[USC02] 10 USC Ch. 24: NUCLEAR POSTURE
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10 USC Ch. 24: NUCLEAR POSTURE
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART I—ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS

CHAPTER 24—NUCLEAR POSTURE

Sec.
491.
Nuclear weapons employment strategy of the United States: reports on modification of strategy.
492.
Biennial assessment and report on the delivery platforms for nuclear weapons and the nuclear command and control system.
492a.
Annual report on the plan for the nuclear weapons stockpile, nuclear weapons complex, nuclear weapons delivery systems, and nuclear weapons command and control system.
493.
Reports to Congress on the modification of the force structure for the strategic nuclear weapons delivery systems of the United States.
494.
Nuclear force reductions.
495.
Strategic delivery systems.
496.
Consideration of expansion of nuclear forces of other countries.
497.
Notification required for reduction, consolidation, or withdrawal of nuclear forces based in Europe.
497a.
Notification required for reduction or consolidation of dual-capable aircraft based in Europe.
498.
Unilateral change in nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States.
499.
Annual assessment of cyber resiliency of nuclear command and control system.
499a.
Collection, storage, and sharing of data relating to nuclear security enterprise and nuclear forces.

        

Amendments

2019Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVI, §1665(c)(2), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1774, added item 492a.

2017Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §§1651(b), 1652(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1757, 1758, added items 499 and 499a.

2013Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1051(b)(2), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 859, added item 497a.

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §§1031(b)(1), (3)(C)(i), 1033(b)(2)(A), 1035(b), 1036(b), 1037(b)(2), 1038(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1918, 1919, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1927, added chapter heading and items 491 to 498.

§491. Nuclear weapons employment strategy of the United States: reports on modification of strategy

(a) Reports.—By not later than 60 days before the date on which the President implements a nuclear weapons employment strategy of the United States that differs from the nuclear weapons employment strategy of the United States then in force, the President shall submit to Congress a report setting forth the following:

(1) A description of the modifications to the nuclear weapons employment strategy, plans, and options of the United States made by the strategy so issued.

(2) An assessment of effects of such modification for the nuclear posture of the United States.

(3) The implication of such changes on the flexibility and resilience of the strategic forces of the United States and the ability of such forces to support the goals of the United States with respect to nuclear deterrence, extended deterrence, assurance, and defense.

(4) The extent to which such modifications include an increased reliance on conventional or non-nuclear global strike capabilities or missile defenses of the United States.


(b) Annual Briefings.—Not later than March 15 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees a briefing regarding the nuclear weapons employment strategy, plans, and options of the United States.

(c) Reports on 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Implementation Study Decisions.—During each of fiscal years 2012 through 2021, not later than 60 days before the date on which the President carries out the results of the decisions made pursuant to the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Implementation Study that would alter the nuclear weapons employment strategy, guidance, plans, or options of the United States, the President shall—

(1) ensure that the annual report required under section 1043(a)(1) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (Public Law 112–81; 125 Stat. 1576) is transmitted to Congress, if so required;

(2) ensure that the report required under section 494(a)(2)(A) of this title is transmitted to Congress, if so required under such section; and

(3) transmit to the congressional defense committees a report providing the high-, medium-, and low- confidence assessments of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003(4))) as to whether the United States will have significant warning of a strategic surprise or breakout caused by foreign nuclear weapons developments.

(Added Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1046(b)(1), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1579; amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §§1031(a), 1032, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1917, 1919; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1052(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 861; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(c)(10), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3509.)

Codification

Section was formerly part of chapter 23 of this title, prior to being transferred to this chapter by Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(a)(1).

References in Text

Section 1043(a)(1) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is section 1043(a)(1) of title X of Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1579, which is not classified to the Code.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3003(4))" for "(50 U.S.C. 401a(4))".

2013Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(a)(2)(A)–(D), inserted "weapons" after "Nuclear" in section catchline, substituted "nuclear weapons employment strategy" for "nuclear employment strategy" in two places in introductory provisions and "to the nuclear weapons employment strategy, plans, and options of" for "to nuclear employment strategy of" in par. (1), and added par. (4).

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239, §1032(a), substituted "By not later than 60 days before the date on which the President implements" for "On the date on which the President issues" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(a)(2)(E), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(a)(2)(F), added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–66, §1052(b), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c). Prior to amendment, text of subsec. (c) read as follows:

"(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees written notification of an anomaly in the nuclear command, control, and communications system of the United States that is reported to the Secretary of Defense or the Nuclear Weapons Council by not later than 14 days after the date on which the Secretary or the Council learns of such anomaly, as the case may be.

"(2) In this subsection, the term 'anomaly' means any unplanned, irregular, or abnormal event, whether unexplained or caused intentionally or unintentionally by a person or a system."

Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(a)(2)(F), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–66, §1052(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c).

Pub. L. 112–239, §1032(b), added subsec. (d).

Plan To Train Officers in Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1668, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2156, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Navy, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Commander of the United States Strategic Command, shall develop a plan to train, educate, manage, and track officers of the Armed Forces in nuclear command, control, and communications.

"(b) Elements.—The plan required by subsection (a) shall address—

"(1) manpower requirements at various grades;

"(2) desired career paths and promotion timing; and

"(3) any other matters the Secretary of Defense considers relevant to develop a mature cadre of officers with nuclear command, control, and communications expertise.

"(c) Submission of Plan.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives the plan required by subsection (a).

"(d) Implementation.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall implement the plan required by subsection (a)."

Establishment of Nuclear Command and Control Intelligence Fusion Center

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1655, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1760, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall jointly establish an intelligence fusion center to effectively integrate and unify the protection of nuclear command, control, and communications programs, systems, and processes and continuity of government programs, systems, and processes.

"(b) Charter.—In establishing the fusion center under subsection (a), the Secretary and the Director shall develop a charter for the fusion center that includes the following:

"(1) To carry out the duties of the fusion center, a description of—

"(A) the roles and responsibilities of officials and elements of the Federal Government, including a detailed description of the organizational relationships of such officials and the elements of the Federal Government that are key stakeholders;

"(B) the organization reporting chain of the fusion center;

"(C) the staffing of the fusion center;

"(D) the processes of the fusion center; and

"(E) how the fusion center integrates with other elements of the Federal Government.

"(2) The management and administration processes required to carry out the fusion center, including with respect to facilities and security authorities.

"(3) Procedures to ensure that the appropriate number of staff of the fusion center have the security clearance necessary to access information on the programs, systems, and processes that relate, either wholly or substantially, to nuclear command, control, and communications or continuity of government, including with respect to both the programs, systems, and processes that are designated as special access programs (as described in section 4.3 of Executive Order 13526 (50 U.S.C. 3161 note) or any successor Executive order) and the programs, systems, and processes that contain sensitive compartmented information.

"(c) Coordination.—In establishing the fusion center under subsection (a), the Secretary and the Director shall coordinate with the elements of the Federal Government that the Secretary and Director determine appropriate.

"(d) Reports.—

"(1) Initial report.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary and the Director shall jointly submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report containing—

"(A) the charter for the fusion center developed under subsection (b); and

"(B) a plan on the budget and staffing of the fusion center.

"(2) Annual reports.—At the same time as the President submits to Congress the annual budget request under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, for fiscal year 2019 and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary and the Director shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the fusion center, including, with respect to the period covered by the report—

"(A) any updates to the plan on the budget and staffing of the fusion center;

"(B) any updates to the charter developed under subsection (b); and

"(C) a summary of the activities and accomplishments of the fusion center.

"(3) Sunset.—No report is required under this subsection after December 31, 2021.

"(e) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(1) the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]; and

"(2) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate."

Security of Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications System From Commercial Dependencies

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1656, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1761, provided that:

"(a) Certification.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall certify to the congressional defense committees whether the Secretary uses covered telecommunications equipment or services as a substantial or essential component of any system, or as critical technology as part of any system, to carry out—

"(1) the nuclear deterrence mission of the Department of Defense, including with respect to nuclear command, control, and communications, integrated tactical warning and attack assessment, and continuity of government; or

"(2) the homeland defense mission of the Department, including with respect to ballistic missile defense.

"(b) Prohibition and Mitigation.—

"(1) Prohibition.—Except as provided by paragraph (2), beginning on the date that is one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense may not procure or obtain, or extend or renew a contract to procure or obtain, any equipment, system, or service to carry out the missions described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) that uses covered telecommunications equipment or services as a substantial or essential component of any system, or as critical technology as part of any system.

"(2) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive the prohibition in paragraph (1) on a case-by-case basis for a single one-year period if the Secretary—

"(A) determines such waiver to be in the national security interests of the United States; and

"(B) certifies to the congressional committees that—

"(i) there are sufficient mitigations in place to guarantee the ability of the Secretary to carry out the missions described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a); and

"(ii) the Secretary is removing the use of covered telecommunications equipment or services in carrying out such missions.

"(3) Delegation.—The Secretary may not delegate the authority to make a waiver under paragraph (2) to any official other than the Deputy Secretary of Defense or the co-chairs of the Council on Oversight of the National Leadership Command, Control, and Communications System established by section 171a of title 10, United States Code.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'congressional defense committees' has the meaning given that term in section 101(a)(16) of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'covered foreign country' means any of the following:

"(A) The People's Republic of China.

"(B) The Russian Federation.

"(3) The term 'covered telecommunications equipment or services' means any of the following:

"(A) Telecommunications equipment produced by Huawei Technologies Company or ZTE Corporation (or any subsidiary or affiliate of such entities).

"(B) Telecommunications services provided by such entities or using such equipment.

"(C) Telecommunications equipment or services produced or provided by an entity that the Secretary of Defense reasonably believes to be an entity owned or controlled by, or otherwise connected to, the government of a covered foreign country."

Security Classification Guide for Programs Relating to Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications and Nuclear Deterrence

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1658, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1763, provided that:

"(a) Requirement for Security Classification Guide.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall require the issuance of a security classification guide for each covered program to ensure the protection of sensitive information from public disclosure.

"(b) Requirements.—Each security classification guide issued pursuant to subsection (a) shall be—

"(1) approved by—

"(A) the Council on Oversight of the National Leadership Command, Control, and Communications System with respect to covered programs under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (c) [probably should be "subsection (e)"]; or

"(B) the Nuclear Weapons Council with respect to covered programs under paragraph (3) of such subsection; and

"(2) issued not later than March 19, 2019, with respect to a covered program in existence as of such date.

"(c) Annual Notifications.—On an annual basis during the three-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Deputy Secretary of Defense, without delegation, shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of the status of implementing subsection (a), including a description of any challenges to such implementation.

"(d) Exclusion.—This section shall not apply with respect to restricted data covered by chapter 12 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2161 et seq.).

"(e) Covered Program Defined.—In this section, the term 'covered program' means programs of the Department of Defense in existence on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017] relating to any of the following:

"(1) Continuity of government.

"(2) Nuclear command, control, and communications.

"(3) Nuclear deterrence."

Evaluation and Enhanced Security of Supply Chain for Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications and Continuity of Government Programs

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1659, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1764, provided that:

"(a) Evaluations of Supply Chain Vulnerabilities.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than December 31, 2019, and in accordance with the plan under paragraph (2)(A), the Secretary of Defense shall conduct evaluations of the supply chain vulnerabilities of each covered program.

"(2) Plan.—

"(A) Development.—The Secretary shall develop a plan to carry out the evaluations under paragraph (1), including with respect to the personnel and resources required to carry out such evaluations.

"(B) Submission.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] the plan under subparagraph (A).

"(3) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive, on a case-by-case basis with respect to a weapons system, a program, or a system of systems, of a covered program, either the requirement to conduct an evaluation under paragraph (1) or the deadline specified in such paragraph if the Secretary certifies to the congressional defense committees before such date that all known supply chain vulnerabilities of such weapons system, program, or system of systems have minimal consequences for the capability of such weapons system, program, or system of systems to meet operational requirements or otherwise satisfy mission requirements.

"(4) Risk mitigation strategies.—In carrying out an evaluation under paragraph (1) with respect to a covered program specified in subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (c)(2), the Secretary shall develop strategies for mitigating the risks of supply chain vulnerabilities identified in the course of such evaluation.

"(b) Prioritization of Certain Supply Chain Risk Management Efforts.—

"(1) Instructions.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary shall issue a Department of Defense Instruction, or update such an Instruction, establishing the prioritization of supply chain risk management programs, including supply chain risk management threat assessment reporting, to ensure that acquisition and sustainment programs relating to covered programs receive the highest priority of such supply chain risk management programs and reporting.

"(2) Requirements.—

"(A) Establishment.—The Secretary shall establish requirements to carry out supply chain risk management threat assessment collections and analyses under acquisition and sustainment programs relating to covered programs.

"(B) Submission.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees the requirements established under subparagraph (A).

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]; and

"(B) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

"(2) The term 'covered programs' means programs relating to any of the following:

"(A) Nuclear weapons.

"(B) Nuclear command, control, and communications.

"(C) Continuity of government.

"(D) Ballistic missile defense."

Statement of Policy on the Nuclear Triad

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1664, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1128, provided that:

"(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that—

"(1) the triad of strategic nuclear delivery systems plays a critical role in ensuring the national security of the United States; and

"(2) retaining all three legs of the nuclear triad is among the highest priorities of the Department of Defense and will best maintain strategic stability at a reasonable cost, while hedging against potential technical problems and vulnerabilities.

"(b) Statement of Policy.—It is the policy of the United States—

"(1) to operate, sustain, and modernize or replace the triad of strategic nuclear delivery systems consisting of—

"(A) heavy bombers equipped with nuclear gravity bombs and air-launched nuclear cruise missiles;

"(B) land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles equipped with nuclear warheads that are capable of carrying multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles; and

"(C) ballistic missile submarines equipped with submarine launched ballistic missiles and multiple nuclear warheads;

"(2) to operate, sustain, and modernize or replace a capability to forward-deploy nuclear weapons and dual-capable fighter-bomber aircraft;

"(3) to deter potential adversaries and assure allies and partners of the United States through strong and long-term commitment to the nuclear deterrent of the United States and the personnel, systems, and infrastructure that comprise such deterrent;

"(4) to ensure that the members of the Armed Forces who operate the nuclear deterrent of the United States have the training, resources, and national support required to execute the critical national security mission of the members; and

"(5) to achieve a modern and responsive nuclear infrastructure to support the full spectrum of deterrence requirements."

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XVI, §1652, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3654, provided that: "It is the policy of the United States—

"(1) to operate, sustain, and modernize or replace the triad of strategic nuclear delivery systems consisting of—

"(A) heavy bombers equipped with nuclear gravity bombs and air-launched nuclear cruise missiles;

"(B) land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles equipped with nuclear warheads that are capable of carrying multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles; and

"(C) ballistic missile submarines equipped with submarine launched ballistic missiles and multiple nuclear warheads;

"(2) to operate, sustain, and modernize or replace a capability to forward-deploy nuclear weapons and dual-capable fighter-bomber aircraft;

"(3) to deter potential adversaries and assure allies and partners of the United States through strong and long-term commitment to the nuclear deterrent of the United States and the personnel, systems, and infrastructure that comprise such deterrent; and

"(4) to ensure that the members of the Armed Forces who operate the nuclear deterrent of the United States have the training, resources, and national support required to execute the critical national security mission of the members."

Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United States Code

Memorandum of President of the United States, June 19, 2013, 78 F.R. 37923, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 491 of title 10, United States Code.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§492. Biennial assessment and report on the delivery platforms for nuclear weapons and the nuclear command and control system

(a) Biennial Assessments.—(1) For each even-numbered year, each covered official shall assess the safety, security, reliability, sustainability, performance, and military effectiveness of, and the ability to meet operational availability requirements for, the systems described in paragraph (2) for which such official has responsibility.

(2) The systems described in this paragraph are the following:

(A) Each type of delivery platform for nuclear weapons.

(B) The nuclear command and control system.


(b) Biennial Report.—(1) Not later than December 1 of each even-numbered year, each covered official shall submit to the Secretary of Defense and the Nuclear Weapons Council established by section 179 of this title a report on the assessments conducted under subsection (a).

(2) Each report under paragraph (1) shall include the following:

(A) The results of the assessment.

(B) An identification and discussion of any capability gaps or shortfalls with respect to the systems described in subsection (a)(2) covered under the assessment.

(C) An identification and discussion of any risks with respect to meeting mission or capability requirements.

(D) In the case of an assessment by the Commander of the United States Strategic Command, if the Commander identifies any deficiency with respect to a nuclear weapons delivery platform covered under the assessment, a discussion of the relative merits of any other nuclear weapons delivery platform type or compensatory measure that would accomplish the mission of such nuclear weapons delivery platform.

(E) An identification and discussion of any matter having an adverse effect on the capability of the covered official to accurately determine the matters covered by the assessment.


(c) Report to President and Congress.—(1) Not later than March 1 of each year following a year for which a report under subsection (b) is submitted, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the President a report containing—

(A) each report under subsection (b) submitted during the previous year, as originally submitted to the Secretary;

(B) any comments that the Secretary considers appropriate with respect to each such report;

(C) any conclusions that the Secretary considers appropriate with respect to the safety, security, reliability, sustainability, performance, or military effectiveness of the systems described in subsection (a)(2); and

(D) any other information that the Secretary considers appropriate.


(2) Not later than March 15 of each year during which a report under paragraph (1) is submitted, the President shall transmit to the congressional defense committees the report submitted to the President under paragraph (1), including any comments the President considers appropriate.

(3) Each report under this subsection may be in classified form if the Secretary of Defense determines it necessary.

(d) Covered Official Defined.—In this section, the term "covered official" means—

(1) the Commander of the United States Strategic Command;

(2) the Director of the Strategic Systems Program of the Navy;

(3) the Commander of the Global Strike Command of the Air Force; and

(4) the Commander of the United States Air Forces in Europe.

(Added Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1041(a), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1573, §490a; renumbered §492, Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1031(b)(3)(A)(i), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1918; amended Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XVI, §1642, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3650; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVI, §1666, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1774.)

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 116–92 added par. (4).

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–291 inserted ", and the ability to meet operational availability requirements for," after "military effectiveness of".

2013Pub. L. 112–239 renumbered section 490a of this title as this section.

Initial Assessment and Reports

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1041(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1574, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1031(b)(4), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1919; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b)(6), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876, provided that: "Not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], each covered official, as such term is defined in subsection (d) of section 492 of title 10, United States Code, shall conduct an initial assessment as described by subsection (a) of such section and submit an initial report as described by subsection (b) of such section. The requirements of subsection (c) of such section shall apply with respect to the report submitted under this subsection."

[Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876, provided in part that the amendment made by section 1091(b)(6) is effective as of Jan. 2, 2013, and as if included in Pub. L. 112–239 as enacted.]

§492a. Annual report on the plan for the nuclear weapons stockpile, nuclear weapons complex, nuclear weapons delivery systems, and nuclear weapons command and control system

(a) Report Required.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 30 days after the submission to Congress of the budget of the President under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, for each of fiscal years 2013 through 2024, the President, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Energy, shall transmit to the congressional defense committees, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives a detailed report on the plan for the nuclear weapons stockpile, nuclear weapons complex, nuclear weapons delivery systems, and nuclear weapons command and control system.

(2) Elements.—Each report required under paragraph (1) shall include the following:

(A) A detailed description of the plan to enhance the safety, security, and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States.

(B) A detailed description of the plan to sustain and modernize the nuclear weapons complex, including improving the safety of facilities, modernizing the infrastructure, and maintaining the key capabilities and competencies of the nuclear weapons workforce, including designers and technicians.

(C) A detailed description of the plan to maintain, modernize, and replace delivery systems for nuclear weapons.

(D) A detailed description of the plan to sustain and modernize the nuclear weapons command and control system.

(E) A detailed description of any plans to retire, dismantle, or eliminate any nuclear warheads or bombs, nuclear weapons delivery systems, or any platforms (including silos and submarines) which carry such nuclear warheads, bombs, or delivery systems.

(F) In accordance with paragraph (3), a detailed estimate of the budget requirements associated with sustaining and modernizing the nuclear deterrent of the United States and the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States, including the costs associated with the plans outlined under subparagraphs (A) through (E), over the 10-year period following the date of the report, including the applicable and appropriate costs associated with the procurement, military construction, operation and maintenance, and research, development, test, and evaluation accounts of the Department of Defense. The Secretary may include information and data for a period beyond such 10-year period if the Secretary determines that such information and data is accurate and useful in understanding the long-term nuclear modernization plan.

(G) A detailed description of the steps taken to implement the plan submitted in the previous year, including difficulties encountered in implementing the plan in the previous year.


(3) Budget estimate contents and methodology.— Each budget estimate under paragraph (2)(F) shall include a detailed description of the costs included in such estimate and the methodology used to create such estimate.

(4) Extension of deadline for report.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), if the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Energy jointly determine that a report required by paragraph (1) for a fiscal year will not be able to be transmitted to the committees specified in that paragraph by the time required under that paragraph, such Secretaries shall—

(i) promptly, and before the submission to Congress of the budget of the President for that fiscal year under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, notify those committees of the expected date for the transmission of the report; and

(ii) not later than 30 days after the submission of that budget to Congress, provide a briefing to those committees on the content of the report.


(B) Limitation.—In no case may the President transmit a report required by paragraph (1) for a fiscal year to the committees specified in that paragraph later than 60 days after the submission to Congress of the budget of the President for that fiscal year.


(b) Estimate of Costs by Congressional Budget Office.—

(1) Budgets for odd-numbered fiscal years.—Not later than July 1 of each year in which the President transmits a covered odd-numbered fiscal year report, the Director of the Congressional Budget Office shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report that includes—

(A) an estimate of the costs during the 10-year period beginning on the date of such covered odd-numbered fiscal year report associated with fielding and maintaining the current nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon delivery systems of the United States;

(B) an estimate of the costs during such period of any life extension, modernization, or replacement of any current nuclear weapons or nuclear weapon delivery systems of the United States that is anticipated as of the date of such covered odd-numbered fiscal year report, including an estimate of the acquisition costs during such period for programs relating to such life extension, modernization, or replacement;

(C) an estimate of the relative percentage of total defense spending during such period represented by the costs estimated under subparagraphs (A) and (B); and

(D) an estimate of the relative percentage of total acquisition costs of the military departments and of the Department of Defense during such period represented by the acquisition costs estimated under subparagraph (B).


(2) Budgets for even-numbered fiscal years.—If the Director determines that a covered even-numbered fiscal year report contains a significant change that affects the estimates of the Director included in the report submitted under paragraph (1) in the year prior to the year in which such covered even-numbered fiscal year report is submitted, the Director shall submit to the congressional defense committees a letter describing such significant changes.

(3) Definitions.—In this subsection:

(A) The term "covered even-numbered fiscal year report" means a report required to be transmitted under subsection (a)(1) not later than 30 days after the submission to Congress of the budget of the President for an even-numbered fiscal year.

(B) The term "covered odd-numbered fiscal year report" means a report required to be transmitted under subsection (a)(1) not later than 30 days after the submission to Congress of the budget of the President for an odd-numbered fiscal year.


(c) Comptroller General Review.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall—

(1) review each report under subsection (a) for accuracy and completeness with respect to the matters described in paragraphs (2)(F) and (3) of such subsection; and

(2) not later than 180 days after the date on which such report under subsection (a) is submitted, submit to the congressional defense committees a summary of each such review.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVI, §1665(c)(1), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1773.)

Codification

Section, as added and amended by Pub. L. 116–92, is based on Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1043, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1576, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1041(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1931; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1054, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 861; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XVI, §1643, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3650; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1665, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1767; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1670, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2157; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVI, §1665(a), (b), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1773, which was transferred to this chapter and renumbered as this section.

Amendments

2019Pub. L. 116–92, §1665(c)(1)(D), conformed section designation and catchline to the style of this title.

Pub. L. 116–92, §1665(c)(1)(A)–(C), transferred section 1043 of Pub. L. 112–81, as amended, to this chapter and renumbered it as this section. See Codification note above.

§493. Reports to Congress on the modification of the force structure for the strategic nuclear weapons delivery systems of the United States

Whenever after December 31, 2011, the President proposes a modification of the force structure for the strategic nuclear weapons delivery systems of the United States, the President shall submit to Congress a report on the modification. The report shall include a description of the manner in which such modification will maintain for the United States a range of strategic nuclear weapons delivery systems appropriate for the current and anticipated threats faced by the United States when compared with the current force structure of strategic nuclear weapons delivery systems.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1031(b)(3)(B), (C)(ii), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1918, 1919; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b)(5), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876.)

Codification

The text of this section is based on Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1077, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1596. Section 1077 of Pub. L. 112–81, formerly classified to section 2514 of Title 50, War and National Defense, was transferred to this section by Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(b)(3)(B)(i)–(iii).

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(b)(3)(C)(ii), made technical amendments to conform section enumerator and catchline to the style of this title. See Codification note above.

Pub. L. 112–239, §1031(b)(3)(B)(iv), as amended by Pub. L. 113–66, §1091(b)(5), substituted "December 31, 2011," for "the date of the enactment of this Act".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876, provided in part that the amendment made by section 1091(b)(5) is effective as of Jan. 2, 2013, and as if included in Pub. L. 112–239 as enacted.

§494. Nuclear force reductions

(a) Implementation of New START Treaty.—

(1) Sense of congress.—It is the Sense of Congress that—

(A) the United States is committed to maintaining a safe, secure, reliable, and credible nuclear deterrent;

(B) the United States should undertake and support an enduring stockpile stewardship program and maintain and modernize nuclear weapons production capabilities and capacities to ensure the safety, security, reliability, and credibility of the United States nuclear deterrent and to meet requirements for hedging against possible international developments or technical problems;

(C) the United States should maintain nuclear weapons laboratories and plants and preserve the intellectual infrastructure, including competencies and skill sets; and

(D) the United States should provide the necessary resources to achieve these goals, using as a starting point the levels set forth in the President's 10-year plan provided to Congress pursuant to section 1251 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Public Law 111–84; 123 Stat. 2549).


(2) Insufficient funding.—

(A) Report.—During each year in which the New START Treaty is in force, if the President determines that an appropriations Act is enacted that fails to meet the resource levels set forth in the November 2010 update to the plan referred to in section 1251 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Public Law 111–84; 123 Stat. 2549) or if at any time determines that more resources are required to carry out such plan than were estimated, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees, within 60 days of making such a determination, a report detailing—

(i) a plan to address the resource shortfall;

(ii) if more resources are required to carry out the plan than were estimated—

(I) the proposed level of funding required; and

(II) an identification of the stockpile work, campaign, facility, site, asset, program, operation, activity, construction, or project for which additional funds are required;


(iii) any effects caused by the shortfall on the safety, security, reliability, or credibility of the nuclear forces of the United States;

(iv) whether and why, in light of the shortfall, remaining a party to the New START Treaty is still in the national interest of the United States; and

(v) a detailed explanation of why the modernization timelines established in the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review are no longer applicable.


(B) Prior notification.—If the President transmits a report under subparagraph (A), the President shall notify the appropriate congressional committees of any determination by the President to reduce the number of deployed nuclear warheads of the United States by not later than 60 days before taking any action to carry out such reduction.

(C) Exception.—The limitation in subparagraph (B) shall not apply to—

(i) reductions made to ensure the safety, security, reliability, and credibility of the nuclear weapons stockpile and strategic delivery systems, including activities related to surveillance, assessment, certification, testing, and maintenance of nuclear warheads and strategic delivery systems; or

(ii) nuclear warheads that are retired or awaiting dismantlement on the date of the report under subparagraph (A).


(D) Definitions.—In this paragraph:

(i) The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(I) the congressional defense committees; and

(II) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.


(ii) The term "New START Treaty" means the Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, signed on April 8, 2010, and entered into force on February 5, 2011.


(b) Annual Report on the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile of the United States.—

(1) Sense of congress.—It is the sense of Congress that—

(A) sustained investments in the nuclear weapons stockpile and the nuclear security complex are needed to ensure a safe, secure, reliable, and credible nuclear deterrent; and

(B) such investments could enable additional future reductions in the hedge stockpile.


(2) Report required.—Not later than March 1 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States that includes the following:

(A) An accounting of the weapons in the stockpile as of the end of the fiscal year preceding the submission of the report that includes all weapons in the active and inactive stockpiles, both deployed and non-deployed, and all categories and readiness states of such weapons.

(B) The planned force levels for each category of nuclear weapon over the course of the future-years defense program submitted to Congress under section 221 of this title for the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the report is submitted.


(c) Net Assessment of Nuclear Force Levels Required With Respect to Certain Proposals To Reduce the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile of the United States.—

(1) In general.—If, during any year beginning after December 31, 2011, the President makes a proposal described in paragraph (2)—

(A) the Commander of United States Strategic Command shall conduct a net assessment of the current and proposed nuclear forces of the United States and of other countries that possess nuclear weapons to determine whether the nuclear forces of the United States are anticipated to be capable of meeting the objectives of the United States with respect to nuclear deterrence, extended deterrence, assurance of allies, and defense;

(B) the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives the assessment described in subparagraph (A), unchanged, together with the explanatory views of the Secretary, as the Secretary deems appropriate; and

(C) the Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report describing the current capacities of the United States nuclear weapons infrastructure to respond to a strategic development or technical problem in the United States nuclear weapons stockpile.


(2) Proposal described.—

(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a proposal described in this paragraph is a proposal to reduce the number of nuclear weapons in the active or inactive stockpiles of the United States to a level that is lower than the level on December 31, 2011.

(B) Exceptions.—A proposal described in this paragraph does not include—

(i) reductions that are a direct result of activities associated with routine stockpile stewardship, including stockpile surveillance, logistics, or maintenance; or

(ii) nuclear weapons retired or awaiting dismantlement on December 31, 2011.


(3) Termination.—The requirement in paragraph (1) shall terminate on December 31, 2017.


(d) Prevention of Asymmetry in Reductions.—

(1) Certification.—During any year in which the President recommends to reduce the number of nuclear weapons in the active and inactive stockpiles of the United States by a number that is greater than a de minimis reduction, the President shall certify in writing to the congressional defense committees whether such reductions will cause the number of nuclear weapons in such stockpiles to be fewer than the high-confidence assessment of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003(4))) with respect to the number of nuclear weapons in the active and inactive stockpiles of the Russian Federation.

(2) Notification.—If the President certifies under paragraph (1) that the recommended number of nuclear weapons in the active and inactive stockpiles of the United States is fewer than the high-confidence assessment of the intelligence community with respect to the number of nuclear weapons in the active and inactive stockpiles of the Russian Federation, the President shall transmit to the congressional defense committees a report by the Commander of the United States Strategic Command, without change, detailing whether the recommended reduction would create a strategic imbalance or degrade deterrence and extended deterrence between the total number of nuclear weapons of the United States and the total number of nuclear weapons of the Russian Federation. The President shall transmit such report by not later than 60 days before the date on which the President carries out any such recommended reductions.

(3) Exception.—The notification in paragraph (2) shall not apply to—

(A) reductions made to ensure the safety, security, reliability, and credibility of the nuclear weapons stockpile and strategic delivery systems, including activities related to surveillance, assessment, certification, testing, and maintenance of nuclear warheads and strategic delivery systems; or

(B) nuclear warheads that are retired or awaiting dismantlement on the date of the certification under paragraph (1).


(4) Additional views.—On the date on which the President transmits to the congressional defense committees a report by the Commander of the United States Strategic Command under paragraph (2), the President may transmit to such committees a report by the President with respect to whether the recommended reductions covered by the report of the Commander will impact the deterrence or extended deterrence capabilities of the United States.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §§1033(b)(1), (2)(B), 1034, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1920–1922; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(a)(7), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 875; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(c)(10), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3509; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(19), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1595; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(5), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1983.)

References in Text

Section 1251 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(D), (2)(A), is section 1251 of Pub. L. 111–84, which is set out as a note under section 2523 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Codification

The text of this section is based on Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1045, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1577; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(a)(19), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1949. Section 1045 of Pub. L. 112–81, formerly classified to section 2523b of Title 50, War and National Defense, was transferred to this section by Pub. L. 112–239, §1033(b)(1)(A)–(C).

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "March 1 of each year" for "March 1, 2012, and annually thereafter" in introductory provisions.

2017—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "of this title" for "of title 10".

2014—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3003(4))" for "(50 U.S.C. 401a(4))".

2013Pub. L. 112–239, §1033(b)(2)(B), made technical amendments to conform section enumerator and catchline to the style of this title. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 112–239, §1033(b)(1)(D), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) related to a Presidential report to Congress regarding resource shortfalls.

Subsec. (c)(1), (2)(A), (B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–66 substituted "December 31, 2011" for "the date of the enactment of this Act".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–239, §1034, added subsec. (d).

Effective date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1033(b)(4), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1922, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1)(D) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2012."

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective Dec. 31, 2021, of provisions in subsec. (b) of this section requiring submittal of annual report to Congress, see section 1061 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 111 of this title.

Report on Implementation of the New START Treaty

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XII, §1247, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1066, provided that:

"(a) Report.—

"(1) In general.—During each year described in paragraph (2), the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report explaining the reasons that the continued implementation of the New START Treaty is in the national security interests of the United States.

"(2) Year described.—A year described in this paragraph is a year in which the President implements the New START Treaty and determines that any of the following circumstances apply:

"(A) The Russian Federation illegally occupies Ukrainian territory.

"(B) The Russian Federation is not respecting the sovereignty of all Ukrainian territory.

"(C) The Russian Federation is not in full compliance with the INF treaty.

"(D) The Russian Federation is not in compliance with the CFE Treaty and has not lifted its suspension of Russian observance of its treaty obligations.

"(E) The Russian Federation is not reducing its deployed strategic delivery vehicles.

"(b) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate; and

"(B) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.

"(2) CFE treaty.—The term 'CFE Treaty' means the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, signed at Paris November 19, 1990, and entered into force July 17, 1992.

"(3) INF treaty.—The term 'INF Treaty' means the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, commonly referred to as the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, signed at Washington December 8, 1987, and entered into force June 1, 1988.

"(4) New start treaty.—The term 'New START Treaty' means the Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, signed on April 8, 2010, and entered into force on February 5, 2011."

[For delegation of functions vested in President by section 1247 of Pub. L. 114–92, set out above, see Memorandum of President of the United States, July 26, 2016, 81 F.R. 51773, set out below.]

Retention of Missile Silos

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XVI, §1644, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3651, provided that:

"(a) Requirement.—During the period in which the New START Treaty (as defined in section 494(a)(2)(D) of title 10, United States Code) is in effect, the Secretary of Defense shall preserve each intercontinental ballistic missile silo that contains a deployed missile as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014] in, at minimum, a warm status that enables such silo to—

"(1) remain a fully functioning element of the interconnected and redundant command and control system of the missile field; and

"(2) be made fully operational with a deployed missile.

"(b) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in subsection (b) shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary of Defense from temporarily placing an intercontinental ballistic missile silo offline to perform maintenance activities."

Implementation of New START Treaty

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1056(a)(2), (3), (f), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 862–864, provided that:

"(a) Implementation.—

"(2) Consolidated budget display.—The Secretary [of Defense] shall include with the defense budget materials for each fiscal year specified in paragraph (3) a consolidated budget justification display that individually covers each program and activity associated with the implementation of the New START Treaty for the period covered by the future-years defense program submitted under section 221 of title 10, United States Code, at or about the time as such defense budget materials are submitted.

"(3) Fiscal year specified.—A fiscal year specified in this paragraph is each fiscal year that occurs during the period beginning with fiscal year 2015 and ending on the date on which the New START Treaty is no longer in force.

"(f) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'defense budget materials' has the meaning given that term in section 231(f) of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'New START Treaty' means the Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, signed on April 8, 2010, and entered into force on February 5, 2011."

"Congressional Defense Committees" Defined

Congressional defense committees has the meaning given that term in section 101(a)(16) of this title, see section 3 of Pub. L. 112–81, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1316. See also note under section 101 of this title.

Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 1045 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, and Condition 9 of the Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on the Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (the "New START Treaty")

Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 16, 2012, 77 F.R. 16649, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State[,] the Secretary of Defense[, and] the Secretary of Energy

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretaries of Defense and Energy the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 1045 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (Public Law 112–81) [see Codification note above], and by section (a)(9)(B) of the Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the New START Treaty. Subsection (a)(9)(B)(iv) of the Resolution shall be fulfilled in coordination with the Secretary of State.

The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

Delegation of Authority Under Section 1247 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016

Memorandum of President of the United States, July 26, 2016, 81 F.R. 51773, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby order as follows:

I hereby delegate the functions and authorities vested in the President by section 1247 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92) (the "Act") to the Secretary of State.

Any reference in this memorandum to the Act shall be deemed to be a reference to any future act that is the same or substantially the same as such provision.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§495. Strategic delivery systems

(a) Annual Certification.—The President shall annually certify in writing to the congressional defense committees whether plans to modernize or replace strategic delivery systems are fully funded at levels equal to or more than the levels set forth in the November 2010 update to the plan referred to in section 1251 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Public Law 111–84; 123 Stat. 2549), including plans regarding—

(1) a heavy bomber and air-launched cruise missile;

(2) an intercontinental ballistic missile;

(3) a submarine-launched ballistic missile;

(4) a ballistic missile submarine; and

(5) maintaining the nuclear command and control system (as first reported under section 1043 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (Public Law 112–81; 125 Stat. 1576)).


(b) Additional Report Matters Following Certain Certifications.—If in any year before fiscal year 2020 the President certifies under subsection (a) that plans to modernize or replace strategic delivery systems are not fully funded, the President shall include in the next annual report transmitted to Congress under section 1043 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 the following:

(1) A determination of whether or not the lack of full funding will result in a loss of military capability when compared with the November 2010 update to the plan referred to in section 1251 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010.

(2) If the determination under paragraph (1) is that the lack of full funding will result in a loss of military capability—

(A) a plan to preserve or retain the military capability that would otherwise be lost; or

(B) a report setting forth—

(i) an assessment of the impact of the lack of full funding on the strategic delivery systems specified in subsection (a); and

(ii) a description of the funding required to restore or maintain the capability.


(3) A certification by the President of whether or not the President is committed to accomplishing the modernization and replacement of strategic delivery systems and will meet the obligations concerning nuclear modernization as set forth in declaration 12 of the Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the New START Treaty.


(c) Prior Notification.—Not later than 60 days before the date on which the President carries out any reduction to the number of strategic delivery systems, the President shall—

(1) make the certification under subsection (a) for the fiscal year for which the reductions are proposed to be carried out;

(2) transmit the additional report matters under subsection (b) for such fiscal year, if such additional report matters are so required; and

(3) certify to the congressional defense committees whether the Russian Federation is in compliance with its strategic arms control obligations with the United States and is not engaged in activity in violation of, or inconsistent with, such obligations.


(d) Treatment of Certain Reductions.—Any certification under subsection (a) shall not take into account the following:

(1) Reductions made to ensure the safety, security, reliability, and credibility of the nuclear weapons stockpile and strategic delivery systems, including activities related to surveillance, assessment, certification, testing, and maintenance of nuclear warheads and delivery systems.

(2) Strategic delivery systems that are retired or awaiting dismantlement on the date of the certification under subsection (a).


(e) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "New START Treaty" means the Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, signed on April 8, 2010, and entered into force on February 5, 2011.

(2) The term "strategic delivery system" means a delivery system for nuclear weapons.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1035(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1923; amended Pub. L. 112–240, title VIII, §801(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2369; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(6), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1983.)

References in Text

Section 1251 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(1), is section 1251 of Pub. L. 111–84, which is set out as a note under section 2523 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Section 1043 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, referred to in subsecs. (a)(5) and (b), is section 1043 of title X of div. A of Pub. L. 112–81, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1576, which is not classified to the Code.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "The" for "Beginning in fiscal year 2013, the" in introductory provisions.

2013—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "whether the Russian Federation" for "that the Russian Federation" and inserted "strategic" before "arms control obligations".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title VIII, §801(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2369, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 [Pub. L. 112–239]."

Retention of Capability To Redeploy Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1057, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 864, provided that:

"(a) Deployment Capability.—The Secretary of the Air Force shall ensure that the Air Force is capable of—

"(1) deploying multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles to Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles; and

"(2) commencing such deployment not later than 180 days after the date on which the President determines such deployment necessary.

"(b) Warhead Capability.—The Nuclear Weapons Council established by section 179 of title 10, United States Code, shall ensure that—

"(1) the nuclear weapons stockpile contains a sufficient number of nuclear warheads that are capable of being deployed as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles with respect to Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles; and

"(2) such deployment is capable of being commenced not later than 180 days after the date on which the President determines such deployment necessary."

Senses of Congress on Ensuring the Modernization of the Nuclear Forces of the United States

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1062(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 866, provided that: "It is the policy of the United States to—

"(1) modernize or replace the triad of strategic nuclear delivery systems;

"(2) proceed with a robust stockpile stewardship program;

"(3) maintain and modernize the nuclear weapons production capabilities that will ensure the safety, security, reliability, and performance of the nuclear forces of the United States at the levels required by the New START Treaty; and

"(4) underpin deterrence by meeting the requirements for hedging against possible international developments or technical problems, in accordance with the policies of the United States."

Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 1035 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013

Memorandum of President of the United States, June 29, 2015, 80 F.R. 37921, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby order as follows:

I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the authority to fulfill the certification requirement specified in section 1035 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (Public Law 112–239) [probably means section 495 of this title, as added by section 1035 of Pub. L. 112–239].

Any reference in this memorandum to section 1035 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 shall be deemed to be a reference to any future provision that is the same or substantially the same provision.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§496. Consideration of expansion of nuclear forces of other countries

(a) Report and Certification.—Not later than 60 days before the President recommends any reductions to the nuclear forces of the United States—

(1) the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report detailing, for each country with nuclear weapons, the high-, medium-, and low- confidence assessment of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003(4))) with respect to—

(A) the number of each type of nuclear weapons possessed by such country;

(B) the modernization plans for such weapons of such country;

(C) the production capacity of nuclear warheads and strategic delivery systems (as defined in section 495(e)(2) of this title) of such country;

(D) the nuclear doctrine of such country; and

(E) the impact of such recommended reductions on the deterrence and extended deterrence capabilities of the United States; and


(2) the Commander of the United States Strategic Command shall certify to the appropriate congressional committees whether such recommended reductions in the nuclear forces of the United States will—

(A) impair the ability of the United States to address—

(i) unplanned strategic or geopolitical events; or

(ii) technical challenge; or


(B) degrade the deterrence or assurance provided by the United States to friends and allies of the United States.


(b) Form.—The reports required by subsection (a)(1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(c) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means the following:

(1) The congressional defense committees.

(2) The Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1036(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1924; amended Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(c)(10), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3509.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3003(4))" for "(50 U.S.C. 401a(4))" in introductory provisions.

§497. Notification required for reduction, consolidation, or withdrawal of nuclear forces based in Europe

(a) Notification.—Upon any decision to reduce, consolidate, or withdraw the nuclear forces of the United States that are based in Europe, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a notification containing—

(1) justification for such reduction, consolidation, or withdrawal; and

(2) an assessment of how member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in light of such reduction, consolidation, or withdrawal, assess the credibility of the deterrence capability of the United States in support of its commitments undertaken pursuant to article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, signed at Washington, District of Columbia, on April 4, 1949, and entered into force on August 24, 1949 (63 Stat. 2241; TIAS 1964).


(b) Prior Notification Required.—

(1) In general.—The President shall transmit the notification required by subsection (a) by not later than 60 days before the date on which the President commences a reduction, consolidation, or withdrawal of the nuclear forces of the United States that are based in Europe described in such notification.

(2) Exception.—The limitation in paragraph (1) shall not apply to a reduction, consolidation, or withdrawal of nuclear weapons of the United States that are based in Europe made to ensure the safety, security, reliability, and credibility of such weapons.


(c) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(1) the Committees on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Senate; and

(2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1037(b)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1926.)

§497a. Notification required for reduction or consolidation of dual-capable aircraft based in Europe

(a) Notification.—Not less than 90 days before the date on which the Secretary of Defense reduces or consolidates the dual-capable aircraft of the United States that are based in Europe, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees a notification of such planned reduction or consolidation, including the following:

(1) The reasons for such planned reduction or consolidation.

(2) Any effects of such planned reduction or consolidation on the extended deterrence mission of the United States.

(3) The manner in which the military requirements of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) will continue to be met in light of such planned reduction or consolidation.

(4) A statement by the Secretary on the response of NATO to such planned reduction or consolidation.

(5) Whether there is any change in the force posture of the Russian Federation as a result of such planned reduction or consolidation, including with respect to the nonstrategic nuclear weapons of Russia that are within range of the member states of NATO.


(b) Dual-capable Aircraft Defined.—In this section, the term "dual-capable aircraft" means aircraft that can perform both conventional and nuclear missions.

(Added Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1051(b)(1), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 858.)

§498. Unilateral change in nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States

(a) In General.—Other than pursuant to a treaty, if the President has under consideration to unilaterally change the size of the total stockpile of nuclear weapons of the United States by more than 25 percent, prior to doing so the President shall initiate a Nuclear Posture Review.

(b) Terms of Reference.—Prior to the initiation of a Nuclear Posture Review under this section, the President shall determine the terms of reference for the Nuclear Posture Review, which the President shall provide to the congressional defense committees.

(c) Nuclear Posture Review.—Upon completion of a Nuclear Posture Review under this section, the President shall submit the Nuclear Posture Review to the congressional defense committees prior to implementing any change in the nuclear weapons stockpile by more than 25 percent.

(d) Construction.—This section shall not apply to changes to the nuclear weapons stockpile resulting from treaty obligations.

(e) Form.—A Nuclear Posture Review under this section shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1038(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1927; amended Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(a)(6), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 875.)

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–66 inserted a period after the enumerator in section catchline.

§499. Annual assessment of cyber resiliency of nuclear command and control system

(a) In General.—Not less frequently than annually, the Commander of the United States Strategic Command and the Commander of the United States Cyber Command (in this section referred to collectively as the "Commanders") shall jointly conduct an assessment of the cyber resiliency of the nuclear command and control system.

(b) Elements.—In conducting the assessment required by subsection (a), the Commanders shall—

(1) conduct an assessment of the sufficiency and resiliency of the nuclear command and control system to operate through a cyber attack from the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, or any other country or entity the Commanders identify as a potential threat; and

(2) develop recommendations for mitigating any concerns of the Commanders resulting from the assessment.


(c) Report Required.—(1) The Commanders shall jointly submit to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, for submission to the Council on Oversight of the National Leadership Command, Control, and Communications System established under section 171a of this title, a report on the assessment required by subsection (a) that includes the following:

(A) The recommendations developed under subsection (b)(2).

(B) A statement of the degree of confidence of each of the Commanders in the mission assurance of the nuclear deterrent against a top tier cyber threat.

(C) A detailed description of the approach used to conduct the assessment required by subsection (a) and the technical basis of conclusions reached in conducting that assessment.

(D) Any other comments of the Commanders.


(2) The Council shall submit to the Secretary of Defense the report required by paragraph (1) and any comments of the Council on the report.

(3) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees the report required by paragraph (1), any comments of the Council on the report under paragraph (2), and any comments of the Secretary on the report.

(d) Quarterly Briefings.—Not less than once every quarter, the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall jointly provide to the Committees on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Senate a briefing on any known or suspected critical intelligence parameter breaches that were identified during the previous quarter, including an assessment of any known or suspected impacts of such breaches to the mission effectiveness of military capabilities as of the date of the briefing or thereafter.

(e) Termination.—The requirements of this section shall terminate on December 31, 2027.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1651(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1756.)

§499a. Collection, storage, and sharing of data relating to nuclear security enterprise and nuclear forces

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation, and the Administrator for Nuclear Security, acting through the Director for Cost Estimating and Program Evaluation, shall collect and store cost, programmatic, and technical data relating to programs and projects of the nuclear security enterprise and nuclear forces.

(b) Sharing of Data.—If the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation or the Director for Cost Estimating and Program Evaluation requests data relating to programs or projects from any element of the Department of Defense or from any element of the nuclear security enterprise of the National Nuclear Security Administration, that element shall provide that data in a timely manner.

(c) Storage of Data.—(1) Data collected by the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation and the Director for Cost Estimating and Program Evaluation under this section shall be—

(A) stored in the data storage system of the Defense Cost and Resource Center, or successor center, or in a data storage system of the National Nuclear Security Administration that is comparable to the data storage system of the Defense Cost and Resource Center; and

(B) made accessible to other Federal agencies as such Directors consider appropriate.


(2) The Secretary and the Administrator shall ensure that the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation and the Director for Cost Estimating and Program Evaluation have sufficient information system support, as determined by such Directors, to facilitate the timely hosting, handling, and sharing of data relating to programs and projects of the nuclear security enterprise under this section at the appropriate level of classification.

(3) The Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors of the National Nuclear Security Administration may coordinate with the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation and the Director for Cost Estimating and Program Evaluation to ensure that, at the discretion of the Deputy Administrator, data relating to programs and projects of the Office of Naval Reactors are correctly represented in the data storage system pursuant to paragraph (1)(A).

(d) Contract Requirements.—The Secretary and the Administrator shall ensure that any relevant contract relating to a program or project of the nuclear security enterprise and nuclear forces that is entered into after December 11, 2017, appropriately includes—

(1) requirements and standards for data collection; and

(2) requirements for reporting on cost, programmatic, and technical data using procedures, standards, and formats approved by the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation and the Director for Cost Estimating and Program Evaluation.


(e) Nuclear Security Enterprise Defined.—In this section, the term "nuclear security enterprise" has the meaning given that term in section 4002 of the Atomic Energy Defense Act (50 U.S.C. 2501).

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1652(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1757; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(7), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1983.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "after December 11, 2017," for "on or after the date of the enactment of this section" in introductory provisions.