[USC02] 22 USC 9501: Findings
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22 USC 9501: Findings Text contains those laws in effect on November 18, 2017
From Title 22-FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 102-COUNTERING RUSSIAN INFLUENCE IN EUROPE AND EURASIASUBCHAPTER I-SANCTIONS AND OTHER MEASURES WITH RESPECT TO THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

§9501. Findings

Congress makes the following findings:

(1) On March 6, 2014, President Barack Obama issued Executive Order No. 13660 (79 Fed. Reg. 13493; relating to blocking property of certain persons contributing to the situation in Ukraine), which authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, to impose sanctions on those determined to be undermining democratic processes and institutions in Ukraine or threatening the peace, security, stability, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. President Obama subsequently issued Executive Order No. 13661 (79 Fed. Reg. 15535; relating to blocking property of additional persons contributing to the situation in Ukraine) and Executive Order No. 13662 (79 Fed. Reg. 16169; relating to blocking property of additional persons contributing to the situation in Ukraine) to expand sanctions on certain persons contributing to the situation in Ukraine.

(2) On December 18, 2014, the Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014 was enacted (Public Law 113–272; 22 U.S.C. 8921 et seq.), which includes provisions directing the President to impose sanctions on foreign persons that the President determines to be entities owned or controlled by the Government of the Russian Federation or nationals of the Russian Federation that manufacture, sell, transfer, or otherwise provide certain defense articles into Syria.

(3) On April 1, 2015, President Obama issued Executive Order No. 13694 (80 Fed. Reg. 18077; relating to blocking the property of certain persons engaging in significant malicious cyber-enabled activities), which authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, to impose sanctions on persons determined to be engaged in malicious cyber-hacking.

(4) On July 26, 2016, President Obama approved a Presidential Policy Directive on United States Cyber Incident Coordination, which states, "certain cyber incidents that have significant impacts on an entity, our national security, or the broader economy require a unique approach to response efforts".

(5) On December 29, 2016, President Obama issued an annex to Executive Order No. 13694,1 which authorized sanctions on the following entities and individuals:

(A) The Main Intelligence Directorate (also known as Glavnoe Razvedyvatel'noe Upravlenie or the GRU) in Moscow, Russian Federation.

(B) The Federal Security Service (also known as Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti or the FSB) in Moscow, Russian Federation.

(C) The Special Technology Center (also known as STLC, Ltd. Special Technology Center St. Petersburg) in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

(D) Zorsecurity (also known as Esage Lab) in Moscow, Russian Federation.

(E) The autonomous noncommercial organization known as the Professional Association of Designers of Data Processing Systems (also known as ANO PO KSI) in Moscow, Russian Federation.

(F) Igor Valentinovich Korobov.

(G) Sergey Aleksandrovich Gizunov.

(H) Igor Olegovich Kostyukov.

(I) Vladimir Stepanovich Alexseyev.


(6) On January 6, 2017, an assessment of the United States intelligence community entitled, "Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections" stated, "Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the United States presidential election." The assessment warns that "Moscow will apply lessons learned from its Putin-ordered campaign aimed at the U.S. Presidential election to future influence efforts worldwide, including against U.S. allies and their election processes".

(Pub. L. 115–44, title II, §211, Aug. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 898.)

References in Text

Executive Order No. 13660, referred to in par. (1), is Ex. Ord. No. 13660, Mar. 6, 2014, 79 F.R. 13493, which is listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Executive Order No. 13661, referred to in par. (1), is Ex. Ord. No. 13661, Mar. 16, 2014, 79 F.R. 15535, which is listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Executive Order No. 13662, referred to in par. (1), is Ex. Ord. No. 13662, Mar. 20, 2014, 79 F.R. 16169, which is listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

The Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 113–272, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2952 , which is classified generally to chapter 96A (§8921 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8921 of this title and Tables.

Executive Order No. 13694, referred to in par. (3), is Ex. Ord. No. 13694, Apr. 1, 2015, 80 F.R. 18077, which is listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

The annex to Executive Order No. 13694, referred to in par. (5), probably means Ex. Ord. No. 13757, §§1–3, Dec. 28, 2016, 82 F.R. 1, 2, which amended Ex. Ord. No. 13694.

Short Title

Pub. L. 115–44, title II, §201, Aug. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 898, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter and sections 8909 and 8910 of this title, amending sections 8901, 8907, 8908, 8923, and 8924 of this title, section 5326 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 3021 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 3021 of Title 50] may be cited as the 'Countering Russian Influence in Europe and Eurasia Act of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–44, title II, §215, Aug. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 900, provided that: "This part [part 1 (§§215, 216) of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 115–44, enacting part A of this subchapter] may be cited as the 'Russia Sanctions Review Act of 2017'."

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 115–44, title II, §291, Aug. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 939, provided that: "Nothing in this title [see section 201 of Pub. L. 115–44, set out as a Short Title note above] or the amendments made by this title (other than sections 216 and 236(b) [enacting sections 9511 and 9530(b) of this title, respectively]) shall be construed to limit the authority of the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.)."

1 See References in Text note below.