[USC02] 10 USC Ch. 111: SUPPORT OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION
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10 USC Ch. 111: SUPPORT OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART III—TRAINING AND EDUCATION

CHAPTER 111—SUPPORT OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Sec.
2191.
Graduate fellowships.
2192.
Improvement of education in technical fields: general authority regarding education in science, mathematics, and engineering.
2192a.
Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation (SMART) Defense Education Program.
2192b.
Program on enhancement of preparation of dependents of members of armed forces for careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
2193.
Improvement of education in technical fields: grants for higher education in science and mathematics.
2193a.
Improvement of education in technical fields: general authority for support of elementary and secondary education in science and mathematics.
2193b.
Improvement of education in technical fields: program for support of elementary and secondary education in science, mathematics, and technology.
2194.
Education partnerships.
2195.
Department of Defense cooperative education programs.
2196.
Manufacturing engineering education: grant program.1

        

2197.
Manufacturing experts in the classroom.
2198.
Management training program in Japanese language and culture.
2199.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

2019Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, §211(b), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1255, added item 2192b.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XI, §1104(d)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3450, added item 2192a.

1999Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §580(d)(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 633, added items 2192, 2193, 2193a, and 2193b and struck out former items 2192 "Science, mathematics, and engineering education" and 2193 "Science and mathematics education improvement program".

1992Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4238(b)(2), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2694, substituted "experts" for "managers" in item 2197.

1991Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §§825(a)(2), 828(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1442, 1444, struck out item 2196 "Definition" and added items 2196 to 2199.

1990Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(2)(A), (C), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1523, substituted "SUPPORT OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION" for "NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS" in chapter heading and added items 2192 to 2196.

Encouragement of Contractor Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Programs

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §862, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1521, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall develop programs and incentives to ensure that Department of Defense contractors take appropriate steps to—

"(1) enhance undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral programs in science, technology, engineering and math (in this section referred to as 'STEM' disciplines);

"(2) make investments, such as programming and curriculum development, in STEM programs within elementary and secondary schools;

"(3) encourage employees to volunteer in Title I schools in order to enhance STEM education and programs;

"(4) make personnel available to advise and assist faculty at such colleges and universities in the performance of STEM research and disciplines critical to the functions of the Department of Defense;

"(5) establish partnerships between the offeror and historically Black colleges and universities and minority institutions for the purpose of training students in scientific disciplines;

"(6) award scholarships and fellowships, and establish cooperative work-education programs in scientific disciplines; or

"(7) conduct recruitment activities at historically black colleges and universities and other minority-serving institutions or offer internships or apprenticeships.

"(b) Implementation.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Under Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] a report on the steps taken to implement the requirements of this section."

1 Section catchline amended by Pub. L. 114–328 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

§2191. Graduate fellowships

(a) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations providing for the award of fellowships to citizens and nationals of the United States who agree to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study designated by the Secretary to be of priority interest to the Department of Defense.

(b) A fellowship awarded pursuant to regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall be known as a "National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship".

(c) National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowships shall be awarded solely on the basis of academic ability. The Secretary shall take all appropriate actions to encourage applications for such fellowships of persons who are members of groups (including minority groups, women, and disabled persons) which historically have been underrepresented in science and technology fields. Recipients shall be selected on the basis of a nationwide competition. The award of a fellowship under this section may not be predicated on the geographic region in which the recipient lives or the geographic region in which the recipient will pursue an advanced degree.

(d) The regulations prescribed under this section shall include—

(1) the criteria for award of fellowships;

(2) the procedures for selecting recipients;

(3) the basis for determining the amount of a fellowship; and

(4) the maximum amount that may be awarded to an individual during an academic year.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §843(d)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1516.)

§2192. Improvement of education in technical fields: general authority regarding education in science, mathematics, and engineering

(a) The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, shall, on a continuing basis—

(1) identify actions which the Department of Defense may take to improve education in the scientific, mathematics, and engineering skills necessary to meet the long-term national defense needs of the United States for personnel proficient in such skills; and

(2) establish and conduct programs to carry out such actions.


(b)(1) In furtherance of the authority of the Secretary of Defense under any provision of this chapter or any other provision of law to support educational programs in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, the Secretary of Defense may, unless otherwise specified in such provision—

(A) enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with eligible entities;

(B) make grants of financial assistance to eligible entities;

(C) provide cash awards and other items to eligible entities;

(D) accept voluntary services from eligible entities; and

(E) support national competition judging, other educational event activities, and associated award ceremonies in connection with these educational programs.


(2) The Secretary of Defense may carry out the authority in paragraph (1) through the Secretaries of the military departments.

(3) In this subsection:

(A) The term "eligible entity" includes a department or agency of the Federal Government, a State, a political subdivision of a State, an individual, and a not-for-profit or other organization in the private sector.

(B) The term "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and any other territory or possession of the United States.


(c) The Secretary shall designate an individual within the Office of the Secretary of Defense to advise and assist the Secretary regarding matters relating to science, mathematics, and engineering education and training.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1521; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §580(d)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 633; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title II, §233, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1423; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title II, §211(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4162.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 111–383 added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

2003—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 108–136 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1999Pub. L. 106–65 amended section catchline generally. Prior to amendment, catchline read as follows: "Science, mathematics, and engineering education".

Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation (SMART) Defense Scholarship Pilot Program

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title XI, §1105, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2074, as amended by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1056(d), title XI, §1104(a)–(c), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3440, 3448, 3449; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(h)(5), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4377, which related to a pilot program to provide financial assistance for education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology skills and disciplines that were determined to be critical to the national security functions of the Department of Defense, was repealed and restated in section 2192a of this title by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XI, §1104(d)(1)(B), (e)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3450.

Department of Defense Support for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §829, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1444, directed Secretary of Defense to develop and submit to Congress a master plan for activities by Department of Defense during each of fiscal years 1993 through 1997 to support education in science, mathematics, and engineering at all levels of education in the United States, with each such plan to be developed in consultation with Secretary of Education, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1063(c), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 444.

§2192a. Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation (SMART) Defense Education Program

(a) Requirement for Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a program to provide financial assistance for education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology skills and disciplines that, as determined by the Secretary, are critical to the national security functions of the Department of Defense and are needed in the Department of Defense workforce.

(b) Financial Assistance.—(1) Under the program under this section, the Secretary of Defense may award a scholarship or fellowship in accordance with this section to a person who—

(A) is a citizen of the United States or, subject to subsection (g), a country the government of which is a party to The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) memorandum of understanding of October 24, 1995;

(B) is pursuing an associates degree, undergraduate degree, or advanced degree in a critical skill or discipline described in subsection (a) at an accredited institution of higher education; and

(C) enters into a service agreement with the Secretary of Defense as described in subsection (c).


(2) The amount of the financial assistance provided under a scholarship or fellowship awarded to a person under this subsection shall be an amount determined by the Secretary of Defense.

(3) Financial assistance provided under a scholarship or fellowship awarded under this section may be paid directly to the recipient of such scholarship or fellowship or to an administering entity for disbursement of the funds.

(c) Service Agreement for Recipients of Financial Assistance.—(1) To receive financial assistance under this section—

(A) in the case of an employee of the Department of Defense, the employee shall enter into a written agreement to continue in the employment of the department for the period of obligated service determined under paragraph (2); and

(B) in the case of a person not an employee of the Department of Defense, the person shall enter into a written agreement to accept and continue employment for the period of obligated service determined under paragraph (2)—

(i) with the Department; or

(ii) with a public or private entity or organization outside of the Department if the Secretary—

(I) is unable to find an appropriate position for the person within the Department; and

(II) determines that employment of the person with such entity or organization for the purpose of such obligated service would provide a benefit to the Department.


(2) For the purposes of this subsection, the period of obligated service for a recipient of financial assistance under this section shall be the period determined by the Secretary of Defense as being appropriate to obtain adequate service in exchange for such financial assistance. The period of service required of a recipient may not be less than the total period of pursuit of a degree that is covered by such financial assistance. The period of obligated service is in addition to any other period for which the recipient is obligated to serve in the civil service of the United States.

(3) An agreement entered into under this subsection by a person pursuing an academic degree shall include any terms and conditions that the Secretary of Defense determines necessary to protect the interests of the United States or otherwise appropriate for carrying out this section.

(d) Employment of Program Participants.—The Secretary of Defense—

(1) may, without regard to any provision of title 5 governing appointment of employees to competitive service positions within the Department of Defense, appoint to a position in the Department of Defense in the excepted service an individual who has successfully completed an academic program for which a scholarship or fellowship under this section was awarded and who, under the terms of the agreement for such scholarship or fellowship, at the time of such appointment, owes a service commitment to the Department; and

(2) may, upon satisfactory completion of 2 years of substantially continuous service by an incumbent who was appointed to an excepted service position under the authority of paragraph (1), convert the appointment of such individual, without competition, to a career or career conditional appointment.


(e) Refund for Period of Unserved Obligated Service.—(1)(A) A participant in the program under this section who is not an employee of the Department of Defense and who voluntarily fails to complete the educational program for which financial assistance has been provided under this section, or fails to maintain satisfactory academic progress as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, shall refund to the United States an appropriate amount, as determined by the Secretary.

(B) A participant in the program under this section who is an employee of the Department of Defense and who—

(i) voluntarily fails to complete the educational program for which financial assistance has been provided, or fails to maintain satisfactory academic progress as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary; or

(ii) before completion of the period of obligated service required of such participant—

(I) voluntarily terminates such participant's employment with the Department; or

(II) is removed from such participant's employment with the Department on the basis of misconduct,


shall refund the United States an appropriate amount, as determined by the Secretary.

(2) An obligation to reimburse the United States imposed under paragraph (1) is for all purposes a debt owed to the United States.

(3) The Secretary of Defense may waive, in whole or in part, a refund required under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that recovery would be against equity and good conscience or would be contrary to the best interests of the United States.

(4) A discharge in bankruptcy under title 11 that is entered less than five years after the termination of an agreement under this section does not discharge the person signing such agreement from a debt arising under such agreement or under this subsection.

(f) Relationship to Other Programs.—The Secretary of Defense shall coordinate the provision of financial assistance under the authority of this section with the provision of financial assistance under the other authorities provided in this chapter in order to maximize the benefits derived by the Department of Defense from the exercise of all such authorities.

(g) Limitation on Participation.—(1) The Secretary may not award scholarships or fellowships under this section to more than five individuals described in paragraph (2) per year.

(2) An individual described in this paragraph is an individual who—

(A) has not previously been awarded a scholarship or fellowship under the program under this section;

(B) is not a citizen of the United States; and

(C) is a citizen of a country the government of which is a party to The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) memorandum of understanding of October 24, 1995.


(h) Institution of Higher Education Defined.—In this section, the term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given such term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001).

(Added Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XI, §1104(d)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3449; amended Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title X, §1061(a)(5), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4612; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title XI, §1102(a)–(d)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2484, 2485; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XI, §1105(a)(1), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 886; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title II, §215, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3327; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title II, §212, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 767.)

Codification

Section, as added by Pub. L. 109–163, consists of text of Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title XI, §1105, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2074; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1056(d), title XI, §1104(a)–(c), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3440, 3448, 3449; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(h)(5), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4377, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2192 of this title, and was repealed by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XI, §1104(e)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3450.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–92, §212(1), inserted "or, subject to subsection (g), a country the government of which is a party to The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) memorandum of understanding of October 24, 1995" after "United States".

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 114–92, §212(2), (3), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

2014—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 113–291 amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "in the case of a person not an employee of the Department of Defense, the person shall enter into a written agreement to accept and continue employment in the Department of Defense for the period of obligated service determined under paragraph (2)."

2013—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–66 substituted "an amount determined by the Secretary of Defense" for "the amount determined by the Secretary of Defense as being necessary to pay all educational expenses incurred by that person, including tuition, fees, cost of books, laboratory expenses, equipment expenses, and expenses of room and board".

2009—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 111–84, §1102(b), substituted "The" for "Except as provided in subsection (d), the" in second sentence.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–84, §1102(a), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) provided that, under certain circumstances, the Secretary of Defense could appoint or retain a SMART program participant as an interim employee and separate such participant from employment if no appropriate permanent position was available at the end of the interim period and that the period of interim service would count towards the participant's obligated service requirements.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–84, §1102(c), struck out "The program under this section is in addition to the authorities provided in chapter 111 of this title." before "The Secretary" and substituted "the other authorities provided in this chapter" for "the authorities provided in such chapter".

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 111–84, §1102(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g) and struck out former subsec. (g). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not later than February 1, 2007, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives, the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate, and the Committee on Government Reform of the House of Representatives a plan for expanding and improving the national defense science and engineering workforce educational assistance program carried out under this section as appropriate to improve recruitment and retention to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense for its science and engineering workforce on a short-term basis and on a long-term basis."

2008—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 110–417, §1061(a)(5)(A), substituted "title 11" for "title 11, United States Code,".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–417, §1061(a)(5)(B), substituted "this title" for "title 10, United States Code".

Effect on Current Participants in SMART Pilot Program

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XI, §1104(f), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3450, provided that: "Participation in the Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation (SMART) Defense Scholarship Pilot Program under section 1105 of Public Law 108–375 [see Codification note above] by an individual who has entered into an agreement under that pilot program before the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006] shall be governed by the terms of such agreement without regard to the amendments made by this section [enacting this section, amending section 3304 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and amending and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2192 of this title]."

§2192b. Program on enhancement of preparation of dependents of members of armed forces for careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

(a) Program Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a program to—

(1) enhance the preparation of students at covered schools for careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; and

(2) provide assistance to teachers at covered schools to enhance preparation described in paragraph (1).


(b) Coordination.—In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall coordinate with the following:

(1) The Secretaries of the military departments.

(2) The Secretary of Education.

(3) The National Science Foundation.

(4) Other organizations as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate.


(c) Activities.—Activities under the program may include the following:

(1) Establishment of targeted internships and cooperative research opportunities at defense laboratories and other technical centers for students and teachers at covered schools.

(2) Establishment of scholarships and fellowships for students at covered schools.

(3) Efforts and activities that improve the quality of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics educational and training opportunities for students and teachers at covered schools, including with respect to improving the development of curricula at covered schools.

(4) Development of travel opportunities, demonstrations, mentoring programs, and informal science education for students and teachers at covered schools.


(d) Metrics.—The Secretary shall establish outcome-based metrics and internal and external assessments to evaluate the merits and benefits of activities conducted under the program with respect to the needs of the Department of Defense.

(e) Covered Schools Defined.—In this section, the term "covered schools" means elementary or secondary schools at which the Secretary determines a significant number of dependents of members of the armed forces are enrolled.

(Added Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, §211(a), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1254.)

§2193. Improvement of education in technical fields: grants for higher education in science and mathematics

(a)(1) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, carry out a program for awarding grants to students who have been accepted for enrollment in, or who are enrolled in, an institution of higher education as undergraduate or graduate students in scientific and engineering disciplines critical to the national security functions of the Department of Defense.

(2) Grant proceeds shall be disbursed on behalf of students awarded grants under this subsection to the institutions of higher education at which the students are enrolled. No grant proceeds shall be disbursed on behalf of a student until the student is enrolled at an institution of higher education.

(3) The amount of a grant awarded a student under this subsection may not exceed the student's cost of attendance.

(4) The amount of a grant awarded a student under this subsection shall not be reduced on the basis of the student's receipt of other forms of Federal student financial assistance, but shall be taken into account in determining the eligibility of the student for those other forms of Federal student financial assistance.

(5) The Secretary shall give priority to awarding grants under this subsection in a manner likely to stimulate the interest of women and members of minority groups in pursuing scientific and engineering careers. The Secretary may consider the financial need of applicants in making awards in accordance with such priority.

(b) In this section:

(1) The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given such term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965.

(2) The term "cost of attendance" has the meaning given such term in section 472 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087ll).

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1521; amended Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(2)(A), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1617; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §580(c)(2), (3), (d)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 633.)

References in Text

Section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is classified to section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–65, §580(d)(2), amended section catchline generally. Prior to amendment, catchline read as follows: "Science and mathematics education improvement program".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65, §580(c)(3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b).

Pub. L. 106–65, §580(c)(2), redesignated subsec. (b) as section 2193a of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–65, §580(c)(3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b).

1998—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965" for "section 1201(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1141(a))".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

§2193a. Improvement of education in technical fields: general authority for support of elementary and secondary education in science and mathematics

The Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretary of Education, may establish programs for the purpose of improving the mathematics and scientific knowledge and skills of elementary and secondary school students and faculty members.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §580(c)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 632, 633.)

Codification

The text of section 2193(b) of this title, which was transferred to, and redesignated as text of, this section, was based on Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1521.

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–65, §580(c)(2), renumbered section 2193(b) of this title as text of this section. See Codification note above.

Pilot Program on Enhancement of Preparation of Dependents of Members of Armed Forces for Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title II, §233, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3334, required the Secretary of Defense to carry out a pilot program related to the enhancement of preparation of certain students for careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, §211(c), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1255. See section 2192b of this title.

§2193b. Improvement of education in technical fields: program for support of elementary and secondary education in science, mathematics, and technology

(a) Authority for Program.—The Secretary of Defense may conduct a science, mathematics, and technology education improvement program known as the "Department of Defense STARBASE Program". The Secretary shall carry out the program in coordination with the Secretaries of the military departments and the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

(b) Purpose.—The purpose of the program is to improve knowledge and skills of students in kindergarten through twelfth grade in mathematics, science, and technology.

(c) STARBASE Academies.—(1) The Secretary shall provide for the establishment of at least 25 academies under the program.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall establish guidelines, criteria, and a process for the establishment of STARBASE programs in addition to those in operation on October 5, 1999.

(3)(A) Except as otherwise provided under subparagraph (B), the Secretary may not support the establishment in any State of more than four academies under the program.

(B) The Secretary may support the establishment and operation of an academy in a State in excess of four academies in that State if the Secretary expressly waives, in writing, the limitation in subparagraph (A) with respect to that State. In the case of any such waiver, appropriated funds may be used for the establishment and operation of an academy in excess of four in that State only to the extent that appropriated funds are expressly available for that purpose. Any such waiver shall be made under criteria to be prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Persons Eligible To Participate in Program.—The Secretary shall prescribe standards and procedures for selection of persons for participation in the program.

(e) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations governing the conduct of the program.

(f) Authority to Accept Financial and Other Support.—(1) The Secretary of Defense, the Secretaries of the military departments, and the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating may accept financial and other support for the program from other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, State governments, local governments, and not-for-profit and other organizations in the private sector.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall remain the executive agent to carry out the program regardless of the source of funds for the program or any transfer of jurisdiction over the program within the executive branch.

(g) Annual Report.—Not later than March 31 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the program under this section. The report shall contain a discussion of the design and conduct of the program and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the program.

(h) State Defined.—In this section, the term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §580(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 631; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §596(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1127; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §519, title X, §1084(d)(16), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1886, 2062; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §592, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 138; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §595, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4234; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title V, §552, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1386.)

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–92, §552(1), inserted "and the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating" after "military departments".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 116–92, §552(2), substituted ", the Secretaries of the military departments, and the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating" for "and the Secretaries of the military departments".

2011—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "March 31 of each year" for "90 days after the end of each fiscal year".

2008—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 110–181, §592(1), substituted "more than four academies" for "more than two academies".

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 110–181, §592(2), substituted "in excess of four" for "in excess of two" in two places.

2004—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, §1084(d)(16), substituted "October 5, 1999" for "the date of the enactment of this section".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 108–375, §519, amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "The Secretary may support the establishment and operation of any academy in excess of two academies in a State only if the Secretary has first authorized in writing the establishment of the academy and the costs of the establishment and operation of the academy are paid out of funds provided by sources other than the Department of Defense. Any such costs that are paid out of appropriated funds shall be considered as paid out of funds provided by such other sources if such sources fully reimburse the United States for the costs."

2001—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–107 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Existing STARBASE Academies

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §580(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 632, provided that: "While continuing in operation, the academies existing on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999] under the Department of Defense STARBASE Program, as such program is in effect on such date, shall be counted for the purpose of meeting the requirement under section 2193b(c)(1) of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), relating to the minimum number of STARBASE academies."

§2194. Education partnerships

(a) The Secretary of Defense shall authorize the director of each defense laboratory to enter into one or more education partnership agreements with educational institutions in the United States for the purpose of encouraging and enhancing study in scientific disciplines at all levels of education. The educational institutions referred to in the preceding sentence are local educational agency, colleges, universities, and any other nonprofit institutions that are dedicated to improving science, mathematics, business, law, technology transfer or transition and engineering education.

(b) Under a partnership agreement entered into with an educational institution under this section, the director of a defense laboratory may provide, and is encouraged to provide, assistance to the educational institution by—

(1) loaning defense laboratory equipment to the institution for any purpose and duration in support of such agreement that the director considers appropriate;

(2) notwithstanding the provisions of subtitle I of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41 or any provision of law or regulation relating to transfers of surplus property, transferring to the institution any computer equipment, or other scientific equipment, that is—

(A) commonly used by educational institutions;

(B) surplus to the needs of the defense laboratory; and

(C) determined by the director to be appropriate for support of such agreement;


(3) making laboratory personnel available to teach science courses or to assist in the development of science courses and materials for the institution;

(4) providing in the defense laboratory sabbatical opportunities for faculty and internship opportunities for students;

(5) involving faculty and students of the institution in defense laboratory projects, including research and technology transfer or transition projects;

(6) cooperating with the institution in developing a program under which students may be given academic credit for work on defense laboratory projects, including research and technology transfer or transition projects; and

(7) providing academic and career advice and assistance to students of the institution.


(c) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the director of each defense laboratory shall give a priority under this section to entering into an education partnership agreement with one or more historically Black colleges and universities and other minority institutions referred to in paragraphs (3), (4), and (5) of section 312(b) 1 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1058(b)).

(d) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that, in entering into education partnership agreements under this section, the director of a defense laboratory gives a priority to providing assistance to educational institutions serving women, members of minority groups, and other groups of individuals who traditionally are involved in the engineering and science professions in disproportionately low numbers.

(e) The Secretary of Defense may permit the director of a defense laboratory to enter into a cooperative agreement with an appropriate entity to act as an intermediary and assist the director in carrying out activities under this section.

(f) In this section:

(1) The term "defense laboratory" means any laboratory, product center, test center, depot, training and educational organization, or operational command under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense.

(2) The term "local educational agency" has the meaning given such term in section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.

(3) The term "United States" includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1522; amended Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §391(b)(4), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4021; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1503(a)(19), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title II, §253], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-49; Pub. L. 107–110, title X, §1076(e), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 108–178, §4(b)(1), Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2640; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(3), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3842; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title II, §211(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4163; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title II, §251, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title II, §213, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(uuu)(4), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2190.)

References in Text

Paragraphs (3), (4), and (5) of section 312(b) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1058(b)), referred to in subsec. (c), were repealed by Pub. L. 102–325, title III, §302(a)(3), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 472.

Section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), is classified to section 7801 of Title 20, Education.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–92, §213(1), inserted "business, law, technology transfer or transition" after "mathematics,".

Subsec. (b)(4) to (7). Pub. L. 114–92, §213(2), added par. (4), redesignated former pars. (4) to (6) as (5) to (7), respectively, and, in pars. (5) and (6), substituted "projects, including research and technology transfer or transition projects" for "research projects".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 114–95 substituted "section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965" for "section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801)".

2013—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 112–239, §251(b), inserted "(20 U.S.C. 7801)" before period at end.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 112–239, §251(a), added par. (3).

2011—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "division C (except sections 3302, 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41" for "title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.)" in introductory provisions.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 111–383 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

2003—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–178 inserted "subtitle I of title 40 and title III of" before "the Federal" and substituted "(41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.)" for "(40 U.S.C. 471 et seq.)".

2002—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 107–110 substituted "section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965" for "section 14101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8801)".

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title II, §253(a)(1)], inserted ", and is encouraged to provide," after "may provide" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title II, §253(a)(2)], inserted before semicolon "for any purpose and duration in support of such agreement that the director considers appropriate".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title II, §253(a)(3)], added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "transferring to the institution defense laboratory equipment determined by the director to be surplus;".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title II, §253(b)], amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: "In this section, the term 'local educational agency' has the meaning given such term in section 14101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8801)."

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "(20 U.S.C. 8801)" for "(20 U.S.C. 2891(12))".

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–382, §391(b)(4)(A), substituted "educational agency" for "education agencies".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–382, §394(b)(4)(B)(iii), which directed amendment of subsec. (e) by striking out "(20 U.S.C. 1058(b)" could not be executed because "(20 U.S.C. 1058(b)" does not appear in subsec. (e).

Pub. L. 103–382, §391(b)(4)(B)(i), (ii), substituted "educational agency" for "education agency" and "section 14101" for "section 1471(12)".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–178 effective Aug. 21, 2002, see section 5 of Pub. L. 108–178, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–110 effective Jan. 8, 2002, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 107–110, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2195. Department of Defense cooperative education programs

(a) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the director of each defense laboratory establishes, in association with one or more public or private colleges or universities in the United States or one or more consortia of colleges or universities in the United States, cooperative work-education programs for undergraduate and graduate students.

(b) Under a cooperative work-education program established under subsection (a), a director referred to in that subsection may, without regard to any applicable non-statutory limitation on the number of authorized personnel or on the aggregate amount of any personnel cost—

(1) make an offer for participation in the cooperative work-education program directly to a student and appoint such student to an entry-level position of employment in the laboratory of such director;

(2) pay such person a rate of basic pay, not to exceed the maximum rate of pay provided for grade GS–9 under the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, that is competitive with compensation levels provided for entry-level positions in similar industry-sponsored cooperative work-education programs;

(3) pay all travel expenses between the college or university in which the student is enrolled and the laboratory concerned for not more than six round trips per year; and

(4) pay all or part of such fees, charges, and costs related to the participation of such student in the cooperative work-education program as tuition, matriculation fees, charges for library and laboratory services, materials, and supplies, and the purchase or rental price of books.


(c) A director of a defense laboratory may—

(1) require a student, as a condition for receiving payments referred to in subsection (b)(4), to enter into a written agreement to continue employment in such defense laboratory for a period of service specified in the agreement; or

(2) make such payments without requiring such an agreement.


(d)(1) The Director of the National Security Agency may provide a qualifying employee of a defense laboratory of that Agency with living quarters at no charge, or at a rate or charge prescribed by the Director by regulation, without regard to section 5911(c) of title 5.

(2) In this subsection, the term "qualifying employee" means a student who is employed at the National Security Agency under—

(A) a Student Educational Employment Program of the Agency conducted under this section or any other provision of law; or

(B) a similar cooperative or summer education program of the Agency that meets the criteria for Federal cooperative or summer education programs prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1522; amended Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §926, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1579.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–136 added subsec. (d).

§2196. Manufacturing engineering education program

(a) Establishment of Manufacturing Engineering Education Program.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish a program under which the Secretary makes grants or other awards to support—

(A) the enhancement of existing programs in manufacturing engineering education to further a mission of the department; or

(B) the establishment of new programs in manufacturing engineering education that meet such requirements.


(2) Grants and awards under this section may be made to industry, not-for-profit institutions, institutions of higher education, or to consortia of such institutions or industry.

(3) The Secretary shall establish the program in consultation with the Secretary of Education, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the secretaries of such other relevant Federal agencies as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(4) The Secretary shall ensure that the program is coordinated with Department programs associated with advanced manufacturing.

(5) The program shall be known as the "Manufacturing Engineering Education Program".

(b) Geographical Distribution of Grants and Awards.—In awarding grants and other awards under this subsection, the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, avoid geographical concentration of awards.

(c) Covered Programs.—A program of engineering education supported pursuant to this section shall meet the requirements of this section.

(d) Components of Program.—The program of education for which such a grant is made shall be a consolidated and integrated multidisciplinary program of education with an emphasis on the following components:

(1) Multidisciplinary instruction that encompasses the total manufacturing engineering enterprise and that may include—

(A) manufacturing engineering education and training through classroom activities, laboratory activities, thesis projects, individual or team projects, internships, cooperative work-study programs, and interactions with industrial facilities, consortia, or such other activities and organizations in the United States and foreign countries as the Secretary considers appropriate;

(B) faculty development programs;

(C) recruitment of educators highly qualified in manufacturing engineering to teach or develop manufacturing engineering courses;

(D) presentation of seminars, workshops, and training for the development of specific manufacturing engineering skills;

(E) activities involving interaction between students and industry, including programs for visiting scholars, personnel exchange, or industry executives;

(F) development of new, or updating and modification of existing, manufacturing curriculum, course offerings, and education programs;

(G) establishment of programs in manufacturing workforce training;

(H) establishment of joint manufacturing engineering programs with defense laboratories and depots; and

(I) expansion of manufacturing training and education programs and outreach for members of the armed forces, dependents and children of such members, veterans, and employees of the Department of Defense.


(2) Opportunities for students to obtain work experience in manufacturing through such activities as internships, summer job placements, or cooperative work-study programs.

(3) Faculty and student engagement with industry that is directly related to, and supportive of, the education of students in manufacturing engineering because of—

(A) the increased understanding of manufacturing engineering challenges and potential solutions; and

(B) the enhanced quality and effectiveness of the instruction that result from that increased understanding.


(e) Proposals.—The Secretary of Defense shall solicit proposals for grants and other awards to be made pursuant to this section for the support of programs of manufacturing engineering education that are consistent with the purposes of this section.

(f) Merit Competition.—Applications for awards shall be evaluated on the basis of merit pursuant to competitive procedures prescribed by the Secretary.

(g) Selection Criteria.—The Secretary may select a proposal for an award pursuant to this section if the proposal, at a minimum, does each of the following:

(1) Contains innovative approaches for improving engineering education in manufacturing technology.

(2) Demonstrates a strong commitment by the proponents to apply the resources necessary to achieve the objectives for which the award is to be made.

(3) Provides for effective engagement with industry or government organizations that supports the instruction to be provided in the proposed program and is likely to improve manufacturing engineering and technology.

(4) Demonstrates a significant level of involvement of United States industry in the proposed instructional and research activities.

(5) Is likely to attract superior students and promote careers in manufacturing engineering.

(6) Proposes to involve fully qualified personnel who are experienced in manufacturing engineering education and technology.

(7) Proposes a program that, within three years after the award is made, is likely to attract from sources other than the Federal Government the financial and other support necessary to sustain such program.

(8) Proposes to achieve a significant level of participation by women, members of minority groups, and individuals with disabilities through active recruitment of students from among such persons.

(9) Trains students in advanced manufacturing and in relevant emerging technologies and production processes.


(h) Institution of Higher Education Defined.—In this section, the term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given such term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §825(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1438; amended Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title II, §215, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2048.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2196, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1523; amended Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(i)(2), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 116, defined "defense laboratory", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §825(a)(1). See section 2199 of this title.

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to grants for manufacturing engineering education.

Implementation of Grant Program; Priority in Funding

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §825(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1442, provided that: "Within one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1991], the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Director of the National Science Foundation, shall award grants under section 2196 of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), to institutions of higher education throughout the United States."

§2197. Manufacturing experts in the classroom

(a) Establishment of Program.—The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Commerce, shall conduct a program to support the following activities of one or more manufacturing experts at institutions of higher education:

(1) Identifying the education and training requirements of United States manufacturing firms located in the same geographic region as an institution participating in the program.

(2) Assisting in the development of teaching curricula for classroom and in-factory education and training classes at such an institution.

(3) Teaching such classes and overseeing the teaching of such classes by others.

(4) Improving the knowledge and expertise of permanent faculty and staff of such an institution.

(5) Marketing the programs and facilities of such an institution to firms referred to in paragraph (1).

(6) Coordinating the activities described in the other provisions of this subsection with other programs conducted by the Federal Government, any State, any local government, or any private, nonprofit organization to modernize United States manufacturing firms, especially the regional centers for the transfer of manufacturing technology and programs receiving financial assistance under section 2196 of this title.


(b) Merit Competition.—Applications for assistance under this section shall be evaluated on the basis of merit pursuant to competitive procedures prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Selection Criteria.—The Secretary shall select institutions for the award of financial assistance under this section from among institutions submitting applications for such assistance that—

(1) demonstrate that the proposed activities are of an appropriate scale and a sufficient quality to ensure long term improvement in the applicant's capability to serve the education and training needs of United States manufacturing firms in the same region as the applicant;

(2) demonstrate a significant level of industry involvement and support;

(3) demonstrate attention to the needs of any United States industries that supply manufactured products to the Department of Defense or to a contractor of the Department of Defense; and

(4) meet such other criteria as the Secretary may prescribe.


(d) Federal Support.—The amount of financial assistance furnished to an institution under this section may not exceed 50 percent of the estimated cost of carrying out the activities proposed to be supported in part with such financial assistance for the period for which the assistance is to be provided. In no event may the amount of the financial assistance provided to an institution exceed $250,000 per year. The period for which financial assistance is provided an institution under this section shall be at least two years unless such assistance is earlier terminated for cause determined by the Secretary.

(e) Manufacturing Expert Defined.—In this section, the term "manufacturing expert" means manufacturing managers and workers having experience in the organization of production and education and training needs and other experts in manufacturing.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §825(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1440; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4238(a), (b)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2694.)

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–484, §4238(b)(1), substituted "experts" for "managers" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–484, §4238(a)(1), struck out "managers and" after "manufacturing" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–484, §4238(a)(2), added subsec. (e).

§2198. Management training program in Japanese language and culture

(a) The Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the National Science Foundation, shall establish a program for the making of grants on a competitive basis to United States institutions of higher education and other United States not-for-profit organizations for the conduct of programs for scientists, engineers, and managers to learn Japanese language and culture.

(b) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe in regulations the criteria for awarding a grant under the program for activities of an institution or organization referred to in subsection (a), including the following:

(1) Whether scientists, engineers, and managers of defense laboratories and Department of Energy laboratories are permitted a level of participation in such activities that is beneficial to the development and application of defense critical technologies by such laboratories.

(2) Whether such activities include the placement of United States scientists, engineers, and managers in Japanese government and industry laboratories—

(A) to improve the knowledge of such scientists, engineers, and managers in (i) Japanese language and culture, and (ii) the research and development and management practices of such laboratories; and

(B) to provide opportunities for the encouragement of technology transfer from Japan to the United States.


(3) Whether an appropriate share of the costs of such activities will be paid out of funds derived from non-Federal Government sources.


(c) In this section, the term "defense critical technology" means a technology that is identified under section 2505 of this title as critical for attaining the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §828(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1444; amended Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(c)(3), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 98; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(39), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1902.)

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted "that is identified under section 2505 of this title as critical for attaining the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title." for "identified in a defense critical technologies plan submitted to the Congress under section 2506 of this title."

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–35 substituted "a defense" for "an annual defense" and "section 2506" for "section 2522".

§2199. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) The term "defense laboratory" means a laboratory operated by the Department of Defense or owned by the Department of Defense and operated by a contractor or a facility of a Defense Agency at which research and development activities are conducted.

(2) The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given such term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965.

(3) The term "regional center for the transfer of manufacturing technology" means a manufacturing extension center for the transfer of manufacturing technology and best business practices referred to in section 25(b) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k).

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §825(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1441; amended Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(2)(B), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1617; Pub. L. 114–329, title V, §501(e)(1), Jan. 6, 2017, 130 Stat. 3032.)

References in Text

Section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in par. (2), is classified to section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

Amendments

2017—Par. (3). Pub. L. 114–329, §501(e)(1)(B), (C), inserted "and best business practices" before "referred" and substituted "section 25(b)" for "section 25(a)".

Pub. L. 114–329, §501(e)(1)(A), which directed substitution of "manufacturing extension center" for "regional center", was executed by making the substitution after "means a" outside of the defined term, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1998—Par. (2). Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965" for "section 1201(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1141(a))".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.