[USC05] 42 USC Ch. 8: LOW-INCOME HOUSING
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

42 USC Ch. 8: LOW-INCOME HOUSING
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 8—LOW-INCOME HOUSING

Sec.
1401 to 1404.
Omitted.
1404a.
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; right to sue; expenses.
1405, 1406.
Omitted.
1406a.
Expenses of management and operation of transferred projects as nonadministrative; payment.
1406b.
Expenses of uncompensated advisers serving United States Housing Authority away from home.
1406c to 1433.
Omitted or Repealed.
1434.
Records; contents; examination and audit.
1435.
Access to books, documents, etc., for purpose of audit.
1436.
Repealed.
1436a.
Restriction on use of assisted housing by non-resident aliens.
1436b.
Financial assistance in impacted areas.
1436c.
Insurance for public housing agencies and Indian housing authorities.
1436d.
Consultation with affected areas in settlement of litigation.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROGRAM OF ASSISTED HOUSING

1437.
Declaration of policy and public housing agency organization.
1437a.
Rental payments.
1437a–1.
Repealed.
1437b.
Loans and commitments to make loans for low-income housing projects.
1437c.
Contributions for low-income housing projects.
1437c–1.
Public housing agency plans.
1437d.
Contract provisions and requirements; loans and annual contributions.
1437e.
Designated housing for elderly and disabled families.
1437f.
Low-income housing assistance.
1437f–1.
Repealed.
1437g.
Public housing Capital and Operating Funds.
1437h.
Implementation of provisions by Secretary.
1437i.
Obligations of public housing agencies; contestability; full faith and credit of United States pledged as security; tax exemption.
1437j.
Labor standards and community service requirement.
1437j–1.
Repealed.
1437k.
Consortia, joint ventures, affiliates, and subsidiaries of public housing agencies.
1437l.
Repealed.
1437m.
Payment of non-Federal share.
1437n.
Eligibility for assisted housing.
1437o.
Repealed.
1437p.
Demolition and disposition of public housing.
1437q.
Financing limitations.
1437r.
Public housing resident management.
1437s.
Public housing homeownership and management opportunities.
1437t.
Authority to convert public housing to vouchers.
1437u.
Family Self-Sufficiency program.
1437v.
Demolition, site revitalization, replacement housing, and tenant-based assistance grants for projects.
1437w.
Transfer of management of certain housing to independent manager at request of residents.
1437x.
Environmental reviews.
1437y.
Provision of information to law enforcement and other agencies.
1437z.
Exchange of information with law enforcement agencies.
1437z–1.
Civil money penalties against section 1437f owners.
1437z–2.
Public housing mortgages and security interests.
1437z–3.
Pet ownership in public housing.
1437z–4.
Resident homeownership programs.
1437z–5.
Required conversion of distressed public housing to tenant-based assistance.
1437z–6.
Services for public and Indian housing residents.
1437z–7.
Mixed-finance public housing.
1437z–8.
Collection of information on tenants in tax credit projects.
1437z–9.
Data exchange standards for improved interoperability.
1437z–10.
Small public housing agencies.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ASSISTED HOUSING FOR INDIANS AND ALASKA NATIVES

1437aa to 1437ee. Repealed.
1437ff.
Transferred.

        

SUBCHAPTER II–A—HOPE FOR PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP

1437aaa.
Program authority.
1437aaa–1.
Planning grants.
1437aaa–2.
Implementation grants.
1437aaa–3.
Homeownership program requirements.
1437aaa–4.
Other program requirements.
1437aaa–5.
Definitions.
1437aaa–6.
Relationship to other homeownership opportunities.
1437aaa–7.
Limitation on selection criteria.
1437aaa–8.
Annual report.

        

SUBCHAPTER II–B—HOME RULE FLEXIBLE GRANT DEMONSTRATION

1437bbb.
Purpose.
1437bbb–1.
Flexible grant program.
1437bbb–2.
Program allocation and covered housing assistance.
1437bbb–3.
Applicability of requirements under programs for covered housing assistance.
1437bbb–4.
Program requirements.
1437bbb–5.
Application.
1437bbb–6.
Training.
1437bbb–7.
Accountability.
1437bbb–8.
Definitions.
1437bbb–9.
Termination and evaluation.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

1438.
Repealed.
1439.
Local housing assistance plan.
1440.
State housing finance and development agencies.

        

§§1401 to 1404. Omitted

Codification

Sections 1401 to 1404 were omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1401, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §1, 50 Stat. 888; July 15, 1949, 338, title III, §307(a), 63 Stat. 429; Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §501, 73 Stat. 679; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §206(a), 82 Stat. 504; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §211, 84 Stat. 1779, set out declaration of policy. See section 1437 of this title.

Section 1402, acts, Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §2, 50 Stat. 888; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §§302(b), 304(c), (i), 306, 307(b), 63 Stat. 424, 425, 429; Oct. 26, 1951, ch. 577, §1, 65 Stat. 647; June 30, 1953, 170, §24(c), 67 Stat. 128; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §404(a), 70 Stat. 1104; July 12, 1957, Pub. L. 85–104, title III, §307, title IV, §401(a), 71 Stat. 301; Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §§502, 503(a), 504, 73 Stat. 680; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §202, 75 Stat. 163; Sept. 2, 1964, Pub. L. 88–560, title II, §203(d), title IV, §401(a), 78 Stat. 784, 794; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title I, §§103(b), 104, 79 Stat. 457; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §209(a), 82 Stat. 505; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §213(a), title IV, §403(a), 83 Stat. 389, 395; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §208(a), title IX, §903(c), 84 Stat. 1778, 1808; Dec. 22, 1971, Pub. L. 92–213, §9, 85 Stat. 776, defined applicable terms. See section 1437a of this title.

Section 1403, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §3, 50 Stat. 889; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(b), 81 Stat. 20; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(a), 82 Stat. 610, created the United States Housing Authority in the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Section 1404, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §4, 50 Stat. 889; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), (c), 81 Stat. 19, 20, provided for assistance of officers, etc., of other agencies and transfer of property to the Authority.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment; Applicability

Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §213(b), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 389, provided that the rents fixed by public housing agencies not exceed one-fourth of a low-rent housing tenant's income be effective not later than ninety days after Dec. 24, 1969, and that the requirements not apply in any case in which the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determined that limiting the rent of any tenant or class of tenants would have resulted in a deduction in the amount of welfare assistance which would otherwise have been provided to the tenant or class of tenants by a public agency.

§1404a. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; right to sue; expenses

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may sue and be sued only with respect to its functions under the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], and title II of Public Law 671, Seventy-sixth Congress, approved June 28, 1940, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.]. Funds made available for carrying out the functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (including appropriations therefor, which are authorized) shall be available, in such amounts as may from year to year be authorized by the Congress, for the administrative expenses of the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law except provisions of law enacted after August 10, 1948 expressly in limitation hereof, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or any State or local public agency administering a low-rent housing project assisted pursuant to the United States Housing Act of 1937 or title II of Public Law 671, Seventy-sixth Congress, approved June 28, 1940, shall continue to have the right to maintain an action or proceeding to recover possession of any housing accommodations operated by it where such action is authorized by the statute or regulations under which such housing accommodations are administered, and, in determining net income for the purposes of tenant eligibility with respect to low-rent housing projects assisted pursuant to said Acts, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is authorized, where it finds such action equitable and in the public interest, to exclude amounts or portions thereof paid by the United States Government for disability or death occurring in connection with military service.

(Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832, title V, §502(b), 62 Stat. 1284; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; Pub. L. 90–19, §5(d)(4)–(7), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 21; Pub. L. 100–242, title V, §570(a)(2), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1949.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in text, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, and amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

Public Law 671, Seventy-sixth Congress, approved June 28, 1940, referred to in text, is act June 28, 1940, ch. 440, 54 Stat. 676, as amended. Title II of that Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§1501 et seq.) of chapter 9 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing Act of 1948, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Section consists of section 502(b) of act Aug. 10, 1948. Section 502 of act Aug. 10, 1948, is classified generally to section 1701c of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–242 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "United States Housing Authority" in three places and for "Authority" in two places.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "United States Housing Authority" for "Public Housing Administration" wherever appearing in first and fourth sentences, "Authority" for "Administration" wherever appearing in third sentence, and "may sue" for "shall sue" in first sentence, and struck out former second sentence authorizing the Public Housing Commissioner to appoint necessary officers and employees subject to the civil-service and classification laws, to delegate his functions and powers, and to make rules and regulations, respectively.

1949—Act Oct. 28, 1949, substituted "Classification Act of 1949" for "Classification Act of 1923".

Repeals

Act Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed (subject to a savings clause) by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8, 80 Stat. 632, 655.

§§1405, 1406. Omitted

Section 1405, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §5, 50 Stat. 890; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(d), (e), 81 Stat. 20, which enumerated miscellaneous powers and functions of the Authority, was omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1406, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §6, 50 Stat. 890; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(c), 63 Stat. 429; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §1(112), 65 Stat. 705; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), 81 Stat. 19, which enumerated financial provisions applicable to the Authority, was omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. Subsec. (b) of this section, which provided that section 5 of former title 41 not apply to contracts for services or to purchases of supplies except when the aggregate amount involved was less than $300, was repealed by act Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §1(112), 65 Stat. 705.

§1406a. Expenses of management and operation of transferred projects as nonadministrative; payment

On and after May 10, 1939 all necessary expenses in connection with the management and operation of projects transferred to the Authority by Executive Order Numbered 7732 of October 27, 1937, as modified by Executive Order Numbered 7839 of March 12, 1938, may be considered as nonadministrative expenses, notwithstanding the provisions of section 712a of title 15, and be paid from the rents received from each transferred project.

(May 10, 1939, ch. 119, §1, 53 Stat. 690.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act June 25, 1938, ch. 681, title I, 52 Stat. 1129.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of United States Housing Authority to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, see note set out under section 1404a of this title.

Executive Order No. 7732, Oct. 27, 1937, 2 FR 2324, 44 CFR 201.11, effective Nov. 1, 1937, transferred to the United States Housing Authority all right, interest, and title held by the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works in any housing or slum-clearance projects constructed or in the process of construction on Sept. 1, 1937.

§1406b. Expenses of uncompensated advisers serving United States Housing Authority away from home

On and after May 10, 1939, the funds made available for administrative expenses of the United States Housing Authority shall be available for the payment, when specifically authorized by the Administrator, of actual transportation expenses and not to exceed $10 per diem in lieu of subsistence and other expenses to persons serving, while away from their homes, without other compensation from the United States, in an advisory capacity to the Authority.

(May 10, 1939, ch. 119, §1, 53 Stat. 690.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act June 25, 1938, ch. 681, title I, 52 Stat. 1128.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of United States Housing Authority and Administrator to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, see note set out under section 1404a of this title.

§§1406c to 1411a. Omitted

Codification

Section 1406c, act June 27, 1942, ch. 450, §1, 56 Stat. 410, which related to expenses for construction advisers on non-Federal projects, was from the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1943, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Prior similar provisions were contained in acts Apr. 5, 1941, ch. 40, §1, 55 Stat. 111; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, §1, 54 Stat. 130.

Section 1407, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §7, 50 Stat. 891; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §802(d), 68 Stat. 643; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(f), 81 Stat. 20, provided for publication of information and submission of annual report by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1408, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §8, 50 Stat. 891, authorized promulgation of rules and regulations by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1409, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §9, 50 Stat. 891; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §304(c), (d), 63 Stat. 425; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §211, 83 Stat. 388, authorized loans for low-rent-housing and slum clearance projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437b of this title.

Section 1410, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §10, 50 Stat. 891; June 21, 1938, ch. 554, title VI, §601, 52 Stat. 820; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §§302(a), 304(a), (c), (e), (f), 305, 307(d), 63 Stat. 423 to 427, 430; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title IV, §§401(1), (2), 402, 403, 405, 406, 68 Stat. 630; June 30, 1955, ch. 251, §3, 69 Stat. 225; Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783, title I, §108(b), 69 Stat. 638; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §§401(a), 404(b), 70 Stat. 1103, 1104; Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §§505(a), 507, 73 Stat. 680, 681; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §§203, 204(a), (b), 205, 206(b), (c), 75 Stat. 163 to 165; Sept. 2, 1964, Pub. L. 88–560, title IV, §§401(b), 402 to 404, 78 Stat. 794, 795; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title V, §§501 to 504, 507(b)(1), (2); 79 Stat. 486 to 488; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), 81 Stat. 19; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §§203(a), 206(b), 209(b), 82 Stat. 503, 505; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §§212, 214, 217(b), 83 Stat. 388–390; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §§202, 203, 204(a)(2), 210, 84 Stat. 1776 to 1778; Oct. 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92–503, §3 (1) to (3), 86 Stat. 906; Oct. 2, 1973, Pub. L. 93–117, §2, 87 Stat. 422, authorized annual contributions in assistance of low rentals for housing projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437c of this title. Subsec. (j) of this section, which related to self-liquidation of projects, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §206(c), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 164.

Section 1411, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §11, 50 Stat. 893; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(d), 63 Stat. 430, authorized capital grants to public housing agencies in assistance of low rentals, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1411a, act July 31, 1953, ch. 302, title I, §101, 67 Stat. 306, which related to prohibition of projects in localities where rejected by public vote or governing body, was from the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1954, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts.

Retroactive Effect of Repeal of Rights of United States Relating to Self-Liquidation of Projects

Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §206(c), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 165, as amended by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §205, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 668, provided in part that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is authorized to agree with a public housing agency to the amendment of any annual contributions contract containing the provision prescribed in section 10(j) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [subsec. (j) of section 1410 of this title] (as in effect prior to the enactment of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974) so as to delete such provision and waive any rights of the United States that are accrued or may accrue under such provision."

§1411b. Repealed. Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §401(b), 70 Stat. 1103

Section, acts July 5, 1952, ch. 578, title I, §101, 66 Stat. 403; July 31, 1953 ch. 302 title I, §101, 67 Stat. 307, limited number of housing units to be constructed during fiscal year.

§1411c. Omitted

Codification

Section, act July 31, 1953, ch. 302, title I, §101, 67 Stat. 307, which barred subversives from occupancy of housing units and which provided for enforcement of such prohibition and affect of such prohibition on loans and contributions by the Public Housing Administration, was from the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1954, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts.

§1411d. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §204, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 668

Section, act Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §815, 68 Stat. 647, required submission of specifications by applicants prior to award of any contract for construction of a project and submission of data with respect to acquisition of land prior to authorization to purchase such land.

§§1412 to 1416. Omitted

Section 1412, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §12, 50 Stat. 894; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title II, §205(b), 64 Stat. 73; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §405, 70 Stat. 1104; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title V, §505, 79 Stat. 487, authorized disposal of low-rent-housing projects transferred to or acquired by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1413, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §13, 50 Stat. 894; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(e), 63 Stat. 430; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(g), 81 Stat. 20, enumerated powers of the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1413a, acts July 31, 1947, ch. 418, §2, 61 Stat. 705; Feb. 27, 1948, ch. 77, §3, 62 Stat. 37; Mar. 30, 1948, ch. 161, title III, §304, 62 Stat. 100, postponed until April 1, 1949, the institution of any eviction actions or proceedings in connection with publicly operated housing accommodations.

Section 1414, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §14, 50 Stat. 895; July 15, 1949, 338, title III, §304(g), 63 Stat. 426; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §213(c), 83 Stat. 389, authorized modification, amendment, or supersedure of contracts by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437c of this title.

Section 1415, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §15, 50 Stat. 895; July 31, 1947, ch. 418, §1, 61 Stat. 704; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §§301, 303, 304(j), 63 Stat. 422, 424, 427; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title IV, §401(3), (4), 68 Stat. 631; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §404(c), 70 Stat. 1104; July 12, 1957, Pub. L. 85–104, title IV, §401(b), (c), 71 Stat. 302; Sept. 23, 1959. Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §§503(b), 506, 507, 73 Stat. 680, 681; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §§204(b), 205(b), 206(a), 75 Stat. 164; Sept. 2, 1964, Pub. L. 88–560, title IV, §§401(c), 405(a), 406, 78 Stat. 794, 795; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title IV, §404(c)(2), title V, §§506, 507(a), (b)(3), 79 Stat. 486–488; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), 81 Stat. 19; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §§204, 205, 207, 82 Stat. 503, 504; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §§215, 216, 83 Stat. 389, 390; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §§207, 209(a), title IX, §903(d), 84 Stat. 1777, 1778, 1809; Jan. 2, 1971, Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §220(a)(6), 84 Stat. 1903, set forth provisions relating to preservation of low rents in housing projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See sections 1437c, 1437d, and 1437f of this title.

Section 1416, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §16, 50 Stat. 896; July 15, 1949, 338, title III, §307(f) 63 Stat. 430; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title IV, §404, 68 Stat. 633; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–754, title X, §1003, 80 Stat. 1284; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(h), (i), 81 Stat. 20, provided for application of labor standards to contracts, etc., involving Federal projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437 of this title.

Application for Preliminary Loans Approved Prior to September 2, 1964

Pub. L. 88–560, title IV, §405(b), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 795, provided that the amendments made by subsection (a) to subsec. (b)(7) of section 1415 of this title were not to be applicable to any project for which an application for a preliminary loan had been approved by the local governing body prior to Sept. 2, 1964.

Transferred Funds; Availability for Expenditure

Act Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title II, §205(c), 64 Stat. 73, provided that all unexpended receipts, notwithstanding any limitations contained in the second proviso of act May 26, 1947, ch. 82, title I, 61 Stat. 109, derived from the sale of labor supply centers, labor homes, labor camps, and facilities, and all other unexpended balances of funds available for the maintenance, operation, and liquidation of the properties transferred and for the administrative expenses of transfer were transferred to the Public Housing Administration, to be available until expended, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

§1417. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(b), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 610

Section, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §17, 50 Stat. 897, related to capital stock of the Authority.

Retirement of Capital Stock

Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(b), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 610, provided in part that the capital stock referred to in this section be retired and the sum of $1,000,000 represented by such stock returned to the Treasury of the United States.

§§1417a to 1422. Omitted

Codification

Sections 1417a to 1422 were omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1417a, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §17, as added Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(c), 82 Stat. 610, set forth additional functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary. See section 1437h of this title.

Section 1418, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §18, 50 Stat. 897, authorized all assets and receipts of the Authority to remain available until expended. See section 1437h of this title.

Section 1419, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §19, 50 Stat. 897, authorized the allocation of funds available for similar purposes to the Authority.

Section 1420, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §20, 50 Stat. 898; June 21, 1938, ch. 554, title VI, §602, 52 Stat. 820; Oct. 30, 1941, ch. 467, 55 Stat. 759; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §304(h), 63 Stat. 427; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §203(b), 82 Stat. 503, authorized the Authority to issue obligations for purchase and sale by the Secretary of the Treasury. See section 1437b of this title.

Section 1421, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §21, 50 Stat. 898; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(g), 63 Stat. 431; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §403, 70 Stat. 1103; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §204(c), 75 Stat. 164, set forth depository and other banking requirements applicable to the Authority. See section 1437h of this title.

Section 1421a, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §22, as added July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §304(b), 63 Stat. 424; amended June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title III, §302(b), 75 Stat. 166; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title V, §507(b)(4), 79 Stat. 489; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(j), 81 Stat. 20, set forth provisions for private financing of low-rent-housing projects. See sections 1437d and 1437i of this title.

Section 1421b, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §23, as added Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title I, §103(a), 79 Stat. 455; amended Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–754, title X, §1002, 80 Stat. 1284; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §§208, 210, 82 Stat. 504, 505; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §217(c), 83 Stat. 390; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §204(a)(1), (b), 84 Stat. 1777, set forth provisions authorizing low-rent housing in private accommodations. See section 1437f of this title.

Section 1422, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §24, formerly §22, 50 Stat. 899; renumbered, §23, July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431; renumbered §24, Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 87–117, title I, §103(a), 79 Stat. 455, provided for applicability of all general penal statutes relating to larceny etc., of moneys and properties of the Authority.

Retroactive Application of Policies or Procedures Established by Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to Rights of Owners of Leased Housing, Including Right of Renewal

Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §208, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 669, as amended by Pub. L. 95–128, title II, §201(h), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1129, provided that: "Nothing in this title [see Tables for classification] or any other provision of law authorizes the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to apply any policy or procedure established by him with respect to the rights of an owner under a lease entered into under section 23 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [section 1421b of this title], including the right to renewal of such lease to the maximum term permitted by law, if such lease was entered into prior to the effective date of such policy or procedure."

§§1423 to 1426. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 1423, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §24, formerly §23, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for false entries and reports.

Section 1424, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §25, formerly §24, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for defrauding or hindering the Authority.

Section 1425, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §26, formerly §25, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for concealment of interest in property.

Section 1426, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §27, formerly §26, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 388, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for unlawful use of the name "United States Housing Authority".

Sections 1423 to 1426 of this title are covered by section 1012 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 20 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§§1427 to 1431. Omitted

Codification

Sections 1427 to 1431 were omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1427, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §28, formerly §27, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, provided for application of provisions when conflicting with other laws relating to housing or slum clearance.

Section 1428, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §29, formerly §28, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, made available funds for the District of Columbia.

Section 1429, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §30, formerly §29, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, provided for separability of provisions.

Section 1430, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §31, formerly §30, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, set forth short title of provisions as "United States Housing Act of 1937". See section 1 of act Sept. 1, 1937, as added by section 201(a) of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a Short Title note under section 1437 of this title.

Section 1431, Pub. L. 91–556, title IV, Dec. 17, 1970, 84 Stat. 1463, which provided that the necessary expenses of providing representatives at sites of non-Federal projects in connection with construction of these projects by public housing agencies with aid under this chapter, be compensated by these agencies by payments of fixed fees, was from the Independent Offices and Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 1971, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Nov. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–126, title III, 83 Stat. 242.

Oct. 4, 1968, Pub. L. 90–550, title III, 82 Stat. 956.

Nov. 3, 1967, Pub. L. 90–121, title II, 81 Stat. 360.

Sept. 6, 1966, Pub. L. 89–555, title II, 80 Stat. 688.

Aug. 16, 1965, Pub. L. 89–128, title II, 79 Stat. 542.

Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–507, title II, 78 Stat. 665.

Dec. 19, 1963, Pub. L. 88–215, title II, 77 Stat. 447.

Oct. 3, 1962, Pub. L. 87–741, title II, 76 Stat. 739.

Aug. 17, 1961, Pub. L. 87–141, title II, 75 Stat. 363.

July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–626, title II, 74 Stat. 444.

Sept. 14, 1959, Pub. L. 86–255, title II, 73 Stat. 517.

Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–844, title II, 72 Stat. 1081.

June 29, 1957, Pub. L. 85–69, title II, 71 Stat. 241.

June 27, 1956, ch. 452, title II, 70 Stat. 355.

June 30, 1955, ch. 244, title II, 69 Stat. 215.

June 24, 1954, ch. 359, title II, 68 Stat. 297.

July 31, 1953, ch. 302, title II, 67 Stat. 315.

July 5, 1952, ch. 578, title III, 66 Stat. 417.

Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, title IV, 65 Stat. 299.

Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. VIII, title II, 64 Stat. 723.

Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title II, 63 Stat. 659.

June 30, 1948, ch. 773, title II, 62 Stat. 1190.

July 30, 1947, ch. 358, title II, 61 Stat. 579.

July 20, 1946, ch. 589, title II, 60 Stat. 592.

May 3, 1945, ch. 106, title I, 59 Stat. 124.

§1432. Repealed. July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §606, 63 Stat. 441

Section, act Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832, title V, §503, 62 Stat. 1285, related to State low-rent or veterans' housing projects.

§1433. Omitted

Codification

Section, act July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §606, 63 Stat. 440, provided for conversion of State and local low-rent or veterans' housing projects to Federal projects if the contract for State financial assistance for such project was entered into on or after Jan. 1, 1948, and prior to Jan. 1, 1950.

§1434. Records; contents; examination and audit

Every contract between the Department of Housing and Urban Development and any person or local body (including any corporation or public or private agency or body) for a loan, advance, grant, or contribution under the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], the Housing Act of 1949, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1441 et seq.], or any other Act shall provide that such person or local body shall keep such records as the Department of Housing and Urban Development shall from time to time prescribe, including records which permit a speedy and effective audit and will fully disclose the amount and the disposition by such person or local body of the proceeds of the loan, advance, grant, or contribution, or any supplement thereto, the capital cost of any construction project for which any such loan, advance, grant, or contribution is made, and the amount of any private or other non-Federal funds used or grants-in-aid made for or in connection with any such project. No mortgage covering new or rehabilitated multifamily housing (as defined in section 1715r of title 12) shall be insured unless the mortgagor certifies that he will keep such records as are prescribed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development at the time of the certification and that they will be kept in such form as to permit a speedy and effective audit. The Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Comptroller General of the United States shall have access to and the right to examine and audit such records. This section shall become effective on the first day after the first full calendar month following the date of approval of the Housing Act of 1961.

(Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §814, 68 Stat. 647; Pub. L. 87–70, title IX, §908, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 191; Pub. L. 90–19, §10(h), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 23.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, referred to in text, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

The Housing Act of 1949, as amended, referred to in text, is act July 15, 1949, ch. 338, 63 Stat. 413, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8A (§1441 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title and Tables.

The first day after the first full calendar month following the date of approval of the Housing Act of 1961, referred to in text, probably means Aug. 1, 1961, which is the first day after the first full calendar month following approval of Pub. L. 87–70, which was approved on June 30, 1961.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to sections 1446 of this title and 1715s of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Federal Housing Commissioner" in second sentence and "Department of Housing and Urban Development" for "Housing and Home Finance Agency (or any official or constituent thereof)" and "Housing and Home Finance Agency (or such official or constituent thereof)" in first sentence and for "Housing and Home Finance Agency or any official or constituent agency thereof" in third sentence, respectively.

1961Pub. L. 87–70 required record keeping provisions in contracts under the Housing Act of 1949 and in contracts under any other act, prohibited insurance of mortgages covering new or rehabilitated multifamily housing unless the mortgagor certifies that he will keep records, and empowered the Comptroller General to examine and audit records, and substituted "Housing Act of 1961" for "Housing Act of 1954".

Effective Date

The fourth sentence of section 814 of act Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, 68 Stat. 647 (prior to the amendment by section 908 of Pub. L. 87–70), provided that this section is effective on first day after first calendar month following the date of approval of the act (Aug. 2, 1954).

§1435. Access to books, documents, etc., for purpose of audit

Every contract for loans or annual contributions under the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], shall provide that the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall, for the purpose of audit and examination, have access to any books, documents, papers, and records of the public housing agency entering into such contract that are pertinent to its operations with respect to financial assistance under the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended.

(Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §816, 68 Stat. 647; Pub. L. 90–19, §10(i), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 23.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, referred to in text, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Public Housing Commissioner".

§1436. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–609, title V, §503(4), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1786

Section, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §207, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 88–560, title II, §203(e), title IV, §407, Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 784, 796; Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, §1105, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 503; Pub. L. 90–19, §18(a), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1714(a), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 607, provided for low-rent housing demonstration programs and development grants. See section 1701z–1 et seq. of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of Repeal: Savings Provision

Pub. L. 91–609, title V, §503, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1785, provided in part for repeal of sections 1701d–3, 1701e, 1701e note, and 1701f of Title 12, Banks and Banking, this section, note below, section 1452a, section 1456 note, and sections 3372, 3373 of this title, effective July 1, 1971, except that the repeal shall not affect contracts, commitments, reservations, or other obligations entered pursuant to such provisions prior to July 1, 1971.

Report of Self-Help Studies and Demonstrations

Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1714(b), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 607, providing for report to Congress within one year after Aug. 1, 1968, respecting self-help studies and demonstrations, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–609, title V, §503(7), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1786.

§1436a. Restriction on use of assisted housing by non-resident aliens

(a) Conditions for assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the applicable Secretary may not make financial assistance available for the benefit of any alien unless that alien is a resident of the United States and is—

(1) an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence as an immigrant as defined by section 1101(a)(15) and (20) of title 8, excluding, among others, alien visitors, tourists, diplomats, and students who enter the United States temporarily with no intention of abandoning their residence in a foreign country;

(2) an alien who entered the United States prior to June 30, 1948, or such subsequent date as is enacted by law, has continuously maintained his or her residence in the United States since then, and is not ineligible for citizenship, but who is deemed to be lawfully admitted for permanent residence as a result of an exercise of discretion by the Attorney General pursuant to section 1259 of title 8;

(3) an alien who is lawfully present in the United States pursuant to an admission under section 1157 of title 8 or pursuant to the granting of asylum (which has not been terminated) under section 1158 of title 8;

(4) an alien who is lawfully present in the United States as a result of an exercise of discretion by the Attorney General for emergent reasons or reasons deemed strictly in the public interest pursuant to section 1182(d)(5) of title 8;

(5) an alien who is lawfully present in the United States as a result of the Attorney General's withholding deportation pursuant to section 1231(b)(3) of title 8;

(6) an alien lawfully admitted for temporary or permanent residence under section 1255a of title 8; or

(7) an alien who is lawfully resident in the United States and its territories and possessions under section 141 of the Compacts of Free Association between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (48 U.S.C. 1901 note) and Palau (48 U.S.C. 1931 note) while the applicable section is in effect: Provided, That, within Guam any any 1 citizen or national of the United States shall be entitled to a preference or priority in receiving financial assistance before any such alien who is otherwise eligible for assistance.

(b) "Financial assistance" defined

(1) For purposes of this section the term "financial assistance" means financial assistance made available pursuant to the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], section 1715z or 1715z–1 of title 12, the direct loan program under section 1472 of this title or section 1472(c)(5)(D), 1474, 1490a(a)(2)(A), or 1490r of this title, subtitle A of title III of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12851 et seq.], or section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s].

(2) If the eligibility for financial assistance of at least one member of a family has been affirmatively established under the program of financial assistance and under this section, and the ineligibility of one or more family members has not been affirmatively established under this section, any financial assistance made available to that family by the applicable Secretary shall be prorated, based on the number of individuals in the family for whom eligibility has been affirmatively established under the program of financial assistance and under this section, as compared with the total number of individuals who are members of the family.

(c) Preservation of families; students

(1) If, following completion of the applicable hearing process, financial assistance for any individual receiving such assistance on February 5, 1988, is to be terminated, the public housing agency or other local governmental entity involved (in the case of public housing or assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f]) or the applicable Secretary (in the case of any other financial assistance) shall take one of the following actions:

(A) Permit the continued provision of financial assistance, if necessary to avoid the division of a family in which the head of household or spouse is a citizen of the United States, a national of the United States, or an alien resident of the United States described in any of paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (a). For purposes of this paragraph, the term "family" means a head of household, any spouse, any parents of the head of household, any parents of the spouse, and any children of the head of household or spouse. Financial assistance continued under this subparagraph for a family may be provided only on a prorated basis, under which the amount of financial assistance is based on the percentage of the total number of members of the family that are eligible for that assistance under the program of financial assistance and under this section.

(B)(i) Defer the termination of financial assistance, if necessary to permit the orderly transition of the individual and any family members involved to other affordable housing.

(ii) Except as provided in clause (iii), any deferral under this subparagraph shall be for a 6-month period and may be renewed by the public housing agency or other entity involved for an aggregate period of 18-months. At the beginning of each deferral period, the public housing agency or other entity involved shall inform the individual and family members of their ineligibility for financial assistance and offer them other assistance in finding other affordable housing.

(iii) The time period described in clause (ii) shall not apply in the case of a refugee under section 1157 of title 8 or an individual seeking asylum under section 1158 of title 8.


(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the applicable Secretary may not make financial assistance available for the benefit of—

(A) any alien who—

(i) has a residence in a foreign country that such alien has no intention of abandoning;

(ii) is a bona fide student qualified to pursue a full course of study; and

(iii) is admitted to the United States temporarily and solely for purposes of pursuing such a course of study at an established institution of learning or other recognized place of study in the United States, particularly designated by such alien and approved by the Attorney General after consultation with the Department of Education of the United States, which institution or place of study shall have agreed to report to the Attorney General the termination of attendance of each nonimmigrant student (and if any such institution of learning or place of study fails to make such reports promptly the approval shall be withdrawn); and


(B) the alien spouse and minor children of any alien described in subparagraph (A), if accompanying such alien or following to join such alien.

(d) Conditions for provision of financial assistance for individuals

The following conditions apply with respect to financial assistance being or to be provided for the benefit of an individual:

(1)(A) There must be a declaration in writing by the individual (or, in the case of an individual who is a child, by another on the individual's behalf), under penalty of perjury, stating whether or not the individual is a citizen or national of the United States, and, if that individual is not a citizen or national of the United States, that the individual is in a satisfactory immigration status. If the declaration states that the individual is not a citizen or national of the United States and that the individual is younger than 62 years of age, the declaration shall be verified by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. If the declaration states that the individual is a citizen or national of the United States, the applicable Secretary, or the agency administering assistance covered by this section, may request verification of the declaration by requiring presentation of documentation that the applicable Secretary considers appropriate, including a United States passport, resident alien card, alien registration card, social security card, or other documentation.

(B) In this subsection, the term "satisfactory immigration status" means an immigration status which does not make the individual ineligible for financial assistance.

(2) If such an individual is not a citizen or national of the United States, is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, there must be presented either—

(A) alien registration documentation or other proof of immigration registration from the Immigration and Naturalization Service that contains the individual's alien admission number or alien file number (or numbers if the individual has more than one number), or

(B) such other documents as the applicable Secretary determines constitutes reasonable evidence indicating a satisfactory immigration status.


In the case of an individual applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, the applicable Secretary may not provide any such assistance for the benefit of that individual before documentation is presented and verified under paragraph (3) or (4).

(3) If the documentation described in paragraph (2)(A) is presented, the applicable Secretary shall utilize the individual's alien file or alien admission number to verify with the Immigration and Naturalization Service the individual's immigration status through an automated or other system (designated by the Service for use with States) that—

(A) utilizes the individual's name, file number, admission number, or other means permitting efficient verification, and

(B) protects the individual's privacy to the maximum degree possible.


(4) In the case of such an individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States, is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, if, at the time of application or recertification for financial assistance, the statement described in paragraph (1) is submitted but the documentation required under paragraph (2) is not presented or if the documentation required under paragraph (2)(A) is presented but such documentation is not verified under paragraph (3)—

(A) the applicable Secretary—

(i) shall provide a reasonable opportunity, not to exceed 30 days, to submit to the applicable Secretary evidence indicating a satisfactory immigration status, or to appeal to the Immigration and Naturalization Service the verification determination of the Immigration and Naturalization Service under paragraph (3),

(ii) in the case of any individual receiving assistance on September 30, 1996, may not delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the eligibility of that individual for financial assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual until the expiration of that 30-day period; and

(iii) in the case of any individual applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, may not deny the application for such assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual until the expiration of that 30-day period; and


(B) if any documents or additional information are submitted as evidence under subparagraph (A), or if appeal is made to the Immigration and Naturalization Service with respect to the verification determination of the Service under paragraph (3)—

(i) the applicable Secretary shall transmit to the Immigration and Naturalization Service photostatic or other similar copies of such documents or additional information for official verification,

(ii) pending such verification or appeal, the applicable Secretary may not—

(I) in the case of any individual receiving assistance on September 30, 1996, delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the eligibility of that individual for financial assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual; and

(II) in the case of any individual applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, deny the application for such assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual; and


(iii) the applicable Secretary shall not be liable for the consequences of any action, delay, or failure of the Service to conduct such verification.


(5) If the applicable Secretary determines, after complying with the requirements of paragraph (4), that such an individual is not in a satisfactory immigration status, the applicable Secretary shall—

(A) deny the application of that individual for financial assistance or terminate the eligibility of that individual for financial assistance, as applicable;

(B) provide that the individual may request a fair hearing during the 30-day period beginning upon receipt of the notice under subparagraph (C); and

(C) provide to the individual written notice of the determination under this paragraph, the right to a fair hearing process, and the time limitation for requesting a hearing under subparagraph (C).


(6) The applicable Secretary shall terminate the eligibility for financial assistance of an individual and the members of the household of the individual, for a period of not less than 24 months, upon determining that such individual has knowingly permitted another individual who is not eligible for such assistance to reside in the public or assisted housing unit of the individual. This provision shall not apply to a family if the ineligibility of the ineligible individual at issue was considered in calculating any proration of assistance provided for the family.


For purposes of this subsection, the term "applicable Secretary" means the applicable Secretary, a public housing agency, or another entity that determines the eligibility of an individual for financial assistance.

(e) Regulatory actions against entities for erroneous determinations regarding eligibility based upon citizenship or immigration status

The applicable Secretary shall not take any compliance, disallowance, penalty, or other regulatory action against an entity with respect to any error in the entity's determination to make an individual eligible for financial assistance based on citizenship or immigration status—

(1) if the entity has provided such eligibility based on a verification of satisfactory immigration status by the Immigration and Naturalization Service,

(2) because the entity, under subsection (d)(4)(A)(ii) (or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603)), was required to provide a reasonable opportunity to submit documentation, or

(3) because the entity, under subsection (d)(4)(B)(ii) (or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603)), was required to wait for the response of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to the entity's request for official verification of the immigration status of the individual, or the response from the Immigration and Naturalization Service to the appeal of that individual.

(f) Verification system; liability of State or local government agencies or officials; prior consent agreements, court decrees or court orders unaffected

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no agency or official of a State or local government shall have any liability for the design or implementation of the Federal verification system described in subsection (d) if the implementation by the State or local agency or official is in accordance with Federal rules and regulations.

(2) The verification system of the Department of Housing and Urban Development shall not supersede or affect any consent agreement entered into or court decree or court order entered prior to February 5, 1988.

(g) Reimbursement for costs of implementation

The applicable Secretary is authorized to pay to each public housing agency or other entity an amount equal to 100 percent of the costs incurred by the public housing agency or other entity in implementing and operating an immigration status verification system under subsection (d) (or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603)).

(h) "Applicable Secretary" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "applicable Secretary" means—

(1) the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, with respect to financial assistance administered by such Secretary and financial assistance under subtitle A of title III of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12851 et seq.]; and

(2) the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to financial assistance administered by such Secretary.

(i) Verification of eligibility

(1) In general

No individual or family applying for financial assistance may receive such financial assistance prior to the affirmative establishment and verification of eligibility of at least the individual or one family member under subsection (d) by the applicable Secretary or other appropriate entity.

(2) Rules applicable to public housing agencies

A public housing agency (as that term is defined in section 3 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a])—

(A) may, notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, elect not to affirmatively establish and verify eligibility before providing financial assistance 2

(B) in carrying out subsection (d)—

(i) may initiate procedures to affirmatively establish or verify the eligibility of an individual or family under this section at any time at which the public housing agency determines that such eligibility is in question, regardless of whether or not that individual or family is at or near the top of the waiting list of the public housing agency;

(ii) may affirmatively establish or verify the eligibility of an individual or family under this section in accordance with the procedures set forth in section 1324a(b)(1) of title 8; and

(iii) shall have access to any relevant information contained in the SAVE system (or any successor thereto) that relates to any individual or family applying for financial assistance.

(3) Eligibility of families

For purposes of this subsection, with respect to a family, the term "eligibility" means the eligibility of each family member.

(Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §214, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1637; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §329(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 99–603, title I, §121(a)(2), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3386; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §164(a)–(f)(1), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1860–1863; Pub. L. 104–193, title IV, §441(a), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2276; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(g)(7)(D)(ii), title V, §§572–576, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–624, 3009-684, 3009-685, 3009-687; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §592(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 106–504, §3(b), Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2312; Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §113, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 804.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, and amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1) and (h)(1), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079, as amended. Subtitle A of title III of the Act, known as the National Homeownership Trust Act, is classified generally to subchapter III (§12851 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title and Tables.

Section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 101 of Pub. L. 89–117, title I, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 451, which enacted section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and amended sections 1451 and 1465 of this title.

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (e)(2), (3) and (g), is Pub. L. 99–603, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3359. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1986 Amendments note set out under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 114–201 substituted "any citizen or national of the United States shall be entitled to a preference or priority in receiving financial assistance before any such alien who is otherwise eligible for assistance." for "such alien shall not be entitled to a preference in receiving assistance under this Act over any United States citizen or national resident therein who is otherwise eligible for such assistance."

2000—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 106–504 added par. (7).

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(2), aligned cls. (ii) and (iii) with cl. (i).

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(A), in last sentence, substituted "applicable Secretary, or" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or" and "applicable Secretary considers" for "Secretary considers".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(B), aligned concluding provisions with par. (2) and inserted "applicable" before "Secretary" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(C), inserted "applicable" before "Secretary" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(D), substituted "the applicable Secretary shall" for "the Secretary shall" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(E), inserted "applicable" before "Secretary".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (h), relating to verification of eligibility, as (i).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(4)(A), substituted "No" for "Except in the case of an election under paragraph (2)(A), no" and "subsection (d)" for "this section" and inserted "applicable" before "Secretary".

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(4)(B)(i), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "may elect not to comply with this section; and".

Subsec. (h)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(4)(B)(ii), substituted "in carrying out subsection (d)" for "in complying with this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (h), relating to verification of eligibility, as (i).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(7)(D)(ii), substituted "section 1231(b)(3)" for "section 1253(h)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–208, §572, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(2), inserted "the direct loan program under section 1472 of this title or section 1472(c)(5)(D), 1474, 1490a(a)(2)(A), or 1490r of this title, subtitle A of title III of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act," after "1715z–1 of title 12,".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in two places.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–208, §573(1), substituted "shall" for "may, in its discretion," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–208, §573(2), inserted at end "Financial assistance continued under this subparagraph for a family may be provided only on a prorated basis, under which the amount of financial assistance is based on the percentage of the total number of members of the family that are eligible for that assistance under the program of financial assistance and under this section."

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, §573(3), designated first sentence of existing provisions as cl. (i), designated second and third sentences of existing provisions as cl. (ii) and substituted "Except as provided in clause (iii), any deferral" for "Any deferral" and "18-months" for "3 years", and added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(1), inserted "or to be" after "being" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(3), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary" wherever appearing in pars. (2) to (6).

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), (4), substituted "the term 'applicable Secretary' " for "the term 'Secretary' " and "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in closing provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(2), inserted at end "If the declaration states that the individual is not a citizen or national of the United States and that the individual is younger than 62 years of age, the declaration shall be verified by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. If the declaration states that the individual is a citizen or national of the United States, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or the agency administering assistance covered by this section, may request verification of the declaration by requiring presentation of documentation that the Secretary considers appropriate, including a United States passport, resident alien card, alien registration card, social security card, or other documentation."

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(3), substituted "on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996" for "on February 5, 1988" in introductory provisions and added concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(A), substituted "on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996" for "on February 5, 1988" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(B)(i)(I), inserted ", not to exceed 30 days," after "reasonable opportunity".

Subsec. (d)(4)(A)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(B)(i)(II), (ii), added cls. (ii) and (iii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "may not delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the individual's eligibility for financial assistance on the basis of the individual's immigration status until such a reasonable opportunity has been provided; and".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(C), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "pending such verification or appeal, the applicable Secretary may not delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the individual's eligibility for financial assistance on the basis of the individual's immigration status, and".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(5), inserted ", the Secretary shall" after "status" in introductory provisions, added subpars. (A) to (C), and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) the applicable Secretary shall deny or terminate the individual's eligibility for financial assistance, and

"(B) the applicable fair hearing process shall be made available with respect to the individual."

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(6), added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "For purposes of paragraph (5)(B), the applicable fair hearing process made available with respect to any individual shall include not less than the following procedural protections:

"(A) The applicable Secretary shall provide the individual with written notice of the determination described in paragraph (5) and of the opportunity for a hearing with respect to the determination.

"(B) Upon timely request by the individual, the applicable Secretary shall provide a hearing before an impartial hearing officer designated by the applicable Secretary, at which hearing the individual may produce evidence of a satisfactory immigration status.

"(C) The applicable Secretary shall notify the individual in writing of the decision of the hearing officer on the appeal of the determination in a timely manner.

"(D) Financial assistance may not be denied or terminated until the completion of the hearing process."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 104–208, §575(2), inserted at end "the response from the Immigration and Naturalization Service to the appeal of that individual."

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 104–208, §575(1), (3), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "because of a fair hearing process described in subsection (d)(5)(B) of this section (or provided for under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603))."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–208, §576, added subsec. (h) relating to verification of eligibility.

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(5), added subsec. (h) defining "applicable Secretary".

1988—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(a), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(b), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(8), amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "In this subsection and subsection (e) of this section, the term 'Secretary' refers to the Secretary and to a public housing authority or other entity which makes financial assistance available."

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(1), inserted ", is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on February 5, 1988" after "States".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(2), in introductory provisions, inserted ", is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on February 5, 1988" after "States", and "or recertification" after "application".

Subsec. (d)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(3), inserted after comma "or to appeal to the Immigration and Naturalization Service the verification determination of the Immigration and Naturalization Service under paragraph (3),".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(4), amended introductory provisions generally. Prior to amendment, introductory provisions read as follows: "if there are submitted documents which the Secretary determines constitutes reasonable evidence indicating such status—".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(5), (6), inserted "or additional information" after "documents" in cl. (i), and "or appeal" after "verification" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(7), added par. (6).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(d)(1), in introductory provisions, inserted "of Housing and Urban Development" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (e)(2), (3). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(d)(2), (3), inserted "(or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603))".

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(d)(4), inserted "(or provided for under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603))".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(e), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(f)(1), added subsec. (g).

1986—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 99–603 added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35 substituted provisions relating to restrictions on use of assisted housing by resident aliens meeting further conditions for provisions relating to prohibition on financial assistance to nonimmigrant student-aliens.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35 struck out "(1)" after "(b)" and par. (2) which defined "nonimmigrant student-alien".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §592(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2654, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 308(g)(7)(D)(ii) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Amendment by sections 572–576 of Pub. L. 104–208 effective Sept. 30, 1996, see section 591 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §164(h), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1863, provided that:

"(1) The provisions of, and amendments made by, subsections (a), (b), (e), (f), and (g) [amending this section, repealing section 1437r of this title, and enacting provisions set out below] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 5, 1988].

"(2) The amendments made by subsections (c) and (d) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1988."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–603 effective on Oct. 1, 1988, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 121(c)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 99–603, set out as a note under section 1320b–7 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title V, §571, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–684, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle E (§§571–577) of title V of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208, amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note below] may be cited as the 'Use of Assisted Housing by Aliens Act of 1996'."

Regulations

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title V, §577, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–688, provided that:

"(a) Issuance.—Not later than the 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue any regulations necessary to implement the amendments made by this part [probably means this subtitle, subtitle E (§§571–577) of title V of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note above]. Such regulations shall be issued in the form of an interim final rule, which shall take effect upon issuance and shall not be subject to the provisions of section 533 of title 5, United States Code, regarding notice or opportunity for comment.

"(b) Failure To Issue.—If the Secretary fails to issue the regulations required under subsection (a) before the date specified in that subsection, the regulations relating to restrictions on assistance to noncitizens, contained in the final rule issued by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in RIN–2501–AA63 (Docket No. R–95–1409; FR–2383–F–050), published in the Federal Register on March 20, 1995 (Vol. 60, No. 53; pp. 14824–14861), shall not apply after that date."

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Transitional Certification and Documentation Provisions

Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §164(g), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1863, provided that: "In carrying out section 214 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980 [this section] during fiscal year 1988, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall require, as a condition of providing financial assistance for the benefit of any individual, that such individual—

"(1) declare in writing, under penalty of perjury, whether or not such individual is a citizen or national of the United States; and

"(2) if not a citizen or national—

"(A) declare in writing, under penalty of perjury, the immigration status of such individual, if such individual is not less than 62 years of age 'and is receiving financial assistance on the date of the enactment of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987' [Feb. 5, 1988]; or

"(B) provide such documentation regarding the immigration status of such individual as the Secretary may require by regulation."

Delayed Implementation of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §474(e)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1239, provided in part that: "The Secretary may not implement the amendment to section 214 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980 [this section], made by section 329(a) of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981 [Pub. L. 97–35], before the expiration of the one-year period following the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1983]."

Aliens Granted Conditional Entry Eligible for Assisted Housing

Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §329(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 408, provided that: "An alien who is lawfully present in the United States as a result of being granted conditional entry pursuant to section 203(a)(7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(a)(7)) before April 1, 1980, because of persecution or fear of persecution on account of race, religion, or political opinion or because of being uprooted by catastrophic natural calamity shall be deemed, for purposes of section 214 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980 [this section], to be an alien described in section 214(a)(3) of such Act [subsec. (a)(3) of this section]."

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "; and".

§1436b. Financial assistance in impacted areas

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall not exclude from consideration for financial assistance under federally assisted housing programs proposals for housing projects solely because the site proposed is located within an impacted area. For the purposes of this section, the term "federally assisted housing programs" means any program authorized by the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], sections 1715z and 1715z–1 of title 12, section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s], or section 1701q of title 12.

(Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §216, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1638.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in text, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, and amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

Section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, referred to in text, is section 101 of Pub. L. 89–117, title I, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 451, as amended, which enacted section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and amended sections 1451 and 1465 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

§1436c. Insurance for public housing agencies and Indian housing authorities

On and after October 28, 1991, notwithstanding any other provision of State or Federal law, regulation or other requirement, any public housing agency or Indian housing authority that purchases any line of insurance from a nonprofit insurance entity, owned and controlled by public housing agencies or Indian housing authorities, and approved by the Secretary, may purchase such insurance without regard to competitive procurement.

On and after October 28, 1991, the Secretary shall establish standards as set forth herein, by regulation, adopted after notice and comment rulemaking pursuant to subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, which will become effective not later than one year from October 28, 1991.

On and after October 28, 1991, in establishing standards for approval of such nonprofit insurance entities, the Secretary shall be assured that such entities have sufficient surplus capital to meet reasonably expected losses, reliable accounting systems, sound actuarial projections, and employees experienced in the insurance industry. The Secretary shall not place restrictions on the investment of funds of any such entity that is regulated by the insurance department of any State that describes the types of investments insurance companies licensed in such State may make. With regard to such entities that are not so regulated, the Secretary shall establish investment guidelines that are comparable to State law regulating the investments of insurance companies.

On and after October 28, 1991, the Secretary shall not approve additional nonprofit insurance entities until such standards have become final, nor shall the Secretary revoke the approval of any nonprofit insurance entity previously approved by the Department unless for cause and after a due process hearing.

On and after October 28, 1991, until the Department of Housing and Urban Development has adopted regulations specifying the nature and quality of insurance covering the potential personal injury liability exposure of public housing authorities and Indian housing authorities (and their contractors, including architectural and engineering services) as a result of testing and abatement of lead-based paint in federally subsidized public and Indian housing units, said authorities shall be permitted to purchase insurance for such risk, as an allowable expense against amounts available for capital improvements (modernization): Provided, That such insurance is competitively selected and that coverage provided under such policies, as certified by the authority, provides reasonable coverage for the risk of liability exposure, taking into consideration the potential liability concerns inherent in the testing and abatement of lead-based paint, and the managerial and quality assurance responsibilities associated with the conduct of such activities.

(Pub. L. 102–139, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 758.)

References in Text

Herein, referred to in text, probably means Pub. L. 102–139, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 736, known as the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

In the second undesignated par., "subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5" was substituted for "the Administrative Procedures Act" on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section was enacted as part of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

§1436d. Consultation with affected areas in settlement of litigation

In negotiating any settlement of, or consent decree for, significant litigation regarding public housing or section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] tenant-based assistance that involves the Secretary and any public housing agency or any unit of general local government, the Secretary shall seek the views of any units of general local government and public housing agencies having jurisdictions that are adjacent to the jurisdiction of the public housing agency involved, if the resolution of such litigation would involve the acquisition or development of public housing dwelling units or the use of vouchers under section 1437f of this title in jurisdictions that are adjacent to the jurisdiction of the public housing agency involved in the litigation.

(Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §599H(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2668.)

References in Text

Secretary, referred to in text, means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §599H(m), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2670, provided that: "This section [enacting this section and amending section 1490 of this title] shall take effect on, and the amendments made by this section are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROGRAM OF ASSISTED HOUSING

Codification

Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681, added subchapter heading.

§1437. Declaration of policy and public housing agency organization

(a) Declaration of policy

It is the policy of the United States—

(1) to promote the general welfare of the Nation by employing the funds and credit of the Nation, as provided in this chapter—

(A) to assist States and political subdivisions of States to remedy the unsafe housing conditions and the acute shortage of decent and safe dwellings for low-income families;

(B) to assist States and political subdivisions of States to address the shortage of housing affordable to low-income families; and

(C) consistent with the objectives of this subchapter, to vest in public housing agencies that perform well, the maximum amount of responsibility and flexibility in program administration, with appropriate accountability to public housing residents, localities, and the general public;


(2) that the Federal Government cannot through its direct action alone provide for the housing of every American citizen, or even a majority of its citizens, but it is the responsibility of the Government to promote and protect the independent and collective actions of private citizens to develop housing and strengthen their own neighborhoods;

(3) that the Federal Government should act where there is a serious need that private citizens or groups cannot or are not addressing responsibly; and

(4) that our Nation should promote the goal of providing decent and affordable housing for all citizens through the efforts and encouragement of Federal, State, and local governments, and by the independent and collective actions of private citizens, organizations, and the private sector.

(b) Public housing agency organization

(1) Required membership

Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the membership of the board of directors or similar governing body of each public housing agency shall contain not less than 1 member—

(A) who is directly assisted by the public housing agency; and

(B) who may, if provided for in the public housing agency plan, be elected by the residents directly assisted by the public housing agency.

(2) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any public housing agency—

(A) that is located in a State that requires the members of the board of directors or similar governing body of a public housing agency to be salaried and to serve on a full-time basis; or

(B) with less than 300 public housing units, if—

(i) the agency has provided reasonable notice to the resident advisory board of the opportunity of not less than 1 resident described in paragraph (1) to serve on the board of directors or similar governing body of the public housing agency pursuant to such paragraph; and

(ii) within a reasonable time after receipt by the resident advisory board established by the agency pursuant to section 1437c–1(e) of this title of notice under clause (i), the public housing agency has not been notified of the intention of any resident to participate on the board of directors.

(3) Exception for certain jurisdictions

(A) Exception

A covered agency (as such term is defined in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph) shall not be required to include on the board of directors or a similar governing board of such agency a member described in paragraph (1).

(B) Advisory board requirement

Each covered agency that administers Federal housing assistance under section 1437f of this title that chooses not to include a member described in paragraph (1) on the board of directors or a similar governing board of the agency shall establish an advisory board of not less than 6 residents of public housing or recipients of assistance under section 1437f of this title to provide advice and comment to the agency or other administering entity on issues related to public housing and section 1437f of this title. Such advisory board shall meet not less than quarterly.

(C) Covered agency or entity

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "covered agency" means a public housing agency or such other entity that administers Federal housing assistance for—

(I) 1 the Housing Authority of the county of Los Angeles, California; or

(ii) any of the States of Alaska, Iowa, and Mississippi.

(4) Nondiscrimination

No person shall be prohibited from serving on the board of directors or similar governing body of a public housing agency because of the residence of that person in a public housing project or status as assisted under section 1437f of this title.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §2, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §572(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4236; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §505, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2522; Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §114, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 804.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 888, related to definitions and was classified to section 1402 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Prior similar provisions were contained in section 1 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 888, which was classified to section 1401 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–201, §114(1), substituted "paragraphs (2) and (3)" for "paragraph (2)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 114–201, §114(2), (3), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1998Pub. L. 105–276 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "It is the policy of the United States to promote the general welfare of the Nation by employing its funds and credit, as provided in this chapter, to assist the several States and their political subdivisions to remedy the unsafe and unsanitary housing conditions and the acute shortage of decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings for families of lower income and, consistent with the objectives of this chapter, to vest in local public housing agencies the maximum amount of responsibility in the administration of their housing programs. No person should be barred from serving on the board of directors or similar governing body of a local public housing agency because of his tenancy in a low-income housing project."

1990Pub. L. 101–625 substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing".

1981Pub. L. 97–35 substituted reference to lower income for reference to low income in two places.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §503, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2521, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The amendments under this title [see Tables for classification] are made on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], but this title shall take effect, and the amendments made by this title shall apply beginning upon, October 1, 1999, except—

"(1) as otherwise specifically provided in this title; or

"(2) as otherwise specifically provided in any amendment made by this title.

The Secretary may, by notice, implement any provision of this title or any amendment made by this title before such date, except to the extent that such provision or amendment specifically provides otherwise.

"(b) Savings Provision.—Notwithstanding any amendment under this title that is made (in accordance with subsection (a)) on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998] but applies beginning on October 1, 1999, the provisions of law amended by such amendment, as such provisions were in effect immediately before the making of such amendment, shall continue to apply during the period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act and ending upon October 1, 1999, unless otherwise specifically provided by this title.

"(c) Technical Recommendations.—Not later than 9 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking and Financial Services [now Committee on Financial Services] of the House of Representatives, recommended technical and conforming legislative changes necessary to carry out this title and the amendments made by this title.

"(d) List of Obsolete Documents.—Not later than October 1, 1999, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall cause to be published in the Federal Register a list of all rules, regulations, and orders (including all handbooks, notices, and related requirements) pertaining to public housing or section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] tenant-based programs issued or promulgated under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998] that are or will be obsolete because of the enactment of this Act or are otherwise obsolete.

"(e) Protection of Certain Regulations.—No provision of this title may be construed to repeal the regulations of the Secretary regarding tenant participation and tenant opportunities in public housing (24 C.F.R. 964).

"(g)[(f)] Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(b), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 667, provided that: "The provisions of subsection (a) of this section [enacting sections 1437 to 1437j of this title] shall be effective on such date or dates as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall prescribe, but not later than eighteen months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 22, 1974]; except that (1) all of the provisions of section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended by subsection (a) of this section [section 1437a(1) of this title], shall become effective on the same date, (2) all of the provisions of sections 5 and 9(c) of such Act as so amended [sections 1437c and 1437g(c) of this title] shall become effective on the same date, and (3) section 8 of such Act [section 1437f of this title] as so amended shall be effective not later than January 1, 1975."

Section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, effective Sept. 26, 1975, see Effective Date note set out under section 1437a of this title.

Short Title of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–201, §1(a), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 782, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1437z–9, 3536a, and 11386f of this title, amending this section, sections 1436a, 1437a, 1437f, 1437g, 1437n, 1472, 3533, 11373, 11387, 11388, 12902, and 12903 of this title, and section 1709 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1437a, 1437f, 1437z–9, 3533, 3544, and 11313 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 12805 of this title] may be cited as the 'Housing Opportunity Through Modernization Act of 2016'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title VII, §2701, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2863, provided that: "This title [amending section 1437c–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Small Public Housing Authorities Paperwork Reduction Act'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–186, title IV, §401, Dec. 16, 2003, 117 Stat. 2693, provided that: "This title [amending section 1437v of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437v of this title] may be cited as the 'HOPE VI Program Reauthorization and Small Community Mainstreet Rejuvenation and Housing Act of 2003'."

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–116, title VI, §601(a), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2220, provided that: "This title [amending sections 1437f and 5305 of this title and section 1715n of Title 12, Banks and Banking, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1437f and 11301 of this title and sections 1701q and 1715n of Title 12, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1437f and 11301 of this title and section 1701q of Title 12] may be cited as the 'Mark-to-Market Extension Act of 2001'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §501(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2518, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–358, §1, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 676, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1437aa to 1437ee of this title, amending sections 1437a and 1437c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437a of this title] may be cited as the 'Indian Housing Act of 1988'."

Short Title

Act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §1, as added by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653; renumbered title I by Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'United States Housing Act of 1937'."

Applicability of 1996 Amendments; Indian Housing

Pub. L. 104–204, title II, §201(d), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2893, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1437a, 1437c, and 1437l of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §201(a)(3)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-278; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendment made by this subsection [amending section 1437l of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §201(b)(3)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-278; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by this subsection [amending section 1437p of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 1437c of this title] and by sections 1002(a), (b), and (c) of Public Law 104–19 [amending sections 1437c, 1437p, and 1437aaa–3 of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(e), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 43, which provided that amendments made by section 402(a) to (d) and (f) of Pub. L. 104–99 were also to apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to contract between Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §595(e)(16), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2659.

Applicability of 1990 Amendments; Indian Housing

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §103(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3684, provided that:

"(1) In general.—In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 ([former] 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)), the provisions of sections 572, 573, and 574 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Pub. L. 101–625, amending this section and sections 1437a, 1437b to 1437d, 1437f, 1437g, 1437i, 1437j, 1437l, 1437n, 1437p, 1437r, 1437s, and 1437aa to 1437dd of this title, repealing section 1437o of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1437a of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian Housing Authority.

"(2) Effective date.—Paragraph (1) shall take effect as if such provision were enacted upon the date of the enactment of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Nov. 28, 1990]."

Pub. L. 101–625, title IV, §419, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4161, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle A (§§411–419) of title IV of Pub. L. 101–625, enacting subchapter II–A of this chapter and amending sections 1437c, 1437f, 1437l, 1437p, 1437r, and 1437s of this title] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority, except that nothing in this title [see Short Title note set out under section 1437aaa of this title] affects the program under section 202 of such Act [former 42 U.S.C. 1437bb]."

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §527, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4216, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 ([former] 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)), the provisions of this subtitle [subtitle A (§§501–527) of title V of Pub. L. 101–625, see Tables for classification] that modify the public housing program under title I of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority, except that sections 502 and 510 [amending sections 1437d and 1437l of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1437d of this title] shall not apply."

Applicability of 1989 Amendments; Indian Housing

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §101(d), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 1990, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section [amending section 1439 of this title] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §104(c), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 1998, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending section 1439 of this title] and the provisions of subsection (b) of this section [set out as an Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note under section 1439 of this title] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Reports on Number and Cost of Federally Assisted Units

Pub. L. 110–161, div. K, title II, §211, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2433, which directed the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to submit an annual report to the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations regarding the number of Federally assisted units under lease and the per unit cost of such units, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title II, §238, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 789.

Funding of Certain Public Housing

Pub. L. 105–276, title II, §226, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2490, which provided that no funds in this Act or any other Act may hereafter be used by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to determine allocations or provide assistance for operating subsidies or modernization for certain State and city funded and locally developed public housing units unless such unit was so assisted before Oct. 1, 1998, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–7, div. K, title II, §212(b), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 504.

[Pub. L. 108–7, div. K, title II, §212(d), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 504, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) [repealing section 226 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out above] shall be deemed to have taken effect on October 21, 1998."]

Congressional Statement of Findings and Purposes

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §502, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2520, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—

"(1) there exists throughout the Nation a need for decent, safe, and affordable housing;

"(2) the inventory of public housing units owned, assisted, or operated by public housing agencies, an asset in which the Federal Government has invested over $90,000,000,000, has traditionally provided rental housing that is affordable to low-income persons;

"(3) despite serving this critical function, the public housing system is plagued by a series of problems, including the concentration of very poor people in very poor neighborhoods and disincentives for economic self-sufficiency;

"(4) the Federal method of overseeing every aspect of public housing by detailed and complex statutes and regulations has aggravated the problem and has placed excessive administrative burdens on public housing agencies; and

"(5) the interests of low-income persons, and the public interest, will best be served by a reformed public housing program that—

"(A) consolidates many public housing programs into programs for the operation and capital needs of public housing;

"(B) streamlines program requirements;

"(C) vests in public housing agencies that perform well the maximum feasible authority, discretion, and control with appropriate accountability to public housing residents, localities, and the general public; and

"(D) rewards employment and economic self-sufficiency of public housing residents.

"(b) Purposes.—The purpose of this title [see Tables for classification] is to promote homes that are affordable to low-income families in safe and healthy environments, and thereby contribute to the supply of affordable housing, by—

"(1) deregulating and decontrolling public housing agencies, thereby enabling them to perform as property and asset managers;

"(2) providing for more flexible use of Federal assistance to public housing agencies, allowing the authorities to leverage and combine assistance amounts with amounts obtained from other sources;

"(3) facilitating mixed income communities and decreasing concentrations of poverty in public housing;

"(4) increasing accountability and rewarding effective management of public housing agencies;

"(5) creating incentives and economic opportunities for residents of dwelling units assisted by public housing agencies to work, become self-sufficient, and transition out of public housing and federally assisted dwelling units;

"(6) consolidating the voucher and certificate programs for rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] into a single market-driven program that will assist in making tenant-based rental assistance under such section more successful at helping low-income families obtain affordable housing and will increase housing choice for low-income families; and

"(7) remedying the problems of troubled public housing agencies and replacing or revitalizing severely distressed public housing projects."

Mental Health Action Plan

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §517, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2550, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Labor, and appropriate State and local officials and representatives, shall—

"(1) develop an action plan and list of recommendations for the improvement of means of providing severe mental illness treatment to families and individuals receiving housing assistance under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], including public housing residents, residents of multifamily housing assisted with project-based assistance under section 8 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f], and recipients of tenant-based assistance under such section; and

"(2) develop and disseminate a list of current practices among public housing agencies and owners of assisted housing that serve to benefit persons in need of mental health care."

Annual Report

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §581, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress on—

"(1) the impact of the amendments made by this Act [Pub. L. 105–276, see Tables for classification] on—

"(A) the demographics of public housing residents and families receiving tenant-based assistance under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.]; and

"(B) the economic viability of public housing agencies; and

"(2) the effectiveness of the rent policies established by this Act and the amendments made by this Act on the employment status and earned income of public housing residents.

"(b) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Use of American Products

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §584, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2645, provided that:

"(a) Purchase of American-Made Equipment and Products.—It is the sense of the Congress that, to the greatest extent practicable, all equipment and products purchased with funds made available in this Act [Pub. L. 105–276, see Tables for classification] should be American made.

"(b) Notice Requirement.—In providing financial assistance to, or entering into any contract with, any entity using funds made available in this Act, the head of each Federal agency, to the greatest extent practicable, shall provide to such entity a notice describing the statement made in subsection (a) by the Congress.

"(c) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

GAO Study on Housing Assistance Program Costs

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §585, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2645, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study that provides an objective and independent accounting and analysis of the full cost to the Federal Government, public housing agencies, State and local governments, and other entities, per assisted household, of the Federal assisted housing programs, taking into account the qualitative differences among Federal assisted housing programs in accordance with applicable standards of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

"(b) Contents.—The study under this section shall—

"(1) analyze the full cost to the Federal Government, public housing agencies, State and local governments, and other parties, per assisted household, of the Federal assisted housing programs, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and shall conduct the analysis on a nationwide and regional basis and in a manner such that accurate per unit cost comparisons may be made between Federal assisted housing programs, including grants, direct subsidies, tax concessions, Federal mortgage insurance liability, periodic renovation and rehabilitation, and modernization costs, demolition costs, and other ancillary costs such as security; and

"(2) measure and evaluate qualitative differences among Federal assisted housing programs in accordance with applicable standards of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

"(c) Prohibition of Recommendations.—In conducting the study under this section and reporting under subsection (e), the Comptroller General may not make any recommendations regarding Federal housing policy.

"(d) Federal Assisted Housing Programs.—For purposes of this section, the term 'Federal assisted housing programs' means—

"(1) the public housing program under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], except that the study under this section shall differentiate between and compare the development and construction of new public housing and the assistance of existing public housing structures;

"(2) the certificate program for rental assistance under section 8(b)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(1)];

"(3) the voucher program for rental assistance under section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)];

"(4) the programs for project-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f];

"(5) the rental assistance payments program under section 521(a)(2)(A) of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1490a(a)(2)(A)];

"(6) the program for housing for the elderly under section 202 of the Housing Act of 1959 [12 U.S.C. 1701q];

"(7) the program for housing for persons with disabilities under section 811 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 8013];

"(8) the program for financing housing by a loan or mortgage insured under section 221(d)(3) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715l(d)(3)] that bears interest at a rate determined under the proviso of section 221(d)(5) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 1715l(d)(5)];

"(9) the program under section 236 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715z–1];

"(10) the program for construction or substantial rehabilitation under section 8(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(2)], as in effect before October 1, 1983; and

"(11) any other program for housing assistance administered by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture, under which occupancy in the housing assisted or housing assistance provided is based on income, as the Comptroller General may determine.

"(e) Report.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], the Comptroller General shall submit to the Congress a final report which shall contain the results of the study under this section, including the analysis and estimates required under subsection (b).

"(f) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Limitation on Withholding or Conditioning of Assistance

Assistance provided for in Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.], National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], Housing Act of 1949 [see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title], Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966 [see Short Title note set out under section 3331 of this title], and Housing and Urban Development Acts of 1965, 1968, 1969, and 1970 not to be withheld or made subject to conditions by reason of tax-exempt status of obligations issued or to be issued for financing of assistance, except as otherwise provided by law, see section 817 of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a note under section 5301 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "(i)".

§1437a. Rental payments

(a) Families included; rent options; minimum amount; occupancy by police officers and over-income families

(1) Dwelling units assisted under this chapter shall be rented only to families who are low-income families at the time of their initial occupancy of such units. Reviews of family income shall be made at least annually; except that, in the case of any family with a fixed income, as defined by the Secretary, after the initial review of the family's income, the public housing agency or owner shall not be required to conduct a review of the family's income for any year for which such family certifies, in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall establish, which shall include policies to adjust for inflation-based income changes, that 90 percent or more of the income of the family consists of fixed income, and that the sources of such income have not changed since the previous year, except that the public housing agency or owner shall conduct a review of each such family's income not less than once every 3 years. Except as provided in paragraph (2) and subject to the requirement under paragraph (3), a family shall pay as rent for a dwelling unit assisted under this chapter (other than a family assisted under section 1437f(o) or (y) of this title or paying rent under section 1437f(c)(3)(B) 1 of this title) the highest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:

(A) 30 per centum of the family's monthly adjusted income;

(B) 10 per centum of the family's monthly income; or

(C) if the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency and a part of such payments, adjusted in accordance with the family's actual housing costs, is specifically designated by such agency to meet the family's housing costs, the portion of such payments which is so designated.


(2) Rental payments for public housing families.—

(A) Authority for family to select.—

(i) In general.—A family residing in a public housing dwelling shall pay as monthly rent for the unit the amount determined under clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B), subject to the requirement under paragraph (3) (relating to minimum rents). Each public housing agency shall provide for each family residing in a public housing dwelling unit owned, assisted, or operated by the agency to elect annually whether the rent paid by such family shall be determined under clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B). A public housing agency may not at any time fail to provide both such rent options for any public housing dwelling unit owned, assisted, or operated by the agency.

(ii) Authority to retain flat and ceiling rents.—Notwithstanding clause (i) or any other provision of law, any public housing agency that is administering flat rents or ceiling rents pursuant to any authority referred to in section 519(d) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 before the effective day of such Act may continue to charge rent in accordance with such rent provisions after such effective date, except that the agency shall provide for families residing in public housing dwelling units owned or operated by the agency to elect annually whether to pay rent under such provisions or in accordance with one of the rent options referred to in subparagraph (A).


(B) Allowable rent structures.—

(i) Flat rents.—Each public housing agency shall establish, for each dwelling unit in public housing owned or operated by the agency, a flat rental amount for the dwelling unit, which—

(I) shall not be lower than 80 percent of—

(aa) the applicable fair market rental established under section 1437f(c) of this title; or

(bb) at the discretion of the Secretary, such other applicable fair market rental established by the Secretary that the Secretary determines more accurately reflects local market conditions and is based on an applicable market area that is geographically smaller than the applicable market area used for purposes of the applicable fair market rental under section 1437f(c) of this title;


 except that a public housing agency may apply to the Secretary for exception allowing for a flat rental amount for a property that is lower than the amount otherwise determined pursuant to item (aa) or (bb) and the Secretary may grant such exception if the Secretary determines that the fair market rental for the applicable market area pursuant to item (aa) or (bb) does not reflect the market value of the property and the proposed lower flat rental amount is based on a market analysis of the applicable market and complies with subclause (II) and

(II) shall be designed in accordance with subparagraph (D) so that the rent structures do not create a disincentive for continued residency in public housing by families who are attempting to become economically self-sufficient through employment or who have attained a level of self-sufficiency through their own efforts.


If a new flat rental amount for a dwelling unit will increase a family's existing rental payment by more than 35 percent, the new flat rental amount shall be phased in as necessary to ensure that the family's existing rental payment does not increase by more than 35 percent annually. The preceding sentence shall not be construed to require establishment of rental amounts equal to 80 percent of the fair market rental in years when the fair market rental falls from the prior year.

(ii) Income-based rents.—

(I) In general.—The monthly rental amount determined under this clause for a family shall be an amount, determined by the public housing agency, that does not exceed the greatest of the amounts (rounded to the nearest dollar) determined under subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1). This clause may not be construed to require a public housing agency to charge a monthly rent in the maximum amount permitted under this clause.

(II) Discretion.—Subject to the limitation on monthly rental amount under subclause (I), a public housing agency may, in its discretion, implement a rent structure under this clause requiring that a portion of the rent be deposited to an escrow or savings account, imposing ceiling rents, or adopting income exclusions (such as those set forth in subsection (b)(5)(B)), or may establish another reasonable rent structure or amount.


(C) Switching rent determination methods because of hardship circumstances.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), in the case of a family that has elected to pay rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i), a public housing agency shall immediately provide for the family to pay rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(ii) during the period for which such election was made upon a determination that the family is unable to pay the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i) because of financial hardship, including—

(i) situations in which the income of the family has decreased because of changed circumstances, loss of 2 reduction of employment, death in the family, and reduction in or loss of income or other assistance;

(ii) an increase, because of changed circumstances, in the family's expenses for medical costs, child care, transportation, education, or similar items; and

(iii) such other situations as may be determined by the agency.


(D) Encouragement of self-sufficiency.—The rental policy developed by each public housing agency shall encourage and reward employment and economic self-sufficiency.

(E) Income reviews.—Notwithstanding the second sentence of paragraph (1), in the case of families that are paying rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i), the agency shall review the income of such family not less than once every 3 years.


(3) Minimum rental amount.—

(A) Requirement.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, the method for rent determination elected pursuant to paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection by a family residing in public housing, section 1437f(o)(2) of this title, or section 206(d) of the Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act of 1983 (including paragraph (5) of such section), the following entities shall require the following families to pay a minimum monthly rental amount (which amount shall include any amount allowed for utilities) of not more than $50 per month, as follows:

(i) Each public housing agency shall require the payment of such minimum monthly rental amount, which amount shall be determined by the agency, by—

(I) each family residing in a dwelling unit in public housing by the agency;

(II) each family who is assisted under the certificate or moderate rehabilitation program under section 1437f of this title; and

(III) each family who is assisted under the voucher program under section 1437f of this title, and the agency shall reduce the monthly assistance payment on behalf of such family as may be necessary to ensure payment of such minimum monthly rental amount.


(ii) The Secretary shall require each family who is assisted under any other program for rental assistance under section 1437f of this title to pay such minimum monthly rental amount, which amount shall be determined by the Secretary.


(B) Exception for hardship circumstances.—

(i) In general.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a public housing agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)) shall immediately grant an exemption from application of the minimum monthly rental under such subparagraph to any family unable to pay such amount because of financial hardship, which shall include situations in which (I) the family has lost eligibility for or is awaiting an eligibility determination for a Federal, State, or local assistance program, including a family that includes a member who is an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.] who would be entitled to public benefits but for title IV of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 [8 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.]; (II) the family would be evicted as a result of the imposition of the minimum rent requirement under subparagraph (A); (III) the income of the family has decreased because of changed circumstance, including loss of employment; (IV) a death in the family has occurred; and (V) other situations as may be determined by the agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)).

(ii) Waiting period.—If a resident requests a hardship exemption under this subparagraph and the public housing agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)) reasonably determines the hardship to be of a temporary nature, an exemption shall not be granted during the 90-day period beginning upon the making of a request for the exemption. A resident may not be evicted during such 90-day period for nonpayment of rent. In such a case, if the resident thereafter demonstrates that the financial hardship is of a long-term basis, the agency (or the Secretary) shall retroactively exempt the resident from the applicability of the minimum rent requirement for such 90-day period.


(4) Occupancy by police officers.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B) and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency may, in accordance with the public housing agency plan for the agency, allow a police officer who is not otherwise eligible for residence in public housing to reside in a public housing dwelling unit. The number and location of units occupied by police officers under this paragraph and the terms and conditions of their tenancies shall be determined by the public housing agency.

(B) Increased security.—A public housing agency may take the actions authorized in subparagraph (A) only for the purpose of increasing security for the residents of a public housing project.

(C) Definition.—In this paragraph, the term "police officer" means any person determined by a public housing agency to be, during the period of residence of that person in public housing, employed on a full-time basis as a duly licensed professional police officer by a Federal, State, or local government or by any agency thereof (including a public housing agency having an accredited police force).


(5) Occupancy by over-income families in certain public housing.—

(A) Authority.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency that owns or operates less than 250 units may, on a month-to-month basis, lease a dwelling unit in a public housing project to an over-income family in accordance with this paragraph, but only if there are no eligible families applying for housing assistance from the public housing agency for that month and the agency provides not less than 30-day public notice of the availability of such assistance.

(B) Terms and conditions.—The number and location of dwelling units of a public housing agency occupied under this paragraph by over-income families, and the terms and conditions of those tenancies, shall be determined by the public housing agency, except that—

(i) notwithstanding paragraph (2), rent for a unit shall be in an amount that is not less than the costs to operate the unit;

(ii) if an eligible family applies for residence after an over-income family moves in to the last available unit, the over-income family shall vacate the unit in accordance with notice of termination of tenancy provided by the agency, which shall be provided not less than 30 days before such termination; and

(iii) if a unit is vacant and there is no one on the waiting list, the public housing agency may allow an over-income family to gain immediate occupancy in the unit, while simultaneously providing reasonable public notice and outreach with regard to availability of the unit.


(C) Definition.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term "over-income family" means an individual or family that is not a low-income family at the time of initial occupancy.

(b) Definition of terms under this chapter

When used in this chapter:

(1) The term "low-income housing" means decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings assisted under this chapter. The term "public housing" means low-income housing, and all necessary appurtenances thereto, assisted under this chapter other than under section 1437f of this title. The term "public housing" includes dwelling units in a mixed finance project that are assisted by a public housing agency with capital or operating assistance. When used in reference to public housing, the term "low-income housing project" or "project" means (A) housing developed, acquired, or assisted by a public housing agency under this chapter, and (B) the improvement of any such housing.

(2)(A) The term "low-income families" means those families whose incomes do not exceed 80 per centum of the median income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 80 per centum of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary's findings that such variations are necessary because of prevailing levels of construction costs or unusually high or low family incomes.

(B) The term "very low-income families" means low-income families whose incomes do not exceed 50 per centum of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 50 per centum of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary's findings that such variations are necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes.

(C) The term extremely low-income families 3 means very low-income families whose incomes do not exceed the higher of—

(i) the poverty guidelines updated periodically by the Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of section 9902(2) of this title applicable to a family of the size involved (except that this clause shall not apply in the case of public housing agencies or projects located in Puerto Rico or any other territory or possession of the United States); or

(ii) 30 percent of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary, with adjustments for smaller and larger families (except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 30 percent of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary's findings that such variations are necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes).


(D) Such ceilings shall be established in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture for any rural area, as defined in section 1490 of this title, taking into account the subsidy characteristics and types of programs to which such ceilings apply. In determining median incomes (of persons, families, or households) for an area or establishing any ceilings or limits based on income under this chapter, the Secretary shall determine or establish area median incomes and income ceilings and limits for Westchester and Rockland Counties, in the State of New York, as if each such county were an area not contained within the metropolitan statistical area in which it is located. In determining such area median incomes or establishing such income ceilings or limits for the portion of such metropolitan statistical area that does not include Westchester or Rockland Counties, the Secretary shall determine or establish area median incomes and income ceilings and limits as if such portion included Westchester and Rockland Counties. In determining areas that are designated as difficult development areas for purposes of the low-income housing tax credit, the Secretary shall include Westchester and Rockland Counties, New York, in the New York City metropolitan area.

(3) Persons and families.—

(A) Single persons.—The term "families" includes families consisting of a single person in the case of (i) an elderly person, (ii) a disabled person, (iii) a displaced person, (iv) the remaining member of a tenant family, (v) a youth described in section 1437f(x)(2)(B) of this title, and (vi) any other single persons. In no event may any single person under clause (v) or (vi) of the first sentence be provided a housing unit assisted under this chapter of 2 or more bedrooms.

(B) Families.—The term "families" includes families with children and, in the cases of elderly families, near-elderly families, and disabled families, means families whose heads (or their spouses), or whose sole members, are elderly, near-elderly, or persons with disabilities, respectively. The term includes, in the cases of elderly families, near-elderly families, and disabled families, 2 or more elderly persons, near-elderly persons, or persons with disabilities living together, and 1 or more such persons living with 1 or more persons determined under the public housing agency plan to be essential to their care or well-being.

(C) Absence of children.—The temporary absence of a child from the home due to placement in foster care shall not be considered in determining family composition and family size.

(D) Elderly person.—The term "elderly person" means a person who is at least 62 years of age.

(E) Person with disabilities.—The term "person with disabilities" means a person who—

(i) has a disability as defined in section 423 of this title,

(ii) is determined, pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary, to have a physical, mental, or emotional impairment which (I) is expected to be of long-continued and indefinite duration, (II) substantially impedes his or her ability to live independently, and (III) is of such a nature that such ability could be improved by more suitable housing conditions, or

(iii) has a developmental disability as defined in section 15002 of this title.


Such term shall not exclude persons who have the disease of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or any conditions arising from the etiologic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no individual shall be considered a person with disabilities, for purposes of eligibility for low-income housing under this subchapter, solely on the basis of any drug or alcohol dependence. The Secretary shall consult with other appropriate Federal agencies to implement the preceding sentence.

(F) Displaced person.—The term "displaced person" means a person displaced by governmental action, or a person whose dwelling has been extensively damaged or destroyed as a result of a disaster declared or otherwise formally recognized pursuant to Federal disaster relief laws.

(G) Near-elderly person.—The term "near-elderly person" means a person who is at least 50 years of age but below the age of 62.


(4) The term "income" means income from all sources of each member of the household, as determined in accordance with criteria prescribed by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, except that any amounts not actually received by the family and any amounts which would be eligible for exclusion under section 1382b(a)(7) of this title or any deferred Department of Veterans Affairs disability benefits that are received in a lump sum amount or in prospective monthly amounts may not be considered as income under this paragraph.

(5) Adjusted income.—The term "adjusted income" means, with respect to a family, the amount (as determined by the public housing agency) of the income of the members of the family residing in a dwelling unit or the persons on a lease, after any income exclusions as follows:

(A) Mandatory exclusions.—In determining adjusted income, a public housing agency shall exclude from the annual income of a family the following amounts:

(i) Elderly and disabled families.—$400 for any elderly or disabled family.

(ii) Medical expenses.—The amount by which 3 percent of the annual family income is exceeded by the sum of—

(I) unreimbursed medical expenses of any elderly family or disabled family;

(II) unreimbursed medical expenses of any family that is not covered under subclause (I), except that this subclause shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriation Acts; and

(III) unreimbursed reasonable attendant care and auxiliary apparatus expenses for each handicapped member of the family, to the extent necessary to enable any member of such family (including such handicapped member) to be employed.


(iii) Child care expenses.—Any reasonable child care expenses necessary to enable a member of the family to be employed or to further his or her education.

(iv) Minors, students, and persons with disabilities.—$480 for each member of the family residing in the household (other than the head of the household or his or her spouse) who is less than 18 years of age or is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis, or who is 18 years of age or older and is a person with disabilities.

(v) Child support payments.—Any payment made by a member of the family for the support and maintenance of any child who does not reside in the household, except that the amount excluded under this clause may not exceed $480 for each child for whom such payment is made; except that this clause shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriations Acts.

(vi) Spousal support expenses.—Any payment made by a member of the family for the support and maintenance of any spouse or former spouse who does not reside in the household, except that the amount excluded under this clause shall not exceed the lesser of (I) the amount that such family member has a legal obligation to pay, or (II) $550 for each individual for whom such payment is made; except that this clause shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriations Acts.

(vii) Earned income of minors.—The amount of any earned income of a member of the family who is not—

(I) 18 years of age or older; and

(II) the head of the household (or the spouse of the head of the household).


(B) Permissive exclusions for public housing.—In determining adjusted income, a public housing agency may, in the discretion of the agency, establish exclusions from the annual income of a family residing in a public housing dwelling unit. Such exclusions may include the following amounts:

(i) Excessive travel expenses.—Excessive travel expenses in an amount not to exceed $25 per family per week, for employment- or education-related travel.

(ii) Earned income.—An amount of any earned income of the family, established at the discretion of the public housing agency, which may be based on—

(I) all earned income of the family,4

(II) the amount earned by particular members of the family;

(III) the amount earned by families having certain characteristics; or

(IV) the amount earned by families or members during certain periods or from certain sources.


(iii) Others.—Such other amounts for other purposes, as the public housing agency may establish.


(6) Public housing agency.—

(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "public housing agency" means any State, county, municipality, or other governmental entity or public body (or agency or instrumentality thereof) which is authorized to engage in or assist in the development or operation of public housing, or a consortium of such entities or bodies as approved by the Secretary.

(B) Section 1437f program.—For purposes of the program for tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title, such term includes—

(i) a consortia of public housing agencies that the Secretary determines has the capacity and capability to administer a program for assistance under such section in an efficient manner;

(ii) any other public or private nonprofit entity that, upon the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, was administering any program for tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title (as in effect before the effective date of such Act), pursuant to a contract with the Secretary or a public housing agency; and

(iii) with respect to any area in which no public housing agency has been organized or where the Secretary determines that a public housing agency is unwilling or unable to implement a program for tenant-based assistance 5 section 1437f of this title, or is not performing effectively—

(I) the Secretary or another public or private nonprofit entity that by contract agrees to receive assistance amounts under section 1437f of this title and enter into housing assistance payments contracts with owners and perform the other functions of public housing agency under section 1437f of this title; or

(II) notwithstanding any provision of State or local law, a public housing agency for another area that contracts with the Secretary to administer a program for housing assistance under section 1437f of this title, without regard to any otherwise applicable limitations on its area of operation.


(7) The term "State" includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories and possessions of the United States, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(8) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

(9) Drug-related criminal activity.—The term "drug-related criminal activity" means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as such term is defined in section 802 of title 21).

(10) Mixed-finance project.—The term "mixed-finance project" means a public housing project that meets the requirements of section 1437z–7 of this title.

(11) Public housing agency plan.—The term "public housing agency plan" means the plan of a public housing agency prepared in accordance with section 1437c–1 of this title.

(12) Capital fund.—The term "Capital Fund" means the fund established under section 1437g(d) of this title.

(13) Operating fund.—The term "Operating Fund" means the fund established under section 1437g(e) of this title.

(c) Definition of terms used in reference to public housing

When used in reference to public housing:

(1) The term "development" means any or all undertakings necessary for planning, land acquisition, demolition, construction, or equipment, in connection with a low-income housing project. The term "development cost" comprises the costs incurred by a public housing agency in such undertakings and their necessary financing (including the payment of carrying charges), and in otherwise carrying out the development of such project, but does not include the costs associated with the demolition of or remediation of environmental hazards associated with public housing units that will not be replaced on the project site, or other extraordinary site costs as determined by the Secretary. Construction activity in connection with a low-income housing project may be confined to the reconstruction, remodeling, or repair of existing buildings.

(2) The term "operation" means any or all undertakings appropriate for management, operation, services, maintenance, security (including the cost of security personnel), or financing in connection with a low-income housing project. The term also means the financing of tenant programs and services for families residing in low-income housing projects, particularly where there is maximum feasible participation of the tenants in the development and operation of such tenant programs and services. As used in this paragraph, the term "tenant programs and services" includes the development and maintenance of tenant organizations which participate in the management of low-income housing projects; the training of tenants to manage and operate such projects and the utilization of their services in project management and operation; counseling on household management, housekeeping, budgeting, money management, child care, and similar matters; advice as to resources for job training and placement, education, welfare, health, and other community services; services which are directly related to meeting tenant needs and providing a wholesome living environment; and referral to appropriate agencies in the community when necessary for the provision of such services. To the maximum extent available and appropriate, existing public and private agencies in the community shall be used for the provision of such services.

(3) The term "acquisition cost" means the amount prudently required to be expended by a public housing agency in acquiring property for a low-income housing project.

(4) The term "congregate housing" means low-rent housing with which there is connected a central dining facility where wholesome and economical meals can be served to occupants. Expenditures incurred by a public housing agency in the operation of a central dining facility in connection with congregate housing (other than the cost of providing food and service) shall be considered a cost of operation of the project.

(5) The terms "group home" and "independent living facility" have the meanings given such terms in section 8013(k) of this title.

(d) Disallowance of earned income from rent determinations

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the rent payable under subsection (a) by a family described in paragraph (3) of this subsection may not be increased as a result of the increased income due to such employment during the 12-month period beginning on the date on which the employment is commenced.

(2) Phase-in of rent increases

Upon the expiration of the 12-month period referred to in paragraph (1), the rent payable by a family described in paragraph (3) may be increased due to the continued employment of the family member described in paragraph (3)(B), except that during the 12-month period beginning upon such expiration the amount of the increase may not be greater than 50 percent of the amount of the total rent increase that would be applicable but for this paragraph.

(3) Eligible families

A family described in this paragraph is a family—

(A) that—

(i) occupies a dwelling unit in a public housing project; or

(ii) receives assistance under section 1437f of this title; and


(B)(i) whose income increases as a result of employment of a member of the family who was previously unemployed for 1 or more years;

(ii) whose earned income increases during the participation of a family member in any family self-sufficiency or other job training program; or

(iii) who is or was, within 6 months, assisted under any State program for temporary assistance for needy families funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] and whose earned income increases.

(4) Applicability

This subsection and subsection (e) shall apply beginning upon October 1, 1999, except that this subsection and subsection (e) shall apply with respect to any family described in paragraph 3(A)(ii) 6 only to the extent provided in advance in appropriations Acts.

(e) Individual savings accounts

(1) In general

In lieu of a disallowance of earned income under subsection (d), upon the request of a family that qualifies under subsection (d), a public housing agency may establish an individual savings account in accordance with this subsection for that family.

(2) Deposits to account

The public housing agency shall deposit in any savings account established under this subsection an amount equal to the total amount that otherwise would be applied to the family's rent payment under subsection (a) as a result of employment.

(3) Withdrawal from account

Amounts deposited in a savings account established under this subsection may only be withdrawn by the family for the purpose of—

(A) purchasing a home;

(B) paying education costs of family members;

(C) moving out of public or assisted housing; or

(D) paying any other expense authorized by the public housing agency for the purpose of promoting the economic self-sufficiency of residents of public and assisted housing.

(f) Availability of income matching information

(1) Disclosure to PHA

A public housing agency, or the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits, shall require any family described in paragraph (2) who receives information regarding income, earnings, wages, or unemployment compensation from the Department of Housing and Urban Development pursuant to income verification procedures of the Department to disclose such information, upon receipt of the information, to the public housing agency that owns or operates the public housing dwelling unit in which such family resides or that provides the housing assistance under this chapter on behalf of such family, as applicable, or to the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits.

(2) Families covered

A family described in this paragraph is a family that resides in a dwelling unit—

(A) that is a public housing dwelling unit;

(B) for which tenant-based assistance is provided under section 1437f of this title,7 or

(C) for which project-based assistance is provided under section 1437f of this title, section 1437bb 1 of this title, or section 811.1

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §3, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 654; amended Pub. L. 94–375, §2(f), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1068; Pub. L. 95–557, title II, §206(c), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §202(a), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1106; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 400; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §§202, 206(a)–(c)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1178, 1179; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, §102(b)(1)–(3), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2221; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§102(a), 111, 170(c), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1821, 1823, 1867; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 100–358, §§4, 5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 680, 681; Pub. L. 101–235, title III, §302, Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §§515(b), 572, 573(a)–(d), 574, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4199, 4236-4238; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§102–103(a)(2), 185(c)(4), title VI, §§621, 622(c), 625(a)(1), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3683, 3748, 3812, 3817, 3820; Pub. L. 103–233, title III, §301, Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(b)(1), (c), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 40, 41; Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(b)(1), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4041; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§506, 507(a), (c), 508(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d)(1), 520(a), 523, 524(a), 546, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2523–2529, 2562, 2565-2567, 2604; Pub. L. 106–74, title II, §214(a), Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1074; Pub. L. 106–402, title IV, §401(b)(7), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1738; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title VI, §2608, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2862; Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title II, §§210, 212, 238(a), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 625, 626, 635; Pub. L. 113–235, div. K, title II, §238, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2758; Pub. L. 114–94, div. G, title LXXVIII, §78001(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1791; Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(a), (c), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 786, 788; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Q, title I, §§101(b)(1), 103(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2163, 2166.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, §101(b)(1), (h), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2163, 2165, provided that, effective 2 years after Dec. 27, 2020, subsec. (a) is amended by adding at the end the following:

(8) Carbon monoxide alarms

Each public housing agency shall ensure that carbon monoxide alarms or detectors are installed in each dwelling unit in public housing owned or operated by the public housing agency in a manner that meets or exceeds—

(A) the standards described in chapters 9 and 11 of the 2018 publication of the International Fire Code, as published by the International Code Council; or

(B) any other standards as may be adopted by the Secretary, including any relevant updates to the International Fire Code, through a notice published in the Federal Register.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(a), (c), (h), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 786, 788, 791, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing section 102 of Pub. L. 114–201, except that such section 102 may only take effect upon the commencement of a calendar year, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subsection (a)—

(A) in the second sentence of paragraph (1), by striking "at least annually" and inserting "pursuant to paragraph (6)"; and

(B) by adding at the end the following new paragraphs:

"(6) Reviews of family income.—

"(A) Frequency.—Reviews of family income for purposes of this section shall be made—

"(i) in the case of all families, upon the initial provision of housing assistance for the family;

"(ii) annually thereafter, except as provided in paragraph (1) with respect to fixed-income families;

"(iii) upon the request of the family, at any time the income or deductions (under subsection (b)(5)) of the family change by an amount that is estimated to result in a decrease of 10 percent (or such lower amount as the Secretary may, by notice, establish, or permit the public housing agency or owner to establish) or more in annual adjusted income; and

"(iv) at any time the income or deductions (under subsection (b)(5)) of the family change by an amount that is estimated to result in an increase of 10 percent or more in annual adjusted income, or such other amount as the Secretary may by notice establish, except that any increase in the earned income of a family shall not be considered for purposes of this clause (except that earned income may be considered if the increase corresponds to previous decreases under clause (iii)), except that a public housing agency or owner may elect not to conduct such review in the last three months of a certification period.


"(B) In general.—Reviews of family income for purposes of this section shall be subject to the provisions of section 3544 of this title.


"(7) Calculation of income.—

"(A) Use of current year income.—In determining family income for initial occupancy or provision of housing assistance pursuant to clause (i) of paragraph (6)(A) or pursuant to reviews pursuant to clause (iii) or (iv) of such paragraph, a public housing agency or owner shall use the income of the family as estimated by the agency or owner for the upcoming year.

"(B) Use of prior year income.—In determining family income for annual reviews pursuant to paragraph (6)(A)(ii), a public housing agency or owner shall, except as otherwise provided in this paragraph and paragraph (1), use the income of the family as determined by the agency or owner for the preceding year, taking into consideration any redetermination of income during such prior year pursuant to clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (6)(A).

"(C) Other income.—In determining the income for any family based on the prior year's income, with respect to prior year calculations of income not subject to subparagraph (B), a public housing agency or owner may make other adjustments as it considers appropriate to reflect current income.

"(D) Safe harbor.—A public housing agency or owner may, to the extent such information is available to the public housing agency or owner, determine the family's income prior to the application of any deductions based on timely income determinations made for purposes of other means-tested Federal public assistance programs (including the program for block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act, a program for Medicaid assistance under a State plan approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, and the supplemental nutrition assistance program (as such term is defined in section 2012 of title 7)). The Secretary shall, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, develop electronic procedures to enable public housing agencies and owners to have access to such benefit determinations made by other means-tested Federal programs that the Secretary determines to have comparable reliability. Exchanges of such information shall be subject to the same limitations and tenant protections provided under section 3544 of this title with respect to information obtained under the requirements of section 303(i) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 503(i)).

"(E) Electronic income verification.—The Secretary shall develop a mechanism for disclosing information to a public housing agency for the purpose of verifying the employment and income of individuals and families in accordance with section 453(j)(7)(E) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 653(j)(7)(E)), and shall ensure public housing agencies have access to information contained in the 'Do Not Pay' system established by section 5 of the Improper Payments Elimination and Recovery Improvement Act of 2012 (Public Law 112–248; 126 Stat. 2392).

"(F) PHA and owner compliance.—A public housing agency or owner may not be considered to fail to comply with this paragraph or paragraph (6) due solely to any de minimis errors made by the agency or owner in calculating family incomes.";


(2) in subsection (b), by striking paragraphs (4) and (5) and inserting the following new paragraphs:

"(4) Income.—The term 'income' means, with respect to a family, income received from all sources by each member of the household who is 18 years of age or older or is the head of household or spouse of the head of the household, plus unearned income by or on behalf of each dependent who is less than 18 years of age, as determined in accordance with criteria prescribed by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, subject to the following requirements:

"(A) Included amounts.—Such term includes recurring gifts and receipts, actual income from assets, and profit or loss from a business.

"(B) Excluded amounts.—Such term does not include—

"(i) any imputed return on assets, except to the extent that net family assets exceed $50,000, except that such amount (as it may have been previously adjusted) shall be adjusted for inflation annually by the Secretary in accordance with an inflationary index selected by the Secretary;

"(ii) any amounts that would be eligible for exclusion under section 1613(a)(7) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1382b(a)(7));

"(iii) deferred disability benefits from the Department of Veterans Affairs that are received in a lump sum amount or in prospective monthly amounts;

"(iv) any expenses related to aid and attendance under section 1521 of title 38 to veterans who are in need of regular aid and attendance; and

"(v) exclusions from income as established by the Secretary by regulation or notice, or any amount required by Federal law to be excluded from consideration as income.


"(C) Earned income of students.—Such term does not include—

"(i) earned income, up to an amount as the Secretary may by regulation establish, of any dependent earned during any period that such dependent is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis; or

"(ii) any grant-in-aid or scholarship amounts related to such attendance used—

"(I) for the cost of tuition or books; or

"(II) in such amounts as the Secretary may allow, for the cost of room and board.


"(D) Educational savings accounts.—Income shall be determined without regard to any amounts in or from, or any benefits from, any Coverdell education savings account under section 530 of title 26 or any qualified tuition program under section 529 of such title.

"(E) Recordkeeping.—The Secretary may not require a public housing agency or owner to maintain records of any amounts excluded from income pursuant to this subparagraph.


"(5) Adjusted income.—The term 'adjusted income' means, with respect to a family, the amount (as determined by the public housing agency or owner) of the income of the members of the family residing in a dwelling unit or the persons on a lease, after any deductions from income as follows:

"(A) Elderly and disabled families.—$525 in the case of any family that is an elderly family or a disabled family.

"(B) Minors, students, and persons with disabilities.—$480 for each member of the family residing in the household (other than the head of the household or his or her spouse) who is less than 18 years of age or is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis, or who is 18 years of age or older and is a person with disabilities.

"(C) Child care.—Any reasonable child care expenses necessary to enable a member of the family to be employed or to further his or her education.

"(D) Health and medical expenses.—The amount, if any, by which 10 percent of annual family income is exceeded by the sum of—

"(i) in the case of any elderly or disabled family, any unreimbursed health and medical care expenses; and

"(ii) any unreimbursed reasonable attendant care and auxiliary apparatus expenses for each handicapped member of the family, if determined necessary by the public housing agency or owner to enable any member of such family to be employed.


The Secretary shall, by regulation, provide hardship exemptions to the requirements of this subparagraph and subparagraph (C) for impacted families who demonstrate an inability to pay calculated rents because of financial hardship. Such regulations shall include a requirement to notify tenants regarding any changes to the determination of adjusted income pursuant to such subparagraphs based on the determination of the family's claim of financial hardship exemptions required by the preceding sentence. Such regulations shall be promulgated in consultation with tenant organizations, industry participants, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with an adequate comment period provided for interested parties.


"(E) Permissive deductions.—Such additional deductions as a public housing agency may, at its discretion, establish, except that the Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that such deductions do not materially increase Federal expenditures.


The Secretary shall annually calculate the amounts of the deductions under subparagraphs (A) and (B), as such amounts may have been previously calculated, by applying an inflationary factor as the Secretary shall, by regulation, establish, except that the actual deduction determined for each year shall be established by rounding such amount to the next lowest multiple of $25.";


(3) by striking subsections (d) and (e); and

(4) by redesignating subsection (f) as subsection (d).

See 2016 Amendment notes below.

References in Text

Section 1437f(c)(3)(B) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §550(a)(3)(A)(ii), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609.

Section 519(d) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii), is section 519(d) of Pub. L. 105–276 which is set out as a note below.

The effective day of such Act and the effective date of such Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(A)(ii) and (b)(6)(B)(ii), probably means the general effective date for the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, Pub. L. 105–276, title V, included in section 503 of the Act which is set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

Section 206(d) of the Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act of 1983, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), is section 206(d) of Pub. L. 98–181, which is set out as a note below.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(I), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(I), is Pub. L. 104–193, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2105. Title IV of the Act is classified principally to chapter 14 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Tables.

Section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (b)(6)(B)(ii), is section 503(a) of Pub. L. 105–276 which is set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(B)(iii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

Section 1437bb of this title, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(C), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(a), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4041.

Section 811, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(C), means section 811 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, but that Act does not contain a section 811.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 889, as amended, established the United States Housing Authority and was classified to section 1403 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Prior similar provisions were contained in section 2 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 888, which was classified to section 1402 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 116–260, §101(b)(1), added par. (8).

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 116–260, §103(a), in first sentence, added cl. (v) after "tenant family," and redesignated former cl. (v) as (vi) and, in second sentence, inserted "or (vi)" after "clause (v)".

2016—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(a)(1)(A), substituted "pursuant to paragraph (6)" for "at least annually" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(6), (7). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(a)(1)(B), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(c), added pars. (4) and (5) and struck out former pars. (4) and (5) which defined the terms "income" and "adjusted income", respectively.

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(a)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d) and struck out former subsecs. (d) and (e) which related to disallowance of earned income from rent determinations and individual savings accounts, respectively.

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94 inserted before period at end of second sentence "; except that, in the case of any family with a fixed income, as defined by the Secretary, after the initial review of the family's income, the public housing agency or owner shall not be required to conduct a review of the family's income for any year for which such family certifies, in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall establish, which shall include policies to adjust for inflation-based income changes, that 90 percent or more of the income of the family consists of fixed income, and that the sources of such income have not changed since the previous year, except that the public housing agency or owner shall conduct a review of each such family's income not less than once every 3 years".

2014—Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–235, §238(3), substituted "If" for "Public housing agencies must comply by June 1, 2014, with the requirement of this clause, except that if" in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 113–235, §238(1), substituted "which—" for "which shall not be lower than 80 percent of the applicable fair market rental established under section 1437f(c) of this title and which shall—" in introductory provisions, added subcl. (I), and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: "be based on the rental value of the unit, as determined by the public housing agency; and".

Pub. L. 113–76, §210(2), inserted concluding provisions and struck out former concluding provisions, which read as follows: "The rental amount for a dwelling unit shall be considered to comply with the requirements of this clause if such amount does not exceed the actual monthly costs to the public housing agency attributable to providing and operating the dwelling unit. The preceding sentence may not be construed to require establishment of rental amounts equal to or based on operating costs or to prevent public housing agencies from developing flat rents required under this clause in any other manner that may comply with this clause."

Pub. L. 113–76, §210(1), in introductory provisions, substituted "Each" for "Except as otherwise provided under this clause, each" and inserted "not be lower than 80 percent of the applicable fair market rental established under section 1437f(c) of this title and which shall" after "which shall".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i)(II). Pub. L. 113–235, §238(2), inserted "shall" before "be designed".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–76, §238(a), designated first sentence as subpar. (A), second sentence as subpar. (B), and remaining sentences as subpar. (D), and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 113–76, §212, inserted ", or a consortium of such entities or bodies as approved by the Secretary" before period at end.

2008—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–289 inserted "or any deferred Department of Veterans Affairs disability benefits that are received in a lump sum amount or in prospective monthly amounts" before "may not be considered".

2000—Subsec. (b)(3)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 106–402 substituted "section 15002 of this title" for "section 6001 of this title".

1999—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 106–74, §214(a)(1), inserted ", or the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits," after "A public housing agency" and ", or to the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits" before period at end.

Subsec. (f)(2)(C). Pub. L. 106–74, §214(a)(2), added subpar. (C).

1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §507(c), inserted "and subject to the requirement under paragraph (3)" after "paragraph (2)" in third sentence.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §523, amended par. (2) generally. For prior text, see 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–276, §507(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 105–276, §524(a), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(1), inserted after second sentence "The term 'public housing' includes dwelling units in a mixed finance project that are assisted by a public housing agency with capital or operating assistance."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(c)(1), substituted "limits for Westchester and Rockland Counties" for "limits for Westchester County", inserted "each" before "such county", substituted "include Westchester or Rockland Counties" for "include Westchester County" and "included Westchester and Rockland Counties" for "included Westchester County", and inserted at end "In determining areas that are designated as difficult development areas for purposes of the low-income housing tax credit, the Secretary shall include Westchester and Rockland Counties, New York, in the New York City metropolitan area."

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(2)(A), struck out at end "In determining priority for admission to housing under this chapter, the Secretary shall give preference to single persons who are elderly, disabled, or displaced persons before single persons who are eligible under clause (v) of the first sentence."

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(2)(B), substituted "public housing agency plan" for "regulations of the Secretary" in second sentence.

Subsec. (b)(3)(E). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(3), inserted at end "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no individual shall be considered a person with disabilities, for purposes of eligibility for low-income housing under this subchapter, solely on the basis of any drug or alcohol dependence. The Secretary shall consult with other appropriate Federal agencies to implement the preceding sentence."

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(a), amended par. (5) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which had defined "adjusted income" as income which remained after excluding $550 for each member of family in household under 18 years of age, disabled, or a student, $400 for any elderly or disabled family, the amount by which medical and related expenses exceeded 3 percent of income, child care expenses, 10 percent of earned income, and any payment made for support and maintenance of nonresident child, spouse, or former spouse.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, §546, amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "The term 'public housing agency' means any State, county, municipality, or other governmental entity or public body (or agency or instrumentality thereof) which is authorized to engage in or assist in the development or operation of low-income housing."

Subsec. (b)(9) to (13). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(4), added pars. (9) to (13).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(b)(1)(A), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking out the undesignated par. after par. (3), was executed by striking out concluding provisions after par. (5), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Concluding provisions read as follows: "The earnings of and benefits to any public housing resident resulting from participation in a program providing employment training and supportive services in accordance with the Family Support Act of 1988, section 1437t of this title, or any comparable Federal, State, or local law shall not be considered as income for the purposes of determining a limitation on the amount of rent paid by the resident during—

"(1) the period that the resident participates in such program; and

"(2) the period that—

"(A) begins with the commencement of employment of the resident in the first job acquired by the person after completion of such program that is not funded by assistance under this chapter; and

"(B) ends on the earlier of—

"(i) the date the resident ceases to continue employment without good cause as the Secretary shall determine; or

"(ii) the expiration of the 18-month period beginning on the date referred to in subparagraph (A)."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §520(a), inserted before period at end of second sentence ", but does not include the costs associated with the demolition of or remediation of environmental hazards associated with public housing units that will not be replaced on the project site, or other extraordinary site costs as determined by the Secretary".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(b)(1)(B), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(d)(1), added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–99, §402(b)(1), (f), temporarily amended par. (2) generally, substituting

"(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a public housing agency may—

"(A) adopt ceiling rents that reflect the reasonable market value of the housing, but that are not less than the monthly costs—

"(i) to operate the housing of the agency; and

"(ii) to make a deposit to a replacement reserve (in the sole discretion of the public housing agency); and

"(B) allow families to pay ceiling rents referred to in subparagraph (A), unless, with respect to any family, the ceiling rent established under this paragraph would exceed the amount payable as rent by that family under paragraph (1)." for

"(2)(A) Any public housing agency may provide that each family residing in a public housing project owned and operated by such agency (or in low-income housing assisted under section 1437f of this title that contains more than 2,000 dwelling units) shall pay as monthly rent an amount determined by such agency to be appropriate that does not exceed a maximum amount that—

"(i) is established by such agency and approved by the Secretary;

"(ii) is not more than the amount payable as rent by such family under paragraph (1); and

"(iii) is not less than the average monthly amount of debt service and operating expenses attributable to dwelling units of similar size in public housing projects owned and operated by such agency.

"(B) The terms of all ceiling rents established prior to December 15, 1989, shall be extended without time limitation." See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (b)(5)(F). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(A)(i), inserted "and" after semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(5)(G). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(A)(ii), (iii), redesignated subpar. (H) as (G) and struck out former subpar. (G) which read as follows: "excessive travel expenses, not to exceed $25 per family per week, for employment- or education-related travel, except that this subparagraph shall apply only to families assisted by Indian housing authorities; and".

Subsec. (b)(5)(H). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(A)(iii), redesignated subpar. (H) as (G).

Pub. L. 104–99, §402(c), (f), temporarily added subpar. (H) which read "for public housing, any other adjustments to earned income established by the public housing agency. If a public housing agency adopts other adjustments to income pursuant to subparagraph (H), the Secretary shall not take into account any reduction of or increase in the public housing agency's per unit dwelling rental income resulting from those adjustments when calculating the contributions under section 1437g of this title for the public housing agency for the operation of the public housing." See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(B), struck out at end "The term includes any Indian housing authority."

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(C), inserted "and" before "the Trust" and struck out ", and Indian tribes" after "Pacific Islands".

Subsec. (b)(9) to (12). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(D), struck out pars. (9) to (12) which read as follows:

"(9) The term 'Indian' means any person recognized as being an Indian or Alaska Native by an Indian tribe, the Federal Government, or any State.

"(10) The term 'Indian area' means the area within which an Indian housing authority is authorized to provide low-income housing.

"(11) The term 'Indian housing authority' means any entity that—

"(A) is authorized to engage in or assist in the development or operation of low-income housing for Indians; and

"(B) is established—

"(i) by exercise of the power of self-government of an Indian tribe independent of State law; or

"(ii) by operation of State law providing specifically for housing authorities for Indians, including regional housing authorities in the State of Alaska.

"(12) The term 'Indian tribe' means any tribe, band, pueblo, group, community, or nation of Indians or Alaska Natives."

1994—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–233 substituted "includes families with children and" for "means families with children".

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–550, §185(c)(4), substituted "section 1437f(o) or (y) of this title or paying rent under section 1437f(c)(3)(B) of this title" for "section 1437f(o) of this title".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–550, §102(a), struck out "for not more than a 5-year period" after "monthly rent".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, §102(b), struck out first sentence which read as follows: "The 5-year limitation established in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any family residing in a public housing project administered by an Indian public housing agency." and substituted "without time limitation" for "for the 5-year period beginning on December 15, 1989".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–550, §621, amended par. (3) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to families consisting of single persons, elderly families, handicapped persons, displaced persons, and families with household heads 50 years old or older and the priorities for admission of such families and persons to housing under this chapter.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–550, §103(a)(1), inserted "and any amounts which would be eligible for exclusion under section 1382b(a)(7) of this title" after "family".

Subsec. (b)(5)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, §625(a)(1), inserted "or disabled" after "elderly".

Subsec. (b)(5)(D). Pub. L. 102–550, §103(a)(2)(A), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "(i) child care expenses to the extent necessary to enable another member of the family to be employed or to further his or her education; or (ii) excessive travel expenses, not to exceed $25 per family per week, for employment or education related travel, except that this clause shall apply only to families assisted by Indian housing authorities;".

Subsec. (b)(5)(G). Pub. L. 102–550, §103(a)(2)(B)–(D), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 102–550, §622(c), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by inserting pars. (4) and (5) after "project.", was executed by making the insertion after "project." at the end of par. (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1990Pub. L. 101–625, §515(b), added concluding undesignated par. directing that earnings and benefits to public housing residents resulting from participation in programs providing employment training and supportive services not be considered as income.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(1), substituted "low-income families" for "lower income families" in introductory provisions.

Subsecs. (a)(2)(A), (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(d), inserted sentences at end relating to determination or establishment of median incomes and income ceilings and limits for Westchester County and for metropolitan statistical areas outside Westchester County.

Pub. L. 101–625, §572(1), substituted "low-income families" for "lower income families" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–625, §574, inserted sentence at end relating to effect of temporary absence of child from the home due to placement in foster care on considerations of family composition and size.

Pub. L. 101–625, §573(a), substituted "(D) and any other single persons. In no event may any single person under clause (D) be provided a housing unit assisted under this chapter of 2 bedrooms or more." for "(D) other single persons in circumstances described in regulations of the Secretary." in first sentence, struck out after first sentence "In no event shall more than 15 per centum of the units under the jurisdiction of any public housing agency be occupied by single persons under clause (D).", and struck out third from last sentence which was executed (to reflect the probable intent of Congress) by striking out third sentence from end which read as follows: "The Secretary may increase the limitation described in the second sentence of this paragraph to not more than 30 per centum if, following consultation with the public housing agency involved, the Secretary determines that the dwelling units involved are neither being occupied, nor are likely to be occupied within the next 12 months, by families or persons described in clauses (A), (B), and (C), due to the condition or location of such dwelling units, and that such dwelling units may be occupied if made available to single persons described in clause (D)."

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(b), inserted before period at end ", except that any amounts not actually received by the family may not be considered as income under this paragraph".

Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(c)(1), substituted "$550" for "$480".

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(c)(2), struck out "elderly" before "family" in cl. (i) and struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(5)(E), (F). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(c)(3), added subpars. (E) and (F).

Subsecs. (b)(6), (10), (11)(A), (c). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

1989—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–235, §302(1), substituted "5-year period" for "3-year period".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–235, §302(2), substituted "5-year limitation" for "3-year limitation" and inserted at end "The terms of all ceiling rents established prior to December 15, 1989, shall be extended for the 5-year period beginning on December 15, 1989."

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–242, §102(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), a" for "A", redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–242, §170(c), in cl. (A), substituted "sixty-two years of age," for "sixty-two years of age or", and ", has a developmental disability as defined in section 6001(7) of this title" for "or in section 102 of the Developmental Disabilities Services and Facilities Construction Amendments of 1970".

Pub. L. 100–242, §111, inserted provisions relating to determination of priority admission to public housing projects designed for elderly families.

Subsec. (b)(5)(D). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(a), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(b), inserted at end "The term includes any Indian housing authority."

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(c), struck out ", bands, groups, and Nations, including Alaska Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos, of the United States" after "and Indian tribes".

Subsec. (b)(9) to (12). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(d)–(g), added pars. (9) to (12).

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(1), inserted provision at end that such ceilings shall be established in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture for any rural area, as defined in section 1490 of this title, taking into account the subsidy characteristics and types of programs to which such ceilings apply.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(2), inserted ", in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture" at end.

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(3), designated existing provision as cl. (i), added cl. (ii), and inserted "the amount by which the aggregate of the following expenses of the family" in provisions preceding cl. (i).

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–181, §206(a), in provisions preceding par. (1), inserted provision requiring annual review of family income, and inserted "(other than a family assisted under section 1437f(o) of this title)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, §206(b), qualified the term "very low-income families" in authorizing the Secretary to establish, where necessary, variations in income ceilings higher or lower than 50 per centum of the median for the area.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–181, §202, inserted provision at end of par. (3) authorizing increase from 15 to 30 per centum in the single person occupancy limitation for nonoccupancy of the involved dwelling units.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–181, §206(c), amended par. (5) generally, substituting provisions designating cls. (A) to (D) for prior exclusion from "adjusted income" of such amounts or types of income as the Secretary might prescribe, taking into account the number of minor children and other appropriate factors.

1981Pub. L. 97–35 added subsecs. (a) and (c) and designated provisions constituting former section as subsec. (b), and in subsec. (b) as so designated, substituted provisions defining "lower income housing", "lower income families", "families", "income", "adjusted income", "public housing agency", "State", and "Secretary" for provisions defining "low-income housing", "low-income families", "development", "operation", "acquisition cost", "public housing agency", "State", "Secretary", and "low-income housing project".

1979—Par. (1). Pub. L. 96–153 substituted provisions that the rental for a dwelling shall not exceed certain portion of the resident family's income to be established by the Secretary, and that in the case of a very low income family 25 per centum and in other cases 30 per centum of family income for provisions that such rental shall not exceed one-fourth of the family's income as defined by the Secretary.

1978—Par. (2)(D). Pub. L. 95–557 substituted "15 per cent" for "10 per cent".

1976—Par. (2). Pub. L. 94–375 struck out "and" before cl. (C), added cl. (D), and two provisos relating to the percentage of units to be occupied by single persons and the priority to be given to single persons who are elderly, handicapped, or displaced, following cl. (D).

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b)(1) of div. Q of Pub. L. 116–260 effective 2 years after Dec. 27, 2020, see section 101(h) of div. Q of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1701q of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Pub. L. 116–260, div. Q, title I, §103(d), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2170, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1437f of this title] shall not apply to housing choice voucher assistance made available pursuant to section 8(x) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(x)) that is in use on behalf of an assisted family as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020]."

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(h), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 791, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue notice or regulations to implement this section [amending this section and section 1437f of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note below] and this section shall take effect after such issuance, except that this section may only take effect upon the commencement of a calendar year."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by title V of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 1, 1999, except as otherwise provided, with provision that Secretary may implement amendment before such date, except to extent that such amendment provides otherwise, and with savings provision, see section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §507(d), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2526, provided that: "The amendments under this section [amending this section] are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §508(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2529, provided that: "The amendments made by this paragraph [probably means this subsection, amending this section] are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §524(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2568, provided that: "The amendment made by this paragraph [probably means this section, amending this section] is made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §514(f), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2548, provided that: "Section 402 of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99, see note below], and the amendments made by such section shall cease to be effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]. Notwithstanding the inclusion in this Act [see Tables for classification] of any provision extending the effectiveness of such section or such amendments, such provision included in this Act shall not take effect."

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–330 effective Oct. 1, 1997, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 107 of Pub. L. 104–330, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4101 of Title 25, Indians.

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(f), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 43, as amended by Pub. L. 104–204, title II, §201(c)(2), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2893; Pub. L. 105–65, title II, §201(d)(2), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1364, provided that: "This section [amending this section, sections 1437d to 1437f, 1437n, 1437v, and 13615 of this title, and section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1437 and 1437d of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1437f of this title] shall be effective upon the enactment of this Act [Jan. 26, 1996] and only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §103(a)(3), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3684, provided that: "To the extent that the amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section] result in additional costs under this title [see Tables for classification], such amendments shall be effective only to the extent that amounts to cover such additional costs are provided in advance in appropriation Acts."

Amendment by subtitles B through F of title VI [§§621–685] of Pub. L. 102–550 applicable upon expiration of 6-month period beginning Oct. 28, 1992, except as otherwise provided, see section 13642 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §573(f), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4237, provided that: "The Secretary shall issue regulations implementing subsections (a) and (d) [sic] the amendments made by this section [amending this section] not later than the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990]. The regulations may not take effect until after September 30, 1991."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–358, §6, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may carry out programs to provide lower income housing on Indian reservations and other Indian areas only in accordance with the amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 1437aa to 1437ee of this title, amending this section and section 1437c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437 of this title], commencing on whichever of the following occurs earlier:

"(1) Effective date of regulations.—The effective date of regulations issued under section 205 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former section 1437ee of this title].

"(2) 90 days.—The expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 29, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §202(c), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1106, which provided that amendment by section 202(a) of Pub. L. 96–153 (amending this section and section 1437f of this title) shall become effective on Jan. 1, 1980, except that the amount of the tenant contribution required of families whose occupancy of housing units assisted under this chapter commenced prior to that date shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of this chapter in effect on Dec. 31, 1979, so long as such occupancy was continuous thereafter, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(h)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 404.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–557 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 206(h) of Pub. L. 95–557, set out as a note under section 1437c of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on such date or dates as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall prescribe, but not later than eighteen months after Aug. 22, 1974, except that all of the provisions of par. (1) shall become effective on the same date, see section 201(b) of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

The Department of Housing and Urban Development adopted an interim rule, 24 CFR 860.409, Sept. 26, 1975, 40 F.R. 44326, which provided: "The effective date of section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [par. (1) of this section], shall be the date that these regulations [sections 860.401 to 860.409 of Title 24, CFR] are published in the Federal Register (September 26, 1975)."

Regulations

Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title II, §240, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 789, provided that: "The Secretary shall establish by notice such requirements as may be necessary to implement section 78001 of title LXXVIII of the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (Public Law 114–94) [amending this section and section 1437f of this title], and the notice shall take effect upon issuance: Provided, That the Secretary shall commence rulemaking based on the initial notice no later than the expiration of the 6-month period following issuance of the notice and the rulemaking shall allow for the opportunity for public comment."

Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title II, §243, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 637, provided that: "The Secretary shall establish by notice such requirements as may be necessary to implement sections 210, 212, 220, 238, and 242 [amending this section and sections 1437f and 1437n of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437f of this title] under this title and the notice shall take effect upon issuance: Provided, That the Secretary shall commence rulemaking based on the initial notice no later than the expiration of the 6-month period following issuance of the notice and the rulemaking shall allow for the opportunity for public comment."

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(b)(2), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 41, provided that:

"(A) In general.—The Secretary shall, by regulation, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, establish such requirements as may be necessary to carry out section 3(a)(2)(A) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(a)(2)(A)], as amended by paragraph (1).

"(B) Transition rule.—Prior to the issuance of final regulations under paragraph (1), a public housing agency may implement ceiling rents, which shall be not less than the monthly costs to operate the housing of the agency and—

"(i) determined in accordance with section 3(a)(2)(A) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as that section existed on the day before enactment of this Act [Jan. 26, 1996];

"(ii) equal to the 95th percentile of the rent paid for a unit of comparable size by tenants in the same public housing project or a group of comparable projects totaling 50 units or more; or

"(iii) equal to the fair market rent for the area in which the unit is located."

[Section 402(b)(2) of Pub. L. 104–99, set out above, effective Jan. 26, 1996, and only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, and to cease to be effective Oct. 21, 1998, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments notes above.]

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §191, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3750, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue any final regulations necessary to implement the provisions of this title [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this title not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], except as expressly provided otherwise in this title and the amendments made by this title. Such regulations shall be issued after notice and opportunity for public comment pursuant to the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code (notwithstanding subsections (a)(2), (b)(B), and (d)(3) of such section)."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §508(b)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2528, provided that: "Notwithstanding the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section], the provisions of the undesignated paragraph at the end of section 3(c)(3) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [see 1998 and 1992 Amendment notes above], as such section was in effect immediately before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], shall continue to apply until the effective date under section 503 of this Act [set out as a note under section 1437 of this title]. Notwithstanding the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section], nor the applicability under section 402(f) of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99] (42 U.S.C. 1437a note) of the amendments made by such section 402 [see Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note set out above], nor any repeal of such section 402(f), the provisions of section 3(b)(5)(G) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)(5)(G)), as such section was in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act, shall continue to apply until the effective date under section 503 of this Act."

Construction of 2020 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–260, div. Q, title I, §101(j), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2165, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 1437f, 1484, 1485, 8013, and 12905 of this title, and section 1701q of Title 12, Banks and Banking] shall be construed to preempt or limit the applicability of any State or local law relating to the installation and maintenance of carbon monoxide alarms or detectors in housing that requires standards that are more stringent than the standards described in the amendments made by this section."

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Carbon Monoxide Alarms or Detectors in Federally Assisted Housing

Pub. L. 116–260, div. Q, title I, §101(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2162, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—

"(1) carbon monoxide alarms are not required by federally assisted housing programs, when not required by State or local codes;

"(2) numerous federally assisted housing residents have lost their lives due to carbon monoxide poisoning;

"(3) the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning occur immediately and can result in death in a matter of minutes;

"(4) carbon monoxide exposure can cause permanent brain damage, life-threatening cardiac complications, fetal death or miscarriage, and death, among other harmful health conditions;

"(5) carbon monoxide poisoning is especially dangerous for unborn babies, children, elderly individuals, and individuals with cardiovascular disease, among others with chronic health conditions;

"(6) the majority of the 4,600,000 families receiving Federal housing assistance are families with young children, elderly individuals, or individuals with disabilities, making them especially vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning;

"(7) more than 400 people die and 50,000 additional people visit the emergency room annually as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning;

"(8) carbon monoxide poisoning is entirely preventable and early detection is possible with the use of carbon monoxide alarms;

"(9) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that carbon monoxide poisoning is entirely preventable and recommends the installation of carbon monoxide alarms;

"(10) the Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes of the Department of Housing and Urban Development recommends the installation of carbon monoxide alarms as a best practice to keep families and individuals safe and to protect health; and

"(11) in order to safeguard the health and well-being of tenants in federally assisted housing, the Federal Government should consider best practices for primary prevention of carbon monoxide-related incidents."

Guidance on Home Health Hazard Education

Pub. L. 116–260, div. Q, title I, §101(g), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2165, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall provide guidance to public housing agencies (as defined in section 3(b)(6) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)(6)) on how to educate tenants on health hazards in the home, including to carbon monoxide poisoning, lead poisoning, asthma induced by housing-related allergens, and other housing-related preventable outcomes, to help advance primary prevention and prevent future deaths and other harms."

Adjustments to Operating Formula Due to Impact on Public Housing Revenues

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(g)(1), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 791, provided that: "If the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determines that the application of subsections (a) through (e) of this section [amending this section and section 1437f of this title] results in a material and disproportionate reduction in the rental income of certain public housing agencies during the first year in which such subsections are implemented, the Secretary may make appropriate adjustments in the formula income for such year of those agencies experiencing such a reduction."

Transitional Ceiling Rents

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §519(d), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2561, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a[(a)](1)), during the period ending upon the later of the implementation of the formulas established pursuant to subsections (d)(2) and (e)(2) of [section 9 of] such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437g(d)(2), (e)(2)] (as amended by this section) and October 1, 1999, a public housing agency may take any of the following actions with respect to public housing:

"(1) New provisions.—An agency may—

"(A) adopt and apply ceiling rents that reflect the reasonable market value of the housing, but that are not less than—

"(i) for housing other than housing predominantly for elderly or disabled families (or both), 75 percent of the monthly cost to operate the housing of the agency;

"(ii) for housing predominantly for elderly or disabled families (or both), 100 percent of the monthly cost to operate the housing of the agency; and

"(iii) the monthly cost to make a deposit to a replacement reserve (in the sole discretion of the public housing agency); and

"(B) allow families to pay ceiling rents referred to in subparagraph (A), unless, with respect to any family, the ceiling rent established under this paragraph would exceed the amount payable as rent by that family under paragraph (1).

"(2) Ceiling rents from balanced budget act, I.—An agency may utilize the authority under section 3(a)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(a)(2)), as in effect immediately before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], notwithstanding any amendment to such section made by this Act.

"(3) Transitional ceiling rents for balanced budget act, I.—An agency may utilize the authority with respect to ceiling rents under section 402(b)(2) of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99] (42 U.S.C. 1437a note), notwithstanding any other provision of law (including the expiration of the applicability of such section or the repeal of such section)."

Certain Payments Made to Victims of Nazi Persecution Disregarded in Determining Eligibility for and Amount of Need-Based Benefits and Services

Pub. L. 103–286, §1, Aug. 1, 1994, 108 Stat. 1450, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Payments made to individuals because of their status as victims of Nazi persecution shall be disregarded in determining eligibility for and the amount of benefits or services to be provided under any Federal or federally assisted program which provides benefits or services based, in whole or in part, on need.

"(b) Applicability.—Subsection (a) shall apply to determinations made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1994] with respect to payments referred to in subsection (a) made before, on, or after such date.

"(c) Prohibition Against Recovery of Value of Excessive Benefits or Services Provided Due to Failure to Take Account of Certain Payments Made to Victims of Nazi Persecution.—No officer, agency, or instrumentality of any government may attempt to recover the value of excessive benefits or services provided before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1994] under any program referred to in subsection (a) by reason of any failure to take account of payments referred to in subsection (a).

"(d) Notice to Individuals Who May Have Been Denied Eligibility for Benefits or Services Due to the Failure to Disregard Certain Payments Made to Victims of Nazi Persecution.—Any agency of government that has not disregarded payments referred to in subsection (a) in determining eligibility for a program referred to in subsection (a) shall make a good faith effort to notify any individual who may have been denied eligibility for benefits or services under the program of the potential eligibility of the individual for such benefits or services.

"(e) Repayment of Additional Rent Paid Under HUD Housing Programs Because of Failure to Disregard Reparation Payments.—

"(1) Authority.—To the extent that amounts are provided in appropriation Acts for payments under this subsection, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall make payments to qualified individuals in the amount determined under paragraph (3).

"(2) Qualified individuals.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'qualified individual' means an individual who—

"(A) has received any payment because of the individual's status as a victim of Nazi persecution;

"(B) at any time during the period beginning on February 1, 1993 and ending on April 30, 1993, resided in a dwelling unit in housing assisted under any program for housing assistance of the Department of Housing and Urban Development under which rent payments for the unit were determined based on or taking into consideration the income of the occupant of the unit;

"(C) paid rent for such dwelling unit for any portion of the period referred to in subparagraph (B) in an amount determined in a manner that did not disregard the payment referred to in subparagraph (A); and

"(D) has submitted a claim for payment under this subsection as required under paragraph (4).

The term does not include the successors, heirs, or estate of an individual meeting the requirements of the preceding sentence.

"(3) Amount of payment.—The amount of a payment under this subsection for a qualified individual shall be equal to the difference between—

"(A) the sum of the amount of rent paid by the individual for rental of the dwelling unit of the individual assisted under a program for housing assistance of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, for the period referred to in paragraph (2)(B), and

"(B) the sum of the amount of rent that would have been payable by the individual for rental of such dwelling unit for such period if the payments referred to in paragraph (2)(A) were disregarded in determining the amount of rent payable by the individual for such period.

"(4) Submission of claims.—A payment under this subsection for an individual may be made only pursuant to a written claim for such payment by such individual submitted to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the form and manner required by the Secretary before—

"(A) in the case of any individual notified by the Department of Housing and Urban Development orally or in writing that such specific individual is eligible for a payment under this subsection, the expiration of the 6-month period beginning on the date of receipt of such notice; and

"(B) in the case of any other individual, the expiration of the 12-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1994]."

Inapplicability of Certain 1992 Amendments to Indian Public Housing

Pub. L. 102–550, title VI, §626, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3820, provided that: "The amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle B (§§621–626) of title VI of Pub. L. 102–550, amending this section and sections 1437c to 1437f, 1437l, 1437o, 1438, and 8013 of this title] shall not apply with respect to lower income housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Budget Compliance

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §573(e), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4237, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) [amending this section] shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriations Acts."

Median Area Income

Pub. L. 100–242, title V, §567, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1948, provided that: "For purposes of calculating the median income for any area that is not within a metropolitan statistical area (as established by the Office of Management and Budget) for programs under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.], the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], or title V of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture (as appropriate) shall use whichever of the following is higher:

"(1) the median income of the county in which the area is located; or

"(2) the median income of the entire nonmetropolitan area of the State."

Determination of Rent Payable by Tenants Occupying Assisted Housing; Delayed Application or Staged Implementation of Amended Provisions

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §206(d)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1180, provided that:

"(1) The following provisions of this paragraph apply to determinations of the rent to be paid by or the contribution required of a tenant occupying housing assisted under the authorities amended by this section [amending this section] or subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981 [amending sections 1437 to 1437d, 1437f, 1437g, 1437i, 1437j, and 1437l of this title and sections 1701s and 1715z–1 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1701s of Title 12] (hereinafter referred to as 'assisted housing') on or before the effective date of regulations implementing this section:

"(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (hereinafter referred to as the 'Secretary') may provide for delayed applicability, or for staged implementation, of the procedures for determining rents or contributions, as appropriate, required by such provisions if the Secretary determines that immediate application of such procedures would be impracticable, would violate the terms of existing leases, or would result in extraordinary hardship for any class of tenants.

"(B) The Secretary shall provide that the rent or contribution, as appropriate, required to be paid by a tenant shall not increase as a result of the amendments made by this section and subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981, and as a result of any other provision of Federal law or regulation, by more than 10 per centum during any twelve-month period, unless the increase above 10 per centum is attributable to increases in income which are unrelated to such amendments, law, or regulation.

"(2) Tenants of assisted housing other than those referred to in paragraph (1) shall be subject to immediate rent payment or contribution determinations in accordance with applicable law and without regard to the provisions of paragraph (1), but the Secretary shall provide that the rent or contribution payable by any such tenant who is occupying assisted housing on the effective date of any provision of Federal law or regulation shall not increase, as a result of any such provision of Federal law or regulation, by more than 10 per centum during any twelve-month period, unless the increase above 10 per centum is attributable to increases in income which are unrelated to such law or regulation.

"(3) In the case of tenants receiving rental assistance under section 521(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 [section 1490a(a)(1) of this title] on the effective date of this section [Nov. 30, 1983] whose assistance is converted to assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [section 1437f of this title] on or after such date, the Secretary shall provide that the rent or contribution payable by any such tenant shall not increase, as a result of such conversion, by more than 10 per centum during any twelve-month period, unless the increase above 10 per centum is attributable to increases in income which are unrelated to such conversion or to any provision of Federal law or regulation.

"(4)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the case of the conversion of any assistance under section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s], section 236(f)(2) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715z–1(f)(2)], or section 23 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [section 1421b of this title] (as in effect before the date of the enactment of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [Aug. 22, 1974]) to assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, any increase in rent payments or contributions resulting from such conversion, and from the amendments made by this section of any tenant benefiting from such assistance who is sixty-two years of age or older may not exceed 10 per centum per annum.

"(B) In the case of any such conversion of assistance occurring on or after October 1, 1981, and before the date of the enactment of this section [Nov. 30, 1983], the rental payments due after such date of enactment by any tenant benefiting from such assistance who was sixty-two years of age or older on the date of such conversion shall be computed as if the tenant's rental payment or contribution had, on the date of conversion, been the lesser of the actual rental payment or contribution required, or 25 per centum of the tenant's income.

"(5) The limitations on increases in rent contained in paragraphs (1)(B), (2), (3), and (4) shall remain in effect and may not be changed or superseded except by another provision of law which amends this subsection.

"(6) As used in this subsection, the term 'contribution' means an amount representing 30 per centum of a tenant's monthly adjusted income, 10 per centum of the tenant's monthly income, or the designated amount of welfare assistance, whichever amount is used to determine the monthly assistance payment for the tenant under section 3(a) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [subsec. (a) of this section].

"(7) The provisions of subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981 shall be implemented and fully applicable to all affected tenants no later than five years following the date of enactment of such amendments [Aug. 13, 1981], except that the Secretary may extend the time for implementation if the Secretary determines that full implementation would result in extraordinary hardship for any class of tenants."

Prior provisions for determining rent payable by tenants occupying assisted housing under and authorizing delayed application or staged implementation of provisions amended by section 322 of Pub. L. 97–35 were contained in Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(i), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 404, which was repealed by Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §206(e)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1181.

Establishment of Increased Monthly Rental Charge for Family Occupying Low-Income Housing Unit; Adjustment Factors

Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §202, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 667, provided that: "To the extent that section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended by section 201(a) of this Act [par. (1) of this section], would require the establishment of an increased monthly rental charge for any family which occupies a low-income housing unit as of the effective date of such section 3(1) (other than by reason of the provisions relating to welfare assistance payments) [see Effective Date note set out above], the required adjustment shall be made, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, as follows: (A) the first adjustment shall not exceed $5 and shall become effective as of the month following the month of the first review of the family's income pursuant to section 6(c)(2) of such Act [section 1437d(c)(2) of this title] which occurs at least six months after the effective date of such section 3(1), and (B) subsequent adjustments, each of which shall not exceed $5, shall be made at six-month intervals over whatever period is necessary to effect the full required increase in the family's rental charge."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "or".

3 So in original. Probably should be " 'extremely low-income families' ".

4 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.

5 So in original. Probably should be "assistance under".

6 So in original. Probably should be paragraph "(3)(A)(ii)".

7 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.

§1437a–1. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §582(a)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643

Section, Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §519, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4202, authorized public housing rent waiver for police officers. See section 1437a(a)(4) of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 1, 1999, except as otherwise provided, with provision that Secretary may implement the repeal before such date, and with savings provision, see section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

§1437b. Loans and commitments to make loans for low-income housing projects

(a) Authority of Secretary; interest rates; repayment date; use as security for obligations of public housing agency

The Secretary may make loans or commitments to make loans to public housing agencies to help finance or refinance the development, acquisition, or operation of low-income housing projects by such agencies. Any contract for such loans and any amendment to a contract for such loans shall provide that such loans shall bear interest at a rate specified by the Secretary which shall not be less than a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury taking into consideration the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States with remaining periods to maturity comparable to the average maturities of such loans, plus one-eighth of 1 per centum. Such loans shall be secured in such manner and shall be repaid within such period not exceeding forty years, or not exceeding forty years from the date of the bonds evidencing the loan, as the Secretary may determine. The Secretary may require loans or commitments to make loans under this section to be pledged as security for obligations issued by a public housing agency in connection with a low-income housing project.

(b) Issuance of obligations by Secretary; limitation on amounts; forms and denominations; terms and conditions; purchase, establishment of maturities and rates of interest, and sale by Secretary of the Treasury

The Secretary may issue and have outstanding at any one time notes and other obligations for purchase by the Secretary of the Treasury in an amount which will not, unless authorized by the President, exceed $1,500,000,000. For the purpose of determining obligations incurred to make loans pursuant to this chapter against any limitation otherwise applicable with respect to such loans, the Secretary shall estimate the maximum amount to be loaned at any one time pursuant to loan agreements then outstanding with public housing agencies. Such notes or other obligations shall be in such forms and denominations and shall be subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Secretary with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury. The notes or other obligations issued under this subsection shall have such maturities and bear such rate or rates of interest as shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to purchase any notes or other obligations of the Secretary issued hereunder and for such purpose is authorized to use as a public debt transaction the proceeds from the sale of any securities issued under chapter 31 of title 31, and the purposes for which securities may be issued under such chapter are extended to include any purchases of such obligations. The Secretary of the Treasury may at any time sell any of the notes or other obligations acquired by him under this section. All redemptions, purchases, and sales by the Secretary of the Treasury of such notes or other obligations shall be treated as public debt transactions of the United States.

(c) Public and Indian housing financing reforms

(1) At such times as the Secretary may determine, and in accordance with such accounting and other procedures as the Secretary may prescribe, each loan made by the Secretary under subsection (a) that has any principal amount outstanding or any interest amount outstanding or accrued shall be forgiven; and the terms and conditions of any contract, or any amendment to a contract, for such loan with respect to any promise to repay such principal and interest shall be canceled. Such cancellation shall not affect any other terms and conditions of such contract, which shall remain in effect as if the cancellation had not occurred. This paragraph shall not apply to any loan the repayment of which was not to be made using annual contributions, or to any loan all or part of the proceeds of which are due a public housing agency from contractors or others.

(2)(A) On April 7, 1986, each note or other obligation issued by the Secretary to the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subsection (b), together with any promise to repay the principal and unpaid interest that has accrued on each note or obligation, shall be forgiven; and any other term or condition specified by each such obligation shall be canceled.

(B) On September 30, 1986, and on any subsequent September 30, each such note or other obligation issued by the Secretary to the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subsection (b) during the fiscal year ending on such date, together with any promise to repay the principal and unpaid interest that has accrued on each note or obligation, shall be forgiven; and any other term or condition specified by each such obligation shall be canceled.

(3) Any amount of budget authority (and contract authority) that becomes available during any fiscal year as a result of the forgiveness of any loan, note, or obligation under this subsection shall be rescinded.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §4, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 656; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §203(b)(1), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2229; Pub. L. 99–272, title III, §3004, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 102; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §572(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4236.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 4 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 889, as amended, provided for assistance of officers, etc., of other agencies and transfer of property to the Authority and was classified to section 1404 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–625 substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–272 added subsec. (c).

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "chapter 31 of title 31" for "the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended" and "such chapter" for "such Act".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35 substituted reference to lower income for reference to low-income in two places.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Carryover of Amounts of Budget Authority; Availability as Appropriation of Funds for Grants

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(g) [H.R. 5313, title I], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–242, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(g) [H.R. 5313, title I], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–242; Pub. L. 100–202, §106, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–433, provided in part: "That the budget authority obligated under contracts for annual contributions shall be increased above amounts heretofore provided in appropriations Acts by $7,805,668,000: Provided further, That any part of the amount of the increase in budget authority provided for in the immediately foregoing proviso that is available under this Act for public housing development and acquisition costs or which is to be used for amendments for such costs, shall be available as an appropriation of funds, to remain available until expended, for grants, which are hereby authorized in lieu of loans under section 4(a) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437b), and which the Secretary may make on substantially the same terms (except for repayment unless repayment is a properly imposed sanction) as those heretofore set forth in annual contributions contracts for loans and annual contributions: Provided further, That during 1987 and thereafter, any amounts of budget authority which are carried over from a prior year, or which are otherwise available for obligation, and which are available for public housing development and acquisition costs, together with any amounts of budget authority which are to be used for amendments for such costs, in accordance with any Act, shall also be made available as an appropriation of funds for grants, under the same terms as those applying under the immediately preceding proviso".

§1437c. Contributions for low-income housing projects

(a) Contract authorization; amounts; use as security for obligations of public housing agency; use of existing structures

(1) The Secretary may make annual contributions to public housing agencies to assist in achieving and maintaining the lower income character of their projects. The Secretary shall embody the provisions for such annual contributions in a contract guaranteeing their payment. The contribution payable annually under this section shall in no case exceed a sum equal to the annual amount of principal and interest payable on obligations issued by the public housing agency to finance the development or acquisition cost of the lower income project involved. Annual contributions payable under this section shall be pledged, if the Secretary so requires, as security for obligations issued by a public housing agency to assist the development or acquisition of the project to which annual contributions relate and shall be paid over a period not to exceed 40 years.

(2) The Secretary may make contributions (in the form of grants) to public housing agencies to cover the development cost of public housing projects. The contract under which such contributions shall be made shall specify the amount of capital contributions required for each project to which the contract pertains, and that the terms and conditions of such contract shall remain in effect for a 40-year period.

(3) The amount of contributions that would be established for a newly constructed project by a public housing agency designed to accommodate a number of families of a given size and kind may be established under this section for a project by such public housing agency that would provide housing for the comparable number, sizes, and kinds of families through the acquisition and rehabilitation, or use under lease, of structures that are suitable for low-income housing use and obtained in the local market.

(b) Maximum amount of contributions; regulations; criteria for rates of contribution

The Secretary may prescribe regulations fixing the maximum contributions available under different circumstances, giving consideration to cost, location, size, rent-paying ability of prospective tenants, or other factors bearing upon the amounts and periods of assistance needed to achieve and maintain low rentals. Such regulations may provide for rates of contribution based upon development, acquisition, or operation costs, number of dwelling units, number of persons housed, interest charges, or other appropriate factors.

(c) Limitation on aggregate contractual contributions; contracts for preliminary loans; payments of annual contributions; limitations on specific authorities

(1) The Secretary may enter into contracts for annual contributions aggregating not more than $7,875,049,000 per annum, which amount shall be increased by $1,494,400,000 on October 1, 1980, and by $906,985,000 on October 1, 1981. The additional authority to enter into such contracts provided on or after October 1, 1980, shall be effective only in such amounts as may be approved in appropriation Acts. In addition, the aggregate amount which may be obligated over the duration of the contracts may not exceed $31,200,000,000 with respect to the additional authority provided on October 1, 1980, and $18,087,370,000 with respect to the additional authority provided on October 1, 1981.

(2) The Secretary shall enter into only such new contracts for preliminary loans as are consistent with the number of dwelling units for which contracts for annual contributions may be entered into.

(3) The full faith and credit of the United States is solemnly pledged to the payment of all annual contributions contracted for pursuant to this section, and there are hereby authorized to be appropriated in each fiscal year, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the amounts necessary to provide for such payments.

(4) All payments of annual contributions pursuant to this section shall be made out of any funds available for purposes of this chapter when such payments are due, except that funds obtained through the issuance of obligations pursuant to section 1437b(b) of this title (including repayments or other realizations of the principal of loans made out of such funds) shall not be available for the payment of such annual contributions.

(5) During such period as the Secretary may prescribe for starting construction, the Secretary may approve the conversion of public housing development authority for use under section 1437g of this title or for use for the acquisition and rehabilitation of property to be used in public housing, if the public housing agency, after consultation with the unit of local government, certifies that such assistance would be more effectively used for such purpose, and if the total number of units assisted will not be less than 90 per centum of the units covered by the original reservation.

(6) The aggregate amount of budget authority which may be obligated for contracts for annual contributions and for grants under section 1437o of this title is increased by $9,912,928,000 on October 1, 1983, and by such sums as may be approved in appropriation Acts on October 1, 1984. The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for contracts for annual contributions for assistance under section 1437f of this title, for contracts referred to in paragraphs (7)(A)(iv) and (7)(B)(iv), for grants for public housing, for comprehensive improvement assistance, and for amendments to existing contracts, is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $7,167,000,000 on October 1, 1987, and by $7,300,945,000 on October 1, 1988. The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for assistance referred to in paragraph (7) is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $16,194,000,000 on October 1, 1990, and by $14,709,400,000 on October 1, 1991. The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for assistance referred to in paragraph (7) is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $14,710,990,520 on October 1, 1992, and by $15,328,852,122 on October 1993.

(7)(A) Using the additional budget authority provided under paragraph (6) and the balances of budget authority that become available during fiscal year 1993, the Secretary shall, to the extent approved in appropriation Acts, reserve authority to enter into obligations aggregating—

(i) for public housing grants under subsection (a)(2), not more than $830,900,800, of which amount not more than $257,320,000 shall be available for Indian housing;

(ii) for assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $1,977,662,720, of which $20,000,000 shall be available for 15-year contracts for project-based assistance to be used for a multicultural tenant empowerment and homeownership project located in the District of Columbia, except that assistance provided for such project shall not be considered for purposes of the percentage limitations under section 1437f(i)(2) of this title; except that not more than 49 percent of any amounts appropriated under this clause may be used for vouchers under section 1437f(o) of this title;

(iii) for comprehensive improvement assistance grants under section 1437l(k) of this title, not more than $3,100,000,000;

(iv) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for property disposition, not more than $93,032,000;

(v) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for loan management, not more than $202,000,000;

(vi) for extensions of contracts expiring under section 1437f of this title, not more than $6,746,135,000, which shall be for 5-year contracts for assistance under section 1437f of this title and for loan management assistance under such section;

(vii) for amendments to contracts under section 1437f of this title, not more than $1,350,000,000;

(viii) for public housing lease adjustments and amendments, not more than $83,055,000;

(ix) for conversions from leased housing contracts under section 1421b of this title (as in effect immediately before August 22, 1974) to assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $12,767,000; and

(x) for grants under section 1437v of this title for revitalization of severely distressed public housing, not more than $300,000,000.


(B) Using the additional budget authority provided under paragraph (6) and the balances of budget authority that become available during fiscal year 1994, the Secretary shall, to the extent approved in appropriation Acts, reserve authority to enter into obligations aggregating—

(i) for public housing grants under subsection (a)(2), not more than $865,798,634, of which amount not more than $268,127,440 shall be available for Indian housing;

(ii) for assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $2,060,724,554, of which $20,000,000 shall be available for 15-year contracts for project-based assistance to be used for a multicultural tenant empowerment and homeownership project located in the District of Columbia, except that assistance provided for such project shall not be considered for purposes of the percentage limitations under section 1437f(i)(2) of this title; except that not more than 49 percent of any amounts appropriated under this clause may be used for vouchers under section 1437f(o) of this title;

(iii) for comprehensive improvement assistance grants under section 1437l(k) of this title, not more than $3,230,200,000;

(iv) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for property disposition, not more than $96,939,344;

(v) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for loan management, not more than $210,484,000;

(vi) for extensions of contracts expiring under section 1437f of this title, not more than $7,029,472,670, which shall be for 5-year contracts for assistance under section 1437f of this title and for loan management assistance under such section;

(vii) for amendments to contracts under section 1437f of this title, not more than $1,406,700,000;

(viii) for public housing lease adjustments and amendments, not more than $86,543,310;

(ix) for conversions from leased housing contracts under section 1421b of this title (as in effect immediately before August 22, 1974) to assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $13,303,214; and

(x) for grants under section 1437v of this title for revitalization of severely distressed public housing, not more than $312,600,000.


(C)(i) Any amount available for the conversion of a project to assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title, if not required for such purpose, shall be used for assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title.

(ii) Any amount available for assistance under section 1437f of this title for property disposition, if not required for such purpose, shall be used for assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title.

(8) Any amount available for Indian housing under subsection (a) that is recaptured shall be used only for such housing.

(d) Scope of contracts for loans or annual contributions

Any contract for loans or annual contributions, or both, entered into by the Secretary with a public housing agency, may cover one or more than one low-income housing project owned by such public housing agency; in the event the contract covers two or more projects, such projects may, for any of the purposes of this chapter and of such contract (including, but not limited to, the determination of the amount of the loan, annual contributions, or payments in lieu of taxes, specified in such contract), be treated collectively as one project.

(e) Local determination of need as prerequisite for contracts for preliminary loans, and contracts for loans or annual contributions; notice

In recognition that there should be local determination of the need for low-income housing to meet needs not being adequately met by private enterprise—

(1) the Secretary shall not make any contract with a public housing agency for preliminary loans (all of which shall be repaid out of any moneys which become available to such agency for the development of the projects involved) for surveys and planning in respect to any low-income housing projects (i) unless the governing body of the locality involved has by resolution approved the application of the public housing agency for such preliminary loan; and (ii) unless the public housing agency has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Secretary that there is need for such low-income housing which is not being met by private enterprise; and

(2) the Secretary shall not make any contract for loans (other than preliminary loans) or for contributions pursuant to this chapter unless the governing body of the locality involved has entered into an agreement with the public housing agency providing for the local cooperation required by the Secretary pursuant to this chapter; the Secretary shall require that each such agreement shall provide that, notwithstanding any order, judgment, or decree of any court (including any settlement order), before making any amounts that are provided pursuant to any contract for contributions under this subchapter available for use for the development of any housing or other property not previously used as public housing, the public housing agency shall (A) notify the chief executive officer (or other appropriate official) of the unit of general local government in which the public housing for which such amounts are to be so used is located (or to be located) of such use, and (B) pursuant to the request of such unit of general local government, provide such information as may reasonably be requested by such unit of general local government regarding the public housing to be so assisted (except to the extent otherwise prohibited by law).

(f) Modification by Secretary of terms of contracts, etc.; limitations; amendment or supersedure of contracts for annual contributions or loans

Subject to the specific limitations or standards in this chapter governing the terms of sales, rentals, leases, loans, contracts for annual contributions, or other agreements, the Secretary may, whenever he deems it necessary or desirable in the fulfillment of the purposes of this chapter, consent to the modification, with respect to rate of interest, time of payment of any installment of principal or interest, security, amount of annual contribution, or any other term, of any contract or agreement of any kind to which the Secretary is a party. When the Secretary finds that it would promote economy or be in the financial interest of the Federal Government or is necessary to assure or maintain the lower income character of the project or projects involved, any contract heretofore or hereafter made for annual contributions, loans, or both, may be amended or superseded by a contract entered into by mutual agreement between the public housing agency and the Secretary. Contracts may not be amended or superseded in a manner which would impair the rights of the holders of any outstanding obligations of the public housing agency involved for which annual contributions have been pledged. Any rule of law contrary to this provision shall be deemed inapplicable.

(g) Pledge of annual contributions as guarantee of payment of obligations issued by public housing agency; exception

In addition to the authority of the Secretary under subsection (a) to pledge annual contributions as security for obligations issued by a public housing agency, the Secretary is authorized to pledge annual contributions as a guarantee of payment by a public housing agency of all principal and interest on obligations issued by it to assist the development or acquisition of the project to which the annual contributions relate, except that no obligation shall be guaranteed under this subsection if the income thereon is exempt from Federal taxation.

(h) Audits

(1) By Secretary and Comptroller General

Each contract for contributions for any assistance under this chapter to a public housing agency shall provide that the Secretary, the Inspector General of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall, for the purpose of audit and examination, have access to any books, documents, papers, and records of the public housing agency that are pertinent to this chapter and to its operations with respect to financial assistance under the this 1 chapter.

(2) Withholding of amounts for audits under Single Audit Act

The Secretary may, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, arrange for and pay the costs of an audit required under chapter 75 of title 31. In such circumstances, the Secretary may withhold, from assistance otherwise payable to the agency under this chapter, amounts sufficient to pay for the reasonable costs of conducting an acceptable audit, including, when appropriate, the reasonable costs of accounting services necessary to place the agency's books and records in auditable condition. As agreed to by the Secretary and the Inspector General, the Inspector General may arrange for an audit under this paragraph.

(i) Prohibition on use of funds

None of the funds made available to the Department of Housing and Urban Development to carry out this chapter, which are obligated to State or local governments, public housing agencies, housing finance agencies, or other public or quasi-public housing agencies, shall be used to indemnify contractors or subcontractors of the government or agency against costs associated with judgments of infringement of intellectual property rights.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §5, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 656; amended Pub. L. 94–375, §2(a), (b), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1067; Pub. L. 95–24, title I, §101(a), Apr. 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 95–128, title II, §201(a), (b), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1128; Pub. L. 95–557, title II, §206(a), (b), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 95–619, title II, §251(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3235; Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §201(a), (b), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §§201(a), 210, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1624, 1636; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §§321(a)–(c), 322(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 398, 402; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §201(b)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§101, 112(a), (b)(1), 113–115, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1820, 1823-1825; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 100–358, §§3, 5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 680, 681; Pub. L. 101–625, title IV, §417(a), title V, §§571, 572(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4161, 4235, 4236; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§101, 111(a), title VI, §624, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3681, 3687, 3819; Pub. L. 104–19, title I, §1002(c), July 27, 1995, 109 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(b)(2), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4042; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§510, 518(a)(1), (b), 522(b)(1), 566, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2531, 2551, 2564, 2632.)

References in Text

Section 1437o of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–625, title II, §289(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128.

Section 1437l of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(A)(iii), (B)(iii), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §522(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Sta