[USC02] 10 USC Subtitle A, PART II, CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER IX: POST-TRIAL PROCEDURE AND REVIEW OF COURTS-MARTIAL
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10 USC Subtitle A, PART II, CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER IX: POST-TRIAL PROCEDURE AND REVIEW OF COURTS-MARTIAL
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART II—PERSONNELCHAPTER 47—UNIFORM CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE

SUBCHAPTER IX—POST-TRIAL PROCEDURE AND REVIEW OF COURTS-MARTIAL

 
Sec.Art. 
859. 59. Error of law; lesser included offense.
860. 60. Post-trial processing in general and special courts-martial.
860a. 60a. Limited authority to act on sentence in specified post-trial circumstances.
860b. 60b. Post-trial actions in summary courts-martial and certain general and special courts-martial.
860c. 60c. Entry of judgment.
861. 61. Waiver of right to appeal; withdrawal of appeal.
862. 62. Appeal by the United States.
863. 63. Rehearings.
864. 64. Judge advocate review of finding of guilty in summary court-martial.
865. 65. Transmittal and review of records.
866. 66. Courts of Criminal Appeals.
867. 67. Review by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.
867a. 67a. Review by the Supreme Court.
868. 68. Branch offices.
869. 69. Review by Judge Advocate General.
870. 70. Appellate counsel.
[871. 71. Repealed.]
872. 72. Vacation of suspension.
873. 73. Petition for a new trial.
874. 74. Remission and suspension.
875. 75. Restoration.
876. 76. Finality of proceedings, findings, and sentences.
876a. 76a. Leave required to be taken pending review of certain court-martial convictions.
876b. 76b. Lack of mental capacity or mental responsibility: commitment of accused for examination and treatment.

Amendments

2017Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(19)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, made technical amendment to Pub. L. 114–328, §5541(6)(A) to (C). See 2016 Amendment notes below.

2016Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LXIII, §5541(6)(D), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2967, struck out item 871 "Art. 71. Execution of sentence; suspension of sentence".

Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LXIII, §5541(6)(B), (C), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2967, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(19)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, substituted "Judge advocate review of finding of guilty in summary court-martial" for "Review by a judge advocate" in item 864, "Transmittal and review of records" for "Disposition of records" in item 865, "Courts of Criminal Appeals" for "Review by Court of Criminal Appeals" in item 866, and "Review by Judge Advocate General" for "Review in the office of the Judge Advocate General" in item 869.

Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LXIII, §5541(6)(A), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2966, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(19)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, added items 860a to 860c and substituted "Post-trial processing in general and special courts-martial" for "Action by the convening authority" in item 860.

Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LXIII, §5541(6)(A), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2966, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(19)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, which directed amendment of analysis by striking out item "61" and inserting item 861, was amended by striking out item 861 "Waiver or withdrawal of appeal" and adding new item 861 to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §1133(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 466, added item 876b.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(4)(C), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2832, substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" in item 866 and "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" in item 867.

1990Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(i)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1718, added item 867a.

1983Pub. L. 98–209, §§5(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2), (h)(2), 6(d)(2), 7(a)(2), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1397, 1398, 1400-1402, substituted "Post-trial Procedure and Review of Courts-Martial" for "Review of Courts-Martial" as subchapter heading, "Action by the convening authority" for "Initial action on the record" in item 860, "Waiver or withdrawal of appeal" for "Same—General court-martial records" in item 861, "Appeal by the United States" for "Reconsideration and revision" in item 862, "Review by a judge advocate" for "Approval by the convening authority" in item 864, and "Disposition of records" for "Disposition of records after review by the convening authority" in item 865.

1981Pub. L. 97–81, §2(c)(2), Nov. 20, 1981, 95 Stat. 1087, added item 876a.

1968Pub. L. 90–632, §2(25), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1341, substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" in item 866 (article 66).

§859. Art. 59. Error of law; lesser included offense

(a) A finding or sentence of a court-martial may not be held incorrect on the ground of an error of law unless the error materially prejudices the substantial rights of the accused.

(b) Any reviewing authority with the power to approve or affirm a finding of guilty may approve or affirm, instead, so much of the finding as includes a lesser included offense.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 57.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
859(a)

859(b)

50:646(a).

50:646(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 59), 64 Stat. 127.

The word "may" is substituted for the word "shall".

§860. Art 60. Post-trial processing in general and special courts-martial

(a) Statement of Trial Results.—(1) The military judge of a general or special court-martial shall enter into the record of trial a document entitled "Statement of Trial Results", which shall set forth—

(A) each plea and finding;

(B) the sentence, if any; and

(C) such other information as the President may prescribe by regulation.


(2) Copies of the Statement of Trial Results shall be provided promptly to the convening authority, the accused, and any victim of the offense.

(b) Post-trial Motions.—In accordance with regulations prescribed by the President, the military judge in a general or special court-martial shall address all post-trial motions and other post-trial matters that—

(1) may affect a plea, a finding, the sentence, the Statement of Trial Results, the record of trial, or any post-trial action by the convening authority; and

(2) are subject to resolution by the military judge before entry of judgment.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 57; Pub. L. 98–209, §5(a)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1395; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title VIII, §806(a)–(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3908, 3909; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §1132, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVII, §§1702(b), (c)(1), 1706, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 955–957, 960; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title V, §531(a)(1)–(3), (5), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3362, 3363; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5321, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2924.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
860 50:647. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 60), 64 Stat. 127.

The word "a" is substituted for the word "every". The word "by" before the words "any officer" is omitted as surplusage. The word "person" is substituted for the word "officer" before the words "who convened", since, under sections 823 and 824 of this title (articles 23 and 24), noncommissioned officers who are "officers in charge" may convene special and summary courts-martial.

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to action by the convening authority.

2014—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(1)(A), inserted "and may be taken only with respect to a qualifying offense" after "is not required".

Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(1)(B), struck out ", other than a charge or specification for a qualifying offense," after "specification" and inserted ", but may take such action with respect to a qualifying offense" before semicolon.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(1)(C), struck out ", other than a charge or specification for a qualifying offense," after "to a charge or specification" and inserted ", but may take such action with respect to a qualifying offense" before period.

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(2), struck out "(other than a qualifying offense)" after "offense".

Subsec. (c)(4)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(5), inserted "pursuant to section 856(b) of this title (article 56(b))" after "applies".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(3)(A)(i), inserted ", if applicable" before semicolon.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(3)(A)(ii), struck out "if applicable," before "the date".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 113–291, §531(a)(3)(B), substituted "harm" for "loss".

2013—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–66, §1706(c), substituted "subsection (e)" for "subsection (d)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–66, §1702(c)(1)(A), substituted "or another person authorized to act under this section" for "or other person taking action under this section".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 113–66, §1706(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–66, §1702(b), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text related to the command prerogative of the convening authority to modify the findings and sentence of a court-martial.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–66, §1706(a)(2), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Pub. L. 113–66, §1702(c)(1)(B), substituted "or another person authorized to act under this section" for "or other person taking action under this section" in first sentence.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–66, §1706(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 113–66, §1702(c)(1)(C), substituted "or another person authorized to act under this section" for "or other person taking action under this section, in his sole discretion,".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 113–66, §1702(c)(1)(D), substituted "or another person authorized to act under this section" for "or other person taking action under this section".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–66, §1706(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f).

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–106 inserted after first sentence "Any such submission shall be in writing."

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–661, §806(a)(3), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "Within 30 days after the sentence of a general court-martial or of a special court-martial which has adjudged a bad-conduct discharge has been announced, the accused may submit to the convening authority matters for consideration by the convening authority with respect to the findings and the sentence. In the case of all other special courts-martial, the accused may make such a submission to the convening authority within 20 days after the sentence is announced. In the case of all summary courts-martial the accused may make such a submission to the convening authority within seven days after the sentence is announced. If the accused shows that additional time is required for the accused to submit such matters, the convening authority or other person taking action under this section, for good cause, may extend the period—

"(A) in the case of a general court-martial or a special court-martial which has adjudged a bad-conduct discharge, for not more than an additional 20 days; and

"(B) in the case of all other courts-martial, for not more than an additional 10 days."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–661, §806(a)(2), (3), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–661, §806(a)(1), (2), redesignated par. (2) as (3), inserted a comma after "case", and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "In no event shall the accused in any general or special court-martial case have less than a seven-day period after the day on which a copy of the authenticated record of trial has been given to him within which to make a submission under paragraph (1). The convening authority or other person taking action on the case, for good cause, may extend this period for up to an additional 10 days."

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–661, §806(b), struck out "and, if applicable, under subsection (d)," after "under subsection (b)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–661, §806(c), substituted "who may submit any matter in response under subsection (b)" for "who shall have five days from the date of receipt in which to submit any matter in response. The convening authority or other person taking action under this section, for good cause, may extend that period for up to an additional 20 days."

1983Pub. L. 98–209 amended section generally, substituting "Action by the convening authority" for "Initial action on the record" as section catchline, and, in text, substituting new provision for provision that after a trial by court-martial the record had to be forwarded to the convening authority, and action thereon could be taken by the person who convened the court, a commissioned officer commanding for the time being, a successor in command, or any officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVII, §1702(d)(2), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 958, as amended by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title V, §531(g)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3365, provided that:

"(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendments made by subsection (b) and paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (c) [amending this section and section 871 of this title] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2013] and shall apply with respect to offenses committed under chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code (the Uniform Code of Military Justice), on or after that effective date.

"(B) With respect to the findings and sentence of a court-martial that includes both a conviction for an offense committed before the effective date specified in subparagraph (A) and a conviction for an offense committed on or after that effective date, the convening authority shall have the same authority to take action on such findings and sentence as was in effect on the day before such effective date, except with respect to a mandatory minimum sentence under section 856(b) of title 10, United States Code (article 56(b) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice)."

[Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title V, §531(g)(2)(B), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3366, provided that: "The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending section 1702(d)(2) of Pub. L. 113–66, set out above] shall not apply to the findings and sentence of a court-martial with respect to which the convening authority has taken action before the date that is 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014]."]

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title VIII, §806(c) [(d)], Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3909, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply in cases in which the sentence is adjudged on or after the effective date of this title."

Title VIII of Pub. L. 99–661 effective the earlier of (1) the last day of the 120-day period beginning on Nov. 14, 1986; or (2) the date specified in an Executive order for such amendment to take effect, see section 808 of Pub. L. 99–661, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§860a. Art. 60a. Limited authority to act on sentence in specified post-trial circumstances

(a) In General.—(1) The convening authority of a general or special court-martial described in paragraph (2)—

(A) may act on the sentence of the court-martial only as provided in subsection (b), (c), or (d); and

(B) may not act on the findings of the court-martial.


(2) The courts-martial referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:

(A) A general or special court-martial in which the maximum sentence of confinement established under subsection (a) of section 856 of this title (article 56) for any offense of which the accused is found guilty is more than two years.

(B) A general or special court-martial in which the total of the sentences of confinement imposed, running consecutively, is more than six months.

(C) A general or special court-martial in which the sentence imposed includes a dismissal, dishonorable discharge, or bad-conduct discharge.

(D) A general or special court-martial in which the accused is found guilty of a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of section 920 of this title (article 120), section 920b of this title (article 120b), or such other offense as the Secretary of Defense may specify by regulation.


(3) Except as provided in subsection (d), the convening authority may act under this section only before entry of judgment.

(4) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, a commissioned officer commanding for the time being, a successor in command, or any person exercising general court-martial jurisdiction may act under this section in place of the convening authority.

(b) Reduction, Commutation, and Suspension of Sentences Generally.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (c) or (d), the convening authority may not reduce, commute, or suspend any of the following sentences:

(A) A sentence of confinement, if the total period of confinement imposed for all offenses involved, running consecutively, is greater than six months.

(B) A sentence of dismissal, dishonorable discharge, or bad-conduct discharge.

(C) A sentence of death.


(2) The convening authority may reduce, commute, or suspend any sentence not specified in paragraph (1).

(c) Suspension of Certain Sentences Upon Recommendation of Military Judge.—(1) Upon recommendation of the military judge, as included in the Statement of Trial Results, together with an explanation of the facts supporting the recommendation, the convening authority may suspend—

(A) a sentence of confinement, in whole or in part; or

(B) a sentence of dismissal, dishonorable discharge, or bad-conduct discharge.


(2) The convening authority may not, under paragraph (1)—

(A) suspend a mandatory minimum sentence; or

(B) suspend a sentence to an extent in excess of the suspension recommended by the military judge.


(d) Reduction of Sentence for Substantial Assistance by Accused.—(1) Upon a recommendation by the trial counsel, if the accused, after sentencing and before entry of judgment, provides substantial assistance in the investigation or prosecution of another person, the convening authority may reduce, commute, or suspend a sentence, in whole or in part, including any mandatory minimum sentence.

(2) Upon a recommendation by a trial counsel, designated in accordance with rules prescribed by the President, if the accused, after entry of judgment, provides substantial assistance in the investigation or prosecution of another person, a convening authority, designated under such regulations, may reduce, commute, or suspend a sentence, in whole or in part, including any mandatory minimum sentence.

(3) In evaluating whether the accused has provided substantial assistance under this subsection, the convening authority may consider the presentence assistance of the accused.

(e) Submissions by Accused and Victim.—(1) In accordance with rules prescribed by the President, in determining whether to act under this section, the convening authority shall consider matters submitted in writing by the accused or any victim of an offense. Such rules shall include—

(A) procedures for notice of the opportunity to make such submissions;

(B) the deadlines for such submissions; and

(C) procedures for providing the accused and any victim of an offense with a copy of the recording of any open sessions of the court-martial and copies of, or access to, any admitted, unsealed exhibits.


(2) The convening authority shall not consider under this section any submitted matters that relate to the character of a victim unless such matters were presented as evidence at trial and not excluded at trial.

(f) Decision of Convening Authority.—(1) The decision of the convening authority under this section shall be forwarded to the military judge, with copies provided to the accused and to any victim of the offense.

(2) If, under this section, the convening authority reduces, commutes, or suspends the sentence, the decision of the convening authority shall include a written explanation of the reasons for such action.

(3) If, under subsection (d)(2), the convening authority reduces, commutes, or suspends the sentence, the decision of the convening authority shall be forwarded to the chief trial judge for appropriate modification of the entry of judgment, which shall be transmitted to the Judge Advocate General for appropriate action.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5322, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2924.)

Effective Date

Section effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

§860b. Art. 60b. Post-trial actions in summary courts-martial and certain general and special courts-martial

(a) In General.—(1) In a court-martial not specified in section 860a(a)(2) of this title (article 60a(a)(2)), the convening authority may—

(A) dismiss any charge or specification by setting aside the finding of guilty;

(B) change a finding of guilty to a charge or specification to a finding of guilty to a lesser included offense;

(C) disapprove the findings and the sentence and dismiss the charges and specifications;

(D) disapprove the findings and the sentence and order a rehearing as to the findings and the sentence;

(E) disapprove, commute, or suspend the sentence, in whole or in part; or

(F) disapprove the sentence and order a rehearing as to the sentence.


(2) In a summary court-martial, the convening authority shall approve the sentence or take other action on the sentence under paragraph (1).

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4), the convening authority may act under this section only before entry of judgment.

(4) The convening authority may act under this section after entry of judgment in a general or special court-martial in the same manner as the convening authority may act under section 860a(d)(2) of this title (article 60a(d)(2)). Such action shall be forwarded to the chief trial judge, who shall ensure appropriate modification to the entry of judgment and shall transmit the entry of judgment to the Judge Advocate General for appropriate action.

(5) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, a commissioned officer commanding for the time being, a successor in command, or any person exercising general court-martial jurisdiction may act under this section in place of the convening authority.

(b) Limitations on Rehearings.—The convening authority may not order a rehearing under this section—

(1) as to the findings, if there is insufficient evidence in the record to support the findings;

(2) to reconsider a finding of not guilty of any specification or a ruling which amounts to a finding of not guilty; or

(3) to reconsider a finding of not guilty of any charge, unless there has been a finding of guilty under a specification laid under that charge, which sufficiently alleges a violation of some article of this chapter.


(c) Submissions by Accused and Victim.—In accordance with rules prescribed by the President, in determining whether to act under this section, the convening authority shall consider matters submitted in writing by the accused or any victim of the offense. Such rules shall include the matter required by section 860a(e) of this title (article 60a(e)).

(d) Decision of Convening Authority.—(1) In a general or special court-martial, the decision of the convening authority under this section shall be forwarded to the military judge, with copies provided to the accused and to any victim of the offense.

(2) If the convening authority acts on the findings or the sentence under subsection (a)(1), the decision of the convening authority shall include a written explanation of the reasons for such action.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5323, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2926.)

Effective Date

Section effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

§860c. Art. 60c. Entry of judgment

(a) Entry of Judgment of General or Special Court-martial.—(1) In accordance with rules prescribed by the President, in a general or special court-martial, the military judge shall enter into the record of trial the judgment of the court. The judgment of the court shall consist of the following:

(A) The Statement of Trial Results under section 860 of this title (article 60).

(B) Any modifications of, or supplements to, the Statement of Trial Results by reason of—

(i) any post-trial action by the convening authority; or

(ii) any ruling, order, or other determination of the military judge that affects a plea, a finding, or the sentence.


(2) Under rules prescribed by the President, the judgment under paragraph (1) shall be—

(A) provided to the accused and to any victim of the offense; and

(B) made available to the public.


(b) Summary Court-martial Judgment.—The findings and sentence of a summary court-martial, as modified by any post-trial action by the convening authority under section 860b of this title (article 60b), constitutes the judgment of the court-martial and shall be recorded and distributed under rules prescribed by the President.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5324, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2927.)

Effective Date

Section effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

§861. Art. 61. Waiver of right to appeal; withdrawal of appeal

(a) Waiver of Right to Appeal.—After entry of judgment in a general or special court-martial, under procedures prescribed by the Secretary concerned, the accused may waive the right to appellate review in each case subject to such review under section 866 of this title (article 66). Such a waiver shall be—

(1) signed by the accused and by defense counsel; and

(2) attached to the record of trial.


(b) Withdrawal of Appeal.—In a general or special court-martial, the accused may withdraw an appeal at any time.

(c) Death Penalty Case Exception.—Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b), an accused may not waive the right to appeal or withdraw an appeal with respect to a judgment that includes a sentence of death.

(d) Waiver or Withdrawal as Bar.—A waiver or withdrawal under this section bars review under section 866 of this title (article 66).

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 58; Pub. L. 98–209, §5(b)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1397; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5325, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2928.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
861 50:648. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 61), 64 Stat. 127.

The word "each" is substituted for the word "every".

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to waiver or withdrawal of appeal.

1983Pub. L. 98–209 amended section generally, substituting "Waiver or withdrawal of appeal" for "Same—General court-martial records" as section catchline, and, in text, substituting provisions relating to waiver or withdrawal of appeal for provisions relating to initial action by the convening authority on general court-martial records.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§862. Art. 62. Appeal by the United States

(a)(1) In a trial by general or special court-martial, or in a pretrial proceeding under section 830a of this title (article 30a), the United States may appeal the following:

(A) An order or ruling of the military judge which terminates the proceedings with respect to a charge or specification.

(B) An order or ruling which excludes evidence that is substantial proof of a fact material in the proceeding.

(C) An order or ruling which directs the disclosure of classified information.

(D) An order or ruling which imposes sanctions for nondisclosure of classified information.

(E) A refusal of the military judge to issue a protective order sought by the United States to prevent the disclosure of classified information.

(F) A refusal by the military judge to enforce an order described in subparagraph (E) that has previously been issued by appropriate authority.

(G) An order or ruling of the military judge entering a finding of not guilty with respect to a charge or specification following the return of a finding of guilty by the members.


(2)(A) An appeal of an order or ruling may not be taken unless the trial counsel provides the military judge with written notice of appeal from the order or ruling within 72 hours of the order or ruling. Such notice shall include a certification by the trial counsel that the appeal is not taken for the purpose of delay and (if the order or ruling appealed is one which excludes evidence) that the evidence excluded is substantial proof of a fact material in the proceeding.

(B) An appeal of an order or ruling may not be taken when prohibited by section 844 of this title (article 44).

(3) An appeal under this section shall be diligently prosecuted by appellate Government counsel.

(b) An appeal under this section shall be forwarded by a means prescribed under regulations of the President directly to the Court of Criminal Appeals and shall, whenever practicable, have priority over all other proceedings before that court. In ruling on an appeal under this section, the Court of Criminal Appeals may act only with respect to matters of law.

(c) Any period of delay resulting from an appeal under this section shall be excluded in deciding any issue regarding denial of a speedy trial unless an appropriate authority determines that the appeal was filed solely for the purpose of delay with the knowledge that it was totally frivolous and without merit.

(d) The United States may appeal a ruling or order of a military magistrate in the same manner as had the ruling or order been made by a military judge, except that the issue shall first be presented to the military judge who designated the military magistrate or to a military judge detailed to hear the issue.

(e) The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed to effect its purposes.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 58; Pub. L. 98–209, §5(c)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1398; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §1141(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 466; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5326, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2928; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title V, §531(h), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1385.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
862(a)

862(b)

50:649(a).

50:649(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 62), 64 Stat. 127.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91 struck out ", notwithstanding section 866(c) of this title (article 66(c))" after "matters of law".

2016—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–328, §5326(1)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted "general or special court-martial, or in a pretrial proceeding under section 830a of this title (article 30a), the United States may appeal the following:" for "court-martial in which a military judge presides and in which a punitive discharge may be adjudged, the United States may appeal the following (other than an order or ruling that is, or that amounts to, a finding of not guilty with respect to the charge or specification):".

Subsec. (a)(1)(G). Pub. L. 114–328, §5326(1)(B), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–328, §5326(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 114–328, §5326(3), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–106 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "In a trial by court-martial in which a military judge presides and in which a punitive discharge may be adjudged, the United States may appeal an order or ruling of the military judge which terminates the proceedings with respect to a charge or specification or which excludes evidence that is substantial proof of a fact material in the proceeding. However, the United States may not appeal an order or ruling that is, or that amounts to, a finding of not guilty with respect to the charge or specification."

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" in two places.

1983Pub. L. 98–209 amended section generally, substituting "Appeal by the United States" for "Reconsideration and revision" as section catchline, and, in text, substituting provisions relating to appeals by the United States for provisions relating to the convening authority returning the record to the court for reconsideration and appropriate action.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 531(p) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§863. Art. 63. Rehearings

(a) Each rehearing under this chapter shall take place before a court-martial composed of members not members of the court-martial which first heard the case. Upon a rehearing the accused may not be tried for any offense of which he was found not guilty by the first court-martial, and no sentence in excess of or more severe than the original sentence may be adjudged, unless the sentence is based upon a finding of guilty of an offense not considered upon the merits in the original proceedings, or unless the sentence prescribed for the offense is mandatory.

(b) If the sentence adjudged by the first court-martial was in accordance with a plea agreement under section 853a of this title (article 53a) and the accused at the rehearing does not comply with the agreement, or if a plea of guilty was entered for an offense at the first court-martial and a plea of not guilty was entered at the rehearing, the sentence as to those charges or specifications may include any punishment not in excess of that which could have been adjudged at the first court-martial, subject to such limitations as the President may prescribe by regulation.

(c) If, after appeal by the Government under section 856(d) of this title (article 56(d)), the sentence adjudged is set aside and a rehearing on sentence is ordered by the Court of Criminal Appeals or Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, the court-martial may impose any sentence that is in accordance with the order or ruling setting aside the adjudged sentence, subject to such limitations as the President may prescribe by regulation.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 58; Pub. L. 98–209, §5(d), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1398; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1065, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2506; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5327, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2929; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title V, §531(i), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1385.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
863(a)

863(b)

50:650(a).

50:650(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 63), 64 Stat. 127.

In subsection (a), the words "In such a" are substituted for the words "in which".

In subsection (b), the word "Each" is substituted for the word "Every". The word "may" is substituted for the word "shall" in the second sentence.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91 inserted ", subject to such limitations as the President may prescribe by regulation" before period at end.

2016Pub. L. 114–328 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted "may be adjudged" for "may be approved" in second sentence, struck out at end "If the sentence approved after the first court-martial was in accordance with a pretrial agreement and the accused at the rehearing changes his plea with respect to the charges or specifications upon which the pretrial agreement was based, or otherwise does not comply with the pretrial agreement, the approved sentence as to those charges or specifications may include any punishment not in excess of that lawfully adjudged at the first court-martial.", and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1992Pub. L. 102–484 substituted "approved" for "imposed" in second sentence and inserted "approved" before last reference to "sentence" in third sentence.

1983Pub. L. 98–209 struck out subsec. (a) which provided that if the convening authority disapproved the findings and sentence of a court-martial he could, except where there was lack of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings, order a rehearing, stating the reasons for disapproval, and that if he disapproved the findings without reordering a rehearing, he had to dismiss the charges, and redesignated former subsec. (b) as entire section, and, as so redesignated, inserted "under this chapter" after "Each rehearing", and inserted provision that if the sentence approved after the first court-martial was in accordance with a pretrial agreement and the accused at the rehearing changes his plea with respect to the charges or specifications upon which the pretrial agreement was based, or otherwise does not comply with the pretrial agreement, the sentence as to those charges or specifications may include any punishment not in excess of that lawfully adjudged at the first court-martial.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 531(p) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–484 effective Oct. 23, 1992, and applicable with respect to offenses committed on or after that date, see section 1067 of Pub. L. 102–484, set out as a note under section 803 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§864. Art. 64. Judge advocate review of finding of guilty in summary court-martial

(a) In General.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, each summary court-martial in which there is a finding of guilty shall be reviewed by a judge advocate. A judge advocate may not review a case under this subsection if the judge advocate has acted in the same case as an accuser, preliminary hearing officer, member of the court, military judge, or counsel or has otherwise acted on behalf of the prosecution or defense. The judge advocate's review shall be in writing and shall contain the following:

(1) Conclusions as to whether—

(A) the court had jurisdiction over the accused and the offense;

(B) the charge and specification stated an offense; and

(C) the sentence was within the limits prescribed as a matter of law.


(2) A response to each allegation of error made in writing by the accused.

(3) If the case is sent for action under subsection (b), a recommendation as to the appropriate action to be taken and an opinion as to whether corrective action is required as a matter of law.


(b) Record.—The record of trial and related documents in each case reviewed under subsection (a) shall be sent for action to the person exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the accused at the time the court was convened (or to that person's successor in command) if—

(1) the judge advocate who reviewed the case recommends corrective action; or

(2) such action is otherwise required by regulations of the Secretary concerned.


(c)(1) The person to whom the record of trial and related documents are sent under subsection (b) may—

(A) disapprove or approve the findings or sentence, in whole or in part;

(B) remit, commute, or suspend the sentence in whole or in part;

(C) except where the evidence was insufficient at the trial to support the findings, order a rehearing on the findings, on the sentence, or on both; or

(D) dismiss the charges.


(2) If a rehearing is ordered but the convening authority finds a rehearing impracticable, he shall dismiss the charges.

(3) If the opinion of the judge advocate in the judge advocate's review under subsection (a) is that corrective action is required as a matter of law and if the person required to take action under subsection (b) does not take action that is at least as favorable to the accused as that recommended by the judge advocate, the record of trial and action thereon shall be sent to the Judge Advocate General for review under section 869 of this title (article 69).

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 58; Pub. L. 98–209, §7(a)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5328, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2929; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(c)(1)(I), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1598.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
864 50:651. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 64), 64 Stat. 128.

The word "may" is substituted for the word "shall". The word "is" is substituted for the words "shall constitute".

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "(a) In General.—" for "(a) (a) In General.—".

2016Pub. L. 114–328, §5328(b)(1), substituted "Judge advocate review of finding of guilty in summary court-martial" for "Review by a judge advocate" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328, §5328(a), inserted subsec. (a) designation, heading, and first two sentences, and struck out former first two sentences which read as follows: "Each case in which there has been a finding of guilty that is not reviewed under section 866 or 869(a) of this title (article 66 or 69(a)) shall be reviewed by a judge advocate under regulations of the Secretary concerned. A judge advocate may not review a case under this subsection if he has acted in the same case as an accuser, investigating officer, member of the court, military judge, or counsel or has otherwise acted on behalf of the prosecution or defense."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–328, §5328(b)(2)(A), inserted heading.

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 114–328, §5328(b)(2)(B)–(D), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "the sentence approved under section 860(c) of this title (article 60(c)) extends to dismissal, a bad-conduct or dishonorable discharge, or confinement for more than six months; or".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 114–328, §5328(b)(3), substituted "section 869 of this title (article 69)." for "section 869(b) of this title (article 69(b))."

1983Pub. L. 98–209 amended section generally, substituting "Review by a judge advocate" for "Approval by the convening authority" in section catchline, and, in text, substituting provisions relating to review by a judge advocate for provision that in acting on the findings and sentence of a court-martial, the convening authority could approve only such findings of guilty, and the sentence or such part or amount of the sentence, as he found correct in law and fact and as he in his discretion determined should be approved, and that unless he indicated otherwise, approval of the sentence was approval of the findings and sentence.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 1081(c)(4) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§865. Art. 65. Transmittal and review of records

(a) Transmittal of Records.—

(1) Finding of guilty in general or special court-martial.—If the judgment of a general or special court-martial entered under section 860c of this title (article 60c) includes a finding of guilty, the record shall be transmitted to the Judge Advocate General.

(2) Other cases.—In all other cases, records of trial by court-martial and related documents shall be transmitted and disposed of as the Secretary concerned may prescribe by regulation.


(b) Cases for Direct Appeal.—

(1) Automatic review.—If the judgment includes a sentence of death, dismissal of a commissioned officer, cadet, or midshipman, dishonorable discharge or bad-conduct discharge, or confinement for 2 years or more, the Judge Advocate General shall forward the record of trial to the Court of Criminal Appeals for review under section 866(b)(3) of this title (article 66(b)(3)).

(2) Cases eligible for direct appeal review.—

(A) In general.—If the case is eligible for direct review under section 866(b)(1) of this title (article 66(b)(1)), the Judge Advocate General shall—

(i) forward a copy of the record of trial to an appellate defense counsel who shall be detailed to review the case and, upon request of the accused, to represent the accused before the Court of Criminal Appeals; and

(ii) upon written request of the accused, forward a copy of the record of trial to civilian counsel provided by the accused.


(B) Inapplicability.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the accused—

(i) waives the right to appeal under section 861 of this title (article 61); or

(ii) declines in writing the detailing of appellate defense counsel under subparagraph (A)(i).


(c) Notice of Right to Appeal.—

(1) In general.—The Judge Advocate General shall provide notice to the accused of the right to file an appeal under section 866(b)(1) of this title (article 66(b)(1)) by means of depositing in the United States mails for delivery by first class certified mail to the accused at an address provided by the accused or, if no such address has been provided by the accused, at the latest address listed for the accused in the official service record of the accused.

(2) Inapplicability upon waiver of appeal.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply if the accused waives the right to appeal under section 861 of this title (article 61).


(d) Review by Judge Advocate General.—

(1) By whom.—A review conducted under this subsection may be conducted by an attorney within the Office of the Judge Advocate General or another attorney designated under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(2) Review of cases not eligible for direct appeal.—

(A) In general.—A review under subparagraph (B) shall be completed in each general and special court-martial that is not eligible for direct appeal under paragraph (1) or (3) of section 866(b) of this title (article 66(b)).

(B) Scope of review.—A review referred to in subparagraph (A) shall include a written decision providing each of the following:

(i) A conclusion as to whether the court had jurisdiction over the accused and the offense.

(ii) A conclusion as to whether the charge and specification stated an offense.

(iii) A conclusion as to whether the sentence was within the limits prescribed as a matter of law.

(iv) A response to each allegation of error made in writing by the accused.


(3) Review when direct appeal is waived, withdrawn, or not filed.—

(A) In general.—A review under subparagraph (B) shall be completed in each general and special court-martial if—

(i) the accused waives the right to appeal or withdraws appeal under section 861 of this title (article 61); or

(ii) the accused does not file a timely appeal in a case eligible for direct appeal under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of section 866(b)(1) of this title (article 66(b)(1)).


(B) Scope of review.—A review referred to in subparagraph (A) shall include a written decision limited to providing conclusions on the matters specified in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of paragraph (2)(B).


(e) Remedy.—

(1) In general.—If after a review of a record under subsection (d), the attorney conducting the review believes corrective action may be required, the record shall be forwarded to the Judge Advocate General, who may set aside the findings or sentence, in whole or in part.

(2) Rehearing.—In setting aside findings or sentence, the Judge Advocate General may order a rehearing, except that a rehearing may not be ordered in violation of section 844 of this title (article 44).

(3) Remedy without rehearing.—

(A) Dismissal when no rehearing ordered.—If the Judge Advocate General sets aside findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, the Judge Advocate General shall dismiss the charges.

(B) Dismissal when rehearing impractical.—If the Judge Advocate General sets aside findings and orders a rehearing and the convening authority determines that a rehearing would be impractical, the convening authority shall dismiss the charges.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 59; Pub. L. 90–179, §1(6), Dec. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 546; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(26), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1341; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(25), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2922; Pub. L. 98–209, §6(d)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5329, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2930; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(c)(1)(J), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1598.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
865(a)

865(b)

50:652(a).

50:652(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 65), 64 Stat. 128.
865(c) 50:652(c).

In subsection (b), the word "If" is substituted for the word "Where".

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "send" and "sent" are substituted for the words "forward" and "forwarded", respectively.

In subsection (c), the words "Secretary concerned" are substituted for the words "Secretary of the Department".

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "section 866(b)(3) of this title (article 66(b)(3))" for "section 866(b)(2) of this title (article 66(b)(2))".

2016Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to disposition of records.

1983Pub. L. 98–209 amended section generally, substituting "Disposition of records" for "Disposition of records after review by the convening authority" in section catchline, and, in text, substituting provisions relating to disposition of records for prior provisions relating to disposition of records that required when the convening authority had taken final action in a general court-martial case, he had to send the entire record, including his action thereon and the opinion or opinions of the staff judge advocate or legal officer, to the appropriate Judge Advocate General, required that where sentences of special courts-martial included a bad-conduct discharge, the record had to be sent for review either to the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the command to be reviewed or directly to the appropriate Judge Advocate General to be reviewed by a Court of Military Review, and required that all other special and summary court-martial records had to be reviewed by a judge advocate of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or a law specialist or lawyer of the Coast Guard or Department of Transportation, and had to be transmitted and disposed of as the Secretary concerned might prescribe by regulation.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "Department of Transportation" for "Department of the Treasury".

1968—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–632 substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" wherever appearing.

1967—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–179 inserted reference to judge advocate of the Marine Corps and substituted reference to judge advocate of the Navy for reference to law specialist of the Navy.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 1081(c)(4) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§866. Art. 66. Courts of Criminal Appeals

(a) Courts of Criminal Appeals.—Each Judge Advocate General shall establish a Court of Criminal Appeals which shall be composed of one or more panels, and each such panel shall be composed of not less than three appellate military judges. For the purpose of reviewing court-martial cases, the court may sit in panels or as a whole in accordance with rules prescribed under subsection (h). Any decision of a panel may be reconsidered by the court sitting as a whole in accordance with such rules. Appellate military judges who are assigned to a Court of Criminal Appeals may be commissioned officers or civilians, each of whom must be a member of a bar of a Federal court or of the highest court of a State and must be certified by the Judge Advocate General as qualified, by reason of education, training, experience, and judicial temperament, for duty as an appellate military judge. The Judge Advocate General shall designate as chief judge one of the appellate military judges of the Court of Criminal Appeals established by him. The chief judge shall determine on which panels of the court the appellate judges assigned to the court will serve and which military judge assigned to the court will act as the senior judge on each panel. In accordance with regulations prescribed by the President, assignments of appellate military judges under this section (article) shall be for appropriate minimum periods, subject to such exceptions as may be authorized in the regulations.

(b) Review.—

(1) Appeals by accused.—A Court of Criminal Appeals shall have jurisdiction over a timely appeal from the judgment of a court-martial, entered into the record under section 860c of this title (article 60c), as follows:

(A) On appeal by the accused in a case in which the sentence extends to confinement for more than six months and the case is not subject to automatic review under paragraph (3).

(B) On appeal by the accused in a case in which the Government previously filed an appeal under section 862 of this title (article 62).

(C) On appeal by the accused in a case that the Judge Advocate General has sent to the Court of Criminal Appeals for review of the sentence under section 856(d) of this title (article 56(d)).

(D) In a case in which the accused filed an application for review with the Court under section 869(d)(1)(B) of this title (article 69(d)(1)(B)) and the application has been granted by the Court.


(2) Review of certain sentences.—A Court of Criminal Appeals shall have jurisdiction over all cases that the Judge Advocate General orders sent to the Court for review under section 856(d) of this title (article 56(d)).

(3) Automatic review.—A Court of Criminal Appeals shall have jurisdiction over a court-martial in which the judgment entered into the record under section 860c of this title (article 60c) includes a sentence of death, dismissal of a commissioned officer, cadet, or midshipman, dishonorable discharge or bad-conduct discharge, or confinement for 2 years or more.


(c) Timeliness.—An appeal under subsection (b)(1) is timely if it is filed as follows:

(1) In the case of an appeal by the accused under subsection (b)(1)(A) or (b)(1)(B), if filed before the later of—

(A) the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date the accused is provided notice of appellate rights under section 865(c) of this title (article 65(c)); or

(B) the date set by the Court of Criminal Appeals by rule or order.


(2) In the case of an appeal by the accused under subsection (b)(1)(C), if filed before the later of—

(A) the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date the accused is notified that the application for review has been granted by letter placed in the United States mails for delivery by first class certified mail to the accused at an address provided by the accused or, if no such address has been provided by the accused, at the latest address listed for the accused in his official service record; or

(B) the date set by the Court of Criminal Appeals by rule or order.


(d) Duties.—

(1) Cases appealed by accused.—In any case before the Court of Criminal Appeals under subsection (b), the Court may act only with respect to the findings and sentence as entered into the record under section 860c of this title (article 60c). The Court may affirm only such findings of guilty, and the sentence or such part or amount of the sentence, as the Court finds correct in law and fact and determines, on the basis of the entire record, should be approved. In considering the record, the Court may weigh the evidence, judge the credibility of witnesses, and determine controverted questions of fact, recognizing that the trial court saw and heard the witnesses.

(2) Error or excessive delay.—In any case before the Court of Criminal Appeals under subsection (b), the Court may provide appropriate relief if the accused demonstrates error or excessive delay in the processing of the court-martial after the judgment was entered into the record under section 860c of this title (article 60c).


(e) Consideration of Appeal of Sentence by the United States.—

(1) In general.—In considering a sentence on appeal or review as provided in section 856(d) of this title (article 56(d)), the Court of Criminal Appeals may consider—

(A) whether the sentence violates the law; and

(B) whether the sentence is plainly unreasonable.


(2) Record on appeal or review.—In an appeal or review under this subsection or section 856(d) of this title (article 56(d)), the record on appeal or review shall consist of—

(A) any portion of the record in the case that is designated as pertinent by either of the parties;

(B) the information submitted during the sentencing proceeding; and

(C) any information required by regulation prescribed by the President or by rule or order of the Court of Criminal Appeals.


(f) Limits of Authority.—

(1) Set aside of findings.—

(A) In general.—If the Court of Criminal Appeals sets aside the findings, the Court—

(i) may affirm any lesser included offense; and

(ii) may, except when prohibited by section 844 of this title (article 44), order a rehearing.


(B) Dismissal when no rehearing ordered.—If the Court of Criminal Appeals sets aside the findings and does not order a rehearing, the Court shall order that the charges be dismissed.

(C) Dismissal when rehearing impracticable.—If the Court of Criminal Appeals orders a rehearing on a charge and the convening authority finds a rehearing impracticable, the convening authority may dismiss the charge.


(2) Set aside of sentence.—If the Court of Criminal Appeals sets aside the sentence, the Court may—

(A) modify the sentence to a lesser sentence; or

(B) order a rehearing.


(3) Additional proceedings.—If the Court of Criminal Appeals determines that additional proceedings are warranted, the Court may order a hearing as may be necessary to address a substantial issue, subject to such limitations as the Court may direct and under such regulations as the President may prescribe. If the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces determines that additional proceedings are warranted, the Court of Criminal Appeals shall order a hearing or other proceeding in accordance with the direction of the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.


(g) Action in Accordance With Decisions of Courts.—The Judge Advocate General shall, unless there is to be further action by the President, the Secretary concerned, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, or the Supreme Court, instruct the appropriate authority to take action in accordance with the decision of the Court of Criminal Appeals.

(h) Rules of Procedure.—The Judge Advocates General shall prescribe uniform rules of procedure for Courts of Criminal Appeals and shall meet periodically to formulate policies and procedure in regard to review of court-martial cases in the offices of the Judge Advocates General and by Courts of Criminal Appeals.

(i) Prohibition on Evaluation of Other Members of Courts.—No member of a Court of Criminal Appeals shall be required, or on his own initiative be permitted, to prepare, approve, disapprove, review, or submit, with respect to any other member of the same or another Court of Criminal Appeals, an effectiveness, fitness, or efficiency report, or any other report or document used in whole or in part for the purpose of determining whether a member of the armed forces is qualified to be advanced in grade, or in determining the assignment or transfer of a member of the armed forces, or in determining whether a member of the armed forces should be retained on active duty.

(j) Ineligibility of Members of Courts To Review Records of Cases Involving Certain Prior Member Service.—No member of a Court of Criminal Appeals shall be eligible to review the record of any trial if such member served as investigating officer in the case or served as a member of the court-martial before which such trial was conducted, or served as military judge, trial or defense counsel, or reviewing officer of such trial.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 59; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(27), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1341; Pub. L. 98–209, §§7(b), (c), 10(c)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1402, 1406; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(b)(2), (c)(1), (4)(A), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831, 2832; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §1153, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 468; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5330, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2932; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title V, §531(j), title X, §1081(c)(1)(K), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1385, 1598.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
866(a)

866(b)

50:653(a).

50:653(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 66), 64 Stat. 128.
866(c) 50:653(c).
866(d) 50:653(d).
866(e) 50:653(e).
866(f) 50:653(f).

In subsection (a), the word "Each" is substituted for the words "The * * * of each of the armed forces". The word "must" is substituted for the word "shall" after the word "whom", since a condition is prescribed, not a command. The words "of the United States" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsections (a) and (b), the word "commissioned" is inserted before the word "officer".

In subsection (c), the word "may" is substituted for the word "shall" and for the words "shall have authority to".

In subsection (e), the words "Secretary concerned" are substituted for the words "Secretary of the Department".

In subsection (f), the words "of the armed forces" and "proceedings in and before" are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 115–91, §531(j)(1), inserted "by regulation prescribed by the President or" after "required".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 115–91, §§531(j)(2)(A) and 1081(c)(1)(K), amended par. (3) identically, substituting "If the Court of Criminal Appeals" for "If the Court".

Pub. L. 115–91, §531(j)(2)(B), inserted at end "If the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces determines that additional proceedings are warranted, the Court of Criminal Appeals shall order a hearing or other proceeding in accordance with the direction of the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces."

2016Pub. L. 114–328, §5330(d), substituted "Courts of Criminal Appeals" for "Review by Court of Criminal Appeals" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328, §5330(e)(1), inserted heading.

Pub. L. 114–328, §5330(a), substituted "subsection (h)" for "subsection (f)", inserted "and must be certified by the Judge Advocate General as qualified, by reason of education, training, experience, and judicial temperament, for duty as an appellate military judge" after "highest court of a State", and inserted at end "In accordance with regulations prescribed by the President, assignments of appellate military judges under this section (article) shall be for appropriate minimum periods, subject to such exceptions as may be authorized in the regulations."

Subsecs. (b) to (f). Pub. L. 114–328, §5330(b)(2), added subsecs. (b) to (f) and struck out former subsecs. (b) to (d) which related to referral of records in certain cases to a Court of Criminal Appeals, criteria by which a Court of Criminal Appeals may act in a referred case, and possible outcomes if a Court of Criminal Appeals sets aside the findings and sentence. Former subsecs. (e) and (f) redesignated (g) and (h), respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–328, §5330(b)(1), (c), (e)(2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (g), inserted heading, substituted "appropriate authority" for "convening authority", and struck out last sentence which read as follows: "If the Court of Criminal Appeals has ordered a rehearing but the convening authority finds a rehearing impracticable, he may dismiss the charges."

Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 114–328, §5330(b)(1), (e)(3)–(5), redesignated subsecs. (f) to (h) as (h) to (j), respectively, and inserted headings.

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Courts of Criminal Appeals" for "Courts of Military Review" in two places.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §924(c)(4)(A), substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" in section catchline.

Pub. L. 103–337, §924(b)(2), substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 103–337, §924(c)(1), substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" in subsec. (e).

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–209, §7(b), inserted provision that any decision of a panel may be reconsidered by the court sitting as a whole in accordance with the rules.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–209, §7(c), amended subsec. (b) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1), struck out provision extending applicability of provisions to sentences affecting a general or flag officer, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–209, §10(c)(1), substituted "the Court of Military Appeals, or the Supreme Court" for "or the Court of Military Appeals".

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–632, §2(27)(A), (B), substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" in section catchline and, in subsec. (a), substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" as name of reviewing body established by each Judge Advocate General, and inserted provisions setting out procedures for such Courts of Military Review, their composition and functions.

Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 90–632, §2(27)(C), substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 90–632, §2(27)(D), substituted "Courts of Military Review" for "boards of review" in two places.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 90–632, §2(27)(E), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

Change of Name

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831, provided that: "Each Court of Military Review shall hereafter be known and designated as a Court of Criminal Appeals."

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by section 531(j) of Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 531(p) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Amendment by section 1081(c)(1)(K) of Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 1081(c)(4) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but amendments by section 7(b), (c) of Pub. L. 98–209 not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Statutory References to Board of Review Deemed References to Court of Military Review

Pub. L. 90–632, §3(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1343, provided that: "Whenever the term board of review is used, with reference to or in connection with the appellate review of courts-martial cases, in any provision of Federal law (other than provisions amended by this Act) [see Short Title of 1968 Amendment note under section 801 of this title] or in any regulation, document, or record of the United States, such term shall be deemed to mean Court of Military Review [now Court of Criminal Appeals]."

§867. Art. 67. Review by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

(a) The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces shall review the record in—

(1) all cases in which the sentence, as affirmed by a Court of Criminal Appeals, extends to death;

(2) all cases reviewed by a Court of Criminal Appeals which the Judge Advocate General, after appropriate notification to the other Judge Advocates General and the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps, orders sent to the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces for review; and

(3) all cases reviewed by a Court of Criminal Appeals in which, upon petition of the accused and on good cause shown, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces has granted a review.


(b) The accused may petition the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces for review of a decision of a Court of Criminal Appeals within 60 days from the earlier of—

(1) the date on which the accused is notified of the decision of the Court of Criminal Appeals; or

(2) the date on which a copy of the decision of the Court of Criminal Appeals, after being served on appellate counsel of record for the accused (if any), is deposited in the United States mails for delivery by first-class certified mail to the accused at an address provided by the accused or, if no such address has been provided by the accused, at the latest address listed for the accused in his official service record.


The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces shall act upon such a petition promptly in accordance with the rules of the court.

(c)(1) In any case reviewed by it, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces may act only with respect to—

(A) the findings and sentence set forth in the entry of judgment, as affirmed or set aside as incorrect in law by the Court of Criminal Appeals; or

(B) a decision, judgment, or order by a military judge, as affirmed or set aside as incorrect in law by the Court of Criminal Appeals.


(2) In a case which the Judge Advocate General orders sent to the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, that action need be taken only with respect to the issues raised by him.

(3) In a case reviewed upon petition of the accused, that action need be taken only with respect to issues specified in the grant of review.

(4) The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces shall take action only with respect to matters of law.

(d) If the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces sets aside the findings and sentence, it may, except where the setting aside is based on lack of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings, order a rehearing. If it sets aside the findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, it shall order that the charges be dismissed.

(e) After it has acted on a case, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces may direct the Judge Advocate General to return the record to the Court of Criminal Appeals for further review in accordance with the decision of the court. Otherwise, unless there is to be further action by the President or the Secretary concerned, the Judge Advocate General shall instruct the convening authority to take action in accordance with that decision. If the court has ordered a rehearing, but the convening authority finds a rehearing impracticable, he may dismiss the charges.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 60; Pub. L. 88–426, title IV, §403(j), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 434; Pub. L. 90–340, §1, June 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 178; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(28), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 96–579, §12(a), Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3369; Pub. L. 97–81, §5, Nov. 20, 1981, 95 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(12), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 98–209, §§7(d), 9(a), 10(c)(2), 13(d), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1402, 1404, 1406, 1408; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(a)(2), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 275; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VII, §722(a), (c), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2002, 2003; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1569; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), (2), (4)(B), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831, 2832; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5331, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2934.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
867(a)

867(b)

867(c)

867(d)

50:654(a).

50:654(b).

50:654(c).

50:654(d).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 67), 64 Stat. 129; Mar. 2, 1955, ch. 9, §1(i), 69 Stat. 10.
867(e) 50:654(e).
867(f) 50:654(f).
867(g) 50:654(g).

In subsection (a)(1), the word "is" is substituted for the words "is hereby established". The words "all" and "which shall be" are omitted as surplusage. The word "consists" is substituted for the words "shall consist". The word "civil" is substituted for the word "civilian". The word "may" is substituted for the word "shall" before the words "be appointed". The word "is" is substituted for the word "shall" before the words "any person". The words "is entitled to" are substituted for the words "shall receive". The word "is" is substituted for the words "shall be" in the fourth sentence. The word "may" is substituted for the words "shall have power to * * * to". The word "does" is substituted for the word "shall" in the next to the last sentence. In the last sentence, the words "is entitled * * * to" are substituted for the word "shall". The word "outside" is substituted for the words "at a place other than his official station. The official station of such judges for such purpose shall be". The words "also" and "actually" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "February 28, 1951," are substituted for the words "the effective date of this subdivision". The word "shall" in the first sentence, and the word "shall" before the word "expire" in the second sentence, are omitted as surplusage. The word "before" is substituted for the words "prior to". The word "may" is substituted for the word "shall" before the words "be appointed".

In subsection (a)(3), the word "for" is substituted for the words "upon the ground of".

In subsection (b), the words "the following cases" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsections (b) and (d), the word "sent" is substituted for the word "forwarded".

In subsection (c), the word "when" is inserted after the word "time". The words "a grant of" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (d), the word "may" is substituted for the word "shall" in the first sentence.

In subsection (f), the words "Secretary concerned" are substituted for the words "Secretary of the Department".

In subsection (g), the words "of the armed forces" are omitted as surplusage. The words "policies as to sentences" are substituted for the words "sentence policies". The word "considered" is substituted for the word "deemed". The words "Secretaries of the military departments, and the Secretary of the Treasury" are substituted for the words "Secretaries of the Departments".

1982 Act

In subsection (d), the words "Court of Military Review" are substituted for "board of review" because of section 3(b) of the Military Justice Act of 1968 (Pub. L. 90–632, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1343).

The change in subsection (g) reflects the transfer of functions from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of Transportation under 49:1655(b).

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–328, §5331(a), inserted ", after appropriate notification to the other Judge Advocates General and the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps," after "the Judge Advocate General".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328, §5331(b), designated first sentence as par. (1) and substituted "only with respect to—" and subpars. (A) and (B) for "only with respect to the issues raised by him." and designated second to fourth sentences as pars. (2) to (4), respectively.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §924(c)(4)(B), substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" in section catchline.

Pub. L. 103–337, §924(c)(2), substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" wherever appearing in subsecs. (a) to (c) and (e).

Pub. L. 103–337, §924(c)(1), substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" wherever appearing.

1989Pub. L. 101–189 redesignated subsecs. (b) to (f) as (a) to (e), respectively, struck out former subsec. (a) which related to establishment of the United States Court of Military Appeals, and appointment, removal, allowances and compensation, etc., of judges of such court, struck out subsec. (g) which related to a committee required to make annual comprehensive surveys of the operation of this chapter, struck out subsec. (h) which related to review of decisions of the Court of Military Appeals by the Supreme Court, and struck out subsec. (i) which related to annuities for judges and former or retired judges, and survivors and former spouses of judges and former judges.

1988—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100–456, §722(c), inserted "or an annuity under subsection (i) or subchapter III of chapter 83 or chapter 84 of title 5" after "retired pay" in two places.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–456, §722(a), added subsec. (i).

1987—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 100–26 substituted "the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps" for "the Director, Judge Advocate Division, Headquarters, United States Marine Corps".

1983—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–209, §13(d), inserted "Circuit" after "District of Columbia".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–209, §7(d), struck out "affects a general or flag officer or" before "extends to death".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–209, §9(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "A committee consisting of the judges of the Court of Military Appeals, the Judge Advocates General of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the Chief Counsel of the Coast Guard, the Director, Judge Advocate Division, Headquarters, United States Marine Corps, and two members of the public appointed by the Secretary of Defense shall meet at least annually. The committee shall make an annual comprehensive survey of the operation of this chapter. After each such survey, the committee shall report" for "The Court of Military Appeals and the Judge Advocates General shall meet annually to make a comprehensive survey of the operation of this chapter and report", and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–209, §10(c)(2), added subsec. (h).

1982—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–295, §1(12)(A), substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" after "incorrect in law by the".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–295, §1(12)(B), substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of the Treasury" after "military departments, and the".

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–81 substituted provisions authorizing the accused to petition the Court of Military Appeals for review of a decision of a Court of Military Review within 60 days from the earlier of (1) the date on which the accused is notified of the decision of the Court of Military Review, or (2) the date on which a copy of the decision of the Court of Military Review, after being served on appellate counsel of record for the accused (if any), is deposited in the United States mails for delivery by first-class certified mail to the accused at an address provided by the accused or, if no such address has been provided by the accused, at the latest address listed for the accused in his official service record, and directing the Court of Military Appeals to act upon such a petition promptly in accordance with the rules of the court for provision which had given the accused 30 days from the time when he was notified of the decision of a board of review to petition the Court of Military Appeals for review and which had directed the court to act upon such a petition within 30 days of the receipt thereof.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–579 struck out third sentence prescribing expiration of terms of office of all successors of judges of the Court of Military Appeals serving on June 15, 1968, fifteen years after expiration of term of their predecessors subject to requirement that any judge appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed should be appointed only for the unexpired term of the predecessor.

1968—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 90–340 changed the name of the Court of Military Appeals to the United States Court of Military Appeals, and established it under Article I of the United States Constitution, provided that the terms of office of all successors of the judges serving on June 15, 1968, shall expire 15 years after the expiration of the terms for which their predecessors were appointed but that any judge appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term of his predecessor shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of his predecessor, substituted provisions that each judge is entitled to the same salary and travel allowances as are judges of the United States Court of Appeals for provisions that entitled each judge to a salary of $33,000 a year and a travel and maintenance allowance, for expenses incurred while attending court or transacting official business outside the District of Columbia, not to exceed $15 a day, and provided for the precedence of the chief judge, and of the other judges based on their seniority.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–340 redesignated former par. (3) as (2) and changed the name of the Court of Military Appeals to the United States Court of Military Appeals. Provisions of former par. (2) pertaining to the terms of office of judges were placed in par. (1). Provisions of former par. (2) pertaining to the terms of office of the three judges first taking office after February 28, 1951, and expiring, as designated by the President at the time of nomination, one on May 1, 1956, one on May 1, 1961, and one on May 1, 1966, were struck out.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 90–340 redesignated former par. (4) as (3) and changed the name of the Court of Military Appeals to the United States Court of Military Appeals, and provided that a judge appointed to fill a temporary vacancy due to illness or disability may only be a judge of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 90–340 added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Subsecs. (b), (f). Pub. L. 90–632 substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" wherever appearing.

1964—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 88–426 increased salary of judges from $25,500 to $33,000.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VII, §722(d), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2003, provided that: "Subsection (i) of section 867 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to judges of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] whose term of service on such court ends on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 1988] and to the survivors of such judges."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by sections 9(a) and 13(d) Pub. L. 98–209 effective Dec. 6, 1983, and amendment by sections 7(d) and 10(c)(2) of Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but amendment by section 7(d) of Pub. L. 98–209 not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–81 to take effect at end of 60-day period beginning on Nov. 20, 1981, and to apply to any accused with respect to a Court of Military Review [now Court of Criminal Appeals] decision that is dated on or after that date, see section 7(a), (b)(5) of Pub. L. 97–81, set out as an Effective Date note under section 706 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 88–426, see section 501 of Pub. L. 88–426.

Commission To Study and Make Recommendations Concerning Sentencing Authority, Jurisdiction, Tenure, and Retirement of Military Judges; Establishment; Composition; Report to Congressional Committees

Pub. L. 98–209, §9(b), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1404, as amended by Pub. L. 98–525, title XV, §1521, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2628, directed Secretary of Defense to establish a commission to study the sentencing authority, jurisdiction, tenure, and retirement system of military judges, and to report, not later than Dec. 15, 1984, its findings and recommendations to committees of Congress and to the committee established under former section 867(g) of this title.

Terms of Office of Judges of United States Court of Military Appeals

Pub. L. 96–579, §12(b), Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3369, provided that the term of office of a judge of United States Court of Military Appeals serving on such court on Dec. 23, 1980, expire (1) on the date the term of such judge would have expired under the law in effect on the day before Dec. 23, 1980, or (2) ten years after the date on which such judge took office as a judge of the United States Court of Military Appeals, whichever is later.

Continuation of Powers and Jurisdiction of Court of Military Appeals; Status of Judges

Pub. L. 90–340, §2, June 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 178, provided that: "The United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] established under this Act [which amended subsec. (a) of this section] is a continuation of the Court of Military Appeals as it existed prior to the effective date of this Act [June 15, 1968], and no loss of rights or powers, interruption of jurisdiction, or prejudice to matters pending in the Court of Military Appeals before the effective date of this Act shall result. A judge of the Court of Military Appeals so serving on the day before the effective date of this Act shall, for all purposes, be a judge of the United States Court of Military Appeals under this Act."

Salary Increases

1987—Salaries of judges increased to $95,000 per annum, on recommendation of President, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2, The Congress.

1977—Salaries of judges increased to $57,500 per annum, on recommendation of President, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2.

1969—Salaries of judges increased from $33,000 to $42,500 per annum, commencing first day of pay period which begins after Feb. 14, 1969, on recommendation of President, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2.

Executive Order No. 12063

Ex. Ord. No. 12063, June 5, 1978, 43 F.R. 24659, which related to the United States Court of Military Appeals Nominating Commission, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12258, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1251, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§867a. Art. 67a. Review by the Supreme Court

(a) Decisions of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces are subject to review by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari as provided in section 1259 of title 28. The Supreme Court may not review by a writ of certiorari under this section any action of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces in refusing to grant a petition for review.

(b) The accused may petition the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari without prepayment of fees and costs or security therefor and without filing the affidavit required by section 1915(a) of title 28.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1569; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5332, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2935.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328 inserted "United States" before "Court of Appeals" in second sentence.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" in two places.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

§868. Art. 68. Branch offices

The Secretary concerned may direct the Judge Advocate General to establish a branch office with any command. The branch office shall be under an Assistant Judge Advocate General who, with the consent of the Judge Advocate General, may establish a Court of Criminal Appeals with one or more panels. That Assistant Judge Advocate General and any Court of Criminal Appeals established by him may perform for that command under the general supervision of the Judge Advocate General, the respective duties which the Judge Advocate General and a Court of Criminal Appeals established by the Judge Advocate General would otherwise be required to perform as to all cases involving sentences not requiring approval by the President.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 61; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(29), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
868 50:655. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 68), 64 Stat. 130.

The word "considers" is substituted for the word "deems". The word "may" is substituted for the words "shall be empowered to". The word "respective" is inserted for clarity.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" wherever appearing.

1968Pub. L. 90–632 substituted the Secretary concerned for the President as the individual authorized to direct the Judge Advocate General to establish a branch office under an Assistant Judge Advocate General with any command and substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" as the name of the body established by the Assistant Judge Advocate General in charge of the branch office.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§869. Art. 69. Review by Judge Advocate General

(a) In General.—Upon application by the accused and subject to subsections (b), (c), and (d), the Judge Advocate General may modify or set aside, in whole or in part, the findings and sentence in a court-martial that is not reviewed under section 866 of this title (article 66).

(b) Timing.—To qualify for consideration, an application under subsection (a) must be submitted to the Judge Advocate General not later than one year after the date of completion of review under section 864 or 865 of this title (article 64 or 65), as the case may be. The Judge Advocate General may, for good cause shown, extend the period for submission of an application, but may not consider an application submitted more than three years after such completion date.

(c) Scope.—(1)(A) In a case reviewed under section 864 or 865(b) of this title (article 64 or 65(b)), the Judge Advocate General may set aside the findings or sentence, in whole or in part, on the grounds of newly discovered evidence, fraud on the court, lack of jurisdiction over the accused or the offense, error prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused, or the appropriateness of the sentence.

(B) In setting aside findings or sentence, the Judge Advocate General may order a rehearing, except that a rehearing may not be ordered in violation of section 844 of this title (article 44).

(C) If the Judge Advocate General sets aside findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, the Judge Advocate General shall dismiss the charges.

(D) If the Judge Advocate General sets aside findings and orders a rehearing and the convening authority determines that a rehearing would be impractical, the convening authority shall dismiss the charges.

(2) In a case reviewed under section 865(b) of this title (article 65(b)), review under this section is limited to the issue of whether the waiver or withdrawal of an appeal was invalid under the law. If the Judge Advocate General determines that the waiver or withdrawal of an appeal was invalid, the Judge Advocate General shall order appropriate corrective action under rules prescribed by the President.

(d) Court of Criminal Appeals.—(1) A Court of Criminal Appeals may review the action taken by the Judge Advocate General under subsection (c)—

(A) in a case sent to the Court of Criminal Appeals by order of the Judge Advocate General; or

(B) in a case submitted to the Court of Criminal Appeals by the accused in an application for review.


(2) The Court of Criminal Appeals may grant an application under paragraph (1)(B) only if—

(A) the application demonstrates a substantial basis for concluding that the action on review under subsection (c) constituted prejudicial error; and

(B) the application is filed not later than the earlier of—

(i) 60 days after the date on which the accused is notified of the decision of the Judge Advocate General; or

(ii) 60 days after the date on which a copy of the decision of the Judge Advocate General is deposited in the United States mails for delivery by first-class certified mail to the accused at an address provided by the accused or, if no such address has been provided by the accused, at the latest address listed for the accused in his official service record.


(3) The submission of an application for review under this subsection does not constitute a proceeding before the Court of Criminal Appeals for purposes of section 870(c)(1) of this title (article 70(c)(1)).

(e) Action Only on Matters of Law.—Notwithstanding section 866 of this title (article 66), in any case reviewed by a Court of Criminal Appeals under subsection (d), the Court may take action only with respect to matters of law.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 61; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(30), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 97–81, §6, Nov. 20, 1981, 95 Stat. 1089; Pub. L. 98–209, §7(e)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1402; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §§1302(a), 1304(b)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1576, 1577; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5333, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2935; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(c)(1)(L), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1598.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
869 50:656. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 69), 64 Stat. 130.

The word "may" is substituted for the word "will". The word "under" is substituted for the words "pursuant to the provisions of".

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–91 inserted comma after "in whole or in part".

2016Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to review in the office of the Judge Advocate General.

1994—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" wherever appearing.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–189, §1304(b)(1), which directed amendment of subsec. (a) by striking "section 867(b)(2) of this title (article 67(b)(2))" in the third sentence and inserting in lieu thereof "section 867(a)(2) of this title (article 67(a)(2))", could not be executed because of the intervening amendment by Pub. L. 101–189, §1302(a)(1), which struck out the third sentence, see below.

Pub. L. 101–189, §1302(a)(1), struck out the third sentence, which read as follows: "If the Judge Advocate General so directs, the record shall be reviewed by a Court of Military Review under section 866 of this title (article 66), but in that event there may be no further review by the Court of Military Appeals except under section 867(b)(2) of this title (article 67(b)(2))."

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–189, §1302(a)(2), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1983Pub. L. 98–209 amended section generally. Prior to amendment section provided that every record of trial by general court-martial, in which there had been a finding of guilty and a sentence, the appellate review of which was not otherwise provided for by section 866 of this title, was to be examined in the office of the Judge Advocate General; that if any part of the findings or sentence was found unsupported in law, or if the Judge Advocate General so directed, the record was to be reviewed by a board of review in accordance with section 866 of this title, but in that event there could be no further review by the Court of Military Appeals except under section 867(b)(2) of this title, that notwithstanding section 876 of this title, the findings or sentence, or both, in a court-martial case which had been finally reviewed, but had not been reviewed by a Court of Military Review could be vacated or modified, in whole or in part, by the Judge Advocate General on the ground of newly discovered evidence, fraud on the court, lack of jurisdiction over the accused or the offense, or error prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused; and that when such a case was considered upon application of the accused, the application had to be filed in the Office of the Judge Advocate General by the accused before: (1) October 1, 1983, or (2) the last day of the two-year period beginning on the date the sentence was approved by the convening authority or, in a special court-martial case which required action under section 865(b) of this title, the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction, whichever was later, unless the accused established good cause for failure to file within that time.

1981Pub. L. 97–81 inserted provision that, when a case is considered upon application of the accused, the application must be filed in the Office of the Judge Advocate General by the accused before (1) October 1, 1983, or (2) the last day of the two-year period beginning on the date the sentence is approved by the convening authority or, in a special court-martial case which requires action under section 865(b) of this title (article 65(b)), the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction, whichever is later, unless the accused establishes good cause for failure to file within that time.

1968Pub. L. 90–632 authorized the Judge Advocate General to either vacate or modify the findings or sentence, or both, in whole or in part, in any court-martial case which has been finally reviewed, but which has not been reviewed by a Court of Military Review, because of newly discovered evidence, fraud on the court, lack of jurisdiction over the accused or the offense, or error prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 1081(c)(4) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1302(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1576, provided that: "Subsection (e) of section 869 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to cases in which a finding of guilty is adjudged by a general court-martial after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989]."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–81 effective at end of 60-day period beginning on Nov. 20, 1981, see section 7(a) of Pub. L. 97–81, set out as an Effective Date note under section 706 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective Oct. 24, 1968, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Two-Year Period for Applications for Modification or Set-Aside Inapplicable to Applications Filed On or Before October 1, 1983

Pub. L. 98–209, §7(e)(2), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1403, provided that the two-year period specified under the second sentence of subsec. (b) of this section did not apply to any application filed in the office of the appropriate Judge Advocate General on or before Oct. 1, 1983, and that the application in such a case would be considered in the same manner and with the same effect as if such two-year period had not been enacted.

§870. Art. 70. Appellate counsel

(a) The Judge Advocate General shall detail in his office one or more commissioned officers as appellate Government counsel, and one or more commissioned officers as appellate defense counsel, who are qualified under section 827(b)(1) of this title (article 27(b)(1)).

(b) Appellate Government counsel shall represent the United States before the Court of Criminal Appeals or the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces when directed to do so by the Judge Advocate General. Appellate Government counsel may represent the United States before the Supreme Court in cases arising under this chapter when requested to do so by the Attorney General.

(c) Appellate defense counsel shall represent the accused before the Court of Criminal Appeals, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, or the Supreme Court—

(1) when requested by the accused;

(2) when the United States is represented by counsel; or

(3) when the Judge Advocate General has sent the case to the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.


(d) The accused has the right to be represented before the Court of Criminal Appeals, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, or the Supreme Court by civilian counsel if provided by him.

(e) Military appellate counsel shall also perform such other functions in connection with the review of court martial cases as the Judge Advocate General directs.

(f) To the greatest extent practicable, in any capital case, at least one defense counsel under subsection (c) shall, as determined by the Judge Advocate General, be learned in the law applicable to such cases. If necessary, this counsel may be a civilian and, if so, may be compensated in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 62; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(31), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 98–209, §10(c)(3), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1406; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5334, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2936.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
870(a)

870(b)

50:657(a).

50:657(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 70), 64 Stat. 130.
870(c) 50:657(c).
870(d) 50:657(d).
870(e) 50:657(e).

In subsection (a), the word "detail" is substituted for the word "appoint", since the filling of the position involved is not appointment to an office in the constitutional sense. The word "commissioned" is inserted for clarity. The word "are" is substituted for the words "shall be". The words "the provisions of" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsections (b) and (c), the word "shall" is substituted for the words "It shall be the duty of * * * to".

In subsection (c)(3), the word "sent" is substituted for the word "transmitted".

In subsection (d), the word "has" is substituted for the words "shall have".

In subsection (e), the word "directs" is substituted for the words "shall direct".

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–328 added subsec. (f).

1994—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" and "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" wherever appearing.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–209, §10(c)(3)(A), inserted provision that Appellate Government counsel may represent the United States before the Supreme Court in cases arising under this chapter when requested to do so by the Attorney General.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 98–209, §10(c)(3)(B), amended subsecs. (c) and (d) generally, inserting references to the Supreme Court.

1968—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 90–632 substituted "Court of Military Review" for "board of review" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, see section 12(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

[§871. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LVIII, §5302(b)(2), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2923]

Section, Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 62; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(32), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 98–209, §5(e), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVII, §1702(c)(2), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 957, related to execution and suspension of various types of sentences.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

§872. Art. 72. Vacation of suspension

(a) Before the vacation of the suspension of a special court-martial sentence which as approved includes a bad-conduct discharge, or of any general court-martial sentence, the officer having special court-martial jurisdiction over the probationer shall hold a hearing on the alleged violation of probation. The special court-martial convening authority may detail a judge advocate, who is certified under section 827(b) of this title (article 27(b)), to conduct the hearing. The probationer shall be represented at the hearing by counsel if the probationer so desires.

(b) The record of the hearing and the recommendation of the officer having special court-martial jurisdiction shall be sent for action to the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the probationer. If the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction vacates the suspension, any unexecuted part of the sentence, except a dismissal, shall be executed, subject to applicable restrictions in section 857 of this title (article 57). The vacation of the suspension of a dismissal is not effective until approved by the Secretary concerned.

(c) The suspension of any other sentence may be vacated by any authority competent to convene, for the command in which the accused is serving or assigned, a court of the kind that imposed the sentence.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 63; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5335, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2936.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
872(a)

872(b)

50:659(a).

50:659(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 72), 64 Stat. 131.
872(c) 50:659(c).

In subsection (a), the word "Before" is substituted for the words "Prior to".

In subsection (b), the words "be effective * * * to" are omitted as surplusage.

The second sentence is restated to make it clear that the execution of the rest of the court-martial sentence is not automatic. The word "is" is substituted for the words "shall * * * be" in the last sentence. The word "sent" is substituted for the word "forwarded". The words "Secretary concerned" are substituted for the words "Secretary of the Department".

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328, §5335(a), (b)(1), inserted "The special court-martial convening authority may detail a judge advocate, who is certified under section 827(b) of this title (article 27(b)), to conduct the hearing." after first sentence and substituted "if the probationer so desires" for "if he so desires" in last sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–328, §5335(b)(2), substituted "If the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction" for "If he" and "section 857 of this title (article 57)" for "section 871(c) of this title (article 71(c))".

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

§873. Art. 73. Petition for a new trial

At any time within three years after the date of the entry of judgment under section 860c of this title (article 60c), the accused may petition the Judge Advocate General for a new trial on the grounds of newly discovered evidence or fraud on the court. If the accused's case is pending before a Court of Criminal Appeals or before the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, the Judge Advocate General shall refer the petition to the appropriate court for action. Otherwise the Judge Advocate General shall act upon the petition.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 63; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(33), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5336, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2937.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
873 50:660. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 73), 64 Stat. 132.

The words "the ground" are substituted for the word "grounds". The words "as the case may be" are substituted for the word "respectively", since the prescribed action is alternative, not distributive.

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "three years after the date of the entry of judgment under section 860c of this title (article 60c)" for "two years after approval by the convening authority of a court-martial sentence".

1994Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Criminal Appeals" for "Court of Military Review" and "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals".

1968Pub. L. 90–632 extended time during which accused may petition Judge Advocate General for a new trial from 1 to 2 years and struck out provisions which limited right to petition for a new trial to cases of death, dismissal, a punitive discharge, or a year or more in confinement.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 to apply in the case of all court-martial sentences approved by the convening authority on or after, or not more than two years before Oct. 24, 1968, see section 4(c) of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§874. Art. 74. Remission and suspension

(a) The Secretary concerned and, when designated by him, any Under Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Judge Advocate General, or commanding officer may remit or suspend any part or amount of the unexecuted part of any sentence, including all uncollected forfeitures other than a sentence approved by the President. However, in the case of a sentence of confinement for life without eligibility for parole that is adjudged for an offense committed after October 29, 2000, after the sentence is ordered executed, the authority of the Secretary concerned under the preceding sentence (1) may not be delegated, and (2) may be exercised only after the service of a period of confinement of not less than 20 years.

(b) The Secretary concerned may, for good cause, substitute an administrative form of discharge for a discharge or dismissal executed in accordance with the sentence of a court-martial.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 63; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §553(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-125; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(a)(8), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1223.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
874(a)

874(b)

50:661(a).

50:661(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, § 1 (Art. 74), 64 Stat. 132.

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "Secretary concerned" are substituted for the words "Secretary of the Department".

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted "that is adjudged for an offense committed after October 29, 2000" after "a sentence of confinement for life without eligibility for parole".

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–398 inserted at end "However, in the case of a sentence of confinement for life without eligibility for parole, after the sentence is ordered executed, the authority of the Secretary concerned under the preceding sentence (1) may not be delegated, and (2) may be exercised only after the service of a period of confinement of not less than 20 years."

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §553(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-125, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply with respect to a sentence of confinement for life without eligibility for parole that is adjudged for an offense committed before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]."

§875. Art. 75. Restoration

(a) Under such regulations as the President may prescribe, all rights, privileges, and property affected by an executed part of a court-martial sentence which has been set aside or disapproved, except an executed dismissal or discharge, shall be restored unless a new trial or rehearing is ordered and such executed part is included in a sentence imposed upon the new trial or rehearing.

(b) If a previously executed sentence of dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge is not imposed on a new trial, the Secretary concerned shall substitute therefor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issuance unless the accused is to serve out the remainder of his enlistment.

(c) If a previously executed sentence of dismissal is not imposed on a new trial, the Secretary concerned shall substitute therefor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issue, and the commissioned officer dismissed by that sentence may be reappointed by the President alone to such commissioned grade and with such rank as in the opinion of the President that former officer would have attained had he not been dismissed. The reappointment of such a former officer shall be without regard to the existence of a vacancy and shall affect the promotion status of other officers only insofar as the President may direct. All time between the dismissal and the reappointment shall be considered as actual service for all purposes, including the right to pay and allowances.

(d) The President shall prescribe regulations, with such limitations as the President considers appropriate, governing eligibility for pay and allowances for the period after the date on which an executed part of a court-martial sentence is set aside.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 63; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5337, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2937.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
875(a)

875(b)

50:662(a).

50:662(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 75), 64 Stat. 132.
875(c) 50:662(c).

In subsections (b) and (c), the word "If" is substituted for the word "Where". The word "imposed" is substituted for the word "sustained". The words "Secretary concerned" are substituted for the words "Secretary of the Department".

In subsection (c), the word "issue" is substituted for the word "issuance". The word "commissioned" is inserted for clarity. The words "grade and with such rank" are substituted for the words "rank and precedence", since a person is appointed to a grade, not a position of precedence, and the word "rank" is the accepted military word denoting the general idea of precedence. The words "the existence of a" are substituted for the word "position". The word "receive" is omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–328 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation to Secretary of Homeland Security of certain authority vested in President by this section, see section 2(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 10637, Sept. 16, 1955, 20 F.R. 7025, as amended, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

§876. Art. 76. Finality of proceedings, findings, and sentences

The appellate review of records of trial provided by this chapter, the proceedings, findings, and sentences of courts-martial as approved, reviewed, or affirmed as required by this chapter, and all dismissals and discharges carried into execution under sentences by courts-martial following approval, review, or affirmation as required by this chapter, are final and conclusive. Orders publishing the proceedings of courts-martial and all action taken pursuant to those proceedings are binding upon all departments, courts, agencies, and officers of the United States, subject only to action upon a petition for a new trial as provided in section 873 of this title (article 73) and to action by the Secretary concerned as provided in section 874 of this title (article 74) and the authority of the President.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 64.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
876 50:663. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 76), 64 Stat. 132.

The word "under" is substituted for the words "pursuant to". The word "are" is substituted for the words "shall be". The words "Secretary concerned" are substituted for the words "Secretary of a Department".

§876a. Art. 76a. Leave required to be taken pending review of certain court-martial convictions

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, an accused who has been sentenced by a court-martial may be required to take leave pending completion of action under this subchapter if the sentence includes an unsuspended dismissal or an unsuspended dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge. The accused may be required to begin such leave on the date of the entry of judgment under section 860c of this title (article 60c) or at any time after such date, and such leave may be continued until the date on which action under this subchapter is completed or may be terminated at any earlier time.

(Added Pub. L. 97–81, §2(c)(1), Nov. 20, 1981, 95 Stat. 1087; amended Pub. L. 98–209, §5(g), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1400; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIX, §5338, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2937.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 struck out ", as approved under section 860 of this title (article 60)," after "if the sentence" and substituted "of the entry of judgment under section 860c of this title (article 60c)" for "on which the sentence is approved under section 860 of this title (article 60)".

1983Pub. L. 98–209 substituted "under section 860 of this title (article 60)" for "under section 864 or 865 of this title (article 64 or 65) by the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction" and "by the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction", respectively.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to apply to any case in which the findings and sentence were adjudged by a court-martial before that date, and the proceedings in any such case to be held in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments had not been enacted, see section 12(a)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section to take effect at end of 60-day period beginning on Nov. 20, 1981, to apply to each member whose sentence by court-martial is approved on or after Jan. 20, 1982, under section 864 or 865 of this title by the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction under the provisions of such section as it existed on the day before the effective date of the Military Justice Act of 1983 (Pub. L. 98–209), or under section 860 of this title by the officer empowered to act on the sentence on or after that effective date, see section 7(a), (b)(1) of Pub. L. 97–81, set out as a note under section 706 of this title.

§876b. Art. 76b. Lack of mental capacity or mental responsibility: commitment of accused for examination and treatment

(a) Persons Incompetent To Stand Trial.—(1) In the case of a person determined under this chapter to be presently suffering from a mental disease or defect rendering the person mentally incompetent to the extent that the person is unable to understand the nature of the proceedings against that person or to conduct or cooperate intelligently in the defense of the case, the general court-martial convening authority for that person shall commit the person to the custody of the Attorney General.

(2) The Attorney General shall take action in accordance with section 4241(d) of title 18.

(3) If at the end of the period for hospitalization provided for in section 4241(d) of title 18, it is determined that the committed person's mental condition has not so improved as to permit the trial to proceed, action shall be taken in accordance with section 4246 of such title.

(4)(A) When the director of a facility in which a person is hospitalized pursuant to paragraph (2) determines that the person has recovered to such an extent that the person is able to understand the nature of the proceedings against the person and to conduct or cooperate intelligently in the defense of the case, the director shall promptly transmit a notification of that determination to the Attorney General and to the general court-martial convening authority for the person. The director shall send a copy of the notification to the person's counsel.

(B) Upon receipt of a notification, the general court-martial convening authority shall promptly take custody of the person unless the person covered by the notification is no longer subject to this chapter. If the person is no longer subject to this chapter, the Attorney General shall take any action within the authority of the Attorney General that the Attorney General considers appropriate regarding the person.

(C) The director of the facility may retain custody of the person for not more than 30 days after transmitting the notifications required by subparagraph (A).

(5) In the application of section 4246 of title 18 to a case under this subsection, references to the court that ordered the commitment of a person, and to the clerk of such court, shall be deemed to refer to the general court-martial convening authority for that person. However, if the person is no longer subject to this chapter at a time relevant to the application of such section to the person, the United States district court for the district where the person is hospitalized or otherwise may be found shall be considered as the court that ordered the commitment of the person.

(b) Persons Found Not Guilty by Reason of Lack of Mental Responsibility.—(1) If a person is found by a court-martial not guilty only by reason of lack of mental responsibility, the person shall be committed to a suitable facility until the person is eligible for release in accordance with this section.

(2) The court-martial shall conduct a hearing on the mental condition in accordance with subsection (c) of section 4243 of title 18. Subsections (b) and (d) of that section shall apply with respect to the hearing.

(3) A report of the results of the hearing shall be made to the general court-martial convening authority for the person.

(4) If the court-martial fails to find by the standard specified in subsection (d) of section 4243 of title 18 that the person's release would not create a substantial risk of bodily injury to another person or serious damage of property of another due to a present mental disease or defect—

(A) the general court-martial convening authority may commit the person to the custody of the Attorney General; and

(B) the Attorney General shall take action in accordance with subsection (e) of section 4243 of title 18.


(5) Subsections (f), (g), and (h) of section 4243 of title 18 shall apply in the case of a person hospitalized pursuant to paragraph (4)(B), except that the United States district court for the district where the person is hospitalized shall be considered as the court that ordered the person's commitment.

(c) General Provisions.—(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection and subsection (d)(1), the provisions of section 4247 of title 18 apply in the administration of this section.

(2) In the application of section 4247(d) of title 18 to hearings conducted by a court-martial under this section or by (or by order of) a general court-martial convening authority under this section, the reference in that section to section 3006A of such title does not apply.

(d) Applicability.—(1) The provisions of chapter 313 of title 18 referred to in this section apply according to the provisions of this section notwithstanding section 4247(j) of title 18.

(2) If the status of a person as described in section 802 of this title (article 2) terminates while the person is, pursuant to this section, in the custody of the Attorney General, hospitalized, or on conditional release under a prescribed regimen of medical, psychiatric, or psychological care or treatment, the provisions of this section establishing requirements and procedures regarding a person no longer subject to this chapter shall continue to apply to that person notwithstanding the change of status.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §1133(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 464.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §1133(c), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 466, provided that: "Section 876b of title 10, United States Code (article 76b of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), as added by subsection (a), shall take effect at the end of the six-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996] and shall apply with respect to charges referred to courts-martial after the end of that period."