance of travel and related expenses from non-Federal sources

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Government Ethics, shall prescribe by regulation the conditions under which an agency in the executive branch (including an independent agency) may accept payment, or authorize an employee of such agency to accept payment on the agency's behalf, from non-Federal sources for travel, subsistence, and related expenses with respect to attendance of the employee (or the spouse of such employee) at any meeting or similar function relating to the official duties of the employee. Any cash payment so accepted shall be credited to the appropriation applicable to such expenses. In the case of a payment in kind so accepted, a pro rata reduction shall be made in any entitlement of the employee to payment from the Government for such expenses.

(b) Except as provided in this section or section 4111 or 7342 of title 5, an agency or employee may not accept payment for expenses referred to in subsection (a). An employee who accepts any payment in violation of the preceding sentence—

(1) may be required, in addition to any penalty provided by law, to repay, for deposit in the general fund of the Treasury, an amount equal to the amount of the payment so accepted; and

(2) in the case of a repayment under paragraph (1), shall not be entitled to any payment from the Government for such expenses.


(c) As used in this section—

(1) the term "executive branch" means all executive agencies (as such term is defined in section 105 of title 5); and

(2) the term "employee in the executive branch" means—

(A) an appointed officer or employee in the executive branch; and

(B) an expert or consultant in the executive branch, under section 3109 of title 5; and


(3) the term "payment" means a payment or reimbursement, in cash or in kind.


(d)(1) The head of each agency of the executive branch shall, in the manner provided in paragraph (2), submit to the Director of the Office of Government Ethics reports of payments of more than $250 accepted under this section with respect to employees of the agency. The Director shall make such reports available for public inspection and copying.

(2) The reports required by paragraph (1) shall, with respect to each payment—

(A) specify the amount and method of payment, the name of the person making the payment, the name of the employee, the nature of the meeting or similar function, the time and place of travel, the nature of the expenses, and such other information as the Administrator of General Services may prescribe by regulation under subsection (a);

(B) be submitted not later than May 31 of each year with respect to payments in the preceding period beginning on October 1 and ending on March 31; and

(C) be submitted not later than November 30 of each year with respect to payments in the preceding period beginning on April 1 and ending on September 30.

(Added Pub. L. 101–194, title III, §302(a), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1745, §1352; renumbered §1353 and amended Pub. L. 101–280, §4(b)(1), (c), May 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 157, 158.)

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–280, §4(b)(1), renumbered section 1352 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(c)(1), substituted "in the executive branch (including an independent agency) may accept payment, or authorize an employee of such agency to accept payment on the agency's behalf," for "or employee in the executive branch may accept payment".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(c)(2)(A), inserted "or 7342" after "section 4111".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(c)(2)(B), substituted "(1)," for "(1)".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(c)(3), substituted "all executive agencies" for "any executive agency".

§1354. Limitation on use of appropriated funds for contracts with entities not meeting veterans' employment reporting requirements

(a)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), no agency may obligate or expend funds appropriated for the agency for a fiscal year to enter into a contract described in section 4212(a) of title 38 with a contractor from which a report was required under section 4212(d) of that title with respect to the preceding fiscal year if such contractor did not submit such report.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall cease to apply with respect to a contractor otherwise covered by that paragraph on the date on which the contractor submits the report required by such section 4212(d) for the fiscal year concerned.

(b) The Secretary of Labor shall make available in a database a list of the contractors that have complied with the provisions of such section 4212(d).

(Added Pub. L. 105–339, §7(b)(1), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3189.)

§1355. Prohibition on use of funds for portraits

(a) No funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Federal Government may be used to pay for the painting of a portrait of an officer or employee of the Federal Government, including the President, the Vice President, a Member of Congress, the head of an executive agency, or the head of an office of the legislative branch.

(b) In this section—

(1) the term "executive agency" has the meaning given the term in section 133 of title 41; and

(2) the term "Member of Congress" includes a Delegate or Resident Commissioner to Congress.

(Added Pub. L. 115–158, §2(a), Mar. 27, 2018, 132 Stat. 1242.)