[USC04] 7 USC CHAPTER 87, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
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7 USC CHAPTER 87, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 87—EXPORT PROMOTION

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§5601. Purpose

It is the purpose of this chapter to increase the profitability of farming and to increase opportunities for United States farms and agricultural enterprises by—

(1) increasing the effectiveness of the Department of Agriculture in agricultural export policy formulation and implementation;

(2) improving the competitiveness of United States agricultural commodities and products in the world market; and

(3) providing for the coordination and efficient implementation of all agricultural export programs.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3669.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 101 of Pub. L. 95–501 amended section 1707a of this title prior to the complete revision of Pub. L. 95–501 by Pub. L. 101–624.

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, §411(a)(1), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4962, provided that: "This subsection [amending section 5651 of this title] may be cited as the 'Export Enhancement Program Amendments of 1994'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 95–501, §1, as added by Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3669, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Trade Act of 1978'."

§5602. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) Agricultural commodity

The term "agricultural commodity" means any agricultural commodity, food, feed, fiber, or livestock (including livestock as it is defined in section 1471(2) of this title and insects), and any product thereof.

(2) Developing country

The term "developing country" means a country that—

(A) has a shortage of foreign exchange earnings and has difficulty accessing sufficient commercial credit to meet all of its food needs, as determined by the Secretary; and

(B) has the potential to become a commercial market for agricultural commodities.

(3) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Agriculture.

(4) Service

The term "Service" means the Foreign Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture.

(5) Unfair trade practice

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the term "unfair trade practice" means any act, policy, or practice of a foreign country that—

(i) violates, or is inconsistent with, the provisions of, or otherwise denies benefits to the United States under, any trade agreement to which the United States is a party;

(ii) in the case of a monopolistic state trading enterprise engaged in the export sale of an agricultural commodity, implements a pricing practice that is inconsistent with sound commercial practice;

(iii) provides a subsidy that—

(I) decreases market opportunities for United States exports; or

(II) unfairly distorts an agricultural market to the detriment of United States exporters;


(iv) imposes an unfair technical barrier to trade, including—

(I) a trade restriction or commercial requirement (such as a labeling requirement) that adversely affects a new technology (including biotechnology); and

(II) an unjustified sanitary or phytosanitary restriction (including any restriction that, in violation of the Uruguay Round Agreements, is not based on scientific principles; 1


(v) imposes a rule that unfairly restricts imports of United States agricultural commodities in the administration of tariff rate quotas; or

(vi) fails to adhere to, or circumvents any obligation under, any provision of a trade agreement with the United States.

(B) Consistency with 1974 Trade Act

Nothing in this chapter may be construed to authorize the Secretary to make any determination regarding an unfair trade practice that is inconsistent with section 2411 of title 19.

(6) United States

The term "United States" includes each of the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States.

(7) United States agricultural commodity

The term "United States agricultural commodity" means—

(A) an agricultural commodity or product entirely produced in the United States; or

(B) a product of an agricultural commodity—

(i) 90 percent or more of the agricultural components of which by weight, excluding packaging and added water, is entirely produced in the United States; and

(ii) that the Secretary determines to be a high value agricultural product.


For purposes of this paragraph, fish entirely produced in the United States include fish harvested by a documented fishing vessel as defined in title 46 in waters that are not waters (including the territorial sea) of a foreign country.

(8) Independent states of the former Soviet Union

The term "independent states of the former Soviet Union" means the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3669; amended Pub. L. 102–511, title VII, §702, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3349; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §243(c), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 967; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3104(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 290.)

Amendments

2002—Par. (5)(A)(ii) to (vi). Pub. L. 107–171 added cls. (ii) to (vi) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "is unjustifiable, unreasonable, or discriminatory and burdens or restricts United States commerce."

1996—Par. (7). Pub. L. 104–127 added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) with respect to any agricultural commodity other than a product of an agricultural commodity, an agricultural commodity entirely produced in the United States; and

"(B) with respect to a product of an agricultural commodity—

"(i) a product all of the agricultural components of which are entirely produced in the United States; or

"(ii) any other product the Secretary may designate that contains any agricultural component that is not entirely produced in the United States if—

"(I) such component is an added, de minimis component,

"(II) such component is not commercially produced in the United States, and

"(III) there is no acceptable substitute for such component that is commercially produced in the United States."

1992—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–511, §702(a), substituted "feed, fiber, or livestock (including livestock as it is defined in section 1471(2) of this title and insects)" for "feed, or fiber".

Par. (8). Pub. L. 102–511, §702(b), added par. (8).

1 So in original. There probably should be a closing parenthesis.

§5603. Agricultural export promotion strategy

(a) In general

The Secretary shall develop a strategy for implementing Federal agricultural export promotion programs that takes into account the new market opportunities for agricultural products, including opportunities that result from—

(1) the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Uruguay Round Agreements;

(2) any accession to membership in the World Trade Organization;

(3) the continued economic growth in the Pacific Rim; and

(4) other developments.

(b) Purpose of strategy

The strategy developed under subsection (a) shall encourage the maintenance, development, and expansion of export markets for United States agricultural commodities and related products, including high-value and value-added products.

(c) Goals of strategy

The strategy developed under subsection (a) shall have the following goals:

(1) Increase the value of United States agricultural exports each year.

(2) Increase the value of United States agricultural exports each year at a faster rate than the rate of increase in the value of overall world export trade in agricultural products.

(3) Increase the value of United States high-value and value-added agricultural exports each year.

(4) Increase the value of United States high-value and value-added agricultural exports each year at a faster rate than the rate of increase in the value of overall world export trade in high-value and value-added agricultural products.

(5) Ensure that to the extent practicable—

(A) all obligations undertaken in the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture that significantly increase access for United States agricultural commodities are implemented to the extent required by the Uruguay Round Agreements; or

(B) applicable United States laws are used to secure United States rights under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture.

(d) Priority markets

(1) Identification of markets

In developing the strategy required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall annually identify as priority markets—

(A) those markets in which imports of agricultural products show the greatest potential for increase; and

(B) those markets in which, with the assistance of Federal export promotion programs, exports of United States agricultural products show the greatest potential for increase.

(2) Identification of supporting offices

The President shall identify annually in the budget of the United States Government submitted under section 1105 of title 31 each overseas office of the Foreign Agricultural Service that provides assistance to United States exporters in each of the priority markets identified under paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3670; amended Pub. L. 102–237, title III, §308, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1856; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §241(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 963.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–127 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring development of long-term agricultural trade strategy and providing for goals and contents of strategy, establishment of priority markets, review of strategy, confidentiality, withholding of information from Congress, and termination of section on Dec. 31, 1995.

1991—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 102–237 inserted a closing parenthesis before period at end.

Prohibition on Use of Funds for Promotion of Tobacco or Tobacco Products

Pub. L. 108–199, div. A, title VII, §770, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 40, provided that: "Hereafter, no funds provided in this or any other Act shall be available to the Secretary of Agriculture acting through the Foreign Agricultural Service to promote the sale or export of tobacco or tobacco products."

Use of Department of Agriculture Programs for Promotion of Wood and Processed Wood Products

Pub. L. 100–418, title IV, §4404, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1402, provided that: "The Secretary of Agriculture shall actively use Department of Agriculture concessional programs and export credit guarantee programs to promote the export of wood and processed wood products."

§5603a. Global market strategy

(a) In general

Not later than 180 days after May 13, 2002, and biennially thereafter, the Secretary of Agriculture shall consult with the Committee on Agriculture, and the Committee on International Relations, of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate on the formulation and implementation of a global market strategy for the Department of Agriculture that, to the maximum extent practicable—

(1) identifies opportunities for the growth of agricultural exports to overseas markets;

(2) ensures that the resources, programs, and policies of the Department are coordinated with those of other agencies; and

(3) remove 1 barriers to agricultural trade in overseas markets.

(b) Review

The consultations under subsection (a) shall include a review of—

(1) the strategic goals of the Department; and

(2) the progress of the Department in implementing the strategic goals through the global market strategy.

(Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3206, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 301.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, and not as part of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 which comprises this chapter.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

1 So in original. Probably should be "removes".

§5604. Preservation of traditional markets

The Secretary shall, in implementing programs of the Department of Agriculture intended to encourage or assist exports of agricultural commodities, seek to preserve traditional markets for United States agricultural commodities.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3672.)

§5605. Independence of authorities

Each authority granted under this chapter shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, any authority granted to the Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation under any other provision of law.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3672.)

§5606. Implementation of commitments under Uruguay Round Agreements

Not later than September 30 of each year, the Secretary shall evaluate whether the obligations undertaken by foreign countries under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture are being fully implemented. If the Secretary has reason to believe (based on the evaluation) that any foreign country, by not implementing the obligations of the country, may be significantly constraining an opportunity for United States agricultural exports, the Secretary shall—

(1) submit the evaluation to the United States Trade Representative; and

(2) transmit a copy of the evaluation to the Committee on Agriculture, and the Committee on Ways and Means, of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, and the Committee on Finance, of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §242(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 964.)

§5607. Exporter assistance initiative

To provide a comprehensive source of information to facilitate exports of United States agricultural commodities, the Secretary shall maintain on a website on the Internet information to assist exporters and potential exporters of United States agricultural commodities.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §107, as added Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3101, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 288.)

§5608. Foreign trade missions

(a) Tribal representation on trade missions

(1) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Tribal Advisory Committee established under subsection (b)(2) of section 6921 of this title (referred to in this section as the "Advisory Committee"), shall seek—

(A) to support the greater inclusion of Tribal agricultural and food products in Federal trade-related activities; and

(B) to increase the collaboration between Federal trade promotion efforts and other Federal trade-related activities in support of the greater inclusion sought under subparagraph (A).

(2) Interdepartmental coordination

In carrying out activities to increase the collaboration described in paragraph (1)(B), the Secretary shall coordinate with—

(A) the Secretary of Commerce;

(B) the Secretary of State;

(C) the Secretary of the Interior; and

(D) the heads of any other relevant Federal agencies.

(b) Report; goals

(1) Report

Not later than 2 years after December 20, 2018, the Secretary shall submit a report describing the efforts of the Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies under this section to—

(A) the Advisory Committee;

(B) the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives;

(C) the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives;

(D) the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate;

(E) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and

(F) the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate.

(2) Goals

Not later than 90 days after December 20, 2018, the Secretary shall establish goals for measuring, in an objective and quantifiable format, the extent to which Indian Tribes and Tribal agricultural and food products are included in the trade-related activities of the Department of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3312, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4623.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, and not as part of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 which comprises this chapter.

Definition of "Secretary"

"Secretary" as meaning the Secretary of Agriculture, see section 2 of Pub. L. 115–334, set out as a note under section 9001 of this title.