[USC04] 49 USC SUBTITLE III: GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS
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49 USC SUBTITLE III: GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE III—GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS

Chapter
Sec.
51.
Transportation of Hazardous Material
5101
53.
Public Transportation
5301
55.
Intermodal Transportation
5501
57.
Sanitary Food Transportation
5701
59.
Intermodal Safe Container Transportation
5901
61.
One-Call Notification Programs
6101
63.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics 1

        

63.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics
6301 1
65.
Research planning
6501

        

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VI, §6019(c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1581, added items for chapters 63 and 65.

2012Pub. L. 112–141, div. E, title II, §52011(c)(2), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 895, added item for chapter 63.

2005Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §3002(c), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1545, substituted "Public" for "Mass" in item for chapter 53.

1998Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, §7302(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 482, added item for chapter 61.

1 So in original. Two items for chapter 63 have been enacted.

CHAPTER 51—TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL

Sec.
5101.
Purpose.
5102.
Definitions.
5103.
General regulatory authority.
5103a.
Limitation on issuance of hazmat licenses.
5104.
Representation and tampering.
5105.
Transporting certain highly radioactive material.
5106.
Handling criteria.
5107.
Hazmat employee training requirements and grants.
5108.
Registration.
5109.
Motor carrier safety permits.
5110.
Shipping papers and disclosure.
[5111.
Repealed.]
5112.
Highway routing of hazardous material.
5113.
Unsatisfactory safety rating.
5114.
Air transportation of ionizing radiation material.
5115.
Training curriculum for the public sector.
5116.
Planning and training grants, monitoring, and review.
5117.
Special permits and exclusions.
5118.
Hazardous material technical assessment, research and development, and analysis program.
5119.
Uniform forms and procedures.
5120.
International uniformity of standards and requirements.
5121.
Administrative.
5122.
Enforcement.
5123.
Civil penalty.
5124.
Criminal penalty.
5125.
Preemption.
5126.
Relationship to other laws.
5127.
Judicial review.
5128.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33007(b), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 836, added item 5118.

2005Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7111, 7115(a)(2), (h), 7123(c), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1899, 1901, 1908, struck out item 5111 "Rail tank cars", substituted "Special permits and exclusions" for "Exemptions and exclusions" in item 5117, struck out item 5118 "Inspectors", added items 5127 and 5128, and struck out former item 5127 "Authorization of appropriations".

2001Pub. L. 107–56, title X, §1012(a)(2), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 397, added item 5103a.

§5101. Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to protect against the risks to life, property, and the environment that are inherent in the transportation of hazardous material in intrastate, interstate, and foreign commerce.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7101(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1891.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5101 49 App.:1801. Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §102, 88 Stat. 2156.

The words "It is declared to be the policy of Congress", "the Nation", and "which are" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59 substituted "The purpose of this chapter is to protect against the risks to life, property, and the environment that are inherent in the transportation of hazardous material in intrastate, interstate, and foreign commerce" for "The purpose of this chapter is to provide adequate protection against the risks to life and property inherent in the transportation of hazardous material in commerce by improving the regulatory and enforcement authority of the Secretary of Transportation".

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title III, §3001, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1446, provided that: "This title [amending sections 5302 to 5304, 5307, 5309 to 5312, 5314, 5315, 5323, 5325, 5327, 5329, 5336 to 5340, and 10501 of this title and sections 5313 and 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, repealing sections 5313, 5319, and 5322 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under 5309, 5310, 5325, 5329, 5338 of this title, section 5313 of Title 5, and section 12143 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending provisions set out as a note under sections 5303 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 5309 of this title] may be cited as the 'Federal Public Transportation Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7001, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1588, provided that: "This title [amending sections 5103, 5107 to 5109, 5116, 5117, 5121, and 5128 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 5103, 5116, 20103, 20141, 20155, and 31305 of this title] may be cited as the 'Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Improvement Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–141, div. B, §20001, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 622, provided that: "This division [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Federal Public Transportation Act of 2012'."

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33001, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 832, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Improvement Act of 2012'."

Short Title of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §3001, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1544, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Federal Public Transportation Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7001, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1891, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety and Security Reauthorization Act of 2005'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3001, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 338, provided that: "This title [amending sections 5302 to 5305, 5307 to 5315, 5317 to 5320, 5323, 5325 to 5328, and 5333 to 5338 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 301, 5301, 5307 to 5310, 5323, 5336, and 5338 of this title and sections 138 and 322 of Title 23, Highways] may be cited as the 'Federal Transit Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–291, title II, §201, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3453, provided that: "This title [enacting section 5908 of this title and amending sections 5901 to 5903 and 5905 to 5907 of this title] may be cited as the 'Intermodal Safe Container Transportation Amendments Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §101, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1673, provided that: "This title [amending sections 5102 to 5104, 5107, 5108, 5110, 5116, 5117, 5121, and 5125 to 5127 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 5103, 5112, and 5121 of this title, and section 307 of Title 23, Highways] may be cited as the 'Hazardous Materials Transportation Authorization Act of 1994'."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of duties, powers, and authority of Research and Special Programs Administration under this chapter to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, see section 2(b) of Pub. L. 108–426, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Findings

Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7101(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1891, provided that: "Congress finds with respect to hazardous materials transportation that—

"(1) approximately 4,000,000,000 tons of regulated hazardous materials are transported each year and approximately 1,200,000 movements of hazardous materials occur each day, according to Department of Transportation estimates;

"(2) the movement of hazardous materials in commerce is necessary to maintain economic vitality and meet consumer demands and must be conducted in a safe, secure, and efficient manner;

"(3) accidents involving, or unauthorized access to, hazardous materials in transportation may result in a release of such materials and pose a serious threat to public health and safety;

"(4) because of the potential risks to life, property, and the environment posed by unintentional releases of hazardous materials, consistency in laws and regulations governing the transportation of hazardous materials is necessary and desirable; and

"(5) in order to provide reasonable, adequate, and cost-effective protection from the risks posed by the transportation of hazardous materials, a network of well-trained State and local emergency response personnel and hazmat employees is essential."

Buy American

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §123, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1682, provided that:

"(a) Compliance With Buy American Act.—None of the funds made available under this title [see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note above] may be expended in violation of sections 2 through 4 of the Act of March 3, 1933 ([former] 41 U.S.C. 10a–10c; popularly known as the 'Buy American Act' [see 41 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.]), which are applicable to those funds.

"(b) Sense of Congress; Requirement Regarding Notice.—

"(1) In the case of any equipment or products that may be authorized to be purchased with financial assistance provided under this title, it is the sense of Congress that entities receiving such assistance should, in expending such assistance, purchase only American-made equipment and products.

"(2) In providing financial assistance under this title, the Secretary of Transportation shall provide to each recipient of the assistance a notice describing the statement made in paragraph (1) by Congress.

"(c) Prohibition of Contracts.—If it has been finally determined by a court or Federal agency that any person intentionally affixed a label bearing a 'Made in America' inscription, or any inscription with the same meaning, to any product sold in or shipped to the United States that is not made in the United States, such person shall be ineligible to receive any contract or subcontract made with funds provided pursuant to this title, pursuant to the debarment, suspension, and ineligibility procedures described in sections 9.400 through 9.409 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(d) Reciprocity.—

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no contract or subcontract may be made with funds authorized under this title to a company organized under the laws of a foreign country unless the Secretary of Transportation finds that such country affords comparable opportunities to companies organized under laws of the United States.

"(2)(A) The Secretary of Transportation may waive the provisions of paragraph (1) if the products or services required are not reasonably available from companies organized under the laws of the United States. Any such waiver shall be reported to Congress.

"(B) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that to do so would violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or any other international agreement to which the United States is a party."

"Secretary" Defined

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33002, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 832, provided that: "In this title [see Tables for classification], the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Transportation."

§5102. Definitions

In this chapter—

(1) "commerce" means trade or transportation in the jurisdiction of the United States—

(A) between a place in a State and a place outside of the State;

(B) that affects trade or transportation between a place in a State and a place outside of the State; or

(C) on a United States-registered aircraft.


(2) "hazardous material" means a substance or material the Secretary designates under section 5103(a) of this title.

(3) "hazmat employee"—

(A) means an individual—

(i) who—

(I) is employed on a full time, part time, or temporary basis by a hazmat employer; or

(II) is self-employed (including an owner-operator of a motor vehicle, vessel, or aircraft) transporting hazardous material in commerce; and


(ii) who during the course of such full time, part time, or temporary employment, or such self employment, directly affects hazardous material transportation safety as the Secretary decides by regulation; and


(B) includes an individual, employed on a full time, part time, or temporary basis by a hazmat employer, or self employed, who during the course of employment—

(i) loads, unloads, or handles hazardous material;

(ii) designs, manufactures, fabricates, inspects, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a package, container, or packaging component that is represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce;

(iii) prepares hazardous material for transportation;

(iv) is responsible for the safety of transporting hazardous material; or

(v) operates a vehicle used to transport hazardous material.


(4) "hazmat employer"—

(A) means a person—

(i) who—

(I) employs or uses at least 1 hazmat employee on a full time, part time, or temporary basis; or

(II) is self-employed (including an owner-operator of a motor vehicle, vessel, or aircraft) transporting hazardous material in commerce; and


(ii) who—

(I) transports hazardous material in commerce;

(II) causes hazardous material to be transported in commerce; or

(III) designs, manufactures, fabricates, inspects, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a package, container, or packaging component that is represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce; and


(B) includes a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, or an authority of a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe, carrying out an activity described in clause (ii).


(5) "imminent hazard" means the existence of a condition relating to hazardous material that presents a substantial likelihood that death, serious illness, severe personal injury, or a substantial endangerment to health, property, or the environment may occur before the reasonably foreseeable completion date of a formal proceeding begun to lessen the risk of that death, illness, injury, or endangerment.

(6) "Indian tribe" has the same meaning given that term in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b).1

(7) "motor carrier"—

(A) means a motor carrier, motor private carrier, and freight forwarder as those terms are defined in section 13102; but

(B) does not include a freight forwarder, as so defined, if the freight forwarder is not performing a function relating to highway transportation.


(8) "National Response Team" means the National Response Team established under the National Contingency Plan established under section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9605).

(9) "person", in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1

(A) includes a government, Indian tribe, or authority of a government or tribe that—

(i) offers hazardous material for transportation in commerce;

(ii) transports hazardous material to further a commercial enterprise; or

(iii) designs, manufactures, fabricates, inspects, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a package, container, or packaging component that is represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce; but


(B) does not include—

(i) the United States Postal Service; and

(ii) in sections 5123 and 5124 of this title, a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government.


(10) "public sector employee"—

(A) means an individual employed by a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe and who during the course of employment has responsibilities related to responding to an accident or incident involving the transportation of hazardous material;

(B) includes an individual employed by a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe as a firefighter or law enforcement officer; and

(C) includes an individual who volunteers to serve as a firefighter for a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe.


(11) "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation except as otherwise provided.

(12) "State" means—

(A) except in section 5119 of this title, a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and any other territory or possession of the United States designated by the Secretary; and

(B) in section 5119 of this title, a State of the United States and the District of Columbia.


(13) "transports" or "transportation" means the movement of property and loading, unloading, or storage incidental to the movement.

(14) "United States" means all of the States.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §117(a)(1), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(d), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7102, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1892, 1909; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(a), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5102(1) 49 App.:1802(1)–(3), (13). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §103, 88 Stat. 2156; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §3(a), 104 Stat. 3245; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §§501, 502, 106 Stat. 3311.
5102(2) 49 App.:1802(4).
5102(3) 49 App.:1802(5).
5102(4) 49 App.:1802(6).
5102(5) 49 App.:1802(7).
5102(6) 49 App.:1802(8).
5102(7) 49 App.:1802(9).
5102(8) 49 App.:1802(10).
5102(9) 49 App.:1802(11).
5102(10) 49 App.:1802(12).
5102(11) 49 App.:1802(14).
5102(12) 49 App.:1802(15).
5102(13) 49 App.:1802(16).

In this chapter, the words "or shipped" are omitted as being included in "transported".

In clause (1), before subclause (A), the text of 49 App.:1802(1), (3), and (13) is omitted because the complete names of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Secretary of Transportation are used the first time the terms appear in a section. The words "traffic, commerce" are omitted as surplus. In subclause (B), the words "between a place in a State and a place outside of the State" are substituted for "described in clause (A)" for clarity.

In clauses (3)(C) and (10)(B), the words "at a minimum" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (5), the words "administrative hearing or other" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (9), before subclause (A), the words "including any trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar representative thereof" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (12), the words "by any mode" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

Section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b), referred to in par. (6), is section 4 of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2204, which was classified to section 450b of Title 25, Indians, prior to editorial reclassification as section 5304 of Title 25.

Amendments

2008—Par. (3). Pub. L. 110–244 amended Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(2). See 2005 Amendment notes below.

2005—Par. (1)(C). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(1), added subpar. (C).

Par. (2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Par. (3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(2)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, §302(a)(1), (2), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "employed by a hazmat employer; and".

Par. (3)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(2)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, §302(a)(1), (3), substituted "course of such full time, part time, or temporary employment, or such self employment," for "course of employment" and inserted "and" at end.

Par. (3)(B). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(2)(D)(i), as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, §302(a)(1), substituted "employed on a full time, part time, or temporary basis by a hazmat employer, or self employed," for "employed by a hazmat employer," in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(2)(C), as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, §302(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "includes an owner-operator of a motor vehicle transporting hazardous material in commerce; and".

Par. (3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(2)(D)(ii), as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, §302(a)(1), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "manufactures, reconditions, or tests containers, drums, and packagings represented as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material;".

Par. (3)(C). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(2)(C), as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, §302(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B).

Par. (4). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(3), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) consisted of subpars. (A) to (C), which included within definition of "hazmat employer" a person using at least one employee in connection with transporting or containers for transporting hazardous material, an owner-operator of a motor vehicle transporting hazardous material in commerce, and a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, or an authority of a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe, carrying out certain described activities.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(4), inserted "relating to hazardous material" after "of a condition".

Par. (7). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(5), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: " 'motor carrier' means a motor carrier, motor private carrier, and freight forwarder as those terms are defined in section 13102 of this title."

Par. (8). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(6), substituted "National Response Team" for "national response team" in two places and "National Contingency Plan" for "national contingency plan".

Par. (9)(A). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(7), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "includes a government, Indian tribe, or authority of a government or tribe offering hazardous material for transportation in commerce or transporting hazardous material to further a commercial enterprise; but".

Pars. (11) to (14). Pub. L. 109–59, §7102(8), added par. (11) and redesignated former pars. (11) to (13) as (12) to (14), respectively.

1995—Par. (7). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "motor carrier, motor private" for "motor common carrier, motor contract carrier, motor private" and "section 13102" for "section 10102".

1994—Pars. (3)(C)(ii), (4)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 103–311 substituted "packagings" for "packages".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–244 effective as of the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59 (Aug. 10, 2005) and to be treated as included in Pub. L. 109–59 as of that date, and provisions of Pub. L. 109–59, as in effect on the day before June 6, 2008, that are amended by Pub. L. 110–244 to be treated as not enacted, see section 121(b) of Pub. L. 110–244, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

1 See References in Text note below.

§5103. General regulatory authority

(a) Designating Material as Hazardous.—The Secretary shall designate material (including an explosive, radioactive material, infectious substance, flammable or combustible liquid, solid, or gas, toxic, oxidizing, or corrosive material, and compressed gas) or a group or class of material as hazardous when the Secretary determines that transporting the material in commerce in a particular amount and form may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property.

(b) Regulations for Safe Transportation.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for the safe transportation, including security, of hazardous material in intrastate, interstate, and foreign commerce. The regulations—

(A) apply to a person who—

(i) transports hazardous material in commerce;

(ii) causes hazardous material to be transported in commerce;

(iii) designs, manufactures, fabricates, inspects, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a package, container, or packaging component that is represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce;

(iv) prepares or accepts hazardous material for transportation in commerce;

(v) is responsible for the safety of transporting hazardous material in commerce;

(vi) certifies compliance with any requirement under this chapter; or

(vii) misrepresents whether such person is engaged in any activity under clause (i) through (vi); and


(B) shall govern safety aspects, including security, of the transportation of hazardous material the Secretary considers appropriate.


(2) A proceeding to prescribe the regulations must be conducted under section 553 of title 5, including an opportunity for informal oral presentation.

(c) Federally Declared Disasters and Emergencies.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may by order waive compliance with any part of an applicable standard prescribed under this chapter without prior notice and comment and on terms the Secretary considers appropriate if the Secretary determines that—

(A) it is in the public interest to grant the waiver;

(B) the waiver is not inconsistent with the safety of transporting hazardous materials; and

(C) the waiver is necessary to facilitate the safe movement of hazardous materials into, from, and within an area of a major disaster or emergency that has been declared under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.).


(2) Period of waiver.—A waiver under this subsection may be issued for a period of not more than 60 days and may be renewed upon application to the Secretary only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the waiver. The Secretary shall immediately revoke the waiver if continuation of the waiver would not be consistent with the goals and objectives of this chapter.

(3) Statement of reasons.—The Secretary shall include in any order issued under this section the reasons for granting the waiver.


(d) Consultation.—When prescribing a security regulation or issuing a security order that affects the safety of the transportation of hazardous material, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with the Secretary of Transportation.

(e) Biennial Report.—The Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation a biennial report providing information on whether the Secretary has designated as hazardous materials for purposes of chapter 51 of such title all by-products of the methamphetamine-production process that are known by the Secretary to pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property when transported in commerce in a particular amount and form.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §117(a)(2), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(3), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1711(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2319; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7103, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1893, 1909; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §741, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 272; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7201, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1589.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5103(a) 49 App.:1803. Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §104, 88 Stat. 2156.
5103(b) 49 App.:1804(a) (1)–(3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §105(a)(1)–(3), 88 Stat. 2157; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §4, 104 Stat. 3247.

In subsection (a), the words "such quantity and form of material" and "in his discretion" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "in accordance with section 553 of title 5" are omitted because 5:553 applies unless otherwise stated. In clause (A)(i), the words "hazardous material in commerce", and in clause (A)(ii), the words "hazardous material . . . in commerce", are added for consistency in this chapter.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:5103(b)(2) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1804(a)(2) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 761).

References in Text

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(C), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, which is classified principally to chapter 68 (§5121 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 114–94 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–177 added subsec. (d).

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary shall designate" for "Secretary of Transportation shall designate".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7103(a), substituted "infectious substance, flammable or combustible liquid, solid, or gas, toxic, oxidizing, or corrosive material," for "etiologic agent, flammable or combustible liquid or solid, poison, oxidizing or corrosive material," and "determines" for "decides".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–59, §7103(b), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "apply to a person—

"(i) transporting hazardous material in commerce;

"(ii) causing hazardous material to be transported in commerce; or

"(iii) manufacturing, fabricating, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, or testing a packaging or a container that is represented, marked, certified, or sold by that person as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce; and".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–59, §7103(c)(1), struck out heading and text of subpar. (C). Text read as follows: "When prescribing a security regulation or issuing a security order that affects the safety of the transportation of hazardous material, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with the Secretary."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §7103(c)(2), added subsec. (c).

2002—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–296, §1711(a)(1), substituted "transportation, including security," for "transportation" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–296, §1711(a)(2), substituted "aspects, including security," for "aspects".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–296, §1711(a)(3), added subpar. (C).

1994—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 103–311 substituted "a packaging or a" for "a package or".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "be conducted under section 553 of title 5, including" for "include" and "presentation" for "presentations".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

GAO Study on Acceptance of Classification Examinations

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7207, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1592, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Comptroller General of the United States shall evaluate and transmit to the Secretary [of Transportation], the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, a report on the standards, metrics, and protocols that the Secretary uses to regulate the performance of persons approved to recommend hazard classifications pursuant to section 173.56(b) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (commonly referred to as 'third-party labs').

"(b) Evaluation.—The evaluation required under subsection (a) shall—

"(1) identify what standards and protocols are used to approve such persons, assess the adequacy of such standards and protocols to ensure that persons seeking approval are qualified and capable of performing classifications, and make recommendations to address any deficiencies identified;

"(2) assess the adequacy of the Secretary's oversight of persons approved to perform the classifications, including the qualification of individuals engaged in the oversight of approved persons, and make recommendations to enhance oversight sufficiently to ensure that classifications are issued as required;

"(3) identify what standards and protocols exist to rescind, suspend, or deny approval of persons who perform such classifications, assess the adequacy of such standards and protocols, and make recommendations to enhance such standards and protocols if necessary; and

"(4) include annual data for fiscal years 2005 through 2015 on the number of applications received for new classifications pursuant to section 173.56(b) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, of those applications how many classifications recommended by persons approved by the Secretary were changed to another classification and the reasons for the change, and how many hazardous materials incidents have been attributed to a classification recommended by such approved persons in the United States.

"(c) Action Plan.—Not later than 180 days after receiving the report required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall make available to the public a plan describing any actions the Secretary will take to establish standards, metrics, and protocols based on the findings and recommendations in the report to ensure that persons approved to perform classification examinations required under section 173.56(b) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, can sufficiently perform such examinations in a manner that meets the hazardous materials regulations.

"(d) Regulations.—If the report required under subsection (a) recommends new regulations in order for the Secretary to have confidence in the accuracy of classification recommendations rendered by persons approved to perform classification examinations required under section 173.56(b) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, the Secretary shall consider such recommendations, and if determined appropriate, issue regulations to address the recommendations not later than 18 months after the date of the publication of the plan under subsection (c)."

Railroad Carrier Employee Exposure to Radiation Study

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §411, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4888, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Secretary of Transportation shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Labor, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as appropriate, conduct a study of the potential hazards to which employees of railroad carriers and railroad contractors or subcontractors are exposed during the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (as defined in section 5101(a) [probably means section 5105(a)] of title 49, United States Code), supplementing the report submitted under section 5101(b) [probably means section 5105(b)] of that title, which may include—

"(1) an analysis of the potential application of 'as low as reasonably achievable' principles for exposure to radiation to such employees with an emphasis on the need for special protection from radiation exposure for such employees during the first trimester of pregnancy or who are undergoing or have recently undergone radiation therapy;

"(2) the feasibility of requiring real-time dosimetry monitoring for such employees;

"(3) the feasibility of requiring routine radiation exposure monitoring in fixed railroad locations, such as yards and repair facilities; and

"(4) a review of the effectiveness of the Department's packaging requirements for radioactive materials.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary of Transportation shall transmit a report on the results of the study required by subsection (a) and any recommendations to further protect employees of a railroad carrier or of a contractor or subcontractor to a railroad carrier from unsafe exposure to radiation during the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure.

"(c) Regulatory Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may issue regulations that the Secretary determines appropriate, pursuant to the report required by subsection (b), to protect railroad employees from unsafe exposure to radiation during the transportation of radioactive materials."

[For definitions of "railroad carrier", "Department", "railroad", and "Secretary", as used in section 411 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

Safe Placement of Train Cars

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §111, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1676, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a study of existing practices regarding the placement of cars on trains, with particular attention to the placement of cars that carry hazardous materials. In conducting the study, the Secretary shall consider whether such placement practices increase the risk of derailment, hazardous materials spills, or tank ruptures or have any other adverse effect on safety. The results of the study shall be submitted to Congress within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 26, 1994]."

Fiber Drum Packaging

Pub. L. 104–88, title IV, §406, Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 957, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In the administration of chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a final rule within 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 1995] authorizing the continued use of fiber drum packaging with a removable head for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials with respect to those liquid hazardous materials transported by such drums pursuant to regulations in effect on September 30, 1991, if—

"(1) the packaging is in compliance with regulations of the Secretary under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act [former 49 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.] as in effect on September 30, 1991; and

"(2) the packaging will not be used for the transportation of hazardous materials that include materials which are poisonous by inhalation or materials in Packing Groups I and II.

"(b) Expiration.—The regulation referred to in subsection (a) shall expire on the later of September 30, 1997, or the date on which funds are authorized to be appropriated to carry out chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code (relating to transportation of hazardous materials), for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1997.

"(c) Study.—

"(1) In general.—Within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 1995], the Secretary shall contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study—

"(A) to determine whether the requirements of section 5103(b) of title 49, United States Code (relating to regulations for safe transportation), as they pertain to fiber drum packaging with a removable head can be met for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials (with respect to those liquid hazardous materials transported by such drums pursuant to regulations in effect on September 30, 1991) with standards (including fiber drum industry standards set forth in a June 8, 1992, exemption application submitted to the Department of Transportation), other than the performance-oriented packaging standards adopted under docket number HM–181 contained in part 178 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; and

"(B) to determine whether a packaging standard (including such fiber drum industry standards), other than such performance-oriented packaging standards, will provide an equal or greater level of safety for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials than would be provided if such performance-oriented packaging standards were in effect.

"(2) Completion.—The study shall be completed before March 1, 1997 and shall be transmitted to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee of the House of Representatives.

"(d) Secretarial Action.—By September 30, 1997, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to determine what standards should apply to fiber drum packaging with a removable head for transportation of liquid hazardous materials (with respect to those liquid hazardous materials transported by such drums pursuant to regulations in effect on September 30, 1991) after September 30, 1997. In issuing such regulations, the Secretary shall give full and substantial consideration to the results of the study conducted in subsection (c)."

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §122, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1681, provided that:

"(a) Initiation of Rulemaking Proceeding.—Not later than the 60th day following the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 26, 1994], the Secretary of Transportation shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to determine whether the requirements of section 5103(b) of title 49, United States Code (relating to regulations for safe transportation), as they pertain to open head fiber drum packaging can be met for the domestic transportation of liquid hazardous materials (with respect to those classifications of liquid hazardous materials transported by such drums pursuant to regulations in effect on September 30, 1991) with standards other than the performance-oriented packaging standards adopted under docket number HM–181 contained in part 178 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(b) Issuance of Standards.—If the Secretary of Transportation determines, as a result of the rulemaking proceeding initiated under subsection (a), that a packaging standard other than the performance-oriented packaging standards referred to in subsection (a) will provide an equal or greater level of safety for the domestic transportation of liquid hazardous materials than would be provided if such performance-oriented packaging standards were in effect, the Secretary shall issue regulations which implement such other standard and which take effect before October 1, 1996.

"(c) Completion of Rulemaking Proceeding.—The rulemaking proceeding initiated under subsection (a) shall be completed before October 1, 1995.

"(d) Limitations.—

"(1) The provisions of subsections (a), (b), and (c) shall not apply to packaging for those hazardous materials regulated by the Department of Transportation as poisonous by inhalation under chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code.

"(2) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary of Transportation from issuing or enforcing regulations for the international transportation of hazardous materials."

§5103a. Limitation on issuance of hazmat licenses

(a) Limitation.—

(1) Issuance of licenses.—A State may not issue to any individual a license to operate a motor vehicle transporting in commerce a hazardous material unless the Secretary of Homeland Security has first determined, upon receipt of a notification under subsection (d)(1)(B), that the individual does not pose a security risk warranting denial of the license.

(2) Renewals included.—For the purposes of this section, the term "issue", with respect to a license, includes renewal of the license.


(b) Hazardous Materials Described.—The limitation in subsection (a) shall apply with respect to any material defined as hazardous material by the Secretary of Transportation for which the Secretary of Transportation requires placarding of a commercial motor vehicle transporting that material in commerce.

(c) Recommendations on Chemical and Biological Materials.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall recommend to the Secretary of Transportation any chemical or biological material or agent for regulation as a hazardous material under section 5103(a) if the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that such material or agent poses a significant risk to the health of individuals.

(d) Background Records Check.—

(1) In general.—Upon the request of a State regarding issuance of a license described in subsection (a)(1) to an individual, the Attorney General—

(A) shall carry out a background records check regarding the individual; and

(B) upon completing the background records check, shall notify the Secretary of Homeland Security of the completion and results of the background records check.


(2) Scope.—A background records check regarding an individual under this subsection shall consist of the following:

(A) A check of the relevant criminal history data bases.

(B) In the case of an alien, a check of the relevant data bases to determine the status of the alien under the immigration laws of the United States.

(C) As appropriate, a check of the relevant international data bases through Interpol–U.S. National Central Bureau or other appropriate means.


(e) Reporting Requirement.—Each State shall submit to the Secretary of Homeland Security, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of Homeland Security may prescribe, the name, address, and such other information as the Secretary of Homeland Security may require, concerning—

(1) each alien to whom the State issues a license described in subsection (a); and

(2) each other individual to whom such a license is issued, as the Secretary of Homeland Security may require.


(f) Alien Defined.—In this section, the term "alien" has the meaning given the term in section 101(a)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.

(g) Background Checks for Drivers Hauling Hazardous Materials.—

(1) In general.—

(A) Employer notification.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Director of the Transportation Security Administration, after receiving comments from interested parties, shall develop and implement a process for notifying hazmat employers designated by an applicant of the results of the applicant's background record check, if—

(i) such notification is appropriate considering the potential security implications; and

(ii) the Director, in a final notification of threat assessment,1 served on the applicant 1 determines that the applicant does not meet the standards set forth in regulations issued to carry out this section.


(B) Relationship to other background records checks.—

(i) Elimination of redundant checks.—An individual with respect to whom the Transportation Security Administration—

(I) has performed a security threat assessment under this section; and

(II) has issued a final notification of no security threat,


 is deemed to have met the requirements of any other background check that is required for purposes of any Federal law applicable to transportation workers if that background check is equivalent to, or less stringent than, the background check required under this section.

(ii) Determination by director.—Not later than 60 days after the date of issuance of the report under paragraph (5), but no later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Director shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding, including notice and opportunity for comment, to determine which background checks required for purposes of Federal laws applicable to transportation workers are equivalent to, or less stringent than, those required under this section.

(iii) Future rulemakings.—The Director shall make a determination under the criteria established under clause (ii) with respect to any rulemaking proceeding to establish or modify required background checks for transportation workers initiated after the date of enactment of this subsection.


(2) Appeals process for more stringent state procedures.—If a State establishes its own standards for applicants for a hazardous materials endorsement to a commercial driver's license, the State shall also provide—

(A) an appeals process similar to and to the same extent as the process provided under part 1572 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, by which an applicant denied a hazardous materials endorsement to a commercial driver's license by that State may appeal that denial; and

(B) a waiver process similar to and to the same extent as the process provided under part 1572 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, by which an applicant denied a hazardous materials endorsement to a commercial driver's license by that State may apply for a waiver.


(3) Clarification of term defined in regulations.—The term "transportation security incident", as defined in part 1572 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, does not include a work stoppage or other nonviolent employee-related action resulting from an employer-employee dispute. Not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Director shall modify the definition of that term to reflect the preceding sentence.

(4) Background check capacity.—Not later than October 1, 2005, the Director shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a report on the implementation of fingerprint-based security threat assessments and the adequacy of fingerprinting locations, personnel, and resources to accomplish the timely processing of fingerprint-based security threat assessments for individuals holding commercial driver's licenses who are applying to renew hazardous materials endorsements.

(5) Report.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Director shall transmit to the committees referred to in paragraph (4) a report on the Director's plans to reduce or eliminate redundant background checks for holders of hazardous materials endorsements performed under this section.

(B) Contents.—The report shall—

(i) include a list of background checks and other security or threat assessment requirements applicable to transportation workers under Federal laws for which the Department of Homeland Security is responsible and the process by which the Secretary of Homeland Security will determine whether such checks or assessments are equivalent to, or less stringent than, the background check performed under this section; and

(ii) provide an analysis of how the Director plans to reduce or eliminate redundant background checks in a manner that will continue to ensure the highest level of safety and security.


(h) Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators Registered to Operate in Mexico or Canada.—

(1) In general.—Beginning on the date that is 6 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, a commercial motor vehicle operator registered to operate in Mexico or Canada shall not operate a commercial motor vehicle transporting a hazardous material in commerce in the United States until the operator has undergone a background records check similar to the background records check required for commercial motor vehicle operators licensed in the United States to transport hazardous materials in commerce.

(2) Extension.—The Director of the Transportation Security Administration may extend the deadline established by paragraph (1) for a period not to exceed 6 months if the Director determines that such an extension is necessary.

(3) Commercial motor vehicle defined.—In this subsection, the term "commercial motor vehicle" has the meaning given that term by section 31101.

(Added Pub. L. 107–56, title X, §1012(a)(1), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 396; amended Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7104, 7105, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1894, 1909; Pub. L. 110–53, title XV, §1556(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 475; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(b), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618.)

References in Text

Section 101(a)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is classified to section 1101(a)(3) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (g) and (h), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59, which was approved Aug. 10, 2005.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (g)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 110–244 substituted "subsection" for "Act".

2007—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–53, §1556(a)(1), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–53, §1556(a)(2), substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary" in two places.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 110–53, §1556(a)(3), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–53, §1556(a)(4), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

2005—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7104(c), substituted "subsection (d)(1)(B)," for "subsection (c)(1)(B),".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §7104(a), substituted "with respect to any material defined as hazardous material by the Secretary for which the Secretary requires placarding of a commercial motor vehicle transporting that material in commerce" for "with respect to—

"(1) any material defined as a hazardous material by the Secretary of Transportation; and

"(2) any chemical or biological material or agent determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services or the Attorney General as being a threat to the national security of the United States".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §7104(b)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §7104(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "submit to the Secretary" for "submit to the Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–59, §7104(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–59, §7104(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 109–59, §7105, added subsecs. (g) and (h).

Authorization of Appropriations

Pub. L. 107–56, title X, §1012(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 398, provided that: "There is authorized to be appropriated for the Department of Transportation and the Department of Justice such amounts as may be necessary to carry out section 5103a of title 49, United States Code, as added by subsection (a)."

1 So in original. Comma probably should appear after "applicant".

§5104. Representation and tampering

(a) Representation.—A person may represent, by marking or otherwise, that—

(1) a package, component of a package, or packaging for transporting hazardous material is safe, certified, or complies with this chapter only if the package, component of a package, or packaging meets the requirements of each applicable regulation prescribed under this chapter; or

(2) hazardous material is present in a package, container, motor vehicle, rail freight car, aircraft, or vessel only if the material is present.


(b) Tampering.—No person may alter, remove, destroy, or otherwise tamper unlawfully with—

(1) a marking, label, placard, or description on a document required under this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter; or

(2) a package, component of a package, or packaging, container, motor vehicle, rail freight car, aircraft, or vessel used to transport hazardous material.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §117(b), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(4), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7106, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1897.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5104(a) 49 App.:1804(e). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §105(e), (f); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §5, 104 Stat. 3252.
5104(b) 49 App.:1804(f).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "the requirements of" and "applicable" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word "deface" is omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:5104(a)(1) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1804(e)(1) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 761).

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7106(a), substituted "a package, component of a package, or packaging for" for "a container, package, or packaging (or a component of a container, package, or packaging) for" and "the package, component of a package, or packaging meets" for "the container, package, or packaging (or a component of a container, package, or packaging) meets".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §7106(b)(1), substituted "No person may" for "A person may not" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7106(b)(2), inserted "component of a package, or packaging," after "package,".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–429 inserted "applicable" after "each".

Pub. L. 103–311 substituted ", package, or packaging (or a component of a container, package, or packaging)" for "or package" in two places.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§5105. Transporting certain highly radioactive material

(a) Definitions.—In this section, "high-level radioactive waste" and "spent nuclear fuel" have the same meanings given those terms in section 2 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 U.S.C. 10101).

(b) Transportation Safety Study.—In consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, potentially affected States and Indian tribes, representatives of the rail transportation industry, and shippers of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, the Secretary shall conduct a study comparing the safety of using trains operated only to transport high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel with the safety of using other methods of rail transportation for transporting that waste and fuel. The Secretary shall submit to Congress not later than November 16, 1991, a report on the results of the study.

(c) Safe Rail Transportation Regulations.—Not later than November 16, 1992, after considering the results of the study conducted under subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary shall prescribe amendments to existing regulations that the Secretary considers appropriate to provide for the safe rail transportation of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, including trains operated only for transporting high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

(d) Inspections of Motor Vehicles Transporting Certain Material.—(1) Not later than November 16, 1991, the Secretary shall require by regulation that before each use of a motor vehicle to transport a highway-route-controlled quantity of radioactive material in commerce, the vehicle shall be inspected and certified as complying with this chapter and applicable United States motor carrier safety laws and regulations. The Secretary may require that the inspection be carried out by an authorized United States Government inspector or according to appropriate State procedures.

(2) The Secretary may allow a person, transporting or causing to be transported a highway-route-controlled quantity of radioactive material, to inspect the motor vehicle used to transport the material and to certify that the vehicle complies with this chapter. The inspector qualification requirements the Secretary prescribes for an individual inspecting a motor vehicle apply to an individual conducting an inspection under this paragraph.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7107, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1897, 1909.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5105(a) 49 App.:1813(e). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §116(e); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §505(2), 106 Stat. 3311.
  49 App.:1813 (note). Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §16(e), 104 Stat. 3263.
5105(b) 49 App.:1813(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §116(a)–(d); added Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–559, §3, 98 Stat. 2907; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §15, 104 Stat. 3261; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §505(1), 106 Stat. 3311.
5105(c) 49 App.:1813(b).
5105(d) 49 App.:1813(c).
5105(e) 49 App.:1813(d).

In subsection (a), section 16(e) of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–615, 104 Stat. 3263) is included to correct a mistake in the source provisions being restated. See section 16(a)(1) of the Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–615, 104 Stat. 3262), stating that the meanings of "high-level radioactive waste" and "spent nuclear fuel" are as defined in 49 App.:1813, as added by section 15 of the Act (104 Stat. 3261). See also Cong. Rec. S16863 (daily ed., Oct. 23, 1990).

In subsection (b), the words "Secretary of Energy" are substituted for "Department of Energy" because of 42:7131.

In subsection (c), the word "regulations" is substituted for "rule" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code and because "rule" and "regulation" are synonymous.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words "In combination" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2005—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary shall" for "Secretary of Transportation shall" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary shall" for "Secretary of Transportation shall" in par. (1) and "Secretary may" for "Secretary of Transportation may" in par. (2).

Pub. L. 109–59, §7107, redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which related to a study to be conducted not later than Nov. 16, 1991, to decide which factors, if any, shippers and carriers should consider when selecting routes and modes that would enhance overall public safety related to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7107(2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d).

§5106. Handling criteria

The Secretary may prescribe criteria for handling hazardous material, including—

(1) a minimum number of personnel;

(2) minimum levels of training and qualifications for personnel;

(3) the kind and frequency of inspections;

(4) equipment for detecting, warning of, and controlling risks posed by the hazardous material;

(5) specifications for the use of equipment and facilities used in handling and transporting the hazardous material; and

(6) a system of monitoring safety procedures for transporting the hazardous material.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1909.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5106 49 App.:1805(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §106(a), 88 Stat. 2157.

Before clause (1), the text of 49 App.:1805(a) (last sentence) is omitted as being included in "prescribe". In clause (4), the words "to be used" are omitted as surplus. In clause (6), the word "assurance" is omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59 substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

§5107. Hazmat employee training requirements and grants

(a) Training Requirements.—The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation requirements for training that a hazmat employer must give hazmat employees of the employer on the safe loading, unloading, handling, storing, and transporting of hazardous material and emergency preparedness for responding to an accident or incident involving the transportation of hazardous material. The regulations—

(1) shall establish the date, as provided by subsection (b) of this section, by which the training shall be completed; and

(2) may provide for different training for different classes or categories of hazardous material and hazmat employees.


(b) Beginning and Completing Training.—A hazmat employer shall begin the training of hazmat employees of the employer not later than 6 months after the Secretary prescribes the regulations under subsection (a) of this section. The training shall be completed within a reasonable period of time after—

(1) 6 months after the regulations are prescribed; or

(2) the date on which an individual is to begin carrying out a duty or power of a hazmat employee if the individual is employed as a hazmat employee after the 6-month period.


(c) Certification of Training.—After completing the training, each hazmat employer shall certify, with documentation the Secretary may require by regulation, that the hazmat employees of the employer have received training and have been tested on appropriate transportation areas of responsibility, including at least one of the following:

(1) recognizing and understanding the Department of Transportation hazardous material classification system.

(2) the use and limitations of the Department hazardous material placarding, labeling, and marking systems.

(3) general handling procedures, loading and unloading techniques, and strategies to reduce the probability of release or damage during or incidental to transporting hazardous material.

(4) health, safety, and risk factors associated with hazardous material and the transportation of hazardous material.

(5) appropriate emergency response and communication procedures for dealing with an accident or incident involving hazardous material transportation.

(6) the use of the Department Emergency Response Guidebook and recognition of its limitations or the use of equivalent documents and recognition of the limitations of those documents.

(7) applicable hazardous material transportation regulations.

(8) personal protection techniques.

(9) preparing a shipping document for transporting hazardous material.


(d) Coordination of Training Requirements.—In consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary shall ensure that the training requirements prescribed under this section do not conflict with or duplicate—

(1) the requirements of regulations the Secretary of Labor prescribes related to hazard communication, and hazardous waste operations, and emergency response that are contained in part 1910 of title 29, Code of Federal Regulations; and

(2) the regulations the Agency prescribes related to worker protection standards for hazardous waste operations that are contained in part 311 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations.


(e) Training Grants.—

(1) In general.—Subject to the availability of funds under section 5128(c), the Secretary shall make grants under this subsection—

(A) for training instructors to train hazmat employees; and

(B) to the extent determined appropriate by the Secretary, for such instructors to train hazmat employees.


(2) Eligibility.—A grant under this subsection shall be made through a competitive process to a nonprofit organization that demonstrates—

(A) expertise in conducting a training program for hazmat employees; and

(B) the ability to reach and involve in a training program a target population of hazmat employees.


(f) Training of Certain Employees.—The Secretary shall ensure that maintenance-of-way employees and railroad signalmen receive general awareness and familiarization training and safety training pursuant to section 172.704 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(g) Relationship to Other Laws.—(1) Chapter 35 of title 44 does not apply to an activity of the Secretary under subsections (a)–(d) of this section.

(2) An action of the Secretary under subsections (a)–(d) of this section and section 5106 is not an exercise, under section 4(b)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653(b)(1)), of statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting occupational safety or health.

(h) Existing Effort.—No grant under subsection (e) shall supplant or replace existing employer-provided hazardous materials training efforts or obligations.

(i) Community Safety Grants.—The Secretary shall establish a competitive program for making grants to nonprofit organizations for—

(1) conducting national outreach and training programs to assist communities in preparing for and responding to accidents and incidents involving the transportation of hazardous materials, including Class 3 flammable liquids by rail; and

(2) training State and local personnel responsible for enforcing the safe transportation of hazardous materials, including Class 3 flammable liquids.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §§106, 119(c)(1)–(3), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1674, 1680; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7108, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1897, 1909; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33016, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7301, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1594.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5107(a) 49 App.:1805(b)(1), (2), (5) (1st sentence). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §106(b); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §7(3), 104 Stat. 3253.
5107(b) 49 App.:1805(b)(4), (5) (last sentence).
5107(c) 49 App.:1805(b)(6).
5107(d) 49 App.:1805(b)(3) (1st sentence).
5107(e) 49 App.:1816(a)–(c). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §118(a)–(c); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §18, 104 Stat. 3269.
5107(f)(1) 49 App.:1805(b)(7).
5107(f)(2) 49 App.:1805(b)(3) (last sentence).

In subsections (a)(1) and (b), before clause (1), the words "in order to comply with requirements established by such regulations" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "Within 18 months after November 16, 1990" are omitted as obsolete. In clause (1), the words "as provided by subsection (b) of this section" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "in accordance with the requirements established by such regulations" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "in accordance with the requirements established under this subsection" and "appropriate" before "documentation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words "take such actions as may be necessary to" are omitted as surplus. In clauses (1) and (2), the words "(and amendments thereto)" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "Secretary of Labor" are substituted for "Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the Department of Labor" because of 29:551.

In subsection (e), the words "and education" are omitted as being included in "training". Before clause (1), the words "regarding the safe loading, unloading, handling, storage, and transportation of hazardous materials and emergency preparedness for responding to accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous materials in order to meet the requirements issued under section 1816(b) of this title may be made under this section" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(1), the words "(relating to coordination of Federal information policy)" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–94 added subsec. (i).

2012—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 112–141 inserted "through a competitive process" after "shall be made" and struck out "hazmat employee" after "nonprofit" in introductory provisions.

2005—Subsecs. (a) to (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions of subsecs. (a) to (c) and "Secretary shall" for "Secretary of Transportation shall" in introductory provisions of subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7108(1), added subsec. (e) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (e). Text read as follows: "The Secretary shall, subject to the availability of funds under section 5127(c)(3), make grants for training instructors to train hazmat employees under this section. A grant under this subsection shall be made to a nonprofit hazmat employee organization that demonstrates—

"(1) expertise in conducting a training program for hazmat employees; and

"(2) the ability to reach and involve in a training program a target population of hazmat employees."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–59, §7108(3), added subsec. (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–59, §7108(2), redesignated subsec. (f) as (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7108(4), substituted "section 5106" for "sections 5106, 5108(a)–(g)(1) and (h), and 5109 of this title".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–59, §7108(2), redesignated subsec. (g) as (h).

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–311, §106, in introductory provisions inserted "or duplicate" after "conflict with" and in par. (1) substituted "hazard communication, and hazardous waste operations, and" for "hazardous waste operations and".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–311, §119(c)(1), (2), in first sentence substituted "The Secretary shall, subject to the availability of funds under section 5127(c)(3), make grants for training instructors to train hazmat employees under this section." for "In consultation with the Secretaries of Transportation and Labor and the Administrator, the Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences may make grants to train hazmat employees under this section." and in second sentence inserted "hazmat employee" after "nonprofit".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–311, §119(c)(3), added subsec. (g).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

§5108. Registration

(a) Persons Required to File.—(1) A person shall file a registration statement with the Secretary under this subsection if the person is transporting or causing to be transported in commerce any of the following:

(A) a highway-route-controlled quantity of radioactive material.

(B) more than 25 kilograms of a Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 explosive material in a motor vehicle, rail car, or transport container.

(C) more than one liter in each package of a hazardous material the Secretary designates as extremely toxic by inhalation.

(D) hazardous material in a bulk packaging, container, or tank, as defined by the Secretary, if the bulk packaging, container, or tank has a capacity of at least 3,500 gallons or more than 468 cubic feet.

(E) a shipment of at least 5,000 pounds (except in a bulk packaging) of a class of hazardous material for which placarding of a vehicle, rail car, or freight container is required under regulations prescribed under this chapter.


(2) The Secretary may require any of the following persons to file a registration statement with the Secretary under this subsection:

(A) a person transporting or causing to be transported hazardous material in commerce and not required to file a registration statement under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(B) a person designing, manufacturing, fabricating, inspecting, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, or testing a package, container, or packaging component that is represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce.


(3) A person required to file a registration statement under this subsection may transport or cause to be transported, or design, manufacture, fabricate, inspect, mark, maintain, recondition, repair, or test a package, container packaging component, or container for use in transporting, hazardous material, only if the person has a statement on file as required by this subsection.

(4) The Secretary may waive the filing of a registration statement, or the payment of a fee, required under this subsection, or both, for any person not domiciled in the United States who solely offers hazardous materials for transportation to the United States from a place outside the United States if the country of which such person is a domiciliary does not require persons domiciled in the United States who solely offer hazardous materials for transportation to the foreign country from places in the United States to file registration statements, or to pay fees, for making such an offer.

(b) Form, Contents, and Limitation on Filings.—(1) A registration statement under subsection (a) of this section shall be in the form and contain information the Secretary requires by regulation. The Secretary may use existing forms of the Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency to carry out this subsection. The statement shall include—

(A) the name and principal place of business of the registrant;

(B) a description of each activity the registrant carries out for which filing a statement under subsection (a) of this section is required; and

(C) each State in which the person carries out any of the activities.


(2) A person carrying out more than one activity, or an activity at more than one location, for which filing is required only has to file one registration statement to comply with subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Filing.—Each person required to file a registration statement under subsection (a) shall file the statement in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Simplifying the Registration Process.—The Secretary may take necessary action to simplify the registration process under subsections (a)–(c) of this section and to minimize the number of applications, documents, and other information a person is required to file under this chapter and other laws of the United States.

(e) Cooperation With Administrator.—The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall assist the Secretary in carrying out subsections (a)–(g)(1) and (h) of this section by providing the Secretary with information the Secretary requests to carry out the objectives of subsections (a)–(g)(1) and (h).

(f) Availability of Statements.—The Secretary shall make a registration statement filed under subsection (a) of this section available for inspection by any person for a fee the Secretary establishes. However, this subsection does not require the release of information described in section 552(b) of title 5 or otherwise protected by law from disclosure to the public.

(g) Fees.—(1) The Secretary shall establish, impose, and collect from a person required to file a registration statement under subsection (a) of this section a fee necessary to pay for the costs of the Secretary in processing the statement.

(2)(A) In addition to a fee established under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall establish and impose by regulation and collect an annual fee. Subject to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the fee shall be at least $250 but not more than $3,000 from each person required to file a registration statement under this section. The Secretary shall determine the amount of the fee under this paragraph on at least one of the following:

(i) gross revenue from transporting hazardous material.

(ii) the type of hazardous material transported or caused to be transported.

(iii) the amount of hazardous material transported or caused to be transported.

(iv) the number of shipments of hazardous material.

(v) the number of activities that the person carries out for which filing a registration statement is required under this section.

(vi) the threat to property, individuals, and the environment from an accident or incident involving the hazardous material transported or caused to be transported.

(vii) the percentage of gross revenue derived from transporting hazardous material.

(viii) the amount to be made available to carry out sections 5108(g)(2), 5115, and 5116 of this title.

(ix) other factors the Secretary considers appropriate.


(B) The Secretary shall adjust the amount being collected under this paragraph to reflect any unexpended balance in the account established under section 5116(h) of this title. However, the Secretary is not required to refund any fee collected under this paragraph.

(C) The Secretary shall transfer to the Secretary of the Treasury amounts the Secretary of Transportation collects under this paragraph for deposit in the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established under section 5116(h) of this title.

(3) Fees on exempt persons.—Notwithstanding subsection (a)(4), the Secretary shall impose and collect a fee of $25 from a person who is required to register under this section but who is otherwise exempted by the Secretary from paying any fee under this section. The fee shall be used to pay the costs incurred by the Secretary in processing registration statements filed by such persons.

(h) Maintaining Proof of Filing and Payment of Fees.—The Secretary may prescribe regulations requiring a person required to file a registration statement under subsection (a) of this section to maintain proof of the filing and payment of fees imposed under subsection (g) of this section.

(i) Relationship to Other Laws.—(1) Chapter 35 of title 44 does not apply to an activity of the Secretary under subsections (a)–(g)(1) and (h) of this section.

(2)(A) This section does not apply to an employee of a hazmat employer.

(B) Subsections (a)–(h) of this section do not apply to a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, an authority of a State or political subdivision of a State, an Indian tribe, or an employee of a department, agency, instrumentality, or authority carrying out official duties.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 765; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §§104, 117(a)(3), 119(d)(1), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1673, 1678, 1680; Pub. L. 105–102, §2(3), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2204; Pub. L. 105–225, §7(b)(1), Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7109(a)–(c), (e), (f), 7114(d)(3), 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1897, 1898, 1900, 1909; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7203(b)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1591.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5108(a)(1) 49 App.:1805(c)(1). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §106(c); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §8(a), 104 Stat. 3255; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §503(a)(1)–(3), (b), 106 Stat. 3311.
5108(a)(2) 49 App.:1805(c)(3).
5108(a)(3) 49 App.:1805(c)(4).
5108(b) 49 App.:1805(c)(7), (8).
5108(c) 49 App.:1805(c)(5), (6).
5108(d) 49 App.:1805(c)(9).
5108(e) 49 App.:1805(c)(2).
5108(f) 49 App.:1805(c)(10).
5108(g)(1) 49 App.:1805(c)(11).
5108(g)(2) 49 App.:1815(h) (1)–(5). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §117A(h)(1)– (5); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §17, 104 Stat. 3267.
5108(h) 49 App.:1805(c)(12).
5108(i) 49 App.:1805(c) (13)–(15).

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "at a minimum" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words "streamline and", "with respect to a person who is required to file a registration statement under this subsection", and "with the Department of Transportation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (g), the word "impose" is substituted for "assess" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (g)(2)(A), before clause (i), the words "Not later than September 30, 1992" are omitted as obsolete. In clause (viii), the words "of funds" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (g)(2)(B), the words "of fees" and "from persons" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (i)(1), the words "(relating to coordination of Federal information policy)" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (i)(2)(A), the words "Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 105–102

This amends 49:5108(f) to correct an erroneous cross-reference.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (g)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "5116(h)" for "5116(i)".

2005—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(a)(1), substituted "Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 explosive material" for "class A or B explosive".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary may" for "Secretary of Transportation may" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(a)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "a person manufacturing, fabricating, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, or testing a package or container the person represents, marks, certifies, or sells for use in transporting in commerce hazardous material the Secretary designates."

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(a)(3), substituted "design, manufacture, fabricate, inspect, mark, maintain, recondition, repair, or test a package, container packaging component, or" for "manufacture, fabricate, mark, maintain, recondition, repair, or test a package or".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary requires" for "Secretary of Transportation requires" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(b), substituted "any of the activities" for "the activity".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(c), amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) Each person required to file a registration statement under subsection (a) of this section must file the first statement not later than March 31, 1992. The Secretary of Transportation may extend that date to September 30, 1992, for activities referred to in subsection (a)(1) of this section. A person shall renew the statement periodically consistent with regulations the Secretary prescribes, but not more than once each year and not less than once every 5 years.

"(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall decide by regulation when and under what circumstances a registration statement must be amended and the procedures to follow in amending the statement."

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in subsec. (d), "Secretary in carrying" for "Secretary of Transportation in carrying" in subsec. (e), and "Secretary shall" for "Secretary of Transportation shall" in subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary shall" for "Secretary of Transportation shall".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(f)(1), substituted "shall" for "may".

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary shall establish" for "Secretary of Transportation shall establish" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(f)(2), substituted "$3,000" for "$5,000" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary shall" for "Secretary of Transportation shall".

Subsec. (g)(2)(C). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary shall" for "Secretary of Transportation shall".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7114(d)(3), substituted "the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established" for "the account the Secretary of the Treasury establishes".

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(f)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–59, §7109(e), inserted "an Indian tribe," after "subdivision of a State,".

1998—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–225 substituted "section 552(b)" for "section 552(f)".

1997—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–102 which directed substitution of "section 552(b)" for "section 522(f)" could not be executed because "section 522(f)" did not appear.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 103–311, §117(a)(3), substituted "a bulk packaging" for "a bulk package" and "the bulk packaging" for "the package".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–311, §104, added par. (4).

Subsec. (g)(2)(A)(viii). Pub. L. 103–311, §119(d)(1), struck out "5107(e)," before "5108(g)(2)".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Registration

Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7109(d), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1898, provided that: "As soon as practicable, the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration shall transmit to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration hazardous material registrant information obtained before, on, or after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005] under section 5108 of title 49, United States Code, together with any Department of Transportation identification number for each registrant."

§5109. Motor carrier safety permits

(a) Requirement.—A motor carrier may transport or cause to be transported by motor vehicle in commerce hazardous material only if the carrier holds a safety permit the Secretary issues under this section authorizing the transportation and keeps a copy of the permit, or other proof of its existence, in the vehicle. The Secretary shall issue a permit if the Secretary finds the carrier is fit, willing, and able—

(1) to provide the transportation to be authorized by the permit;

(2) to comply with this chapter and regulations the Secretary prescribes to carry out this chapter; and

(3) to comply with applicable United States motor carrier safety laws and regulations and applicable minimum financial responsibility laws and regulations.


(b) Applicable Transportation.—The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation the hazardous material and amounts of hazardous material to which this section applies. However, this section shall apply at least to transportation by a motor carrier, in amounts the Secretary establishes, of—

(1) a class A or B explosive;

(2) liquefied natural gas;

(3) hazardous material the Secretary designates as extremely toxic by inhalation; and

(4) a highway-route-controlled quantity of radioactive material, as defined by the Secretary.


(c) Applications.—A motor carrier shall file an application with the Secretary for a safety permit to provide transportation under this section. The Secretary may approve any part of the application or deny the application. The application shall be under oath and contain information the Secretary requires by regulation.

(d) Amendments, Suspensions, and Revocations.—(1) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary may amend, suspend, or revoke a safety permit, as provided by procedures prescribed under subsection (e) of this section, when the Secretary decides the motor carrier is not complying with a requirement of this chapter, a regulation prescribed under this chapter, or an applicable United States motor carrier safety law or regulation or minimum financial responsibility law or regulation.

(2) If the Secretary decides an imminent hazard exists, the Secretary may amend, suspend, or revoke a permit before scheduling a hearing.

(e) Procedures.—The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation—

(1) application procedures, including form, content, and fees necessary to recover the complete cost of carrying out this section;

(2) standards for deciding the duration, terms, and limitations of a safety permit;

(3) procedures to amend, suspend, or revoke a permit; and

(4) other procedures the Secretary considers appropriate to carry out this section.


(f) Shipper Responsibility.—A person offering hazardous material for motor vehicle transportation in commerce may offer the material to a motor carrier only if the carrier has a safety permit issued under this section authorizing the transportation.

(g) Conditions.—A motor carrier may provide transportation under a safety permit issued under this section only if the carrier complies with conditions the Secretary finds are required to protect public safety.

(h) Limitation on Denial.—The Secretary may not deny a non-temporary permit held by a motor carrier pursuant to this section based on a comprehensive review of that carrier triggered by safety management system scores or out-of-service disqualification standards, unless—

(1) the carrier has the opportunity, prior to the denial of such permit, to submit a written description of corrective actions taken and other documentation the carrier wishes the Secretary to consider, including a corrective action plan; and

(2) the Secretary determines the actions or plan is insufficient to address the safety concerns identified during the course of the comprehensive review.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1909; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7202, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1589.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5109(a) 49 App.:1805(d)(1), (2). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §106(d); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §8(a), 104 Stat. 3257; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §503(a)(4), (5), (b), 106 Stat. 3311.
5109(b) 49 App.:1805(d)(5).
5109(c) 49 App.:1805(d)(7).
5109(d) 49 App.:1805(d)(4).
5109(e) 49 App.:1805(d)(6).
5109(f) 49 App.:1805(d)(3).
5109(g) 49 App.:1805(d)(8).
5109(h) 49 App.:1805 (note). Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §8(b), 104 Stat. 3258.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "Except as provided in this subsection" and "used to provide such transportation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word "all" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(2), the word "conditions" is omitted as being included in "terms".

In subsection (h), the text of section 8(b) (words before semicolon of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–615, 104 Stat. 3258) is omitted as obsolete.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–94 amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary shall prescribe regulations necessary to carry out this section not later than November 16, 1991."

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59 substituted "Secretary issues" for "Secretary of Transportation issues" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Motor Carrier Safety Permits

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33014, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 840, provided that:

"(a) Review.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [see section 3(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment notes under section 101 of Title 23, Highways], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall conduct a study of, and transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on, the implementation of the hazardous material safety permit program under section 5109 of title 49, United States Code. In conducting the study, the Secretary shall review, at a minimum—

"(1) the list of hazardous materials requiring a safety permit;

"(2) the number of permits that have been issued, denied, revoked, or suspended since inception of the program and the number of commercial motor carriers that have never had a permit denied, revoked, or suspended since inception of the program;

"(3) the reasons for such denials, revocations, or suspensions;

"(4) the criteria used by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration to determine whether a hazardous material safety permit issued by a State is equivalent to the Federal permit; and

"(5) actions the Secretary could implement to improve the program, including whether to provide opportunities for an additional level of fitness review prior to the denial, revocation, or suspension of a safety permit.

"(b) Actions Taken.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, based on the study conducted under subsection (a), the Secretary shall either institute a rulemaking to make any necessary improvements to the hazardous materials safety permit program under section 5109 of title 49, United States Code or publish in the Federal Register the Secretary's justification for why a rulemaking is not necessary."

§5110. Shipping papers and disclosure

(a) Providing Shipping Papers.—Each person offering for transportation in commerce hazardous material to which the shipping paper requirements of the Secretary apply shall provide to the carrier providing the transportation a shipping paper that makes the disclosures the Secretary prescribes in regulations.

(b) Keeping Shipping Papers on the Vehicle.—(1) A motor carrier, and the person offering the hazardous material for transportation if a private motor carrier, shall keep the shipping paper on the vehicle transporting the material.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the shipping paper shall be kept in a location the Secretary specifies in a motor vehicle, train, vessel, aircraft, or facility until—

(A) the hazardous material no longer is in transportation; or

(B) the documents are made available to a representative of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government or a State or local authority responding to an accident or incident involving the motor vehicle, train, vessel, aircraft, or facility.


(c) Disclosure to Emergency Response Authorities.—When an incident involving hazardous material being transported in commerce occurs, the person transporting the material, immediately on request of appropriate emergency response authorities, shall disclose to the authorities information about the material.

(d) Retention of Papers.—

(1) Offerors.—The person who provides the shipping paper under this section shall retain the paper, or an electronic format of it, for a period of 2 years after the date that the shipping paper is provided to the carrier, with the paper or electronic format to be accessible through the offeror's principal place of business.

(2) Carriers.—The carrier required to keep the shipping paper under this section,1 shall retain the paper, or an electronic format of it, for a period of 1 year after the date that the shipping paper is provided to the carrier, with the paper or electronic format to be accessible through the carrier's principal place of business.

(3) Availability to government agencies.—Any person required to keep a shipping paper under this subsection shall, upon request, make it available to a Federal, State, or local government agency at reasonable times and locations.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §115, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7110, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1898, 1909; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(i), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5110(a) 49 App.:1804(g)(1) (1st sentence words before "for the carrier"). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §105(g); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §6, 104 Stat. 3253.
5110(b) 49 App.:1804(g)(2).
5110(c) 49 App.:1804(g)(1) (1st sentence words after "paragraph (2)", last sentence), (3).
5110(d) 49 App.:1804(g)(4).

In subsection (c)(1), the words "A motor carrier" are substituted for "the carrier" for clarity.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–244, §302(i)(2), substituted "offeror's" for "shipper's".

Pub. L. 110–244, §302(i)(1), which directed substitution of "Offerors" for "Shippers" "in the subsection heading", was executed by making the substitution in par. (1) heading to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary apply" for "Secretary of Transportation apply".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7110(a)(1), substituted "in regulations" for "under subsection (b) of this section".

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §7110(a)(2), (3), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (b) and (c), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to considerations and requirements in carrying out subsec. (a).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §7110(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text of subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "After the hazardous material to which a shipping paper provided to a carrier under subsection (a) applies is no longer in transportation, the person who provided the shipping paper and the carrier required to maintain it under subsection (a) shall retain the paper or electronic image thereof for a period of 1 year to be accessible through their respective principal places of business. Such person and carrier shall, upon request, make the shipping paper available to a Federal, State, or local government agency at reasonable times and locations."

Pub. L. 109–59, §7110(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7110(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d).

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–311 added subsec. (e).

Improvements to Hazardous Materials Identification Systems

Pub. L. 101–615, §25, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3273, provided that:

"(a) Rulemaking Proceeding.—

"(1) Initiation.—In order to develop methods of improving the current system of identifying hazardous materials being transported in vehicles for safeguarding the health and safety of persons responding to emergencies involving such hazardous materials and the public and to facilitate the review and reporting process required by subsection (d), the Secretary of Transportation shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990].

"(2) Primary purposes.—The primary purposes of the rulemaking proceeding initiated under this subsection are—

"(A) to determine methods of improving the current system of placarding vehicles transporting hazardous materials; and

"(B) to determine methods for establishing and operating a central reporting system and computerized telecommunications data center described in subsection (b)(1).

"(3) Methods of improving placarding system.—The methods of improving the current system of placarding to be considered under the rulemaking proceeding initiated under this subsection shall include methods to make such placards more visible, methods to reduce the number of improper and missing placards, alternative methods of marking vehicles for the purpose of identifying the hazardous materials being transported, methods of modifying the composition of placards in order to ensure their resistance to flammability, methods of improving the coding system used with respect to such placards, identification of appropriate emergency response procedures through symbols on placards, and whether or not telephone numbers of any continually monitored telephone systems which are established under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act [see 49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.] are displayed on vehicles transporting hazardous materials.

"(4) Completion of rulemaking proceeding with respect to reporting system and data center.—Not later than 19 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], the Secretary of Transportation shall complete the rulemaking proceeding initiated with respect to the central reporting system and computerized telecommunications data center described in subsection (b).

"(5) Final rule with respect to placarding.—Not later than 30 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a final rule relating to improving the current system for placarding vehicles transporting hazardous materials.

"(b) Central Reporting System and Computerized Telecommunications Data Center Study.—

"(1) Arrangements with national academy of sciences.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], the Secretary of Transportation shall undertake to enter into appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study of the feasibility and necessity of establishing and operating a central reporting system and computerized telecommunications data center that is capable of receiving, storing, and retrieving data concerning all daily shipments of hazardous materials, that can identify hazardous materials being transported by any mode of transportation, and that can provide information to facilitate responses to accidents and incidents involving the transportation of hazardous materials.

"(2) Consultation and report.—In entering into any arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences for conducting the study under this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall request the National Academy of Sciences—

"(A) to consult with the Department of Transportation, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, shippers and carriers of hazardous materials, manufacturers of computerized telecommunications systems, State and local emergency preparedness organizations (including law enforcement and firefighting organizations), and appropriate international organizations in conducting such study; and

"(B) to submit, not later than 19 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, to the Secretary, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committees on Energy and Commerce and Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives a report on the results of such study.

Such report shall include recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences with respect to establishment and operation of a central reporting system and computerized telecommunications data center described in paragraph (1).

"(3) Authorization of appropriation.—In addition to amounts authorized under section 115 of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act [see 49 U.S.C. 5127(a)], there is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out this subsection $350,000.

"(c) Additional Purposes of Rulemaking Proceeding and Study.—Additional purposes of the rulemaking proceeding initiated under subsection (a) with respect to a central reporting system and computerized telecommunications data center described in subsection (b) and the study conducted under subsection (b) are—

"(1) to determine whether such a system and center should be established and operated by the United States Government or by a private entity, either on its own initiative or under contract with the United States;

"(2) to determine, on an annualized basis, the estimated cost for establishing, operating, and maintaining such a system and center and for carrier and shipper compliance with such a system;

"(3) to determine methods for financing the cost of establishing, operating, and maintaining such a system and center;

"(4) to determine projected safety benefits of establishing and operating such a system and center;

"(5) to determine whether or not shippers, carriers, and handlers of hazardous materials, in addition to law enforcement officials and persons responsible for responding to emergencies involving hazardous materials, should have access to such system for obtaining information concerning shipments of hazardous materials and technical and other information and advice with respect to such emergencies;

"(6) to determine methods for ensuring the security of the information and data stored in such a system;

"(7) to determine types of hazardous materials and types of shipments for which information and data should be stored in such a system;

"(8) to determine the degree of liability of the operator of such a system and center for providing incorrect, false, or misleading information;

"(9) to determine deadlines by which shippers, carriers, and handlers of hazardous materials should be required to submit information to the operator of such a system and center and minimum standards relating to the form and contents of such information;

"(10) to determine measures (including the imposition of civil and criminal penalties) for ensuring compliance with the deadlines and standards referred to in paragraph (9); and

"(11) to determine methods for accessing such a system through mobile satellite service or other technologies having the capability to provide 2-way voice, data, or facsimile services.

"(d) Review and Report to Congress.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 25 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], the Secretary of Transportation shall review the report of the National Academy of Sciences submitted under subsection (b) and the results of rulemaking proceeding initiated under subsection (a) with respect to a central reporting system and computerized telecommunications data center and shall prepare and submit to Congress a report summarizing the report of the National Academy of Sciences and the results of such rulemaking proceeding, together with the Secretary's recommendations concerning the establishment and operation of such a system and center and the Secretary's recommendations concerning implementation of the recommendations contained in the report of the National Academy of Sciences.

"(2) Weight to be given to recommendations of nas.—In conducting the review and preparing the report under this subsection, the Secretary shall give substantial weight to the recommendations contained in the report of the National Academy of Sciences submitted under subsection (b).

"(3) Inclusion of reasons for not following recommendations.—If the Secretary does not include in the report prepared for submission to Congress under this subsection a recommendation for implementation of a recommendation contained in the report of the National Academy of Sciences submitted under subsection (b), the Secretary shall include in the report to Congress under this subsection the Secretary's reasons for not recommending implementation of the recommendation of the National Academy of Sciences."

Continually Monitored Telephone Systems

Pub. L. 101–615, §26, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3273, provided that:

"(a) Rulemaking Proceeding.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], the Secretary of Transportation shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding on the feasibility, necessity, and safety benefits of requiring carriers involved in the hazardous materials transportation industry to establish continually monitored telephone systems equipped to provide emergency response information and assistance with respect to accidents and incidents involving hazardous materials. Additional objectives of such proceeding shall be to determine which hazardous materials, if any, should be covered by such a requirement and which segments of such industry (including persons who own and operate motor vehicles, trains, vessels, aircraft, and in-transit storage facilities) should be covered by such a requirement.

"(b) Completion of Proceeding.—Not later than 30 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], the Secretary of Transportation shall complete the proceeding under this section and may issue a final rule relating to establishment of continually monitored telephone systems described in subsection (a)."

1 So in original. Comma probably should not appear.

[§5111. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7111, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1899]

Section, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 769, related to use of rail tank cars built before Jan. 1, 1971, to transport hazardous material in commerce.

§5112. Highway routing of hazardous material

(a) Application.—(1) This section applies to a motor vehicle only if the vehicle is transporting hazardous material in commerce for which placarding of the vehicle is required under regulations prescribed under this chapter. However, the Secretary by regulation may extend application of this section or a standard prescribed under subsection (b) of this section to—

(A) any use of a vehicle under this paragraph to transport any hazardous material in commerce; and

(B) any motor vehicle used to transport hazardous material in commerce.


(2) Except as provided by subsection (d) of this section and section 5125(c) of this title, each State and Indian tribe may establish, maintain, and enforce—

(A) designations of specific highway routes over which hazardous material may and may not be transported by motor vehicle; and

(B) limitations and requirements related to highway routing.


(b) Standards for States and Indian Tribes.—(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the States, shall prescribe by regulation standards for States and Indian tribes to use in carrying out subsection (a) of this section. The standards shall include—

(A) a requirement that a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement of a State or Indian tribe shall enhance public safety in the area subject to the jurisdiction of the State or tribe and in areas of the United States not subject to the jurisdiction of the State or tribe and directly affected by the designation, limitation, or requirement;

(B) minimum procedural requirements to ensure public participation when the State or Indian tribe is establishing a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement;

(C) a requirement that, in establishing a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement, a State or Indian tribe consult with appropriate State, local, and tribal officials having jurisdiction over areas of the United States not subject to the jurisdiction of that State or tribe establishing the designation, limitation, or requirement and with affected industries;

(D) a requirement that a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement of a State or Indian tribe shall ensure through highway routing for the transportation of hazardous material between adjacent areas;

(E) a requirement that a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement of one State or Indian tribe affecting the transportation of hazardous material in another State or tribe may be established, maintained, and enforced by the State or tribe establishing the designation, limitation, or requirement only if—

(i) the designation, limitation, or requirement is agreed to by the other State or tribe within a reasonable period or is approved by the Secretary under subsection (d) of this section; and

(ii) the designation, limitation, or requirement is not an unreasonable burden on commerce;


(F) a requirement that establishing a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement of a State or Indian tribe be completed in a timely way;

(G) a requirement that a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement of a State or Indian tribe provide reasonable routes for motor vehicles transporting hazardous material to reach terminals, facilities for food, fuel, repairs, and rest, and places to load and unload hazardous material;

(H) a requirement that a State be responsible—

(i) for ensuring that political subdivisions of the State comply with standards prescribed under this subsection in establishing, maintaining, and enforcing a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement; and

(ii) for resolving a dispute between political subdivisions; and


(I) a requirement that, in carrying out subsection (a) of this section, a State or Indian tribe shall consider—

(i) population densities;

(ii) the types of highways;

(iii) the types and amounts of hazardous material;

(iv) emergency response capabilities;

(v) the results of consulting with affected persons;

(vi) exposure and other risk factors;

(vii) terrain considerations;

(viii) the continuity of routes;

(ix) alternative routes;

(x) the effects on commerce;

(xi) delays in transportation; and

(xii) other factors the Secretary considers appropriate.


(2) The Secretary may not assign a specific weight that a State or Indian tribe shall use when considering the factors under paragraph (1)(I) of this subsection.

(c) List of Route Designations.—

(1) In general.—In coordination with the States, the Secretary shall update and publish periodically a list of currently effective hazardous material highway route designations.

(2) State responsibilities.—

(A) In general.—Each State shall submit to the Secretary, in a form and manner to be determined by the Secretary and in accordance with subparagraph (B)—

(i) the name of the State agency responsible for hazardous material highway route designations; and

(ii) a list of the State's currently effective hazardous material highway route designations.


(B) Frequency.—Each State shall submit the information described in subparagraph (A)(ii)—

(i) at least once every 2 years; and

(ii) not later than 60 days after a hazardous material highway route designation is established, amended, or discontinued.


(d) Dispute Resolution.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for resolving a dispute related to through highway routing or to an agreement with a proposed highway route designation, limitation, or requirement between or among States, political subdivisions of different States, or Indian tribes.

(2) A State or Indian tribe involved in a dispute under this subsection may petition the Secretary to resolve the dispute. The Secretary shall resolve the dispute not later than one year after receiving the petition. The resolution shall provide the greatest level of highway safety without being an unreasonable burden on commerce and shall ensure compliance with standards prescribed under subsection (b) of this section.

(3)(A) After a petition is filed under this subsection, a civil action about the subject matter of the dispute may be brought in a court only after the earlier of—

(i) the day the Secretary issues a final decision; or

(ii) the last day of the one-year period beginning on the day the Secretary receives the petition.


(B) A State or Indian tribe adversely affected by a decision of the Secretary under this subsection may bring a civil action for judicial review of the decision in an appropriate district court of the United States not later than 89 days after the day the decision becomes final.

(e) Relationship to Other Laws.—This section and regulations prescribed under this section do not affect sections 31111 and 31113 of this title or section 127 of title 23.

(f) Existing Radioactive Material Routing Regulations.—The Secretary is not required to amend or again prescribe regulations related to highway routing designations over which radioactive material may and may not be transported by motor vehicles, and limitations and requirements related to the routing, that were in effect on November 16, 1990.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 769; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1909; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33013(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 839.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5112(a)(1) 49 App.:1804(b)(7). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §105(b)(1)–(3), (5)–(9), (c), 88 Stat. 2157; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §4, 104 Stat. 3248, 3251.
5112(a)(2) 49 App.:1804(b)(1).
5112(b)(1) 49 App.:1804(b)(2), (3).
5112(b)(2) 49 App.:1804(b)(9).
5112(c) 49 App.:1804(c).
5112(d) 49 App.:1804(b)(5).
5112(e) 49 App.:1804(b)(6).
5112(f) 49 App.:1804(b)(8).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "in the area which is subject to the jurisdiction of such State or Indian tribe" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "Not later than 18 months after November 16, 1990" are omitted as obsolete. In clause (H)(i), the words "prescribed under this subsection" are added for clarity.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "within 18 months of November 16, 1990" are omitted as obsolete. The words "over a matter" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(3), the word "civil" is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (e), the words "superseding or otherwise", "application of", "relating to vehicle weight limitations", and "relating to vehicle length and vehicle width limitations, respectively" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the word "modify" is omitted as surplus and for consistency in the revised title. The words "issued by the Department of Transportation before November 16, 1990, and" are omitted as obsolete.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–141 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

2005—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–59 substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Study of Hazardous Materials Transportation by Motor Carriers Near Federal Prisons

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §121, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1681, directed Secretary of Transportation to submit to Congress, not later than 1 year after Aug. 26, 1994, report on results of study to determine safety considerations of transporting hazardous materials by motor carriers in close proximity to Federal prisons, particularly those housing maximum security prisoners, which was to include evaluation of ability of such facilities and designated local planning agencies to safely evacuate such prisoners in event of emergency and any special training, equipment, or personnel that would be required by such facility and designated local emergency planning agencies to carry out such evacuation.

§5113. Unsatisfactory safety rating

A violation of section 31144(c)(3) shall be considered a violation of this chapter, and shall be subject to the penalties in sections 5123 and 5124.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 771; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4009(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 407; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7112(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1899.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5113(a) 49 App.:1814(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §117; added Nov. 3, 1990, Pub. L. 101–500, §15(b)(1), 104 Stat. 1218.
5113(b) 49 App.:1814(b).
5113(c) 49 App.:1814(c).
5113(d) 49 App.:2501 (note). Nov. 3, 1990, Pub. L. 101–500, §15(b)(2), 104 Stat. 1219.

In subsections (a) and (c), the words "individuals" is substituted for "passengers, including the driver" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "Effective January 1, 1991" are omitted as obsolete. The words "to take such action as may be necessary " are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "from the Secretary" and "conditions and other" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act" are omitted as obsolete.

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59 amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "See section 31144."

1998Pub. L. 105–178 substituted "See section 31144." for subsecs. (a) to (d) which related to unsatisfactory safety ratings.

§5114. Air transportation of ionizing radiation material

(a) Transporting in Air Commerce.—Material that emits ionizing radiation spontaneously may be transported on a passenger-carrying aircraft in air commerce (as defined in section 40102(a) of this title) only if the material is intended for a use in, or incident to, research or medical diagnosis or treatment and does not present an unreasonable hazard to health and safety when being prepared for, and during, transportation.

(b) Procedures.—The Secretary shall prescribe procedures for monitoring and enforcing regulations prescribed under this section.

(c) Nonapplication.—This section does not apply to material the Secretary decides does not pose a significant hazard to health or safety when transported because of its low order of radioactivity.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 772; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1909.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5114(a) 49 App.:1807(a) (1st, 2d sentences), (b) (1st sentence). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §108, 88 Stat. 2159; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §10, 104 Stat. 3259.
5114(b) 49 App.:1807(a) (last sentence).
5114(c) 49 App.:1807(b) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the text of 49 App.:1807(a) (1st sentence) is omitted as executed. The words "or combination of materials" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "further" and "effective" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59 substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

§5115. Training curriculum for the public sector

(a) In General.—In coordination with the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretaries of Labor, Energy, and Health and Human Services, and the Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and using existing coordinating mechanisms of the National Response Team and, for radioactive material, the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee, the Secretary of Transportation shall maintain, and update periodically, a current curriculum of courses, including online curriculum as appropriate, necessary to train public sector emergency response and preparedness teams in matters relating to the transportation of hazardous material. Only in developing the curriculum, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with regional response teams established under the national contingency plan established under section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9605), representatives of commissions established under section 301 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001), persons (including governmental entities) that provide training for responding to accidents and incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material, and representatives of persons that respond to those accidents and incidents.

(b) Requirements.—The curriculum maintained and updated under subsection (a) of this section—

(1) shall include—

(A) a recommended course of study to train public sector employees to respond to an accident or incident involving the transportation of hazardous material and to plan for those responses;

(B) recommended courses and minimum number of hours of instruction necessary for public sector employees to be able to respond safely and efficiently to an accident or incident involving the transportation of hazardous material and to plan those responses; and

(C) appropriate emergency response training and planning programs for public sector employees developed with Federal financial assistance, including programs developed with grants made under section 126(g) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 9660a); and


(2) may include recommendations on material appropriate for use in a recommended course described in clause (1)(B) of this subsection.


(c) Training on Complying With Legal Requirements.—A recommended course described in subsection (b)(1)(B) of this section shall provide the training necessary for public sector employees to comply with—

(1) regulations related to hazardous waste operations and emergency response contained in part 1910 of title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, prescribed by the Secretary of Labor;

(2) regulations related to worker protection standards for hazardous waste operations contained in part 311 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, prescribed by the Administrator; and

(3) standards related to emergency response training prescribed by the National Fire Protection Association and such other voluntary consensus standard-setting organizations as the Secretary of Transportation determines appropriate.


(d) Distribution and Publication.—With the National Response Team—

(1) the Secretary shall distribute the curriculum and any updates to the curriculum to the regional response teams and all committees and commissions established under section 301 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001); and

(2) the Secretary may publish and distribute a list of programs and courses maintained and updated under this section and of any programs utilizing such courses.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 772; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(5), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7113, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1899, 1909; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33004(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 832; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VI, §6013, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1570.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5115(a) 49 App.:1815(g)(1), (5). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §117A (g)(1)–(6), (8); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §17, 104 Stat. 3265, 3267.
5115(b) 49 App.:1815(g)(2), (3).
5115(c) 49 App.:1815(g)(4).
5115(d)(1) 49 App.:1815(g)(6).
5115(d)(2) 49 App.:1815(g)(8).

In subsection (c)(3), the words "including standards 471 and 472" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), the word "updates" is substituted for "amendments" for clarity.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:5115(b)(1)(C) to make a cross-reference more precise.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–94 inserted ", including online curriculum as appropriate," after "a current curriculum of courses".

2012—Subsecs. (b)(1)(B), (2), (c). Pub. L. 112–141 struck out "basic" after "recommended".

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §7113(a), inserted heading and first sentence and struck out former heading and first sentence. Text read as follows: "Not later than November 16, 1992, in coordination with the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Secretaries of Labor, Energy, and Health and Human Services, and Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and using the existing coordinating mechanisms of the national response team and, for radioactive material, the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee, the Secretary of Transportation shall develop and update periodically a curriculum consisting of a list of courses necessary to train public sector emergency response and preparedness teams."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §7113(b)(1), substituted "maintained and updated" for "developed" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–59, §7113(b)(2), substituted "with Federal financial assistance, including programs" for "under other United States Government grant programs, including those".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–59, §7113(c), inserted "and such other voluntary consensus standard-setting organizations as the Secretary of Transportation determines appropriate" before period at end.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §7113(d)(1), substituted "National Response Team" for "national response team" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7113(d)(2), substituted "Secretary" for "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7113(d)(3), inserted "and distribute" after "publish" and substituted "list of programs and courses maintained and updated under this section and of any programs utilizing such courses" for "list of programs that uses a course developed under this section for training public sector employees to respond to an accident or incident involving the transportation of hazardous material".

1994—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "126(g)" for "126".

Change of Name

"Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" substituted for "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" in subsec. (a) on authority of section 612(c) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6, Domestic Security. Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§5116. Planning and training grants, monitoring, and review

(a) Planning and Training Grants.—(1) The Secretary shall make grants to States and Indian tribes—

(A) to develop, improve, and carry out emergency plans under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001 et seq.), including ascertaining flow patterns of hazardous material on lands under the jurisdiction of a State or Indian tribe, and between lands under the jurisdiction of a State or Indian tribe and lands of another State or Indian tribe;

(B) to decide on the need for regional hazardous material emergency response teams; and

(C) to train public sector employees to respond to accidents and incidents involving hazardous material.


(2) To the extent that a grant is used to train emergency responders under paragraph (1)(C), the State or Indian tribe shall provide written certification to the Secretary that the emergency responders who receive training under the grant will have the ability to protect nearby persons, property, and the environment from the effects of accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material in accordance with existing regulations or National Fire Protection Association standards for competence of responders to accidents and incidents involving hazardous materials.

(3) The Secretary may make a grant to a State or Indian tribe under paragraph (1) of this subsection only if—

(A) the State or Indian tribe certifies that the total amount the State or Indian tribe expends (except amounts of the Federal Government) for the purpose of the grant will at least equal the average level of expenditure for the last 5 years; and

(B) any emergency response training provided under the grant shall consist of—

(i) a course developed or identified under section 5115 of this title; or

(ii) any other course the Secretary determines is consistent with the objectives of this section.


(4) A State or Indian tribe receiving a grant under this subsection shall ensure that planning and emergency response training under the grant is coordinated with adjacent States and Indian tribes.

(5) A training grant under paragraph (1)(C) may be used—

(A) to pay—

(i) the tuition costs of public sector employees being trained;

(ii) travel expenses of those employees to and from the training facility;

(iii) room and board of those employees when at the training facility; and

(iv) travel expenses of individuals providing the training;


(B) by the State, political subdivision, or Indian tribe to provide the training; and

(C) to make an agreement with a person (including an authority of a State, a political subdivision of a State or Indian tribe, or a local jurisdiction), subject to approval by the Secretary, to provide the training if—

(i) the agreement allows the Secretary and the State or Indian tribe to conduct random examinations, inspections, and audits of the training without prior notice;

(ii) the person agrees to have an auditable accounting system; and

(iii) the State or Indian tribe conducts at least one on-site observation of the training each year.


(6) The Secretary shall allocate amounts made available for grants under this subsection among eligible States and Indian tribes based on the needs of the States and Indian tribes for emergency response planning and training. In making a decision about those needs, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the number of hazardous material facilities in the State or on land under the jurisdiction of the Indian tribe;

(B) the types and amounts of hazardous material transported in the State or on such land;

(C) whether the State or Indian tribe imposes and collects a fee for transporting hazardous material;

(D) whether such fee is used only to carry out a purpose related to transporting hazardous material;

(E) the past record of the State or Indian tribe in effectively managing planning and training grants; and

(F) any other factors the Secretary determines are appropriate to carry out this subsection.


(b) Compliance With Certain Law.—The Secretary may make a grant to a State under this section in a fiscal year only if the State certifies that the State complies with sections 301 and 303 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001, 11003).

(c) Applications.—A State or Indian tribe interested in receiving a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary. The application must be submitted at the time, and contain information, the Secretary requires by regulation to carry out the objectives of this section.

(d) Government's Share of Costs.—A grant under this section is for 80 percent of the cost the State or Indian tribe incurs in the fiscal year to carry out the activity for which the grant is made. Amounts of the State or tribe under subsection (a)(3)(A) of this section are not part of the non-Government share under this subsection.

(e) Monitoring and Technical Assistance.—In coordination with the Secretaries of Transportation and Energy, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall monitor public sector emergency response planning and training for an accident or incident involving hazardous material. Considering the results of the monitoring, the Secretaries, Administrators, and Director each shall provide technical assistance to a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe for carrying out emergency response training and planning for an accident or incident involving hazardous material and shall coordinate the assistance using the existing coordinating mechanisms of the National Response Team and, for radioactive material, the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee.

(f) Delegation of Authority.—To minimize administrative costs and to coordinate Federal financial assistance for emergency response training and planning, the Secretary may delegate to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and Secretaries of Labor and Energy any of the following:

(1) authority to receive applications for grants under this section.

(2) authority to review applications for technical compliance with this section.

(3) authority to review applications to recommend approval or disapproval.

(4) any other ministerial duty associated with grants under this section.


(g) Minimizing Duplication of Effort and Expenses.—The Secretaries of Transportation, Labor, and Energy, Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall review periodically, with the head of each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government, all emergency response and preparedness training programs of that department, agency, or instrumentality to minimize duplication of effort and expense of the department, agency, or instrumentality in carrying out the programs and shall take necessary action to minimize duplication.

(h) Annual Registration Fee Account and Its Uses.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall establish an account in the Treasury (to be known as the "Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund") into which the Secretary of the Treasury shall deposit amounts the Secretary of Transportation transfers to the Secretary of the Treasury under section 5108(g)(2)(C) of this title. Without further appropriation, amounts in the account are available—

(1) to make grants under this section and section 5107(e);

(2) to monitor and provide technical assistance under subsection (e) of this section;

(3) to publish and distribute an emergency response guide; and

(4) to pay administrative costs of carrying out this section and sections 5107(e) and 5108(g)(2) of this title, except that not more than 2 percent of the amounts made available from the account in a fiscal year may be used to pay those costs.


(i) Supplemental Training Grants.—

(1) In order to further the purposes of subsection (a), the Secretary shall, subject to the availability of funds and through a competitive process, make a grant or make grants to national nonprofit fire service organizations for the purpose of training instructors to conduct hazardous materials response training programs for individuals with statutory responsibility to respond to hazardous materials accidents and incidents.

(2) For the purposes of this subsection the Secretary, after consultation with interested organizations, shall—

(A) identify regions or locations in which fire departments or other organizations which provide emergency response to hazardous materials transportation accidents and incidents are in need of hazardous materials training; and

(B) prioritize such needs and develop a means for identifying additional specific training needs.


(3) Funds granted to an organization under this subsection shall only be used—

(A) to provide training, including portable training, for instructors to conduct hazardous materials response training programs;

(B) to purchase training equipment used exclusively to train instructors to conduct such training programs; and

(C) to disseminate such information and materials as are necessary for the conduct of such training programs.


(4) The Secretary may only make a grant to an organization under this subsection in a fiscal year if the organization enters into an agreement with the Secretary to provide training, including portable training, for instructors to conduct hazardous materials response training programs in such fiscal year that will use—

(A) a course or courses developed or identified under section 5115 of this title; or

(B) other courses which the Secretary determines are consistent with the objectives of this subsection;


for training individuals with statutory responsibility to respond to accidents and incidents involving hazardous materials. Such agreement also shall provide that training courses shall comply with Federal regulations and national consensus standards for hazardous materials response and be open to all such individuals on a nondiscriminatory basis.

(5) The Secretary may not award a grant to an organization under this subsection unless the organization ensures that emergency responders who receive training under the grant will have the ability to protect nearby persons, property, and the environment from the effects of accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material in accordance with existing regulations or National Fire Protection Association standards for competence of responders to accidents and incidents involving hazardous materials.

(6) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (3), to the extent determined appropriate by the Secretary, a grant awarded by the Secretary to an organization under this subsection to conduct hazardous material response training programs may be used to train individuals with responsibility to respond to accidents and incidents involving hazardous material.

(7) For the purposes of this subsection, the term "portable training" means live, instructor-led training provided by certified fire service instructors that can be offered in any suitable setting, rather than specific designated facilities. Under this training delivery model, instructors travel to locations convenient to students and utilize local facilities and resources.

(8) The Secretary may impose such additional terms and conditions on grants to be made under this subsection as the Secretary determines are necessary to protect the interests of the United States and to carry out the objectives of this subsection.


(j) Reports.—The Secretary shall submit an annual report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and make available the report to the public. The report submitted under this subsection shall include information on the allocation and uses of the planning and training grants under subsection (a) and grants under subsection (i) of this section and under subsections (e) and (i) of section 5107. The report submitted under this subsection shall identify the ultimate recipients of such grants and include—

(1) a detailed accounting and description of each grant expenditure by each grant recipient, including the amount of, and purpose for, each expenditure;

(2) the number of persons trained under the grant program, by training level;

(3) an evaluation of the efficacy of such planning and training programs; and

(4) any recommendations the Secretary may have for improving such grant programs.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 773; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §§105, 119(a), (d)(2), (3), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1673, 1679, 1680; Pub. L. 103–429, §7(c), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4389; Pub. L. 104–287, §§5(8), 6(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389, 3398; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7114(a)–(d)(2), (e), 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1900, 1909; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33004(b), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 832; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7203(a), (b)(2), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1589, 1591.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5116(a) 49 App.:1815(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §117A(a)–(f), (g)(7), (9), (h)(6); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §17, 104 Stat. 3263, 3266, 3267, 3268.
5116(b)(1) 49 App.:1815(b)(1).
5116(b)(2) 49 App.:1815(b) (2)–(4).
5116(b)(3) 49 App.:1815(b)(5), (6).
5116(b)(4) 49 App.:1815(b)(7).
5116(c) 49 App.:1815(c).
5116(d) 49 App.:1815(e).
5116(e) 49 App.:1815(d).
5116(f) 49 App.:1815(g)(7).
5116(g) 49 App.:1815(f).
5116(h) 49 App.:1815(g)(9).
5116(i) 49 App.:1815(h)(6).

In subsections (a)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(A), the words "at least equal" are substituted for "be maintained at a level which does not fall below" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(2)(B), the words "by the State emergency response commission" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2)(B)(i), the words "or courses" are omitted because of 1:1.

In subsection (c), the words "including compliance with such sections with respect to accidents and incidents involving the transportation of hazardous materials" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the word "section" is substituted for "subsection" for clarity because there are no objectives in the subsection being restated.

In subsection (e), the words "A grant under this section is for" are substituted for "By a grant under this section, the Secretary shall reimburse any State or Indian tribe an amount not to exceed" to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title. The words "which are required to be expended under subsections (a)(2) and (b)(2) of this section" are omitted as surplus. The words "under this subsection" are added for clarity.

In subsection (h), the words "including coordination of training programs" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 104–287, §5(8)

This amends 49:5116(j)(4)(A) to correct an erroneous cross-reference.

References in Text

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), is title III of Pub. L. 99–499, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1728, which is classified generally to chapter 116 (§11001 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11001 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(3), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which related to planning grants.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(1), (2), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (b) and (c), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to training grants.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(1), (b)(2)(A), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and substituted "subsection (a)(3)(A)" for "subsections (a)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(A)". Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(1), redesignated subsecs. (f) to (h) as (e) to (g), respectively. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(b)(2)(B)(i), inserted "and section 5107(e)" after "section".

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(b)(2)(B)(ii), substituted "subsection (e)" for "subsection (f)".

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(b)(2)(B)(iii), substituted "5107(e) and 5108(g)(2)" for "5108(g)(2) and 5115".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(1), (b)(2)(C), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i) and substituted "subsection (a)" for "subsection (b)" in par. (1). Former subsec. (i) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(b)(2)(D), substituted, in introductory provisions, "planning and training grants under subsection (a) and grants under subsection (i) of this section and under subsections (e) and (i) of section 5107" for "planning grants allocated under subsection (a), training grants under subsection (b), and grants under subsection (j) of this section and under section 5107" and redesignated subpars. (A) to (D) as pars. (1) to (4), respectively.

Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 114–94, §7203(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j).

2012—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §33004(b)(1), inserted at end "To the extent that a grant is used to train emergency responders, the State or Indian tribe shall provide written certification to the Secretary that the emergency responders who receive training under the grant will have the ability to protect nearby persons, property, and the environment from the effects of accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material in accordance with existing regulations or National Fire Protection Association standards for competence of responders to accidents and incidents involving hazardous materials."

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §33004(b)(2)(A), substituted "funds and through a competitive process, make a grant or make grants to national nonprofit fire service organizations for" for "funds, make grants to national nonprofit employee organizations engaged solely in fighting fires for".

Subsec. (j)(3)(A). Pub. L. 112–141, §33004(b)(2)(B), substituted "provide training, including portable training, for" for "train".

Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 112–141, §33004(b)(2)(C)(ii), which directed insertion of "comply with Federal regulations and national consensus standards for hazardous materials response and" after "training course shall", was executed by making the insertion after "training courses shall" in concluding provisions, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 112–141, §33004(b)(2)(C)(i), substituted "provide training, including portable training, for" for "train" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 112–141, §33004(b)(2)(D), (E), added pars. (5) to (7) and redesignated former par. (5) as (8).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 112–141, §33004(b)(3), substituted "an annual report" for "annually" and inserted "the report" after "make available" in first sentence, substituted ". The report submitted under this subsection shall include information" for "information" and "The report submitted under this subsection shall identify the ultimate recipients of such grants and include—" for "The report shall identify the ultimate recipients of training grants and include a detailed accounting of all grant expenditures by grant recipients, the number of persons trained under the grant programs, and an evaluation of the efficacy of training programs carried out.", and added pars. (A) to (D).

2005—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–59, §7114(a), substituted "5 fiscal years" for "2 fiscal years".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–59, §7114(a), substituted "5 fiscal years" for "2 fiscal years".

Subsec. (b)(3)(C), (4). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions of par. (3)(C) and "Secretary shall allocate" for "Secretary of Transportation shall allocate" in introductory provisions of par. (4).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in subsec. (c) and "Secretary." for "Secretary of Transportation." in subsec. (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–59, §7114(b), substituted "National Response Team" for "national response team".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–59, §7114(c), substituted "Federal financial assistance" for "Government grant programs" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 109–59, §7114(d)(1), (2), in introductory provisions, inserted "(to be known as the 'Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund')" after "an account in the Treasury" and struck out "collects under section 5108(g)(2)(A) of this title and" before "transfers to the Secretary", added par. (3), and redesignated former par. (3) as (4) and substituted "2 percent" for "10 percent".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 109–59, §7114(e), substituted "The Secretary shall submit annually to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and make available to the public information on the allocation and uses of the planning grants allocated under subsection (a), training grants under subsection (b), and grants under subsection (j) of this section and under section 5107" for "Not later than September 30, 1997, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the allocation and uses of training grants authorized under subsection (b) for fiscal year 1993 through fiscal year 1996 and grants authorized under subsection (j) and section 5107 for fiscal years 1995 and 1996" and "The report" for "Such report".

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–287, §6(b), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–311, §105(b)(2). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (j)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(8), substituted "section 5115 of this title" for "subsection (g)".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–311, §105(a), in introductory provisions inserted "and Indian tribes" after "States", and in subpar. (A) substituted "on lands under the jurisdiction of a State or Indian tribe, and between lands under the jurisdiction of a State or Indian tribe and lands of another State or Indian tribe" for "in a State and between States".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–311, §105(b)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 104–287, §6(b), struck out "the State" after "only if" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 103–311, §105(b)(1), inserted "or Indian tribe" after "grant to a State" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–311, §105(b)(1), (3), inserted "the State or Indian tribe" before "certifies" and "or Indian tribe" before "expends".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–311, §105(b)(4), inserted "the State" before "agrees".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–311, §105(c), added par. (3).

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 103–311, §119(d)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 103–429, struck out "and section 5107(e) of this title" after "under this section".

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 103–311, §119(d)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 103–429, substituted "5108(g)(2)" for "5107(e), 5108(g)(2),".

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 103–311, §119(a), added subsecs. (j) and (k).

Change of Name

"Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency", "Administrators, and Director", and "Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences" substituted for "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency", "Administrator, and Directors", and "Directors of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences", respectively, in subsecs. (f) to (h), on authority of section 612(c) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6, Domestic Security. Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–287, §6(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3398, provided that the amendment made by section 6(b) is effective Aug. 26, 1994.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–429, §7(c), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4389, provided that the amendment made by section 7(c) is effective Aug. 26, 1994.

Savings Clause

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7203(c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1591, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section and section 5108 of this title] may be construed to prohibit the Secretary [of Transportation] from recovering and deobligating funds from grants that are not managed or expended in compliance with a grant agreement."

§5117. Special permits and exclusions

(a) Authority To Issue Special Permits.—(1) As provided under procedures prescribed by regulation, the Secretary may issue, modify, or terminate a special permit authorizing a variance from this chapter or a regulation prescribed under section 5103(b), 5104, 5110, or 5112 of this title to a person performing a function regulated by the Secretary under section 5103(b)(1) in a way that achieves a safety level—

(A) at least equal to the safety level required under this chapter; or

(B) consistent with the public interest and this chapter, if a required safety level does not exist.


(2) A special permit issued under this section shall be effective for an initial period of not more than 2 years and may be renewed by the Secretary upon application for successive periods of not more than 4 years each or, in the case of a special permit relating to section 5112, for an additional period of not more than 2 years.

(b) Applications.—When applying for a special permit or renewal of a special permit under this section, the person must provide a safety analysis prescribed by the Secretary that justifies the special permit. The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register notice that an application for a new special permit or a modification to an existing special permit has been filed and shall give the public an opportunity to inspect the safety analysis and comment on the application. The Secretary shall make available to the public on the Department of Transportation's Internet Web site any special permit other than a new special permit or a modification to an existing special permit and shall give the public an opportunity to inspect the safety analysis and comment on the application for a period of not more than 15 days. This subsection does not require the release of information protected by law from public disclosure.

(c) Applications To Be Dealt With Promptly.—The Secretary shall issue or renew a special permit or approval for which an application was filed or deny such issuance or renewal within 120 days after the first day of the month following the date of the filing of such application, or the Secretary shall make available to the public a statement of the reason why the Secretary's decision on a special permit or approval is delayed, along with an estimate of the additional time necessary before the decision is made.

(d) Exclusions.—(1) The Secretary shall exclude, in any part, from this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter—

(A) a public vessel (as defined in section 2101 of title 46);

(B) a vessel exempted under section 3702 of title 46 from chapter 37 of title 46; and

(C) a vessel to the extent it is regulated under the Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.).


(2) This chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter do not prohibit—

(A) or regulate transportation of a firearm (as defined in section 232 of title 18), or ammunition for a firearm, by an individual for personal use; or

(B) transportation of a firearm or ammunition in commerce.


(e) Limitation on Authority.—Unless the Secretary decides that an emergency exists, a special permit or renewal granted under this section is the only way a person subject to this chapter may be granted a variance from this chapter.

(f) Incorporation Into Regulations.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date on which a special permit has been in continuous effect for a 10-year period, the Secretary shall conduct a review and analysis of that special permit to determine whether it may be converted into the hazardous materials regulations.

(2) Factors.—In conducting the review and analysis under paragraph (1), the Secretary may consider—

(A) the safety record for hazardous materials transported under the special permit;

(B) the application of a special permit;

(C) the suitability of provisions in the special permit for incorporation into the hazardous materials regulations; and

(D) rulemaking activity in related areas.


(3) Rulemaking.—After completing the review and analysis under paragraph (1) and after providing notice and opportunity for public comment, the Secretary shall either institute a rulemaking to incorporate the special permit into the hazardous materials regulations or publish in the Federal Register the Secretary's justification for why the special permit is not appropriate for incorporation into the regulations.


(g) Disclosure of Final Action.—The Secretary shall periodically, but at least every 120 days—

(1) publish in the Federal Register notice of the final disposition of each application for a new special permit, modification to an existing special permit, or approval during the preceding quarter; and

(2) make available to the public on the Department of Transportation's Internet Web site notice of the final disposition of any other special permit during the preceding quarter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §120(a), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1680; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7115(a)(1), (b)–(g), 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1901, 1909; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33012(c), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7204, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1592.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5117(a) 49 App.:1806(a) (1st, 2d sentences). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §107, 88 Stat. 2158; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §9, 104 Stat. 3259.
5117(b) 49 App.:1806(a) (3d–last sentences).
5117(c)(1) 49 App.:1806(b).
5117(c)(2) 49 App.:1806(c).
5117(d) 49 App.:1806(d).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "or renew" and "subject to the requirements of this chapter" are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words "at least equal to the safety level required under this chapter" are substituted for "which is equal to or exceeds that level of safety which would be required in the absence of such exemption" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "issued or renewed" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "upon application" and "grant of such" are omitted as surplus. The words "give the public an opportunity to inspect" are substituted for "afford access to . . . public" for clarity. The words "described by subsection (b) of section 552 of title 5, or which is otherwise" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), clauses (A) and (B) are substituted for "any vessel which is excepted from the application of section 201 of the Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972 by paragraph (2) of such section". Section 201 of that Act amended section 4417a of the Revised Statutes (classified at 46:391a prior to its repeal and reenactment as part of the codification of subtitle II of title 46 in 1983). Clauses (A) and (B) restate the exceptions provided by section 201 of that Act and by section 4417a of the Revised Statutes as subsequently amended. Clause (C) is substituted for "any other vessel regulated under such Act, to the extent of such regulation" because of the restatement.

In subsection (c)(2), before clause (A), the word "prescribed" is substituted for "issued" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (d), the words "by which", "the requirements of", and "or relieved of the obligation to meet any requirements imposed under" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(C), is Pub. L. 92–340, July 10, 1972, 86 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 25 (§1221 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1221 of Title 33 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–94, §7204(1), substituted "an application for a new special permit or a modification to an existing special permit" for "an application for a special permit" and inserted "The Secretary shall make available to the public on the Department of Transportation's Internet Web site any special permit other than a new special permit or a modification to an existing special permit and shall give the public an opportunity to inspect the safety analysis and comment on the application for a period of not more than 15 days." before "This subsection".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–94, §7204(2), substituted "a special permit or approval" for "the special permit" in two places, "120 days" for "180 days", and "make available to the public" for "publish", and struck out "in the Federal Register" after "a statement".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–94, §7204(3), added subsec. (g).

2012—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 112–141 added subsec. (f).

2005Pub. L. 109–59, §7115(a)(1), substituted "Special permits and exclusions" for "Exemptions and exclusions" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §7115(b), substituted "Issue Special Permits" for "Exempt" in heading.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–59, §7115(c), in introductory provisions, substituted "issue, modify, or terminate a special permit authorizing a variance" for "issue an exemption" and "performing a function regulated by the Secretary under section 5103(b)(1)" for "transporting, or causing to be transported, hazardous material".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7115(d), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "An exemption under this subsection is effective for not more than 2 years and may be renewed on application to the Secretary."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §7115(e), substituted "the special permit" for "the exemption" and substituted "a special permit" for "an exemption" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §7115(f), substituted "the special permit" for "the exemption" in two places.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7115(g), substituted "a special permit" for "an exemption" and "be granted a variance" for "be exempt".

1994—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 103–311 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Special Permits, Approvals, and Exclusions

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33012(a), (b), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 838, provided that:

"(a) Rulemaking.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [see section 3(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment notes under section 101 of Title 23, Highways], the Secretary [of Transportation], after providing notice and an opportunity for public comment, shall issue regulations that establish—

"(1) standard operating procedures to support administration of the special permit and approval programs; and

"(2) objective criteria to support the evaluation of special permit and approval applications.

"(b) Review of Special Permits.—

"(1) Review.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall conduct a review and analysis of special permits that have been in continuous effect for a 10-year period to determine which special permits may be converted into the hazardous materials regulations.

"(2) Factors.—In conducting the review and analysis under paragraph (1), the Secretary may consider—

"(A) the safety record for hazardous materials transported under the special permit;

"(B) the application of a special permit;

"(C) the suitability of provisions in the special permit for incorporation into the hazardous materials regulations; and

"(D) rulemaking activity in related areas.

"(3) Rulemaking.—After completing the review and analysis under paragraph (1), but not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act, and after providing notice and opportunity for public comment, the Secretary shall issue regulations to incorporate into the hazardous materials regulations any special permits identified in the review under paragraph (1) that the Secretary determines are appropriate for incorporation, based on the factors identified in paragraph (2)."

§5118. Hazardous material technical assessment, research and development, and analysis program

(a) Risk Reduction.—

(1) Program authorized.—The Secretary of Transportation may develop and implement a hazardous material technical assessment, research and development, and analysis program for the purpose of—

(A) reducing the risks associated with the transportation of hazardous material; and

(B) identifying and evaluating new technologies to facilitate the safe, secure, and efficient transportation of hazardous material.


(2) Coordination.—In developing the program under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) utilize information gathered from other modal administrations with similar programs;

(B) coordinate with other modal administrations, as appropriate; and

(C) coordinate, as appropriate, with other Federal agencies.


(b) Cooperation.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary shall work cooperatively with regulated and other entities, including shippers, carriers, emergency responders, State and local officials, and academic institutions.

(c) Cooperative Research.—

(1) In general.—As part of the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary may carry out cooperative research on hazardous materials transport.

(2) National academies.—The Secretary may enter into an agreement with the National Academies to support research described in paragraph (1).

(3) Research.—Research conducted under this subsection may include activities relating to—

(A) emergency planning and response, including information and programs that can be readily assessed and implemented in local jurisdictions;

(B) risk analysis and perception and data assessment;

(C) commodity flow data, including voluntary collaboration between shippers and first responders for secure data exchange of critical information;

(D) integration of safety and security;

(E) cargo packaging and handling;

(F) hazmat release consequences; and

(G) materials and equipment testing.

(Added Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33007(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 835; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VI, §6014, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1570.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5118, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 108–426, §2(c)(2), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2424, related to employment of additional hazardous material safety inspectors, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7115(h), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1901.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 114–94, §6014(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–94, §6014(2), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

§5119. Uniform forms and procedures

(a) Establishment of Working Group.—The Secretary shall establish a working group of State and local government officials, including representatives of the National Governors' Association, the National Association of Counties, the National League of Cities, the United States Conference of Mayors, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the Alliance for Uniform Hazmat Transportation Procedures.

(b) Purpose of Working Group.—The purpose of the working group shall be to develop uniform forms and procedures for a State to register, and to issue permits to, persons that transport, or cause to be transported, hazardous material by motor vehicle in the State.

(c) Limitation on Working Group.—The working group may not propose to define or limit the amount of a fee a State may impose or collect.

(d) Procedure.—The Secretary shall develop a procedure for the working group to employ in developing recommendations for the Secretary to harmonize existing State registration and permit laws and regulations relating to the transportation of hazardous materials, with special attention paid to each State's unique safety concerns and interest in maintaining strong hazmat safety standards.

(e) Report of Working Group.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, the working group shall transmit to the Secretary a report containing recommendations for establishing uniform forms and procedures described in subsection (b).

(f) Regulations.—Not later than 18 months after the date the working group's report is delivered to the Secretary, the Secretary shall issue regulations to carry out such recommendations of the working group as the Secretary considers appropriate. In developing such regulations, the Secretary shall consider the State needs associated with the transition to and implementation of a uniform forms and procedures program.

(g) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as prohibiting a State from voluntarily participating in a program of uniform forms and procedures until such time as the Secretary issues regulations under subsection (f).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7116, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1901.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5119(a) 49 App.:1819(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §121(a)–(g); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §22, 104 Stat. 3271; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §507, 106 Stat. 3312.
5119(b) 49 App.:1819(b), (c).
5119(c)(1) 49 App.:1819(d).
5119(c)(2) 49 App.:1819(e).
5119(c)(3) 49 App.:1819(f).
5119(d) 49 App.:1819(g).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "As soon as practicable after November 16, 1990" are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "Subject to the provisions of this subsection" and "to the Secretary" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59, which was approved Aug. 10, 2005.

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) relating to establishment of working group, consultation and reporting, regulations, and relationship to other laws.

1996—Subsec. (b)(2), Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

§5120. International uniformity of standards and requirements

(a) Participation in International Forums.—Subject to guidance and direction from the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Transportation shall participate in international forums that establish or recommend mandatory standards and requirements for transporting hazardous material in international commerce.

(b) Consultation.—The Secretary may consult with interested authorities to ensure that, to the extent practicable, regulations the Secretary prescribes under sections 5103(b), 5104, 5110, and 5112 of this title are consistent with standards and requirements related to transporting hazardous material that international authorities adopt.

(c) Differences With International Standards and Requirements.—This section—

(1) does not require the Secretary to prescribe a standard or requirement identical to a standard or requirement adopted by an international authority if the Secretary decides the standard or requirement is unnecessary or unsafe; and

(2) does not prohibit the Secretary from prescribing a safety standard or requirement more stringent than a standard or requirement adopted by an international authority if the Secretary decides the standard or requirement is necessary in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 778; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7117, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1902, 1909.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5120(a) 49 App.:1804(d)(1). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §105(d), 88 Stat. 2157; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615 §4, 104 Stat. 3252.
5120(b) 49 App.:1804(d)(2) (1st sentence).
5120(c) 49 App.:1804(d)(2) (last sentence).

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary may" for "Secretary of Transportation may".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7117(a), inserted "and requirements" after "standards".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary to prescribe" for "Secretary of Transportation to prescribe".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7117(b)(1), inserted "or requirement" after "standard" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7117(b)(2), struck out "included in a standard" before "adopted" and inserted "standard or" before "requirement" wherever appearing.

§5121. Administrative

(a) General Authority.—To carry out this chapter, the Secretary may investigate, conduct tests, make reports, issue subpenas, conduct hearings, require the production of records and property, take depositions, and conduct research, development, demonstration, and training activities. Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d), after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary may issue an order requiring compliance with this chapter or a regulation prescribed, or an order, special permit, or approval issued, under this chapter.

(b) Records, Reports, and Information.—A person subject to this chapter shall—

(1) maintain records and property, make reports, and provide information the Secretary by regulation or order requires; and

(2) make the records, property, reports, and information available for inspection when the Secretary undertakes an investigation or makes a request.


(c) Inspections and Investigations.—

(1) In general.—A designated officer, employee, or agent of the Secretary—

(A) may inspect and investigate, at a reasonable time and in a reasonable manner, records and property relating to a function described in section 5103(b)(1);

(B) except in the case of packaging immediately adjacent to its hazardous material contents, may gain access to, open, and examine a package offered for, or in, transportation when the officer, employee, or agent has an objectively reasonable and articulable belief that the package may contain a hazardous material;

(C) may remove from transportation a package or related packages in a shipment offered for or in transportation for which—

(i) such officer, employee, or agent has an objectively reasonable and articulable belief that the package may pose an imminent hazard; and

(ii) such officer, employee, or agent contemporaneously documents such belief in accordance with procedures set forth in guidance or regulations prescribed under subsection (e);


(D) may gather information from the offeror, carrier, packaging manufacturer or tester, or other person responsible for the package, to ascertain the nature and hazards of the contents of the package;

(E) as necessary, under terms and conditions specified by the Secretary, may order the offeror, carrier, packaging manufacturer or tester, or other person responsible for the package to have the package transported to, opened, and the contents examined and analyzed, at a facility appropriate for the conduct of such examination and analysis;

(F) when safety might otherwise be compromised, may authorize properly qualified personnel to assist in the activities conducted under this subsection; and

(G) shall provide to the affected offeror, carrier, packaging manufacturer or tester, or other person responsible for the package reasonable notice of—

(i) his or her decision to exercise his or her authority under paragraph (1);

(ii) any findings made; and

(iii) any actions being taken as a result of a finding of noncompliance.


(2) Display of credentials.—An officer, employee, or agent acting under this subsection shall display proper credentials, in person or in writing, when requested.

(3) Safe resumption of transportation.—In instances when, as a result of an inspection or investigation under this subsection, an imminent hazard is not found to exist, the Secretary, in accordance with procedures set forth in regulations prescribed under subsection (e), shall assist—

(A) in the safe and prompt resumption of transportation of the package concerned; or

(B) in any case in which the hazardous material being transported is perishable, in the safe and expeditious resumption of transportation of the perishable hazardous material.


(d) Emergency Orders.—

(1) In general.—If, upon inspection, investigation, testing, or research, the Secretary determines that a violation of a provision of this chapter, or a regulation prescribed under this chapter, or an unsafe condition or practice, constitutes or is causing an imminent hazard, the Secretary may issue or impose emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without notice or an opportunity for a hearing, but only to the extent necessary to abate the imminent hazard.

(2) Written orders.—The action of the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall be in a written emergency order that—

(A) describes the violation, condition, or practice that constitutes or is causing the imminent hazard;

(B) states the restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders issued or imposed; and

(C) describes the standards and procedures for obtaining relief from the order.


(3) Opportunity for review.—After taking action under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide for review of the action under section 554 of title 5 if a petition for review is filed within 20 calendar days of the date of issuance of the order for the action.

(4) Expiration of effectiveness of order.—If a petition for review of an action is filed under paragraph (3) and the review under that paragraph is not completed by the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date the petition is filed, the action shall cease to be effective at the end of such period unless the Secretary determines, in writing, that the imminent hazard providing a basis for the action continues to exist.

(5) Out-of-service order defined.—In this subsection, the term "out-of-service order" means a requirement that an aircraft, vessel, motor vehicle, train, railcar, locomotive, other vehicle, transport unit, transport vehicle, freight container, potable tank, or other package not be moved until specified conditions have been met.


(e) Regulations.—

(1) Temporary regulations.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety and Security Reauthorization Act of 2005, the Secretary shall issue temporary regulations to carry out subsections (c) and (d). The temporary regulations shall expire on the date of issuance of the regulations under paragraph (2).

(2) Final regulations.—Not later than 1 year after such date of enactment, the Secretary shall issue regulations to carry out subsections (c) and (d) in accordance with subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

(3) Matters to be addressed.—The regulations issued under this subsection shall address—

(A) the safe and expeditious resumption of transportation of perishable hazardous material, including radiopharmaceuticals and other medical products, that may require timely delivery due to life-threatening situations;

(B) the means by which—

(i) noncompliant packages that present an imminent hazard are placed out-of-service until the condition is corrected; and

(ii) noncompliant packages that do not present a hazard are moved to their final destination;


(C) appropriate training and equipment for inspectors; and

(D) the proper closure of packaging in accordance with the hazardous material regulations.


(f) Facility, Staff, and Reporting System on Risks, Emergencies, and Actions.—(1) The Secretary shall—

(A) maintain a facility and technical staff sufficient to provide, within the United States Government, the capability of evaluating a risk related to the transportation of hazardous material and material alleged to be hazardous;

(B) maintain a central reporting system and information center capable of providing information and advice to law enforcement and firefighting personnel, other interested individuals, and officers and employees of the Government and State and local governments on meeting an emergency related to the transportation of hazardous material; and

(C) conduct a continuous review on all aspects of transporting hazardous material to decide on and take appropriate actions to ensure safe transportation of hazardous material.


(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection does not prevent the Secretary from making a contract with a private entity for use of a supplemental reporting system and information center operated and maintained by the contractor.

(g) Grants and Cooperative Agreements.—The Secretary may enter into grants and cooperative agreements with a person, agency, or instrumentality of the United States, a unit of State or local government, an Indian tribe, a foreign government (in coordination with the Department of State), an educational institution, or other appropriate entity—

(1) to expand risk assessment and emergency response capabilities with respect to the safety and security of transportation of hazardous material;

(2) to enhance emergency communications capacity as determined necessary by the Secretary, including the use of integrated, interoperable emergency communications technologies where appropriate;

(3) to conduct research, development, demonstration, risk assessment, and emergency response planning and training activities; or

(4) to otherwise carry out this chapter.


(h) Report.—The Secretary shall, once every 2 years, prepare and make available to the public on the Department of Transportation's Internet Web site a comprehensive report on the transportation of hazardous materials during the preceding 2 calendar years. The report shall include—

(1) a statistical compilation of accidents and casualties related to the transportation of hazardous material;

(2) a list and summary of applicable Government regulations, criteria, orders, and special permits;

(3) a summary of the basis for each special permit;

(4) an evaluation of the effectiveness of enforcement activities relating to a function regulated by the Secretary under section 5103(b)(1) and the degree of voluntary compliance with regulations;

(5) a summary of outstanding problems in carrying out this chapter in order of priority; and

(6) recommendations for appropriate legislation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 779; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §§108, 117(a)(2), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1674, 1678; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7118, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1902, 1909; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(e), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32501(c), title III, §33009(a), (b)(1), (c), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 803, 836, 837; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7205, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1592.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5121(a) 49 App.:1808(a) (1st sentence, last sentence words before semicolon). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §109(a) (1st sentence, last sentence words before semicolon), (b), (c), 88 Stat. 2159.
5121(b) 49 App.:1808(b).
5121(c) 49 App.:1808(c).
5121(d) 49 App.:1808(d). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §109(d), 88 Stat. 2159; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–559, §1(a), 98 Stat. 2907; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §11, 104 Stat. 3259.
5121(e) 49 App.:1808(e). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §109(e), 88 Stat. 2159; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–559, §1(b), 98 Stat. 2907.

In subsection (a), the words "to the extent necessary . . . his responsibilities under" and "relevant" are omitted as surplus. The word "documents" is omitted as being included in "records". The words "directly or indirectly" are omitted as surplus. The word "prescribed" is substituted for "issued" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "requirements under" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "establish and" are omitted as surplus. The word "requires" is substituted for "prescribe" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "enter upon . . . and examine" and "of persons to the extent such records and properties" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the words "or shipment by any person" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the words "establish and" are omitted as executed. In clause (B), the words "capable of" are substituted for "so as to be able to" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "technical and other" and "of communities" are omitted as surplus. The words "and employees" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. In clause (C), the words "in order" and "to be able to" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words "prepare and" and "comprehensive" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the word "thorough" is omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "in effect" are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the words "granted or maintained" are omitted as surplus. In clause (6), the words "additional . . . as are deemed necessary or" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety and Security Reauthorization Act of 2005, referred to in subsec. (e), is the date of enactment of title VII of Pub. L. 109–59, which was approved Aug. 10, 2005.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "make available to the public on the Department of Transportation's Internet Web site" for "transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate" in introductory provisions.

2012—Subsec. (c)(1)(G). Pub. L. 112–141, §33009(a), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 112–141, §32501(c), inserted ", in person or in writing," after "proper credentials".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 112–141, §33009(b)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §33009(c), inserted "safety and" before "security".

2008—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 110–244, §302(e)(1), substituted "special permits" for "exemptions".

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 110–244, §302(e)(2), substituted "special permit" for "exemption".

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary may investigate" for "Secretary of Transportation may investigate".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(a), inserted "conduct tests," after "investigate," and substituted "Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d), after" for "After" and "regulation prescribed, or an order, special permit, or approval issued," for "regulation prescribed".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(b)(1), inserted "and property" after "records".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(b)(2), inserted "property," after "records," and "for inspection" after "available" and substituted "undertakes an investigation or makes a request" for "requests".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(c), amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) The Secretary may authorize an officer, employee, or agent to inspect, at a reasonable time and in a reasonable way, records and property related to—

"(A) manufacturing, fabricating, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, testing, or distributing a packaging or a container for use by a person in transporting hazardous material in commerce; or

"(B) the transportation of hazardous material in commerce.

"(2) An officer, employee, or agent under this subsection shall display proper credentials when requested."

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(d), added subsecs. (d) and (e). Former subsecs. (d) and (e) redesignated (f) and (h), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(e), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(f)(1), substituted "transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate" for "submit to the President for transmittal to the Congress" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (h).

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 109–59, §7118(f)(2), inserted "relating to a function regulated by the Secretary under section 5103(b)(1)" after "activities".

1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–311, §117(a)(2), substituted "a packaging or a" for "a package or".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–311, §108, substituted "Report" for "Annual Report" in heading and substituted first sentence for former first sentence which read as follows: "The Secretary shall submit to the President, for submission to Congress, not later than June 15th of each year, a report about the transportation of hazardous material during the prior calendar year."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Paperless Hazard Communications Pilot Program

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33005, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 833, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Transportation] may conduct pilot projects to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using paperless hazard communications systems. At least 1 of the pilot projects under this section shall take place in a rural area.

"(b) Requirements.—In conducting pilot projects under this section, the Secretary—

"(1) may not waive the requirements under section 5110 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(2) shall consult with organizations representing—

"(A) fire services personnel;

"(B) law enforcement and other appropriate enforcement personnel;

"(C) other emergency response providers;

"(D) persons who offer hazardous material for transportation;

"(E) persons who transport hazardous material by air, highway, rail, and water; and

"(F) employees of persons who transport or offer for transportation hazardous material by air, highway, rail, and water.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [see section 3(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment notes under section 101 of Title 23, Highways], the Secretary shall—

"(1) prepare a report on the results of the pilot projects carried out under this section, including—

"(A) a detailed description of the pilot projects;

"(B) an evaluation of each pilot project, including an evaluation of the performance of each paperless hazard communications system in such project;

"(C) an assessment of the safety and security impact of using paperless hazard communications systems, including any impact on the public, emergency response, law enforcement, and the conduct of inspections and investigations;

"(D) an analysis of the associated benefits and costs of using the paperless hazard communications systems for each mode of transportation; and

"(E) a recommendation that incorporates the information gathered in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) on whether paperless hazard communications systems should be permanently incorporated into the Federal hazardous material transportation safety program under chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(2) submit a final report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that contains the results of the pilot projects carried out under this section, including the matters described in paragraph (1).

"(d) Paperless Hazard Communications System Defined.—In this section, the term 'paperless hazard communications system' means the use of advanced communications methods, such as wireless communications devices, to convey hazard information between all parties in the transportation chain, including emergency responders and law enforcement personnel. The format of communication may be equivalent to that used by the carrier."

Hazardous Material Enforcement Training

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33008, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 836, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [see section 3(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment notes under section 101 of Title 23, Highways], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall develop uniform performance standards for training hazardous material inspectors and investigators on—

"(1) how to collect, analyze, and publish findings from inspections and investigations of accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material; and

"(2) how to identify noncompliance with regulations issued under chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code, and take appropriate enforcement action.

"(b) Standards and Guidelines.—The Secretary may develop—

"(1) guidelines for hazardous material inspector and investigator qualifications;

"(2) best practices and standards for hazardous material inspector and investigator training programs; and

"(3) standard protocols to coordinate investigation efforts among Federal, State, and local jurisdictions on accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material.

"(c) Availability.—The standards, protocols, and guidelines established under this section—

"(1) shall be mandatory for—

"(A) the Department of Transportation's multimodal personnel conducting hazardous material enforcement inspections or investigations; and

"(B) State employees who conduct federally funded compliance reviews, inspections, or investigations; and

"(2) shall be made available to Federal, State, and local hazardous material safety enforcement personnel."

Finalizing Regulations

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33009(b)(2), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 837, provided that: "In accordance with section 5103(b)(2) of title 49, United States Code, not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [see section 3(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment notes under section 101 of Title 23, Highways], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall take all actions necessary to finalize a regulation under paragraph (1) of this subsection [amending this section]."

Toll Free Number for Reporting

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §116, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation shall designate a toll free telephone number for transporters of hazardous materials and other individuals to report to the Secretary possible violations of chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code, or any order or regulation issued under that chapter."

§5122. Enforcement

(a) General.—At the request of the Secretary, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States to enforce this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order, special permit, or approval issued under this chapter. The court may award appropriate relief, including a temporary or permanent injunction, punitive damages, and assessment of civil penalties considering the same penalty amounts and factors as prescribed for the Secretary in an administrative case under section 5123.

(b) Imminent Hazards.—(1) If the Secretary has reason to believe that an imminent hazard exists, the Secretary may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States—

(A) to suspend or restrict the transportation of the hazardous material responsible for the hazard; or

(B) to eliminate or mitigate the hazard.


(2) On request of the Secretary, the Attorney General shall bring an action under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(c) Withholding of Clearance.—(1) If any owner, operator, or individual in charge of a vessel is liable for a civil penalty under section 5123 of this title or for a fine under section 5124 of this title, or if reasonable cause exists to believe that such owner, operator, or individual in charge may be subject to such a civil penalty or fine, the Secretary of Homeland Security, upon the request of the Secretary, shall with respect to such vessel refuse or revoke any clearance required by section 60105 of title 46.

(2) Clearance refused or revoked under this subsection may be granted upon the filing of a bond or other surety satisfactory to the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 104–324, title III, §312(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3920; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7119, 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1905, 1909; Pub. L. 109–304, §17(h)(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5122(a) 49 App.:1808(a) (last sentence words after semicolon). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §§109(a) (last sentence words after semicolon), 111(a), 88 Stat. 2159, 2161.
  49 App.:1810(a).
5122(b) 49 App.:1810(b). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §111(b), 88 Stat. 2161; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §3(b), 104 Stat. 3247.

In this section, the words "bring a civil action" are substituted for "bring an action in" in 49 App.:1810 and "petition . . . for an order . . . for such other order" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the text of 49 App.:1808(a) (last sentence words after semicolon) and the words "for equitable relief" in 49 App.:1810(a) are omitted as surplus. The words "enforce this chapter" are substituted for "redress a violation by any person of a provision of this chapter" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "regulation prescribed or order issued" are substituted for "order or regulation issued" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "The court may award appropriate relief, including" are substituted for "Such district courts shall have jurisdiction to determine such actions and may grant such relief as is necessary or appropriate, including mandatory or prohibitive injunctive relief, interim equitable relief, and" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "as is necessary" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" and "section 60105 of title 46" for "Secretary of the Treasury" and "section 4197 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (46 App. U.S.C. 91)", respectively.

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7119(a), substituted "this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order, special permit, or approval" for "this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order" and "The court may award appropriate relief, including a temporary or permanent injunction, punitive damages, and assessment of civil penalties considering the same penalty amounts and factors as prescribed for the Secretary in an administrative case under section 5123" for "The court may award appropriate relief, including punitive damages".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–59, §7119(b), substituted "or mitigate the hazard" for "or ameliorate the hazard".

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–324 added subsec. (c).

§5123. Civil penalty

(a) Penalty.—(1) A person that knowingly violates this chapter or a regulation, order, special permit, or approval issued under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $75,000 for each violation. A person acts knowingly when—

(A) the person has actual knowledge of the facts giving rise to the violation; or

(B) a reasonable person acting in the circumstances and exercising reasonable care would have that knowledge.


(2) If the Secretary finds that a violation under paragraph (1) results in death, serious illness, or severe injury to any person or substantial destruction of property, the Secretary may increase the amount of the civil penalty for such violation to not more than $175,000.

(3) If the violation is related to training, a person described in paragraph (1) shall be liable for a civil penalty of at least $450.

(4) A separate violation occurs for each day the violation, committed by a person that transports or causes to be transported hazardous material, continues.

(b) Hearing Requirement.—The Secretary may find that a person has violated this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order, special permit, or approval issued under this chapter only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing. The Secretary shall impose a penalty under this section by giving the person written notice of the amount of the penalty.

(c) Penalty Considerations.—In determining the amount of a civil penalty under this section, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation;

(2) with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior violations, the ability to pay, and any effect on the ability to continue to do business; and

(3) other matters that justice requires.


(d) Civil Actions To Collect.—The Attorney General may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States to collect a civil penalty under this section and any accrued interest on the civil penalty as calculated in accordance with section 1005 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2705). In the civil action, the amount and appropriateness of the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.

(e) Compromise.—The Secretary may compromise the amount of a civil penalty imposed under this section before referral to the Attorney General.

(f) Setoff.—The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this section from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.

(g) Depositing Amounts Collected.—Amounts collected under this section shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(h) Penalty for Obstruction of Inspections and Investigations.—

(1) The Secretary may impose a penalty on a person who obstructs or prevents the Secretary from carrying out inspections or investigations under subsection (c) or (i) of section 5121.

(2) For the purposes of this subsection, the term "obstructs" means actions that were known, or reasonably should have been known, to prevent, hinder, or impede an investigation.


(i) Prohibition on Hazardous Material Operations After Nonpayment of Penalties.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided under paragraph (2), a person subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary under this chapter who fails to pay a civil penalty assessed under this chapter, or fails to arrange and abide by an acceptable payment plan for such civil penalty, may not conduct any activity regulated under this chapter beginning on the 91st day after the date specified by order of the Secretary for payment of such penalty unless the person has filed a formal administrative or judicial appeal of the penalty.

(2) Exception.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any person who is unable to pay a civil penalty because such person is a debtor in a case under chapter 11 of title 11.

(3) Rulemaking.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary, after providing notice and an opportunity for public comment, shall issue regulations that—

(A) set forth procedures to require a person who is delinquent in paying civil penalties to cease any activity regulated under this chapter until payment has been made or an acceptable payment plan has been arranged; and

(B) ensures 1 that the person described in subparagraph (A)—

(i) is notified in writing; and

(ii) is given an opportunity to respond before the person is required to cease the activity.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7120(a)–(c), 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1905, 1906, 1909; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33010, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 837.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5123(a)(1) 49 App.:1809(a)(1) (1st sentence less 3d–16th words, 2d sentence words before 4th comma, 3d sentence). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §110(a)(1), 88 Stat. 2160; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §12(a)(1), 104 Stat. 3259.
  49 App.:1809(a)(3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §110(a)(3); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §12(a)(2), 104 Stat. 3259.
5123(a)(2) 49 App.:1809(a)(1) (2d sentence words after 4th comma).
5123(b) 49 App.:1809(a)(1) (1st sentence 3d–16th words, 4th sentence).
5123(c) 49 App.:1809(a)(1) (last sentence).
5123(d), (e) 49 App.:1809(a)(2) (1st sentence). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §110(a)(2), 88 Stat. 2160.
5123(f) 49 App.:1809(a)(2) (2d sentence).
5123(g) 49 App.:1809(a)(2) (last sentence).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (1), the words "A person that knowingly violates this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of at least $250 but not more than $25,000 for each violation" are substituted for 49 App.:1809(a)(1) (1st sentence less 3d–16th words, 2d sentence words before 4th comma, 3d sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the word "impose" is substituted for "assessed" for consistency.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "the violator" are substituted for "the person found to have committed such violation" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (f), the words "imposed or compromised" are substituted for "of such penalty, when finally determined (or agreed upon in compromise)" to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency. The words "liable for the penalty" are substituted for "charged" for clarity.

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (i)(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–141, which was approved July 6, 2012.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §33010(1)(A), in introductory provisions, struck out "at least $250 but" after "civil penalty of" and substituted "$75,000" for "$50,000".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 112–141, §33010(1)(B), substituted "$175,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–141, §33010(1)(C), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "If the violation is related to training, paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting '$450' for '$250'."

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 112–141, §33010(2), added subsecs. (h) and (i).

2005—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7120(a)(1), in introductory provisions substituted "regulation, order, special permit, or approval issued" for "regulation prescribed or order issued" and "$50,000" for "$25,000".

Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 109–59, §7120(a)(2), (3), added pars. (2) and (3) and redesignated former par. (2) as (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "Secretary may" for "Secretary of Transportation may".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7120(b), substituted "regulation prescribed or order, special permit, or approval issued" for "regulation prescribed".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §7120(c), substituted "section and any accrued interest on the civil penalty as calculated in accordance with section 1005 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2705). In the civil action, the amount and appropriateness of the civil penalty shall not be subject to review." for "section."

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7120(d), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1906, provided that:

"(1) Hearing requirement.—The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005], and shall apply with respect to violations described in section 5123(a) of title 49, United States Code (as amended by this section), that occur on or after that date.

"(2) Civil actions to collect.—The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to civil penalties imposed on violations described in section 5123(a) of title 49, United States Code (as amended by this section), that occur on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005]."

1 So in original. Probably should be "ensure".

§5124. Criminal penalty

(a) In General.—A person knowingly violating section 5104(b) or willfully or recklessly violating this chapter or a regulation, order, special permit, or approval issued under this chapter shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both; except that the maximum amount of imprisonment shall be 10 years in any case in which the violation involves the release of a hazardous material that results in death or bodily injury to any person.

(b) Knowing Violations.—For purposes of this section—

(1) a person acts knowingly when—

(A) the person has actual knowledge of the facts giving rise to the violation; or

(B) a reasonable person acting in the circumstances and exercising reasonable care would have that knowledge; and


(2) knowledge of the existence of a statutory provision, or a regulation or a requirement required by the Secretary, is not an element of an offense under this section.


(c) Willful Violations.—For purposes of this section, a person acts willfully when—

(1) the person has knowledge of the facts giving rise to the violation; and

(2) the person has knowledge that the conduct was unlawful.


(d) Reckless Violations.—For purposes of this section, a person acts recklessly when the person displays a deliberate indifference or conscious disregard to the consequences of that person's conduct.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7121, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1906.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5124 49 App.:1809(b). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §110(b), 88 Stat. 2161; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §12(b), 104 Stat. 3259.

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A person knowingly violating section 5104(b) of this title or willfully violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both."

§5125. Preemption

(a) General.—Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), and (e) of this section and unless authorized by another law of the United States, a requirement of a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe is preempted if—

(1) complying with a requirement of the State, political subdivision, or tribe and a requirement of this chapter, a regulation prescribed under this chapter, or a hazardous materials transportation security regulation or directive issued by the Secretary of Homeland Security is not possible; or

(2) the requirement of the State, political subdivision, or tribe, as applied or enforced, is an obstacle to accomplishing and carrying out this chapter, a regulation prescribed under this chapter, or a hazardous materials transportation security regulation or directive issued by the Secretary of Homeland Security.


(b) Substantive Differences.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section and unless authorized by another law of the United States, a law, regulation, order, or other requirement of a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe about any of the following subjects, that is not substantively the same as a provision of this chapter, a regulation prescribed under this chapter, or a hazardous materials transportation security regulation or directive issued by the Secretary of Homeland Security, is preempted:

(A) the designation, description, and classification of hazardous material.

(B) the packing, repacking, handling, labeling, marking, and placarding of hazardous material.

(C) the preparation, execution, and use of shipping documents related to hazardous material and requirements related to the number, contents, and placement of those documents.

(D) the written notification, recording, and reporting of the unintentional release in transportation of hazardous material and other written hazardous materials transportation incident reporting involving State or local emergency responders in the initial response to the incident.

(E) the designing, manufacturing, fabricating, inspecting, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, or testing a package, container, or packaging component that is represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce.


(2) If the Secretary prescribes or has prescribed under section 5103(b), 5104, 5110, or 5112 of this title or prior comparable provision of law a regulation or standard related to a subject referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe may prescribe, issue, maintain, and enforce only a law, regulation, standard, or order about the subject that is substantively the same as a provision of this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter. The Secretary shall decide on and publish in the Federal Register the effective date of section 5103(b) of this title for any regulation or standard about any of those subjects that the Secretary prescribes. The effective date may not be earlier than 90 days after the Secretary prescribes the regulation or standard nor later than the last day of the 2-year period beginning on the date the Secretary prescribes the regulation or standard.

(3) If a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe imposes a fine or penalty the Secretary decides is appropriate for a violation related to a subject referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, an additional fine or penalty may not be imposed by any other authority.

(c) Compliance With Section 5112(b) Regulations.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, after the last day of the 2-year period beginning on the date a regulation is prescribed under section 5112(b) of this title, a State or Indian tribe may establish, maintain, or enforce a highway routing designation over which hazardous material may or may not be transported by motor vehicles, or a limitation or requirement related to highway routing, only if the designation, limitation, or requirement complies with section 5112(b), and is published in the Department's hazardous materials route registry under section 5112(c).

(2)(A) A highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement established before the date a regulation is prescribed under section 5112(b) of this title does not have to comply with section 5112(b)(1)(B), (C), and (F).

(B) This subsection and section 5112 of this title do not require a State or Indian tribe to comply with section 5112(b)(1)(I) if the highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement was established before November 16, 1990.

(C) The Secretary may allow a highway routing designation, limitation, or requirement to continue in effect until a dispute related to the designation, limitation, or requirement is resolved under section 5112(d) of this title.

(d) Decisions on Preemption.—(1) A person (including a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe) directly affected by a requirement of a State, political subdivision, or tribe may apply to the Secretary, as provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary, for a decision on whether the requirement is preempted by subsection (a), (b)(1), or (c) of this section or section 5119(f). The Secretary shall publish notice of the application in the Federal Register. The Secretary shall issue a decision on an application for a determination within 180 days after the date of the publication of the notice of having received such application, or the Secretary shall publish a statement in the Federal Register of the reason why the Secretary's decision on the application is delayed, along with an estimate of the additional time necessary before the decision is made. After notice is published, an applicant may not seek judicial relief on the same or substantially the same issue until the Secretary takes final action on the application or until 180 days after the application is filed, whichever occurs first.

(2) After consulting with States, political subdivisions of States, and Indian tribes, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations for carrying out paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) Subsection (a) of this section does not prevent a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe, or another person directly affected by a requirement, from seeking a decision on preemption from a court of competent jurisdiction instead of applying to the Secretary under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(e) Waiver of Preemption.—A State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe may apply to the Secretary for a waiver of preemption of a requirement the State, political subdivision, or tribe acknowledges is preempted by subsection (a), (b)(1), or (c) of this section or section 5119(f). Under a procedure the Secretary prescribes by regulation, the Secretary may waive preemption on deciding the requirement—

(1) provides the public at least as much protection as do requirements of this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter; and

(2) is not an unreasonable burden on commerce.


(f) Fees.—(1) A State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe may impose a fee related to transporting hazardous material only if the fee is fair and used for a purpose related to transporting hazardous material, including enforcement and planning, developing, and maintaining a capability for emergency response.

(2) A State or political subdivision thereof or Indian tribe that levies a fee in connection with the transportation of hazardous materials shall biennially report to the Secretary on—

(A) the basis on which the fee is levied upon persons involved in such transportation;

(B) the purposes for which the revenues from the fee are used;

(C) the annual total amount of the revenues collected from the fee; and

(D) such other matters as the Secretary requests.


(g) Application of Each Preemption Standard.—Each standard for preemption in subsection (a), (b)(1), or (c), and in section 5119(f), is independent in its application to a requirement of a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe.

(h) Non-Federal Enforcement Standards.—This section does not apply to any procedure, penalty, required mental state, or other standard utilized by a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe to enforce a requirement applicable to the transportation of hazardous material.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §§107, 117(a)(2), 120(b), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1674, 1678, 1681; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(6), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1711(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2320; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7122, 7123(a), 7126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1907, 1909; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(c), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §§33006(d), 33011, 33013(b), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 835, 838, 839.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5125(a) 49 App.:1811(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §112(a)–(e), 88 Stat. 2161; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §216(a), 93 Stat. 1015; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §13, 104 Stat. 3259.
5125(b) 49 App.:1804(a)(4), (5). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §105(a)(4), (5), (b)(4), 88 Stat. 2157; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §4, 104 Stat. 3247, 3250.
5125(c) 49 App.:1804(b)(4).
5125(d) 49 App.:1811(c).
5125(e) 49 App.:1811(d).
5125(f) 49 App.:1811(e).
5125(g) 49 App.:1811(b).

In subsections (a) and (b)(1), the words "and unless authorized by Federal law" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the reference to subsections (b) and (c) is substituted for 49 App.:1811(a)(3) for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "ruling, provision" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the word "imposes" is substituted for "assesses" for consistency.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "the procedural requirements of" and "the substantive requirements of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2)(A), the words "procedural requirements of the Federal standards established pursuant to" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the words "may bring a civil action for judicial review" are substituted for "may seek judicial review . . . only by filing a petition" for consistency in the revised title.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:5125(a) and (b)(1) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1804(a)(4) and 1811(a) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 781).

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 112–141, §33006(d), inserted "and other written hazardous materials transportation incident reporting involving State or local emergency responders in the initial response to the incident" before period at end.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §33013(b), inserted ", and is published in the Department's hazardous materials route registry under section 5112(c)" before period at end.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 112–141, §33011, substituted "biennially" for ", upon the Secretary's request,".

2008—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–244, §302(c)(1), substituted "5119(f)" for "5119(e)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–244, §302(c)(2), substituted "5119(f)" for "5119(b)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–244, §302(c)(2), (3), substituted "(a), (b)(1), or (c)" for "(b), (c)(1), or (d)" and "5119(f)" for "5119(b)".

2005—Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–59, §7122(a)(1), added subpar. (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: "the design, manufacturing, fabricating, marking, maintenance, reconditioning, repairing, or testing of a packaging or a container represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §7126, substituted "If the Secretary" for "If the Secretary of Transportation".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7122(a)(2), substituted "subjects that the Secretary prescribes. The" for "subjects that the Secretary prescribes after November 16, 1990. However, the".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §7122(b), inserted "or section 5119(e)" before period at end of first sentence.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7122(c), inserted "or section 5119(b)" before period at end of first sentence.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–59, §7123(a), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f), realigned margins, and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (f). Text read as follows: "A party to a proceeding under subsection (d) or (e) of this section may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States for judicial review of the decision of the Secretary not later than 60 days after the decision becomes final."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–59, §7123(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (f).

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 109–59, §7123(a)(2), redesignated subsecs. (h) and (i) as (g) and (h), respectively.

Pub. L. 109–59, §7122(d), added subsecs. (h) and (i).

2002—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "chapter, a regulation prescribed under this chapter, or a hazardous materials transportation security regulation or directive issued by the Secretary of Homeland Security" for "chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter" wherever appearing.

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–429 inserted "and unless authorized by another law of the United States" after "section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 103–311, §117(a)(2), substituted "a packaging or a" for "a package or".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–311, §120(b), inserted after second sentence "The Secretary shall issue a decision on an application for a determination within 180 days after the date of the publication of the notice of having received such application, or the Secretary shall publish a statement in the Federal Register of the reason why the Secretary's decision on the application is delayed, along with an estimate of the additional time necessary before the decision is made."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–311, §107, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§5126. Relationship to other laws

(a) Contracts.—A person under contract with a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government that transports hazardous material, or causes hazardous material to be transported, or designs, manufactures, fabricates, inspects, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a package, container, or packaging component that is represented as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material shall comply with this chapter, regulations prescribed and orders issued under this chapter, and all other requirements of the Government, State and local governments, and Indian tribes (except a requirement preempted by a law of the United States) in the same way and to the same extent that any person engaging in that transportation, designing, manufacturing, fabricating, inspecting, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, or testing that is in or affects commerce must comply with the provision, regulation, order, or requirement.

(b) Nonapplication.—This chapter does not apply to—

(1) a pipeline subject to regulation under chapter 601 of this title; or

(2) any matter that is subject to the postal laws and regulations of the United States under this chapter or title 18 or 39.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 783; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §117(a)(2), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7124, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1908; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(d), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5126(a) 49 App.:1818. Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §120; added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §20, 104 Stat. 3270.
5126(b) 49 App.:1811(f). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §112(f), 88 Stat. 2161; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §216(a), 93 Stat. 1015; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §13, 104 Stat. 3260.

In subsection (a), the word "manufactures" is substituted for "manufacturers" to correct an error in the source provisions. The words "of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch", "be subject to and", "substantive and procedural", and "this chapter or any other" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–244 amended Pub. L. 109–59. See 2005 Amendment note below.

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §7124(4), substituted "designing, manufacturing, fabricating, inspecting, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, or testing" for "manufacturing, fabricating, marking, maintenance, reconditioning, repairing, or testing".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7124(3), as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, substituted "shall comply with this chapter" for "must comply with this chapter".

Pub. L. 109–59, §7124(1), (2), substituted "transports hazardous material, or causes hazardous material to be transported," for "transports or causes to be transported hazardous material," and "designs, manufactures, fabricates, inspects, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a package, container, or packaging component that is represented" for "manufactures, fabricates, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a packaging or a container that the person represents, marks, certifies, or sells".

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–311 substituted "a packaging or a" for "a package or".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–244 effective as of the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59 (Aug. 10, 2005) and to be treated as included in Pub. L. 109–59 as of that date, and provisions of Pub. L. 109–59, as in effect on the day before June 6, 2008, that are amended by Pub. L. 110–244 to be treated as not enacted, see section 121(b) of Pub. L. 110–244, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

§5127. Judicial review

(a) Filing and Venue.—Except as provided in section 20114(c), a person adversely affected or aggrieved by a final action of the Secretary under this chapter may petition for review of the final action in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or in the court of appeals for the United States for the circuit in which the person resides or has its principal place of business. The petition must be filed not more than 60 days after the Secretary's action becomes final.

(b) Judicial Procedures.—When a petition is filed under subsection (a), the clerk of the court immediately shall send a copy of the petition to the Secretary. The Secretary shall file with the court a record of any proceeding in which the final action was issued, as provided in section 2112 of title 28.

(c) Authority of Court.—The court has exclusive jurisdiction, as provided in subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, to affirm or set aside any part of the Secretary's final action and may order the Secretary to conduct further proceedings.

(d) Requirement for Prior Objection.—In reviewing a final action under this section, the court may consider an objection to a final action of the Secretary only if the objection was made in the course of a proceeding or review conducted by the Secretary or if there was a reasonable ground for not making the objection in the proceeding.

(Added Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7123(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1907.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5127 was renumbered section 5128 of this title.

§5128. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In General.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this chapter (except sections 5107(e), 5108(g)(2), 5113, 5115, 5116, and 5119)—

(1) $53,000,000 for fiscal year 2016;

(2) $55,000,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(3) $57,000,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(4) $58,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(5) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2020.


(b) Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund.—From the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established under section 5116(h), the Secretary may expend, for each of fiscal years 2016 through 2020—

(1) $21,988,000 to carry out section 5116(a);

(2) $150,000 to carry out section 5116(e);

(3) $625,000 to publish and distribute the Emergency Response Guidebook under section 5116(h)(3); and

(4) $1,000,000 to carry out section 5116(i).


(c) Hazardous Materials Training Grants.—From the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established pursuant to section 5116(h), the Secretary may expend $4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2016 through 2020 to carry out section 5107(e).

(d) Community Safety Grants.—Of the amounts made available under subsection (a) to carry out this chapter, the Secretary shall withhold $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2016 through 2020 to carry out section 5107(i).

(e) Credits to Appropriations.—

(1) Expenses.—In addition to amounts otherwise made available to carry out this chapter, the Secretary may credit amounts received from a State, Indian tribe, or other public authority or private entity for expenses the Secretary incurs in providing training to the State, Indian tribe, authority, or entity.

(2) Availability of amounts.—Amounts made available under this section shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 783, §5127; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §§103, 119(b), (c)(4), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1673, 1680; renumbered §5128 and amended Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §§7123(b), 7125, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1907, 1908; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(f), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title III, §33017, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 113–159, title I, §1301, Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1847; Pub. L. 114–21, title I, §1301, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 225; Pub. L. 114–41, title I, §1301, July 31, 2015, 129 Stat. 453; Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1301, Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 114–87, title I, §1301, Nov. 20, 2015, 129 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7101, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1588.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5127(a) 49 App.:1812(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §115, 88 Stat. 2164; July 19, 1975, Pub. L. 94–56, §4, 89 Stat. 264; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–474, §3, 90 Stat. 2068; Sept. 30, 1978, Pub. L. 95–403, 92 Stat. 863; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–559, §2, 98 Stat. 2907; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §14, 104 Stat. 3260; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §504, 106 Stat. 3311.
5127(b) 49 App.:1816(d). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §118(d); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §18, 104 Stat. 3269; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §506, 106 Stat. 3312.
5127(c) 49 App.:1815(i)(3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §117A(i); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §17, 104 Stat. 3268.
5127(d) 49 App.:1815(i)(1), (2), (4).
5127(e) 49 App.:1819(h) (1st sentence). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §121(h); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §22, 104 Stat. 3272.
5127(f) 49 App.:1812(b).
5127(g) 49 App.:1815(i)(5).
  49 App.:1819(h) (last sentence).

In the section, references to fiscal years 1991 and 1992 are omitted as obsolete.

In subsections (b), (c)(1), and (d), the words "amounts in" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the text of 49 App.:1815(i)(3)(A) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "relating to dissemination of the curriculum" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 2013 to 2015.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 114–41, §1301(a)(2), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "$35,615,474 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–21, §1301(a), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "$28,468,948 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 114–87, §1301(a), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "$5,958,639 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–73, §1301(a), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "$3,388,246 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–41, §1301(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–41, §1301(b)(1), substituted "Fiscal years 2013 through 2015"for "Fiscal years 2013 and 2014" in heading and "fiscal years 2013 through 2015" for "fiscal years 2013 and 2014" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 114–87, §1301(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "From the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established under section 5116(i), the Secretary may expend for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015—

"(A) $26,197 to carry out section 5115;

"(B) $3,037,705 to carry out subsections (a) and (b) of section 5116, of which not less than $1,902,049 shall be available to carry out section 5116(b);

"(C) $20,902 to carry out section 5116(f);

"(D) $87,090 to publish and distribute the Emergency Response Guidebook under section 5116(i)(3); and

"(E) $139,344 to carry out section 5116(j)."

Pub. L. 114–73, §1301(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "From the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established under section 5116(i), the Secretary may expend for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015—

"(A) $14,896 to carry out section 5115;

"(B) $1,727,322 to carry out subsections (a) and (b) of section 5116, of which not less than $1,081,557 shall be available to carry out section 5116(b);

"(C) $11,885 to carry out section 5116(f);

"(D) $49,522 to publish and distribute the Emergency Response Guidebook under section 5116(i)(3); and

"(E) $79,235 to carry out section 5116(j)."

Pub. L. 114–41, §1301(b)(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "From the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established under section 5116(i), the Secretary may expend for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015—

"(A) $156,581 to carry out section 5115;

"(B) $18,156,712 to carry out subsections (a) and (b) of section 5116, of which not less than $11,368,767 shall be available to carry out section 5116(b);

"(C) $124,932 to carry out section 5116(f);

"(D) $520,548 to publish and distribute the Emergency Response Guidebook under section 5116(i)(3); and

"(E) $832,877 to carry out section 5116(j)."

Pub. L. 114–21, §1301(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "From the Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Fund established under section 5116(i), the Secretary may expend for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015—

"(A) $125,162 to carry out section 5115;

"(B) $14,513,425 to carry out subsections (a) and (b) of section 5116, of which not less than $9,087,534 shall be available to carry out section 5116(b);

"(C) $99,863 to carry out section 5116(f);

"(D) $416,096 to publish and distribute the Emergency Response Guidebook under section 5116(i)(3); and

"(E) $665,753 to carry out section 5116(j)."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–87, §1301(c), substituted "and $710,383 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on December 4, 2015," for "and $557,377 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015,".

Pub. L. 114–73, §1301(c), substituted "and $557,377 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015," for "and $316,940 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015,".

Pub. L. 114–41, §1301(c), substituted "each of fiscal years 2013 through 2015 and $316,940 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015," for "each of the fiscal years 2013 and 2014 and $3,331,507 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015,".

Pub. L. 114–21, §1301(c), substituted "and $3,331,507 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015," for "and $2,663,014 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015,".

2014—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 113–159, §1301(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–159, §1301(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted heading, redesignated former pars. (1) to (5) as subpars. (A) to (E), respectively, of par. (1) and realigned margins, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–159, §1301(c), inserted "and $2,663,014 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015," after "2014".

2012Pub. L. 112–141 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 2005 to 2008.

2008Pub. L. 110–244 substituted "Authorization" for "Authorizations" in section catchline.

2005Pub. L. 109–59, §7125, substituted "Authorizations" for "Authorization" in section catchline and amended text generally, substituting provisions relating to authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 2005 to 2008, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (f), for provisions relating to authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 1993 to 1998, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (g).

Pub. L. 109–59, §7123(b), renumbered section 5127 of this title as this section.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–311, §103, substituted "fiscal year 1993, $18,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, $18,540,000 for fiscal year 1995, $19,100,000 for fiscal year 1996, and $19,670,000 for fiscal year 1997" for "the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–311, §119(c)(4), amended subsec. (b)(1) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b)(1) read as follows:

"(b) Hazmat Employee Training.—(1) Not more than $250,000 is available to the Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences from the account established under section 5116(i) of this title for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1993–1998, to carry out section 5107(e) of this title."

Pub. L. 103–311, §119(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

CHAPTER 53—PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

Sec.
5301.
Policies and purposes.
5302.
Definitions.
5303.
Metropolitan transportation planning.
5304.
Statewide and nonmetropolitan transportation planning.
5305.
Planning programs.
5306.
Private enterprise participation in metropolitan planning and transportation improvement programs and relationship to other limitations.
5307.
Urbanized area formula grants.
[5308.
Repealed.]
5309.
Fixed guideway capital investment grants.
5310.
Formula grants for the enhanced mobility of seniors and individuals with disabilities.
5311.
Formula grants for rural areas.
5312.
Public transportation innovation.
[5313.
Repealed.]
5314.
Technical assistance and workforce development.
5315.
Private sector participation.
[5316, 5317. Repealed.]
5318.
Bus testing facility.
[5319.
Repealed.]
[5320.
Repealed.]
5321.
Crime prevention and security.
[5322.
Repealed.]
5323.
General provisions.
5324.
Public transportation emergency relief program.
5325.
Contract requirements.
5326.
Transit asset management.
5327.
Project management oversight.
[5328.
Repealed.]
5329.
Public transportation safety program.
5330.
State safety oversight.
5331.
Alcohol and controlled substances testing.
5332.
Nondiscrimination.
5333.
Labor standards.
5334.
Administrative provisions.
5335.
National transit database.
5336.
Apportionment of appropriations for formula grants.
5337.
State of good repair grants.
5338.
Authorizations.
5339.
Grants for buses and bus facilities.
5340.
Apportionments based on growing States and high density States formula factors.

        

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title III, §§3008(c), 3009(b), 3017(b), 3030(b)–(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1469, 1473, 1487, 1496, 1497, substituted "Public transportation innovation" for "Research, development, demonstration, and deployment projects" in item 5312, "Technical assistance and workforce development" for "Technical assistance and standards development" in item 5314, and "Grants for buses and bus facilities" for "Bus and bus facilities formula grants" in item 5339, and struck out item 5313 "Transit cooperative research program", item 5319 "Bicycle facilities", and item 5322 "Human resources and training".

2012Pub. L. 112–141, div. B, §20030(k), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 731, amended generally the analysis for this chapter, adding item 5326, substituting "Policies and purposes" for "Policies, findings, and purposes" in item 5301, "Statewide and nonmetropolitan transportation planning" for "Statewide transportation planning" in item 5304, "Fixed guideway capital investment grants" for "Capital investment grants" in item 5309, "Formula grants for the enhanced mobility of seniors and individuals with disabilities" for "Formula grants for special needs of elderly individuals and individuals with disabilities" in item 5310, "Formula grants for rural areas" for "Formula grants for other than urbanized areas" in item 5311, "Technical assistance and standards development" for "National research programs" in item 5314, "Private sector participation" for "National transit institute" in item 5315, "Human resources and training" for "Human resource programs" in item 5322, "General provisions" for "General provisions on assistance" in item 5323, "Public transportation emergency relief program" for "Special provisions for capital projects" in item 5324, "Public transportation safety program" for "Investigations of safety hazards and security risks" in item 5329, "State of good repair grants" for "Apportionment based on fixed guideway factors" in item 5337, and "Bus and bus facilities formula grants" for "Alternatives analysis program" in item 5339, and striking out items 5308 "Clean fuels grant program", 5316 "Job access and reverse commute formula grants", 5317 "New freedom program", 5320 "Alternative transportation in parks and public lands, and 5328 "Project review".

2005Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §§3002(b)(1), 3005(c), 3006(c), 3007(b), 3010(b), 3011(b), 3012(c), 3013(i), 3014(e)(2), 3015(b)(2), 3016(d), 3018(b), 3019(b), 3021(b), 3024(b), 3025(b), 3028(d), 3029(b), 3033(b), 3035(b), 3038(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1544, 1559, 1566, 1568, 1573, 1588, 1593, 1596, 1597, 1600, 1605, 1608, 1614, 1620, 1622, 1625, 1627, 1629, 1638, substituted "PUBLIC" for "MASS" in chapter heading, substituted "transportation planning" for "planning" in item 5303, "Statewide transportation planning" for "Transportation improvement program" in item 5304, "Planning programs" for "Transportation management areas" in item 5305, "grant program" for "formula grant program" in item 5308, "grants" for "grants and loans" in item 5309, "Formula grants" for "Formula grants and loans" in item 5310, "grants" for "grant" in item 5311, "deployment" for "training" in item 5312, "Transit cooperative research program" for "State planning and research programs" in item 5313, "research programs" for "planning and research programs" in item 5314, "Alternative transportation in parks and public lands" for "Suspended light rail system technology pilot project" in item 5320, "Special provisions for capital projects" for "Limitations on discretionary and special needs grants and loans" in item 5324, "Investigations of safety hazards and security risks" for "Investigation of safety hazards" in item 5329, "State safety oversight" for "Withholding amounts for noncompliance with safety requirements" in item 5330, "National transit database" for "Reports and audits" in item 5335, and "Apportionment based on fixed guideway factors" for "Apportionment of appropriations for fixed guideway modernization" in item 5337, added items 5316, 5317, and 5340, and struck out item 5326 "Special procurements".

Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §3037(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1636, which directed amendment of the analysis for chapter 53 by striking the item relating to section 5339 and inserting a new item 5339, was executed by adding the new item 5339 after item 5338 to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because no item for section 5339 had been enacted.

1998Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §§3007(a)(2), 3008(b), 3009(b), 3014(b), 3017(b), 3025(b)(2), title V, §5110(c), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 347, 352, 359, 361, 365, 444, substituted "Urbanized area formula grants" for "Block grants" in item 5307, "Clean fuels formula grant program" for "Mass Transit Account block grants" in item 5308, "Capital investment" for "Discretionary" in item 5309, "Formula grant" for "Financial assistance" in item 5311, and "transit" for "mass transportation" in item 5315, struck out items 5316 "University research institutes" and 5317 "Transportation centers", and inserted "provisions" after "Administrative" in item 5334.

Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3013(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 359, which directed insertion of "formula" before "grants" in item 5310, was executed by substituting "Formula grants" for "Grants" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3027(d), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9009(o)(2), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 858, substituted "formula grants" for "block grants" in item 5336.

§5301. Policies and purposes

(a) Declaration of Policy.—It is in the interest of the United States, including the economic interest of the United States, to foster the development and revitalization of public transportation systems with the cooperation of both public transportation companies and private companies engaged in public transportation.

(b) General Purposes.—The purposes of this chapter are to—

(1) provide funding to support public transportation;

(2) improve the development and delivery of capital projects;

(3) establish standards for the state of good repair of public transportation infrastructure and vehicles;

(4) promote continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive planning that improves the performance of the transportation network;

(5) establish a technical assistance program to assist recipients under this chapter to more effectively and efficiently provide public transportation service;

(6) continue Federal support for public transportation providers to deliver high quality service to all users, including individuals with disabilities, seniors, and individuals who depend on public transportation;

(7) support research, development, demonstration, and deployment projects dedicated to assisting in the delivery of efficient and effective public transportation service; and

(8) promote the development of the public transportation workforce.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 785; Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §§3002(b)(4), 3003, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 112–141, div. B, §20003, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 622.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5301(a) 49 App.:1607(a) (1st sentence). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302, §8(a) (1st sentence); added Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–599, §305(b), 92 Stat. 2743; Apr. 2, 1987, Pub. L. 100–17, §310, 101 Stat. 227; restated Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §3012, 105 Stat. 2098.
5301(b) 49 App.:1601(a). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, §2, 78 Stat. 302; Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §3005, 105 Stat. 2088.
  49 App.:1601b. Nov. 26, 1974, Pub. L. 93–503, §2, 88 Stat. 1566.
5301(c) 49 App.:1601a (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1970, Pub. L. 91–453, §1, 84 Stat. 962.
5301(d) 49 App.:1612(a). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302, §16(a); added Oct. 15, 1970, Pub. L. 91–453, §8, 84 Stat. 967; Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §3021(1), 105 Stat. 2110.
5301(e) 49 App.:1610(a) (1st sentence). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, §14(a) (1st sentence), 78 Stat. 308; Sept. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–562, §2(a)(1), 80 Stat. 715; restated Oct. 15, 1970, Pub. L. 91–453, §6, 84 Stat. 966.
5301(f) 49 App.:1601(b).
  49 App.:1601a (last sentence).

In subsection (b)(1), the words "the predominant part" in 49 App.:1601(a)(1) and "lives in urban areas" in 49 App.:1601b(1) are omitted because of the restatement. The words "metropolitan and other" in 49 App.:1601(a)(1) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "housing, urban renewal, highway, and other", "being", "the . . . provision of", and "transportation and other" in 49 App.:1601(a)(2) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(4), the words "the early 1970's" are substituted for "recent years" in 49 App.:1601b(4), and the words "minimal mass transportation service" are substituted for "this essential public service", for clarity.

In subsection (b)(5), the word "particularly" in 49 App.:1601b(5) is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(6), the words "were . . . in the early 1970's" are substituted for "now" in 49 App.:1601b(6) for clarity. The words "engaged in", "actually", and "comprehensive" in 49 App.:1601b(6) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(9), the word "many" in 49 App.:1601(b)(7) is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the text of 49 App.:1601a (1st sentence words after semicolon) is omitted as executed.

In subsections (d) and (e), the words "hereby declared to be" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words "to ensure that mass transportation can be used by elderly individuals and individuals with disabilities" are substituted for "in the planning and design of mass transportation facilities and services so that the availability to elderly persons and persons with disabilities of mass transportation which they can effectively utilize will be assured" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "the field of" and "(including the programs under this chapter) . . . contain provisions" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words "carrying out" are substituted for "construction of", and the word "capital" is added, for consistency in the revised chapter. The reference to section 5310 of the revised title is added for clarity because a loan or grant made under section 5310 is deemed to have been made under section 5309.

In subsection (f)(5), the words "local" and "to exercise the initiative necessary" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–141 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to policies, findings, and purposes.

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §3003(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "It is in the interest of the United States to encourage and promote the development of transportation systems that embrace various modes of transportation and efficiently maximize mobility of individuals and goods in and through urbanized areas and minimize transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §3003(b), substituted "two-thirds" for "70 percent" and "urbanized areas" for "urban areas".

Subsecs. (b)(4), (6) to (9), (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §3003(c), substituted "a" for "an urban" and struck out "under sections 5309 and 5310 of this title" before period at end.

Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 109–59, §3003(d)(1), substituted "public transportation equipment" for "mass transportation equipment" and "both public transportation companies and private companies engaged in public transportation" for "public and private mass transportation companies".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 109–59, §3003(d)(2), substituted "public transportation systems" for "urban mass transportation systems" and "both public transportation companies and private companies engaged in public transportation" for "public and private mass transportation companies".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 109–59, §3003(d)(3), substituted "public transportation systems" for "urban mass transportation systems" and "public transportation companies or private companies engaged in public transportation" for "public or private mass transportation companies".

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 109–59, §3003(d)(4), substituted "public" for "urban mass".

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Contracting Out Study

Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3032, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 385, as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9009(v), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 861, provided that a study of the effect of contracting out mass transportation operation and administrative functions was to be arranged between the Secretary of Transportation and the Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences no later than 6 months after June 9, 1998, and made available funds for fiscal year 1999.

Commute-to-Work Benefits

Pub. L. 102–240, title VIII, §8004, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2206, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

"(1) current Federal policy places commuter transit benefits at a disadvantage compared to drive-to-work benefits;

"(2) this Federal policy is inconsistent with important national policy objectives, including the need to conserve energy, reduce reliance on energy imports, lessen congestion, and clean our Nation's air;

"(3) commuter transit benefits should be part of a comprehensive solution to national transportation and air pollution problems;

"(4) current Federal law allows employers to provide only up to $21 per month in employee benefits for transit or van pools;

"(5) the current 'cliff provision', which treats an entire commuter transit benefit as taxable income if it exceeds $21 per month, unduly penalizes the most effective employer efforts to change commuter behavior;

"(6) employer-provided commuter transit incentives offer many public benefits, including increased access of low-income persons to good jobs, inexpensive reduction of roadway and parking congestion, and cost-effective incentives for timely arrival at work; and

"(7) legislation to provide equitable treatment of employer-provided commuter transit benefits has been introduced with bipartisan support in both the Senate and House of Representatives.

"(b) Policy.—The Congress strongly supports Federal policy that promotes increased use of employer-provided commuter transit benefits. Such a policy 'levels the playing field' between transportation modes and is consistent with important national objectives of energy conservation, reduced reliance on energy imports, lessened congestion, and clean air."

§5302. Definitions

Except as otherwise specifically provided, in this chapter the following definitions apply:

(1) Associated transit improvement.—The term "associated transit improvement" means, with respect to any project or an area to be served by a project, projects that are designed to enhance public transportation service or use and that are physically or functionally related to transit facilities. Eligible projects are—

(A) historic preservation, rehabilitation, and operation of historic public transportation buildings, structures, and facilities (including historic bus and railroad facilities) intended for use in public transportation service;

(B) bus shelters;

(C) functional landscaping and streetscaping, including benches, trash receptacles, and street lights;

(D) pedestrian access and walkways;

(E) bicycle access, including bicycle storage shelters and parking facilities and the installation of equipment for transporting bicycles on public transportation vehicles;

(F) signage; or

(G) enhanced access for persons with disabilities to public transportation.


(2) Bus rapid transit system.—The term "bus rapid transit system" means a bus transit system—

(A) in which the majority of each line operates in a separated right-of-way dedicated for public transportation use during peak periods; and

(B) that includes features that emulate the services provided by rail fixed guideway public transportation systems, including—

(i) defined stations;

(ii) traffic signal priority for public transportation vehicles;

(iii) short headway bidirectional services for a substantial part of weekdays and weekend days; and

(iv) any other features the Secretary may determine are necessary to produce high-quality public transportation services that emulate the services provided by rail fixed guideway public transportation systems.


(3) Capital project.—The term "capital project" means a project for—

(A) acquiring, constructing, supervising, or inspecting equipment or a facility for use in public transportation, expenses incidental to the acquisition or construction (including designing, engineering, location surveying, mapping, and acquiring rights-of-way), payments for the capital portions of rail trackage rights agreements, transit-related intelligent transportation systems, relocation assistance, acquiring replacement housing sites, and acquiring, constructing, relocating, and rehabilitating replacement housing;

(B) rehabilitating a bus;

(C) remanufacturing a bus;

(D) overhauling rail rolling stock;

(E) preventive maintenance;

(F) leasing equipment or a facility for use in public transportation;

(G) a joint development improvement that—

(i) enhances economic development or incorporates private investment, such as commercial and residential development;

(ii)(I) enhances the effectiveness of public transportation and is related physically or functionally to public transportation; or

(II) establishes new or enhanced coordination between public transportation and other transportation;

(iii) provides a fair share of revenue that will be used for public transportation;

(iv) provides that a person making an agreement to occupy space in a facility constructed under this paragraph shall pay a fair share of the costs of the facility through rental payments and other means; and

(v) may include—

(I) property acquisition;

(II) demolition of existing structures;

(III) site preparation;

(IV) utilities;

(V) building foundations;

(VI) walkways;

(VII) pedestrian and bicycle access to a public transportation facility;

(VIII) construction, renovation, and improvement of intercity bus and intercity rail stations and terminals;

(IX) renovation and improvement of historic transportation facilities;

(X) open space;

(XI) safety and security equipment and facilities (including lighting, surveillance, and related intelligent transportation system applications);

(XII) facilities that incorporate community services such as daycare or health care;

(XIII) a capital project for, and improving, equipment or a facility for an intermodal transfer facility or transportation mall; and

(XIV) construction of space for commercial uses;


(H) the introduction of new technology, through innovative and improved products, into public transportation;

(I) the provision of nonfixed route paratransit transportation services in accordance with section 223 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12143), but only for grant recipients that are in compliance with applicable requirements of that Act, including both fixed route and demand responsive service, and only for amounts—

(i) not to exceed 10 percent of such recipient's annual formula apportionment under sections 5307 and 5311; or

(ii) not to exceed 20 percent of such recipient's annual formula apportionment under sections 5307 and 5311, if, consistent with guidance issued by the Secretary, the recipient demonstrates that the recipient meets at least 2 of the following requirements:

(I) Provides an active fixed route travel training program that is available for riders with disabilities.

(II) Provides that all fixed route and paratransit operators participate in a passenger safety, disability awareness, and sensitivity training class on at least a biennial basis.

(III) Has memoranda of understanding in place with employers and the American Job Center to increase access to employment opportunities for people with disabilities.


(J) establishing a debt service reserve, made up of deposits with a bondholder's trustee, to ensure the timely payment of principal and interest on bonds issued by a grant recipient to finance an eligible project under this chapter;

(K) mobility management—

(i) consisting of short-range planning and management activities and projects for improving coordination among public transportation and other transportation service providers carried out by a recipient or subrecipient through an agreement entered into with a person, including a governmental entity, under this chapter (other than section 5309); but

(ii) excluding operating public transportation services;


(L) associated capital maintenance, including—

(i) equipment, tires, tubes, and material, each costing at least .5 percent of the current fair market value of rolling stock comparable to the rolling stock for which the equipment, tires, tubes, and material are to be used; and

(ii) reconstruction of equipment and material, each of which after reconstruction will have a fair market value of at least .5 percent of the current fair market value of rolling stock comparable to the rolling stock for which the equipment and material will be used;


(M) associated transit improvements; or

(N) technological changes or innovations to modify low or no emission vehicles (as defined in section 5339(c)) or facilities.


(4) Designated recipient.—The term "designated recipient" means—

(A) an entity designated, in accordance with the planning process under sections 5303 and 5304, by the Governor of a State, responsible local officials, and publicly owned operators of public transportation, to receive and apportion amounts under section 5336 to urbanized areas of 200,000 or more in population; or

(B) a State or regional authority, if the authority is responsible under the laws of a State for a capital project and for financing and directly providing public transportation.


(5) Disability.—The term "disability" has the same meaning as in section 3(1) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12102).

(6) Emergency regulation.—The term "emergency regulation" means a regulation—

(A) that is effective temporarily before the expiration of the otherwise specified periods of time for public notice and comment under section 5334(c); and

(B) prescribed by the Secretary as the result of a finding that a delay in the effective date of the regulation—

(i) would injure seriously an important public interest;

(ii) would frustrate substantially legislative policy and intent; or

(iii) would damage seriously a person or class without serving an important public interest.


(7) Fixed guideway.—The term "fixed guideway" means a public transportation facility—

(A) using and occupying a separate right-of-way for the exclusive use of public transportation;

(B) using rail;

(C) using a fixed catenary system;

(D) for a passenger ferry system; or

(E) for a bus rapid transit system.


(8) Governor.—The term "Governor"—

(A) means the Governor of a State, the mayor of the District of Columbia, and the chief executive officer of a territory of the United States; and

(B) includes the designee of the Governor.


(9) Job access and reverse commute project.—

(A) In general.—The term "job access and reverse commute project" means a transportation project to finance planning, capital, and operating costs that support the development and maintenance of transportation services designed to transport welfare recipients and eligible low-income individuals to and from jobs and activities related to their employment, including transportation projects that facilitate the provision of public transportation services from urbanized areas and rural areas to suburban employment locations.

(B) Definitions.—In this paragraph:

(i) Eligible low-income individual.—The term "eligible low-income individual" means an individual whose family income is at or below 150 percent of the poverty line (as that term is defined in section 673(2) of the Community Service Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9902(2)), including any revision required by that section) for a family of the size involved.

(ii) Welfare recipient.—The term "welfare recipient" means an individual who has received assistance under a State or tribal program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) at any time during the 3-year period before the date on which the applicant applies for a grant under section 5307 or 5311.


(10) Local governmental authority.—The term "local governmental authority" includes—

(A) a political subdivision of a State;

(B) an authority of at least 1 State or political subdivision of a State;

(C) an Indian tribe; and

(D) a public corporation, board, or commission established under the laws of a State.


(11) Low-income individual.—The term "low-income individual" means an individual whose family income is at or below 150 percent of the poverty line, as that term is defined in section 673(2) of the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9902(2)), including any revision required by that section, for a family of the size involved.

(12) Net project cost.—The term "net project cost" means the part of a project that reasonably cannot be financed from revenues.

(13) New bus model.—The term "new bus model" means a bus model (including a model using alternative fuel)—

(A) that has not been used in public transportation in the United States before the date of production of the model; or

(B) used in public transportation in the United States, but being produced with a major change in configuration or components.


(14) Public transportation.—The term "public transportation"—

(A) means regular, continuing shared-ride surface transportation services that are open to the general public or open to a segment of the general public defined by age, disability, or low income; and

(B) does not include—

(i) intercity passenger rail transportation provided by the entity described in chapter 243 (or a successor to such entity);

(ii) intercity bus service;

(iii) charter bus service;

(iv) school bus service;

(v) sightseeing service;

(vi) courtesy shuttle service for patrons of one or more specific establishments; or

(vii) intra-terminal or intra-facility shuttle services.


(15) Regulation.—The term "regulation" means any part of a statement of general or particular applicability of the Secretary designed to carry out, interpret, or prescribe law or policy in carrying out this chapter.

(16) Rural area.—The term "rural area" means an area encompassing a population of less than 50,000 people that has not been designated in the most recent decennial census as an "urbanized area" by the Secretary of Commerce.

(17) Secretary.—The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation.

(18) Senior.—The term "senior" means an individual who is 65 years of age or older.

(19) State.—The term "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.

(20) State of good repair.—The term "state of good repair" has the meaning given that term by the Secretary, by rule, under section 5326(b).

(21) Transit.—The term "transit" means public transportation.

(22) Urban area.—The term "urban area" means an area that includes a municipality or other built-up place that the Secretary, after considering local patterns and trends of urban growth, decides is appropriate for a local public transportation system to serve individuals in the locality.

(23) Urbanized area.—The term "urbanized area" means an area encompassing a population of not less than 50,000 people that has been defined and designated in the most recent decennial census as an "urbanized area" by the Secretary of Commerce.

(24) Value capture.—The term "value capture" means recovering the increased property value to property located near public transportation resulting from investments in public transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 786; Pub. L. 103–331, title III, §335A, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2495; Pub. L. 104–50, title III, §333(a), Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 104–287, §6(c), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3398; Pub. L. 105–102, §3(a), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2214; Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3003, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 338; Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9009(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §§3002(b)(4), 3004, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 110–244, title II, §201(a), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 112–141, div. B, §20004, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title III, §3002, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1446.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5302(a)(1) 49 App.:1608(c)(1). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, §12(c)(1), 78 Stat. 306; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, §1109, 79 Stat. 507; Sept. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–562, §2(a)(1), 80 Stat. 715; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §20, 81 Stat. 25; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, §702, 82 Stat. 535; restated Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–599, §308(b), 92 Stat. 2746; Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §309(a), 96 Stat. 2151; Apr. 2, 1987, Pub. L. 100–17, §309(a), 101 Stat. 227.
  49 App.:1608(c)(7), (8). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, §12(c)(3)–(9), 78 Stat. 306; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, §1109, 79 Stat. 507; Sept. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–562, §2(a)(1), 80 Stat. 715; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §20, 81 Stat. 25; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, §702, 82 Stat. 535; restated Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–599, §308(b), 92 Stat. 2746; Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §3016, 105 Stat. 2108.
5302(a)(2) 49 App.:1608(c)(3).
5302(a)(3) 49 App.:1608(c)(13). July 9, 1965, Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302, §12(c)(12), (13); added Apr. 2, 1987, Pub. L. 100–17, §318(b)(3), 101 Stat. 234.
5302(a)(4) 49 App.:1608(c)(2). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, §12(c)(2), 78 Stat. 306; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, §1109, 79 Stat. 507; Sept. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–562, §2(a)(1), 80 Stat. 715; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §20, 81 Stat. 25; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, §702, 82 Stat. 535; restated Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–599, §308(b), 92 Stat. 2746; Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §309(b), 96 Stat. 2151.
5302(a)(5) 49 App.:1608(c)(4) (1st sentence).
5302(a)(6) 49 App.:1608(c)(5).
5302(a)(7) 49 App.:1608(c)(6).
5302(a)(8) (no source).
5302(a)(9) 49 App.:1608(h)(2). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302, §12(h)(2); added Apr. 2, 1987, Pub. L. 100–17, §317(a), 101 Stat. 233; Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §6021(a), 105 Stat. 2184.
  49 App.:1608 (note). Apr. 2, 1988, Pub. L. 100–17, §317(b)(4), 101 Stat. 233.
5302(a)(10) 49 App.:1608(c)(12).
5302(a)(11) 49 App.:1608(c)(9).
5302(a)(12) 49 App.:1608(c)(10). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, §12(c)(10), (11), 78 Stat. 306; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, §1109, 79 Stat. 507; Sept. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–562, §2(a)(1), 80 Stat. 715; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §20, 81 Stat. 25; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, §702, 82 Stat. 535; restated Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–599, §308(b), 92 Stat. 2746; Apr. 2, 1987, Pub. L. 100–17, §318(b)(1), (2), 101 Stat. 234.
5302(a)(13) 49 App.:1608(c)(11).
5302(b) 49 App.:1608(c)(4) (last sentence).

In this chapter, the words "local governmental authority" are substituted for "local public body" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the text of 49 App.:1608(c)(7) is omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:1608(c)(8) is omitted because the complete title of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a section. In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words "capital project" are substituted for "construction" for clarity. In subclause (A), the words "actual", "all", and "reconstruction" are omitted as surplus. In subclause (D), the words "(whether or not such overhaul increases the useful life of the rolling stock)" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "for each of the jurisdictions included in the definition of 'State' " are omitted as surplus. In clauses (3) and (10), the word "regulation" is substituted for "rule" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code and because the terms are synonymous. In clause (3)(B)(iii), the words "of persons" are omitted as surplus. In clauses (4) and (5), the word "mass" is substituted for "public" because of the restatement. In clause (4)(A), the words "including, but not limited to, fixed rail, automated guideway transit, and exclusive facilities for buses" are omitted as surplus. In clause (6)(A), the words "municipalities and other" are omitted as surplus. In clause (6)(B), the word "authority" is substituted for "public agencies and instrumentalities" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word "municipalities" is omitted as surplus. In clause (7), the words "bus, or rail, or other", "either publicly or privately owned", and "on a . . . basis" are omitted as surplus. Clause (8) is added for clarity because the term "net project cost" has the same meaning throughout this chapter. In clause (11), the words "the Commonwealths of" are omitted as surplus. In clause (12), the word "individuals" is substituted for "commuters or others" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (13)(A), the words "in the case of any such area" and "entire" are omitted as surplus. The words "Secretary of Commerce" are substituted for "Bureau of the Census" because of 15:1511(e). In clause (13)(B), the words "so designated by the Bureau of Census", "which shall be", "responsible", and "in cooperation with each other" are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (b) applies to section 5307(d)(1)(D) of the revised title because of 49 App.:1607a(e)(1), restated as section 5307(n)(2) of the revised title.

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in par. (3)(I), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in par. (9)(B)(ii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Par. (1)(C). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(1)(A), inserted "functional" before "landscaping and".

Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(1)(B), substituted "bicycle storage shelters and parking facilities and the installation of equipment" for "bicycle storage facilities and installing equipment".

Par. (3)(F). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(2)(A), added subpar. (F) and struck out former subpar. (F), which read as follows: "leasing equipment or a facility for use in public transportation, subject to regulations that the Secretary prescribes limiting the leasing arrangements to those that are more cost-effective than purchase or construction;".

Par. (3)(G)(iv). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(2)(B)(i), inserted "and" at end.

Par. (3)(G)(v)(XIV). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(2)(B)(ii), struck out "and" at end.

Par. (3)(G)(vi). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(2)(B)(iii), struck out cl. (vi), which read as follows: "does not include outfitting of commercial space (other than an intercity bus or rail station or terminal) or a part of a public facility not related to public transportation;".

Par. (3)(I). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(2)(C), added subpar. (I) and struck out former subpar. (I), which read as follows: "the provision of nonfixed route paratransit transportation services in accordance with section 223 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12143), but only for grant recipients that are in compliance with applicable requirements of that Act, including both fixed route and demand responsive service, and only for amounts not to exceed 10 percent of such recipient's annual formula apportionment under sections 5307 and 5311;".

Par. (3)(M), (N). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(2)(D)–(F), added subpars. (M) and (N).

Par. (24). Pub. L. 114–94, §3002(3), added par. (24).

2012Pub. L. 112–141 amended section generally, substituting pars. (1) to (23) for former provisions defining terms for this chapter consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b).

2008—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 110–244 substituted "charter, sightseeing," for "charter,".

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(a), substituted "Except as otherwise specifically provided, in this chapter" for "In this chapter" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A), (F). Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation".

Subsec. (a)(1)(G). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(b)(1), inserted "construction, renovation, and improvement of intercity bus and intercity rail stations and terminals," after "public transportation facility," in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation" wherever appearing in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(G)(ii). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(b)(2), inserted "(other than an intercity bus station or terminal)" after "commercial revenue-producing facility".

Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation".

Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation".

Subsec. (a)(1)(J) to (L). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(b)(3)–(5), added subpars. (J) to (L).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation" in introductory provisions and subpar. (A).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(c), substituted "Individual with a disability" for "Handicapped individual" in heading and "individual with a disability" for "handicapped individual" in text.

Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation" in two places.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(d), amended heading and text of par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'mass transportation' means transportation by a conveyance that provides regular and continuing general or special transportation to the public, but does not include school bus, charter, or sightseeing transportation."

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation" in subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(e), amended heading and text of par. (10) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'public transportation' means mass transportation."

Subsec. (a)(14) to (16). Pub. L. 109–59, §3002(b)(4), substituted "public transportation" for "mass transportation" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(f), reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (17) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'urbanized area' means an area—

"(A) encompassing at least an urbanized area within a State that the Secretary of Commerce designates; and

"(B) designated as an urbanized area within boundaries fixed by State and local officials and approved by the Secretary."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–59, §3004(g), substituted "Individual With a Disability" for "Handicapped Individual" in heading and "individual with a disability" for "handicapped individual" in text.

1998Pub. L. 105–178, §3003(a), formerly §3003, as renumbered by Pub. L. 105–206, §9009(a)(1), amended section generally, revising and restating existing definitions and adding new pars. defining additional terms.

Subsec. (a)(1)(G)(i). Pub. L. 105–178, §3003(b), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, §9009(a)(2), substituted "daycare or" for "daycare and".

1997—Subsec. (a)(1)(B), (C). Pub. L. 105–102 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 104–50, §333(a). See 1995 Amendment notes below.

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–287 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–331, §335A. See 1994 Amendment note below.

1995—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–50, §333(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 105–102, §3(a)(1), struck out "that extends the economic life of a bus for at least 5 years" after "rehabilitating a bus".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–50, §333(a)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 105–102, §3(a)(2), struck out "that extends the economic life of a bus for at least 8 years" after "remanufacturing a bus".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–331, §335A, as amended by Pub. L. 104–287, inserted "payments for the capital portions of rail trackage rights agreements," after "rights of way),".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Title IX of Pub. L. 105–206 effective simultaneously with enactment of Pub. L. 105–178 and to be treated as included in Pub. L. 105–178 at time of enactment, and provisions of Pub. L. 105–178, as in effect on day before July 22, 1998, that are amended by title IX of Pub. L. 105–206 to be treated as not enacted, see section 9016 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–102, §3(a), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2214, provided that the amendment made by section 3(a) is effective Nov. 15, 1995.

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–102 effective as if included in the provisions of the Act to which the amendment relates, see section 3(f) of Pub. L. 105–102, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–287, §6(c), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3398, provided that the amendment made by section 6(c) is effective Sept. 30, 1994.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–50, title III, §333(b), Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 457, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not take effect before March 31, 1996."

§5303. Metropolitan transportation planning

(a) Policy.—It is in the national interest—

(1) to encourage and promote the safe and efficient management, operation, and development of resilient surface transportation systems that will serve the mobility needs of people and freight and foster economic growth and development within and between States and urbanized areas, while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution through metropolitan and statewide transportation planning processes identified in this chapter; and

(2) to encourage the continued improvement and evolution of the metropolitan and statewide transportation planning processes by metropolitan planning organizations, State departments of transportation, and public transit operators as guided by the planning factors identified in subsection (h) and section 5304(d).


(b) Definitions.—In this section and section 5304, the following definitions apply:

(1) Metropolitan planning area.—The term "metropolitan planning area" means the geographic area determined by agreement between the metropolitan planning organization for the area and the Governor under subsection (e).

(2) Metropolitan planning organization.—The term "metropolitan planning organization" means the policy board of an organization established as a result of the designation process under subsection (d).

(3) Nonmetropolitan area.—The term "nonmetropolitan area" means a geographic area outside designated metropolitan planning areas.

(4) Nonmetropolitan local official.—The term "nonmetropolitan local official" means elected and appointed officials of general purpose local government in a nonmetropolitan area with responsibility for transportation.

(5) Regional transportation planning organization.—The term "regional transportation planning organization" means a policy board of an organization established as the result of a designation under section 5304(l).

(6) TIP.—The term "TIP" means a transportation improvement program developed by a metropolitan planning organization under subsection (j).

(7) Urbanized area.—The term "urbanized area" means a geographic area with a population of 50,000 or more, as determined by the Bureau of the Census.


(c) General Requirements.—

(1) Development of long-range plans and tips.—To accomplish the objectives in subsection (a), metropolitan planning organizations designated under subsection (d), in cooperation with the State and public transportation operators, shall develop long-range transportation plans and transportation improvement programs through a performance-driven, outcome-based approach to planning for metropolitan areas of the State.

(2) Contents.—The plans and TIPs for each metropolitan area shall provide for the development and integrated management and operation of transportation systems and facilities (including accessible pedestrian walkways, bicycle transportation facilities, and intermodal facilities that support intercity transportation, including intercity buses and intercity bus facilities and commuter vanpool providers) that will function as an intermodal transportation system for the metropolitan planning area and as an integral part of an intermodal transportation system for the State and the United States.

(3) Process of development.—The process for developing the plans and TIPs shall provide for consideration of all modes of transportation and shall be continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive to the degree appropriate, based on the complexity of the transportation problems to be addressed.


(d) Designation of Metropolitan Planning Organizations.—

(1) In general.—To carry out the transportation planning process required by this section, a metropolitan planning organization shall be designated for each urbanized area with a population of more than 50,000 individuals—

(A) by agreement between the Governor and units of general purpose local government that together represent at least 75 percent of the affected population (including the largest incorporated city (based on population) as determined by the Bureau of the Census); or

(B) in accordance with procedures established by applicable State or local law.


(2) Structure.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Federal Public Transportation Act of 2012, each metropolitan planning organization that serves an area designated as a transportation management area shall consist of—

(A) local elected officials;

(B) officials of public agencies that administer or operate major modes of transportation in the metropolitan area, including representation by providers of public transportation; and

(C) appropriate State officials.


(3) Representation.—

(A) In general.—Designation or selection of officials or representatives under paragraph (2) shall be determined by the metropolitan planning organization according to the bylaws or enabling statute of the organization.

(B) Public transportation representative.—Subject to the bylaws or enabling statute of the metropolitan planning organization, a representative of a provider of public transportation may also serve as a representative of a local municipality.

(C) Powers of certain officials.—An official described in paragraph (2)(B) shall have responsibilities, actions, duties, voting rights, and any other authority commensurate with other officials described in paragraph (2).


(4) Limitation on statutory construction.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to interfere with the authority, under any State law in effect on December 18, 1991, of a public agency with multimodal transportation responsibilities—

(A) to develop the plans and TIPs for adoption by a metropolitan planning organization; and

(B) to develop long-range capital plans, coordinate transit services and projects, and carry out other activities pursuant to State law.


(5) Continuing designation.—A designation of a metropolitan planning organization under this subsection or any other provision of law shall remain in effect until the metropolitan planning organization is redesignated under paragraph (6).

(6) Redesignation procedures.—

(A) In general.—A metropolitan planning organization may be redesignated by agreement between the Governor and units of general purpose local government that together represent at least 75 percent of the existing planning area population (including the largest incorporated city (based on population) as determined by the Bureau of the Census) as appropriate to carry out this section.

(B) Restructuring.—A metropolitan planning organization may be restructured to meet the requirements of paragraph (2) without undertaking a redesignation.


(7) Designation of more than 1 metropolitan planning organization.—More than 1 metropolitan planning organization may be designated within an existing metropolitan planning area only if the Governor and the existing metropolitan planning organization determine that the size and complexity of the existing metropolitan planning area make designation of more than 1 metropolitan planning organization for the area appropriate.


(e) Metropolitan Planning Area Boundaries.—

(1) In general.—For the purposes of this section, the boundaries of a metropolitan planning area shall be determined by agreement between the metropolitan planning organization and the Governor.

(2) Included area.—Each metropolitan planning area—

(A) shall encompass at least the existing urbanized area and the contiguous area expected to become urbanized within a 20-year forecast period for the transportation plan; and

(B) may encompass the entire metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area, as defined by the Bureau of the Census.


(3) Identification of new urbanized areas within existing planning area boundaries.—The designation by the Bureau of the Census of new urbanized areas within an existing metropolitan planning area shall not require the redesignation of the existing metropolitan planning organization.

(4) Existing metropolitan planning areas in nonattainment.—

(A) In general.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2), except as provided in subparagraph (B), in the case of an urbanized area designated as a nonattainment area for ozone or carbon monoxide under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) as of the date of enactment of the SAFETEA–LU, the boundaries of the metropolitan planning area in existence as of such date of enactment shall be retained.

(B) Exception.—The boundaries described in subparagraph (A) may be adjusted by agreement of the Governor and affected metropolitan planning organizations in the manner described in subsection (d)(6).


(5) New metropolitan planning areas in nonattainment.—In the case of an urbanized area designated after the date of enactment of the SAFETEA–LU, as a nonattainment area for ozone or carbon monoxide, the boundaries of the metropolitan planning area—

(A) shall be established in the manner described in subsection (d)(1);

(B) shall encompass the areas described in paragraph (2)(A);

(C) may encompass the areas described in paragraph (2)(B); and

(D) may address any nonattainment area identified under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) for ozone or carbon monoxide.


(f) Coordination in Multistate Areas.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall encourage each Governor with responsibility for a portion of a multistate metropolitan area and the appropriate metropolitan planning organizations to provide coordinated transportation planning for the entire metropolitan area.

(2) Interstate compacts.—The consent of Congress is granted to any 2 or more States—

(A) to enter into agreements or compacts, not in conflict with any law of the United States, for cooperative efforts and mutual assistance in support of activities authorized under this section as the activities pertain to interstate areas and localities within the States; and

(B) to establish such agencies, joint or otherwise, as the States may determine desirable for making the agreements and compacts effective.


(3) Reservation of rights.—The right to alter, amend, or repeal interstate compacts entered into under this subsection is expressly reserved.


(g) MPO Consultation in Plan and TIP Coordination.—

(1) Nonattainment areas.—If more than 1 metropolitan planning organization has authority within a metropolitan area or an area which is designated as a nonattainment area for ozone or carbon monoxide under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), each metropolitan planning organization shall consult with the other metropolitan planning organizations designated for such area and the State in the coordination of plans and TIPs required by this section.

(2) Transportation improvements located in multiple mpos.—If a transportation improvement, funded under this chapter or title 23, is located within the boundaries of more than 1 metropolitan planning area, the metropolitan planning organizations shall coordinate plans and TIPs regarding the transportation improvement.

(3) Relationship with other planning officials.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary shall encourage each metropolitan planning organization to consult with officials responsible for other types of planning activities that are affected by transportation in the area (including State and local planned growth, economic development, tourism, natural disaster risk reduction, environmental protection, airport operations, and freight movements) or to coordinate its planning process, to the maximum extent practicable, with such planning activities.

(B) Requirements.—Under the metropolitan planning process, transportation plans and TIPs shall be developed with due consideration of other related planning activities within the metropolitan area, and the process shall provide for the design and delivery of transportation services within the metropolitan area that are provided by—

(i) recipients of assistance under this chapter;

(ii) governmental agencies and nonprofit organizations (including representatives of the agencies and organizations) that receive Federal assistance from a source other than the Department of Transportation to provide nonemergency transportation services; and

(iii) recipients of assistance under section 204 of title 23.


(h) Scope of Planning Process.—

(1) In general.—The metropolitan planning process for a metropolitan planning area under this section shall provide for consideration of projects and strategies that will—

(A) support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency;

(B) increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;

(C) increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;

(D) increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight;

(E) protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;

(F) enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight;

(G) promote efficient system management and operation;

(H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system; and

(I) improve the resiliency and reliability of the transportation system.


(2) Performance-based approach.—

(A) In general.—The metropolitan transportation planning process shall provide for the establishment and use of a performance-based approach to transportation decisionmaking to support the national goals described in section 150(b) of title 23 and the general purposes described in section 5301.

(B) Performance targets.—

(i) Surface transportation performance targets.—

(I) In general.—Each metropolitan planning organization shall establish performance targets that address the performance measures described in section 150(c) of title 23, where applicable, to use in tracking progress towards attainment of critical outcomes for the region of the metropolitan planning organization.

(II) Coordination.—Selection of performance targets by a metropolitan planning organization shall be coordinated with the relevant State to ensure consistency, to the maximum extent practicable.


(ii) Public transportation performance targets.—Selection of performance targets by a metropolitan planning organization shall be coordinated, to the maximum extent practicable, with providers of public transportation to ensure consistency with sections 5326(c) and 5329(d).


(C) Timing.—Each metropolitan planning organization shall establish the performance targets under subparagraph (B) not later than 180 days after the date on which the relevant State or provider of public transportation establishes the performance targets.

(D) Integration of other performance-based plans.—A metropolitan planning organization shall integrate in the metropolitan transportation planning process, directly or by reference, the goals, objectives, performance measures, and targets described in other State transportation plans and transportation processes, as well as any plans developed by recipients of assistance under this chapter, required as part of a performance-based program.


(3) Failure to consider factors.—The failure to consider any factor specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not be reviewable by any court under this chapter, title 23, subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, or chapter 7 of title 5 in any matter affecting a transportation plan, a TIP, a project or strategy, or the certification of a planning process.


(i) Development of Transportation Plan.—

(1) Requirements.—

(A) In general.—Each metropolitan planning organization shall prepare and update a transportation plan for its metropolitan planning area in accordance with the requirements of this subsection.

(B) Frequency.—

(i) In general.—The metropolitan planning organization shall prepare and update such plan every 4 years (or more frequently, if the metropolitan planning organization elects to update more frequently) in the case of each of the following:

(I) Any area designated as nonattainment, as defined in section 107(d) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7407(d)).

(II) Any area that was nonattainment and subsequently designated to attainment in accordance with section 107(d)(3) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 7407(d)(3)) and that is subject to a maintenance plan under section 175A of that Act (42 U.S.C. 7505a).


(ii) Other areas.—In the case of any other area required to have a transportation plan in accordance with the requirements of this subsection, the metropolitan planning organization shall prepare and update such plan every 5 years unless the metropolitan planning organization elects to update more frequently.


(2) Transportation plan.—A transportation plan under this section shall be in a form that the Secretary determines to be appropriate and shall contain, at a minimum, the following:

(A) Identification of transportation facilities.—

(i) In general.—An identification of transportation facilities (including major roadways, public transportation facilities, intercity bus facilities, multimodal and intermodal facilities, nonmotorized transportation facilities, and intermodal connectors) that should function as an integrated metropolitan transportation system, giving emphasis to those facilities that serve important national and regional transportation functions.

(ii) Factors.—In formulating the transportation plan, the metropolitan planning organization shall consider factors described in subsection (h) as the factors relate to a 20-year forecast period.


(B) Performance measures and targets.—A description of the performance measures and performance targets used in assessing the performance of the transportation system in accordance with subsection (h)(2).

(C) System performance report.—A system performance report and subsequent updates evaluating the condition and performance of the transportation system with respect to the performance targets described in subsection (h)(2), including—

(i) progress achieved by the metropolitan planning organization in meeting the performance targets in comparison with system performance recorded in previous reports; and

(ii) for metropolitan planning organizations that voluntarily elect to develop multiple scenarios, an analysis of how the preferred scenario has improved the conditions and performance of the transportation system and how changes in local policies and investments have impacted the costs necessary to achieve the identified performance targets.


(D) Mitigation activities.—

(i) In general.—A long-range transportation plan shall include a discussion of types of potential environmental mitigation activities and potential areas to carry out these activities, including activities that may have the greatest potential to restore and maintain the environmental functions affected by the plan.

(ii) Consultation.—The discussion shall be developed in consultation with Federal, State, and tribal wildlife, land management, and regulatory agencies.


(E) Financial plan.—

(i) In general.—A financial plan that—

(I) demonstrates how the adopted transportation plan can be implemented;

(II) indicates resources from public and private sources that are reasonably expected to be made available to carry out the plan; and

(III) recommends any additional financing strategies for needed projects and programs.


(ii) Inclusions.—The financial plan may include, for illustrative purposes, additional projects that would be included in the adopted transportation plan if reasonable additional resources beyond those identified in the financial plan were available.

(iii) Cooperative development.—For the purpose of developing the transportation plan, the metropolitan planning organization, transit operator, and State shall cooperatively develop estimates of funds that will be available to support plan implementation.


(F) Operational and management strategies.—Operational and management strategies to improve the performance of existing transportation facilities to relieve vehicular congestion and maximize the safety and mobility of people and goods.

(G) Capital investment and other strategies.—Capital investment and other strategies to preserve the existing and projected future metropolitan transportation infrastructure, provide for multimodal capacity increases based on regional priorities and needs, and reduce the vulnerability of the existing transportation infrastructure to natural disasters.

(H) Transportation and transit enhancement activities.—Proposed transportation and transit enhancement activities, including consideration of the role that intercity buses may play in reducing congestion, pollution, and energy consumption in a cost-effective manner and strategies and investments that preserve and enhance intercity bus systems, including systems that are privately owned and operated.


(3) Coordination with clean air act agencies.—In metropolitan areas that are in nonattainment for ozone or carbon monoxide under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), the metropolitan planning organization shall coordinate the development of a transportation plan with the process for development of the transportation control measures of the State implementation plan required by that Act.

(4) Optional scenario development.—

(A) In general.—A metropolitan planning organization may, while fitting the needs and complexity of its community, voluntarily elect to develop multiple scenarios for consideration as part of the development of the metropolitan transportation plan, in accordance with subparagraph (B).

(B) Recommended components.—A metropolitan planning organization that chooses to develop multiple scenarios under subparagraph (A) shall be encouraged to consider—

(i) potential regional investment strategies for the planning horizon;

(ii) assumed distribution of population and employment;

(iii) a scenario that, to the maximum extent practicable, maintains baseline conditions for the performance measures identified in subsection (h)(2);

(iv) a scenario that improves the baseline conditions for as many of the performance measures identified in subsection (h)(2) as possible;

(v) revenue constrained scenarios based on the total revenues expected to be available over the forecast period of the plan; and

(vi) estimated costs and potential revenues available to support each scenario.


(C) Metrics.—In addition to the performance measures identified in section 150(c) of title 23, metropolitan planning organizations may evaluate scenarios developed under this paragraph using locally-developed measures.


(5) Consultation.—

(A) In general.—In each metropolitan area, the metropolitan planning organization shall consult, as appropriate, with State and local agencies responsible for land use management, natural resources, environmental protection, conservation, and historic preservation concerning the development of a long-range transportation plan.

(B) Issues.—The consultation shall involve, as appropriate—

(i) comparison of transportation plans with State conservation plans or maps, if available; or

(ii) comparison of transportation plans to inventories of natural or historic resources, if available.


(6) Participation by interested parties.—

(A) In general.—Each metropolitan planning organization shall provide citizens, affected public agencies, representatives of public transportation employees, public ports, freight shippers, providers of freight transportation services, private providers of transportation (including intercity bus operators, employer-based commuting programs, such as a carpool program, vanpool program, transit benefit program, parking cash-out program, shuttle program, or telework program), representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities, representatives of the disabled, and other interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on the transportation plan.

(B) Contents of participation plan.—A participation plan—

(i) shall be developed in consultation with all interested parties; and

(ii) shall provide that all interested parties have reasonable opportunities to comment on the contents of the transportation plan.


(C) Methods.—In carrying out subparagraph (A), the metropolitan planning organization shall, to the maximum extent practicable—

(i) hold any public meetings at convenient and accessible locations and times;

(ii) employ visualization techniques to describe plans; and

(iii) make public information available in electronically accessible format and means, such as the World Wide Web, as appropriate to afford reasonable opportunity for consideration of public information under subparagraph (A).


(7) Publication.—A transportation plan involving Federal participation shall be published or otherwise made readily available by the metropolitan planning organization for public review, including (to the maximum extent practicable) in electronically accessible formats and means, such as the World Wide Web, approved by the metropolitan planning organization and submitted for information purposes to the Governor at such times and in such manner as the Secretary shall establish.

(8) Selection of projects from illustrative list.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(E), a State or metropolitan planning organization shall not be required to select any project from the illustrative list of additional projects included in the financial plan under paragraph (2)(E).


(j) Metropolitan TIP.—

(1) Development.—

(A) In general.—In cooperation with the State and any affected public transportation operator, the metropolitan planning organization designated for a metropolitan area shall develop a TIP for the metropolitan planning area that—

(i) contains projects consistent with the current metropolitan transportation plan;

(ii) reflects the investment priorities established in the current metropolitan transportation plan; and

(iii) once implemented, is designed to make progress toward achieving the performance targets established under subsection (h)(2).


(B) Opportunity for comment.—In developing the TIP, the metropolitan planning organization, in cooperation with the State and any affected public transportation operator, shall provide an opportunity for participation by interested parties in the development of the program, in accordance with subsection (i)(5).

(C) Funding estimates.—For the purpose of developing the TIP, the metropolitan planning organization, public transportation agency, and State shall cooperatively develop estimates of funds that are reasonably expected to be available to support program implementation.

(D) Updating and approval.—The TIP shall be—

(i) updated at least once every 4 years; and

(ii) approved by the metropolitan planning organization and the Governor.


(2) Contents.—

(A) Priority list.—The TIP shall include a priority list of proposed Federally supported projects and strategies to be carried out within each 4-year period after the initial adoption of the TIP.

(B) Financial plan.—The TIP shall include a financial plan that—

(i) demonstrates how the TIP can be implemented;

(ii) indicates resources from public and private sources that are reasonably expected to be available to carry out the program;

(iii) identifies innovative financing techniques to finance projects, programs, and strategies; and

(iv) may include, for illustrative purposes, additional projects that would be included in the approved TIP if reasonable additional resources beyond those identified in the financial plan were available.


(C) Descriptions.—Each project in the TIP shall include sufficient descriptive material (such as type of work, termini, length, and other similar factors) to identify the project or phase of the project.

(D) Performance target achievement.—The transportation improvement program shall include, to the maximum extent practicable, a description of the anticipated effect of the transportation improvement program toward achieving the performance targets established in the metropolitan transportation plan, linking investment priorities to those performance targets.


(3) Included projects.—

(A) Projects under this chapter and title 23.—A TIP developed under this subsection for a metropolitan area shall include the projects within the area that are proposed for funding under this chapter and chapter 1 of title 23.

(B) Projects under chapter 2 of title 23.—

(i) Regionally significant projects.—Regionally significant projects proposed for funding under chapter 2 of title 23 shall be identified individually in the transportation improvement program.

(ii) Other projects.—Projects proposed for funding under chapter 2 of title 23 that are not determined to be regionally significant shall be grouped in 1 line item or identified individually in the transportation improvement program.


(C) Consistency with long-range transportation plan.—Each project shall be consistent with the long-range transportation plan developed under subsection (i) for the area.

(D) Requirement of anticipated full funding.—The program shall include a project, or an identified phase of a project, only if full funding can reasonably be anticipated to be available for the project or the identified phase within the time period contemplated for completion of the project or the identified phase.


(4) Notice and comment.—Before approving a TIP, a metropolitan planning organization, in cooperation with the State and any affected public transportation operator, shall provide an opportunity for participation by interested parties in the development of the program, in accordance with subsection (i)(5).

(5) Selection of projects.—

(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in subsection (k)(4) and in addition to the TIP development required under paragraph (1), the selection of Federally funded projects in metropolitan areas shall be carried out, from the approved TIP—

(i) by—

(I) in the case of projects under title 23, the State; and

(II) in the case of projects under this chapter, the designated recipients of public transportation funding; and


(ii) in cooperation with the metropolitan planning organization.


(B) Modifications to project priority.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, action by the Secretary shall not be required to advance a project included in the approved TIP in place of another project in the program.


(6) Selection of projects from illustrative list.—

(A) No required selection.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(B)(iv), a State or metropolitan planning organization shall not be required to select any project from the illustrative list of additional projects included in the financial plan under paragraph (2)(B)(iv).

(B) Required action by the secretary.—Action by the Secretary shall be required for a State or metropolitan planning organization to select any project from the illustrative list of additional projects included in the financial plan under paragraph (2)(B)(iv) for inclusion in an approved TIP.


(7) Publication.—

(A) Publication of tips.—A TIP involving Federal participation shall be published or otherwise made readily available by the metropolitan planning organization for public review.

(B) Publication of annual listings of projects.—

(i) In general.—An annual listing of projects, including investments in pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities, for which Federal funds have been obligated in the preceding year shall be published or otherwise made available by the cooperative effort of the State, transit operator, and metropolitan planning organization for public review.

(ii) Requirement.—The listing shall be consistent with the categories identified in the TIP.


(k) Transportation Management Areas.—

(1) Identification and designation.—

(A) Required identification.—The Secretary shall identify as a transportation management area each urbanized area (as defined by the Bureau of the Census) with a population of over 200,000 individuals.

(B) Designations on request.—The Secretary shall designate any additional area as a transportation management area on the request of the Governor and the metropolitan planning organization designated for the area.


(2) Transportation plans.—In a transportation management area, transportation plans shall be based on a continuing and comprehensive transportation planning process carried out by the metropolitan planning organization in cooperation with the State and public transportation operators.

(3) Congestion management process.—

(A) In general.—Within a metropolitan planning area serving a transportation management area, the transportation planning process under this section shall address congestion management through a process that provides for effective management and operation, based on a cooperatively developed and implemented metropolitan-wide strategy, of new and existing transportation facilities eligible for funding under this chapter and title 23 through the use of travel demand reduction (including intercity bus operators, employer-based commuting programs, such as a carpool program, vanpool program, transit benefit program, parking cash-out program, shuttle program, or telework program), job access projects, and operational management strategies.

(B) Schedule.—The Secretary shall establish an appropriate phase-in schedule for compliance with the requirements of this section but no sooner than 1 year after the identification of a transportation management area.

(C) Congestion management plan.—A metropolitan planning organization serving a transportation management area may develop a plan that includes projects and strategies that will be considered in the TIP of such metropolitan planning organization. Such plan shall—

(i) develop regional goals to reduce vehicle miles traveled during peak commuting hours and improve transportation connections between areas with high job concentration and areas with high concentrations of low-income households;

(ii) identify existing public transportation services, employer-based commuter programs, and other existing transportation services that support access to jobs in the region; and

(iii) identify proposed projects and programs to reduce congestion and increase job access opportunities.


(D) Participation.—In developing the plan under subparagraph (C), a metropolitan planning organization shall consult with employers, private and non-profit providers of public transportation, transportation management organizations, and organizations that provide job access reverse commute projects or job-related services to low-income individuals.


(4) Selection of projects.—

(A) In general.—All Federally funded projects carried out within the boundaries of a metropolitan planning area serving a transportation management area under title 23 (excluding projects carried out on the National Highway System) or under this chapter shall be selected for implementation from the approved TIP by the metropolitan planning organization designated for the area in consultation with the State and any affected public transportation operator.

(B) National highway system projects.—Projects carried out within the boundaries of a metropolitan planning area serving a transportation management area on the National Highway System shall be selected for implementation from the approved TIP by the State in cooperation with the metropolitan planning organization designated for the area.


(5) Certification.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary shall—

(i) ensure that the metropolitan planning process of a metropolitan planning organization serving a transportation management area is being carried out in accordance with applicable provisions of Federal law; and

(ii) subject to subparagraph (B), certify, not less often than once every 4 years, that the requirements of this paragraph are met with respect to the metropolitan planning process.


(B) Requirements for certification.—The Secretary may make the certification under subparagraph (A) if—

(i) the transportation planning process complies with the requirements of this section and other applicable requirements of Federal law; and

(ii) there is a TIP for the metropolitan planning area that has been approved by the metropolitan planning organization and the Governor.


(C) Effect of failure to certify.—

(i) Withholding of project funds.—If a metropolitan planning process of a metropolitan planning organization serving a transportation management area is not certified, the Secretary may withhold up to 20 percent of the funds attributable to the metropolitan planning area of the metropolitan planning organization for projects funded under this chapter and title 23.

(ii) Restoration of withheld funds.—The withheld funds shall be restored to the metropolitan planning area at such time as the metropolitan planning process is certified by the Secretary.


(D) Review of certification.—In making certification determinations under this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide for public involvement appropriate to the metropolitan area under review.


(l) Report on Performance-based Planning Processes.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the effectiveness of the performance-based planning processes of metropolitan planning organizations under this section, taking into consideration the requirements of this subsection.

(2) Report.—Not later than 5 years after the date of enactment of the Federal Public Transportation Act of 2012, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report evaluating—

(A) the overall effectiveness of performance-based planning as a tool for guiding transportation investments;

(B) the effectiveness of the performance-based planning process of each metropolitan planning organization under this section;

(C) the extent to which metropolitan planning organizations have achieved, or are currently making substantial progress toward achieving, the performance targets specified under this section and whether metropolitan planning organizations are developing meaningful performance targets; and

(D) the technical capacity of metropolitan planning organizations that operate within a metropolitan planning area with a population of 200,000 or less and their ability to carry out the requirements of this section.


(3) Publication.—The report under paragraph (2) shall be published or otherwise made available in electronically accessible formats and means, including on the Internet.


(m) Abbreviated Plans for Certain Areas.—

(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), in the case of a metropolitan area not designated as a transportation management area under this section, the Secretary may provide for the development of an abbreviated transportation plan and TIP for the metropolitan planning area that the Secretary determines is appropriate to achieve the purposes of this section, taking into account the complexity of transportation problems in the area.

(2) Nonattainment areas.—The Secretary may not permit abbreviated plans or TIPs for a metropolitan area that is in nonattainment for ozone or carbon monoxide under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.).


(n) Additional Requirements for Certain Nonattainment Areas.—

(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter or title 23, for transportation management areas classified as nonattainment for ozone or carbon monoxide pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), Federal funds may not be advanced in such area for any highway project that will result in a significant increase in the carrying capacity for single-occupant vehicles unless the project is addressed through a congestion management process.

(2) Applicability.—This subsection applies to a nonattainment area within the metropolitan planning area boundaries determined under subsection (e).


(o) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to confer on a metropolitan planning organization the authority to impose legal requirements on any transportation facility, provider, or project not eligible under this chapter or title 23.

(p) Funding.—Funds apportioned under section 104(b)(5) of title 23 or section 5305(g) shall be available to carry out this section.

(q) Continuation of Current Review Practice.—Since plans and TIPs described in this section are subject to a reasonable opportunity for public comment, since individual projects included in plans and TIPs are subject to review under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), and since decisions by the Secretary concerning plans and TIPs described in this section have not been reviewed under that Act as of January 1, 1997, any decision by the Secretary concerning a plan or TIP described in this section shall not be considered to be a Federal action subject to review under that Act.

(r) Bi-State Metropolitan Planning Organization.—

(1) Definition of bi-state mpo region.—In this subsection, the term "Bi-State Metropolitan Planning Organization" has the meaning given the term "region" in subsection (a) of Article II of the Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Compact (Public Law 96–551; 94 Stat. 3234).

(2) Treatment.—For the purpose of this title, the Bi-State Metropolitan Planning Organization shall be treated as—

(A) a metropolitan planning organization;

(B) a transportation management area under subsection (k); and

(C) an urbanized area, which is comprised of a population of 145,000 and 25 square miles of land area and 25 square miles of land area 1 in the State of California and a population of 65,000 and 12 square miles of land area and 12 square miles of land area 1 in the State of Nevada.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 788; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(10), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 105–102, §2(4), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2204; Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §§3004, 3029(b)(1)–(3), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 341, 372; Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9009(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 109–59, title III, §3005(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1547; Pub. L. 110–244, title II, §201(b), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 112–141, div. B, §20005(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title III, §3003(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1447; Pub. L. 114–322, title III, §3603(f)(3), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1789; Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title I, §192, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 756.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5303(a) 49 App.:1607(a) (2d–last sentences). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302, §8(a) (2d–last sentences)–(g), (n); added Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–599, §305(b), 92 Stat. 2743; Apr. 2, 1987, Pub. L. 100–17, §310, 101 Stat. 227; restated Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §3012, 105 Stat. 2098, 2104.
5303(b) 49 App.:1607(f).
5303(c)(1) 49 App.:1607(b)(1).
5303(c)(2) 49 App.:1607(b)(2).
5303(c)(3) 49 App.:1607(b)(6).
5303(c)(4) 49 App.:1607(b)(4).
5303(c)(5) 49 App.:1607(b)(5).
5303(c)(6) 49 App.:1607(b)(3).
5303(d) 49 App.:1607(c).
5303(e) 49 App.:1607(d), (e).
5303(f) 49 App.:1607(g).
5303(g) 49 App.:1607(n).
5303(h) 49 App.:1607(p). July 9, 1964, Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302, §8(p); added Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–599, §305(b), 92 Stat. 2743; Apr. 2, 1987, Pub. L. 100–17, §310, 101 Stat. 227; restated Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §3012, 105 Stat. 2105; Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–388, §502(h), 106 Stat. 1566.

In this section, the word "together" is omitted as surplus. The words "Secretary of Commerce" are substituted for "Bureau of the Census" because of 15:1511(e).

In subsection (b)(2), the word "applicable" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "where it does not yet occur" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(4), the words "the provisions of all applicable" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(4), before clause (A), the words "whether made under this section or other provisions of law" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the word "entire" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(2), the words "or compacts" and "joint or otherwise" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(3), the word "area" is added for clarity and consistency with 42:7501(2).

In subsection (f)(5)(A), the words "published or otherwise" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (g), before clause (1), the words "local governmental authorities" are substituted for "local public bodies", and the words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government" are substituted for "Federal departments and agencies", for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (h)(6)(A), the words "for obligation", "a period of", and "the close of" are omitted as surplus.