[USC03] 42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A: Atomic Energy
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42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A: Atomic Energy
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 23—DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL OF ATOMIC ENERGY

Division A—Atomic Energy

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§2011. Congressional declaration of policy

Atomic energy is capable of application for peaceful as well as military purposes. It is therefore declared to be the policy of the United States that—

(a) the development, use, and control of atomic energy shall be directed so as to make the maximum contribution to the general welfare, subject at all times to the paramount objective of making the maximum contribution to the common defense and security; and

(b) the development, use, and control of atomic energy shall be directed so as to promote world peace, improve the general welfare, increase the standard of living, and strengthen free competition in private enterprise.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §1, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 921; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 755, which related to declaration of policy and purpose of former chapter 14 of this title, was classified to section 1801 of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–17, §1, May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 201, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 2160e of this title] may be cited as the 'Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXI, §3171, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2211, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle F (§§3171–3178) of title XXXI of div. C of Pub. L. 112–239, enacting sections 2065 and 2142 of this title, amending section 2160d of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2065 of this title] may be cited as the 'American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012'."

Short Title of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §601, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 779, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§601–610) of title VI of Pub. L. 109–58, amending sections 2210 and 2282a of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2210 and 2282a of this title] may be cited as the 'Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 2005'."

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–245, §1, July 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 501, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 285a–9 of this title and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under section 2210 of this title] may be cited as the 'Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3101, Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–335, provided that: "This subchapter [subch. A (§§3101–3117) of ch. 1 of title III of Pub. L. 104–134, enacting sections 2297h to 2297h–13 of this title, amending sections 2014, 2239, 2243, 2282, 2296b–7, 2297f, and 2297f–1 of this title and section 9101 of Title 31, Money and Finance, repealing sections 2297 to 2297e–7 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2297 of this title and section 9101 of Title 31] may be cited as the 'USEC Privatization Act'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–408, §1, Aug. 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 1066, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 2282a of this title, amending sections 2014, 2210, and 2273 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2014 and 2210 of this title] may be cited as the 'Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988'."

Short Title of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–489, §21, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 607, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 2012, 2013, 2073 to 2078, 2135, 2153, 2201, 2221, 2233, and 2234 of this title, repealing section 2072 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2012 and 2072 of this title] may be cited as the 'Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials Act'."

Short Title of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–846, §1, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1084, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 2291 to 2296 of this title] may be cited as the 'EURATOM Cooperation Act of 1958'."

Short Title

Act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §291, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 190j and 622 of Title 2, The Congress, and repealing sections 2251 to 2257 and 2315 of this title] may be cited as the 'Atomic Energy Act of 1954'."

Separability

Act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §281, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, §1; renumbered title I, Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), 106 Stat. 2944, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [see Short Title note above] or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of this Act or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby."

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of this title. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

§2012. Congressional findings

The Congress of the United States makes the following findings concerning the development, use, and control of atomic energy:

(a) The development, utilization, and control of atomic energy for military and for all other purposes are vital to the common defense and security.

(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 88–489, §1, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 602.

(c) The processing and utilization of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material affect interstate and foreign commerce and must be regulated in the national interest.

(d) The processing and utilization of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material must be regulated in the national interest and in order to provide for the common defense and security and to protect the health and safety of the public.

(e) Source and special nuclear material, production facilities, and utilization facilities are affected with the public interest, and regulation by the United States of the production and utilization of atomic energy and of the facilities used in connection therewith is necessary in the national interest to assure the common defense and security and to protect the health and safety of the public.

(f) The necessity for protection against possible interstate damage occurring from the operation of facilities for the production or utilization of source or special nuclear material places the operation of those facilities in interstate commerce for the purposes of this chapter.

(g) Funds of the United States may be provided for the development and use of atomic energy under conditions which will provide for the common defense and security and promote the general welfare.

(h) Repealed. Pub. L. 88–489, §2, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 602.

(i) In order to protect the public and to encourage the development of the atomic energy industry, in the interest of the general welfare and of the common defense and security, the United States may make funds available for a portion of the damages suffered by the public from nuclear incidents, and may limit the liability of those persons liable for such losses.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §2, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 921; amended Pub. L. 85–256, §1, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 576; Pub. L. 88–489, §§1, 2, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 602; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 756, which related to establishment of Atomic Energy Commission, its membership, tenure, compensation, and appointment of certain officers and committees, was classified to section 1802 of this title, prior to the general amendment of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1964—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–489, §1, struck out subsec. (b) which found that use of United States property by others must be regulated in national interest and in order to provide for common defense and security and to protect health and safety of public.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 88–489, §2, struck out subsec. (h) which found it essential to common defense and security that title to all special nuclear material be in United States while such special nuclear material is within United States.

1957—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 85–256 added subsec. (i).

Control and Regulation Powers of United States and of Atomic Energy Commission Unaffected by Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials

Pub. L. 88–489, §20, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 607, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [amending this section and sections 2013, 2073 to 2078, 2135, 2153, 2201, 2233 and 2234 of this title, repealing section 2072 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 2072 of this title] shall be deemed to diminish existing authority of the United States, or of the Atomic Energy Commission under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended [this chapter], to regulate source, byproduct, and special nuclear material and production and utilization facilities, or to control such materials and facilities exported from the United States by imposition of governmental guarantees and security safeguards with respect thereto, in order to assure the common defense and security and to protect the health and safety of the public, or to reduce the responsibility of the Atomic Energy Commission to achieve such objectives."

§2013. Purpose of chapter

It is the purpose of this chapter to effectuate the policies set forth above by providing for—

(a) a program of conducting, assisting, and fostering research and development in order to encourage maximum scientific and industrial progress;

(b) a program for the dissemination of unclassified scientific and technical information and for the control, dissemination, and declassification of Restricted Data, subject to appropriate safeguards, so as to encourage scientific and industrial progress;

(c) a program for Government control of the possession, use, and production of atomic energy and special nuclear material, whether owned by the Government or others, so directed as to make the maximum contribution to the common defense and security and the national welfare, and to provide continued assurance of the Government's ability to enter into and enforce agreements with nations or groups of nations for the control of special nuclear materials and atomic weapons;

(d) a program to encourage widespread participation in the development and utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes to the maximum extent consistent with the common defense and security and with the health and safety of the public;

(e) a program of international cooperation to promote the common defense and security and to make available to cooperating nations the benefits of peaceful applications of atomic energy as widely as expanding technology and considerations of the common defense and security will permit; and

(f) a program of administration which will be consistent with the foregoing policies and programs, with international arrangements, and with agreements for cooperation, which will enable the Congress to be currently informed so as to take further legislative action as may be appropriate.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §3, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 922; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §3, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 602; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 758, which related to research and development activities by the Atomic Energy Commission, was classified to section 1803 of this title, prior to the general amendment of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Sections 4 to 10 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 759–766, which related to production of fissionable material, prohibited acts, ownership and operation of production facilities, irradiation of materials, and manufacture of production facilities; control of fissionable materials; military application of atomic energy; license requirements for utilization of atomic energy, reports to Congress, and issuance of licenses; force and effect of international agreements; property of Commission and its exempt status from taxation; and control of information, were classified to sections 1804 to 1810, respectively, of this title, prior to the general amendment of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954. Section numbers 4 to 10 were not repeated in the general amendment of act Aug. 1, 1946.

Amendments

1964—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–489 inserted "whether owned by the Government or others" and "and to provide continued assurance of the Government's ability to enter into and enforce agreements with nations or groups of nations for the control of special nuclear materials and atomic weapons".

§2014. Definitions

The intent of Congress in the definitions as given in this section should be construed from the words or phrases used in the definitions. As used in this chapter:

(a) The term "agency of the United States" means the executive branch of the United States, or any Government agency, or the legislative branch of the United States, or any agency, committee, commission, office, or other establishment in the legislative branch, or the judicial branch of the United States, or any office, agency, committee, commission, or other establishment in the judicial branch.

(b) The term "agreement for cooperation" means any agreement with another nation or regional defense organization authorized or permitted by sections 2074, 2077, 2094, 2112, 2121(c), 2133, 2134, or 2164 of this title, and made pursuant to section 2153 of this title.

(c) The term "atomic energy" means all forms of energy released in the course of nuclear fission or nuclear transformation.

(d) The term "atomic weapon" means any device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or propelling the device (where such means is a separable and divisible part of the device), the principal purpose of which is for use as, or for development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device.

(e) The term "byproduct material" means—

(1) any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material;

(2) the tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content;

(3)(A) any discrete source of radium-226 that is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; or

(B) any material that—

(i) has been made radioactive by use of a particle accelerator; and

(ii) is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; and


(4) any discrete source of naturally occurring radioactive material, other than source material, that—

(A) the Commission, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the head of any other appropriate Federal agency, determines would pose a threat similar to the threat posed by a discrete source of radium-226 to the public health and safety or the common defense and security; and

(B) before, on, or after August 8, 2005, is extracted or converted after extraction for use in a commercial, medical, or research activity.


(f) The term "Commission" means the Atomic Energy Commission.

(g) The term "common defense and security" means the common defense and security of the United States.

(h) The term "defense information" means any information in any category determined by any Government agency authorized to classify information, as being information respecting, relating to, or affecting the national defense.

(i) The term "design" means (1) specifications, plans, drawings, blueprints, and other items of like nature; (2) the information contained therein; or (3) the research and development data pertinent to the information contained therein.

(j) The term "extraordinary nuclear occurrence" means any event causing a discharge or dispersal of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material from its intended place of confinement in amounts offsite, or causing radiation levels offsite, which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, determines to be substantial, and which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, determines has resulted or will probably result in substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. Any determination by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, that such an event has, or has not, occurred shall be final and conclusive, and no other official or any court shall have power or jurisdiction to review any such determination. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, shall establish criteria in writing setting forth the basis upon which such determination shall be made. As used in this subsection, "offsite" means away from "the location" or "the contract location" as defined in the applicable Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, indemnity agreement, entered into pursuant to section 2210 of this title.

(k) The term "financial protection" means the ability to respond in damages for public liability and to meet the costs of investigating and defending claims and settling suits for such damages.

(l) The term "Government agency" means any executive department, commission, independent establishment, corporation, wholly or partly owned by the United States of America which is an instrumentality of the United States, or any board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government.

(m) The term "indemnitor" means (1) any insurer with respect to his obligations under a policy of insurance furnished as proof of financial protection; (2) any licensee, contractor or other person who is obligated under any other form of financial protection, with respect to such obligations; and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, with respect to any obligation undertaken by it in indemnity agreement entered into pursuant to section 2210 of this title.

(n) The term "international arrangement" means any international agreement hereafter approved by the Congress or any treaty during the time such agreement or treaty is in full force and effect, but does not include any agreement for cooperation.

(o) The term "Energy Committees" means the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives.

(p) The term "licensed activity" means an activity licensed pursuant to this chapter and covered by the provisions of section 2210(a) of this title.

(q) The term "nuclear incident" means any occurrence, including an extraordinary nuclear occurrence, within the United States causing, within or outside the United States, bodily injury, sickness, disease, or death, or loss of or damage to property, or loss of use of property, arising out of or resulting from the radioactive, toxic, explosive, or other hazardous properties of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material: Provided, however, That as the term is used in section 2210(l) of this title, it shall include any such occurrence outside the United States: And provided further, That as the term is used in section 2210(d) of this title, it shall include any such occurrence outside the United States if such occurrence involves source, special nuclear, or byproduct material owned by, and used by or under contract with, the United States: And provided further, That as the term is used in section 2210(c) of this title, it shall include any such occurrence outside both the United States and any other nation if such occurrence arises out of or results from the radioactive, toxic, explosive, or other hazardous properties of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material licensed pursuant to subchapters V, VI, VII, and IX of this division, which is used in connection with the operation of a licensed stationary production or utilization facility or which moves outside the territorial limits of the United States in transit from one person licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to another person licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(r) The term "operator" means any individual who manipulates the controls of a utilization or production facility.

(s) The term "person" means (1) any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, Government agency other than the Commission, any State or any political subdivision of, or any political entity within a State, any foreign government or nation or any political subdivision of any such government or nation, or other entity; and (2) any legal successor, representative, agent, or agency of the foregoing.

(t) The term "person indemnified" means (1) with respect to a nuclear incident occurring within the United States or outside the United States as the term is used in section 2210(c) of this title, and with respect to any nuclear incident in connection with the design, development, construction, operation, repair, maintenance, or use of the nuclear ship Savannah, the person with whom an indemnity agreement is executed or who is required to maintain financial protection, and any other person who may be liable for public liability or (2) with respect to any other nuclear incident occurring outside the United States, the person with whom an indemnity agreement is executed and any other person who may be liable for public liability by reason of his activities under any contract with the Secretary of Energy or any project to which indemnification under the provisions of section 2210(d) of this title has been extended or under any subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement, of any tier, under any such contract or project.

(u) The term "produce", when used in relation to special nuclear material, means (1) to manufacture, make, produce, or refine special nuclear material; (2) to separate special nuclear material from other substances in which such material may be contained; or (3) to make or to produce new special nuclear material.

(v) The term "production facility" means (1) any equipment or device determined by rule of the Commission to be capable of the production of special nuclear material in such quantity as to be of significance to the common defense and security, or in such manner as to affect the health and safety of the public; or (2) any important component part especially designed for such equipment or device as determined by the Commission. Except with respect to the export of a uranium enrichment production facility, such term as used in subchapters IX and XV shall not include any equipment or device (or important component part especially designed for such equipment or device) capable of separating the isotopes of uranium or enriching uranium in the isotope 235.

(w) The term "public liability" means any legal liability arising out of or resulting from a nuclear incident or precautionary evacuation (including all reasonable additional costs incurred by a State, or a political subdivision of a State, in the course of responding to a nuclear incident or a precautionary evacuation), except: (i) claims under State or Federal workmen's compensation acts of employees of persons indemnified who are employed at the site of and in connection with the activity where the nuclear incident occurs; (ii) claims arising out of an act of war; and (iii) whenever used in subsections (a), (c), and (k) of section 2210 of this title, claims for loss of, or damage to, or loss of use of property which is located at the site of and used in connection with the licensed activity where the nuclear incident occurs. "Public liability" also includes damage to property of persons indemnified: Provided, That such property is covered under the terms of the financial protection required, except property which is located at the site of and used in connection with the activity where the nuclear incident occurs.

(x) The term "research and development" means (1) theoretical analysis, exploration, or experimentation; or (2) the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes.

(y) The term "Restricted Data" means all data concerning (1) design, manufacture, or utilization of atomic weapons; (2) the production of special nuclear material; or (3) the use of special nuclear material in the production of energy, but shall not include data declassified or removed from the Restricted Data category pursuant to section 2162 of this title.

(z) The term "source material" means (1) uranium, thorium, or any other material which is determined by the Commission pursuant to the provisions of section 2091 of this title to be source material; or (2) ores containing one or more of the foregoing materials, in such concentration as the Commission may by regulation determine from time to time.

(aa) The term "special nuclear material" means (1) plutonium, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material which the Commission, pursuant to the provisions of section 2071 of this title, determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or (2) any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing, but does not include source material.

(bb) The term "United States" when used in a geographical sense includes all territories and possessions of the United States, the Canal Zone and Puerto Rico.

(cc) The term "utilization facility" means (1) any equipment or device, except an atomic weapon, determined by rule of the Commission to be capable of making use of special nuclear material in such quantity as to be of significance to the common defense and security, or in such manner as to affect the health and safety of the public, or peculiarly adapted for making use of atomic energy in such quantity as to be of significance to the common defense and security, or in such manner as to affect the health and safety of the public; or (2) any important component part especially designed for such equipment or device as determined by the Commission.

(dd) The terms "high-level radioactive waste" and "spent nuclear fuel" have the meanings given such terms in section 10101 of this title.

(ee) The term "transuranic waste" means material contaminated with elements that have an atomic number greater than 92, including neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium, and that are in concentrations greater than 10 nanocuries per gram, or in such other concentrations as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may prescribe to protect the public health and safety.

(ff) The term "nuclear waste activities", as used in section 2210 of this title, means activities subject to an agreement of indemnification under subsection (d) of such section, that the Secretary of Energy is authorized to undertake, under this chapter or any other law, involving the storage, handling, transportation, treatment, or disposal of, or research and development on, spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or transuranic waste, including (but not limited to) activities authorized to be carried out under the Waste Isolation Pilot Project under section 213 of Public Law 96–164 (93 Stat. 1265).

(gg) The term "precautionary evacuation" means an evacuation of the public within a specified area near a nuclear facility, or the transportation route in the case of an accident involving transportation of source material, special nuclear material, byproduct material, high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or transuranic waste to or from a production or utilization facility, if the evacuation is—

(1) the result of any event that is not classified as a nuclear incident but that poses imminent danger of bodily injury or property damage from the radiological properties of source material, special nuclear material, byproduct material, high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or transuranic waste, and causes an evacuation; and

(2) initiated by an official of a State or a political subdivision of a State, who is authorized by State law to initiate such an evacuation and who reasonably determined that such an evacuation was necessary to protect the public health and safety.


(hh) The term "public liability action", as used in section 2210 of this title, means any suit asserting public liability. A public liability action shall be deemed to be an action arising under section 2210 of this title, and the substantive rules for decision in such action shall be derived from the law of the State in which the nuclear incident involved occurs, unless such law is inconsistent with the provisions of such section.

(jj) 1 Legal Costs.—As used in section 2210 of this title, the term "legal costs" means the costs incurred by a plaintiff or a defendant in initiating, prosecuting, investigating, settling, or defending claims or suits for damage arising under such section.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §11, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 922; amended Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §1, 70 Stat. 1069; Pub. L. 85–256, §3, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 576; Pub. L. 85–602, §1, Aug. 8, 1958, 72 Stat. 525; Pub. L. 87–206, §§2, 3, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 476; Pub. L. 87–615, §§4, 5, Aug. 29, 1962, 76 Stat. 410; Pub. L. 89–645, §1(a), Oct. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 94–197, §1, Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1111; Pub. L. 95–604, title II, §201, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3033; Pub. L. 100–408, §§4(b)–5(b), 11(b), (d)(2), 16(a)(1), (b)(1), (2), (d)(1)–(3), Aug. 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 1069, 1070, 1076, 1078-1080; Pub. L. 101–575, §5(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2835; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), title XI, §1102, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944, 2955; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592; Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3116(b)(1), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–349; Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §651(e)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 806.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (bb), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section 213 of Public Law 96–164, referred to in subsec. (ff), is Pub. L. 96–164, title II, §213, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1265, which is not classified to the Code.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 11 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 768, which related to patents and inventions, was classified to section 1811 of this title, prior to the general amendment of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Sections 12 to 19 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 770–775, which related to authority, powers and duties of Atomic Energy Commission; compensation for acquisition of private property; judicial review; Joint Committee of Congress on Atomic Energy; penalties for violation of certain provisions of chapter 14 of this title, injunctions, subpoena of witnesses, and production of documents; reports and recommendations to Congress; definitions; and authorization of appropriations, were classified to sections 1812 to 1819, respectively, of this title, and section 20 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 775, which related to separability of provisions of the act, was set out as a note under section 1801 of this title, prior to the general amendment of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954. Section numbers 12 to 20 were not repeated in the general amendment of act Aug. 1, 1946.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–58 substituted "means—" for "means", realigned margins of pars. (1) and (2), and added pars. (3) and (4).

1996—Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 104–134, which directed the amendment of subsec. (v) by striking out "or the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation technology", was executed by striking out "or the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment production facility using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation technology" before ", such term as used", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted " 'Energy Committees' means the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives" for " 'Joint Committee' means the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy".

1992—Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 102–486 amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "Except with respect to the export of a uranium enrichment production facility, such term as used in subchapters IX and XV shall not include any equipment or device (or important component part especially designed for such equipment or device) capable of separating the isotopes of uranium or enriching uranium in the isotope 235."

1990—Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 101–575 inserted at end "Except with respect to the export of a uranium enrichment production facility, such term as used in subchapters IX and XV shall not include any equipment or device (or important component part especially designed for such equipment or device) capable of separating the isotopes of uranium or enriching uranium in the isotope 235."

1988—Subsecs. (j), (m). Pub. L. 100–408, §16(b)(1), substituted "Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate," for "Commission" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 100–408, §16(d)(1), substituted "section" for "subsection" in three places, which for purposes of codification was translated as "section", thus requiring no change in text.

Pub. L. 100–408, §16(a)(1), substituted "Nuclear Regulatory Commission" for "Commission" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 100–408, §16(d)(2), substituted "section" for "subsection" in two places, which for purposes of codification was translated as "section", thus requiring no change in text.

Pub. L. 100–408, §16(b)(2), substituted "Secretary of Energy" for "Commission" in cl. (2).

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 100–408, §16(d)(3), substituted "subsections (a), (c), and (k) of section 2210 of this title" for "section 2210(a), (c), and (k) of this title".

Pub. L. 100–408, §5(a), inserted "or precautionary evacuation (including all reasonable additional costs incurred by a State, or a political subdivision of a State, in the course of responding to a nuclear incident or a precautionary evacuation)" after first reference to "nuclear incident".

Subsecs. (dd) to (ff). Pub. L. 100–408, §4(b), added subsecs. (dd) to (ff).

Subsec. (gg). Pub. L. 100–408, §5(b), added subsec. (gg).

Subsec. (hh). Pub. L. 100–408, §11(b), added subsec. (hh).

Subsec. (jj). Pub. L. 100–408, §11(d)(2), added subsec. (jj).

1978—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–604 designated existing provisions as cl. (1) and added cl. (2).

1975—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 94–197 substituted "source, special nuclear, or byproduct material" for "facility or device" and inserted proviso to include within term as used in section 2210(c) of this title any occurrence outside both the United States and any other nation.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 94–197 expanded definition to include nuclear incidents occurring outside the United States as the term is used in section 2210(c) of this title and inserted reference to person required to maintain financial protection.

1966—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 89–645, §1(a)(2), added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 89–645, §1(a)(1), redesignated former subsecs. (j) and (k) as (k) and (l), respectively. Former subsec. (l) redesignated (n).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 89–645, §1(a)(3), added subsec. (m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (o).

Subsecs. (n) to (p). Pub. L. 89–645, §1(a)(1), redesignated former subsecs. (l) to (n) as (n) to (p), respectively. Former subsecs. (n) to (p) redesignated (p) to (r), respectively.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 89–645, §1(a)(1), (4), redesignated former subsec. (o) as (q) and inserted ", including an extraordinary nuclear occurrence," between "occurrence" and "within", respectively. Former subsec. (q) redesignated (s).

Subsecs. (r) to (cc). Pub. L. 89–645, §1(a)(1), redesignated former subsecs. (p) to (aa) as (r) to (cc), respectively.

1962—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 87–615, §4, enlarged definition of "nuclear incident" to include any occurrence within the United States causing any of the listed injuries and damages within or outside the United States, provided that as used in section 2210(l) of this title, term shall "include" instead of "mean" any such occurrence outside the United States, and that as used in section 2210(d) of this title, the term shall include any such occurrence outside the United States if such occurrence involves a facility or devise owned by, and used by or under contract with, the United States.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 87–615, §5, limited definition of "person indemnified" to nuclear incidents occurring within the United States, or in connection with the nuclear ship Savannah, and inserted provisions with respect to nuclear incidents occurring outside the United States.

1961—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–206, §2, included section 2121(c) of this title in enumeration.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 87–206, §3, designated existing provisions as cls. (i) and (ii) and added cl. (iii).

1958—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 85–602 inserted proviso defining "nuclear incident" as it is used in section 2210(l) of this title.

1957—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 85–256 added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Subsecs. (k) to (m). Pub. L. 85–256, redesignated former subsecs. (j) to (l) as (k) to (m), respectively. Former subsec. (m) redesignated (p).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 85–256 added subsec. (n). Former subsec. (n) redesignated (q).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 85–256 added subsec. (o). Former subsec. (o) redesignated (s).

Subsecs. (p), (q). Pub. L. 85–256 redesignated former subsecs. (m) and (n) as (p) and (q), respectively. Former subsecs. (p) and (q) redesignated (t) and (u), respectively.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 85–256 added subsec. (r). Former subsec. (r) redesignated (w).

Subsecs. (s), (t). Pub. L. 85–256 redesignated former subsecs. (o) and (p) as (s) and (t), respectively. Former subsecs. (s) and (t) redesignated (x) and (y), respectively.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 85–256 added subsec. (u). Former subsec. (u) redesignated (z).

Subsecs. (v) to (aa). Pub. L. 85–256 redesignated former subsecs. (q) to (v) as (v) to (aa), respectively.

1956—Subsec. (u). Act Aug. 6, 1956, substituted "the Canal Zone and Puerto Rico" for "and the Canal Zone".

Change of Name

Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–408, §20, Aug. 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 1084, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by this Act [enacting section 2282a of this title and amending this section and sections 2210 and 2273 of this title] shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1988] and shall be applicable with respect to nuclear incidents occurring on or after such date.

"(b)(1) The amendments made by section 11 [amending this section and section 2210 of this title] shall apply to nuclear incidents occurring before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(2)(A) Section 234A of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [section 2282a of this title] shall not apply to any violation occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(B) Section 223 c. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [section 2273(c) of this title] shall not apply to any violation occurring before the date of enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–604, title II, §208, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3041, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this title [see section 202(b) of Pub. L. 95–604, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2113 of this title] the amendments made by this title [enacting sections 2022 and 2114 of this title, amending this section and sections 2021, 2111, and 2201 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2021 and 2113 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978]."

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of this title. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

1 So in original. No subsec. (ii) has been enacted.

§2015. Transfer of property

Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to repeal, modify, amend, or alter the provisions of section 9(a) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, as heretofore amended.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §241, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Section 9(a) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, as heretofore amended, referred to in text, which was formerly classified to section 1809(a) of this title, provided that: "The President shall direct the transfer to the Commission of all interests owned by the United States or any Government agency in the following property:

"(1) All fissionable material; all atomic weapons and parts thereof; all facilities, equipment, and materials for the processing, production, or utilization of fissionable material or atomic energy; all processes and technical information of any kind, and the source thereof (including data, drawings, specifications, patents, patent applications, and other sources (relating to the processing, production, or utilization of fissionable material or atomic energy; and all contracts, agreements, leases, patents, applications for patents, inventions and discoveries (whether patented or unpatented), and other rights of any kind concerning any such items;

"(2) All facilities, equipment, and materials, devoted primarily to atomic energy research and development; and

"(3) Such other property owned by or in the custody or control of the Manhattan Engineer District or other Government agencies as the President may determine."

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 9 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 765, which was classified to section 1809 of this title, prior to the complete amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2015a. Cold standby

The Secretary is authorized to expend such funds as may be necessary for the purposes of maintaining enrichment capability at the Portsmouth, Ohio, facility.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §242, as added Pub. L. 107–222, §1(d)(1), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1336.)

§2015b. Scholarship and fellowship program

(a) Scholarship program

To enable students to study, for at least 1 academic semester or equivalent term, science, engineering, or another field of study that the Commission determines is in a critical skill area related to the regulatory mission of the Commission, the Commission may carry out a program to—

(1) 1 award scholarships to undergraduate students who—

(A) are United States citizens; and

(B) enter into an agreement under subsection (c) to be employed by the Commission in the area of study for which the scholarship is awarded.

(b) Fellowship program

To enable students to pursue education in science, engineering, or another field of study that the Commission determines is in a critical skill area related to its regulatory mission, in a graduate or professional degree program offered by an institution of higher education in the United States, the Commission may carry out a program to—

(1) 1 award fellowships to graduate students who—

(A) are United States citizens; and

(B) enter into an agreement under subsection (c) to be employed by the Commission in the area of study for which the fellowship is awarded.

(c) Requirements

(1) In general

As a condition of receiving a scholarship or fellowship under subsection (a) or (b), a recipient of the scholarship or fellowship shall enter into an agreement with the Commission under which, in return for the assistance, the recipient shall—

(A) maintain satisfactory academic progress in the studies of the recipient, as determined by criteria established by the Commission;

(B) agree that failure to maintain satisfactory academic progress shall constitute grounds on which the Commission may terminate the assistance;

(C) on completion of the academic course of study in connection with which the assistance was provided, and in accordance with criteria established by the Commission, engage in employment by the Commission for a period specified by the Commission, that shall be not less than 1 time and not more than 3 times the period for which the assistance was provided; and

(D) if the recipient fails to meet the requirements of subparagraph (A), (B), or (C), reimburse the United States Government for—

(i) the entire amount of the assistance provided the recipient under the scholarship or fellowship; and

(ii) interest at a rate determined by the Commission.

(2) Waiver or suspension

The Commission may establish criteria for the partial or total waiver or suspension of any obligation of service or payment incurred by a recipient of a scholarship or fellowship under this section.

(d) Competitive process

Recipients of scholarships or fellowships under this section shall be selected through a competitive process primarily on the basis of academic merit and such other criteria as the Commission may establish, with consideration given to financial need and the goal of promoting the participation of individuals identified in section 1885a or 1885b of this title.

(e) Direct appointment

The Commission may appoint directly, with no further competition, public notice, or consideration of any other potential candidate, an individual who has—

(1) received a scholarship or fellowship awarded by the Commission under this section; and

(2) completed the academic program for which the scholarship or fellowship was awarded.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §243, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §622(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 782.)

1 So in original. No par. (2) has been enacted.

§2015c. Partnership program with institutions of higher education

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Hispanic-serving institution

The term "Hispanic-serving institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1101a(a) of title 20.

(2) Historically Black college and university

The term "historically Black college or university" has the meaning given the term "part B institution" in section 1061 of title 20.

(3) Tribal college

The term "Tribal college" has the meaning given the term "tribally controlled college or university" in section 1801(a) of title 25.

(b) Partnership program

The Commission may establish and participate in activities relating to research, mentoring, instruction, and training with institutions of higher education, including Hispanic-serving institutions, historically Black colleges or universities, and Tribal colleges, to strengthen the capacity of the institutions—

(1) to educate and train students (including present or potential employees of the Commission); and

(2) to conduct research in the field of science, engineering, or law, or any other field that the Commission determines is important to the work of the Commission.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §244, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §651(c)(4)(A), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 802; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §941(k)(2)(L), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3467.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 110–315 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1801(a) of title 25.

§2016. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXI, §3152(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2042

Section, act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §251, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; amended June 11, 1959, Pub. L. 86–43, 73 Stat. 73; renumbered title I, Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), 106 Stat. 2944, required Commission to submit to Congress annual report on its activities.

§2017. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Congressional authorization

No appropriation shall be made to the Commission, nor shall the Commission waive charges for the use of materials under the Cooperative Power Reactor Demonstration Program, unless previously authorized by legislation enacted by the Congress.

(b) Accounting

Any Act appropriating funds to the Commission may appropriate specified portions thereof to be accounted for upon the certification of the Commission only.

(c) Restoration or replacement of facilities

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), funds are hereby authorized to be appropriated for the restoration or replacement of any plant or facility destroyed or otherwise seriously damaged, and the Commission is authorized to use available funds for such purposes.

(d) Substituted construction projects

Funds authorized to be appropriated for any construction project to be used in connection with the development or production of special nuclear material or atomic weapons may be used to start another construction project not otherwise authorized if the substituted construction project is within the limit of cost of the construction project for which substitution is to be made, and the Commission certifies that—

(1) the substituted project is essential to the common defense and security;

(2) the substituted project is required by changes in weapon characteristics or weapon logistic operations; and

(3) the Commission is unable to enter into a contract with any person on terms satisfactory to it to furnish from a privately owned plant or facility the product or services to be provided by the new project.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §261, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; amended Pub. L. 85–79, §1, July 3, 1957, 71 Stat. 274; Pub. L. 87–615, §8, Aug. 29, 1962, 76 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 88–72, §107, July 22, 1963, 77 Stat. 88; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 19 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 775, which was classified to section 1819 of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1963—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–72 required legislative authorization of appropriations to the Commission and waiver of charges for use of materials under the Cooperative Power Reactor Demonstration Program. Former provisions of subsec. (a) authorized appropriations necessary and appropriate to carry out the provisions and purposes of this chapter, excepting in par. (1) sums necessary for acquisition of real property or facility acquisition, construction or expansion (and deeming under certain conditions a nonmilitary experimental reactor to be a facility) and in par. (2) sums necessary to carry out cooperative programs for development and construction of reactors for demonstration of their use in production of electrical power or process heat, or for propulsion, or for commercial provision of byproduct material, irradiation or other special service, for civilian use, by arrangements providing for payment of funds, rendering of services and undertaking of research and development without full reimbursement, the waiver of charges accompanying such arrangement or the provision of other financial assistance pursuant to such arrangement or the acquisition of real property or facility acquisition, construction or expansion undertaken by the Commission as part of such arrangement.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–72 substituted "Any act appropriating funds to the Commission" for "The acts appropriating such sums."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–72 struck out authorization of funds provision for advance planning, construction design and architectural services in connection with any plant or facility and inserted "Notwithstanding" phrase.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–72 struck out "hereafter" after "Funds" and inserted "construction" before "project" wherever appearing.

1962—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 87–615 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1957Pub. L. 85–79 designated first sentence as introductory clause of subsec. (a) and as (a)(1), inserted proviso to (a)(1), added (a)(2), by designating second sentence as subsec. (b), and struck out former sentence which provided that "Funds appropriated to the Commission shall, if obligated by contract during the fiscal year for which appropriated, remain available for expenditure for four years following the expiration of the fiscal year for which appropriated.".

Effective Date of 1963 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–72, §107, July 22, 1963, 77 Stat. 88, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1964.

§2017a. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Sept. 26, 1962, Pub. L. 87–701, §103, 76 Stat. 601, which authorized appropriations for the Atomic Energy Commission for advance planning, construction design, and architectural services in connection with certain projects, was from an Act authorizing appropriations for the Atomic Energy Commission, and was not enacted as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter. See section 2017a–1 of this title.

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation authorization acts:

Sept. 26, 1961, Pub. L. 87–315, §103, 75 Stat. 678.

May 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–457, §103, 74 Stat. 121.

June 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–50, §103, 73 Stat. 83.

Aug. 4, 1958, Pub. L. 85–590, §103, 72 Stat. 493.

Aug. 21, 1957, Pub. L. 85–162, title I, §103, 71 Stat. 406.

May 3, 1956, ch. 233, §103, 70 Stat. 129.

July 11, 1955, ch. 304, §103, 69 Stat. 293.

§2017a–1. Omitted

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 95–39, title III, §304, June 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 189, which authorized the Administrator of the Energy Research and Development Administration to perform construction design services for any Administration construction project whenever the Administrator made certain determinations, was from an Act authorizing appropriations for fiscal year 1977 to the Energy Research and Development Administration, and was not enacted as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter. See section 5821(g) of this title.

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation authorization acts:

Pub. L. 94–187, title III, §301, Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1073.

Pub. L. 93–276, title I, §103, May 10, 1974, 88 Stat. 118.

Pub. L. 93–60, §103, July 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 144.

Pub. L. 92–314, title I, §103, June 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 225.

Pub. L. 92–84, title I, §103, Aug. 11, 1971, 85 Stat. 306.

Pub. L. 91–273, §103, June 2, 1970, 84 Stat. 300.

Pub. L. 91–44, §103, July 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 47.

Pub. L. 90–289, §103, Apr. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 97.

Pub. L. 90–56, §103, July 26, 1967, 81 Stat. 125.

Pub. L. 89–428, §103, May 21, 1966, 80 Stat. 163.

Pub. L. 89–32, §103, June 2, 1965, 79 Stat. 122.

Pub. L. 88–332, §104, June 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 229.

§2017b. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Sept. 26, 1962, Pub. L. 87–701, §104, 76 Stat. 601, which authorized appropriations for the Atomic Energy Commission for restoration or replacement of facilities, was from an Act authorizing appropriations for the Atomic Energy Commission, and was not enacted as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter. See section 2017(c) of this title.

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation authorization acts:

Sept. 26, 1961, Pub. L. 87–315, §104, 75 Stat. 678.

May 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–457, §104, 74 Stat. 122.

June 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–50, §104, 73 Stat. 83.

Aug. 4, 1958, Pub. L. 85–590, 72 Stat. 493.

Aug. 21, 1957, Pub. L. 85–162, title I, §104, 71 Stat. 406.

May 3, 1956, ch. 233, §104, 70 Stat. 129.

July 11, 1955, ch. 304, §104, 69 Stat. 293.

§2018. Agency jurisdiction

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect the authority or regulations of any Federal, State, or local agency with respect to the generation, sale, or transmission of electric power produced through the use of nuclear facilities licensed by the Commission: Provided, That this section shall not be deemed to confer upon any Federal, State, or local agency any authority to regulate, control, or restrict any activities of the Commission.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §271, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; amended Pub. L. 89–135, Aug. 24, 1965, 79 Stat. 551; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1965Pub. L. 89–135 inserted "produced through the use of nuclear facilities licensed by the Commission: Provided, That this section shall not be deemed to confer upon any Federal, State, or local agency any authority to regulate, control, or restrict any activities of the Commission."

§2019. Applicability of Federal Power Act

Every licensee under this chapter who holds a license from the Commission for a utilization or production facility for the generation of commercial electric energy under section 2133 of this title and who transmits such electric energy in interstate commerce or sells it at wholesale in interstate commerce shall be subject to the regulatory provisions of the Federal Power Act [16 U.S.C. 791a et seq.].

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §272, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Power Act, referred to in text, is act June 10, 1920, ch. 285, 41 Stat. 1063, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 12 (§791a et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 791a of Title 16 and Tables.

§2020. Licensing of Government agencies

Nothing in this chapter shall preclude any Government agency now or hereafter authorized by law to engage in the production, marketing, or distribution of electric energy from obtaining a license under section 2133 of this title, if qualified under the provisions of said section, for the construction and operation of production or utilization facilities for the primary purpose of producing electric energy for disposition for ultimate public consumption.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §273, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

§2021. Cooperation with States

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section—

(1) to recognize the interests of the States in the peaceful uses of atomic energy, and to clarify the respective responsibilities under this chapter of the States and the Commission with respect to the regulation of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials;

(2) to recognize the need, and establish programs for, cooperation between the States and the Commission with respect to control of radiation hazards associated with use of such materials;

(3) to promote an orderly regulatory pattern between the Commission and State governments with respect to nuclear development and use and regulation of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials;

(4) to establish procedures and criteria for discontinuance of certain of the Commission's regulatory responsibilities with respect to byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials, and the assumption thereof by the States;

(5) to provide for coordination of the development of radiation standards for the guidance of Federal agencies and cooperation with the States; and

(6) to recognize that, as the States improve their capabilities to regulate effectively such materials, additional legislation may be desirable.

(b) Agreements with States

Except as provided in subsection (c), the Commission is authorized to enter into agreements with the Governor of any State providing for discontinuance of the regulatory authority of the Commission under subchapters V, VI, and VII of this division, and section 2201 of this title, with respect to any one or more of the following materials within the State:

(1) Byproduct materials (as defined in section 2014(e) of this title).

(2) Source materials.

(3) Special nuclear materials in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass.


During the duration of such an agreement it is recognized that the State shall have authority to regulate the materials covered by the agreement for the protection of the public health and safety from radiation hazards.

(c) Commission regulation of certain activities

No agreement entered into pursuant to subsection (b) shall provide for discontinuance of any authority and the Commission shall retain authority and responsibility with respect to regulation of—

(1) the construction and operation of any production or utilization facility or any uranium enrichment facility;

(2) the export from or import into the United States of byproduct, source, or special nuclear material, or of any production or utilization facility;

(3) the disposal into the ocean or sea of byproduct, source, or special nuclear waste materials as defined in regulations or orders of the Commission;

(4) the disposal of such other byproduct, source, or special nuclear material as the Commission determines by regulation or order should, because of the hazards or potential hazards thereof, not be so disposed of without a license from the Commission.


The Commission shall also retain authority under any such agreement to make a determination that all applicable standards and requirements have been met prior to termination of a license for byproduct material, as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title. Notwithstanding any agreement between the Commission and any State pursuant to subsection (b), the Commission is authorized by rule, regulation, or order to require that the manufacturer, processor, or producer of any equipment, device, commodity, or other product containing source, byproduct, or special nuclear material shall not transfer possession or control of such product except pursuant to a license issued by the Commission.

(d) Conditions

The Commission shall enter into an agreement under subsection (b) of this section with any State if—

(1) The 1 Governor of that State certifies that the State has a program for the control of radiation hazards adequate to protect the public health and safety with respect to the materials within the State covered by the proposed agreement, and that the State desires to assume regulatory responsibility for such materials; and

(2) the Commission finds that the State program is in accordance with the requirements of subsection (o) and in all other respects compatible with the Commission's program for the regulation of such materials, and that the State program is adequate to protect the public health and safety with respect to the materials covered by the proposed agreement.

(e) Publication in Federal Register; comment of interested persons

(1) Before any agreement under subsection (b) is signed by the Commission, the terms of the proposed agreement and of proposed exemptions pursuant to subsection (f) shall be published once each week for four consecutive weeks in the Federal Register; and such opportunity for comment by interested persons on the proposed agreement and exemptions shall be allowed as the Commission determines by regulation or order to be appropriate.

(2) Each proposed agreement shall include the proposed effective date of such proposed agreement or exemptions. The agreement and exemptions shall be published in the Federal Register within thirty days after signature by the Commission and the Governor.

(f) Exemptions

The Commission is authorized and directed, by regulation or order, to grant such exemptions from the licensing requirements contained in subchapters V, VI, and VII, and from its regulations applicable to licensees as the Commission finds necessary or appropriate to carry out any agreement entered into pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

(g) Compatible radiation standards

The Commission is authorized and directed to cooperate with the States in the formulation of standards for protection against hazards of radiation to assure that State and Commission programs for protection against hazards of radiation will be coordinated and compatible.

(h) Consultative, advisory, and miscellaneous functions of Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency

The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall consult qualified scientists and experts in radiation matters, including the President of the National Academy of Sciences, the Chairman of the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurement, and qualified experts in the field of biology and medicine and in the field of health physics. The Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, or his designee, is authorized to attend meetings with, participate in the deliberations of, and to advise the Administrator. The Administrator shall advise the President with respect to radiation matters, directly or indirectly affecting health, including guidance for all Federal agencies in the formulation of radiation standards and in the establishment and execution of programs of cooperation with States. The Administrator shall also perform such other functions as the President may assign to him by Executive order.

(i) Inspections and other functions; training and other assistance

The Commission in carrying out its licensing and regulatory responsibilities under this chapter is authorized to enter into agreements with any State, or group of States, to perform inspections or other functions on a cooperative basis as the Commission deems appropriate. The Commission is also authorized to provide training, with or without charge, to employees of, and such other assistance to, any State or political subdivision thereof or group of States as the Commission deems appropriate. Any such provision or assistance by the Commission shall take into account the additional expenses that may be incurred by a State as a consequence of the State's entering into an agreement with the Commission pursuant to subsection (b).

(j) Reserve power to terminate or suspend agreements; emergency situations; State nonaction on causes of danger; authority exercisable only during emergency and commensurate with danger

(1) The Commission, upon its own initiative after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State with which an agreement under subsection (b) has become effective, or upon request of the Governor of such State, may terminate or suspend all or part of its agreement with the State and reassert the licensing and regulatory authority vested in it under this chapter, if the Commission finds that (1) such termination or suspension is required to protect the public health and safety, or (2) the State has not complied with one or more of the requirements of this section. The Commission shall periodically review such agreements and actions taken by the States under the agreements to ensure compliance with the provisions of this section.

(2) The Commission, upon its own motion or upon request of the Governor of any State, may, after notifying the Governor, temporarily suspend all or part of its agreement with the State without notice or hearing if, in the judgment of the Commission:

(A) an emergency situation exists with respect to any material covered by such an agreement creating danger which requires immediate action to protect the health or safety of persons either within or outside the State, and

(B) the State has failed to take steps necessary to contain or eliminate the cause of the danger within a reasonable time after the situation arose.


A temporary suspension under this paragraph shall remain in effect only for such time as the emergency situation exists and shall authorize the Commission to exercise its authority only to the extent necessary to contain or eliminate the danger.

(k) State regulation of activities for certain purposes

Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the authority of any State or local agency to regulate activities for purposes other than protection against radiation hazards.

(l) Commission regulated activities; notice of filing; hearing

With respect to each application for Commission license authorizing an activity as to which the Commission's authority is continued pursuant to subsection (c), the Commission shall give prompt notice to the State or States in which the activity will be conducted of the filing of the license application; and shall afford reasonable opportunity for State representatives to offer evidence, interrogate witnesses, and advise the Commission as to the application without requiring such representatives to take a position for or against the granting of the application.

(m) Limitation of agreements and exemptions

No agreement entered into under subsection (b), and no exemption granted pursuant to subsection (f), shall affect the authority of the Commission under section 2201(b) or (i) of this title to issue rules, regulations, or orders to protect the common defense and security, to protect restricted data or to guard against the loss or diversion of special nuclear material. For purposes of section 2201(i) of this title, activities covered by exemptions granted pursuant to subsection (f) shall be deemed to constitute activities authorized pursuant to this chapter; and special nuclear material acquired by any person pursuant to such an exemption shall be deemed to have been acquired pursuant to section 2073 of this title.

(n) "State" and "agreement" defined

As used in this section, the term "State" means any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, the Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. As used in this section, the term "agreement" includes any amendment to any agreement.

(o) State compliance requirements: compliance with section 2113(b) of this title and health and environmental protection standards; procedures for licenses, rulemaking, and license impact analysis; amendment of agreements for transfer of State collected funds; proceedings duplication restriction; alternative requirements

In the licensing and regulation of byproduct material, as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title, or of any activity which results in the production of byproduct material as so defined under an agreement entered into pursuant to subsection (b), a State shall require—

(1) compliance with the requirements of subsection (b) of section 2113 of this title (respecting ownership of byproduct material and land), and

(2) compliance with standards which shall be adopted by the State for the protection of the public health, safety, and the environment from hazards associated with such material which are equivalent, to the extent practicable, or more stringent than, standards adopted and enforced by the Commission for the same purpose, including requirements and standards promulgated by the Commission and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to sections 2113, 2114, and 2022 of this title, and

(3) procedures which—

(A) in the case of licenses, provide procedures under State law which include—

(i) an opportunity, after public notice, for written comments and a public hearing, with a transcript,

(ii) an opportunity for cross examination, and

(iii) a written determination which is based upon findings included in such determination and upon the evidence presented during the public comment period and which is subject to judicial review;


(B) in the case of rulemaking, provide an opportunity for public participation through written comments or a public hearing and provide for judicial review of the rule;

(C) require for each license which has a significant impact on the human environment a written analysis (which shall be available to the public before the commencement of any such proceedings) of the impact of such license, including any activities conducted pursuant thereto, on the environment, which analysis shall include—

(i) an assessment of the radiological and nonradiological impacts to the public health of the activities to be conducted pursuant to such license;

(ii) an assessment of any impact on any waterway and groundwater resulting from such activities;

(iii) consideration of alternatives, including alternative sites and engineering methods, to the activities to be conducted pursuant to such license; and

(iv) consideration of the long-term impacts, including decommissioning, decontamination, and reclamation impacts, associated with activities to be conducted pursuant to such license, including the management of any byproduct material, as defined by section 2014(e)(2) of this title; and


(D) prohibit any major construction activity with respect to such material prior to complying with the provisions of subparagraph (C).


If any State under such agreement imposes upon any licensee any requirement for the payment of funds to such State for the reclamation or long-term maintenance and monitoring of such material, and if transfer to the United States of such material is required in accordance with section 2113(b) of this title, such agreement shall be amended by the Commission to provide that such State shall transfer to the United States upon termination of the license issued to such licensee the total amount collected by such State from such licensee for such purpose. If such payments are required, they must be sufficient to ensure compliance with the standards established by the Commission pursuant to section 2201(x) of this title. No State shall be required under paragraph (3) to conduct proceedings concerning any license or regulation which would duplicate proceedings conducted by the Commission. In adopting requirements pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection with respect to sites at which ores are processed primarily for their source material content or which are used for the disposal of byproduct material as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title, the State may adopt alternatives (including, where appropriate, site-specific alternatives) to the requirements adopted and enforced by the Commission for the same purpose if, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, the Commission determines that such alternatives will achieve a level of stabilization and containment of the sites concerned, and a level of protection for public health, safety, and the environment from radiological and nonradiological hazards associated with such sites, which is equivalent to, to the extent practicable, or more stringent than the level which would be achieved by standards and requirements adopted and enforced by the Commission for the same purpose and any final standards promulgated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with section 2022 of this title. Such alternative State requirements may take into account local or regional conditions, including geology, topography, hydrology and meteorology.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §274, as added Pub. L. 86–373, §1, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 688; amended 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§2(a)(7), 6(2), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086; Pub. L. 95–604, title II, §204(a)–(e)(1), (f), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3036–3038; Pub. L. 96–295, title II, §205, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 787; Pub. L. 97–415, §19(a), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2078; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(6), (8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §651(e)(2), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 807.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (i), (j)(1), and (m), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (n), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Codification

In subsec. (h) of this section, provisions for the establishment of a Federal Radiation Council and for the designation of its Chairman and members have been omitted and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency has been substituted for the Council as the person charged with the responsibility of carrying out the functions of the Council pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §§2(a)(7), 6(2), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which abolished the Federal Radiation Council and transferred its functions to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Administration.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–58 substituted "State:" for "State—" in introductory provisions, added pars. (1) to (3), and struck out former pars. (1) to (4) which read as follows:

"(1) byproduct materials as defined in section 2014(e)(1) of this title;

"(2) byproduct materials as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title;

"(3) source materials;

"(4) special nuclear materials in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass."

1992—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–486, §902(a)(6), inserted before semicolon at end "or any uranium enrichment facility".

1983—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 97–415 inserted provisions relating to the adoption of equivalent alternative requirements by the States.

1980—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 96–295 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–604, §204(a), inserted in par. (1) "as defined in section 2014(e)(1) of this title" after "byproduct materials", added par. (2), and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–604, §204(f), required the Commission to retain authority under the agreement to make a determination that all applicable standards and requirements have been met prior to termination of a license for byproduct material as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–604, §204(b), inserted "in accordance with the requirements of subsection (o) and in all other respects" before "compatible".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–604, §204(d), inserted "all or part of" after "suspend", designated provision requiring termination or suspension be necessary to protect the public health and safety as cl. (1), added cl. (2), and inserted provision requiring the Commission to periodically review the agreements and actions taken by the States under the agreements to ensure compliance with the provisions of this section.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 95–604, §204(c), inserted definition of "agreement".

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 95–604, §204(e)(1), added subsec. (o).

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 204(e)(2) of Pub. L. 95–604, as added by Pub. L. 96–106, §22(d), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 800, provided that: "The provisions of the amendment made by paragraph (1) of this subsection (which adds a new subsection o. to section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [this section]) shall apply only to the maximum extent practicable during the three-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–604 effective Nov. 8, 1978, see section 208 of Pub. L. 95–604, set out as a note under section 2014 of this title.

State Authorities and Agreements Respecting Byproduct Material; Entry and Effective Dates of Agreements

Pub. L. 95–604, title II, §204(g), (h), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3038, as amended by Pub. L. 96–106, §22(a), (b), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 799; Pub. L. 97–415, §19(b), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2079, provided that:

"(g) Nothing in any amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall preclude any State from exercising any other authority as permitted under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [this chapter] respecting any byproduct material, as defined in section 11 e. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [section 2014(e)(2) of this title].

"(h)(1) During the three-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978], notwithstanding any other provision of this title [See Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note set out under section 2014 of this title], any State may exercise any authority under State law (including authority exercised pursuant to an agreement entered into pursuant to section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [this section]) respecting (A) byproduct material, as defined in section 11 e. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [section 2014(e)(2) of this title], or (B) any activity which results in the production of byproduct material as so defined, in the same manner and to the same extent as permitted before the date of the enactment of this Act, except that such State authority shall be exercised in a manner which, to the extent practicable, is consistent with the requirements of section 274 o. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (as added by section 204(e) of this Act) [subsec. (o) of this section]. The Commission shall have the authority to ensure that such section 274 o. is implemented by any such State to the extent practicable during the three-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act. Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude the Commission or the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from taking such action under section 275 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [section 2022 of this title] as may be necessary to implement title I of this Act [section 7911 et seq. of this title].

"(2) An agreement entered into with any State as permitted under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [this section] with respect to byproduct material as defined in section 11 e. (2) of such Act. [section 2014(e)(2) of this title], may be entered into at any time after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978] but no such agreement may take effect before the date three years after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title [See Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note set out under section 2014 of this title], where a State assumes or has assumed, pursuant to an agreement entered into under section 274 b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [subsec. (b) of this section], authority over any activity which results in the production of byproduct material, as defined in section 11 e. (2) of such Act [section 2014(e)(2) of this title], the Commission shall not, until the end of the three-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978], have licensing authority over such byproduct material produced in any activity covered by such agreement, unless the agreement is terminated, suspended, or amended to provide for such Federal licensing. If, at the end of such three-year period, a State has not entered into such an agreement with respect to byproduct material, as defined in section 11 e. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the Commission shall have authority over such byproduct material: Provided, however, That, in the case of a State which has exercised any authority under State law pursuant to an agreement entered into under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [this section], the State authority over such byproduct material may be terminated, and the Commission authority over such material may be exercised, only after compliance by the Commission with the same procedures as are applicable in the case of termination of agreements under section 274j. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [subsec. (j) of this section]."

Federal Compliance With Pollution Control Standards

For provisions relating to the responsibility of the head of each Executive agency for compliance with applicable pollution control standards, see Ex. Ord. No. 12088, Oct. 13, 1978, 43 F.R. 47707, set out as a note under section 4321 of this title.

Executive Order No. 12192

Ex. Ord. No. 12192, Feb. 12, 1980, 45 F.R. 9727, which established the State Planning Council on Radioactive Waste Management and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12379, §13, Aug. 17, 1982, 47 F.R. 36099, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§2021a. Storage or disposal facility planning

(a) Any person, agency, or other entity proposing to develop a storage or disposal facility, including a test disposal facility, for high-level radioactive wastes, non-high-level radioactive wastes including transuranium contaminated wastes, or irradiated nuclear reactor fuel, shall notify the Commission as early as possible after the commencement of planning for a particular proposed facility. The Commission shall in turn notify the Governor and the State legislature of the State of proposed situs whenever the Commission has knowledge of such proposal.

(b) The Commission is authorized and directed to prepare a report on means for improving the opportunities for State participation in the process for siting, licensing, and developing nuclear waste storage or disposal facilities. Such report shall include detailed consideration of a program to provide grants through the Commission to any State, and the advisability of such a program, for the purpose of conducting an independent State review of any proposal to develop a nuclear waste storage or disposal facility identified in subsection (a) within such State. On or before March 1, 1979, the Commission shall submit the report to the Congress including recommendations for improving the opportunities for State participation together with any necessary legislative proposals.

(Pub. L. 95–601, §14, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2953.)

References in Text

Commission, referred to in text, probably means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in view of the fact that this section was enacted as part of the act authorizing appropriations for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for fiscal year 1979.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of an act authorizing appropriations to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for fiscal year 1979, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Plan for Permanent Disposal of Waste From Atomic Energy Defense Activities; Submission of Plan to Congress Not Later Than June 30, 1983

Pub. L. 97–90, title II, §213, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1171, directed President to submit to Committees on Armed Services of Senate and of House of Representatives not later than June 30, 1983, a report setting forth his plans for permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes resulting from atomic energy defense activities, such report to include, but not be limited to, for each State in which such wastes are stored in interim storage facilities on Dec. 4, 1981, specific estimates of amounts planned for expenditure in each of the next five fiscal years to achieve the permanent disposal of such wastes and general estimates of amounts planned for expenditure in fiscal years thereafter to achieve such purpose, and a thorough and detailed program management plan for the disposal of such wastes.

West Valley Demonstration Project; Radioactive Waste Management; Project Activities; Public Hearings; Review of Project and Consultations; Authorization of Appropriations; Report to Congress

Pub. L. 107–66, title III, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 503, provided in part: "That funding for the West Valley Demonstration Project shall be reduced in subsequent fiscal years to the minimum necessary to maintain the project in a safe and stable condition, unless, not later than September 30, 2002, the Secretary: (1) provides written notification to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate that agreement has been reached with the State of New York on the final scope of Federal activities at the West Valley site and on the respective Federal and State cost shares for those activities; (2) submits a written copy of that agreement to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate; and (3) provides a written certification that the Federal actions proposed in the agreement will be in full compliance with all relevant Federal statutes and are in the best interest of the Federal Government."

Pub. L. 96–368, Oct. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 1347, as amended by Pub. L. 102–154, title I, Nov. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1000, provided that:

"Section 1. This Act may be cited as the 'West Valley Demonstration Project Act'.

"Sec. 2. (a) The Secretary shall carry out, in accordance with this Act, a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Service Center in West Valley, New York, for the purpose of demonstrating solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. Under the project the Secretary shall carry out the following activities:

"(1) The Secretary shall solidify, in a form suitable for transportation and disposal, the high level radioactive waste at the Center by vitrification or by such other technology which the Secretary determines to be the most effective for solidification.

"(2) The Secretary shall develop containers suitable for the permanent disposal of the high level radioactive waste solidified at the Center.

"(3) The Secretary shall, as soon as feasible, transport, in accordance with applicable provisions of law, the waste solidified at the Center to an appropriate Federal repository for permanent disposal.

"(4) The Secretary shall, in accordance with applicable licensing requirements, dispose of low level radioactive waste and transuranic waste produced by the solidification of the high level radioactive waste under the project.

"(5) The Secretary shall decontaminate and decommission—

"(A) the tanks and other facilities of the Center in which the high level radioactive waste solidified under the project was stored,

"(B) the facilities used in the solidification of the waste, and

"(C) any material and hardware used in connection with the project,

in accordance with such requirements as the Commission may prescribe.

"(b) Before undertaking the project and during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, the Secretary shall carry out the following:

"(1) The Secretary shall hold in the vicinity of the Center public hearings to inform the residents of the area in which the Center is located of the activities proposed to be undertaken under the project and to receive their comments on the project.

"(2) The Secretary shall consider the various technologies available for the solidification and handling of high level radioactive waste taking into account the unique characteristics of such waste at the Center.

"(3) The Secretary shall—

"(A) undertake detailed engineering and cost estimates for the project,

"(B) prepare a plan for the safe removal of the high level radioactive waste at the Center for the purposes of solidification and include in the plan provisions respecting the safe breaching of the tanks in which the waste is stored, operating equipment to accomplish the removal, and sluicing techniques,

"(C) conduct appropriate safety analyses of the project, and

"(D) prepare required environmental impact analyses of the project.

"(4) The Secretary shall enter into a cooperative agreement with the State in accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act of 1977 [see section 6301 et seq. of Title 31, Money and Finance] under which the State will carry out the following:

"(A) The State will make available to the Secretary the facilities of the Center and the high level radioactive waste at the Center which are necessary for the completion of the project. The facilities and the waste shall be made available without the transfer of title and for such period as may be required for completion of the project.

"(B) The Secretary shall provide technical assistance in securing required license amendments.

"(C) The State shall pay 10 per centum of the costs of the project, as determined by the Secretary. In determining the costs of the project, the Secretary shall consider the value of the use of the Center for the project. The State may not use Federal funds to pay its share of the cost of the project, but may use the perpetual care fund to pay such share.

"(D) Submission jointly by the Department of Energy and the State of New York of an application for a licensing amendment as soon as possible with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission providing for the demonstration.

"(c) Within one year from the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1980], the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the Commission to establish arrangements for review and consultation by the Commission with respect to the project: Provided, That review and consultation by the Commission pursuant to this subsection shall be conducted informally by the Commission and shall not include nor require formal procedures or actions by the Commission pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended [this chapter], the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended [section 5801 et seq. of this title], or any other law. The agreement shall provide for the following:

"(1) The Secretary shall submit to the Commission, for its review and comment, a plan for the solidification of the high level radioactive waste at the Center, the removal of the waste for purposes of its solidification, the preparation of the waste for disposal, and the decontamination of the facilities to be used in solidifying the waste. In preparing its comments on the plan, the Commission shall specify with precision its objections to any provision of the plan. Upon submission of a plan to the Commission, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register of the submission of the plan and of its availability for public inspection, and, upon receipt of the comments of the Commission respecting a plan, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register of the receipt of the comments and of the availability of the comments for public inspection. If the Secretary does not revise the plan to meet objections specified in the comments of the Commission, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a detailed statement for not so revising the plan.

"(2) The Secretary shall consult with the Commission with respect to the form in which the high level radioactive waste at the Center shall be solidified and the containers to be used in the permanent disposal of such waste.

"(3) The Secretary shall submit to the Commission safety analysis reports and such other information as the Commission may require to identify any danger to the public health and safety which may be presented by the project.

"(4) The Secretary shall afford the Commission access to the Center to enable the Commission to monitor the activities under the project for the purpose of assuring the public health and safety.

"(d) In carrying out the project, the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Transportation, the Director of the United States Geological Survey, and the commercial operator of the Center.

"Sec. 3. (a) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for the project not more than $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981.

"(b) The total amount obligated for the project by the Secretary shall be 90 per centum of the costs of the project.

"(c) The authority of the Secretary to enter into contracts under this Act shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in advance by appropriation Acts.

"Sec. 4. Not later than February 1, 1981, and on February 1 of each calendar year thereafter during the term of the project, the Secretary shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate an up-to-date report containing a detailed description of the activities of the Secretary in carrying out the project, including agreements entered into and the costs incurred during the period reported on and the activities to be undertaken in the next fiscal year and the estimated costs thereof.

"Sec. 5. (a) Other than the costs and responsibilities established by this Act for the project, nothing in this Act shall be construed as affecting any rights, obligations, or liabilities of the commercial operator of the Center, the State, or any person, as is appropriate, arising under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [this chapter] or under any other law, contract, or agreement for the operation, maintenance, or decontamination of any facility or property at the Center or for any wastes at the Center. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as affecting any applicable licensing requirement of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 or the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 [section 5801 et seq. of this title]. This Act shall not apply or be extended to any facility or property at the Center which is not used in conducting the project. This Act may not be construed to expand or diminish the rights of the Federal Government.

"(b) This Act does not authorize the Federal Government to acquire title to any high level radioactive waste at the Center or to the Center or any portion thereof.

"Sec. 6. For purposes of this Act:

"(1) The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Energy.

"(2) The term 'Commission' means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

"(3) The term 'State' means the State of New York.

"(4) The term 'high level radioactive waste' means the high level radioactive waste which was produced by the reprocessing at the Center of spent nuclear fuel. Such term includes both liquid wastes which are produced directly in reprocessing, dry solid material derived from such liquid waste, and such other material as the Commission designates as high level radioactive waste for purposes of protecting the public health and safety.

"(5) The term 'transuranic waste' means material contaminated with elements which have an atomic number greater than 92, including neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium, and which are in concentrations greater than 10 nanocuries per gram, or in such other concentrations as the Commission may prescribe to protect the public health and safety.

"(6) The term 'low level radioactive waste' means radioactive waste not classified as high level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or byproduct material as defined in section 11e. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [section 2014(e)(2) of this title].

"(7) The term 'project' means the project prescribed by section 2(a).

"(8) The term 'Center' means the Western New York Service Center in West Valley, New York."

[For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which a report required under section 4 of Pub. L. 96–368, set out above, is listed in item 1 on page 84), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, and section 1(a)(4) [div. A, §1402(1)] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out as notes under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.]

§2021b. Definitions

For purposes of sections 2021b to 2021j of this title:

(1) Agreement State

The term "agreement State" means a State that—

(A) has entered into an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under section 2021 of this title; and

(B) has authority to regulate the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under such agreement.

(2) Allocation

The term "allocation" means the assignment of a specific amount of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity to a commercial nuclear power reactor for which access is required to be provided by sited States subject to the conditions specified under sections 2021b to 2021j of this title.

(3) Commercial nuclear power reactor

The term "commercial nuclear power reactor" means any unit of a civilian light-water moderated utilization facility required to be licensed under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title.

(4) Compact

The term "compact" means a compact entered into by two or more States pursuant to sections 2021b to 2021j of this title.

(5) Compact commission

The term "compact commission" means the regional commission, committee, or board established in a compact to administer such compact.

(6) Compact region

The term "compact region" means the area consisting of all States that are members of a compact.

(7) Disposal

The term "disposal" means the permanent isolation of low-level radioactive waste pursuant to the requirements established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under applicable laws, or by an agreement State if such isolation occurs in such agreement State.

(8) Generate

The term "generate", when used in relation to low-level radioactive waste, means to produce low-level radioactive waste.

(9) Low-level radioactive waste

(A) In general

The term "low-level radioactive waste" means radioactive material that—

(i) is not high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material (as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title); and

(ii) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, consistent with existing law and in accordance with paragraph (A), classifies as low-level radioactive waste.

(B) Exclusion

The term "low-level radioactive waste" does not include byproduct material (as defined in paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 2014(e) of this title).

(10) Non-sited compact region

The term "non-sited compact region" means any compact region that is not a sited compact region.

(11) Regional disposal facility

The term "regional disposal facility" means a non-Federal low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in operation on January 1, 1985, or subsequently established and operated under a compact.

(12) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(13) Sited compact region

The term "sited compact region" means a compact region in which there is located one of the regional disposal facilities at Barnwell, in the State of South Carolina; Richland, in the State of Washington; or Beatty, in the State of Nevada.

(14) State

The term "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §2, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1842; amended Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §651(e)(3)(B), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 808.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2021b, Pub. L. 96–573, §2, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3347, related to definitions respecting low-level radioactive waste policy as used in former sections 2021b to 2021d of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–240, §102.

Amendments

2005—Par. (9). Pub. L. 109–58 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §101, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1842, provided that: "This Title [enacting this section and sections 2021c to 2021j of this title, repealing former sections 2021b to 2021d of this title, and enacting and repealing a provision set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 96–573, §1, as added by Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1842, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 2021b to 2021j of this title] may be cited as the 'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act'."

A prior section 1 of Pub. L. 96–573, which provided that Pub. L. 96–573 [enacting former sections 2021b to 2021d of this title] could be cited as the "Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act", was repealed by Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1842.

§2021c. Responsibilities for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

(a)(1) Each State shall be responsible for providing, either by itself or in cooperation with other States, for the disposal of—

(A) low-level radioactive waste generated within the State (other than by the Federal Government) that consists of or contains class A, B, or C radioactive waste as defined by section 61.55 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on January 26, 1983;

(B) low-level radioactive waste described in subparagraph (A) that is generated by the Federal Government except such waste that is—

(i) owned or generated by the Department of Energy;

(ii) owned or generated by the United States Navy as a result of the decommissioning of vessels of the United States Navy; or

(iii) owned or generated as a result of any research, development, testing, or production of any atomic weapon; and


(C) low-level radioactive waste described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) that is generated outside of the State and accepted for disposal in accordance with sections 1 2021e or 2021f of this title.


(2) No regional disposal facility may be required to accept for disposal any material—

(A) that is not low-level radioactive waste as defined by section 61.55 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on January 26, 1983, or

(B) identified under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.


Nothing in this paragraph shall be deemed to prohibit a State, subject to the provisions of its compact, or a compact region from accepting for disposal any material identified in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(b)(1) The Federal Government shall be responsible for the disposal of—

(A) low-level radioactive waste owned or generated by the Department of Energy;

(B) low-level radioactive waste owned or generated by the United States Navy as a result of the decommissioning of vessels of the United States Navy;

(C) low-level radioactive waste owned or generated by the Federal Government as a result of any research, development, testing, or production of any atomic weapon; and

(D) any other low-level radioactive waste with concentrations of radionuclides that exceed the limits established by the Commission for class C radioactive waste, as defined by section 61.55 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on January 26, 1983.


(2) All radioactive waste designated a Federal responsibility pursuant to subparagraph (b)(1)(D) that results from activities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, shall be disposed of in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that the Commission determines is adequate to protect the public health and safety.

(3) Not later than 12 months after January 15, 1986, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a comprehensive report setting forth the recommendations of the Secretary for ensuring the safe disposal of all radioactive waste designated a Federal responsibility pursuant to subparagraph (b)(1)(D). Such report shall include—

(A) an identification of the radioactive waste involved, including the source of such waste, and the volume, concentration, and other relevant characteristics of such waste;

(B) an identification of the Federal and non-Federal options for disposal of such radioactive waste;

(C) a description of the actions proposed to ensure the safe disposal of such radioactive waste;

(D) a description of the projected costs of undertaking such actions;

(E) an identification of the options for ensuring that the beneficiaries of the activities resulting in the generation of such radioactive wastes bear all reasonable costs of disposing of such wastes; and

(F) an identification of any statutory authority required for disposal of such waste.


(4) The Secretary may not dispose of any radioactive waste designated a Federal responsibility pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(D) that becomes a Federal responsibility for the first time pursuant to such paragraph until ninety days after the report prepared pursuant to paragraph (3) has been submitted to the Congress.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §3, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1843.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

January 15, 1986, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), was in the original "the date of enactment of this Act" and was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 99–240 to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2021c, Pub. L. 96–573, §3, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3347, related to the applicability of low-level radioactive waste compacts, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–240, §102. See section 2021d of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§2021d. Regional compacts for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

(a) In general

(1) Federal policy

It is the policy of the Federal Government that the responsibilities of the States under section 2021c of this title for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste can be most safely and effectively managed on a regional basis.

(2) Interstate compacts

To carry out the policy set forth in paragraph (1), the States may enter into such compacts as may be necessary to provide for the establishment and operation of regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste.

(b) Applicability to Federal activities

(1) In general

(A) Activities of the Secretary

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no compact or action taken under a compact shall be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of any low-level radioactive waste designated in section 2021c(a)(1)(B)(i)–(iii) of this title.

(B) Federal low-level radioactive waste disposed of at non-Federal facilities

Low-level radioactive waste owned or generated by the Federal Government that is disposed of at a regional disposal facility or non-Federal disposal facility within a State that is not a member of a compact shall be subject to the same conditions, regulations, requirements, fees, taxes, and surcharges imposed by the compact commission, and by the State in which such facility is located, in the same manner and to the same extent as any low-level radioactive waste not generated by the Federal Government.

(2) Federal low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

Any low-level radioactive waste disposal facility established or operated exclusively for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste owned or generated by the Federal Government shall not be subject to any compact or any action taken under a compact.

(3) Effect of compacts on Federal law

Nothing contained in sections 2021b to 2021j of this title or any compact may be construed to confer any new authority on any compact commission or State—

(A) to regulate the packaging, generation, treatment, storage, disposal, or transportation of low-level radioactive waste in a manner incompatible with the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or inconsistent with the regulations of the Department of Transportation;

(B) to regulate health, safety, or environmental hazards from source material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material;

(C) to inspect the facilities of licensees of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission;

(D) to inspect security areas or operations at the site of the generation of any low-level radioactive waste by the Federal Government, or to inspect classified information related to such areas or operations; or

(E) to require indemnification pursuant to the provisions of chapter 171 of title 28 (commonly referred to as the Federal Tort Claims Act), or section 2210 of this title, whichever is applicable.

(4) Federal authority

Except as expressly provided in sections 2021b to 2021j of this title, nothing contained in sections 2021b to 2021j of this title or any compact may be construed to limit the applicability of any Federal law or to diminish or otherwise impair the jurisdiction of any Federal agency, or to alter, amend, or otherwise affect any Federal law governing the judicial review of any action taken pursuant to any compact.

(5) State authority preserved

Except as expressly provided in sections 2021b to 2021j of this title, nothing contained in sections 2021b to 2021j of this title expands, diminishes, or otherwise affects State law.

(c) Restricted use of regional disposal facilities

Any authority in a compact to restrict the use of the regional disposal facilities under the compact to the disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated within the compact region shall not take effect before each of the following occurs:

(1) January 1, 1986; and

(2) the Congress by law consents to the compact.

(d) Congressional review

Each compact shall provide that every 5 years after the compact has taken effect the Congress may by law withdraw its consent.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §4, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1845.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2021d, Pub. L. 96–573, §4, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3348, related to policy of Federal Government concerning low-level radioactive waste disposal, implementation of that policy, and a report to Congress and the States to assist in carrying out the policy, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–240, §102.

Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Consent Act

Pub. L. 105–236, Sept. 20, 1998, 112 Stat. 1542, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Consent Act'.

"SEC. 2. CONGRESSIONAL FINDING.

"The Congress finds that the compact set forth in section 5 is in furtherance of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021b et seq.).

"SEC. 3. CONDITIONS OF CONSENT TO COMPACT.

"The consent of the Congress to the compact set forth in section 5—

"(1) shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 20, 1998];

"(2) is granted subject to the provisions of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021b et seq.); and

"(3) is granted only for so long as the regional commission established in the compact complies with all of the provisions of such Act.

"SEC. 4. CONGRESSIONAL REVIEW.

"The Congress may alter, amend, or repeal this Act with respect to the compact set forth in section 5 after the expiration of the 10-year period following the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 20, 1998], and at such intervals thereafter as may be provided in such compact.

"SEC. 5. TEXAS LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMPACT.

"(a) Consent of Congress.—In accordance with section 4(a)(2) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021d(a)(2)), the consent of Congress is given to the States of Texas, Maine, and Vermont to enter into the compact set forth in subsection (b).

"(b) Text of Compact.—The compact reads substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 112 Stat. 1543]".

Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Consent Act

Pub. L. 100–712, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4773, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Consent Act'[.]

"SEC. 2. CONGRESSIONAL FINDING.

"The Congress finds that the compact set forth in section 5 is in furtherance of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 2021b–2021j].

"SEC. 3. CONDITIONS OF CONSENT TO COMPACT.

"The consent of the Congress to the compact set forth in section 5—

"(1) shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1988];

"(2) is granted subject to the provisions of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 2021b–2021j]; and

"(3) is granted only for so long as the regional commission established in the compact complies with all of the provisions of such Act.

"SEC. 4. CONGRESSIONAL REVIEW.

"The Congress may alter, amend, or repeal this Act with respect to the compact set forth in section 5 after the expiration of the 10-year period following the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1988], and at such intervals thereafter as may be provided in such compact.

"SEC. 5. SOUTHWESTERN LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMPACT.

"In accordance with section 4(a)(2) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021d(a)(2)), the consent of Congress is given to the states of Arizona, California, and any eligible states, as defined in article VII of the Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact, to enter into such compact. Such compact is substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 102 Stat. 4773]".

Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact Consent Act

Pub. L. 100–319, May 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 471, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact Consent Act'.

"SEC. 2. CONGRESSIONAL FINDING.

"The Congress finds that the compact set forth in section 5 is in furtherance of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 2021b–2021j].

"SEC. 3. CONDITIONS OF CONSENT TO COMPACT.

"The consent of the Congress to the compact set forth in section 5—

"(1) shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [May 19, 1988],

"(2) is granted subject to the provisions of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 2021b–2021j], and

"(3) is granted only for so long as the Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission, advisory committees, and regional boards established in the compact comply with all the provisions of such Act.

"SEC. 4. CONGRESSIONAL REVIEW.

"The Congress may alter, amend, or repeal this Act with respect to the compact set forth in section 5 after the expiration of the 10-year period following the date of the enactment of this Act [May 19, 1988], and at such intervals thereafter as may be provided for in such compact.

"SEC. 5. APPALACHIAN STATES LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMPACT.

"In accordance with section 4(a)(2) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021d(A)(2) [42 U.S.C. 2021d(a)(2)]), the consent of Congress is given to the States of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and any eligible States as defined in Article 5(A) of the Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact to enter into such compact. Such compact is substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 102 Stat. 471]".

Omnibus Low-Level Radioactive Waste Interstate Compact Consent Act

Pub. L. 99–240, title II, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1859, provided that:

"SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

"This Title may be cited as the 'Omnibus Low-Level Radioactive Waste Interstate Compact Consent Act'.

"Subtitle A—General Provisions

"SEC. 211. CONGRESSIONAL FINDING.

"The Congress hereby finds that each of the compacts set forth in subtitle B is in furtherance of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 2021b–2021j].

"SEC. 212. CONDITIONS OF CONSENT TO COMPACTS.

"The consent of the Congress to each of the compacts set forth in subtitle B—

"(1) shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 15, 1986];

"(2) is granted subject to the provisions of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended [42 U.S.C. 2021b–2021j]; and

"(3) is granted only for so long as the regional commission, committee, or board established in the compact complies with all of the provisions of such Act.

"SEC. 213. CONGRESSIONAL REVIEW.

"The Congress may alter, amend, or repeal this Act with respect to any compact set forth in subtitle B after the expiration of the 10-year period following the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 15, 1986], and at such intervals thereafter as may be provided in such compact.

"Subtitle B—Congressional Consent to Compacts

"SEC. 221. NORTHWEST INTERSTATE COMPACT ON LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT.

"The consent of Congress is hereby given to the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming to enter into the Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-level Radioactive Waste Management, and to each and every part and article thereof. Such compact reads substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 99 Stat. 1860.]

"SEC. 222. CENTRAL INTERSTATE LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMPACT.

"The consent of Congress is hereby given to the states of Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Oklahoma to enter into the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, and to each and every part and article thereof. Such compact reads substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 99 Stat. 1863.]

"SEC. 223. SOUTHEAST INTERSTATE LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT COMPACT.

"In accordance with section 4(a)(2) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021d(a)(2)), the consent of the Congress is hereby given to the States of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia to enter into the Southeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact. Such compact is substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 99 Stat. 1871; 103 Stat. 1289.]

"SEC. 224. CENTRAL MIDWEST INTERSTATE LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMPACT.

"In accordance with section 4(a)(2) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021d(a)(2)), the consent of the Congress hereby is given to the States of Illinois and Kentucky to enter into the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. Such compact is substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 99 Stat. 1880; 108 Stat. 4607.]

"SEC. 225. MIDWEST INTERSTATE LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT COMPACT.

"The consent of Congress is hereby given to the States of Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin to enter into the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-level Radioactive Waste Management. Such compact is as follows: [Text of compact appears at 99 Stat. 1892.]

"SEC. 226. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMPACT.

"In accordance with section 4(a)(2) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 2021d(a)(2)), the consent of the Congress hereby is given to the States of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming to enter into the Rocky Mountain Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. Such compact is substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 99 Stat. 1902.]

"SEC. 227. NORTHEAST INTERSTATE LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT COMPACT.

"In accordance with section 4(a)(2) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 2021d(a)(2)], the consent of the Congress is hereby given to the States of Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland to enter into the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact. Such compact is substantially as follows: [Text of compact appears at 99 Stat. 1910.]."

§2021e. Limited availability of certain regional disposal facilities during transition and licensing periods

(a) Availability of disposal capacity

(1) Pressurized water and boiling water reactors

During the seven-year period beginning January 1, 1986 and ending December 31, 1992, subject to the provisions of subsections (b) through (g), each State in which there is located a regional disposal facility referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) shall make disposal capacity available for low-level radioactive waste generated by pressurized water and boiling water commercial nuclear power reactors in accordance with the allocations established in subsection (c).

(2) Other sources of low-level radioactive waste

During the seven-year period beginning January 1, 1986 and ending December 31, 1992, subject to the provisions of subsections (b) through (g), each State in which there is located a regional disposal facility referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) shall make disposal capacity available for low-level radioactive waste generated by any source not referred to in paragraph (1).

(3) Allocation of disposal capacity

(A) During the seven-year period beginning January 1, 1986 and ending December 31, 1992, low-level radioactive waste generated within a sited compact region shall be accorded priority under this section in the allocation of available disposal capacity at a regional disposal facility referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) and located in the sited compact region in which such waste is generated.

(B) Any State in which a regional disposal facility referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) is located may, subject to the provisions of its compact, prohibit the disposal at such facility of low-level radioactive waste generated outside of the compact region if the disposal of such waste in any given calendar year, together with all other low-level radioactive waste disposed of at such facility within that same calendar year, would result in that facility disposing of a total annual volume of low-level radioactive waste in excess of 100 per centum of the average annual volume for such facility designated in subsection (b): Provided, however, That in the event that all three States in which regional disposal facilities referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) act to prohibit the disposal of low-level radioactive waste pursuant to this subparagraph, each such State shall, in accordance with any applicable procedures of its compact, permit, as necessary, the disposal of additional quantities of such waste in increments of 10 per centum of the average annual volume for each such facility designated in subsection (b).

(C) Nothing in this paragraph shall require any disposal facility or State referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) to accept for disposal low-level radioactive waste in excess of the total amounts designated in subsection (b).

(4) Cessation of operation of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

No provision of this section shall be construed to obligate any State referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) to accept low-level radioactive waste from any source in the event that the regional disposal facility located in such State ceases operations.

(b) Limitations

The availability of disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste from any source shall be subject to the following limitations:

(1) Barnwell, South Carolina

The State of South Carolina, in accordance with the provisions of its compact, may limit the volume of low-level radioactive waste accepted for disposal at the regional disposal facility located at Barnwell, South Carolina to a total of 8,400,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste during the 7-year period beginning January 1, 1986, and ending December 31, 1992 (as based on an average annual volume of 1,200,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste).

(2) Richland, Washington

The State of Washington, in accordance with the provisions of its compact, may limit the volume of low-level radioactive waste accepted for disposal at the regional disposal facility located at Richland, Washington to a total of 9,800,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste during the 7-year period beginning January 1, 1986, and ending December 31, 1992 (as based on an average annual volume of 1,400,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste).

(3) Beatty, Nevada

The State of Nevada, in accordance with the provisions of its compact, may limit the volume of low-level radioactive waste accepted for disposal at the regional disposal facility located at Beatty, Nevada to a total of 1,400,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste during the 7-year period beginning January 1, 1986, and ending December 31, 1992 (as based on an average annual volume of 200,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste).

(c) Commercial nuclear power reactor allocations

(1) Amount

Subject to the provisions of subsections (a) through (g) each commercial nuclear power reactor shall upon request receive an allocation of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity (in cubic feet) at the facilities referred to in subsection (b) during the 4-year transition period beginning January 1, 1986, and ending December 31, 1989, and during the 3-year licensing period beginning January 1, 1990, and ending December 31, 1992, in an amount calculated by multiplying the appropriate number from the following table by the number of months remaining in the applicable period as determined under paragraph (2).

 
Reactor Type4-year Transition Period3-year Licensing Period
In Sited RegionAll Other LocationsIn Sited RegionAll Other Locations
PWR 1027 871 934 685
BWR 2300 1951 2091 1533

(2) Method of calculation

For purposes of calculating the aggregate amount of disposal capacity available to a commercial nuclear power reactor under this subsection, the number of months shall be computed beginning with the first month of the applicable period, or the sixteenth month after receipt of a full power operating license, whichever occurs later.

(3) Unused allocations

Any unused allocation under paragraph (1) received by a reactor during the transition period or the licensing period may be used at any time after such reactor receives its full power license or after the beginning of the pertinent period, whichever is later, but not in any event after December 31, 1992, or after commencement of operation of a regional disposal facility in the compact region or State in which such reactor is located, whichever occurs first.

(4) Transferability

Any commercial nuclear power reactor in a State or compact region that is in compliance with the requirements of subsection (e) may assign any disposal capacity allocated to it under this subsection to any other person in each State or compact region. Such assignment may be for valuable consideration and shall be in writing, copies of which shall be filed at the affected compact commissions and States, along with the assignor's unconditional written waiver of the disposal capacity being assigned.

(5) Unusual volumes

(A) The Secretary may, upon petition by the owner or operator of any commercial nuclear power reactor, allocate to such reactor disposal capacity in excess of the amount calculated under paragraph (1) if the Secretary finds and states in writing his reasons for so finding that making additional capacity available for such reactor through this paragraph is required to permit unusual or unexpected operating, maintenance, repair or safety activities.

(B) The Secretary may not make allocations pursuant to subparagraph (A) that would result in the acceptance for disposal of more than 800,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste or would result in the total of the allocations made pursuant to this subsection exceeding 11,900,000 cubic feet over the entire seven-year interim access period.

(6) Limitation

During the seven-year interim access period referred to in subsection (a), the disposal facilities referred to in subsection (b) shall not be required to accept more than 11,900,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear power reactors.

(d) Use of surcharge funds for milestone incentives; consequences of failure to meet disposal deadline

(1) Surcharges

The disposal of any low-level radioactive waste under this section (other than low-level radioactive waste generated in a sited compact region) may be charged a surcharge by the State in which the applicable regional disposal facility is located, in addition to the fees and surcharges generally applicable for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the regional disposal facility involved. Except as provided in subsection (e)(2), such surcharges shall not exceed—

(A) in 1986 and 1987, $10 per cubic foot of low-level radioactive waste;

(B) in 1988 and 1989, $20 per cubic foot of low-level radioactive waste; and

(C) in 1990, 1991, and 1992, $40 per cubic foot of low-level radioactive waste.

(2) Milestone incentives

(A) Escrow account

Twenty-five per centum of all surcharge fees received by a State pursuant to paragraph (1) during the seven-year period referred to in subsection (a) shall be transferred on a monthly basis to an escrow account held by the Secretary. The Secretary shall deposit all funds received in a special escrow account. The funds so deposited shall not be the property of the United States. The Secretary shall act as trustee for such funds and shall invest them in interest-bearing United States Government Securities with the highest available yield. Such funds shall be held by the Secretary until—

(i) paid or repaid in accordance with subparagraph (B) or (C); or

(ii) paid to the State collecting such fees in accordance with subparagraph (F).

(B) Payments

(i) July 1, 1986.—The twenty-five per centum of any amount collected by a State under paragraph (1) for low-level radioactive waste disposed of under this section during the period beginning on January 15, 1986, and ending June 30, 1986, and transferred to the Secretary under subparagraph (A), shall be paid by the Secretary in accordance with subparagraph (D) if the milestone described in subsection (e)(1)(A) is met by the State in which such waste originated.

(ii) January 1, 1988.—The twenty-five per centum of any amount collected by a State under paragraph (1) for low-level radioactive waste disposed of under this section during the period beginning July 1, 1986 and ending December 31, 1987, and transferred to the Secretary under subparagraph (A), shall be paid by the Secretary in accordance with subparagraph (D) if the milestone described in subsection (e)(1)(B) is met by the State in which such waste originated (or its compact region, where applicable).

(iii) January 1, 1990.—The twenty-five per centum of any amount collected by a State under paragraph (1) for low-level radioactive waste disposed of under this section during the period beginning January 1, 1988 and ending December 31, 1989, and transferred to the Secretary under subparagraph (A), shall be paid by the Secretary in accordance with subparagraph (D) if the milestone described in subsection (e)(1)(C) is met by the State in which such waste originated (or its compact region, where applicable).

(iv) The twenty-five per centum of any amount collected by a State under paragraph (1) for low-level radioactive waste disposed of under this section during the period beginning January 1, 1990 and ending December 31, 1992, and transferred to the Secretary under subparagrah 1 (A), shall be paid by the Secretary in accordance with subparagraph (D) if, by January 1, 1993, the State in which such waste originated (or its compact region, where applicable) is able to provide for the disposal of all low-level radioactive waste generated within such State or compact region.

(C) Failure to meet January 1, 1993 deadline

If, by January 1, 1993, a State (or, where applicable, a compact region) in which low-level radioactive waste is generated is unable to provide for the disposal of all such waste generated within such State or compact region—

(i) each State in which such waste is generated, upon the request of the generator or owner of the waste, shall take title to the waste, shall be obligated to take possession of the waste, and shall be liable for all damages directly or indirectly incurred by such generator or owner as a consequence of the failure of the State to take possession of the waste as soon after January 1, 1993 as the generator or owner notifies the State that the waste is available for shipment; or

(ii) if such State elects not to take title to, take possession of, and assume liability for such waste, pursuant to clause (i), twenty-five per centum of any amount collected by a State under paragraph (1) for low-level radioactive waste disposed of under this section during the period beginning January 1, 1990 and ending December 31, 1992 shall be repaid, with interest, to each generator from whom such surcharge was collected. Repayments made pursuant to this clause shall be made on a monthly basis, with the first such repayment beginning on February 1, 1993, in an amount equal to one thirty-sixth of the total amount required to be repaid pursuant to this clause, and shall continue until the State (or, where applicable, compact region) in which such low-level radioactive waste is generated is able to provide for the disposal of all such waste generated within such State or compact region or until January 1, 1996, whichever is earlier.


If a State in which low-level radioactive waste is generated elects to take title to, take possession of, and assume liability for such waste pursuant to clause (i), such State shall be paid such amounts as are designated in subparagraph (B)(iv). If a State (or, where applicable, a compact region) in which low-level radioactive waste is generated provides for the disposal of such waste at any time after January 1, 1993 and prior to January 1, 1996, such State (or, where applicable, compact region) shall be paid in accordance with subparagraph (D) a lump sum amount equal to twenty-five per centum of any amount collected by a State under paragraph (1): Provided, however, That such payment shall be adjusted to reflect the remaining number of months between January 1, 1993 and January 1, 1996 for which such State (or, where applicable, compact region) provides for the disposal of such waste. If a State (or, where applicable, a compact region) in which low-level radioactive waste is generated is unable to provide for the disposal of all such waste generated within such State or compact region by January 1, 1996, each State in which such waste is generated, upon the request of the generator or owner of the waste, shall take title to the waste, be obligated to take possession of the waste, and shall be liable for all damages directly or indirectly incurred by such generator or owner as a consequence of the failure of the State to take possession of the waste as soon after January 1, 1996, as the generator or owner notifies the State that the waste is available for shipment.

(D) Recipients of payments

The payments described in subparagraphs (B) and (C) shall be paid within thirty days after the applicable date—

(i) if the State in which such waste originated is not a member of a compact region, to such State;

(ii) if the State in which such waste originated is a member of the compact region, to the compact commission serving such State.

(E) Uses of payments

(i) Limitations

Any amount paid under subparagraphs (B) or (C) may only be used to—

(I) establish low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities;

(II) mitigate the impact of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities on the host State;

(III) regulate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities; or

(IV) ensure the decommissioning, closure, and care during the period of institutional control of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities.

(ii) Reports

(I) Recipient

Any State or compact commission receiving a payment under subparagraphs (B) or (C) shall, on December 31 of each year in which any such funds are expended, submit a report to the Department of Energy itemizing any such expenditures.

(II) Department of Energy

Not later than six months after receiving the reports under subclause (I), the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a summary of all such reports that shall include an assessment of the compliance of each such State or compact commission with the requirements of clause (i).

(F) Payment to States

Any amount collected by a State under paragraph (1) that is placed in escrow under subparagraph (A) and not paid to a State or compact commission under subparagraphs (B) and (C) or not repaid to a generator under subparagraph (C) shall be paid from such escrow account to such State collecting such payment under paragraph (1). Such payment shall be made not later than 30 days after a determination of ineligibility for a refund is made.

(G) Penalty surcharges

No rebate shall be made under this subsection of any surcharge or penalty surcharge paid during a period of noncompliance with subsection (e)(1).

(e) Requirements for access to regional disposal facilities

(1) Requirements for non-sited compact regions and non-member States

Each non-sited compact region, or State that is not a member of a compact region that does not have an operating disposal facility, shall comply with the following requirements:

(A) By July 1, 1986, each such non-member State shall ratify compact legislation or, by the enactment of legislation or the certification of the Governor, indicate its intent to develop a site for the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within such State.

(B) By January 1, 1988

(i) each non-sited compact region shall identify the State in which its low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is to be located, or shall have selected the developer for such facility and the site to be developed, and each compact region or the State in which its low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is to be located shall develop a siting plan for such facility providing detailed procedures and a schedule for establishing a facility location and preparing a facility license application and shall delegate authority to implement such plan;

(ii) each non-member State shall develop a siting plan providing detailed procedures and a schedule for establishing a facility location and preparing a facility license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and shall delegate authority to implement such plan; and

(iii) The siting plan required pursuant to this paragraph shall include a description of the optimum way to attain operation of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility involved, within the time period specified in sections 2021b to 2021j of this title. Such plan shall include a description of the objectives and a sequence of deadlines for all entities required to take action to implement such plan, including, to the extent practicable, an identification of the activities in which a delay in the start, or completion, of such activities will cause a delay in beginning facility operation. Such plan shall also identify, to the extent practicable, the process for (1) screening for broad siting areas; (2) identifying and evaluating specific candidate sites; and (3) characterizing the preferred site(s), completing all necessary environmental assessments, and preparing a license application for submission to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or an Agreement State.


(C) By January 1, 1990

(i) a complete application (as determined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the appropriate agency of an agreement State) shall be filed for a license to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within each non-sited compact region or within each non-member State; or

(ii) the Governor (or, for any State without a Governor, the chief executive officer) of any State that is not a member of a compact region in compliance with clause (i), or has not complied with such clause by its own actions, shall provide a written certification to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, that such State will be capable of providing for, and will provide for, the storage, disposal, or management of any low-level radioactive waste generated within such State and requiring disposal after December 31, 1992, and include a description of the actions that will be taken to ensure that such capacity exists.


(D) By January 1, 1992, a complete application (as determined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the appropriate agency of an agreement State) shall be filed for a license to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within each non-sited compact region or within each non-member State.

(E) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall transmit any certification received under subparagraph (C) to the Congress and publish any such certification in the Federal Register.

(F) Any State may, subject to all applicable provisions, if any, of any applicable compact, enter into an agreement with the compact commission of a region in which a regional disposal facility is located to provide for the disposal of all low-level radioactive waste generated within such State, and, by virtue of such agreement, may, with the approval of the State in which the regional disposal facility is located, be deemed to be in compliance with subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D).

(2) Penalties for failure to comply

(A) By July 1, 1986

If any State fails to comply with subparagraph (1)(A)—

(i) any generator of low-level radioactive waste within such region or non-member State shall, for the period beginning July 1, 1986, and ending December 31, 1986, be charged 2 times the surcharge otherwise applicable under subsection (d); and

(ii) on or after January 1, 1987, any low-level radioactive waste generated within such region or non-member State may be denied access to the regional disposal facilities referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b).

(B) By January 1, 1988

If any non-sited compact region or non-member State fails to comply with paragraph (1)(B)—

(i) any generator of low-level radioactive waste within such region or non-member State shall—

(I) for the period beginning January 1, 1988, and ending June 30, 1988, be charged 2 times the surcharge otherwise applicable under subsection (d); and

(II) for the period beginning July 1, 1988, and ending December 31, 1988, be charged 4 times the surcharge otherwise applicable under subsection (d); and


(ii) on or after January 1, 1989, any low-level radioactive waste generated within such region or non-member State may be denied access to the regional disposal facilities referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b).

(C) By January 1, 1990

If any non-sited compact region or non-member State fails to comply with paragraph (1)(C), any low-level radioactive waste generated within such region or non-member State may be denied access to the regional disposal facilities referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b).

(D) By January 1, 1992

If any non-sited compact region or non-member State fails to comply with paragraph (1)(D), any generator of low-level radioactive waste within such region or non-member State shall, for the period beginning January 1, 1992 and ending upon the filing of the application described in paragraph (1)(D), be charged 3 times the surcharge otherwise applicable under subsection (d).

(3) Denial of access

No denial or suspension of access to a regional disposal facility under paragraph (2) may be based on the source, class, or type of low-level radioactive waste.

(4) Restoration of suspended access; penalties for failure to comply

Any access to a regional disposal facility that is suspended under paragraph (2) shall be restored after the non-sited compact region or non-member State involved complies with such requirement. Any payment of surcharge penalties pursuant to paragraph (2) for failure to comply with the requirements of this subsection shall be terminated after the non-sited compact region or non-member State involved complies with such requirements.

(f) Monitoring of compliance and denial of access to non-Federal facilities for noncompliance; information requirements of certain States; proprietary information

(1) Administration

Each State and compact commission in which a regional disposal facility referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b) is located shall have authority—

(A) to monitor compliance with the limitations, allocations, and requirements established in this section; and

(B) to deny access to any non-Federal low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities within its borders to any low-level radioactive waste that—

(i) is in excess of the limitations or allocations established in this section; or

(ii) is not required to be accepted due to the failure of a compact region or State to comply with the requirements of subsection (e)(1).

(2) Availability of information during interim access period

(A) The States of South Carolina, Washington, and Nevada may require information from disposal facility operators, generators, intermediate handlers, and the Department of Energy that is reasonably necessary to monitor the availability of disposal capacity, the use and assignment of allocations and the applicability of surcharges.

(B) The States of South Carolina, Washington, and Nevada may, after written notice followed by a period of at least 30 days, deny access to disposal capacity to any generator or intermediate handler who fails to provide information under subparagraph (A).

(C) Proprietary information.—

(i) Trade secrets, proprietary and other confidential information shall be made available to a State under this subsection upon request only if such State—

(I) consents in writing to restrict the dissemination of the information to those who are directly involved in monitoring under subparagraph (A) and who have a need to know;

(II) accepts liability for wrongful disclosure; and

(III) demonstrates that such information is essential to such monitoring.


(ii) The United States shall not be liable for the wrongful disclosure by any individual or State of any information provided to such individual or State under this subsection.

(iii) Whenever any individual or State has obtained possession of information under this subsection, the individual shall be subject to the same provisions of law with respect to the disclosure of such information as would apply to an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof and the State shall be subject to the same provisions of law with respect to the disclosure of such information as would apply to the United States or any department or agency thereof. No State or State officer or employee who receives trade secrets, proprietary information, or other confidential information under sections 2021b to 2021j of this title may be required to disclose such information under State law.

(g) Nondiscrimination

Except as provided in subsections (b) through (e), low-level radioactive waste disposed of under this section shall be subject without discrimination to all applicable legal requirements of the compact region and State in which the disposal facility is located as if such low-level radioactive waste were generated within such compact region.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §5, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1846.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Constitutionality

For constitutionality of section 102 of Pub. L. 99–240, see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.

1 So in original. Probably should be "subparagraph".

§2021f. Emergency access

(a) In general

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission may grant emergency access to any regional disposal facility or non-Federal disposal facility within a State that is not a member of a compact for specific low-level radioactive waste, if necessary to eliminate an immediate and serious threat to the public health and safety or the common defense and security. The procedure for granting emergency access shall be as provided in this section.

(b) Request for emergency access

Any generator of low-level radioactive waste, or any Governor (or, for any State without a Governor, the chief executive officer of the State) on behalf of any generator or generators located in his or her State, may request that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission grant emergency access to a regional disposal facility or a non-Federal disposal facility within a State that is not a member of a compact for specific low-level radioactive waste. Any such request shall contain any information and certifications the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may require.

(c) Determination of Nuclear Regulatory Commission

(1) Required determination

Not later than 45 days after receiving a request under subsection (b), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall determine whether—

(A) emergency access is necessary because of an immediate and serious threat to the public health and safety or the common defense and security; and

(B) the threat cannot be mitigated by any alternative consistent with the public health and safety, including storage of low-level radioactive waste at the site of generation or in a storage facility obtaining access to a disposal facility by voluntary agreement, purchasing disposal capacity available for assignment pursuant to section 2021e(c) of this title or ceasing activities that generate low-level radioactive waste.

(2) Required notification

If the Nuclear Regulatory Commission makes the determinations required in paragraph (1) in the affirmative, it shall designate an appropriate non-Federal disposal facility or facilities, and notify the Governor (or chief executive officer) of the State in which such facility is located and the appropriate compact commission that emergency access is required. Such notification shall specifically describe the low-level radioactive waste as to source, physical and radiological characteristics, and the minimum volume and duration, not exceeding 180 days, necessary to alleviate the immediate threat to public health and safety or the common defense and security. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall also notify the Governor (or chief executive officer) of the State in which the low-level radioactive waste requiring emergency access was generated that emergency access has been granted and that, pursuant to subsection (e), no extension of emergency access may be granted absent diligent State action during the period of the initial grant.

(d) Temporary emergency access

Upon determining that emergency access is necessary because of an immediate and serious threat to the public health and safety or the common defense and security, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may at its discretion grant temporary emergency access, pending its determination whether the threat could be mitigated by any alternative consistent with the public health and safety. In granting access under this subsection, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall provide the same notification and information required under subsection (c). Absent a determination that no alternative consistent with the public health and safety would mitigate the threat, access granted under this subsection shall expire 45 days after the granting of temporary emergency access under this subsection.

(e) Extension of emergency access

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission may grant one extension of emergency access beyond the period provided in subsection (c), if it determines that emergency access continues to be necessary because of an immediate and serious threat to the public health and safety or the common defense and security that cannot be mitigated by any alternative consistent with the public health and safety, and that the generator of low-level radioactive waste granted emergency access and the State in which such low-level radioactive waste was generated have diligently though unsuccessfully acted during the period of the initial grant to eliminate the need for emergency access. Any extension granted under this subsection shall be for the minimum volume and duration the Nuclear Regulatory Commission finds necessary to eliminate the immediate threat to public health and safety or the common defense and security, and shall not in any event exceed 180 days.

(f) Reciprocal access

Any compact region or State not a member of a compact that provides emergency access to non-Federal disposal facilities within its borders shall be entitled to reciprocal access to any subsequently operating non-Federal disposal facility that serves the State or compact region in which low-level radioactive waste granted emergency access was generated. The compact commission or State having authority to approve importation of low-level radioactive waste to the disposal facility to which emergency access was granted shall designate for reciprocal access an equal volume of low-level radioactive waste having similar characteristics to that provided emergency access.

(g) Approval by compact commission

Any grant of access under this section shall be submitted to the compact commission for the region in which the designated disposal facility is located for such approval as may be required under the terms of its compact. Any such compact commission shall act to approve emergency access not later than 15 days after receiving notification from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or reciprocal access not later than 15 days after receiving notification from the appropriate authority under subsection (f).

(h) Limitations

No State shall be required to provide emergency or reciprocal access to any regional disposal facility within its borders for low-level radioactive waste not meeting criteria established by the license or license agreement of such facility, or in excess of the approved capacity of such facility, or to delay the closing of any such facility pursuant to plans established before receiving a request for emergency or reciprocal access. No State shall, during any 12-month period, be required to provide emergency or reciprocal access to any regional disposal facility within its borders for more than 20 percent of the total volume of low-level radioactive waste accepted for disposal at such facility during the previous calendar year.

(i) Volume reduction and surcharges

Any low-level radioactive waste delivered for disposal under this section shall be reduced in volume to the maximum extent practicable and shall be subject to surcharges established in sections 2021b to 2021j of this title.

(j) Deduction from allocation

Any volume of low-level radioactive waste granted emergency or reciprocal access under this section, if generated by any commercial nuclear power reactor, shall be deducted from the low-level radioactive waste volume allocable under section 2021e(c) of this title.

(k) Agreement States

Any agreement under section 2021 of this title shall not be applicable to the determinations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under this section.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §6, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1855.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2021g. Responsibilities of Department of Energy

(a) Financial and technical assistance

The Secretary shall, to the extent provided in appropriations Act, provide to those compact regions, host States, and nonmember States detemined 1 by the Secretary to require assistance for purposes of carrying out sections 2021b to 2021j of this title

(1) continuing technical assistance to assist them in fulfilling their responsibilities under sections 2021b to 2021j of this title. Such technical assistance shall include, but not be limited to, technical guidelines for site selection, alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal, volume reduction options, management techniques to reduce low-level waste generation, transportation practices for shipment of low-level wastes, health and safety considerations in the storage, shipment and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, and establishment of a computerized data-base to monitor the management of low-level radioactive wastes; and

(2) through the end of fiscal year 1993, financial assistance to assist them in fulfilling their responsibilities under sections 2021b to 2021j of this title.

(b) Omitted

(Pub. L. 96–573, §7, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1858.)

Codification

Subsec. (b) of this section, which required the Secretary to prepare and submit to Congress on an annual basis a report on low-level waste disposal, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, item 2 on page 84 of House Document No. 103–7.

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

1 So in original. Probably should be "determined".

§2021h. Alternative disposal methods

(a) Not later than 12 months after January 15, 1986, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall, in consultation with the States and other interested persons, identify methods for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste other than shallow land burial, and establish and publish technical guidance regarding licensing of facilities that use such methods.

(b) Not later than 24 months after January 15, 1986, the Commission shall, in consultation with the States and other interested persons, identify and publish all relevant technical information regarding the methods identified pursuant to subsection (a) that a State or compact must provide to the Commission in order to pursue such methods, together with the technical requirements that such facilities must meet, in the judgment of the Commission, if pursued as an alternative to shallow land burial. Such technical information and requirements shall include, but need not be limited to, site suitability, site design, facility operation, disposal site closure, and environmental monitoring, as necessary to meet the performance objectives established by the Commission for a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The Commission shall specify and publish such requirements in a manner and form deemed appropriate by the Commission.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §8, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1858.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2021i. Licensing review and approval

In order to ensure the timely development of new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or, as appropriate, agreement States, shall consider an application for a disposal facility license in accordance with the laws applicable to such application, except that the Commission and the agreement state 1 shall—

(1) not later than 12 months after January 15, 1986, establish procedures and develop the technical capability for processing applications for such licenses;

(2) to the extent practicable, complete all activities associated with the review and processing of any application for such a license (except for public hearings) no later than 15 months after the date of receipt of such application; and

(3) to the extent practicable, consolidate all required technical and environmental reviews and public hearings.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §9, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1859.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

1 So in original. Probably should be "States".

§2021j. Radioactive waste below regulatory concern

(a) Not later than 6 months after January 15, 1986, the Commission shall establish standards and procedures, pursuant to existing authority, and develop the technical capability for considering and acting upon petitions to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from regulation by the Commission due to the presence of radionuclides in such waste streams in sufficiently low concentrations or quantities as to be below regulatory concern.

(b) The standards and procedures established by the Commission pursuant to subsection (a) shall set forth all information required to be submitted to the Commission by licensees in support of such petitions, including, but not limited to—

(1) a detailed description of the waste materials, including their origin, chemical composition, physical state, volume, and mass; and

(2) the concentration or contamination levels, half-lives, and identities of the radionuclides present.


Such standards and procedures shall provide that, upon receipt of a petition to exempt a specific radioactive waste stream from regulation by the Commission, the Commission shall determine in an expeditious manner whether the concentration or quantity of radionuclides present in such waste stream requires regulation by the Commission in order to protect the public health and safety. Where the Commission determines that regulation of a radioactive waste stream is not necessary to protect the public health and safety, the Commission shall take such steps as may be necessary, in an expeditious manner, to exempt the disposal of such radioactive waste from regulation by the Commission.

(Pub. L. 96–573, §10, as added Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1859.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2022. Health and environmental standards for uranium mill tailings

(a) Promulgation and revision of rules for protection from hazards at inactive or depository sites

As soon as practicable, but not later than October 1, 1982, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter referred to in this section as the "Administrator") shall, by rule, promulgate standards of general application (including standards applicable to licenses under section 104(h) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 [42 U.S.C. 7914(h)]) for the protection of the public health, safety, and the environment from radiological and nonradiological hazards associated with residual radioactive materials (as defined in section 101 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 [42 U.S.C. 7911]) located at inactive uranium mill tailings sites and depository sites for such materials selected by the Secretary of Energy, pursuant to title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 [42 U.S.C. 7911 et seq.]. Standards promulgated pursuant to this subsection shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be consistent with the requirements of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.]. In establishing such standards, the Administrator shall consider the risk to the public health, safety, and the environment, the environmental and economic costs of applying such standards, and such other factors as the Administrator determines to be appropriate. The Administrator may periodically revise any standard promulgated pursuant to this subsection. After October 1, 1982, if the Administrator has not promulgated standards in final form under this subsection, any action of the Secretary of Energy under title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 which is required to comply with, or be taken in accordance with, standards of the Administrator shall comply with, or be taken in accordance with, the standards proposed by the Administrator under this subsection until such time as the Administrator promulgates such standards in final form.

(b) Promulgation and revision of rules for protection from hazards at processing or disposal sites

(1) As soon as practicable, but not later than October 31, 1982, the Administrator shall, by rule, propose, and within 11 months thereafter promulgate in final form, standards of general application for the protection of the public health, safety, and the environment from radiological and nonradiological hazards associated with the processing and with the possession, transfer, and disposal of byproduct material, as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title, at sites at which ores are processed primarily for their source material content or which are used for the disposal of such byproduct material. If the Administrator fails to promulgate standards in final form under this subsection by October 1, 1983, the authority of the Administrator to promulgate such standards shall terminate, and the Commission may take actions under this chapter without regard to any provision of this chapter requiring such actions to comply with, or be taken in accordance with, standards promulgated by the Administrator. In any such case, the Commission shall promulgate, and from time to time revise, any such standards of general application which the Commission deems necessary to carry out its responsibilities in the conduct of its licensing activities under this chapter. Requirements established by the Commission under this chapter with respect to byproduct material as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title shall conform to such standards. Any requirements adopted by the Commission respecting such byproduct material before promulgation by the Commission of such standards shall be amended as the Commission deems necessary to conform to such standards in the same manner as provided in subsection (f)(3). Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit or suspend the implementation or enforcement by the Commission of any requirement of the Commission respecting byproduct material as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title pending promulgation by the Commission of any such standard of general application. In establishing such standards, the Administrator shall consider the risk to the public health, safety, and the environment, the environmental and economic costs of applying such standards, and such other factors as the Administrator determines to be appropriate.

(2) Such generally applicable standards promulgated pursuant to this subsection for nonradiological hazards shall provide for the protection of human health and the environment consistent with the standards required under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended [42 U.S.C. 6921 et seq.], which are applicable to such hazards: Provided, however, That no permit issued by the Administrator is required under this chapter or the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.], for the processing, possession, transfer, or disposal of byproduct material, as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title. The Administrator may periodically revise any standard promulgated pursuant to this subsection. Within three years after such revision of any such standard, the Commission and any State permitted to exercise authority under section 2021(b)(2) of this title shall apply such revised standard in the case of any license for byproduct material as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title or any revision thereof.

(c) Publication in Federal Register; notice and hearing; consultations; judicial review; time for petition; venue; copy to Administrator; record; administrative jurisdiction; review by Supreme Court; effective date of rule

(1) Before the promulgation of any rule pursuant to this section, the Administrator shall publish the proposed rule in the Federal Register, together with a statement of the research, analysis, and other available information in support of such proposed rule, and provide a period of public comment of at least thirty days for written comments thereon and an opportunity, after such comment period and after public notice, for any interested person to present oral data, views, and arguments at a public hearing. There shall be a transcript of any such hearing. The Administrator shall consult with the Commission and the Secretary of Energy before promulgation of any such rule.

(2) Judicial review of any rule promulgated under this section may be obtained by any interested person only upon such person filing a petition for review within sixty days after such promulgation in the United States court of appeals for the Federal judicial circuit in which such person resides or has his principal place of business. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of court to the Administrator. The Administrator thereupon shall file in the court the written submissions to, and transcript of, the written or oral proceedings on which such rule was based as provided in section 2112 of title 28. The court shall have jurisdiction to review the rule in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5 and to grant appropriate relief as provided in such chapter. The judgement of the court affirming, modifying, or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such rule shall be final, subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(3) Any rule promulgated under this section shall not take effect earlier than sixty calendar days after such promulgation.

(d) Federal and State implementation and enforcement

Implementation and enforcement of the standards promulgated pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be the responsibility of the Commission in the conduct of its licensing activities under this chapter. States exercising authority pursuant to section 2021(b)(2) of this title shall implement and enforce such standards in accordance with subsection (o) of such section.

(e) Other authorities of Administrator unaffected

Nothing in this chapter applicable to byproduct material, as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title, shall affect the authority of the Administrator under the Clean Air Act of 1970, as amended [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.].

(f) Implementation or enforcement of Uranium Mill Licensing Requirements

(1) Prior to January 1, 1983, the Commission shall not implement or enforce the provisions of the Uranium Mill Licensing Requirements published as final rules at 45 Federal Register 65521 to 65538 on October 3, 1980 (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "October 3 regulations"). After December 31, 1982, the Commission is authorized to implement and enforce the provisions of such October 3 regulations (and any subsequent modifications or additions to such regulations which may be adopted by the Commission), except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection.

(2) Following the proposal by the Administrator of standards under subsection (b), the Commission shall review the October 3 regulations, and, not later than 90 days after the date of such proposal, suspend implementation and enforcement of any provision of such regulations which the Commission determines after notice and opportunity for public comment to require a major action or major commitment by licensees which would be unnecessary if—

(A) the standards proposed by the Administrator are promulgated in final form without modification, and

(B) the Commission's requirements are modified to conform to such standards.


Such suspension shall terminate on the earlier of April 1, 1984 or the date on which the Commission amends the October 3 regulations to conform to final standards promulgated by the Administrator under subsection (b). During the period of such suspension, the Commission shall continue to regulate byproduct material (as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title) under this chapter on a licensee-by-licensee basis as the Commission deems necessary to protect public health, safety, and the environment.

(3) Not later than 6 months after the date on which the Administrator promulgates final standards pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the Commission shall, after notice and opportunity for public comment, amend the October 3 regulations, and adopt such modifications, as the Commission deems necessary to conform to such final standards of the Administrator.

(4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed as affecting the authority or responsibility of the Commission under section 2114 of this title to promulgate regulations to protect the public health and safety and the environment.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §275, as added Pub. L. 95–604, title II, §206(a), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3039; amended Pub. L. 97–415, §§18(a), 22(b), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2077, 2080; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 95–604, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3021, as amended. Title I of such act is classified generally to subchapter I (§7911 et seq.) of chapter 88 of this title. For complete classification of this act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7901 of this title and Tables.

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(2), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§6901 et seq.) of this title. Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§6921 et seq.) of chapter 82 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b), (d), (e), and (f)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Clean Air Act of 1970, as amended, referred to in subsec. (e), probably means the Clean Air Act, which is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (e), is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–500, §2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§1251 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1251 of Title 33 and Tables.

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–415, §§18(a)(1), 22(b)(1), substituted "October 1, 1982" for "one year after November 8, 1978" inserted provisions relating to the application of the Administrator's proposed standards to actions by the Secretary of Energy in the event the Administrator fails to promulgate standards in final form after Oct. 1, 1982, and inserted provisions that in establishing standards, the Administrator shall consider risk to public health, safety, and the environment, environmental and economic costs of applying such standards, and such other factors as the Administrator determines to be appropriate.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–415, §§18(a)(2), (3), 22(b)(2), substituted "October 31, 1982, the Administrator shall, by rule, propose, and within 11 months thereafter promulgate in final form," for "eighteen months after November 8, 1978, the Administrator shall, by rule, promulgate" inserted provisions relating to the consequences of failure by the Administrator to promulgate standards in final form by Oct. 1, 1983, and inserted provisions that in establishing standards, the Administrator shall consider risk to public health, safety, and the environment, environmental and economic costs of applying such standards, and such other factors as the Administrator determines to be appropriate.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–415, §18(a)(4), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 8, 1978, see section 208 of Pub. L. 95–604, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2014 of this title.

§2023. State authority to regulate radiation below level of regulatory concern of Nuclear Regulatory Commission

(a) In general

No provision of this chapter, or of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 2021b et seq.], may be construed to prohibit or otherwise restrict the authority of any State to regulate, on the basis of radiological hazard, the disposal or off-site incineration of low-level radioactive waste, if the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, after October 24, 1992, exempts such waste from regulation.

(b) Relation to other State authority

This section may not be construed to imply preemption of existing State authority. Except as expressly provided in subsection (a), this section may not be construed to confer on any State any additional authority to regulate activities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) The term "low-level radioactive waste" means radioactive material classified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as low-level radioactive waste on October 24, 1992.

(2) The term "off-site incineration" means any incineration of radioactive materials at a facility that is located off the site where such materials were generated.

(3) The term "State" means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §276, as added Pub. L. 102–486, title XXIX, §2901(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3122.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 96–573, as amended generally by Pub. L. 99–240, title I, §102, Jan. 15, 1986, 99 Stat. 1842, which is classified generally to section 2021b et seq. of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2021b of this title and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER II—ORGANIZATION

§§2031, 2032. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–438, title I, §104(a), Oct. 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1237

Section 2031, act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, §21, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 924; amended Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 697, §3, 69 Stat. 630, provided for establishment of Atomic Energy Commission, its composition, Chairman, acting Chairman, quorum, official spokesman, and seal.

Provisions similar to section 2031 were contained in section 1802(a)(1) of this title prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919.

Another prior section 21 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 775, which provided that act Aug. 1, 1946, could be cited as the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, was set out as a note under section 1801 of this title prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919.

Section 2032, act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, §22, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 924; amended Sept. 4, 1957, Pub. L. 85–287, §1, 71 Stat. 612; Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(10)(A), 78 Stat. 423, provided for appointment of members of Commission, terms of office, and prohibition from engaging in any other vocation, business, or employment, by the members.

Provisions similar to section 2032 were contained in section 1802(a)(2) of this title prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective 120 days after Oct. 11, 1974, or on such earlier date as the President may prescribe and publish in the Federal Register, see section 312(a) of Pub. L. 93–438, set out as a note under section 5801 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 9816. Transfer of Property and Personnel to the Atomic Energy Commission

Ex. Ord. No. 9816, eff. Dec. 31, 1946, 12 F.R. 37, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 [this chapter], and as President of the United States and Commander in Chief of the Army and the Navy, it is hereby ordered and directed as follows:

1. There are transferred to the Atomic Energy Commission all interests owned by the United States or any Government agency in the following property:

(a) All fissionable material; all atomic weapons and parts thereof; all facilities, equipment, and materials for the processing, production, or utilization of fissionable material or atomic energy; all processes and technical information of any kind, and the source thereof (including data, drawings, specifications, patents, patent applications, and other sources) relating to the processing, production, or utilization of fissionable material or atomic energy; and all contracts, agreements, leases, patents, applications for patents, inventions and discoveries (whether patented or unpatented), and other rights of any kind concerning any such items.

(b) All facilities, equipment, and materials, devoted primarily to atomic energy research and development.

2. There also are transferred to the Atomic Energy Commission all property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, including records, owned by or in the possession, custody or control of the Manhattan Engineer District, War Department, in addition to the property described in paragraph 1 above. Specific items of such property, including records, may be excepted from transfer to the Commission in the following manner:

(a) The Secretary of War shall notify the Commission in writing as to the specific items of property or records he wishes to except; and

(b) If after full examination of the facts by the Commission, it concurs in the exception, those specific items of property or records shall be excepted from transfer to the Commission; or

(c) If after full examination of the facts by the Commission, it does not concur in the exception, the matter shall be referred to the President for decision.

3. The Atomic Energy Commission shall exercise full jurisdiction over all interests and property transferred to the Commission in paragraphs 1 and 2 above, in accordance with the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 [this chapter].

4. Any Government agency is authorized to transfer to the Atomic Energy Commission, at the request of the Commission, any property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, acquired or used by such Government agency in connection with any of the property or interests transferred to the Commission by paragraphs 1 and 2 above.

5. Each Government agency shall supply the Atomic Energy Commission with a report on, and an accounting and inventory of, all interests and property, described in paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 above, owned by or in the possession, custody, or control of such Government agency, the form and detail of such report, accounting and inventory, to be determined by mutual agreement, or, in case of nonagreement, by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget.

6. (a) There also are transferred to the Atomic Energy Commission, all civilian officers and employees of the Manhattan Engineer District, War Department, except that the Commission and the Secretary of War may by mutual agreement exclude any of such personnel from transfer to the Commission.

(b) The military and naval personnel heretofore assigned or detailed to the Manhattan Engineer District. War Department, shall continue to be made available to the Commission, for military and naval duty, in similar manner, without prejudice, to the military or naval status of such personnel, for such periods of time as may be agreed mutually by the Commission and the Secretary of War or the Secretary of the Navy.

7. The assistance and the services, personal or other, including the use of property, heretofore made available by any Government agency to the Manhattan Engineer District, War Department, shall be made available to the Atomic Energy Commission for the same purposes as heretofore and under the arrangements now existing until terminated after 30 days notice given by the Commission or by the Government agency concerned in each case.

8. The Commission is authorized to exercise all of the powers and functions vested in the Secretary of War by Executive Order No. 9001, of December 27, 1941, as amended, in so far as they relate to contracts heretofore made by or hereby transferred to the Commission.

9. Such further measures and dispositions as may be determined by the Atomic Energy Commission and any Government agency concerned to be necessary to effectuate the transfers authorized or directed by this order shall be carried out in such manner as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget may direct and by such agencies as he may designate.

10. This order shall be effective as of midnight, December 31, 1946.

Ex. Ord. No. 9816, was amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10657, Feb. 15, 1956, 21 F.R. 1063, and Ex. Ord. No. 11105, Apr. 19, 1963, 28 F.R. 3909, formerly set out as notes under section 2313 of this title, to the extent that it may be inconsistent with such Executive orders.

Ex. Ord. No. 9829. Extension of Executive Order No. 9177 to Atomic Energy Committee

Ex. Ord. No. 9829, eff. Feb. 21, 1947, 12 F.R. 1259, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, and particularly by Title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941, approved December 18, 1941 (55 Stat. 838), and in the interest of the internal management of the Government, I hereby extend the provisions of Executive Order No. 9177 of May 30, 1942 (7 F.R. 4195), to the United States Atomic Energy Commission; and, subject to the limitations contained in that order, I hereby authorize the United States Atomic Energy Commission to perform and exercise all of the functions and powers vested in and granted to the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation by that order.

This order shall be applicable to articles entered for consumption, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or after January 1, 1947.

§2033. Principal office

The principal office of the Commission shall be in or near the District of Columbia, but the Commission or any duly authorized representative may exercise any or all of its powers in any place; however, the Commission shall maintain an office for the service of process and papers within the District of Columbia.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §23, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 925; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1802(a)(3) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Expenses for Move to New Principal Office

Pub. L. 85–162, title I, §109, Aug. 21, 1957, 71 Stat. 407, as amended by Pub. L. 85–590, §108, Aug. 4, 1958, 72 Stat. 493, authorized the Commission to use its funds for the payment for travel and transportation expenses in connection with the relocation of residence of employees in order to facilitate retention and relocation of Commission headquarter employees.

§2034. General Manager, Deputy and Assistant General Managers

There is established within the Commission—

(a) General Manager; chief executive officer; duties; appointment; removal

a General Manager, who shall be the chief executive officer of the Commission, and who shall discharge such of the administrative and executive functions of the Commission as the Commission may direct. The General Manager shall be appointed by the Commission, shall serve at the pleasure of the Commission and shall be removable by the Commission.

(b) Deputy General Manager; duties; appointment; removal

a Deputy General Manager, who shall act in the stead of the General Manager during his absence when so directed by the General Manager, and who shall perform such other administrative and executive functions as the General Manager shall direct. The Deputy General Manager shall be appointed by the General Manager with the approval of the Commission, shall serve at the pleasure of the General Manager, and shall be removable by the General Manager.

(c) Assistant General Managers; duties; appointment; removal

Assistant General Managers, or their equivalents (not to exceed a total of three positions), who shall perform such administrative and executive functions as the General Manager shall direct. They shall be appointed by the General Manager with the approval of the Commission, shall serve at the pleasure of the General Manager, and shall be removable by the General Manager.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §24, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 925; amended Pub. L. 85–287, §2, Sept. 4, 1957, 71 Stat. 612; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §306(f)(1)–(3), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 429; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1802(a)(4)(A) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–426, §306(f)(1), struck out provisions which prescribed the compensation of the General Manager. Such compensation is now prescribed by section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–426, §306(f)(2), struck out provisions which prescribed the compensation of the Deputy General Manager. Such compensation is now prescribed by section 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–426, §306(f)(3), struck out provisions which prescribed the compensation of the Assistant General Managers. Such compensation is now prescribed by section 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1957—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–287 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), designated the General Manager as the chief executive officer of the Commission, and increased his compensation from $20,000 to $22,000 per annum.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 85–287 added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–426 effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after July 1, 1964, except to the extent provided in section 501(c) of Pub. L. 88–426, see section 501 of Pub. L. 88–426, title V, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 435.

§2035. Divisions, offices, and positions

There is established within the Commission—

(a) Program divisions; appointment and powers of Assistant General Manager and Division Directors

a Division of Military Application and such other program divisions (not to exceed ten in number) as the Commission may determine to the necessary to the discharge of its responsibilities, including a division or divisions the primary responsibilities of which include the development and application of civilian uses of atomic energy. The Division of Military Application shall be under the direction of an Assistant General Manager for Military Application, who shall be appointed by the Commission and shall be an active commissioned officer of the Armed Forces serving in general or flag officer rank or grade, as appropriate. Each other program division shall be under the direction of a Director who shall be appointed by the Commission. The Commission shall require each such division to exercise such of the Commission's administrative and executive powers as the Commission may determine;

(b) General Counsel

an Office of the General Counsel under the direction of the General Counsel who shall be appointed by the Commission; and

(c) Inspection Division; duties

an Inspection Division under the direction of a Director who shall be appointed by the Commission. The Inspection Division shall be responsible for gathering information to show whether or not the contractors, licensees, and officers and employees of the Commission are complying with the provisions of this chapter (except those provisions for which the Federal Bureau of Investigation is responsible) and the appropriate rules and regulations of the Commission.

(d) Executive management positions; appointment; removal

such other executive management positions (not to exceed six in number) as the Commission may determine to be necessary to the discharge of its responsibilities. Such positions shall be established by the General Manager with the approval of the Commission. They shall be appointed by the General Manager with the approval of the Commission, shall serve at the pleasure of the General Manager, and shall be removable by the General Manager.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §25, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 925; amended Pub. L. 85–287, §3, Sept. 4, 1957, 71 Stat. 612; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §306(f)(4)–(7), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 429, 430; Pub. L. 90–190, §5, Dec. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 577; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1802(a)(4)(B) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–190 substituted an Assistant General Manager for Military Application, who would be appointed by the Commission, for the Director of the Division of Military Application as the head of the Division of Military Application, inserted requirement that the Assistant General Manager be a commissioned officer of the Armed Forces serving in general or flag officer rank or grade, as appropriate, and substituted "other program division" for "such division".

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–426, §306(f)(4), struck out provisions which prescribed the compensation of directors of program divisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–426, §306(f)(5), struck out provisions which prescribed compensation of General Counsel. Such compensation is now prescribed by section 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–426, §306(f)(6), struck out provisions which prescribed compensation of Director of Inspection Division.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–426, §306(f)(7), struck out provisions which prescribed compensation of executive management positions.

1957Pub. L. 85–287 substituted "Divisions, offices, and positions" for "Divisions and offices" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–287 increased compensation of Director from $16,000 to $19,000 per annum.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–287 increased compensation of General Counsel from $16,000 to $19,500 per annum.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–287 increased compensation of Director from $16,000 to $19,000 per annum.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–287 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–426 effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after July 1, 1964, except to the extent provided in section 501(c) of Pub. L. 88–426, see section 501 of Pub. L. 88–426, title V, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 435.

Transfer of Functions

Divisions of Military Application and Naval Reactors, both established under this section, transferred to Department of Energy by section 7158 of this title, with such organizational units to be deemed organizational units established by chapter 84 (§7101 et seq.) of this title. Energy Research and Development Administration terminated pursuant to sections 7151(a) and 7293 of this title.

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of this title. Divisions of Military Application and Naval Reactors established under this section transferred to Energy Research and Development Administration and functions of Atomic Energy Commission with respect thereto transferred to Administrator by section 5814(d) of this title. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under sections 5814 and 5841 of this title.

§2036. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–91, title VII, §709(c)(1), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 608

Section, act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, §26, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 926, established a General Advisory Committee to advise the Atomic Energy Commission on scientific and technical matters relating to materials, production, and research and development.

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1802(b) of this title prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2037. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title I, §3137(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4066

Section, act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, §27, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 926; amended Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(10)(B), 78 Stat. 423, related to Military Liaison Committee, its composition and duties, and authority of Defense Department to make recommendations to Committee.

§2038. Appointment of Army, Navy, or Air Force officer as Assistant General Manager for Military Application; Chairman of Military Liaison Committee; compensation

Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, the officer of the Army, Navy, or Air Force serving as Assistant General Manager for Military Application shall serve without prejudice to his commissioned status as such officer. Any such officer serving as Assistant General Manager for Military Application shall receive in addition to his pay and allowances, including special and incentive pays, for which pay and allowances the Commission shall reimburse his service, an amount equal to the difference between such pay and allowances, including special and incentive pays, and the compensation established for this position. Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, any active or retired officer of the Army, Navy, or Air Force may serve as Chairman of the Military Liaison Committee without prejudice to his active or retired status as such officer. Any such active officer serving as Chairman of the Military Liaison Committee shall receive, in addition to his pay and allowances, including special and incentive pays, an amount equal to the difference between such pay and allowances, including special and incentive pays, and the compensation fixed for such Chairman. Any such retired officer serving as Chairman of the Military Liaison Committee shall receive the compensation fixed for such Chairman and his retired pay.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §28, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 926; amended Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §306(f)(8), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 430; Pub. L. 88–448, title IV, §401(f), Aug. 19, 1964, 78 Stat. 490; Pub. L. 90–190, §6, Dec. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 577; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(i)(11), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1230.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1802(d) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

2001Pub. L. 107–107 struck out ", subject to section 201 of the Dual Compensation Act" before period at end.

1967Pub. L. 90–190 substituted "the officer of the Army, Navy, or Air Force serving" for "any active officer of the Army, Navy, or Air Force may serve" and "Assistant General Manager for Military Application" for "Director of the Division of Military Application" wherever appearing, provided for reimbursement by the Commission to the service of the Assistant General Manager for the pay and allowances received by him from his service while he is serving as Assistant General Manager, and struck out references to sections 2211 and 2213 of former title 5.

1964Pub. L. 88–448 substituted provisions permitting a retired officer serving as Chairman of the Military Liaison Committee to receive the compensation fixed for such Chairman and his retired pay, subject to section 3102 of former title 5, for provisions which permitted a retired officer serving as Chairman to receive in addition to his retired pay, an amount equal to the difference between his retired pay and the compensation prescribed for the Chairman.

Pub. L. 88–426 substituted "and the compensation established for this position pursuant to section 2211 or 2213 of title 5" for "and the compensation prescribed in section 2035 of this title".

Effective Date of 1964 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–448 effective on first day of first month which begins later than the ninetieth day following Aug. 19, 1964, see section 403 of Pub. L. 88–448.

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–426 effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after July 1, 1964, except to the extent provided in section 501(c) of Pub. L. 88–426, see section 501 of Pub. L. 88–426, title V, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 435.

§2039. Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; composition; tenure; duties; compensation

There is established an Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards consisting of a maximum of fifteen members appointed by the Commission for terms of four years each. The Committee shall review safety studies and facility license applications referred to it and shall make reports thereon, shall advise the Commission with regard to the hazards of proposed or existing reactor facilities and the adequacy of proposed reactor safety standards, and shall perform such other duties as the Commission may request. One member shall be designated by the Committee as its Chairman. The members of the Committee shall receive a per diem compensation for each day spent in meetings or conferences, or other work of the Committee, and all members shall receive their necessary traveling or other expenses while engaged in the work of the Committee. The provisions of section 2203 of this title shall be applicable to the Committee.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §29, as added Pub. L. 85–256, §5, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 579; amended Pub. L. 95–209, §5, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1483; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 105–362, title XII, §1201(a), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3292.)

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–362 struck out at end "In addition to its other duties under this section, the committee, making use of all available sources, shall undertake a study of reactor safety research and prepare and submit annually to the Congress a report containing the results of such study. The first such report shall be submitted to the Congress not later than December 31, 1977."

1977Pub. L. 95–209 inserted provisions which called for a study of reactor safety research and an annual report on results of study.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§2040. Fellowship program of Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; selection of fellowships

To assist the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in carrying out its function, the committee shall establish a fellowship program under which persons having appropriate engineering or scientific expertise are assigned particular tasks relating to the functions of the committee. Such fellowship shall be for 2-year periods and the recipients of such fellowships shall be selected pursuant to such criteria as may be established by the committee.

(Pub. L. 95–209, §6, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1483.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

SUBCHAPTER III—RESEARCH

§2051. Research and development assistance

(a) Contracts and loans for research activities

The Commission is directed to exercise its powers in such manner as to insure the continued conduct of research and development and training activities in the fields specified below, by private or public institutions or persons, and to assist in the acquisition of an ever-expanding fund of theoretical and practical knowledge in such fields. To this end the Commission is authorized and directed to make arrangements (including contracts, agreements, and loans) for the conduct of research and development activities relating to—

(1) nuclear processes;

(2) the theory and production of atomic energy, including processes, materials, and devices related to such production;

(3) utilization of special nuclear material and radioactive material for medical, biological, agricultural, health, or military purposes;

(4) utilization of special nuclear material, atomic energy, and radioactive material and processes entailed in the utilization or production of atomic energy or such material for all other purposes, including industrial or commercial uses, the generation of usable energy, and the demonstration of advances in the commercial or industrial application of atomic energy;

(5) the protection of health and the promotion of safety during research and production activities; and

(6) the preservation and enhancement of a viable environment by developing more efficient methods to meet the Nation's energy needs.

(b) Grants and contributions

The Commission is authorized—

(1) to make grants and contributions to the cost of construction and operation of reactors and other facilities and other equipment to colleges, universities, hospitals, and eleemosynary or charitable institutions for the conduct of educational and training activities relating to the fields in subsection (a); and

(2) to provide grants, loans, cooperative agreements, contracts, and equipment to institutions of higher education (as defined in section 1002 of title 20) to support courses, studies, training, curricula, and disciplines pertaining to nuclear safety, security, or environmental protection, or any other field that the Commission determines to be critical to the regulatory mission of the Commission.

(c) Purchase of supplies without advertising

The Commission may (1) make arrangements pursuant to this section, without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41, upon certification by the Commission that such action is necessary in the interest of the common defense and security, or upon a showing by the Commission that advertising is not reasonably practicable; (2) make partial and advance payments under such arrangements; and (3) make available for use in connection therewith such of its equipment and facilities as it may deem desirable.

(d) Prevention of dissemination of information prohibited; other conditions of agreements

The arrangements made pursuant to this section shall contain such provisions (1) to protect health, (2) to minimize danger to life or property, and (3) to require the reporting and to permit the inspection of work performed thereunder, as the Commission may determine. No such arrangement shall contain any provisions or conditions which prevent the dissemination of scientific or technical information, except to the extent such dissemination is prohibited by law.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §31, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 927; amended Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §§2, 3, 70 Stat. 1069; Pub. L. 91–560, §1, Dec. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1472; Pub. L. 92–84, title II, §201(a), Aug. 11, 1971, 85 Stat. 307; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §651(c)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 801.)

Codification

In subsec. (c)(1), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1803(a) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–58 inserted heading, inserted par. (1) designation before "to make grants", in introductory provisions substituted "authorized—" for "further authorized", and added par. (2).

1971—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 92–84 added par. (6).

1970—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 91–560 inserted commercial uses as an additional purpose and substituted "demonstration of advances in the commercial or industrial application of atomic energy" for "demonstration of the practical value of utilization or production facilities for industrial or commercial purposes".

1956—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 6, 1956, §2, inserted "and training" after "development" in first sentence.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Act Aug. 6, 1956, §3, added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Pa.; Feasibility of Epidemiological Research on Health Effects of Low-Level Radiation; Report to Congress

Pub. L. 96–295, title III, §308(a), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 792, provided that in the conduct of the study required by Pub. L. 95–601, §5(d), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2949, on options for Federal epidemiological research on the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation, set out below, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, evaluate the feasibility of epidemiological research on the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation exposure to licensee, contractor, and subcontractor employees as a result of the accident of March 28, 1979, at unit two of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station in Pennsylvania, the efforts to stabilize such facility or reduce or prevent radioactive unplanned offsite releases in excess of allowable limits for normal operation established by the Commission, or efforts to decontaminate, decommission, or repair such facility, with the report required by such section 5(d) of Pub. L. 95–601 to include the results of this evaluation.

Study on Health Effects of Low-Level Radiation; Report to Congress

Pub. L. 95–601, §5, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2949, as amended by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 96–295, title III, §308(b), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 792, provided that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, conduct preliminary planning and design studies for epidemiological research on the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation, within thirty days after Nov. 6, 1978, the Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency submit to the Congress a memorandum of understanding to delineate their responsibilities in the conduct of the planning studies, on or before Apr. 1, 1979, the Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency submit a report to the Congress containing an assessment of the capabilities and research needs of such agencies in the area of health effects of low-level ionizing radiation, and on or before Sept. 30, 1980, the Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, submit a report to the Congress which includes a study of options for Federal epidemiological research on the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation with evaluations of the feasibility of such options.

§2052. Research by Commission

The Commission is authorized and directed to conduct, through its own facilities, activities and studies of the types specified in section 2051 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §32, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 928; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1803(b) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2053. Research for others; charges

In this section, with respect to international research projects, the term "private facilities or laboratories" means facilities or laboratories located in the United States. Where the Commission finds private facilities or laboratories are inadequate for the purpose, it is authorized to conduct for other persons, through its own facilities, such of those activities and studies of the types specified in section 2051 of this title as it deems appropriate to the development of energy. To the extent the Commission determines that private facilities or laboratories are inadequate for the purpose, and that the Commission's facilities, or scientific or technical resources have the potential of lending significant assistance to other persons in the fields of protection of public health and safety, the Commission may also assist other persons in these fields by conducting for such persons, through the Commission's own facilities, research and development or training activities and studies. The Commission is authorized to determine and make such charges as in its discretion may be desirable for the conduct of the activities and studies referred to in this section.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §33, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 928; amended Pub. L. 90–190, §7, Dec. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 577; Pub. L. 92–84, title II, §201(b), Aug. 11, 1971, 85 Stat. 307; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §307(f), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3149.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–246 inserted "In this section, with respect to international research projects, the term 'private facilities or laboratories' means facilities or laboratories located in the United States." before "Where the Commission".

1971Pub. L. 92–84 substituted provisions authorizing the Commission to conduct research for other persons for the development of energy, for provisions authorizing the Commission to conduct research for other persons for the development of atomic energy.

1967Pub. L. 90–190 inserted provision which authorized the Commission, to the extent the Commission made certain determinations, to assist other persons on the fields of protection of public health and safety by conducting for such persons, through the facilities of the Commission, research and development or training activities and studies, and substituted "the activities and studies referred to in this section" for "such activities and studies".

SUBCHAPTER IV—PRODUCTION OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL

§2061. Production facilities

(a) Ownership

The Commission, as agent of and on behalf of the United States, shall be the exclusive owner of all production facilities other than facilities which (1) are useful in the conduct of research and development activities in the fields specified in section 2051 of this title, and do not, in the opinion of the Commission, have a potential production rate adequate to enable the user of such facilities to produce within a reasonable period of time a sufficient quantity of special nuclear material to produce an atomic weapon; (2) are licensed by the Commission under this division; or (3) are owned by the United States Enrichment Corporation.

(b) Operation of Commission's facilities

The Commission is authorized and directed to produce or to provide for the production of special nuclear material in its own production facilities. To the extent deemed necessary, the Commission is authorized to make, or to continue in effect, contracts with persons obligating them to produce special nuclear material in facilities owned by the Commission. The Commission is also authorized to enter into research and development contracts authorizing the contractor to produce special nuclear material in facilities owned by the Commission to the extent that the production of such special nuclear material may be incident to the conduct of research and development activities under such contracts. Any contract entered into under this section shall contain provisions (1) prohibiting the contractor from subcontracting any part of the work he is obligated to perform under the contract, except as authorized by the Commission; and (2) obligating the contractor (A) to make such reports pertaining to activities under the contract to the Commission as the Commission may require, (B) to submit to inspection by employees of the Commission of all such activities, and (C) to comply with all safety and security regulations which may be prescribed by the Commission. Any contract made under the provisions of this subsection may be made without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41, upon certification by the Commission that such action is necessary in the interest of the common defense and security, or upon a showing by the Commission that advertising is not reasonably practicable. Partial and advance payments may be made under such contracts.

(c) Operation of other facilities

Special nuclear material may be produced in the facilities which under this section are not required to be owned by the Commission.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §41, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 928; amended Pub. L. 90–190, §8, Dec. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 577; Pub. L. 101–575, §5(c), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2835; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(2), (8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2943, 2944.)

Codification

In subsec. (b), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 4 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 759, which was classified to section 1804 of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–486, §902(a)(2), substituted "under this division" for "pursuant to under this chapter" in cl. (2) and added cl. (3).

1990—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–575 substituted "under this chapter" for "section 2133 or 2134 of this title".

1967—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–190 struck out provision requiring the President to determine in writing at least once each year the quantities of special nuclear material to be produced under this section, and to specify in such determination the quantities of special nuclear material to be available for distribution by the Commission pursuant to sections 2073 and 2074 of this title.

References to United States Enrichment Corporation

References to the United States Enrichment Corporation deemed, as of the privatization date (July 28, 1998), to be references to the private corporation, see section 3116(e) of Pub. L. 104–134, set out as a note under former section 2297 of this title.

Isotope Production and Distribution Program Fund

Pub. L. 103–316, title III, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1715, provided in part: "That the Secretary of Energy may transfer available amounts appropriated for use by the Department of Energy under title III of previously enacted Energy and Water Development Appropriations Acts [see below] into the Isotope Production and Distribution Program Fund, in order to continue isotope production and distribution activities: Provided further, That the authority to use these amounts appropriated is effective from the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 26, 1994]: Provided further, That fees set by the Secretary for the sale of isotopes and related services shall hereafter be determined without regard to the provisions of Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act (Public Law 101–101) [see below]: Provided further, That amounts provided for isotope production and distribution in previous Energy and Water Development Appropriations Acts shall be treated as direct appropriations and shall be merged with funds appropriated under this head [Energy Supply, Research and Development Activities]."

Pub. L. 102–377, title III, Oct. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 1334, provided in part that: "Revenues received hereafter from the disposition of isotopes and related services shall be credited to this account, to be available for carrying out the purposes of the isotope production and distribution program without further appropriation: Provided, That such revenues and all funds provided under this head in Public Law 101–101 [set out below] shall remain available until expended: Provided further, That if at any time the amounts available to the fund are insufficient to enable the Department of Energy to discharge its responsibilities with respect to isotope production and distribution, the Secretary may borrow from amounts available in the Treasury, such sums as are necessary up to a maximum of $5,000,000 to remain available until expended."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–104, title III, Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 528.

Pub. L. 101–514, title III, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2090.

Pub. L. 101–101, title III, Sept. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 659, provided in part that: "For necessary expenses of activities related to the production, distribution, and sale of isotopes and related services, $16,243,000, to remain available until expended: Provided, That this amount and, notwithstanding 31 U.S.C. 3302, revenues received from the disposition of isotopes and related services shall be credited to this account to be available for carrying out these purposes without further appropriation: Provided further, That all unexpended balances of previous appropriations made for the purpose of carrying out activities related to the production, distribution, and sale of isotopes and related services may be transferred to this fund and merged with other balances in the fund and be available under the same conditions and for the same period of time: Provided further, That fees shall be set by the Secretary of Energy in such a manner as to provide full cost recovery, including administrative expenses, depreciation of equipment, accrued leave, and probable losses: Provided further, That all expenses of this activity shall be paid only from funds available in this fund: Provided further, That at any time the Secretary of Energy determines that moneys in the fund exceed the anticipated requirements of the fund, such excess shall be transferred to the general fund of the Treasury."

§2062. Irradiation of materials

The Commission and persons lawfully producing or utilizing special nuclear material are authorized to expose materials of any kind to the radiation incident to the processes of producing or utilizing special nuclear material.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §42, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 929; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 4 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 759, which was classified to section 1804 of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2063. Acquisition of production facilities

The Commission is authorized to purchase any interest in facilities for the production of special nuclear materials, or in real property on which such facilities are located, without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41 upon certification by the Commission that such action is necessary in the interest of the common defense and security, or upon a showing by the Commission that advertising is not reasonably practicable. Partial and advance payments may be made under contracts for such purposes. The Commission is further authorized to requisition, condemn, or otherwise acquire any interest in such production facilities, or to condemn or otherwise acquire such real property, and just compensation shall be made therefor.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §43, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 929; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Codification

In text, "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 5 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 760, which was classified to section 1805 of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2064. Disposition of energy; regulation on sale

If energy is produced at production facilities of the Commission or is produced in experimental utilization facilities of the Commission, such energy may be used by the Commission, or transferred to other Government agencies, or sold to publicly, cooperatively, or privately owned utilities or users at reasonable and nondiscriminatory prices. If the energy produced is electric energy, the price shall be subject to regulation by the appropriate agency having jurisdiction. In contracting for the disposal of such energy, the Commission shall give preference and priority to public bodies and cooperatives or to privately owned utilities providing electric utility services to high cost areas not being served by public bodies or cooperatives. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to authorize the Commission to engage in the sale or distribution of energy for commercial use except such energy as may be produced by the Commission incident to the operation of research and development facilities of the Commission, or of production facilities of the Commission.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §44, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 929; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 7(d) of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 764, which was classified to section 1807(d) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2065. Improving the reliability of domestic medical isotope supply

(a) Medical isotope development projects

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a technology-neutral program—

(A) to evaluate and support projects for the production in the United States, without the use of highly enriched uranium, of significant quantities of molybdenum-99 for medical uses;

(B) to be carried out in cooperation with non-Federal entities; and

(C) the costs of which shall be shared in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(2) Criteria

Projects shall be evaluated against the following primary criteria:

(A) The length of time necessary for the proposed project to begin production of molybdenum-99 for medical uses within the United States.

(B) The capability of the proposed project to produce a significant percentage of United States demand for molybdenum-99 for medical uses.

(C) The capability of the proposed project to produce molybdenum-99 in a cost-effective manner.

(D) The cost of the proposed project.

(3) Exemption

An existing reactor in the United States fueled with highly enriched uranium shall not be disqualified from the program if the Secretary determines that—

(A) there is no alternative nuclear reactor fuel, enriched in the isotope U–235 to less than 20 percent, that can be used in that reactor;

(B) the reactor operator has provided assurances that, whenever an alternative nuclear reactor fuel, enriched in the isotope U–235 to less than 20 percent, can be used in that reactor, it will use that alternative in lieu of highly enriched uranium; and

(C) the reactor operator has provided a current report on the status of its efforts to convert the reactor to an alternative nuclear reactor fuel enriched in the isotope U–235 to less than 20 percent, and an anticipated schedule for completion of conversion.

(4) Public participation and review

The Secretary shall—

(A) develop a program plan and annually update the program plan through public workshops; and

(B) use the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to conduct annual reviews of the progress made in achieving the program goals and make recommendations to improve program effectiveness.

(b) Development assistance

The Secretary shall carry out a program to provide assistance for—

(1) the development of fuels, targets, and processes for domestic molybdenum-99 production that do not use highly enriched uranium; and

(2) commercial operations using the fuels, targets, and processes described in paragraph (1).

(c) Uranium lease and take-back

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program to make low enriched uranium available, through lease contracts, for irradiation for the production of molybdenum-99 for medical uses.

(2) Title

The lease contracts shall provide for the producers of the molybdenum-99 to take title to and be responsible for the molybdenum-99 created by the irradiation, processing, or purification of uranium leased under this section.

(3) Duties

(A) Secretary

The lease contracts shall require the Secretary—

(i) to retain responsibility for the final disposition of spent nuclear fuel created by the irradiation, processing, or purification of uranium leased under this section for the production of medical isotopes; and

(ii) to take title to and be responsible for the final disposition of radioactive waste created by the irradiation, processing, or purification of uranium leased under this section for which the Secretary determines the producer does not have access to a disposal path.

(B) Producer

The producer of the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste shall accurately characterize, appropriately package, and transport the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste prior to acceptance by the Department.

(4) Compensation

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the lease contracts shall provide for compensation in cash amounts equivalent to prevailing market rates for the sale of comparable uranium products and for compensation in cash amounts equivalent to the net present value of the cost to the Federal Government for—

(i) the final disposition of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste for which the Department is responsible under paragraph (3); and

(ii) other costs associated with carrying out the uranium lease and take-back program authorized by this subsection.

(B) Discount rate

The discount rate used to determine the net present value of costs described in subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be not greater than the average interest rate on marketable Treasury securities.

(5) Authorized use of funds

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary may obligate and expend funds received under leases entered into under this subsection, which shall remain available until expended, for the purpose of carrying out the activities authorized by this subtitle, including activities related to the final disposition of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste for which the Department is responsible under paragraph (3).

(6) Exchange of uranium for services

The Secretary shall not barter or otherwise sell or transfer uranium in any form in exchange for—

(A) services related to the final disposition of the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste for which the Department is responsible under paragraph (3); or

(B) any other services associated with carrying out the uranium lease and take-back program authorized by this subsection.

(d) Coordination of environmental reviews

The Department and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall ensure to the maximum extent practicable that environmental reviews for the production of the medical isotopes shall complement and not duplicate each review.

(e) Operational date

The Secretary shall establish a program as described in subsection (c)(3) not later than 3 years after January 2, 2013.

(f) Radioactive waste

Notwithstanding section 10101 of this title, radioactive material resulting from the production of medical isotopes that has been permanently removed from a reactor or subcritical assembly and for which there is no further use shall be considered low-level radioactive waste if the material is acceptable under Federal requirements for disposal as low-level radioactive waste.

(Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXI, §3173, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2211.)

References in Text

This subtitle, referred to in subsec. (c)(5), is subtitle F (§§3171–3178) of title XXXI of div. C of Pub. L. 112–239. For complete classification of this subtitle to the Code, see Short Title of 2013 Amendment note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012 and also as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Definitions

Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXI, §3172, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2211, provided that: "In this subtitle [subtitle F (§§3171–3178), see Short Title of 2013 Amendment note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables]:

"(1) Department.—The term 'Department' means the Department of Energy.

"(2) Highly enriched uranium.—The term 'highly enriched uranium' means uranium enriched to 20 percent or greater in the isotope U–235.

"(3) Low enriched uranium.—The term 'low enriched uranium' means uranium enriched to less than 20 percent in the isotope U–235.

"(4) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Energy."

SUBCHAPTER V—SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL

§2071. Determination of other material as special nuclear material; Presidential assent; effective date

The Commission may determine from time to time that other material is special nuclear material in addition to that specified in the definition as special nuclear material. Before making any such determination, the Commission must find that such material is capable of releasing substantial quantities of atomic energy and must find that the determination that such material is special nuclear material is in the interest of the common defense and security, and the President must have expressly assented in writing to the determination. The Commission's determination, together with the assent of the President, shall be submitted to the Energy Committees and a period of thirty days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such thirty days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment for more than three days) before the determination of the Commission may become effective: Provided, however, That the Energy Committees, after having received such determination, may by resolution in writing, waive the conditions of or all or any portion of such thirty-day period.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §51, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 929; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(2), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(1) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Energy Committees" for "Joint Committee" in two places.

§2072. Repealed. Pub. L. 88–489, §4, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 603

Section, act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, §52, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 929, related to Government ownership of all special nuclear material and provided for compensation of private owners of such material.

Extinguishment of Rights, Title and Interest in Special Nuclear Material

Pub. L. 88–489, §4, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 603, provided in part that: "All rights, title, and interest in and to any special nuclear material vested in the United States solely by virtue of the provisions of the first sentence of such section 52 [this section], and not by any other transaction authorized by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended [this chapter], or other applicable law, are hereby extinguished."

§2073. Domestic distribution of special nuclear material

(a) Licenses

The Commission is authorized (i) to issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, transfer, deliver, acquire, possess, own, receive possession of or title to, import, or export under the terms of an agreement for cooperation arranged pursuant to section 2153 of this title, special nuclear material, (ii) to make special nuclear material available for the period of the license, and, (iii) to distribute special nuclear material within the United States to qualified applicants requesting such material—

(1) for the conduct of research and development activities of the types specified in section 2051 of this title;

(2) for use in the conduct of research and development activities or in medical therapy under a license issued pursuant to section 2134 of this title;

(3) for use under a license issued pursuant to section 2133 of this title;

(4) for such other uses as the Commission determines to be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(b) Minimum criteria for licenses

The Commission shall establish, by rule, minimum criteria for the issuance of specific or general licenses for the distribution of special nuclear material depending upon the degree of importance to the common defense and security or to the health and safety of the public of—

(1) the physical characteristics of the special nuclear material to be distributed;

(2) the quantities of special nuclear material to be distributed; and

(3) the intended use of the special nuclear material to be distributed.

(c) Manner of distribution; charges for material sold; agreements; charges for material leased

(1) The Commission may distribute special nuclear material licensed under this section by sale, lease, lease with option to buy, or grant: Provided, however, That unless otherwise authorized by law, the Commission shall not after December 31, 1970, distribute special nuclear material except by sale to any person who possesses or operates a utilization facility under a license issued pursuant to section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title for use in the course of activities under such license; nor shall the Commission permit any such person after June 30, 1973, to continue leasing for use in the course of such activities special nuclear material previously leased to such person by the Commission.

(2) The Commission shall establish reasonable sales prices for the special nuclear material licensed and distributed by sale under this section. Such sales prices shall be established on a nondiscriminatory basis which, in the opinion of the Commission, will provide reasonable compensation to the Government for such special nuclear material.

(3) The Commission is authorized to enter into agreements with licensees for such period of time as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable to distribute to such licensees such quantities of special nuclear material as may be necessary for the conduct of the licensed activity. In such agreements, the Commission may agree to repurchase any special nuclear material licensed and distributed by sale which is not consumed in the course of the licensed activity, or any uranium remaining after irradiation of such special nuclear material, at a repurchase price not to exceed the Commission's sale price for comparable special nuclear material or uranium in effect at the time of delivery of such material to the Commission.

(4) The Commission may make a reasonable charge, determined pursuant to this section, for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed by lease under subsection (a)(1), (2) or (4) and shall make a reasonable charge determined pursuant to this section for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed by lease under subsection (a)(3). The Commission shall establish criteria in writing for the determination of whether special nuclear material will be distributed by grant and for the determination of whether a charge will be made for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed by lease under subsection (a)(1), (2) or (4), considering, among other things, whether the licensee is a nonprofit or eleemosynary institution and the purposes for which the special nuclear material will be used.

(d) Determination of charges

In determining the reasonable charge to be made by the Commission for the use of special nuclear material distributed by lease to licensees of utilization or production facilities licensed pursuant to section 2133 or 2134 of this title, in addition to consideration of the cost thereof, the Commission shall take into consideration—

(1) the use to be made of the special nuclear material;

(2) the extent to which the use of the special nuclear material will advance the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy;

(3) the energy value of the special nuclear material in the particular use for which the license is issued;

(4) whether the special nuclear material is to be used in facilities licensed pursuant to section 2133 or 2134 of this title. In this respect, the Commission shall, insofar as practicable, make uniform, nondiscriminatory charges for the use of special nuclear material distributed to facilities licensed pursuant to section 2133 of this title; and

(5) with respect to special nuclear material consumed in a facility licensed pursuant to section 2133 of this title, the Commission shall make a further charge equivalent to the sale price for similar special nuclear material established by the Commission in accordance with subsection (c)(2), and the Commission may make such a charge with respect to such material consumed in a facility licensed pursuant to section 2134 of this title.

(e) License conditions

Each license issued pursuant to this section shall contain and be subject to the following conditions—

(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 88–489, §8, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 604.

(2) no right to the special nuclear material shall be conferred by the license except as defined by the license;

(3) neither the license nor any right under the license shall be assigned or otherwise transferred in violation of the provisions of this chapter;

(4) all special nuclear material shall be subject to the right of recapture or control reserved by section 2138 of this title and to all other provisions of this chapter;

(5) no special nuclear material may be used in any utilization or production facility except in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

(6) special nuclear material shall be distributed only on terms, as may be established by rule of the Commission, such that no user will be permitted to construct an atomic weapon;

(7) special nuclear material shall be distributed only pursuant to such safety standards as may be established by rule of the Commission to protect health and to minimize danger to life or property; and

(8) except to the extent that the indemnification and limitation of liability provisions of section 2210 of this title apply, the licensee will hold the United States and the Commission harmless from any damages resulting from the use or possession of special nuclear material by the licensee.

(f) Distribution for independent research and development activities

The Commission is directed to distribute within the United States sufficient special nuclear material to permit the conduct of widespread independent research and development activities to the maximum extent practicable. In the event that applications for special nuclear material exceed the amount available for distribution, preference shall be given to those activities which are most likely, in the opinion of the Commission, to contribute to basic research, to the development of peacetime uses of atomic energy, or to the economic and military strength of the Nation.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §53, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 930; amended Pub. L. 85–256, §2, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 576; Pub. L. 85–681, §§1, 2, Aug. 19, 1958, 72 Stat. 632; Pub. L. 88–489, §§5–8, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 603, 604; Pub. L. 90–190, §§9, 10, Dec. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 577; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(3), (8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (e)(3) to (5), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(4) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–486, §902(a)(3), substituted "or grant" for "grant," and struck out "or through the provision of production or enrichment services" before ": Provided, however" and before "to any person".

1967—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 90–190, §10, inserted "or through the provision of production or enrichment services" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 90–190, §9, struck out reference to the limitations on the distribution of special nuclear materials set by the President in determinations made pursuant to section 2061 of this title.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–489, §5, substituted "(i) to issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, transfer, deliver, acquire, possess, own, receive possession of or title to, import, or export under the terms of an agreement for cooperation arranged pursuant to section 2153 of this title, special nuclear material, (ii) to make special nuclear material available for the period of the license, and, (iii)" for "to issue licenses for the possession of, to make available for the period of the license, and".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–489, §6, designated existing provisions as par. (4), inserted "by lease" wherever appearing and "special nuclear material will be distributed by grant and for the determination of whether", and added pars. (1) to (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–489, §7, inserted "by lease" in introductory provisions, and in ch. (5) substituted "equivalent to the sale price for similar special nuclear material established by the Commission in accordance with subsection (c)(2), and the Commission may make such a charge with respect to such material consumed in a facility licensed pursuant to section 2134 of this title" for "based on the cost to the Commission, as estimated by the Commission, or the average fair price paid for the production of such special nuclear material as determined by section 2076 of this title, whichever is lower".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 88–489, §8, struck out par. (1) which provided that title to all special nuclear material shall at all times be in the United States.

1958—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 85–681, §1, added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–681, §2, substituted "subsections (a)(1), (2) or (4)" for "subsection (a)(1) or (a) (2)".

1957—Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 85–256 inserted "except to the extent that the indemnification and limitation of liability provisions of section 2210 of this title apply,".

§2074. Foreign distribution of special nuclear material

(a) Compensation; distribution to International Atomic Energy Agency; procedure for distribution; repurchase of unconsumed materials; price; purchase of materials produced outside United States; price

The Commission is authorized to cooperate with any nation or group of nations by distributing special nuclear material and to distribute such special nuclear material, pursuant to the terms of an agreement for cooperation to which such nation or group of nations is a party and which is made in accordance with section 2153 of this title. Unless hereafter otherwise authorized by law the Commission shall be compensated for special nuclear material so distributed at not less than the Commission's published charges applicable to the domestic distribution of such material, except that the Commission to assist and encourage research on peaceful uses or for medical therapy may so distribute without charge during any calendar year only a quantity of such material which at the time of transfer does not exceed in value $10,000 in the case of one nation or $50,000 in the case of any group of nations. The Commission may distribute to the International Atomic Energy Agency, or to any group of nations, only such amounts of special nuclear materials and for such period of time as are authorized by Congress: Provided, however, That, (i) notwithstanding this provision, the Commission is hereby authorized, subject to the provisions of section 2153 of this title, to distribute to the Agency five thousand kilograms of contained uranium-235, five hundred grams of uranium-233, and three kilograms of plutonium, together with the amounts of special nuclear material which will match in amount the sum of all quantities of special nuclear materials made available by all other members of the Agency to June 1, 1960; and (ii) notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, the Commission may distribute to the International Atomic Energy Agency, or to any group of nations, such other amounts of special nuclear materials and for such other periods of time as are established in writing by the Commission: Provided, however, That before they are established by the Commission pursuant to this subdivision (ii), such proposed amounts and periods shall be submitted to the Congress and referred to the Energy Committees and a period of sixty days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such sixty days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days): And provided further, That any such proposed amounts and periods shall not become effective if during such sixty-day period the Congress passes a concurrent resolution stating in substance that it does not favor the proposed action: And provided further, That prior to the elapse of the first thirty days of any such sixty-day period the Energy Committees shall submit to their respective houses reports of their views and recommendations respecting the proposed amounts and periods and an accompanying proposed concurrent resolution stating in substance that the Congress favors, or does not favor, as the case may be, the proposed amounts or periods. The Commission may agree to repurchase any special nuclear material distributed under a sale arrangement pursuant to this subsection which is not consumed in the course of the activities conducted in accordance with the agreement for cooperation, or any uranium remaining after irradiation of such special nuclear material, at repurchase price not to exceed the Commission's sale price for comparable special nuclear material or uranium in effect at the time of delivery of such material to the Commission. The Commission may also agree to purchase, consistent with and within the period of the agreement for cooperation, special nuclear material produced in a nuclear reactor located outside the United States through the use of special nuclear material which was leased or sold pursuant to this subsection. Under any such agreement the Commission shall purchase only such material as is delivered to the Commission during any period when there is in effect a guaranteed purchase price for the same material produced in a nuclear reactor by a person licensed under section 2134 of this title, established by the Commission pursuant to section 2076 of this title, and the price to be paid shall be the price so established by the Commission and in effect for the same material delivered to the Commission.

(b) Distribution to persons outside United States of plutonium and other special nuclear material exempted under section 2077(d) of this title; compensation; reports

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 2153 and 2154 of this title and section 125 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the Commission is authorized to distribute to any person outside the United States (1) plutonium containing 80 per centum or more by weight of plutonium-238, and (2) other special nuclear material when it has, in accordance with subsection 2077(d) of this title, exempted certain classes or quantities of such other special nuclear material or kinds of uses or users thereof from the requirements for a license set forth in this subchapter. Unless hereafter otherwise authorized by law, the Commission shall be compensated for special nuclear material so distributed at not less than the Commission's published charges applicable to the domestic distribution of such material. The Commission shall not distribute any plutonium containing 80 per centum or more by weight of plutonium-238 to any person under this subsection if, in its opinion, such distribution would be inimical to the common defense and security. The Commission may require such reports regarding the use of material distributed pursuant to the provisions of this subsection as it deems necessary.

(c) Licensing or granting permission to others to distribute special nuclear material; conditions

The Commission is authorized to license or otherwise permit others to distribute special nuclear material to any person outside the United States under the same conditions, except as to charges, as would be applicable if the material were distributed by the Commission.

(d) Laboratory samples; medical devices; monitoring or other instruments; emergencies

The authority to distribute special nuclear material under this section other than under an export license granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall extend only to the following small quantities of special nuclear material (in no event more than five hundred grams per year of the uranium isotope 233, the uranium isotope 235, or plutonium contained in special nuclear material to any recipient):

(1) which are contained in laboratory samples, medical devices, or monitoring or other instruments; or

(2) the distribution of which is needed to deal with an emergency situation in which time is of the essence.

(e) Arrangements for storage or disposition of irradiated fuel elements

The authority in this section to commit United States funds for any activities pursuant to any subsequent arrangement under section 2160(a)(2)(E) of this title shall be subject to the requirements of section 2160 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §54, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 931; amended Pub. L. 85–177, §7, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 87–206, §4, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 476; Pub. L. 88–489, §9, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 93–377, §2, Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473; Pub. L. 95–242, title III, §§301(a), 303(b)(1), Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 125, 131; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(3), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

References in Text

Section 125 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 125 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by Pub. L. 85–14, Apr. 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 11, as amended, and is set out as a note under section 2153 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Energy Committees and a period" for "Joint Committee and a period" and "Energy Committees shall submit to their respective houses reports of their views" for "Joint Committee shall submit a report to the Congress of its views".

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–242, §301(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–242, §303(b)(1), added subsec. (e).

1974Pub. L. 93–377 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), designated initial proviso as cl. (i), added cl. (ii) and references to groups of nations, and substituted references to this subsection for references to this section, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1964Pub. L. 88–489 authorized repurchase of unconsumed special nuclear materials, or any uranium remaining after irradiation of such materials, at a price not exceeding Commission's sale price for comparable material in effect at time of delivery to Commission, and purchase of special nuclear material produced outside United States through use of material leased or sold under this section, during any period when there is a guaranteed purchase price for same material as produced under section 2134 of this title, for such price as established by the Commission.

1961Pub. L. 87–206 inserted "five hundred grams of uranium 233 and three kilograms of plutonium" after "five thousand kilograms of contained uranium 235".

1957Pub. L. 85–177 inserted provisions requiring compensation at domestic charges for materials distributed abroad except for peaceful or medical therapy uses, and required Commission to obtain authorization of Congress for materials to be contributed to Agency beyond amount made available by all other members of Agency to July 1, 1960.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–242 effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirement for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§2075. Acquisition of special nuclear material; payments; just compensation

The Commission is authorized, to the extent it deems necessary to effectuate the provisions of this chapter, to purchase without regard to the limitations in section 2074 of this title or any guaranteed purchase prices established pursuant to section 2076 of this title, and to take, requisition, condemn, or otherwise acquire any special nuclear material or any interest therein. Any contract of purchase made under this section may be made without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41, upon certification by the Commission that such action is necessary in the interest of the common defense and security, or upon a showing by the Commission that advertising is not reasonably practicable. Partial and advance payments may be made under contracts for such purposes. Just compensation shall be made for any right, property, or interest in property taken, requisitioned, or condemned under this section: Providing, That the authority in this section to commit United States funds for any activities pursuant to any subsequent arrangement under section 2160(a)(2)(E) of this title shall be subject to the requirements of section 2160 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §55, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 931; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §10, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 95–242, title III, §303(b)(2), Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 131; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In text, "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(5) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1978Pub. L. 95–424 provided that the authority in this section to commit United States funds for any activities pursuant to any subsequent arrangement under section 2160(a)(2)(E) of this title shall be subject to the requirement of section 2160 of this title.

1964Pub. L. 88–489 limited the authorization to the extent necessary to effectuate the chapter, inserted "without regard to the limitations in section 2074 of this title or any guaranteed purchase prices established pursuant to section 2076 of this title, and to take, requisition, condemn," and "Any contract of purchase made under this section may be made", provided for just compensation for any right, property, or interest taken, requisitioned, or condemned under this section, and struck out "outside the United States" after "any interest therein".

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–242 effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirement for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§2076. Guaranteed purchase prices

The Commission shall establish guaranteed purchase prices for plutonium produced in a nuclear reactor by a person licensed under section 2134 of this title and delivered to the Commission before January 1, 1971. The Commission shall also establish for such periods of time as it may deem necessary, but not to exceed ten years as to any such period, guaranteed purchase prices for uranium enriched in the isotope 233 produced in a nuclear reactor by a person licensed under section 2133 or section 2134 and delivered to the Commission within the period of the guarantee. Guaranteed purchase prices established under the authority of this section shall not exceed the Commission's determination of the estimated value of plutonium or uranium enriched in the isotope 233 as fuel in nuclear reactors, and such prices shall be established on a nondiscriminatory basis: Provided, That the Commission is authorized to establish such guaranteed purchase prices only for such plutonium or uranium enriched in the isotope 233 as the Commission shall determine is produced through the use of special nuclear material which was leased or sold by the Commission pursuant to section 2073 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §56, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 931; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §11, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 91–560, §2, Dec. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1472; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–560 extended the power of the Commission to establish guaranteed purchase prices for uranium produced by persons licensed under section 2133 of this title.

1964Pub. L. 88–489 substituted provisions which directed the Commission to establish guaranteed purchase prices for plutonium produced by a person licensed under section 2134 of this title and delivered to the Commission prior to Jan. 1, 1971, and for uranium enriched in the isotope 233, for such periods of time as it deems necessary, but not exceeding ten years as to any such period, if produced by a person licensed under said section 2134, and delivered within the period of the guarantee, provided that guaranteed prices established under this section shall not exceed the Commission's estimated value of enriched plutonium or uranium as fuel in reactors, and shall be on a nondiscriminatory basis, and authorized such guaranteed prices only for such enriched plutonium or uranium as is produced through use of material leased or sold pursuant to section 2073 of this title, for provisions requiring the Commission to determine the fair price of special nuclear material by considering the value of the material for its intended use by the United States, and by giving such weight to the cost of production as it found to be equitable, providing that such price was to apply to all licensed producers of the same material, and permitting the Commission to establish guaranteed fair prices for all such material delivered to the Commission for such time as it deemed necessary, but not exceeding seven years.

§2077. Unauthorized dealings in special nuclear material

(a) Handling by persons

Unless authorized by a general or specific license issued by the Commission, which the Commission is authorized to issue pursuant to section 2073 of this title, no person may transfer or receive in interstate commerce, transfer, deliver, acquire, own, possess, receive possession of or title to, or import into or export from the United States any special nuclear material.

(b) Engagement or participation in development or production

It shall be unlawful for any person to directly or indirectly engage or participate in the development or production of any special nuclear material outside of the United States except (1) as specifically authorized under an agreement for cooperation made pursuant to section 2153 of this title, including a specific authorization in a subsequent arrangement under section 2160 of this title, or (2) upon authorization by the Secretary of Energy after a determination that such activity will not be inimical to the interest of the United States: Provided, That any such determination by the Secretary of Energy shall be made only with the concurrence of the Department of State and after consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Defense. The Secretary of Energy shall, within ninety days after March 10, 1978, establish orderly and expeditious procedures, including provision for necessary administrative actions and inter-agency memoranda of understanding, which are mutually agreeable to the Secretaries of State, Defense, and Commerce, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the consideration of requests for authorization under this subsection. Such procedures shall include, at a minimum, explicit direction on the handling of such requests, express deadlines for the solicitation and collection of the views of the consulted agencies (with identified officials responsible for meeting such deadlines), an interagency coordinating authority to monitor the processing of such requests, predetermined procedures for the expeditious handling of intra-agency and inter-agency disagreements and appeals to higher authorities, frequent meetings of inter-agency administrative coordinators to review the status of all pending requests, and similar administrative mechanisms. To the extent practicable, an applicant should be advised of all the information required of the applicant for the entire process for every agency's needs at the beginning of the process. Potentially controversial requests should be identified as quickly as possible so that any required policy decisions or diplomatic consultations can be initiated in a timely manner. An immediate effort should be undertaken to establish quickly any necessary standards and criteria, including the nature of any required assurances or evidentiary showings, for the decision required under this subsection. The processing of any request proposed and filed as of March 10, 1978, shall not be delayed pending the development and establishment of procedures to implement the requirements of this subsection. Any trade secrets or proprietary information submitted by any person seeking an authorization under this subsection shall be afforded the maximum degree of protection allowable by law: Provided further, That the export of component parts as defined in section 2014(v)(2) or (cc)(2) of this title shall be governed by sections 2139 and 2155 of this title: Provided further, That notwithstanding section 7172(d) of this title, the Secretary of Energy and not the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, shall have sole jurisdiction within the Department of Energy over any matter arising from any function of the Secretary of Energy in this section, section 2074(d), section 2094, or section 2141(b) of this title.

(c) Distribution by Commission

The Commission shall not—

(1) distribute any special nuclear material to any person for a use which is not under the jurisdiction of the United States except pursuant to the provisions of section 2074 of this title; or

(2) distribute any special nuclear material or issue a license pursuant to section 2073 of this title to any person within the United States if the Commission finds that the distribution of such special nuclear material or the issuance of such license would be inimical to the common defense and security or would constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public.

(d) Establishment of classes of special nuclear material; exemption of materials, kinds of uses and users from requirement of license

The Commission is authorized to establish classes of special nuclear material and to exempt certain classes or quantities of special nuclear material or kinds of uses or users from the requirements for a license set forth in this section when it makes a finding that the exemption of such classes or quantities of special nuclear material or such kinds of uses or users would not be inimical to the common defense and security and would not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public.

(e) Transfer, etc., of special nuclear material

Special nuclear material, as defined in section 2014 of this title, produced in facilities licensed under section 2133 or 2134 of this title may not be transferred, reprocessed, used, or otherwise made available by any instrumentality of the United States or any other person for nuclear explosive purposes.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §57, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 932; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §12, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 93–377, §3, Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 475; Pub. L. 95–242, title III, §302, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 126; Pub. L. 97–415, §14, Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2075; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, title XII, §1225(d)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–774; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6803(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3768.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(3) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–458 substituted "or participate in the development or production of any special nuclear material" for "in the production of any special nuclear material".

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–277 struck out "the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency," after "after consultation with" in first sentence and "the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency," after "Defense, and Commerce," in second sentence.

1983—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–415 added subsec. (e).

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–242 substituted "except (1) as specifically authorized under an agreement for cooperation made pursuant to section 2153 of this title, including a specific authorization in a subsequent arrangement under section 2160 of this title, or (2) upon authorization by the Secretary of Energy after a determination that such activity will not be inimical to the interest of the United States" for "except (1) under an agreement for cooperation made pursuant to section 2153 of this title, or (2) upon authorization by the Commission after a determination that such activity will not be inimical to the interest of the United States" in existing provisions and inserted provisos relating to determinations by the Secretary of Energy, the procedures to be followed in processing authorization requests, the export of component parts, and the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Energy.

1974—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–377 added subsec. (d).

1964Pub. L. 88–489 amended section generally, and among other changes, included all special nuclear materials within the section, struck out condition that such material be "the property of the United States", included delivery, acquisition, ownership and receiving possession of or title to any special nuclear material within the acts prohibited to persons, prohibited the Commission from issuing a license pursuant to section 2073 of this title if the Commission finds that the issuance would be inimical to the common defense and security or would constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public, and extended the power of the Commission to refuse to distribute any special nuclear material if it finds that the distribution would constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective on earlier of Apr. 1, 1999, or date of abolition of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency pursuant to reorganization plan described in section 6601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, see section 1201 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6511 of Title 22.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–242 effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirement for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Performance of Functions Pending Development of Procedures

The performance of functions under this chapter, as amended by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–242, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 120, not to be delayed pending development of procedures even though as many as 120 days [after Mar. 10, 1978] are allowed for establishing those procedures, see section 5(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12058, May 11, 1978, 43 F.R. 20947, set out under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§2077a. Interagency review of applications for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology

(a) Report on transfers to covered foreign countries

Not less frequently than every 90 days, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

(1) a description of the authorizations under section 2077(b) of this title to transfer United States civil nuclear technology to a covered foreign country during the preceding 90 days; and

(2) a statement of whether any agency required to be consulted under that section or pursuant to regulation objected to or sought conditions on each such transfer.

(b) Determination of technologies to be protected

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after November 25, 2015, and every five years thereafter, the Secretary of Energy shall—

(A) in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of National Intelligence, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, determine the critical United States civil nuclear technologies that should be protected from diversion to a military program of a covered foreign country, including with respect to a naval propulsion or weapons program; and

(B) notify the appropriate congressional committees with respect to the determination and the technologies covered by the determination.

(2) Notification

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), not later than 14 days before making an authorization under section 2077(b) of this title for the transfer of a technology covered by a determination under paragraph (1) to a covered foreign country, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

(i) a notification of the intention of the Secretary to make the authorization for the transfer of such technology; and

(ii) a statement of whether any agency required to be consulted under such section 2077(b) of this title or pursuant to regulation objected to or sought conditions on the transfer.

(B) Waiver of deadline

The Secretary may waive the requirement under subparagraph (A) to submit the report required by that subparagraph not later than 14 days before making an authorization for the transfer of a technology covered by a determination under paragraph (1) to a covered foreign country if the Secretary—

(i) determines that an imminent radiological hazard exists; and

(ii) not later than 7 days after determining that such hazard exists, submits to the appropriate congressional committees—

(I) a certification that the hazard exists;

(II) a justification for the waiver; and

(III) the notification required by clause (i) of subparagraph (A) and the statement required by clause (ii) of that subparagraph.

(c) Consultations with intelligence community

(1) In general

The Secretary of Energy shall expeditiously revise part 810 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, to ensure that the Director of National Intelligence—

(A) is consulted with respect to the views of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3003(4) of title 50) with respect to each authorization issued under section 2077(b) of this title for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology to a covered foreign country before the determination to approve or disapprove the request for the authorization; and

(B) is provided with an opportunity to present the views of the Director and the intelligence community on the national security risks of the transfer, if any.

(2) Submission to Congress

The Secretary of Energy, jointly with the Director of National Intelligence, shall include the results of consultations conducted under paragraph (1) in each report under subsection (a) and each notification under subsection (b)(2).

(d) Report on compliance of covered foreign countries and end-users

Not less frequently than annually, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

(1) an assessment of whether each covered foreign country is in compliance with its obligations under any authorization for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology under section 2077(b) of this title;

(2) with respect to any covered foreign country that is not in compliance with such obligations—

(A) a description the efforts of the United States to bring the country into compliance;

(B) an evaluation of the result of such efforts; and

(C) an assessment of the options available to the Secretary as a result of the country not being in compliance;


(3) an assessment of whether each end-user to which United States civil nuclear technology is transferred pursuant to an authorization under such section 2077(b) of this title is in compliance with the obligations of the end-user under that authorization; and

(4) a description of any consequences for the end-user or the exporter of the technology if the end-user is not in compliance with such obligations.

(e) Report on transfers to all foreign countries

(1) In general

Concurrent with the submission to Congress of the budget of the President for a fiscal year under section 1105(a) of title 31, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the activities of the Department of Energy associated with the review of applications for authorization under section 2077(b) of this title to transfer United States civil nuclear technology to any foreign country.

(2) Elements

The report required by paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) the number of applications for authorization under section 2077(b) of this title to transfer United States civil nuclear technology to a foreign country submitted during the year preceding the submission of the report;

(B) the length of time each such application was under review;

(C) the number of such applications that were granted; and

(D) a description of efforts to streamline the review of such applications, taking into account the proliferation and diversion potential of end-users in the country to which United States civil nuclear technology would be transferred pursuant to such applications.

(f) Notifications of potential diversions

The Director of National Intelligence shall notify the Department of Energy and the appropriate congressional committees not later than 30 days after the date on which the Director determines that there is credible intelligence that United States civil nuclear technology is being or has been diverted—

(1) to a military program in a foreign country to which the transfer of the technology was authorized under section 2077(b) of this title; or

(2) to a foreign country to which the transfer of the technology was not so authorized.

(g) Guidelines

Not later than 60 days after November 25, 2015, the Secretary of Energy shall issue guidance with respect to the use of the clear and intended authority of the Secretary under section 2282 of this title to impose civil penalties, including fines and debarment, and to make referrals to the Attorney General for prosecution, for violations of the terms of authorizations for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology issued under section 2077(b) of this title.

(h) Report on transfer of sensitive items

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after November 25, 2015, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report—

(A) describing the efforts of covered foreign countries to prevent the transfer of sensitive items, including efforts to improve the prevention of the transfer of such items; and

(B) assessing the adequacy of such efforts.

(2) Sensitive items defined

In this subsection, the term "sensitive items" means goods, services, and technologies described in section 2(a) of the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act (Public Law 106–178; 50 U.S.C. 1701 note).

(i) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the congressional defense committees;

(B) the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

(C) the Committee on Energy and Commerce, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

(2) Covered foreign country

The term "covered foreign country" means a foreign country that is a nuclear-weapon state, as defined by Article IX(3) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, signed at Washington, London, and Moscow July 1, 1968, but does not include the United States, the United Kingdom, or France.

(Pub. L. 114–92, div. C, title XXXI, §3136, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1209.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

"Congressional Defense Committees" Defined

Congressional defense committees means the Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives, see section 3 of Pub. L. 114–92, 129 Stat. 745. See note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 3136(h) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016

Memorandum of President of the United States, May 10, 2016, 81 F.R. 31161, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby order as follows:

I hereby delegate functions and authorities vested in the President by section 3136(h) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92) (the "Act") to the Secretary of State.

Any reference in this memorandum to the Act shall be deemed to be a reference to any future act that is the same or substantially the same as such provision.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§2078. Congressional review of guaranteed purchase price, guaranteed purchase price period, and criteria for waiver of charges

Before the Commission establishes any guaranteed purchase price or guaranteed purchase price period in accordance with the provisions of section 2076 of this title, or establishes any criteria for the waiver of any charge for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed under section 2073 of this title, the proposed guaranteed purchase price, guaranteed purchase price period, or criteria for the waiver of such charge shall be submitted to the Energy Committees and a period of forty-five days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such forty-five days there shall be excluded the days in which either House is not in session because of adjournment for more than three days): Provided, however, That the Energy Committees, after having received the proposed guaranteed purchase price, guaranteed purchase price period, or criteria for the waiver of such charge, may by resolution in writing waive the conditions of, or all or any portion of, such forty-five-day period.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §58, as added Pub. L. 85–79, §2, July 3, 1957, 71 Stat. 275; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §13, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 605; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(4), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Energy Committees" for "Joint Committee" in two places.

1964Pub. L. 88–489 substituted "guaranteed purchase" and "purchase" for "fair" wherever appearing, "licensed and distributed" for "licensed or distributed", and provided that the Joint Committee resolution waiving the conditions of the forty-five-day period must be in writing.

SUBCHAPTER VI—SOURCE MATERIAL

§2091. Determination of source material

The Commission may determine from time to time that other material is source material in addition to those specified in the definition of source material. Before making such determination, the Commission must find that such material is essential to the production of special nuclear material and must find that the determination that such material is source material is in the interest of the common defense and security, and the President must have expressly assented in writing to the determination. The Commission's determination, together with the assent of the President, shall be submitted to the Energy Committees and a period of thirty days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such thirty days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days) before the determination of the Commission may become effective: Provided, however, That the Energy Committees, after having received such determination, may by resolution in writing waive the conditions of or all or any portion of such thirty-day period.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §61, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 932; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(4), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(b)(1) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Energy Committees" for "Joint Committee" in two places.

§2092. License requirements for transfers

Unless authorized by a general or specific license issued by the Commission which the Commission is authorized to issue, no person may transfer or receive in interstate commerce, transfer, deliver, receive possession of or title to, or import into or export from the United States any source material after removal from its place of deposit in nature, except that licenses shall not be required for quantities of source material which, in the opinion of the Commission, are unimportant.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §62, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 932; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(b)(2) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2093. Domestic distribution of source material

(a) License

The Commission is authorized to issue licenses for and to distribute source material within the United States to qualified applicants requesting such material—

(1) for the conduct of research and development activities of the types specified in section 2051 of this title;

(2) for use in the conduct of research and development activities or in medical therapy under a license issued pursuant to section 2134 of this title;

(3) for use under a license issued pursuant to section 2133 of this title; or

(4) for any other use approved by the Commission as an aid to science or industry.

(b) Minimum criteria for licenses

The Commission shall establish, by rule, minimum criteria for the issuance of specific or general licenses for the distribution of source material depending upon the degree of importance to the common defense and security or to the health and safety of the public of—

(1) the physical characteristics of the source material to be distributed;

(2) the quantities of source material to be distributed; and

(3) the intended use of the source material to be distributed.

(c) Determination of charges

The Commission may make a reasonable charge determined pursuant to section 2201(m) of this title for the source material licensed and distributed under subsection (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(4) and shall make a reasonable charge determined pursuant to section 2201(m) of this title, for the source material licensed and distributed under subsection (a)(3). The Commission shall establish criteria in writing for the determination of whether a charge will be made for the source material licensed and distributed under subsection (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(4), considering, among other things, whether the licensee is a nonprofit or eleemosynary institution and the purposes for which the source material will be used.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §63, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 933; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(b)(3) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2094. Foreign distribution of source material

The Commission is authorized to cooperate with any nation by distributing source material and to distribute source material pursuant to the terms of an agreement for cooperation to which such nation is a party and which is made in accordance with section 2153 of this title. The Commission is also authorized to distribute source material outside of the United States upon a determination by the Commission that such activity will not be inimical to the interests of the United States. The authority to distribute source material under this section other than under an export license granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall in no case extend to quantities of source material in excess of three metric tons per year per recipient.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §64, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 933; amended Pub. L. 95–242, title III, §301(b), Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 125; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Amendments

1978Pub. L. 95–242 provided that the authority to distribute source material under this section other than under an export license granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall in no case extend to quantities of source material in excess of three metric tons per year per recipient.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–242 effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirement for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Performance of Functions Pending Development of Procedures

The performance of functions under this chapter, as amended by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–242, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 120, not to be delayed pending development of procedures even though as many as 120 days [after Mar. 10, 1978] are allowed for establishing those procedures, see section 5(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12058, May 11, 1978, 43 F.R. 20947, set out under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§2095. Reports

The Commission is authorized to issue such rules, regulations, or orders requiring reports of ownership, possession, extraction, refining, shipment, or other handling of source material as it may deem necessary, except that such reports shall not be required with respect to (a) any source material prior to removal from its place of deposit in nature, or (b) quantities of source material which in the opinion of the Commission are unimportant or the reporting of which will discourage independent prospecting for new deposits.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §65, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 933; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(b)(4) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2096. Acquisition of source material; payments

The Commission is authorized and directed, to the extent it deems necessary to effectuate the provisions of this chapter—

(a) to purchase, take, requisition, condemn, or otherwise acquire supplies of source material;

(b) to purchase, condemn, or otherwise acquire any interest in real property containing deposits of source material; and

(c) to purchase, condemn, or otherwise acquire rights to enter upon any real property deemed by the Commission to have possibilities of containing deposits of source material in order to conduct prospecting and exploratory operations for such deposits.


Any purchase made under this section may be made without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41, upon certification by the Commission that such action is necessary in the interest of the common defense and security, or upon a showing by the Commission that advertising is not reasonably practicable. Partial and advanced payments may be made under contracts for such purposes. The Commission may establish guaranteed prices for all source material delivered to it within a specified time. Just compensation shall be made for any right, property, or interest in property taken, requisitioned, condemned, or otherwise acquired under this section.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §66, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 933; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In text, "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(b)(5) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2097. Operations on lands belonging to United States

The Commission is authorized, to the extent it deems necessary to effectuate the provisions of this chapter, to issue leases or permits for prospecting for, exploration for, mining of, or removal of deposits of source material in lands belonging to the United States: Provided, however, That notwithstanding any other provisions of law, such leases or permits may be issued for lands administered for national park, monument, and wildlife purposes only when the President by Executive Order declares that the requirements of the common defense and security make such action necessary.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §67, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 934; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

§2098. Public and acquired lands

(a) Conditions on location, entry, and settlement

No individual, corporation, partnership, or association, which had any part, directly or indirectly, in the development of the atomic energy program, may benefit by any location, entry, or settlement upon the public domain made after such individual, corporation, partnership, or association took part in such project, if such individual, corporation, partnership, or association, by reason of having had such part in the development of the atomic energy program, acquired confidential official information as to the existence of deposits of such uranium, thorium, or other materials in the specific lands upon which such location, entry, or settlement is made, and subsequent to August 30, 1954, made such location, entry, or settlement or caused the same to be made for his, or its, or their benefit.

(b) Reservation of mineral rights; release

Any reservation of radioactive mineral substances, fissionable materials, or source material, together with the right to enter upon the land and prospect for, mine, and remove the same, inserted pursuant to Executive Order 9613 of September 13, 1945, Executive Order 9701 of March 4, 1946, the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, or Executive Order 9908 of December 5, 1947, in any patent, conveyance, lease, permit, or other authorization or instrument disposing of any interest in public or acquired lands of the United States, is released, remised, and quitclaimed to the person or persons entitled upon August 19, 1958 under the grant from the United States or successive grants to the ownership, occupancy, or use of the land under the applicable Federal or State laws: Provided, however, That in cases where any such reservation on acquired lands of the United States has been heretofore released, remised, or quitclaimed subsequent to August 12, 1954, in reliance upon authority deemed to have been contained in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, as amended, or the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], as heretofore amended, the same shall be valid and effective in all respects to the same extent as if public lands and not acquired lands had been involved. The foregoing release shall be subject to any rights which may have been granted by the United States pursuant to any such reservation, but the releases shall be subrogated to the rights of the United States.

(c) Prior locations

Notwithstanding the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, as amended, and particularly section 5(b)(7) thereof, or the provisions of sections 501 to 505 of title 30, and particularly section 503 of title 30, any mining claim, heretofore located under the mining laws of the United States, for or based upon a discovery of a mineral deposit which is a source material and which, except for the possible contrary construction of said Atomic Energy Act, would have been locatable under such mining laws, shall, insofar as adversely affected by such possible contrary construction, be valid and effective, in all respects to the same extent as if said mineral deposit were a locatable mineral deposit other than a source material.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §68, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 934; amended Pub. L. 85–681, §3, Aug. 19, 1958, 72 Stat. 632; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1946, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 755, which was classified generally to chapter 14 (§1801 et seq.) of this title prior to the general amendment by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919. The act of Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, is now known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and is classified principally to this chapter.

Section 5(b)(7) thereof, referred to in subsec. (c), means section 5(b)(7) of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 762, which was classified to section 1805(b)(7) of this title and was omitted in the general amendment of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919.

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Ex. Ord. No. 9908, eff. Dec. 5, 1947, 12 F.R. 8223; Ex. Ord. No. 9701 eff. Mar. 7, 1946, 11 F.R. 2369, and Ex. Ord. No. 9613, eff. Sept. 13, 1945, 10 F.R. 11789, referred to in subsec. (b), related to reservation of source material in certain lands owned by the United States; reservation of rights to fissionable materials in lands owned by the United States; and withdrawal and reservation for the use of the United States lands containing radio-active mineral substances. Ex. Ord. No. 10596, eff. Feb. 15, 1955, 20 F.R. 1007, revoked Ex. Ord. No. 9908, which had revoked Ex. Ord. No. 9701, which had earlier revoked Ex. Ord. No. 9613.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(b)(7) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1958Pub. L. 85–681, which directed the general amendment of this section and set out a new section catchline and text of subsec. (b), was executed by substituting "Public and acquired lands" for "Public lands" in section catchline and amending only subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to reissuance of patent, conveyance, lease, permit, or other authorization without reservation to the United States of source materials and certain rights, subject to conditions.

§2099. Prohibitions against issuance of license

The Commission shall not license any person to transfer or deliver, receive possession of or title to, or import into or export from the United States any source material if, in the opinion of the Commission, the issuance of a license to such person for such purpose would be inimical to the common defense and security or the health and safety of the public.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §69, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 934; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(d)(2) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

SUBCHAPTER VII—BYPRODUCT MATERIALS

§2111. Domestic distribution

(a) In general

No person may transfer or receive in interstate commerce, manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, own, possess, import, or export any byproduct material, except to the extent authorized by this section, section 2112 or section 2114 of this title. The Commission is authorized to issue general or specific licenses to applicants seeking to use byproduct material for research or development purposes, for medical therapy, industrial uses, agricultural uses, or such other useful applications as may be developed. The Commission may distribute, sell, loan, or lease such byproduct material as it owns to qualified applicants with or without charge: Provided, however, That, for byproduct material to be distributed by the Commission for a charge, the Commission shall establish prices on such equitable basis as, in the opinion of the Commission, (a) will provide reasonable compensation to the Government for such material, (b) will not discourage the use of such material or the development of sources of supply of such material independent of the Commission, and (c) will encourage research and development. In distributing such material, the Commission shall give preference to applicants proposing to use such material either in the conduct of research and development or in medical therapy. The Commission shall not permit the distribution of any byproduct material to any licensee, and shall recall or order the recall of any distributed material from any licensee, who is not equipped to observe or who fails to observe such safety standards to protect health as may be established by the Commission or who uses such material in violation of law or regulation of the Commission or in a manner other than as disclosed in the application therefor or approved by the Commission. The Commission is authorized to establish classes of byproduct material and to exempt certain classes or quantities of material or kinds of uses or users from the requirements for a license set forth in this section when it makes a finding that the exemption of such classes or quantities of such material or such kinds of uses or users will not constitute an unreasonable risk to the common defense and security and to the health and safety of the public.

(b) Requirements

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), bypr