[USC10] 42 USC CHAPTER 6A, SUBCHAPTER II, Part A: Research and Investigations
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42 USC CHAPTER 6A, SUBCHAPTER II, Part A: Research and Investigations
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 6A—PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICESUBCHAPTER II—GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES

Part A—Research and Investigations

§241. Research and investigations generally

(a) Authority of Secretary

The Secretary shall conduct in the Service, and encourage, cooperate with, and render assistance to other appropriate public authorities, scientific institutions, and scientists in the conduct of, and promote the coordination of, research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, and studies relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases and impairments of man, including water purification, sewage treatment, and pollution of lakes and streams. In carrying out the foregoing the Secretary is authorized to—

(1) collect and make available through publications and other appropriate means, information as to, and the practical application of, such research and other activities;

(2) make available research facilities of the Service to appropriate public authorities, and to health officials and scientists engaged in special study;

(3) make grants-in-aid to universities, hospitals, laboratories, and other public or private institutions, and to individuals for such research projects as are recommended by the advisory council to the entity of the Department supporting such projects and make, upon recommendation of the advisory council to the appropriate entity of the Department, grants-in-aid to public or nonprofit universities, hospitals, laboratories, and other institutions for the general support of their research;

(4) secure from time to time and for such periods as he deems advisable, the assistance and advice of experts, scholars, and consultants from the United States or abroad;

(5) for purposes of study, admit and treat at institutions, hospitals, and stations of the Service, persons not otherwise eligible for such treatment;

(6) make available, to health officials, scientists, and appropriate public and other nonprofit institutions and organizations, technical advice and assistance on the application of statistical methods to experiments, studies, and surveys in health and medical fields;

(7) enter into contracts, including contracts for research in accordance with and subject to the provisions of law applicable to contracts entered into by the military departments under sections 2353 and 2354 of title 10, except that determination, approval, and certification required thereby shall be by the Secretary of Health and Human Services; and

(8) adopt, upon recommendations of the advisory councils to the appropriate entities of the Department or, with respect to mental health, the National Advisory Mental Health Council, such additional means as the Secretary considers necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

(b) Testing for carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and other harmful biological effects; consultation

(1) The Secretary shall conduct and may support through grants and contracts studies and testing of substances for carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and other harmful biological effects. In carrying out this paragraph, the Secretary shall consult with entities of the Federal Government, outside of the Department of Health and Human Services, engaged in comparable activities. The Secretary, upon request of such an entity and under appropriate arrangements for the payment of expenses, may conduct for such entity studies and testing of substances for carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and other harmful biological effects.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall establish a comprehensive program of research into the biological effects of low-level ionizing radiation under which program the Secretary shall conduct such research and may support such research by others through grants and contracts.

(B) The Secretary shall conduct a comprehensive review of Federal programs of research on the biological effects of ionizing radiation.

(3) The Secretary shall conduct and may support through grants and contracts research and studies on human nutrition, with particular emphasis on the role of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease and on the maintenance and promotion of health, and programs for the dissemination of information respecting human nutrition to health professionals and the public. In carrying out activities under this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide for the coordination of such of these activities as are performed by the different divisions within the Department of Health and Human Services and shall consult with entities of the Federal Government, outside of the Department of Health and Human Services, engaged in comparable activities. The Secretary, upon request of such an entity and under appropriate arrangements for the payment of expenses, may conduct and support such activities for such entity.

(4) The Secretary shall publish a biennial report which contains—

(A) a list of all substances (i) which either are known to be carcinogens or may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens and (ii) to which a significant number of persons residing in the United States are exposed;

(B) information concerning the nature of such exposure and the estimated number of persons exposed to such substances;

(C) a statement identifying (i) each substance contained in the list under subparagraph (A) for which no effluent, ambient, or exposure standard has been established by a Federal agency, and (ii) for each effluent, ambient, or exposure standard established by a Federal agency with respect to a substance contained in the list under subparagraph (A), the extent to which, on the basis of available medical, scientific, or other data, such standard, and the implementation of such standard by the agency, decreases the risk to public health from exposure to the substance; and

(D) a description of (i) each request received during the year involved—

(I) from a Federal agency outside the Department of Health and Human Services for the Secretary, or

(II) from an entity within the Department of Health and Human Services to any other entity within the Department,


to conduct research into, or testing for, the carcinogenicity of substances or to provide information described in clause (ii) of subparagraph (C), and (ii) how the Secretary and each such other entity, respectively, have responded to each such request.


(5) The authority of the Secretary to enter into any contract for the conduct of any study, testing, program, research, or review, or assessment under this subsection shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(c) Diseases not significantly occurring in United States

The Secretary may conduct biomedical research, directly or through grants or contracts, for the identification, control, treatment, and prevention of diseases (including tropical diseases) which do not occur to a significant extent in the United States.

(d) Protection of privacy of individuals who are research subjects

(1)(A) If a person is engaged in biomedical, behavioral, clinical, or other research, in which identifiable, sensitive information is collected (including research on mental health and research on the use and effect of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs), the Secretary, in coordination with other agencies, as applicable—

(i) shall issue to such person a certificate of confidentiality to protect the privacy of individuals who are the subjects of such research if the research is funded wholly or in part by the Federal Government; and

(ii) may, upon application by a person engaged in research, issue to such person a certificate of confidentiality to protect the privacy of such individuals if the research is not so funded.


(B) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), any person to whom a certificate is issued under subparagraph (A) to protect the privacy of individuals described in such subparagraph shall not disclose or provide to any other person not connected with the research the name of such an individual or any information, document, or biospecimen that contains identifiable, sensitive information about such an individual and that was created or compiled for purposes of the research.

(C) The disclosure prohibition in subparagraph (B) shall not apply to disclosure or use that is—

(i) required by Federal, State, or local laws, excluding instances described in subparagraph (D);

(ii) necessary for the medical treatment of the individual to whom the information, document, or biospecimen pertains and made with the consent of such individual;

(iii) made with the consent of the individual to whom the information, document, or biospecimen pertains; or

(iv) made for the purposes of other scientific research that is in compliance with applicable Federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects in research.


(D) Any person to whom a certificate is issued under subparagraph (A) to protect the privacy of an individual described in such subparagraph shall not, in any Federal, State, or local civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, or other proceeding, disclose or provide the name of such individual or any such information, document, or biospecimen that contains identifiable, sensitive information about the individual and that was created or compiled for purposes of the research, except in the circumstance described in subparagraph (C)(iii).

(E) Identifiable, sensitive information protected under subparagraph (A), and all copies thereof, shall be immune from the legal process, and shall not, without the consent of the individual to whom the information pertains, be admissible as evidence or used for any purpose in any action, suit, or other judicial, legislative, or administrative proceeding.

(F) Identifiable, sensitive information collected by a person to whom a certificate has been issued under subparagraph (A), and all copies thereof, shall be subject to the protections afforded by this section for perpetuity.

(G) The Secretary shall take steps to minimize the burden to researchers, streamline the process, and reduce the time it takes to comply with the requirements of this subsection.

(2) The Secretary shall coordinate with the heads of other applicable Federal agencies to ensure that such departments have policies in place with respect to the issuance of a certificate of confidentiality pursuant to paragraph (1) and other requirements of this subsection.

(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the access of an individual who is a subject of research to information about himself or herself collected during such individual's participation in the research.

(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term "identifiable, sensitive information" means information that is about an individual and that is gathered or used during the course of research described in paragraph (1)(A) and—

(A) through which an individual is identified; or

(B) for which there is at least a very small risk, as determined by current scientific practices or statistical methods, that some combination of the information, a request for the information, and other available data sources could be used to deduce the identity of an individual.

(e) Preterm labor and delivery and infant mortality

The Secretary, acting through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shall expand, intensify, and coordinate the activities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with respect to preterm labor and delivery and infant mortality.

(f) Exemption of certain biomedical information from disclosure

(1) The Secretary may exempt from disclosure under section 552(b)(3) of title 5 biomedical information that is about an individual and that is gathered or used during the course of biomedical research if—

(A) an individual is identified; or

(B) there is at least a very small risk, as determined by current scientific practices or statistical methods, that some combination of the information, the request, and other available data sources could be used to deduce the identity of an individual.


(2)(A) Each determination of the Secretary under paragraph (1) to exempt information from disclosure shall be made in writing and accompanied by a statement of the basis for the determination.

(B) Each such determination and statement of basis shall be available to the public, upon request, through the Office of the Chief FOIA Officer of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit a research participant's access to information about such participant collected during the participant's participation in the research.

(g) Inapplicability of Federal information policy

Subchapter I of chapter 35 of title 44 shall not apply to the voluntary collection of information during the conduct of research by the National Institutes of Health.

(h) Availability of substances and living organisms for biomedical and behavioral research

(1) The Secretary may make available to individuals and entities, for biomedical and behavioral research, substances and living organisms. Such substances and organisms shall be made available under such terms and conditions (including payment for them) as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(2) Where research substances and living organisms are made available under paragraph (1) through contractors, the Secretary may direct such contractors to collect payments on behalf of the Secretary for the costs incurred to make available such substances and organisms and to forward amounts so collected to the Secretary, in the time and manner specified by the Secretary.

(3) Amounts collected under paragraph (2) shall be credited to the appropriations accounts that incurred the costs to make available the research substances and living organisms involved, and shall remain available until expended for carrying out activities under such accounts.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §301, 58 Stat. 691; July 3, 1946, ch. 538, §7(a), (b), 60 Stat. 423; June 16, 1948, ch. 481, §4(e), (f), 62 Stat. 467; June 24, 1948, ch. 621, §4(e), (f), 62 Stat. 601; June 25, 1948, ch. 654, §1, 62 Stat. 1017; July 3, 1956, ch. 510, §4, 70 Stat. 490; Pub. L. 86–798, Sept. 15, 1960, 74 Stat. 1053; Pub. L. 87–838, §2, Oct. 17, 1962, 76 Stat. 1073; Pub. L. 89–115, §3, Aug. 9, 1965, 79 Stat. 448; Pub. L. 90–174, §9, Dec. 5, 1967, 81 Stat. 540; Pub. L. 91–513, title I, §3(a), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1241; Pub. L. 91–515, title II, §292, Oct. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 92–218, §6(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1971, 85 Stat. 785; Pub. L. 92–423, §7(b), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 687; Pub. L. 93–282, title I, §122(b), May 14, 1974, 88 Stat. 132; Pub. L. 93–348, title I, §104(a)(1), July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 346; Pub. L. 93–352, title I, §111, July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 360; Pub. L. 94–278, title I, §111, Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 95–622, title II, §§261, 262, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3434; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 99–158, §3(a)(5), Nov. 20, 1985, 99 Stat. 879; Pub. L. 99–570, title IV, §4021(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–124; Pub. L. 99–660, title I, §104, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3751; Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §163(1), (2), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3062; Pub. L. 103–43, title XX, §2009, June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 109–450, §3(a), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3341; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title II, §§2012(a), 2013, 2035, 2043, Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1049, 1050, 1062, 1074.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–255, §2043(1), redesignated concluding provisions of subsec. (a) as par. (1) of subsec. (h).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–255, §2012(a), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary may authorize persons engaged in biomedical, behavioral, clinical, or other research (including research on mental health, including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs) to protect the privacy of individuals who are the subject of such research by withholding from all persons not connected with the conduct of such research the names or other identifying characteristics of such individuals. Persons so authorized to protect the privacy of such individuals may not be compelled in any Federal, State, or local civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, or other proceedings to identify such individuals."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–255, §2013, added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–255, §2035, added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–255, §2043, redesignated concluding provisions of subsec. (a) as par. (1) of subsec. (h) and added pars. (2) and (3).

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–450 added subsec. (e).

1993—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–43 substituted "a biennial report" for "an annual report" in introductory provisions.

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–607 redesignated concluding provisions of subsec. (a) of section 242a of this title as subsec. (d) of this section, substituted "biomedical, behavioral, clinical, or other research (including research on mental health, including" for "research on mental health, including", and substituted "drugs)" for "drugs,".

1986—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–570 struck out "or, in the case of mental health projects, by the National Advisory Mental Health Council;" after "Department supporting such projects" and struck out "or the National Advisory Mental Health Council" after "appropriate entity of the Department".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–660 added subsec. (c).

1985—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–158, §3(a)(5)(A), substituted "as are recommended by the advisory council to the entity of the Department supporting such projects or, in the case of mental health projects, by the National Advisory Mental Health Council; and make, upon recommendation of the advisory council to the appropriate entity of the Department or the National Advisory Mental Health Council, grants-in-aid to public or nonprofit universities, hospitals, laboratories, and other institutions for the general support of their research" for "as are recommended by the National Advisory Health Council, or, with respect to cancer, recommended by the National Cancer Advisory Board, or, with respect to mental health, recommended by the National Advisory Mental Health Council, or with respect to heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases and blood resources, recommended by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council, or, with respect to dental diseases and conditions, recommended by the National Advisory Dental Research Council; and include in the grants for any such project grants of penicillin and other antibiotic compounds for use in such project; and make, upon recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council, grants-in-aid to public or nonprofit universities, hospitals, laboratories, and other institutions for the general support of their research: Provided, That such uniform percentage, not to exceed 15 per centum, as the Secretary may determine, of the amounts provided for grants for research projects for any fiscal year through the appropriations for the National Institutes of Health may be transferred from such appropriations to a separate account to be available for such research grants-in-aid for such fiscal year".

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 99–158, §3(a)(5)(B), substituted "recommendations of the advisory councils to the appropriate entities of the Department or, with respect to mental health, the National Advisory Mental Health Council, such additional means as the Secretary considers" for "recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council, or, with respect to cancer, upon recommendation of the National Cancer Advisory Board, or, with respect to mental health, upon recommendation of the National Advisory Mental Health Council, or, with respect to heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases and blood resources, upon recommendation of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Advisory Council, or, with respect to dental diseases and conditions, upon recommendations of the National Advisory Dental Research Council, such additional means as he deems".

1978Pub. L. 95–622 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), redesignated former pars. (a) to (h) as (1) to (8), respectively, substituted "Secretary" for "Surgeon General" wherever appearing, and inserted following par. (8) provisions relating to authority of Secretary to make available to individuals and entities substances and living organisms, and added subsec. (b).

1976—Subsecs. (c), (h). Pub. L. 94–278 substituted "heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases and blood resources" for "heart diseases" and "National Heart, Lung and Blood Advisory Council" for "National Heart and Lung Advisory Council".

1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–348, §104(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and substituted "research projects" for "research or research training projects" in two places, "general support of their research" for "general support of their research and research training programs" and "research grants-in-aid" for "research and research training program grants-in-aid". Former subsec. (c), authorizing Surgeon General to establish and maintain research fellowships in the Public Health Service with such stipends and allowances, including traveling and subsistence expenses, as he may deem necessary to procure the assistance of the most brilliant and promising research fellows from the United States and abroad, was struck out.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–348, §104(a)(1)(C), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d).

Pub. L. 93–282 substituted "mental health, including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs" for "the use and effect of drugs" in former concluding provisions of section 242a(a) of this title. See 1988 Amendment note above.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 93–348, §104(a)(1)(C), redesignated subsecs. (f) and (g) as (e) and (f), respectively. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–352 struck out "during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and each of the eight succeeding fiscal years" after "Enter into contracts". Notwithstanding directory language that amendment be made to subsec. (h), the amendment was executed to subsec. (g) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening redesignation of subsec. (h) as (g) by Pub. L. 93–348.

Pub. L. 93–348, §104(a)(1)(C), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (f).

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 93–348, §104(a)(1)(C), redesignated subsecs. (h) and (i) as (g) and (h), respectively.

1972—Subsecs. (d), (i). Pub. L. 92–423 substituted "National Heart and Lung Advisory Council" for "National Advisory Heart Council".

1971—Subsecs. (d), (i). Pub. L. 92–218 substituted "National Cancer Advisory Board" for "National Advisory Cancer Council".

1970—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–513 added subsec. (d). See 1988 Amendment note above.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 91–515 substituted "eight" for "five" succeeding fiscal years.

1967—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 90–174 substituted "five" for "two" succeeding fiscal years.

1965—Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 89–115 added subsec. (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).

1962—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–838 inserted "or research training" in two places.

1960—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–798 authorized the Surgeon General, upon recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council, to make grants to public or non-profit universities, hospitals, laboratories, and other institutions to support research and research training programs, and to make available for such research and research training programs, up to 15 per centum of amounts provided for research grants through the appropriations for the National Institutes of Health.

1956—Subsecs. (g), (h). Act July 3, 1956, added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

1948—Subsec. (d). Acts June 16, 1948, §4(e), and June 24, 1948, §4(e), made provisions applicable to the National Advisory Heart Council and the National Advisory Dental Research Council, respectively.

Subsec. (d). Act June 25, 1948, continued in basic legislation the authority to purchase penicillin and other antibiotic compounds for use in research projects.

Subsec. (g). Acts June 16, 1948, §4(f), and June 24, 1948, §4(f), made provisions applicable to the National Advisory Heart Council and the National Advisory Dental Research Council, respectively.

1946—Subsec. (d). Act July 3, 1946, made the National Advisory Mental Health Council the body to make recommendations to the Surgeon General on awarding of grants-in-aid for research projects with respect to mental health.

Subsec. (g). Act July 3, 1946, gave National Advisory Health Council the right to make recommendations to carry out purposes of this section.

Change of Name

"Secretary of Health and Human Services" substituted for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare" in subsec. (a)(7), and "Department of Health and Human Services" substituted for "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare" in subsec. (b)(1), (3), and (4)(D)(I), (II), pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Sections 261 and 262 of Pub. L. 95–622 provided that the amendments made by those sections are effective Oct. 1, 1978.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 104(b) of Pub. L. 93–348 provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 242a, 282, 286a, 286b, 287a, 287b, 287d, 288a, 289c, 289c–1, 289g, 289k, and heading preceding section 289l of this title] shall not apply with respect to commitments made before the date of the enactment of this Act [July 12, 1974] by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare for research training under the provisions of the Public Health Service Act amended or repealed by subsection (a)."

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–423 effective 60 days after Sept. 19, 1972, or on such prior date after Sept. 19, 1972, as the President shall prescribe and publish in the Federal Register, see section 9 of Pub. L. 92–423, set out as a note under section 218 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–218 effective 60 days after Dec. 23, 1971, or on such prior date after Dec. 23, 1971, as the President shall prescribe and publish in the Federal Register, see section 7 of Pub. L. 92–218, set out as a note under section 218 of this title.

Applicability of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title II, §2012(b), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1050, provided that: "Beginning 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 2016], all persons engaged in research and authorized by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to protect information under section 301(d) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 241(d)) prior to the date of enactment of this Act shall be subject to the requirements of such section (as amended by this Act)."

Coordination of Data Surveys and Reports

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(6) [title VII, §703(e)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-402, provided that: "The Secretary of Health and Human Services, through the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, shall establish a clearinghouse for the consolidation and coordination of all Federal databases and reports regarding children's health."

Female Genital Mutilation

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(d) [title V, §520], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–211, 1321-250; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, provided that:

"(a) Congress finds that—

"(1) the practice of female genital mutilation is carried out by members of certain cultural and religious groups within the United States; and

"(2) the practice of female genital mutilation often results in the occurrence of physical and psychological health effects that harm the women involved.

"(b) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall do the following:

"(1) Compile data on the number of females living in the United States who have been subjected to female genital mutilation (whether in the United States or in their countries of origin), including a specification of the number of girls under the age of 18 who have been subjected to such mutilation.

"(2) Identify communities in the United States that practice female genital mutilation, and design and carry out outreach activities to educate individuals in the communities on the physical and psychological health effects of such practice. Such outreach activities shall be designed and implemented in collaboration with representatives of the ethnic groups practicing such mutilation and with representatives of organizations with expertise in preventing such practice.

"(3) Develop recommendations for the education of students of schools of medicine and osteopathic medicine regarding female genital mutilation and complications arising from such mutilation. Such recommendations shall be disseminated to such schools.

"(c) For purposes of this section the term 'female genital mutilation' means the removal or infibulation (or both) of the whole or part of the clitoris, the labia minor, or the labia major.

"(d) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall commence carrying out this section not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 26, 1996]."

Sentinel Disease Concept Study

Pub. L. 103–43, title XIX, §1910, June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 205, directed Secretary of Health and Human Services, in cooperation with Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to design and implement a pilot sentinel disease surveillance system for identifying relationship between occupation of household members and incidence of subsequent conditions or diseases in other members of household, and required Director of the National Institutes of Health to prepare and submit to Congress, not later than 4 years after June 10, 1993, a report concerning this project.

Study of Thyroid Morbidity for Hanford, Washington

Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §161, Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3059, as amended by Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312(e)(1), Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3506, directed Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through Director of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to conduct a study of thyroid morbidity of the population, including Indian tribes and tribal organizations, in vicinity of Hanford, in State of Washington, authorized Director to contract out portions of study, and required Director, not later than 42 months after Nov. 4, 1988, to transmit a report, including such study, to Congress, chief executive officers of States of Oregon and Washington, and governing officials of Indian tribes in vicinity of Hanford, Washington.

National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research

Pub. L. 100–607,title I, §162, Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3060, directed Secretary of Health and Human Services, after consultation with Director of National Institutes of Health, to establish a National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research to conduct a comprehensive study of present state of knowledge of incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality resulting from sleep disorders, and of social and economic impact of such disorders, evaluate public and private facilities and resources (including trained personnel and research activities) available for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of, and research into, such disorders, and identify programs (including biological, physiological, behavioral, environmental, and social programs) by which improvement in management and research into sleep disorders could be accomplished and, not later than 18 months after initial meeting of Commission, to submit to appropriate Committees of Congress a final report, and provided for termination of the Commission 30 days after submission of final report.

Research With Respect to Health Resources and Services Administration

Pub. L. 100–607, title VI, §632, Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3147, provided that with respect to any program of research pursuant to this chapter, any such program carried out in fiscal year 1987 by an agency other than Health Resources and Services Administration (or appropriate to be carried out by such an agency) could not, for each of fiscal years 1989 through 1991, be carried out by such Administration.

Continuing Care for Psychiatric Patients in Former Clinical Research Center at National Institute on Drug Abuse

Pub. L. 99–117, §10, Oct. 7, 1985, 99 Stat. 494, provided that: "In any fiscal year beginning after September 30, 1981, from funds appropriated for carrying out section 301 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 241] with respect to mental health, the Secretary of Health and Human Services may provide, by contract or otherwise, for the continuing care of psychiatric patients who were under active and continuous treatment at the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Research Center on the date such Clinical Research Center ceased operations."

Analysis of Thyroid Cancer; Creation and Publication of Radioepidemiological Tables

Pub. L. 97–414, §7, Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2059, as amended by Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(3)(A), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3694, provided that:

"(a) In carrying out section 301 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 241], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall—

"(1) conduct scientific research and prepare analyses necessary to develop valid and credible assessments of the risks of thyroid cancer that are associated with thyroid doses of Iodine 131;

"(2) conduct scientific research and prepare analyses necessary to develop valid and credible methods to estimate the thyroid doses of Iodine 131 that are received by individuals from nuclear bomb fallout; and

"(3) conduct scientific research and prepare analyses necessary to develop valid and credible assessments of the exposure to Iodine 131 that the American people received from the Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests.

"(b)(1) Within one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 1983], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall devise and publish radioepidemiological tables that estimate the likelihood that persons who have or have had any of the radiation related cancers and who have received specific doses prior to the onset of such disease developed cancer as a result of these doses. These tables shall show a probability of causation of developing each radiation related cancer associated with receipt of doses ranging from 1 millirad to 1,000 rads in terms of sex, age at time of exposure, time from exposure to the onset of the cancer in question, and such other categories as the Secretary, after consulting with appropriate scientific experts, determines to be relevant. Each probability of causation shall be calculated and displayed as a single percentage figure.

"(2) At the time the Secretary of Health and Human Services publishes the tables pursuant to paragraph (1), such Secretary shall also publish—

"(A) for the tables of each radiation related cancer, an evaluation which will assess the credibility, validity, and degree of certainty associated with such tables; and

"(B) a compilation of the formulas that yielded the probabilities of causation listed in such tables. Such formulas shall be published in such a manner and together with information necessary to determine the probability of causation of any individual who has or has had a radiation related cancer and has received any given dose.

"(3) The tables specified in paragraph (1) and the formulas specified in paragraph (2) shall be devised from the best available data that are most applicable to the United States, and shall be devised in accordance with the best available scientific procedures and expertise."

Termination of Advisory Committees

Pub. L. 93–641, §6, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2275, set out as a note under section 217a of this title, provided that an advisory committee established pursuant to the Public Health Service Act shall terminate at such time as may be specifically prescribed by an Act of Congress enacted after Jan. 4, 1975.

Executive Order No. 13435

Ex. Ord. No. 13435, June 20, 2007, 72 F.R. 34591, which directed research with stem cells not derived from the creation or destruction of a human embryo or fetus, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13505, §5(b), Mar. 9, 2009, 74 F.R. 10668, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 13505. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells

Ex. Ord. No. 13505, Mar. 9, 2009, 74 F.R. 10667, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem cells has the potential to lead to better understanding and treatment of many disabling diseases and conditions. Advances over the past decade in this promising scientific field have been encouraging, leading to broad agreement in the scientific community that the research should be supported by Federal funds.

For the past 8 years, the authority of the Department of Health and Human Services, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to fund and conduct human embryonic stem cell research has been limited by Presidential actions. The purpose of this order is to remove these limitations on scientific inquiry, to expand NIH support for the exploration of human stem cell research, and in so doing to enhance the contribution of America's scientists to important new discoveries and new therapies for the benefit of humankind.

Sec. 2. Research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (Secretary), through the Director of NIH, may support and conduct responsible, scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent permitted by law.

Sec. 3. Guidance. Within 120 days from the date of this order, the Secretary, through the Director of NIH, shall review existing NIH guidance and other widely recognized guidelines on human stem cell research, including provisions establishing appropriate safeguards, and issue new NIH guidance on such research that is consistent with this order. The Secretary, through NIH, shall review and update such guidance periodically, as appropriate.

Sec. 4. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) authority granted by law to an executive department, agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Sec. 5. Revocations. (a) The Presidential statement of August 9, 2001, limiting Federal funding for research involving human embryonic stem cells, shall have no further effect as a statement of governmental policy.

(b) Executive Order 13435 of June 20, 2007, which supplements the August 9, 2001, statement on human embryonic stem cell research, is revoked.

Barack Obama.      

Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

Memorandum of President of the United States, July 30, 2009, 74 F.R. 38885, provided:

Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies

As outlined in Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009, my Administration is committed to supporting and conducting ethically responsible, scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent permitted by law. Pursuant to that order, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) published final "National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research" (Guidelines), effective July 7, 2009. These Guidelines apply to the expenditure of NIH funds for research using human embryonic stem cells and certain uses of human induced pluripotent stem cells. The Guidelines are based on the principles that responsible research with human embryonic stem cells has the potential to improve our understanding of human biology and aid in the discovery of new ways to prevent and treat illness, and that individuals donating embryos for research purposes should do so freely, with voluntary and informed consent. These Guidelines will ensure that NIH-funded research adheres to the highest ethical standards.

In order to ensure that all federally funded human stem cell research is conducted according to these same principles and to promote a uniform Federal policy across the executive branch, I hereby direct the heads of executive departments and agencies that support and conduct stem cell research to adopt these Guidelines, to the fullest extent practicable in light of legal authorities and obligations. I also direct those departments and agencies to submit to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), within 90 days, proposed additions or revisions to any other guidance, policies, or procedures related to human stem cell research, consistent with Executive Order 13505 and this memorandum. The Director of the OMB shall, in coordination with the Director of NIH, review these proposals to ensure consistent implementation of Executive Order 13505 and this memorandum.

This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person. Executive departments and agencies shall carry out the provisions of this memorandum to the extent permitted by law and consistent with their statutory and regulatory authorities and their enforcement mechanisms.

The Director of the OMB is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

Memorandum of President of the United States, Jan. 16, 2013, 78 F.R. 4295, provided that:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services

In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects thousands of individuals, families, and communities across the Nation. Each year in the United States there are approximately 30,000 firearm-related deaths, and approximately 11,000 of those deaths result from homicides. Addressing this critical issue requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach.

Recent research suggests that, in developing such an approach, a broader public health perspective is imperative. Significant strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun violence and the successful efforts in place for preventing the misuse of firearms. Taking these steps will improve our understanding of the gun violence epidemic and will aid in the continued development of gun violence prevention strategies.

Therefore, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby direct the following:

Section 1. Research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (Secretary), through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other scientific agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services, shall conduct or sponsor research into the causes of gun violence and the ways to prevent it. The Secretary shall begin by identifying the most pressing research questions with the greatest potential public health impact, and by assessing existing public health interventions being implemented across the Nation to prevent gun violence.

Sec. 2. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Sec. 3. Publication. You are hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§242. Studies and investigations on use and misuse of narcotic drugs and other drugs; annual report to Attorney General; cooperation with States

(a) In carrying out the purposes of section 241 of this title with respect to drugs the use or misuse of which might result in drug abuse or dependency, the studies and investigations authorized therein shall include the use and misuse of narcotic drugs and other drugs. Such studies and investigations shall further include the quantities of crude opium, coca leaves, and their salts, derivatives, and preparations, and other drugs subject to control under the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.] and Controlled Substances Import and Export Act [21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.], together with reserves thereof, necessary to supply the normal and emergency medicinal and scientific requirements of the United States. The results of studies and investigations of the quantities of narcotic drugs or other drugs subject to control under such Acts, together with reserves of such drugs, that are necessary to supply the normal and emergency medicinal and scientific requirements of the United States, shall be reported not later than the first day of April of each year to the Attorney General, to be used at his discretion in determining manufacturing quotas or importation requirements under such Acts.

(b) The Surgeon General shall cooperate with States for the purpose of aiding them to solve their narcotic drug problems and shall give authorized representatives of the States the benefit of his experience in the care, treatment, and rehabilitation of narcotic addicts to the end that each State may be encouraged to provide adequate facilities and methods for the care and treatment of its narcotic addicts.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §302, 58 Stat. 692; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(j), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1282.)

References in Text

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables.

Amendments

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–513 inserted references to drug dependency, drugs other than narcotic drugs, and substances subject to control under the Controlled Substances Act and the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, substituted the first day of April of each year for the first day of September of each year as the date by which the study results must be submitted, substituted the Attorney General for the Secretary of the Treasury as the officer to whom the report is to be submitted, and struck out references to the Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

Transfer of Functions

Office of Surgeon General abolished by section 3 of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1966, eff. June 25, 1966, 31 F.R. 8855, 80 Stat. 1610, and functions thereof transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by section 1 of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1966, set out as a note under section 202 of this title. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education. Office of Surgeon General reestablished within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, see Notice of Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Mar. 30, 1987, 52 F.R. 11754.

Marihuana and Health Reporting

Pub. L. 91–296, title V, June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 352, as amended by Pub. L. 95–461, §3(a), Oct. 14, 1978, 92 Stat. 1268; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, known as the Marihuana and Health Reporting Act, which required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, after consultation with the Surgeon General and other appropriate individuals, to transmit a report to the Congress on or before January 31, 1971, and biennially thereafter (1) containing current information on the health consequences of using marihuana, and (2) containing such recommendations for legislative and administrative action as he may deem appropriate, was repealed by Pub. L. 98–24, §2(d), Apr. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 182.

§242a. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–310, div. B, title XXXII, §3201(b)(1), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1190

Section, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §303, as added July 3, 1946, ch. 538, §7(c), 60 Stat. 423; amended Aug. 2, 1956, ch. 871, title V, §501, 70 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 91–513, title I, §3(a), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1241; Pub. L. 93–282, title I, §122(b), May 14, 1974, 88 Stat. 132; Pub. L. 93–348, title I, §104(a)(2), July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 346; Pub. L. 95–633, title I, §108(b), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3773; Pub. L. 96–398, title VIII, §803(a), Oct. 7, 1980, 94 Stat. 1607; Pub. L. 100–177, title II, §202(a), Dec. 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §163(1)(A), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3062; Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2058(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4214; Pub. L. 101–597, title IV, §401(b)[(a)], Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3035; Pub. L. 102–321, title I, §115(b), July 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 102–408, title III, §305, Oct. 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 2084; Pub. L. 105–392, title IV, §403, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3588, related to mental health.

§242b. General authority respecting research, evaluations, and demonstrations in health statistics, health services, and health care technology

(a) Scope of activities

The Secretary may, through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality or the National Center for Health Statistics, or using Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards or other appropriate authorities, undertake and support training programs to provide for an expanded and continuing supply of individuals qualified to perform the research, evaluation, and demonstration projects set forth in section 242k of this title and in subchapter VII.

(b) Additional authority; scope of activities

To implement subsection (a) and section 242k of this title, the Secretary may, in addition to any other authority which under other provisions of this chapter or any other law may be used by him to implement such subsection, do the following:

(1) Utilize personnel and equipment, facilities, and other physical resources of the Department of Health and Human Services, permit appropriate (as determined by the Secretary) entities and individuals to utilize the physical resources of such Department, provide technical assistance and advice, make grants to public and nonprofit private entities and individuals, and, when appropriate, enter into contracts with public and private entities and individuals.

(2) Admit and treat at hospitals and other facilities of the Service persons not otherwise eligible for admission and treatment at such facilities.

(3) Secure, from time to time and for such periods as the Secretary deems advisable but in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, the assistance and advice of consultants from the United States or abroad. The Secretary may for the purpose of carrying out the functions set forth in sections 242c,1 242k, and 242n 1 of this title, obtain (in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, but without regard to the limitation in such section on the number of days or the period of service) for each of the centers the services of not more than fifteen experts who have appropriate scientific or professional qualifications.

(4) Acquire, construct, improve, repair, operate, and maintain laboratory, research, and other necessary facilities and equipment, and such other real or personal property (including patents) as the Secretary deems necessary; and acquire, without regard to section 8141 of title 40, by lease or otherwise, through the Administrator of General Services, buildings or parts of buildings in the District of Columbia or communities located adjacent to the District of Columbia.

(c) Coordination of activities through units of Department

(1) The Secretary shall coordinate all health services research, evaluations, and demonstrations, all health statistical and epidemiological activities, and all research, evaluations, and demonstrations respecting the assessment of health care technology undertaken and supported through units of the Department of Health and Human Services. To the maximum extent feasible such coordination shall be carried out through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Center for Health Statistics.

(2) The Secretary shall coordinate the health services research, evaluations, and demonstrations, the health statistical and (where appropriate) epidemiological activities, and the research, evaluations, and demonstrations respecting the assessment of health care technology authorized by this chapter through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Center for Health Statistics.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §304, as added July 28, 1955, ch. 417, §3, 69 Stat. 382; amended Aug. 2, 1956, ch. 871, title V, §502, 70 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 90–174, §3(a), Dec. 5, 1967, 81 Stat. 534; Pub. L. 91–296, title IV, §401(b)(1)(A), June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 91–515, title II, §§201(a)–(c), 202, 203, Oct. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1301–1303; Pub. L. 93–45, title I, §102, June 18, 1973, 87 Stat. 91; Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §103, July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 362; Pub. L. 95–623, §§3, 7, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3443, 3451; Pub. L. 96–32, §5(a)–(c), July 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 82; Pub. L. 97–35, title IX, §918, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 565; Pub. L. 98–551, §5(c), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2819; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(e)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2205; Pub. L. 103–183, title V, §501(b), Dec. 14, 1993, 107 Stat. 2237; Pub. L. 106–129, §2(b)(2), Dec. 6, 1999, 113 Stat. 1670; Pub. L. 107–206, title I, §804(c), Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 874.)

References in Text

Sections 242c and 242n of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), were repealed by Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(d)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2205.

Codification

In subsec. (b)(4), "section 8141 of title 40" substituted for "the Act of March 3, 1877 (40 U.S.C. 34)" on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–206 substituted "Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards" for "National Research Service Awards".

1999—Subsecs. (a), (c). Pub. L. 106–129 substituted "Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality" for "Agency for Health Care Policy and Research" wherever appearing.

1993—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–183 struck out subsec. (d) which directed Secretary to conduct an ongoing study of present and projected future health costs of pollution and other environmental conditions resulting from human activity and to submit to Congress reports on the study.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(1)(B), substituted "the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research" for "the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment" and "in section 242k of this title and in subchapter VII" for "in sections 242c, 242k, and 242n of this title".

Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(1)(A), redesignated par. (3) as entire subsec. (a) and struck out pars. (1) and (2) which required Secretary to conduct and support research, demonstrations, evaluations, and statistical and epidemiological activities for purpose of improving health services in the United States, and which specified types of activities Secretary was to emphasize in carrying out par. (1).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(1)(C), substituted "subsection (a) and section 242k of this title" for "subsection (a)".

Subsec. (c)(1), (2). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(1)(D), substituted "the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research" for "the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment".

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–551, §5(c)(1), (2), substituted "the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment and the National Center for Health Statistics" for "the National Center for Health Services Research, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Center for Health Care Technology".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–551, §5(c)(1), (3), substituted "the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment or the National Center for Health Statistics" for "the National Center for Health Services Research, the National Center for Health Statistics, or the National Center for Health Care Technology".

Subsec. (c)(1), (2). Pub. L. 98–551, §5(c)(1), (2), substituted "the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment and the National Center for Health Statistics" for "the National Center for Health Services Research, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Center for Health Care Technology".

1981—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–35, §918(a), substituted "may" for "shall", "or the" for "and the", "or using" for "and using", and "or other" for "and other".

Subsecs. (b)(1), (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §918(d)(1), substituted "Health and Human Services" for "Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §918(b)(1), (2), substituted provisions relating to advice and assistance of the National Academy of Sciences, for provisions relating to joint authority of the National Academy of Sciences, and struck out definition of "Academy" as meaning the National Academy of Sciences.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 97–35, §918(b)(3), (c), (d)(2), substituted "every three years" for "every two years", and "Energy and" for "Interstate and Foreign", and struck out references to the Academy.

1979—Subsec. (b)(1), (3). Pub. L. 96–32, §5(a), (b), amended directory language of Pub. L. 95–623, §3(b), (d), and required no change in text. See 1978 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–32, §5(c), substituted "(d)" for "(e)" as designation of subsection added by Pub. L. 95–623, §7, thereby correcting the subsection designation.

1978—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–623, §3(a), substituted provision for the Secretary acting through the National Center for Health Care Technology for such action through other units of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and "conduct" for "undertake", included epidemiological activities, and declared as an objective the improvement of the effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of Federal health services.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–623, §3(a), provided for emphasis to demonstrations, evaluations, and epidemiological activities; redesignated as subpar. (A) former subpar. (C); struck out "technology" and "quality" after "organization," and "utilization,", respectively, and end clause "including systems for the delivery of preventive, personal, and mental health care" and former subpar. (A) activities respecting "the determination of an individual's health"; added subpars. (B) through (D); struck out former subpar. (D) activities respecting "individual and community knowledge of individual health and the systems for the delivery of health care"; added subpars. (E) through (I); and redesignated as subpar. (J) former subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–623, §3(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–623, §3(b), as amended by Pub. L. 96–32, §5(a), substituted ", when appropriate, enter into contracts with public and private entities and individuals" for "enter into contracts with public and private entities and individuals, for (A) health services research, evaluation, and demonstrations, and (B) health services research and health statistics training, and (C) health statistical activities".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–623, §3(d), as amended by Pub. L. 96–32, §5(b), substituted "advisable but in accordance with section 3109 of title 5" for "advisable", struck out "experts and" before "consultants", and authorized the Secretary to obtain for the centers the services of experts with appropriate scientific or professional qualifications.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–623, §3(c), designated existing text as par. (1), substituted "evaluations, and demonstrations, all health statistical and epidemiological activities, and all research, evaluations, and demonstrations respecting the assessment of health care technology" for "evaluation, demonstration, and health statistical activities" before "undertaken and supported", required coordination of activities to also be carried out through the National Center for Health Care Technology, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–623, §7, as amended by Pub. L. 96–32, §5(c), added subsec. (d).

1974Pub. L. 93–353, in revising generally provisions of subsecs. (a) to (c), provided for general authority respecting health statistics and health services research, evaluation, and demonstrations, subsec. (a) relating to scope of activities, subsec. (b) relating to additional authority and scope of activities, and subsec. (c) relating to coordination of activities through units of the Department. Former provisions related to research and demonstrations relating to health facilities and services, subsec. (a) relating to grants and contracts for projects for research, experiments, or demonstrations and related training, cost limitation, wage rates, labor standards, and other conditions, and payments (former subsec. (a)(2) and (3) now being covered by section 242m(h) and (e), respectively), subsec. (b) relating to systems analysis of national health care plans, and cost and coverage report on existing legislative proposals, and subsec. (c) relating to authorization of appropriations.

1973—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 93–45 authorized appropriations of $42,617,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1974.

1970—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–515, §§201(a)(1), 203, redesignated subsec. (a) as (a)(1), substituted "(A)" and "(B)" for "(1)" and "(2)", and "(i) to (iii)" for "(A) to (C)", and added cls. (iv) and (v).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–515, §201(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (b) as (a)(2), and substituted "subsection" for "section" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 91–515, §§201(a)(3), 202, redesignated subsec. (c) as (a)(3)(A), substituted "subsection" for "section" wherever appearing, and added subsec. (a)(3)(B).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–515, §201(a)(2)(A), (b), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (a)(2).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 91–515, §§201(a)(3)(A), (c), 202(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c), and substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1971, June 30, 1972, and June 30, 1973, and authorizing to be appropriated such additional sums for each fiscal year as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of subsec. (b), for provisions authorizing appropriations of $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1968, $40,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969, and $60,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (a)(3)(A).

Pub. L. 91–296 struck out provisions authorizing use of appropriated funds for evaluation of program authorized by this section. See section 229b of this title.

1967Pub. L. 90–174 substituted provisions of subsecs. (a) to (d) for research and demonstrations relating to health facilities (incorporated from former section 291n of this title) for provisions of former subsecs. (a) to (d) for mental health study including grants for special projects, conditions thereof, and definition of "organization", authorization of appropriations, terms of grant, availability of amounts otherwise appropriated and noninterference with research and study programs of the National Institute of Mental Health, and acceptance of additional financial support.

1956—Act Aug. 2, 1956, changed heading of section 304 of act July 1, 1944 from "Grants for special projects in mental health" to "Mental health study grants". Section heading has been changed for purposes of codification.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendments

Pub. L. 91–515, title II, §201(d), Oct. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1303, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (c) of this section [amending this section] shall be effective only with respect to fiscal years ending after June 30, 1970."

Pub. L. 91–296, title IV, §401(b)(1), June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 352, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to appropriations for fiscal years beginning after June 30, 1970.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment of section by act Aug. 2, 1956, effective July 1, 1956, see section 503 of act Aug. 2, 1956.

Transfer of Functions

Office of Surgeon General abolished by section 3 of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1966, eff. June 25, 1966, 31 F.R. 8855, 80 Stat. 1610, and functions thereof transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by section 1 of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1966, set out as a note under section 202 of this title. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education. Office of Surgeon General reestablished within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, see Notice of Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Mar. 30, 1987, 52 F.R. 11754.

Commission on Systemic Interoperability

Pub. L. 108–173, title X, §1012, Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2435, directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to establish a commission to be known as the "Commission on Systemic Interoperability", which would develop a comprehensive strategy for the adoption and implementation of health care information technology standards, and which would terminate 30 days after submitting a report, not later than Oct. 31, 2005, to the Secretary and to Congress, describing the strategy developed.

Model Standards With Respect to Preventive Health Services in Communities

Pub. L. 95–83, title III, §314, Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 398, required the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, within two years of Aug. 1, 1977, to establish model standards with respect to preventive health services in communities and report such standards to Congress.

Transfer of Equipment

Pub. L. 94–573, §15, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2719, provided that notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare could vest title to equipment purchased with funds under the seven contracts for emergency medical services demonstration projects entered into in 1972 and 1973 under this section (as in effect at the time the contracts were entered into), and by contractors with the United States under such contracts or subcontractors under such contracts, in such contractors or subcontractors without further obligation to the Government or on such terms as the Secretary considered appropriate.

Congressional Declaration of Purpose

Joint Res. July 28, 1955, ch. 417, §2, 69 Stat. 382, provided a Congressional statement of the critical need for an analysis and reevaluation of the human and economic problems of mental illness and of the resources, methods, and practices utilized in diagnosing, treating, caring for, and rehabilitating the mentally ill, both within and outside of institutions, as might lead to the development of recommendations for such better utilization of those resources or such improvements on and new developments in methods of diagnosis, treatment, care, and rehabilitation as give promise of resulting in a marked reduction in the incidence or duration of mental illness and, in consequence, a lessening of the appalling emotional and financial drain on the families of those afflicted or on the economic resources of the States and of the Nation and a declaration of the policy to promote mental health and to help solve the complex and the interrelated problems posed by mental illness by encouraging the undertaking of nongovernmental, multidisciplinary research into and reevaluation of all aspects of our resources, methods, and practices for diagnosing, treating, caring for, and rehabilitating the mentally ill, including research aimed at the prevention of mental illness.

Children's Emotional Illness Study; Program Grants; Conditions; Definitions; Appropriations; Terms of Grant

Pub. L. 89–97, title II, §231, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 360, as amended by Pub. L. 90–248, title III, §305, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 929, authorized the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare upon the recommendation of the National Advisory Mental Health Council and after securing the advice of experts in pediatrics and child welfare, to make grants to organizations on certain conditions for carrying out a program of research into and study of resources, methods, and practices for diagnosing or preventing emotional illness in children and of treating, caring for, and rehabilitating children with emotional illnesses, defined "organization", and authorized appropriations for the making of such grants for fiscal years ending June 30, 1966, and June 30, 1967, with such research and study to be completed not later than three years from the date it was inaugurated.

1 See References in Text note below.

§242c. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(d)(1)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2205

Section, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §305, as added July 3, 1956, ch. 510, §3, 70 Stat. 490; amended Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–515, title II, §210, 84 Stat. 1303; June 18, 1973, Pub. L. 93–45, title I, §103, 87 Stat. 91; July 23, 1974, Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §104, 88 Stat. 363; Oct. 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–460, title III, §301, 90 Stat. 1960; Nov. 9, 1978, Pub. L. 95–623, §4, 92 Stat. 3445; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, title IX, §919(a)(1), (2)(A), (3), (b)(1), (c), (d), 95 Stat. 565, 566; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–551, §§5(a), (b), 6, 98 Stat. 2817, 2819, 2820; Oct. 7, 1985, Pub. L. 99–117, §6, 99 Stat. 492; Nov. 14, 1986, Pub. L. 99–660, title III, §311(b)(2), 100 Stat. 3779; Dec. 1, 1987, Pub. L. 100–177, title I, §§101, 102, 101 Stat. 987; Nov. 4, 1988, Pub. L. 100–607, title II, §204(1), 102 Stat. 3079; Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2620(b)(3), 102 Stat. 4244; Aug. 16, 1989, Pub. L. 101–93, §5(e)(3), 103 Stat. 612, related to National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment.

Termination of National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(d)(1)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2205, provided in part that the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment is terminated.

Transitional and Savings Provisions for Pub. L. 101–239

For provision transferring personnel of Department of Health and Human Services employed on Dec. 19, 1989, in connection with functions vested in Administrator for Health Care Policy and Research pursuant to amendments made by section 6103 of Pub. L. 101–239, and assets, liabilities, etc., of Department arising from or employed, held, used, or available on that date, or to be made available after that date, in connection with those functions, to Administrator for appropriate allocation, and for provisions for continued effectiveness of actions, orders, rules, official documents, etc., of Department that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective in performance of those functions, and that were effective on Dec. 19, 1989, see section 6103(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 299 of this title.

§242d. Transferred

Codification

Section, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §306, as added Aug. 2, 1956, ch. 871, title I, §101, 70 Stat. 923; amended July 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–105, §1, 73 Stat. 239; Sept. 8, 1960, Pub. L. 88–497, §2, 78 Stat. 613; Aug. 16, 1968, Pub. L. 90–490, title III, §302(b), 82 Stat. 789; Mar. 12, 1970, Pub. L. 91–208, §3, 84 Stat. 52; Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–515, title VI, §601(b)(2), 84 Stat. 1311; June 18, 1973, Pub. L. 93–45, title I, §104(a), 87 Stat. 91, which related to graduate or specialized training for physicians, engineers, nurses, and other professional personnel, was renumbered section 312 of act July 1, 1944, by Pub. L. 93–353 and transferred to section 244–1 of this title, and was subsequently repealed.

§242e. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §102(a), July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 362

Section, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §307, as added Aug. 2, 1956, ch. 871, title II, §201, 70 Stat. 924; amended July 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–105, §2, 73 Stat. 239; Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–515, title VI, §601(b)(2), 84 Stat. 1311, provided for a professional nurse traineeship program for which authorization of appropriations were made through fiscal year ending June 30, 1964. Provision for the continuation of the program was made by the Nurse Training Act of 1964, which enacted section 297 et seq. of this title.

§§242f to 242j. Transferred

Codification

Section 242f, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §308, as added July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–610, §3, 74 Stat. 364, which related to international cooperation with respect to biomedical research and health services research and statistical activities, was renumbered section 307 of act July 1, 1944, by Pub. L. 93–353 and transferred to section 242l of this title.

Section 242g, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §309, as added Sept. 8, 1960, Pub. L. 86–720, §1(a), 74 Stat. 819; amended Aug. 27, 1964, Pub. L. 88–497, §3, 78 Stat. 613; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–749, §4, 80 Stat. 1190; Dec. 5, 1967, Pub. L. 90–147, §§2(g), 8(c), 81 Stat. 534, 540; Aug. 16, 1968, Pub. L. 90–490, title III, §302(a), 82 Stat. 788; Mar. 12, 1970, Pub. L. 91–208, §§1, 2, 84 Stat. 52; June 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–296, title IV, §401(b)(1)(B), 84 Stat. 352; June 18, 1973, Pub. L. 93–45, title I, §104(b), (c), 87 Stat. 91, which related to graduate public health training grants, was renumbered section 313 of act July 1, 1944, by Pub. L. 93–353 and transferred to section 245a of this title, and was subsequently repealed.

Section 242h, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §310, as added Sept. 25, 1962, Pub. L. 87–692, 76 Stat. 592, and amended and renumbered, which related to health services for domestic agricultural migrants, was renumbered section 319 of act July 1, 1944, by Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §102(d), July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 362, transferred to section 247d of this title, and subsequently renumbered and transferred to section 254b of this title, prior to being omitted in the general amendment of subpart I (§254b et seq.) of part D of this subchapter by Pub. L. 104–299, §2.

Section 242i, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §310A, as added Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–515, title II, §270, 84 Stat. 1306; amended Nov. 18, 1971, Pub. L. 92–157, title II, §201, 85 Stat. 461, which related to administration of grants in multigrant projects, was renumbered section 226 of act July 1, 1944, by Pub. L. 93–353 and transferred to section 235 of this title.

Section 242j, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §310B, as added Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–515, title II, §280, 84 Stat. 1307, which provided for and annual report by Secretary on activities related to health facilities and services and expenditure of funds, was renumbered section 227 of act July 1, 1944, by Pub. L. 93–353 and transferred to section 236 of this title, and was subsequently repealed.

§242k. National Center for Health Statistics

(a) Establishment; appointment of Director; statistical and epidemiological activities

There is established in the Department of Health and Human Services the National Center for Health Statistics (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Center") which shall be under the direction of a Director who shall be appointed by the Secretary. The Secretary, acting through the Center, shall conduct and support statistical and epidemiological activities for the purpose of improving the effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of health services in the United States.

(b) Duties

In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary, acting through the Center,

(1) shall collect statistics on—

(A) the extent and nature of illness and disability of the population of the United States (or of any groupings of the people included in the population), including life expectancy, the incidence of various acute and chronic illnesses, and infant and maternal morbidity and mortality,

(B) the impact of illness and disability of the population on the economy of the United States and on other aspects of the well-being of its population (or of such groupings),

(C) environmental, social, and other health hazards,

(D) determinants of health,

(E) health resources, including physicians, dentists, nurses, and other health professionals by specialty and type of practice and the supply of services by hospitals, extended care facilities, home health agencies, and other health institutions,

(F) utilization of health care, including utilization of (i) ambulatory health services by specialties and types of practice of the health professionals providing such services, and (ii) services of hospitals, extended care facilities, home health agencies, and other institutions,

(G) health care costs and financing, including the trends in health care prices and cost, the sources of payments for health care services, and Federal, State, and local governmental expenditures for health care services, and

(H) family formation, growth, and dissolution;


(2) shall undertake and support (by grant or contract) research, demonstrations, and evaluations respecting new or improved methods for obtaining current data on the matters referred to in paragraph (1);

(3) may undertake and support (by grant or contract) epidemiological research, demonstrations, and evaluations on the matters referred to in paragraph (1); and

(4) may collect, furnish, tabulate, and analyze statistics, and prepare studies, on matters referred to in paragraph (1) upon request of public and nonprofit private entities under arrangements under which the entities will pay the cost of the service provided.


Amounts appropriated to the Secretary from payments made under arrangements made under paragraph (4) shall be available to the Secretary for obligation until expended.

(c) Statistical and epidemiological compilations and surveys

The Center shall furnish such special statistical and epidemiological compilations and surveys as the Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives may request. Such statistical and epidemiological compilations and surveys shall not be made subject to the payment of the actual or estimated cost of the preparation of such compilations and surveys.

(d) Technical aid to States and localities

To insure comparability and reliability of health statistics, the Secretary shall, through the Center, provide adequate technical assistance to assist State and local jurisdictions in the development of model laws dealing with issues of confidentiality and comparability of data.

(e) Cooperative Health Statistics System

For the purpose of producing comparable and uniform health information and statistics, there is established the Cooperative Health Statistics System. The Secretary, acting through the Center, shall—

(1) coordinate the activities of Federal agencies involved in the design and implementation of the System;

(2) undertake and support (by grant or contract) research, development, demonstrations, and evaluations respecting the System;

(3) make grants to and enter into contracts with State and local health agencies to assist them in meeting the costs of data collection and other activities carried out under the System; and

(4) review the statistical activities of the Department of Health and Human Services to assure that they are consistent with the System.


States participating in the System shall designate a State agency to administer or be responsible for the administration of the statistical activities within the State under the System. The Secretary, acting through the Center, shall prescribe guidelines to assure that statistical activities within States participating in the system 1 produce uniform and timely data and assure appropriate access to such data.

(f) Federal-State cooperation

To assist in carrying out this section, the Secretary, acting through the Center, shall cooperate and consult with the Departments of Commerce and Labor and any other interested Federal departments or agencies and with State and local health departments and agencies. For such purpose he shall utilize insofar as possible the services or facilities of any agency of the Federal Government and, without regard to section 6101 of title 41, of any appropriate State or other public agency, and may, without regard to such section, utilize the services or facilities of any private agency, organization, group, or individual, in accordance with written agreements between the head of such agency, organization, or group and the Secretary or between such individual and the Secretary. Payment, if any, for such services or facilities shall be made in such amounts as may be provided in such agreement.

(g) Collection of health data; data collection forms

To secure uniformity in the registration and collection of mortality, morbidity, and other health data, the Secretary shall prepare and distribute suitable and necessary forms for the collection and compilation of such data.

(h) Registration area records

(1) There shall be an annual collection of data from the records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces in registration areas. The data shall be obtained only from and restricted to such records of the States and municipalities which the Secretary, in his discretion, determines possess records affording satisfactory data in necessary detail and form. The Secretary shall encourage States and registration areas to obtain detailed data on ethnic and racial populations, including subpopulations of Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders with significant representation in the State or registration area. Each State or registration area shall be paid by the Secretary the Federal share of its reasonable costs (as determined by the Secretary) for collecting and transcribing (at the request of the Secretary and by whatever method authorized by him) its records for such data.

(2) There shall be an annual collection of data from a statistically valid sample concerning the general health, illness, and disability status of the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Specific topics to be addressed under this paragraph, on an annual or periodic basis, shall include the incidence of illness and accidental injuries, prevalence of chronic diseases and impairments, disability, physician visits, hospitalizations, and the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and health characteristics.

(i) Technical assistance in effective use of statistics

The Center may provide to public and nonprofit private entities technical assistance in the effective use in such activities of statistics collected or compiled by the Center.

(j) Coordination of health statistical and epidemiological activities

In carrying out the requirements of section 242b(c) of this title and paragraph (1) of subsection (e) of this section, the Secretary shall coordinate health statistical and epidemiological activities of the Department of Health and Human Services by—

(1) establishing standardized means for the collection of health information and statistics under laws administered by the Secretary;

(2) developing, in consultation with the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, and maintaining the minimum sets of data needed on a continuing basis to fulfill the collection requirements of subsection (b)(1);

(3) after consultation with the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, establishing standards to assure the quality of health statistical and epidemiological data collection, processing, and analysis;

(4) in the case of proposed health data collections of the Department which are required to be reviewed by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget under section 3509 2 of title 44, reviewing such proposed collections to determine whether they conform with the minimum sets of data and the standards promulgated pursuant to paragraphs (2) and (3), and if any such proposed collection is found not to be in conformance, by taking such action as may be necessary to assure that it will conform to such sets of data and standards, and

(5) periodically reviewing ongoing health data collections of the Department, subject to review under such section 3509,2 to determine if the collections are being conducted in accordance with the minimum sets of data and the standards promulgated pursuant to paragraphs (2) and (3) and, if any such collection is found not to be in conformance, by taking such action as may be necessary to assure that the collection will conform to such sets of data and standards not later than the ninetieth day after the date of the completion of the review of the collection.

(k) National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics; establishment; membership; term of office; compensation; functions; consultations of Secretary with Committee and professional advisory groups

(1) There is established in the Office of the Secretary a committee to be known as the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "Committee") which shall consist of 18 members.

(2) The members of the Committee shall be appointed from among persons who have distinguished themselves in the fields of health statistics, electronic interchange of health care information, privacy and security of electronic information, population-based public health, purchasing or financing health care services, integrated computerized health information systems, health services research, consumer interests in health information, health data standards, epidemiology, and the provision of health services. Members of the Committee shall be appointed for terms of 4 years.

(3) Of the members of the Committee—

(A) 1 shall be appointed, not later than 60 days after August 21, 1996, by the Speaker of the House of Representatives after consultation with the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives;

(B) 1 shall be appointed, not later than 60 days after August 21, 1996, by the President pro tempore of the Senate after consultation with the Minority Leader of the Senate; and

(C) 16 shall be appointed by the Secretary.


(4) Members of the Committee shall be compensated in accordance with section 210(c) of this title.

(5) The Committee—

(A) shall assist and advise the Secretary—

(i) to delineate statistical problems bearing on health and health services which are of national or international interest;

(ii) to stimulate studies of such problems by other organizations and agencies whenever possible or to make investigations of such problems through subcommittees;

(iii) to determine, approve, and revise the terms, definitions, classifications, and guidelines for assessing health status and health services, their distribution and costs, for use (I) within the Department of Health and Human Services, (II) by all programs administered or funded by the Secretary, including the Federal-State-local cooperative health statistics system referred to in subsection (e), and (III) to the extent possible as determined by the head of the agency involved, by the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and other Federal agencies concerned with health and health services;

(iv) with respect to the design of and approval of health statistical and health information systems concerned with the collection, processing, and tabulation of health statistics within the Department of Health and Human Services, with respect to the Cooperative Health Statistics System established under subsection (e), and with respect to the standardized means for the collection of health information and statistics to be established by the Secretary under subsection (j)(1);

(v) to review and comment on findings and proposals developed by other organizations and agencies and to make recommendations for their adoption or implementation by local, State, national, or international agencies;

(vi) to cooperate with national committees of other countries and with the World Health Organization and other national agencies in the studies of problems of mutual interest;

(vii) to issue an annual report on the state of the Nation's health, its health services, their costs and distributions, and to make proposals for improvement of the Nation's health statistics and health information systems; and

(viii) in complying with the requirements imposed on the Secretary under part C of title XI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1320d et seq.];


(B) shall study the issues related to the adoption of uniform data standards for patient medical record information and the electronic exchange of such information;

(C) shall report to the Secretary not later than 4 years after August 21, 1996, recommendations and legislative proposals for such standards and electronic exchange; and

(D) shall be responsible generally for advising the Secretary and the Congress on the status of the implementation of part C of title XI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1320d et seq.].


(6) In carrying out health statistical activities under this part, the Secretary shall consult with, and seek the advice of, the Committee and other appropriate professional advisory groups.

(7) Not later than 1 year after August 21, 1996, and annually thereafter, the Committee shall submit to the Congress, and make public, a report regarding the implementation of part C of title XI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1320d et seq.]. Such report shall address the following subjects, to the extent that the Committee determines appropriate:

(A) The extent to which persons required to comply with part C of title XI of the Social Security Act are cooperating in implementing the standards adopted under such part.

(B) The extent to which such entities are meeting the security standards adopted under such part and the types of penalties assessed for noncompliance with such standards.

(C) Whether the Federal and State Governments are receiving information of sufficient quality to meet their responsibilities under such part.

(D) Any problems that exist with respect to implementation of such part.

(E) The extent to which timetables under such part are being met.

(l) Data specific to particular ethnic and racial populations

In carrying out this section, the Secretary, acting through the Center, shall collect and analyze adequate health data that is specific to particular ethnic and racial populations, including data collected under national health surveys. Activities carried out under this subsection shall be in addition to any activities carried out under subsection (m).

(m) Grants for assembly and analysis of data on ethnic and racial populations

(1) The Secretary, acting through the Center, may make grants to public and nonprofit private entities for—

(A) the conduct of special surveys or studies on the health of ethnic and racial populations or subpopulations;

(B) analysis of data on ethnic and racial populations and subpopulations; and

(C) research on improving methods for developing statistics on ethnic and racial populations and subpopulations.


(2) The Secretary, acting through the Center, may provide technical assistance, standards, and methodologies to grantees supported by this subsection in order to maximize the data quality and comparability with other studies.

(3) Provisions of section 242m(d) of this title do not apply to surveys or studies conducted by grantees under this subsection unless the Secretary, in accordance with regulations the Secretary may issue, determines that such provisions are necessary for the conduct of the survey or study and receives adequate assurance that the grantee will enforce such provisions.

(4)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary, acting through the Center, shall collect data on Hispanics and major Hispanic subpopulation groups and American Indians, and for developing special area population studies on major Asian American and Pacific Islander populations.

(B) The provisions of subparagraph (A) shall be effective with respect to a fiscal year only to the extent that funds are appropriated pursuant to paragraph (3) of subsection (n), and only if the amounts appropriated for such fiscal year pursuant to each of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (n) equal or exceed the amounts so appropriated for fiscal year 1997.

(n) Authorization of appropriations

(1) For health statistical and epidemiological activities undertaken or supported under subsections (a) through (l), there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1991 through 2003.

(2) For activities authorized in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (m), there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1999 through 2003. Of such amounts, the Secretary shall use not more than 10 percent for administration and for activities described in subsection (m)(2).

(3) For activities authorized in subsection (m)(4), there are authorized to be appropriated $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1998, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §306, as added Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §105, July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 365; amended Pub. L. 95–623, §§5, 8(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3445, 3453; Pub. L. 97–35, title IX, §920, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 566; Pub. L. 97–414, §8(b), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2060; Pub. L. 100–177, title I, §§104, 105(a), Dec. 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 988; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(e)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2206; Pub. L. 101–527, §7(a), (b)(1), (c), Nov. 6, 1990, 104 Stat. 2327, 2328; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(q)(1)(A)(i), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 103–183, title V, §501(a), (d), Dec. 14, 1993, 107 Stat. 2237, 2238; Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §263, Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2031; Pub. L. 105–340, title II, §201, Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3193; Pub. L. 105–392, title II, §201(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3585.)

References in Text

Section 3509 of title 44, referred to in subsec. (j)(4), (5), which required submission of certain plans and forms for collection of information to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval, was omitted in the general amendment of chapter 35 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, by Pub. L. 96–511, §2(a), Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2812. Pub. L. 104–13 subsequently enacted a new section 3509 of Title 44 relating to designation of a central collection agency. Provisions appearing in former section 3509 are contained in section 3507 of Title 44.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(5)(A)(viii), (D), (7), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Part C of title XI of the Act is classified generally to part C (§1320d et seq.) of subchapter XI of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (f), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5)" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (g) of this section were contained in section 313 of act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, 58 Stat. 693; Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–516, title II, §282, 84 Stat. 1308 (formerly classified to section 245 of this title), prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–353, §102(a).

Provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (h) of this section were contained in section 312a of act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, as added Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, §2, 68 Stat. 1025 (formerly classified to section 244a of this title), prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–353, §102(a).

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 105–392, §201(b)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 105–340, §201(1), and Pub. L. 105–392, §201(b)(2), amended par. (1) identically, substituting "2003" for "1998".

Subsec. (n)(2). Pub. L. 105–392, §201(b)(3)(A), in first sentence, substituted "paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (m)" for "subsection (m)" and substituted "such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1999 through 2003." for "$5,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, $7,500,000 for fiscal year 1992, $10,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1994 through 2003."

Pub. L. 105–340, §201(2), substituted "2003" for "1998".

Subsec. (n)(3). Pub. L. 105–392, §201(b)(3)(B), added par. (3).

1996—Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 104–191, §263(1), substituted "18" for "16".

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 104–191, §263(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The members of the Committee shall be appointed by the Secretary from among persons who have distinguished themselves in the fields of health statistics, health planning, epidemiology, and the provision of health services. Members of the Committee shall be appointed for terms of 4 years."

Subsec. (k)(3), (4). Pub. L. 104–191, §263(3), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (k)(5). Pub. L. 104–191, §263(4), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) consisted of subpars. (A) to (G) relating to Committee functions in assisting and advising the Secretary.

Pub. L. 104–191, §263(3), redesignated par. (4) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (k)(6). Pub. L. 104–191, §263(3), redesignated par. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (k)(7). Pub. L. 104–191, §263(5), added par. (7).

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(a)(1), substituted "Committee on Labor and Human Resources" for "Committee on Human Resources".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(a)(2), substituted "data" for "data which shall be published as a part of the health reports published by the Secretary".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(a)(3), struck out "engaged in health planning activities" after "entities".

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(a)(4), struck out subpar. (A) designation, substituted "Members" for "Except as provided in subparagraph (B), members", and struck out subpar. (B) which related to extensions of membership terms of members of National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics whose terms were to expire in calendar years 1988, 1989, and 1990.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(a)(5)(A)–(C), redesignated subsec. (m) as (l), substituted "subsection (m)" for "subsection (n)", and struck out former subsec. (l) which related to development of plan for collection and coordination of statistical and epidemiological data on effects of environment on health and establishment of guidelines for compilation, analysis, and distribution of statistics and information necessary for coordinated determination of effects of conditions of employment and indoor and outdoor environmental conditions on public health.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(a)(5)(B), redesignated subsec. (n) as (m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (l).

Subsecs. (n), (o). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(a)(5)(B), (D), (d), redesignated subsec. (o) as (n), in par. (1) substituted "(l)" for "(m)" and "1998" for "1993", and in par. (2) substituted "(m)" for "(n)", struck out "and" after "1992,", inserted ", and $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1994 through 1998", and substituted "(m)(2)" for "(n)(2)". Former subsec. (n) redesignated (m).

1991—Subsec. (k)(4)(C). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted "Department of Veterans Affairs" for "Veterans' Administration".

1990—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–527, §7(a), designated existing text as par. (1), inserted after second sentence "The Secretary shall encourage States and registration areas to obtain detailed data on ethnic and racial populations, including subpopulations of Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders with significant representation in the State or registration area.", and added par. (2).

Subsecs. (m) to (o). Pub. L. 101–527, §7(b)(1), (c), added subsecs. (m) and (n) and redesignated former subsec. (m) as (o) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (o) read as follows: "For health statistical and epidemiological activities undertaken or supported under this section, there are authorized to be appropriated $55,000,000 for fiscal year 1988 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1989 and 1990."

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(2)(A), inserted at end "The Secretary, acting through the Center, shall conduct and support statistical and epidemiological activities for the purpose of improving the effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of health services in the United States."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(2)(B), substituted "subsection (a)" for "section 242b(a) of this title".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(2)(C), added subsec. (m).

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–177, §104, struck out "and supervised by the Assistant Secretary for Health (or such other officer of the Department as may be designated by the Secretary as the principal adviser to him for health programs)".

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 100–177, §105(a)(1), substituted "16 members" for "fifteen members".

Subsec. (k)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–177, §105(a)(2), substituted "terms of 4 years" for "terms of three years".

Subsec. (k)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–177, §105(a)(3), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "Of the members first appointed—

"(i) five shall be appointed for terms of one year,

"(ii) five shall be appointed for terms of two years, and

"(iii) five shall be appointed for terms of three years,

as designated by the Secretary at the time of appointment. Any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term. A member may serve after the expiration of his term until his successor has taken office."

1983—Subsec. (l)(2)(D). Pub. L. 97–414 redesignated subpar. (E) as (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which provided that the Center would serve as a clearinghouse for statistics and information with respect to which guidelines had been established under subpar. (A).

Subsec. (l)(2)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 97–414 redesignated subpars. (F) and (G) as (E) and (F), respectively. Former subpar. (E) redesignated (D).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §920(d)(1), substituted "Health and Human Services" for "Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35, §920(d)(2), substituted "Energy and" for "Interstate and Foreign".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–35, §920(a), (d)(1), in par. (3) inserted applicability to other activities, and in par. (4) substituted "Health and Human Services" for "Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsecs. (j), (k)(4)(C), (D). Pub. L. 97–35, §920(d)(1), substituted "Health and Human Services" for "Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, §920(b), (c), (d)(1), in subpar. (A) inserted reference to Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, in subpar. (B)(v) substituted "Health and Human Services" for "Health, Education, and Welfare", and in subpar. (D) struck out provisions relating to assistance to executive departments.

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–623, §5(a), struck out "may" after "through the Center,", substituted in pars. (1) and (2) "shall collect" and "shall undertake" for "collect" and "undertake", respectively, and added pars. (3) and (4) and provision for availability of certain appropriated funds from par. (4) payments until expended.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–623, §5(b), substituted "statistical and epidemiological compilations" for "statistical compilations" in two places and "Committee on Human Resources" for "Committee on Labor and Public Welfare" of the Senate.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–623, §5(c)(1), incorporated in introductory text prior cl. (1) provision requiring the Secretary to assist State and local health agencies and Federal agencies involved in health matters in the design and implementation of a cooperative system for producing comparable and uniform health information and statistics at the Federal, State, and local levels; enacted in pars. (1) and (2) provisions almost identical to prior cls. (2) and (3); enacted par. (3); struck out former cl. (4) provision for the Federal share of the data collection costs under the system; enacted in par. (4) provisions almost identical to former cl. (5); and required State designation of a State administrative agency to be responsible for the statistical activities within the State under the System and Federal guidelines for production of uniform and timely data and appropriate access to the data.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–623, §5(d), substituted "the Secretary, acting through the Center, shall cooperate and consult" for "the Secretary shall cooperate and consult".

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 95–623, §5(f), added subsecs. (i) and (j). Former subsec. (i) redesignated (k).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 95–623, §5(c)(2), (e), (f), struck from par. (1) "United States" before "National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics"; authorized in par. (2)(A) the appointment of Committee members from distinguished persons in field of health planning; required the Committee to assist and advise the Secretary with respect to the Cooperative Health Statistics System and the standardized means for the collection of health information and statistics to be established by the Secretary; and redesignated such amended subsec. (i) as (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 95–623, §8(a), added subsec. (l).

Change of Name

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–527, §12, Nov. 6, 1990, 104 Stat. 2335, provided that: "This Act and the amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 254c–1, 254t, 256a, 294bb, 294cc, and 300u–6 of this title, amending this section and sections 242m, 254b, 254c, 294m, 294o, and 295g–2 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 201 and 300u–6 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 292h of this title] shall take effect October 1, 1990, or upon the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1990], whichever occurs later."

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–177, title I, §105(b), Dec. 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 988, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall become effective on January 1, 1988."

Money Received by Center From Reimbursements, Interagency Agreements, and Sale of Data Tapes To Remain Available Until Expended

Pub. L. 103–333, title II, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2550, provided in part: "That for fiscal year 1995 and subsequent fiscal years amounts received by the National Center for Health Statistics from reimbursements and interagency agreements and the sale of data tapes may be credited to this appropriation and shall remain available until expended".

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

2 See References in Text note below.

§242l. International cooperation

(a) Cooperative endeavors

The Secretary may participate with other countries in cooperative endeavors in—

(1) biomedical research, health care technology, and the health services research and statistical analysis authorized under section 242k of this title and subchapter VII; and

(2) biomedical research, health care services, health care research, or other related activities in furtherance of the activities, objectives or goals authorized under the Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008.

(b) Authority of Secretary; building construction prohibition

In connection with the cooperative endeavors authorized by subsection (a), the Secretary may—

(1) make such use of resources offered by participating foreign countries as he may find necessary and appropriate;

(2) establish and maintain fellowships in the United States and in participating foreign countries;

(3) make grants to public institutions or agencies and to nonprofit private institutions or agencies in the United States and in participating foreign countries for the purpose of establishing and maintaining the fellowships authorized by paragraph (2);

(4) make grants or loans of equipment and materials, for use by public or nonprofit private institutions or agencies, or by individuals, in participating foreign countries;

(5) participate and otherwise cooperate in any international meetings, conferences, or other activities concerned with biomedical research, health services research, health statistics, or health care technology;

(6) facilitate the interchange between the United States and participating foreign countries, and among participating foreign countries, of research scientists and experts who are engaged in experiments or programs of biomedical research, health services research, health statistical activities, or health care technology activities, and in carrying out such purpose may pay per diem compensation, subsistence, and travel for such scientists and experts when away from their places of residence at rates not to exceed those provided in section 5703(b) 1 of title 5 for persons in the Government service employed intermittently;

(7) procure, in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, the temporary or intermittent services of experts or consultants;

(8) enter into contracts with individuals for the provision of services (as defined in section 104 of part 37 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations (48 CFR 37.104)) in participating foreign countries, which individuals may not be deemed employees of the United States for the purpose of any law administered by the Office of Personnel Management;

(9) provide such funds by advance or reimbursement to the Secretary of State, as may be necessary, to pay the costs of acquisition, lease, construction, alteration, equipping, furnishing or management of facilities outside of the United States; and

(10) in consultation with the Secretary of State, through grant or cooperative agreement, make funds available to public or nonprofit private institutions or agencies in foreign countries in which the Secretary is participating in activities described under subsection (a) to acquire, lease, construct, alter, or renovate facilities in those countries.

(c) Benefits for overseas assignees

The Secretary may provide to personnel appointed or assigned by the Secretary to serve abroad, allowances and benefits similar to those provided under chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4081 et seq.). Leaves of absence for personnel under this subsection shall be on the same basis as that provided under subchapter I of chapter 63 of title 5 or section 903 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4083) to individuals serving in the Foreign Service.

(d) Strategies to improve injection safety

In carrying out immunization programs and other programs in developing countries for the prevention, treatment, and control of infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in coordination with the Coordinator of United States Government Activities to Combat HIV/AIDS Globally, the National Institutes of Health, national and local government, and other organizations, such as the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, shall develop and implement effective strategies to improve injection safety, including eliminating unnecessary injections, promoting sterile injection practices and technologies, strengthening the procedures for proper needle and syringe disposal, and improving the education and information provided to the public and to health professionals.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §307, formerly §308, as added Pub. L. 86–610, §3, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 364; renumbered §307 and amended Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §106, July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 367; Pub. L. 97–35, title IX, §921, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 566; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(e)(3), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2206; Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §310, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3503; Pub. L. 103–183, title VII, §702, Dec. 14, 1993, 107 Stat. 2239; Pub. L. 108–25, title III, §306, May 27, 2003, 117 Stat. 739; Pub. L. 110–293, title II, §205, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2943.)

References in Text

The Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 110–293, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2918. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 7601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and Tables.

Section 5703 of title 5, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), was amended generally by Pub. L. 94–22, §4, May 19, 1975, 89 Stat. 85, and, as so amended, does not contain a subsec. (b).

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071. Chapter 9 of title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter IX (§4081 et seq.) of chapter 52 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of Title 22 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 242f of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 307 of act July 1, 1944, was classified to section 242e of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §102(a), July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 362.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–293, §205(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For the purpose of advancing the status of the health sciences in the United States (and thereby the health of the American people), the Secretary may participate with other countries in cooperative endeavors in biomedical research, health care technology, and the health services research and statistical activities authorized by section 242k of this title and by subchapter VII of this chapter."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–293, §205(2)(B), struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: "The Secretary may not, in the exercise of his authority under this section, provide financial assistance for the construction of any facility in any foreign country."

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 110–293, §205(2)(C), substituted "for the purpose of any law administered by the Office of Personnel Management;" for "for any purpose."

Subsec. (b)(9), (10). Pub. L. 110–293, §205(2)(A), (D), added pars. (9) and (10).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–293, §205(3), substituted "1980" for "1990" and inserted "or section 903 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4083)" after "title 5".

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–25 added subsec. (d).

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–183 added subsec. (c).

1992—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 102–531, which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by adding par. (8) at the end thereof, was executed by adding par. (8) after par. (7) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "section 242k of this title and by subchapter VII of this chapter" for "sections 242b, 242c, 242k, and 242n of this title".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §921(a), inserted reference to health care technology and section 242n of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §921(b), in par. (5) inserted reference to health care technology, and in par. (6) inserted reference to health care technology activities.

1974Pub. L. 93–353 amended section generally.

International Health Study

Pub. L. 95–83, title III, §315, Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 398, provided that the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare arrange through the National Academy of Sciences or other nonprofit private groups or associations, for a study to determine opportunities for broadened Federal program activities in areas of international health, which study was to consider biomedical and behavioral research, health services research, health professions education, immunization and public health activities, and other areas that might improve our and other nations' capacities to prevent, diagnose, control, or cure disease, and to organize and deliver effective and efficient health services, with an interim report on such study completed no later than Oct. 1, 1977 and a final report completed no later than Jan. 1, 1978 and both reports submitted to the Secretary, the Committee on Human Resources of the Senate, and the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the House of Representatives.

1 See References in Text note below.

§242m. General provisions respecting effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of health services

(a) Reports to Congress and President; preparation; review by Office of Management and Budget

(1) Not later than March 15 of each year, the Secretary shall submit to the President and Congress the following reports:

(A) A report on health care costs and financing. Such report shall include a description and analysis of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(G) of this title.

(B) A report on health resources. Such report shall include a description and analysis, by geographical area, of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(E) of this title.

(C) A report on the utilization of health resources. Such report shall include a description and analysis, by age, sex, income, and geographic area, of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(F) of this title.

(D) A report on the health of the Nation's people. Such report shall include a description and analysis, by age, sex, income, and geographic area, of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(A) of this title.


(2) The reports required in paragraph (1) shall be prepared through the National Center for Health Statistics.

(3) The Office of Management and Budget may review any report required by paragraph (1) of this subsection before its submission to Congress, but the Office may not revise any such report or delay its submission beyond the date prescribed for its submission, and may submit to Congress its comments respecting any such report.

(b) Grants or contracts; applications, submittal; application peer review group, findings and recommendations; necessity of favorable recommendation; appointments

(1) No grant or contract may be made under section 242b, 242k, or 242l of this title unless an application therefor has been submitted to the Secretary in such form and manner, and containing such information, as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe and unless a peer review group referred to in paragraph (2) has recommended the application for approval.

(2)(A) Each application submitted for a grant or contract under section 242k of this title in an amount exceeding $50,000 of direct costs and for a health services research, evaluation, or demonstration project, or for a grant under section 242k(m) of this title, shall be submitted to a peer review group for an evaluation of the technical and scientific merits of the proposals made in each such application. The Director of the National Center for Health Statistics shall establish such peer review groups as may be necessary to provide for such an evaluation of each such application.

(B) A peer review group to which an application is submitted pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall report its finding and recommendations respecting the application to the Secretary, acting through the Director of the National Center for Health Statistics, in such form and manner as the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe. The Secretary may not approve an application described in such subparagraph unless a peer review group has recommended the application for approval.

(C) The Secretary, acting through the Director of the National Center for Health Statistics, shall make appointments to the peer review groups required in subparagraph (A) from among persons who are not officers or employees of the United States and who possess appropriate technical and scientific qualifications, except that peer review groups regarding grants under section 242k(m) of this title may include appropriately qualified such officers and employees.

(c) Development and dissemination of statistics

The Secretary shall take such action as may be necessary to assure that statistics developed under sections 242b and 242k of this title are of high quality, timely, comprehensive as well as specific, standardized, and adequately analyzed and indexed, and shall publish, make available, and disseminate such statistics on as wide a basis as is practicable.

(d) Information; publication restrictions

No information, if an establishment or person supplying the information or described in it is identifiable, obtained in the course of activities undertaken or supported under section 242b, 242k, or 242l of this title may be used for any purpose other than the purpose for which it was supplied unless such establishment or person has consented (as determined under regulations of the Secretary) to its use for such other purpose; and in the case of information obtained in the course of health statistical or epidemiological activities under section 242b or 242k of this title, such information may not be published or released in other form if the particular establishment or person supplying the information or described in it is identifiable unless such establishment or person has consented (as determined under regulations of the Secretary) to its publication or release in other form.

(e) Payment procedures; advances or reimbursement; installments; conditions; reductions

(1) Payments of any grant or under any contract under section 242b, 242k, or 242l of this title may be made in advance or by way of reimbursement, and in such installments and on such conditions, as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the purposes of such section.

(2) The amounts otherwise payable to any person under a grant or contract made under section 242b, 242k, or 242l of this title shall be reduced by—

(A) amounts equal to the fair market value of any equipment or supplies furnished to such person by the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out the project with respect to which such grant or contract is made, and

(B) amounts equal to the pay, allowances, traveling expenses, and related personnel expenses attributable to the performance of services by an officer or employee of the Government in connection with such project, if such officer or employee was assigned or detailed by the Secretary to perform such services,


but only if such person requested the Secretary to furnish such equipment or supplies, or such services, as the case may be.

(f) Contracts without regard to section 3324 of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41

Contracts may be entered into under section 242b or 242k of this title without regard to section 3324 of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §308, as added Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §107(a), July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 368; amended Pub. L. 94–273, §7(2), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 378; Pub. L. 95–83, title I, §104, Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 95–623, §§2, 6(d), 8(b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3443, 3451, 3455; Pub. L. 97–35, title IX, §§917(a), (b), 919(a)(2)(B), 922, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 564, 565, 567; Pub. L. 97–414, §8(c), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2060; Pub. L. 98–551, §7, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2820; Pub. L. 100–177, title I, §§106(a), 107, 108, Dec. 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 988–990; Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2612, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4235; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(e)(4), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2206; Pub. L. 101–527, §7(b)(2), (d), Nov. 6, 1990, 104 Stat. 2328; Pub. L. 103–183, title V, §501(c), Dec. 14, 1993, 107 Stat. 2237; Pub. L. 105–392, title IV, §401(d), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3587.)

Codification

In subsec. (f), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5)" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (e) of this section were contained in subsec. (a)(3) of section 304 of act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, as added July 28, 1955, ch. 417, §3, 69 Stat. 382, and amended (formerly classified to section 242b(a)(3) of this title), prior to general amendment of section 304 by Pub. L. 93–353, §103.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(A), (C). Pub. L. 105–392 substituted "242k(m)" for "242k(n)".

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(c)(1)(A), redesignated subpars. (B) to (E) as (A) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "A report on—

"(i) the administration of sections 242b, 242k, and 242l of this title and subchapter VII of this chapter during the preceding fiscal year; and

"(ii) the current state and progress of health services research, health statistics, and health care technology."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(c)(1)(B), substituted "reports required in paragraph (1) shall be prepared through the National Center" for "reports required by subparagraphs (B) through (E) of paragraph (2) shall be prepared through the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and the National Center".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(c)(2)(A)–(D), (3), redesignated subsec. (g)(2) as subsec. (c), substituted "shall take" for "shall (A) take" and "and shall publish" for "and (B) publish", and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "The aggregate number of grants and contracts made or entered into under sections 242b and 242c of this title for any fiscal year respecting a particular means of delivery of health services or another particular aspect of health services may not exceed twenty; and the aggregate amount of funds obligated under grants and contracts under such sections for any fiscal year respecting a particular means of delivery of health services or another particular aspect of health services may not exceed $5,000,000."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(c)(4), substituted "section 3324 of title 31 and section 5 of title 41" for "sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529; 41 U.S.C. 5)".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(c)(2)(B), (C), (E), redesignated par. (2) as subsec. (c) and struck out par. (1) which read as follows: "The Secretary shall—

"(A) publish, make available and disseminate, promptly in understandable form and on as broad a basis as practicable, the results of health services research, demonstrations, and evaluations undertaken and supported under sections 242b and 242c of this title;

"(B) make available to the public data developed in such research, demonstrations, and evaluations; and

"(C) provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on health services research, demonstrations, and evaluations in health care delivery to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery and the general public; and undertake programs to develop new or improved methods for making such information available."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–183, §501(c)(5), struck out subsec. (h) which read as follows:

"(1) Except where the Secretary determines that unusual circumstances make a larger percentage necessary in order to effectuate the purposes of section 242k of this title, a grant or contract under any of such sections of this title with respect to any project for construction of a facility or for acquisition of equipment may not provide for payment of more than 50 per centum of so much of the cost of the facility or equipment as the Secretary determines is reasonably attributable to research, evaluation, or demonstration purposes.

"(2) Laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors in the construction of such a facility shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing on similar work in the locality, as determined by the Secretary of Labor in accordance with the Act of March 3, 1931 (40 U.S.C. 267a—267a–5, known as the Davis-Bacon Act); and the Secretary of Labor shall have with respect to any labor standards specified in this paragraph the authority and functions set forth in Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950 (5 U.S.C. Appendix) and section 276c of title 40.

"(3) Such grants and contracts shall be subject to such additional requirements as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe."

1990—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–527, §7(b)(2)(A), inserted "or for a grant under section 242k(n) of this title," after "demonstration project,".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–527, §7(b)(2)(B), inserted before period at end ", except that peer review groups regarding grants under section 242k(n) of this title may include appropriately qualified such officers and employees".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–527, §7(d), struck out par. (3) which related to applications submitted under section 242k of this title for which a grant or contract may be made under another provision of this chapter.

1989Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(A), amended section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(B)(i), substituted "sections 242b, 242k, and 242l of this title and subchapter VII of this chapter" for "sections 242b, 242c, 242k, and 242l of this title and section 242n of this title".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(B)(ii), substituted "the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research" for "the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(C)(i), which directed amendment of par. (1) by substituting "section 242b, 242k, or 242l of this title" for "sections 242b, 242c, 242k, 242l, and 242n of this title", was executed by making the substitution for "section 242b, 242c, 242k, 242l, or 242n of this title" as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(C)(ii), substituted "under section 242k of this title" for "under section 242b or 242c of this title," in first sentence, struck out second sentence which read as follows: "Each application for a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement in an amount exceeding $50,000 of direct costs for the dissemination of research findings or the development of research agendas (including conferences, workshops, and meetings) shall be submitted to a standing peer review group with persons with appropriate expertise and shall not be submitted to any peer review group established to review applications for research, evaluation, or demonstration projects.", and amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "The Secretary, acting through the Director of the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment (or, as appropriate, through the Director of the National Center for Health Statistics), shall establish such peer review groups as may be necessary to provide for such an evaluation of an application described in the first two sentences of this subparagraph."

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(C)(iii), substituted "the Director of the National Center for Health Statistics" for "the Director involved".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(C)(iv), substituted "the Director of the National Center for Health Statistics" for "the Directors".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(C)(v), substituted "submitted under section 242k of this title" for "submitted under section 242b, 242c, or 242k of this title" and "approved under any of such sections" for "approved under section 242b, 242c, or 242k of this title".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(D), substituted "section 242b, 242k, or 242l of this title" for "section 242b, 242c, 242k, 242l, or 242n of this title", struck out "(1)" after "for such other purpose; and", and substituted "publication or release in other form." for "publication or release in other form, and (2) in the case of information obtained in the course of health services research, evaluations, or demonstrations under section 242b or 242c of this title or in the course of health care technology activities under section 242n of this title, such information may not be published or released in other form if the person who supplied the information or who is described in it is identifiable unless such person has consented (as determined under regulations of the Secretary) to its publication or release in other form."

Subsec. (e)(1), (2). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(E), substituted "section 242b, 242k, or 242l of this title" for "section 242b, 242c, 242k, 242l, or 242n of this title".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(F), substituted "section 242b or 242k of this title" for "section 242b, 242c, 242k, or 242n of this title".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(G)(i), struck out at end "Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the Secretary may not restrict the publication and dissemination of data from, and results of projects undertaken by, centers supported under section 242c(d) of this title."

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(G)(ii), substituted "sections 242b and 242k of this title" for "sections 242b, 242c, 242k, and 242n of this title".

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(H), substituted "effectuate the purposes of section 242k of this title" for "effectuate the purposes of section 242b, 242c, 242k, or 242n of this title" and "contract under any of such sections" for "contract under section 242b, 242c, 242k, or 242n of this title".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–239, §6103(e)(4)(I), struck out subsec. (i) which authorized appropriations for carrying out certain programs under sections 242b, 242c, 242k, and 242n of this title during fiscal years 1988 to 1990.

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted after first sentence "Each application for a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement in an amount exceeding $50,000 of direct costs for the dissemination of research findings or the development of research agendas (including conferences, workshops, and meetings) shall be submitted to a standing peer review group with persons with appropriate expertise and shall not be submitted to any peer review group established to review applications for research, evaluation, or demonstration projects." and substituted "an application described in the first two sentences of this subparagraph" for "each such application" in last sentence.

1987—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 100–177, §106(a)(1), added pars. (1) and (2) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which read as follows:

"(1) Not later than December 1 of each year, the Secretary shall make a report to Congress respecting (A) the administration of sections 242b, 242c, 242k, and 242l and section 242n of this title during the preceding fiscal year, and (B) the current state and progress of health services research and, health statistics, and health care technology.

"(2) The Secretary, acting through the National Center for Health Services Research and the National Center for Health Statistics, shall assemble and submit to the President and the Congress not later than December 1 of each year the following reports:

"(A) A report on health care costs and financing. Such report shall include a description and analysis of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(G) of this title.

"(B) A report on health resources. Such report shall include a description and analysis, by geographic area, of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(E) of this title.

"(C) A report on the utilization of health resources. Such report shall include a description and analysis, by age, sex, income, and geographic area, of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(F) of this title.

"(D) A report on the health of the Nation's people. Such report shall include a description and analysis, by age, sex, income, and geographic area, of the statistics collected under section 242k(b)(1)(A) of this title."

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–177, §106(a)(2), struck out "or (2)" after "paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–177, §107(1), inserted "and unless a peer review group referred to in paragraph (2) has recommended the application for approval" before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–177, §107(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Each application submitted for a grant or contract under section 242b or 242c of this title, in an amount exceeding $50,000 of direct costs and for a health services research, evaluation, or demonstration project, shall be submitted by the Secretary for review for scientific merit to a panel of experts appointed by him from persons who are not officers or employees of the United States and who possess qualifications relevant to the project for which the application was made. A panel to which an application is submitted under this paragraph shall report its findings and recommendations respecting the application to the Secretary in such form and manner as the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–177, §108, amended subsec. (i) generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years 1988 to 1990 for carrying out activities under sections 242b, 242c, 242k, and 242n of this title for former provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years 1975 to 1987 for carrying out activities under those sections.

1984—Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 98–551, §7(a), inserted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1985, 1986, and 1987, inserted "and Health Care Technology Assessment" after "Research", substituted "and at least 10 per centum of such amount or $1,500,000, whichever is less, shall be available only for the user liaison program and the technical assistance program referred to in section 242c(c)(2) of this title and for dissemination activities directly undertaken through such Center" for "and at least 5 per centum of such amount or $1,000,000, whichever is less, shall be available only for dissemination activities directly undertaken through such Center", inserted "For health care technology assessment activities undertaken under subsections (b)(5), (e), (f), and (g) of section 242c of this title the Secretary shall obligate from funds appropriated under this paragraph not less than $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, $3,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, and $4,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987. For grants under section 242n of this title the Secretary shall obligate from funds appropriated under this paragraph not less than $500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, $750,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, and $750,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987.", and in last sentence substituted "for any fiscal year" for "for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1982, September 30, 1983, and September 30, 1984,".

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 98–551, §7(b), inserted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1985, 1986, and 1987.

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–414 inserted ", if an establishment or person supplying the information or described in it is identifiable," after "No information", and substituted "such establishment or person has consented (as determined under regulations of the Secretary) to its use for such other purpose" for "authorized by guidelines in effect under section 242k(l)(2) of this title or under regulations of the Secretary".

1981—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, §922(a), substituted "December" for "September", which change had already been made by Pub. L. 94–273.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, §922(b), substituted "$50,000" for "$35,000".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, §922(c), inserted applicability to health care technology activities under section 242n of this title.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §§917(a), 919(a)(2)(B), inserted provisions respecting amounts of and limitations on uses for appropriations for the fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1982, 1983, and 1984.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, §917(b), inserted provisions respecting appropriations for the fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1982, 1983, and 1984.

1978—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–623, §6(d)(1), required the report to cover the administration of section 242n of this title and the current state and progress of health care technology.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–623, §6(d)(2), inserted reference to grant or contract under section 242n of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–623, §§6(d)(3), 8(b), inserted reference to section 242n of this title and substituted in cl. (1) "statistical or epidemiological activities" for "statistical activities"; and authorized use of information for purposes other than for which supplied when authorized by guidelines in effect under section 242k(l)(2) of this title.

Subsecs. (e), (f), (g)(2), (h)(1). Pub. L. 95–623, §6(d)(4)–(7), inserted references to section 242n of this title.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 95–623, §2(a), authorized appropriation of $35,000,000; $40,000,000; and $45,000,000 for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1979, through 1981, and substituted minimum amounts of the lesser of 20 per centum of appropriated funds or $6,000,000 for health services research, evaluation and demonstration activities of the National Center for Health Services Research and 5 per centum of such funds or $1,000,000 for dissemination activities of such Center for prior similar requirement of 25 per centum of appropriated funds for the applicable fiscal years for health services research, evaluation, and demonstration activities of the Secretary.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 95–623, §2(b), authorized appropriation of $50,000,000; $65,000,000; and $70,000,000 for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1979, through 1981.

1977—Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 95–83, §104(a), authorized appropriation of $28,600,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1978.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 95–83, §104(b), authorized appropriation of $33,600,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1978.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–273 substituted "December" for "September" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–392, title IV, §401(e), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3587, provided that: "This section [amending this section and sections 247b–5, 247b–6, 247c, 285f–2, 300d–1 to 300d–3, 300d–13, 300d–32, 300k, and 300n–1 of this title] is deemed to have taken effect immediately after the enactment of Public Law 103–183 [Dec. 14, 1993]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2600, 102 Stat. 4233, provided that: "Except as provided in section 2613(b)(1) [42 U.S.C. 285m note], the amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle G (§§2600–2641) of title II of Pub. L. 100–690, enacting sections 285m–4 to 285m–6 of this title, amending this section, sections 242c, 281, 284, 284c, 285j, 285m, 285m–1 to 285m–6, 286, 289f, 290cc–28, 290cc–36, 292h, 294a, 295g–4, 295g–7, 295g–8b, 295h, 295h–5, 295j, 297j, 297n, 300cc–3, 300cc–13, 300cc–17, 300cc–20, 300cc–31, 300dd–1, 300dd–3, 300dd–8, 300dd–10, 300dd–12 to 300dd–14, 300dd–21, 300dd–32, 300ee, 300ee–2, 300ee–5, 300ee–12, 300ee–13, 300ee–15 to 300ee–18, 300ee–20, 300ee–22, 300ee–34, 300ff–48, and 300aaa to 300aaa–13 of this title, and section 393 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 285m of this title, amending provisions set out as notes under sections 201, 292h, 300cc, 300ee–1, and 300ff–48 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 285m of this title] shall take effect immediately after the enactment of the Health Omnibus Programs Extension of 1988 [Nov. 4, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–177, title I, §106(c), Dec. 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 989, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 242p of this title] shall apply to reports and profiles required to be submitted after November 1, 1987."

Mine Workers Study; Report Completed and Submitted No Later Than 30 Months After November 9, 1978

Pub. L. 95–623, §10, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3455, as amended by S. Res. 30, Mar. 7, 1979; H. Res. 549, Mar. 25, 1980, required the Secretary, acting through the National Center for Health Services Research, to arrange for the conduct of a study to evaluate the impact upon the utilization of health services by and the health status of members of the United Mine Workers and their dependents as a result of changes in the United Mine Workers' collective-bargaining agreements of Mar. 1978 with a report to be submitted to the Secretary and specific committees of the Senate and House of Representatives within 30 months after Nov. 9, 1978.

Authorization of Appropriations for Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1977

Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §107(b), July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 371, provided that: "The authorizations of appropriations provided by section 308(i) of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 242m(i)] is extended for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1977, in the amounts authorized for the preceding fiscal year unless before June 30, 1976, Congress has passed legislation repealing this subsection."

§242n. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(d)(1)(B), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2205

Section, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §309, as added Nov. 9, 1978, Pub. L. 95–623, §6(c), 92 Stat. 3447; amended July 10, 1979, Pub. L. 96–32, §5(d), 93 Stat. 83; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, title IX, §§917(c), 923, 95 Stat. 565, 567; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–551, §8, 98 Stat. 2820; Oct. 7, 1985, Pub. L. 99–117, §8(a), 99 Stat. 493; Dec. 1, 1987, Pub. L. 100–177, title I, §109, 101 Stat. 990, related to grants for a council on health care technology.

Termination of Council on Health Care Technology

Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(d)(1)(B), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2205, provided in part that the council on health care technology established under this section is terminated.

Transitional and Savings Provisions for Pub. L. 101–239

For provision transferring personnel of Department of Health and Human Services employed on Dec. 19, 1989, in connection with functions vested in Administrator for Health Care Policy and Research pursuant to amendments made by section 6103 of Pub. L. 101–239, and assets, liabilities, etc., of Department arising from or employed, held, used, or available on that date, or to be made available after that date, in connection with those functions, to Administrator for appropriate allocation, and for provisions for continued effectiveness of actions, orders, rules, official documents, etc., of Department that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective in performance of those functions, and that were effective on Dec. 19, 1989, see section 6103(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 299 of this title.

§242o. Health conferences; publication of health educational information

(a) A conference of the health authorities in and among the several States shall be called annually by the Secretary. Whenever in his opinion the interests of the public health would be promoted by a conference, the Secretary may invite as many of such health authorities and officials of other State or local public or private agencies, institutions, or organizations to confer as he deems necessary or proper. Upon the application of health authorities of five or more States it shall be the duty of the Secretary to call a conference of all State health authorities joining in the request. Each State represented at any conference shall be entitled to a single vote. Whenever at any such conference matters relating to mental health are to be discussed, the mental health authorities of the respective States shall be invited to attend.

(b) From time to time the Secretary shall issue information related to public health, in the form of publications or otherwise, for the use of the public, and shall publish weekly reports of health conditions in the United States and other countries and other pertinent health information for the use of persons and institutions concerned with health services.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §310, formerly §§309, 310, as added Pub. L. 93–353, title I, §107(a), July 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 371; renumbered §310, Pub. L. 95–623, §6(a), (b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3447.)

Codification

Subsec. (a) of this section consists of former section 309 of act July 1, 1944, prior to the renumbering of that section as section 310(a) by Pub. L. 95–623. Subsec. (b) of this section consists of former section 310 of act July 1, 1944, prior to the renumbering of that section as section 310(b) by Pub. L. 95–623.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 310 of act July 1, 1944, was renumbered section 329, and was classified to section 254b of this title prior to the general amendment of subpart I (§254b et seq.) of part D of this subchapter by Pub. L. 104–299.

Provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (a) of this section were contained in section 312 of act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, 58 Stat. 693, as amended (formerly classified to section 244 of this title), prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–353, §102(a).

Provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (b) of this section were contained in section 315 of act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, 58 Stat. 695; Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–515, title II, §282, 84 Stat. 1308 (formerly classified to section 247 of this title), prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–353, §102(a).

§242p. National disease prevention data profile

(a) The Secretary, acting through the National Center for Health Statistics, shall submit to Congress on March 15, 1990, and on March 15 of every third year thereafter, a national disease prevention data profile in order to provide a data base for the effective implementation of this Act and to increase public awareness of the prevalence, incidence, and any trends in the preventable causes of death and disability in the United States. Such profile shall include at a minimum—

(1) mortality rates for preventable diseases;

(2) morbidity rates associated with preventable diseases;

(3) the physical determinants of health of the population of the United States and the relationship between these determinants of health and the incidence and prevalence of preventable causes of death and disability; and

(4) the behavioral determinants of health of the population of the United States including, but not limited to, smoking, nutritional and dietary habits, exercise, and alcohol consumption, and the relationship between these determinants of health and the incidence and prevalence of preventable causes of death and disability.


(b) In preparing the profile required by subsection (a), the Secretary, acting through the National Center for Health Statistics, shall comply with all relevant provisions of sections 242k and 242m of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–626, title IV, §404, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3591; Pub. L. 100–177, title I, §106(b), Dec. 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 989.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 95–626, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3551, known as the Health Services and Centers Amendments of 1978. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1978 Amendments note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Health Services and Centers Amendments of 1978, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–177 substituted "on March 15, 1990, and on March 15 of every third year thereafter" for "on December 1, 1980, and on December 1 of every third year thereafter" in first sentence.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–177 applicable to reports and profiles required to be submitted after Nov. 1, 1987, see section 106(c) of Pub. L. 100–177, set out as a note under section 242m of this title.

§242q. Task Force on Aging Research; establishment and duties

(a) Establishment

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall establish a Task Force on Aging Research.

(b) Duties

With respect to aging research (as defined in section 242q–4 1 of this title), the Task Force each fiscal year shall—

(1) make recommendations to the Secretary specifying the particular projects of research, or the particular categories of research, that should be conducted or supported by the Secretary;

(2) of the projects specified under paragraph (1), make recommendations to the Secretary of the projects that should be given priority in the provision of funds; and

(3) make recommendations to the Secretary of the amount of funds that should be appropriated for such research.

(c) Provision of information to public

The Task Force may make available to health professionals, and to other members of the public, information regarding the research described in subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 101–557, title III, §301, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2768.)

References in Text

Section 242q–4 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "section 305", meaning section 305 of Pub. L. 101–557. Section 305 was renumbered section 304 by Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(3)(B), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3694.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Home Health Care and Alzheimer's Disease Amendments of 1990, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

§242q–1. Membership

(a) Composition

The Task Force shall be composed of—

(1) the Assistant Secretary for Health;

(2) the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service;

(3) the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation;

(4) the Director of the National Institute on Aging, and the Directors of such other agencies of the National Institutes of Health as the Secretary determines to be appropriate;

(5) the Commissioner of the Administration on Aging;

(6) the Commissioner of Food and Drugs;

(7) the Under Secretary for Health of the Department of Veterans Affairs;

(8) the Administrator of the the 1 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration;

(9) the Administrator of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services;

(10) the Commissioner of Social Security;

(11) the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality;

(12) two Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House in consultation with the Minority Leader, and two members of the Senate appointed by the Majority Leader in consultation with the Minority Leader, not more than one of whom from each body shall be members of the same political party; and

(13) three members of the general public, to be appointed by the Secretary, that shall include one representative each from—

(A) a nonprofit group representing older Americans;

(B) a private voluntary health organization concerned with the health problems affecting older Americans; and

(C) a nonprofit organization concerned with research related to the health and independence of older Americans.

(b) Chair

The Secretary, acting through either the Assistant Secretary for Health or the Director of the National Institute on Aging, shall serve as the Chair of the Task Force.

(c) Quorum

A majority of the members of the Task Force shall constitute a quorum, and a lesser number may hold hearings.

(d) Meetings

The Task Force shall meet periodically at the call of the Chair, but in no event less than twice each year.

(e) Compensation and expenses

(1) Compensation

Members of the Task Force who are not regular full-time employees of the United States Government shall, while attending meetings and conferences of the Task Force or otherwise engaged in the business of the Task Force (including traveltime), be entitled to receive compensation at a rate fixed by the Secretary, but not exceeding the rate specified at the time of such service under GS–18 of the General Schedules established under section 5332 of title 5.

(2) Expenses

While away from their homes or regular places of business on the business of the Task Force, members of such Task Force may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as is authorized under section 5703 of title 5 for persons employed intermittently in the Government service.

(Pub. L. 101–557, title III, §302, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2769; Pub. L. 102–321, title I, §161, July 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 102–405, title III, §302(e)(1), Oct. 9, 1992, 106 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 106–129, §2(b)(2), Dec. 6, 1999, 113 Stat. 1670; Pub. L. 108–173, title IX, §900(e)(6)(D), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2373.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Home Health Care and Alzheimer's Disease Amendments of 1990, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 108–173 substituted "Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services" for "Health Care Financing Administration".

1999—Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 106–129 substituted "Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality" for "Administrator for Health Care Policy and Research".

1992—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 102–405 substituted "Under Secretary for Health of the Department of Veterans Affairs" for "Chief Medical Director of the Department of Veterans Affairs".

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 102–321 substituted "Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration" for "Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration".

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–321 effective Oct. 1, 1992, with provision for programs providing financial assistance, see section 801(c), (d) of Pub. L. 102–321, set out as a note under section 236 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

1 So in original.

§242q–2. Administrative staff and support

The Secretary, acting through either the Assistant Secretary for Health or the Director of the National Institute on Aging, shall appoint an Executive Secretary for the Task Force and shall provide the Task Force with such administrative staff and support as may be necessary to enable the Task Force to carry out subsections (b) and (c) of section 242q of this title.

(Pub. L. 101–557, title III, §303, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2770.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Home Health Care and Alzheimer's Disease Amendments of 1990, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.

§242q–3. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(3)(B), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3694

Section, Pub. L. 101–557, title III, §304, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2770, related to reports that provided recommendations required in section 242q(b) of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for fiscal year 2007 or subsequent fiscal years, see section 109 of Pub. L. 109–482, set out as an Effective Date of 2007 Amendment note under section 281 of this title.

§242q–4. Definitions

For purposes of sections 242q to 242q–5 of this title:

(1) Aging research

(A) The term "aging research" means research on the aging process and on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, disorders, and complications related to aging, including menopause. Such research includes research on such treatments, and on medical devices and other medical interventions regarding such diseases, disorders, and complications, that can assist individuals in avoiding institutionalization and prolonged hospitalization and in otherwise increasing the independence of the individuals.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "independence", with respect to diseases, disorders, and complications of aging, means the functional ability of individuals to perform activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living without assistance or supervision.

(2) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(3) Task Force

The term "Task Force" means the Task Force on Aging Research established under section 242q(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 101–557, title III, §304, formerly §305, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2770; renumbered §304, Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(3)(B), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3694.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Home Health Care and Alzheimer's Disease Amendments of 1990, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 304 of Pub. L. 101–557 was classified to section 242q–3 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–482.

§242q–5. Authorization of appropriations

For the purpose of carrying out sections 242q to 242q–5 of this title, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1991 through 1993.

(Pub. L. 101–557, title III, §305, formerly §306, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2770; renumbered §305, Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(3)(B), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3694.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Home Health Care and Alzheimer's Disease Amendments of 1990, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 305 of Pub. L. 101–557 was renumbered section 304 and is classified to section 242q–4 of this title.

§242r. Improvement and publication of data on food-related allergic responses

(a) In general

The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and in consultation with the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall improve (including by educating physicians and other health care providers) the collection of, and publish as it becomes available, national data on—

(1) the prevalence of food allergies;

(2) the incidence of clinically significant or serious adverse events related to food allergies; and

(3) the use of different modes of treatment for and prevention of allergic responses to foods.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary.

(Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §207, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 910.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.

§242s. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Women's Health

(a) Establishment

There is established within the Office of the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an office to be known as the Office of Women's Health (referred to in this section as the "Office"). The Office shall be headed by a director who shall be appointed by the Director of such Centers.

(b) Purpose

The Director of the Office shall—

(1) report to the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the current level of the Centers' activity regarding women's health conditions across, where appropriate, age, biological, and sociocultural contexts, in all aspects of the Centers' work, including prevention programs, public and professional education, services, and treatment;

(2) establish short-range and long-range goals and objectives within the Centers for women's health and, as relevant and appropriate, coordinate with other appropriate offices on activities within the Centers that relate to prevention, research, education and training, service delivery, and policy development, for issues of particular concern to women;

(3) identify projects in women's health that should be conducted or supported by the Centers;

(4) consult with health professionals, nongovernmental organizations, consumer organizations, women's health professionals, and other individuals and groups, as appropriate, on the policy of the Centers with regard to women; and

(5) serve as a member of the Department of Health and Human Services Coordinating Committee on Women's Health (established under section 237a(b)(4) of this title).

(c) Definition

As used in this section, the term "women's health conditions", with respect to women of all age, ethnic, and racial groups, means diseases, disorders, and conditions—

(1) unique to, significantly more serious for, or significantly more prevalent in women; and

(2) for which the factors of medical risk or type of medical intervention are different for women, or for which there is reasonable evidence that indicates that such factors or types may be different for women.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2010 through 2014.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §310A, as added Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3509(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 533.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 310A of act July 1, 1944, was renumbered section 226 and transferred to section 235 of this title.

§242t. CDC surveillance and data collection for child, youth, and adult trauma

(a) Data collection

The Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (referred to in this section as the "Director") may, in cooperation with the States, collect and report data on adverse childhood experiences through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and other relevant public health surveys or questionnaires.

(b) Timing

The collection of data under subsection (a) may occur biennially.

(c) Data from rural areas

The Director shall encourage each State that participates in collecting and reporting data under subsection (a) to collect and report data from rural areas within such State, in order to generate a statistically reliable representation of such areas.

(d) Data from tribal areas

The Director may, in cooperation with Indian Tribes (as defined in section 5304 of title 25) and pursuant to a written request from an Indian Tribe, provide technical assistance to such Indian Tribe to collect and report data on adverse childhood experiences through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, or another relevant public health survey or questionnaire.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

To carry out this section, there is authorized to be appropriated $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(Pub. L. 115–271, title VII, §7131, Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 4046.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Substance Use–Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act, also known as the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, and not as part of the Public Health Service Act which comprises this chapter.