[USC02] 10 USC Subtitle E, PART II: PERSONNEL GENERALLY
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10 USC Subtitle E, PART II: PERSONNEL GENERALLY
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle E—Reserve Components

PART II—PERSONNEL GENERALLY

Chap.
Sec.
1201.
Authorized Strengths and Distribution in Grade
12001
1203.
Enlisted Members
12101
1205.
Appointment of Reserve Officers
12201
1207.
Warrant Officers
12241
1209.
Active Duty
12301
1211.
National Guard Members in Federal Service
12401
1213.
Special Appointments, Assignments, Details, and Duties
12501
1214.
Ready Reserve Mobilization Income Insurance
12521
1215.
Miscellaneous Prohibitions and Penalties
12551
1217.
Miscellaneous Rights and Benefits
12601
1219.
Standards and Procedures for Retention and Promotion
12641
1221.
Separation
12681
1223.
Retired Pay for Non-Regular Service
12731
1225.
Retired Grade
12771

        

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §515(b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1733, substituted "12551" for "[No present sections]" in item for chapter 1215.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 305, added item for chapter 1214.

CHAPTER 1201—AUTHORIZED STRENGTHS AND DISTRIBUTION IN GRADE

Sec.
12001.
Authorized strengths: reserve components.
12002.
Authorized strengths: Army and Air Force reserve components, exclusive of members on active duty.
12003.
Authorized strengths: commissioned officers in an active status.
12004.
Strength in grade: reserve general and flag officers in an active status.
12005.
Strength in grade: commissioned officers in grades below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) in an active status.
12006.
Strength limitations: authority to waive in time of war or national emergency.
12007.
Reserve officers of the Army: distribution.
12008.
Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve: warrant officers.
12009.
Army and Air Force reserve components: temporary increases.
12010.
Computations for Navy Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve: rule when fraction occurs in final result.
12011.
Authorized strengths: reserve officers on active duty or on full-time National Guard duty for administration of the reserves or the National Guard.
12012.
Authorized strengths: senior enlisted members on active duty or on full-time National Guard duty for administration of the reserves or the National Guard.

        

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(4)(H), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3235, substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in item 12010.

1999Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(a)(31), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 772, inserted "in an" after "officers" in item 12003.

§12001. Authorized strengths: reserve components

(a) Whenever the authorized strength of a reserve component (other than the Coast Guard Reserve) is not prescribed by law, it shall be prescribed by the President.

(b) Subject to the authorized strength of the reserve component concerned, the authorized strength of each reserve component (other than the Coast Guard Reserve) in members in each grade is that which the Secretary concerned determines to be necessary to provide for mobilization requirements. The Secretary shall review these determinations at least once each year and revise them if he considers it necessary. However, a member of the reserve component concerned may not, as a result of such a determination, be reduced in the member's reserve grade without the member's consent.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2983.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3221, 3224, 5413, 5456, 8221, and 8224 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

End Strengths for Selected Reserve and for Reserves on Active Duty in Support of Reserves

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3220, 3221, which authorized end strengths for Selected Reserve personnel of the reserve components and for Reserves on active duty in support of the Reserves as of the last day of a fiscal year was from the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 and was repeated in provisions of subsequent authorization acts which are not set out in the Code. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior authorization acts:

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1864, 1865.

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1452, 1453.

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2526, 2527.

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1069, 1070.

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §§411, 412], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-93.

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 585, 586.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1997.

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1719, 1720.

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2506, 2507.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 287, 288.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2746.

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1641, 1642.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2399.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1351.

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IV, §§411(a)–(c), 412, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1546, 1547; Pub. L. 102–25, title II, §§201(a), 202, 205(a), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 79, 80; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IV, §414(e), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1353; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §513, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1649.

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1432, as amended by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IV, §411(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1547.

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title IV, §§411(a), 412, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1964.

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title IV, §§411, 412, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1082, 1083, as amended by Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title IV, §411(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1964.

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IV, §§411(a)–(c), 412(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3860, 3861.

Pub. L. 99–145, title IV, §§411, 412, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 618, 619.

Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §§411, 412, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2516, 2517.

Pub. L. 98–94, title V, §§501, 502, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 630, 631.

Pub. L. 97–252, title V, §§501, 502, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 726, as amended by Pub. L. 98–94, title V, §504(a), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 631.

Pub. L. 97–86, title V, §§501, 502, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1107.

Pub. L. 96–342, title IV, §401, Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1084.

Pub. L. 96–107, title IV, §401, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 807.

Pub. L. 95–485, title IV, §401, Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1613.

Pub. L. 95–79, title IV, §401, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 327.

Pub. L. 94–361, title IV, §401, July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 926.

Pub. L. 94–106, title IV, §401, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 532.

Pub. L. 93–365, title IV, §§401, 402, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 402, 403.

Pub. L. 93–155, title IV, §§401, 402, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 608.

Pub. L. 92–436, title IV, §§401, 402, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 736.

Pub. L. 92–156, title III, §§301, 302, Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 425.

Pub. L. 91–441, title III, §§301, 302, Oct. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 908.

Pub. L. 91–121, title III, §§301, 302, Nov. 19, 1969, 83 Stat. 206.

Pub. L. 90–500, title III, §§301, 302, Sept. 20, 1968, 82 Stat. 850.

Reserve Component Force Structure

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IV, §413, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2400, provided that:

"(a) Requirement To Prescribe Reserve Component Force Structure.—The Secretary of each military department shall prescribe a force structure allowance for each reserve component under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. Each such force structure allowance for a reserve component—

"(1) shall be consistent with, but in no case include a number of personnel spaces that is less than, the authorized end strength for that component; and

"(2) shall be prescribed in accordance with historic service policies.

"(b) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term 'force structure allowance' means the number and types of units and organizations, and the number of authorized personnel spaces allocated to those units and organizations, in a military force."

Limitation on Reduction in Number of Reserve Component Medical Personnel

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §518, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2407, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title VII, §716, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2803, prohibited Secretary of Defense from reducing number of medical personnel in any reserve component below number of such personnel in that component on Sept. 30, 1992, unless Secretary certified to Congress that number of such personnel to be reduced in particular military department was excess to current and projected needs for personnel in Selected Reserve of that department, and required that assessment of such needs be consistent with wartime requirements for Selected Reserve personnel identified in final report on comprehensive study of military medical care system prepared pursuant to section 733 of Pub. L. 102–190, formerly set out as a note under section 1071 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §564(d)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 327.

Program for Active Component Support of Reserves

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §515(b)–(d), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1883, 1884, prohibited the Secretary of the Army from reducing the number of active component Reserve support personnel below the number of such personnel as of Oct. 28, 2004, until the Secretary of the Army submitted to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives, not later than Mar. 31, 2005, a report on the support by active components of the Army for training and readiness of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve.

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §517(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1651, provided that:

"(1) The Secretary of the Army shall include in the annual report of the Secretary to Congress known as the Army Posture Statement a presentation relating to the implementation of the Pilot Program for Active Component Support of the Reserves under section 414 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (Public Law 102–190; [former] 10 U.S.C. 261 note [now set out below]), as amended by subsection (a).

"(2) Each such presentation shall include, with respect to the period covered by the report, the following information:

"(A) The promotion rate for officers considered for promotion from within the promotion zone who are serving as active component advisers to units of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve (in accordance with that program) compared with the promotion rate for other officers considered for promotion from within the promotion zone in the same pay grade and the same competitive category, shown for all officers of the Army.

"(B) The promotion rate for officers considered for promotion from below the promotion zone who are serving as active component advisers to units of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve (in accordance with that program) compared in the same manner as specified in subparagraph (A)."

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IV, §414(a)–(d), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1352, 1353, as amended by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §511(b), title XI, §1132, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2405, 2541; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §517(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1650; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §413, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2747; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §413, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 288; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §545(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(d)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 773; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §515(a), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1883, provided that:

"(a) Program Required.—The Secretary of the Army shall carry out a program to provide active component advisers to combat units, combat support units, and combat service support units in the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve that have a high priority for deployment on a time-phased troop deployment list or have another contingent high priority for deployment. The advisers shall be assigned to full-time duty in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training such units.

"(b) Objectives of Program.—The objectives of the program are as follows:

"(1) To improve the readiness of units in the reserve components of the Army.

"(2) To increase substantially the number of active component personnel directly advising reserve component unit personnel.

"(3) To provide a basis for determining the most effective mix of reserve component personnel and active component personnel in organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training reserve component units.

"(4) To provide a basis for determining the most effective mix of active component officer and enlisted personnel in advising reserve component units regarding organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training reserve component units.

"(c) Personnel To Be Assigned.—(1) The Secretary shall assign not less than 3,500 active component personnel to serve as advisers under the program.

"(2) The Secretary of Defense may count toward the number of active component personnel required under paragraph (1) to be assigned to serve as advisers under the program under this section any active component personnel who are assigned to an active component unit (A) that was established principally for the purpose of providing dedicated training support to reserve component units, and (B) the primary mission of which is to provide such dedicated training support.

"(d) Action on the Basis of Program Results.—Based on the experience under the pilot program, the Secretary of the Army shall by April 1, 1993, submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report containing the Secretary's evaluation of the program to that date. As part of the budget submission for fiscal year 1995, the Secretary shall submit any recommendations for expansion or modification of the program, together with a proposal for any statutory changes that the Secretary considers necessary to implement the program on a permanent basis. In no case may the number of active duty personnel assigned to the program decrease below the number specified for the pilot program."

Reserve Forces Readiness

Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §552(a)–(e), (g), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2530, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(3)(B), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2980, provided that:

"(a)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a review of the various systems used to measure the readiness of reserve units of the Armed Forces and shall implement a measurement system for the active and reserve components of the Armed Forces to provide an objective and uniform evaluation of the readiness of all units of the Armed Forces. The measurement system should be designed to produce information adequate to provide comparisons concerning the readiness of all units. The system for evaluation of the readiness of a unit of an active component should incorporate the performance of any unit of a reserve component affiliated with the active component unit, including the effect of the reserve component unit on the mobilization capability of the active component unit.

"(2) Not later than March 31, 1985, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives describing the results of the review under paragraph (1) and the measurement system implemented in accordance with that paragraph.

"(b)(1) The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs [now Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs], shall conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of allocating equipment to units of reserve components based on a measure of effectiveness of such units. The study should consider the effects of allocating equipment by comparing units with similar deployment times and similar capabilities in terms of training and equipment rather than by comparing all reserve component units with each other. The study should be integrated with an evaluation of the system for measuring unit effectiveness to be implemented in accordance with subsection (a).

"(2) As part of the report under subsection (a)(2), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the study carried out under paragraph (1).

"(c) It is the sense of Congress that the number of members of the Army Reserve and of the Army National Guard assigned to full-time manning duty should be increased to 14 percent of the total membership of the Army Reserve and of the Army National Guard, respectively, by fiscal year 1989.

"(d)(1)(A) The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs [now Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs], shall conduct a study of the benefits of a longer training program for certain units of the reserve components and shall conduct a test of such a program. The test program should begin at the earliest realistic date.

"(B) In developing training programs for the reserve components, the Secretary shall give increased attention to innovative training technologies, techniques, and schedules that recognize the limitations on time and the geographic dispersion of the reserve components.

"(2) Not later than March 31, 1985, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives describing the study under paragraph (1).

"(e) [Repealed. Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(3)(B), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2980.]

"(g) This section does not apply to the Coast Guard."

§12002. Authorized strengths: Army and Air Force reserve components, exclusive of members on active duty

(a) The authorized strengths of the National Guard and the reserve components of the Army and the Air Force, exclusive of members who are included in the strengths authorized for members of the Army and Air Force, respectively, on active duty, are as follows:


 
  
Army National Guard and the Army National Guard of the United States 600,000  
Army Reserve 980,000  
Air National Guard and the Air National Guard of the United States 150,000  
Air Force Reserve 500,000.

(b) The strength authorized by this section for the Army National Guard and the Army National Guard of the United States, and the strength authorized by this section for the Air National Guard and the Air National Guard of the United States, shall be allocated among the States.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2983.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3222, 3225, 8222, and 8225 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12003. Authorized strengths: commissioned officers in an active status

(a) The authorized strengths of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in reserve commissioned officers, other than commissioned warrant officers and officers on an active-duty list, in an active status are as follows:


 
  
Army 275,000  
Air Force 200,000  
Navy 150,000  
Marine Corps 24,500.

(b) The authorized strengths prescribed by subsection (a) may not be exceeded unless—

(1) the Secretary concerned determines that a greater number is necessary for planned mobilization requirements; or

(2) the excess results directly from the operation of a nondiscretionary provision of law.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2984.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3217, 5414, and 8217 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12004. Strength in grade: reserve general and flag officers in an active status

(a) The authorized strengths of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps in reserve general officers in an active status, and the authorized strength of the Navy in reserve officers in the grades of rear admiral (lower half) and rear admiral in an active status, are as follows:


 
  
Army 207  
Air Force 157  
Navy 48  
Marine Corps 10.

(b) The following Army and Air Force reserve officers shall not be counted for purposes of this section:

(1) Those serving as adjutants general or assistant adjutants general of a State.

(2) Those serving in the National Guard Bureau.

(3) Those counted under section 526 of this title.

(4) Those serving in a joint duty assignment for purposes of chapter 38 of this title, except that the number of officers who may be excluded under this paragraph may not exceed the number equal to 20 percent of the number of officers authorized for the armed force concerned by subsection (a).


(c)(1) The following Navy reserve officers shall not be counted for purposes of this section:

(A) Those counted under section 526 of this title.

(B) Those serving in a joint duty assignment for purposes of chapter 38 of this title, except that the number of officers who may be excluded under this paragraph may not exceed the number equal to 20 percent of the number of officers authorized for the Navy in subsection (a).


(2) Not more than 50 percent of the officers in an active status authorized under this section for the Navy may serve in the grade of rear admiral.

(d) The following Marine Corps reserve officers shall not be counted for purposes of this section:

(1) Those counted under section 526 of this title.

(2) Those serving in a joint duty assignment for purposes of chapter 38 of this title, except that the number of officers who may be excluded under this paragraph may not exceed the number equal to 20 percent of the number of officers authorized for the Marine Corps in subsection (a).

(e)(1) A reserve general officer of the Army or Air Force may not be reduced in grade because of a reduction in the number of general officers authorized under subsection (a).

(2) An officer of the Navy Reserve or the Marine Corps Reserve may not be reduced in permanent grade because of a reduction in the number authorized by this section for his grade.

(f) The limitations in subsection (a) do not apply to an officer released from a joint duty assignment or other non-joint active duty assignment, but only during the 60-day period beginning on the date the officer departs the joint duty or other active duty assignment. The Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of a military department to extend the 60-day period by an additional 120 days, except that not more than three officers in an active status from each reserve component may be covered by an extension under this sentence at the same time.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2984; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(9), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §415, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1998; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §§512, 515(b)(1)(EE), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3232, 3233; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §526, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4448; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §502(h), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2276; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §511, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4210.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3218, 5457(a), 5458(a), and 8218 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (c)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 111–383 redesignated par. (4) as (2) and struck out former pars. (2), (3), and (5). Former pars. (2) and (3) specified the distribution of Navy reserve officers authorized by subsection (a), and former par. (5) specified the Medical Department staff corps for purposes of par. (1).

2009—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–84 added subsec. (f).

2008—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–417, §526(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–417, §526(b), added par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) to (4) as (2) to (5), respectively, and in introductory provisions of par. (2) substituted "Of the number of Navy reserve officers authorized by subsection (a), 40 are distributed among the line and staff corps as follows:" for "The authorized strength of the Navy under subsection (a) is exclusive of officers counted under section 526 of this title. Of the number authorized under subsection (a), 40 are distributed among the line and the staff corps as follows:".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–417, §526(c), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "The authorized strength of the Marine Corps under subsection (a) is exclusive of those counted under section 526 of this title."

2006—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–163, §512(a), (b), (d), substituted "40" for "39" in introductory provisions and "33" for "28" and "5" for "9" in table.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–163, §512(c), substituted "six" for "seven".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 109–163, §515(b)(1)(EE), substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

1998—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §415(1), in table, inserted item relating to Medical Department staff corps and struck out items relating to Medical Corps, Dental Corps, Nurse Corps, and Medical Service Corps.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–261, §415(2), added par. (4).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "active status, are" for "active-status, are".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12005. Strength in grade: commissioned officers in grades below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) in an active status

(a)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the authorized strength of the Army and the Air Force in reserve commissioned officers in an active status in each grade named in paragraph (2) is as prescribed by the Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Air Force, respectively. A vacancy in any grade may be filled by an authorized appointment in any lower grade.

(2) A strength prescribed by the Secretary concerned under paragraph (1) for a grade may not be higher than the percentage of the strength authorized for the Army or the Air Force, as the case may be, under section 12003 of this title that is specified for that grade as follows:

 
GradeArmy percentageAir Force percentage
Colonel 2 1.8
Lieutenant colonel 6 4.6
Major 13 14.0
Captain 35 32.0
First lieutenant and second lieutenant (when combined with the number authorized for general officer grades under section 12004 of this title) 44 47.6

(3) Medical officers and dental officers shall not be counted for the purposes of this subsection.

(b)(1) The authorized strengths of the Navy Reserve in line officers in an active status in the grades of captain, commander, lieutenant commander, and lieutenant, and in the grades of lieutenant (junior grade) and ensign combined, are the following percentages of the total authorized number of those officers:

 
  
Captain 1.5 percent  
Commander 7   percent  
Lieutenant commander 22   percent  
Lieutenant 37   percent  
Lieutenant (junior grade) and ensign (when combined with the number authorized for flag officer grades under section 12004 of this title) 32.5 percent.

(2) When the actual number of line officers in an active status in any grade is less than the number authorized by paragraph (1) for that grade, the difference may be applied to increase the number authorized by that paragraph for any lower grade or grades.

(c)(1) The authorized strengths of the Marine Corps Reserve in officers in an active status in the grades of colonel, lieutenant colonel, major, and captain, and in the grades of first lieutenant and second lieutenant combined, are the following percentages of the total authorized number of those officers:

 
  
Colonel 2 percent  
Lieutenant colonel 8 percent  
Major 16 percent  
Captain 39 percent  
First lieutenant and second lieutenant (when combined with the number authorized for general officer grades under section 12004 of this title) 35 percent.

(2) When the actual number of officers in an active status in any grade is less than the number authorized by paragraph (1) for that grade, the difference may be applied to increase the number authorized by that paragraph for any lower grade or grades.

(d)(1) An officer of the Army or Air Force may not be reduced in grade because of a reduction in the number of commissioned officers authorized for the officer's grade under this section.

(2) An officer of the Navy Reserve or the Marine Corps Reserve may not be reduced in permanent grade because of a reduction in the number authorized by this section for his grade.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2985; amended Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §423], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-96; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §504, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1875; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(FF), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3219, 5457(b)–(d), 5458(b)–(d), and 8219 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

2004—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–375 amended table generally, increasing percentages of authorized number of officers in grades other than colonel.

2000—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 106–398 added par. (3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12006. Strength limitations: authority to waive in time of war or national emergency

(a) In time of war, or of national emergency declared by Congress or the President, the President may suspend the operation of any provision of section 12003, 12004, or 12005 of this title. So long as any such war or national emergency continues, any such suspension may be extended by the President.

(b) Any suspension under subsection (a) shall, if not sooner ended, end on the last day of the two-year period beginning on the date on which the suspension (or the last extension thereof) takes effect or on the last day of the one-year period beginning on the date of the termination of the war or national emergency, whichever occurs first. With respect to the end of any such suspension, the preceding sentence supersedes the provisions of title II of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1621, 1622) which provide that powers or authorities exercised by reason of a national emergency shall cease to be exercised after the date of termination of the emergency.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2986.)

References in Text

The National Emergencies Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 94–412, Sept. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1255, as amended. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§1621 et seq.) of chapter 34 of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 50 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Delegation of Authority

Authority of President under this section as invoked by sections 2 and 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, Sept. 14, 2001, 66 F.R. 48201, as amended, delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, set out as a note under section 12302 of this title.

§12007. Reserve officers of the Army: distribution

The Secretary of the Army shall distribute the number of reserve commissioned officers, other than commissioned warrant officers, authorized in each commissioned grade between those assigned to reserve units organized to serve as units and those not assigned to such units. The Secretary shall distribute the number who are assigned to reserve units organized to serve as units among the units of each reserve component by prescribing appropriate tables of organization and tables of distribution. The Secretary shall distribute the number who are not assigned to such units between—

(1) each special branch; and

(2) all other branches taken together.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2986.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 3220 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12008. Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve: warrant officers

The Secretary of the Army may prescribe the authorized strength of the Army Reserve in warrant officers. The Secretary of the Air Force may prescribe the authorized strength of the Air Force Reserve in warrant officers.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2987.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3223 and 8223 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12009. Army and Air Force reserve components: temporary increases

(a) The authorized strength in any reserve grade, as prescribed under this chapter, for any reserve component under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Air Force is automatically increased to the minimum extent necessary to give effect to each appointment made in that grade under section 1211(a), 7036, 14304(b), 14314, or 14317 of this title.

(b) An authorized strength so increased is increased for no other purpose. While an officer holds that grade, the officer whose appointment caused the increase is counted for the purpose of determining when other appointments, not under those sections, may be made in that grade.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2987; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1840.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3212 and 8212 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "section 1211(a), 7036," for "section 1211(a), 3036,".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Feb. 1, 2019, with provision for the coordination of amendments and special rule for certain redesignations, see section 800 of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12010. Computations for Navy Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve: rule when fraction occurs in final result

When there is a fraction in the final result of any computation under this chapter for the Navy Reserve or the Marine Corps Reserve, a fraction of one-half or more is counted as one, and a fraction of less than one-half is disregarded.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2987; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(GG), (3)(I), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233, 3234.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 5454 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(3).

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §515(b)(3)(I), substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in section catchline.

Pub. L. 109–163, §515(b)(1)(GG), substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in text.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12011. Authorized strengths: reserve officers on active duty or on full-time National Guard duty for administration of the reserves or the National Guard

(a) Limitations.—(1) Of the total number of members of a reserve component who are serving on full-time reserve component duty at the end of any fiscal year, the number of those members who may be serving in each of the grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel may not, as of the end of that fiscal year, exceed the number determined in accordance with the following table:

 
Total number of members of a reserve component serving on full-time reserve component duty:Number of officers of that reserve component who may be serving in the grade of:
MajorLieutenant ColonelColonel
Army Reserve:
10,000 1,390 740 230  
11,000 1,529 803 242  
12,000 1,668 864 252  
13,000 1,804 924 262  
14,000 1,940 984 272  
15,000 2,075 1,044 282  
16,000 2,210 1,104 291  
17,000 2,345 1,164 300  
18,000 2,479 1,223 309  
19,000 2,613 1,282 318  
20,000 2,747 1,341 327  
21,000 2,877 1,400 336  
 
Army National Guard:
20,000 1,500 850 325  
22,000 1,650 930 350  
24,000 1,790 1,010 378  
26,000 1,930 1,085 395  
28,000 2,070 1,168 420  
30,000 2,200 1,245 445  
32,000 2,330 1,315 460  
34,000 2,450 1,385 470  
36,000 2,570 1,455 480  
38,000 2,670 1,527 490  
40,000 2,770 1,590 500  
42,000 2,837 1,655 505  
 
Marine Corps Reserve:
1,000 99 63 20  
1,200 103 67 21  
1,300 107 70 22  
1,400 111 73 23  
1,500 114 76 24  
1,600 117 79 25  
1,700 120 82 26  
1,800 123 85 27  
1,900 126 88 28  
2,000 129 91 29  
2,100 132 94 30  
2,200 134 97 31  
2,300 136 100 32  
2,400 138 103 33  
2,500 140 106 34  
2,600 142 109 35  
 
Air Force Reserve:
500 83 85 50  
1,000 155 165 95  
1,500 220 240 135  
2,000 285 310 170  
2,500 350 369 203  
3,000 413 420 220  
3,500 473 464 230  
4,000 530 500 240  
4,500 585 529 247  
5,000 638 550 254  
5,500 688 565 261  
6,000 735 575 268  
7,000 770 595 280  
8,000 805 615 290  
10,000 835 635 300  
 
Air National Guard:
10,000 763 745 333  
12,000 915 923 377  
14,000 1,065 1,057 402  
16,000 1,211 1,185 426  
18,000 1,347 1,313 450  
20,000 1,463 1,440 468  
22,000 1,606 1,569 494  
24,000 1,739 1,697 517  
26,000 1,872 1,825 539  
28,000 2,005 1,954 562  
30,000 2,138 2,082 585  
32,000 2,271 2,210 608  
34,000 2,404 2,338 630  
36,000 2,537 2,466 653  
38,000 2,670 2,595 676  
40,000 2,803 2,723 698  

(2) Of the total number of members of the Navy Reserve who are serving on full-time reserve component duty at the end of any fiscal year, the number of those members who may be serving in each of the grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain may not, as of the end of that fiscal year, exceed the number determined in accordance with the following table:

 
Total number of members of Navy Reserve serving on full-time reserve component duty:Number of officers who may be serving in the grade of:
Lieutenant commanderCommanderCaptain
10,000 807 447 141  
11,000 867 467 153  
12,000 924 485 163  
13,000 980 503 173  
14,000 1,035 521 183  
15,000 1,088 538 193  
16,000 1,142 555 203  
17,000 1,195 565 213  
18,000 1,246 575 223  
19,000 1,291 585 233  
20,000 1,334 595 242  
21,000 1,364 603 250  
22,000 1,384 610 258  
23,000 1,400 615 265  
24,000 1,410 620 270.

(b) Determinations by Interpolation.—If the total number of members of a reserve component serving on full-time reserve component duty is between any two consecutive numbers in the first column of the appropriate table in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), the corresponding authorized strengths for each of the grades shown in that table for that component are determined by mathematical interpolation between the respective numbers of the two strengths. If the total number of members of a reserve component serving on full-time reserve component duty is more or less than the highest or lowest number, respectively, set forth in the first column of the appropriate table in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), the Secretary concerned shall fix the corresponding strengths for the grades shown in that table at the same proportion as is reflected in the nearest limit shown in the table.

(c) Reallocations to Lower Grades.—Whenever the number of officers serving in any grade for duty described in subsection (a) is less than the number authorized for that grade under this section, the difference between the two numbers may be applied to increase the number authorized under this section for any lower grade.

(d) Secretarial Waiver.—(1) Upon determining that it is in the national interest to do so, the Secretary of Defense may increase for a particular fiscal year the number of reserve officers that may be on full-time reserve component duty for a reserve component in a grade referred to in a table in subsection (a) by a number that does not exceed the number equal to 5 percent of the maximum number specified for the grade in that table.

(2) Whenever the Secretary exercises the authority provided in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives notice in writing of the adjustment made.

(e) Full-Time Reserve Component Duty Defined.—In this section, the term "full-time reserve component duty" means the following duty:

(1) Active duty described in sections 10211, 10302, 10303, 10304, 10305, 12310, or 12402 of this title.

(2) Full-time National Guard duty (other than for training) under section 502(f) of title 32, except for duty under section 115(b)(1)(B) and (C) of this title and section 115(i)(9) of this title.

(3) Active duty described in section 708 of title 32.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §103, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2844, §524; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title V, §503(b), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1108; Pub. L. 97–252, title V, §503(b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 727; Pub. L. 98–94, title V, §503(b), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 631; Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §§413(b), 414(a)(4)(A), (B)(i), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2518, 2519; Pub. L. 99–145, title IV, §413(b), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 619; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title IV, §413(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1083; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IV, §413(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IV, §413(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1352; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IV, §413(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1642; renumbered §12011 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2988; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §414(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 288; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §414(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1998; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §414(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §§415(a), 421(b), 424(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-94 to 1654A-96; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §415(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1070; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §416(h), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1869; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(HH), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §512(a), (b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4439, 4440; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title V, §515(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1752.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–232 inserted section of table relating to the Air National Guard and struck out corresponding former section.

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–417 inserted sections of table relating to the Army National Guard, Marine Corps Reserve, and Air National Guard, and struck out corresponding former sections.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in introductory provisions and table.

2004—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 108–375 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Full-time National Guard duty (other than for training) under section 502(f) of title 32."

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of table setting out maximum number of reserve officers of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps who may be on active duty or full-time National Guard duty in each of the grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel, and of the Navy who may be on active duty in each of the grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Whenever the number of officers serving in any grade is less than the number authorized for that grade under this section, the difference between the two numbers may be applied to increase the number authorized under this section for any lower grade."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Whenever under section 527 of this title the President may suspend the operation of any provision of section 523, 525, or 526 of this title, the Secretary of Defense may suspend the operation of any provision of this section. Any such suspension shall, if not sooner ended, end in the manner specified in section 527 for a suspension under that section."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Upon increasing under subsection (c)(2) of section 115 of this title the end strength that is authorized under subsection (a)(1)(B) of that section for a fiscal year for active-duty personnel and full-time National Guard duty personnel of an armed force who are to be paid from funds appropriated for reserve personnel, the Secretary of Defense may increase for that fiscal year the limitation that is set forth in subsection (a) of this section for the number of officers of that armed force serving in any grade if the Secretary determines that such action is in the national interest. The percent of the increase may not exceed the percent by which the Secretary increases that end strength."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–107 added subsec. (e).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §415(a)], amended table generally, increasing the fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in the Army in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander from 3,227 to 3,316, in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 1,611 to 1,759, and in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 471 to 529, and in the Air Force in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander from 860 to 948, in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 777 to 852, and in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 297 to 317.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §421(b)], added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §424(a)], added subsec. (d).

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–65 amended table generally, increasing the fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in the Army in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander from 3,219 to 3,227, in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 1,524 to 1,611, and in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 438 to 471, and in the Air Force in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander from 791 to 860 and in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 713 to 777.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261, in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in the Army in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 412 to 438 and in the Air Force in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander from 643 to 791, in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 672 to 713, and in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 274 to 297.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106, in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in the Army in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 372 to 412, in the Air Force in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander from 575 to 643 and in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 636 to 672, and in the Marine Corps in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander from 110 to 140, in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 75 to 90, and in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 25 to 30. All other figures remained unchanged.

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 524 of this title as this section and amended section catchline generally striking out at end "in grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel and Navy grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain".

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–160, in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in the Air Force in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 595 to 636 and in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 227 to 274. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in the Army in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 364 to 372, and increased such limitation on number of reserve officers in the Air Force in grade of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander from 532 to 595 and in grade of Colonel or Navy Captain from 194 to 227. Navy and Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–189, §413(b)(2), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander, Lieutenant Colonel or Commander, and Colonel or Navy Captain who may be on active duty to, respectively: Army, to 3,219, 1,524, and 364 from 3,030, 1,448, and 351; Navy, to 1,071, 520, and 188 from 1,065, 520, and 188; Air Force, to 575, 532, and 194 from 575, 476, and 190. Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

Pub. L. 101–189, §413(b)(1), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander, Lieutenant Colonel or Commander, and Colonel or Navy Captain who may be on active duty to, respectively: Army, to 3,030, 1,448, and 351 from 2,600, 1,250, and 348; Navy, to 1,065, 520, and 188 from 875, 520, and 185; Air Force, to 575, 476, and 190 from 575, 322, and 190. Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–180, §413(b)(2), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander, Lieutenant Colonel or Commander, and Colonel or Navy Captain who may be on active duty to, respectively: Army, to 2,600, 1,250, and 348 from 2,550, 1,152, and 348; Navy, to 875, 520, and 185 from 850, 520, and 185; Air Force, to 575, 322, and 190 from 575, 322, and 184; and Marine Corps, to 110, 75, and 25 from 105, 70, and 25.

Pub. L. 100–180, §413(b)(1), in table, changed fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander, Lieutenant Colonel or Commander, and Colonel or Navy Captain who may be on active duty to, respectively: Army, to 2,550, 1,152, and 348 from 2,317, 1,152, and 348; Navy, to 850, 520, and 185 from 850, 520, and 177; Air Force, to 575, 322, and 184 from 476, 318, and 189; and Marine Corps, to 105, 70, and 25 from 100, 60, and 25.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–145 increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in grade of Major or Lieutenant Commander, Lieutenant Colonel or Commander, and Colonel or Navy Captain who may be on active duty to, respectively: Army, to 2,317, 1,152, and 348 from 2,261, 1,121, and 345; Navy, to 850, 520, and 177 from 823, 520, and 177; Air Force, to 476, 318, and 189, from 471, 293, and 172; and Marine Corps, to 100, 60, and 25 from 100, 50, and 25.

1984Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(4)(B)(i), inserted references to National Guard and to full-time National Guard duty in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(4)(A), inserted "or full-time National Guard duty" after "Marine Corps who may be on active duty" and inserted "or full-time National Guard duty (other than for training) under section 502(f) of title 32".

Pub. L. 98–525, §413(b), increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in grade of major or lieutenant commander, lieutenant colonel or commander, and colonel or Navy captain who may be on active duty to, respectively: Army, to 2,261, 1,121, and 345 from 1,948, 967, and 338; Air Force, to 471, 293, and 172 from 408, 303, and 171; Marine Corps, to 100, 50, and 25 from 95, 48, and 23. Figures for the Navy remained unchanged.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–94 increased fiscal year limitation on number of reserve officers in grade major or lieutenant commander; lieutenant colonel or commander; and colonel or Navy captain who may be on active duty to, respectively: Army, to 1,948, 967, and 338 from 1,351, 671, and 234; Navy, to 823, 520, and 177 from 823, 425, and 177; Air Force, to 408, 303, and 171 from 281, 267, and 170; Marine Corps, to 95, 48, and 23 from 95, 40, and 21.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–252 increased numbers in columns headed "Army", "Air Force", and "Marine Corps" from 1,105, 189, and 51 in line for major or lieutenant commander to 1,351, 281, and 95, respectively, from 551, 194, and 35 in line for lieutenant colonel or commander to 671, 267, and 40, respectively, and from 171, 147, and 19 in line for colonel or Navy captain to 234, 170, and 21, respectively.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–86 increased numbers in columns headed "Army" and "Air Force" from 821 and 170 in line for major or lieutenant commander to 1,105 and 189, respectively, from 503 and 183 in line for lieutenant colonel or commander to 551 and 194, respectively, and from 163 and 146 in line for colonel or Navy captain to 171 and 147, respectively.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §415(c)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-94, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 12012 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2000."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §414(c), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1998, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 12012 of this title] shall take efffect [sic] on October 1, 1998."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IV, §413(b)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1433, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1990.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title IV, §413(b)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1083, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1988.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–145 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 413(c) of Pub. L. 99–145, set out as a note under section 517 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–525 effective Oct. 1, 1984, see section 413(c) of Pub. L. 98–525, set out as a note under section 517 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–94 effective Oct. 1, 1983, see section 503(c) of Pub. L. 98–94, set out as a note under section 517 of this title.

§12012. Authorized strengths: senior enlisted members on active duty or on full-time National Guard duty for administration of the reserves or the National Guard

(a) Limitations.—Of the total number of members of a reserve component who are serving on full-time reserve component duty at the end of any fiscal year, the number of those members in each of pay grades of E–8 and E–9 who may be serving on active duty under section 10211 or 12310, or on full-time National Guard duty under the authority of section 502(f) of title 32 (other than for training) in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components or the National Guard may not, as of the end of that fiscal year, exceed the number determined in accordance with the following table:

 
Total number of members of a reserve component serving on full-time reserve component duty:Number of members of that reserve component who may be serving in the grade of:
E–8E–9
Army Reserve:
10,000 1,052 154  
11,000 1,126 168  
12,000 1,195 180  
13,000 1,261 191  
14,000 1,327 202  
15,000 1,391 213  
16,000 1,455 224  
17,000 1,519 235  
18,000 1,583 246  
19,000 1,647 257  
20,000 1,711 268  
21,000 1,775 278  
 
Army National Guard:
20,000 1,650 550  
22,000 1,775 615  
24,000 1,950 645  
26,000 2,100 675  
28,000 2,250 715  
30,000 2,400 735  
32,000 2,500 760  
34,000 2,600 780  
36,000 2,700 800  
38,000 2,800 820  
40,000 2,900 830  
42,000 3,000 840  
 
Navy Reserve:
10,000 340 143  
11,000 364 156  
12,000 386 169  
13,000 407 182  
14,000 423 195  
15,000 435 208  
16,000 447 221  
17,000 459 234  
18,000 471 247  
19,000 483 260  
20,000 495 273  
21,000 507 286  
22,000 519 299  
23,000 531 312  
24,000 540 325  
 
Marine Corps Reserve:
1,100 50 11  
1,200 55 12  
1,300 60 13  
1,400 65 14  
1,500 70 15  
1,600 75 16  
1,700 80 17  
1,800 85 18  
1,900 89 19  
2,000 93 20  
2,100 96 21  
2,200 99 22  
2,300 101 23  
2,400 103 24  
2,500 105 25  
2,600 107 26  
 
Air Force Reserve:
500 75 40  
1,000 145 75  
1,500 208 105  
2,000 270 130  
2,500 325 150  
3,000 375 170  
3,500 420 190  
4,000 460 210  
4,500 495 230  
5,000 530 250  
5,500 565 270  
6,000 600 290  
7,000 670 330  
8,000 740 370  
10,000 800 400  
 
Air National Guard:
10,000 1,350 550  
12,000 1,466 594  
14,000 1,582 636  
16,000 1,698 676  
18,000 1,814 714  
20,000 1,930 752  
22,000 2,046 790  
24,000 2,162 828  
26,000 2,278 866  
28,000 2,394 904  
30,000 2,510 942  
32,000 2,626 980  
34,000 2,742 1,018  
36,000 2,858 1,056  
38,000 2,974 1,094  
40,000 3,090 1,132  .

(b) Determinations by Interpolation.—If the total number of members of a reserve component serving on full-time reserve component duty is between any two consecutive numbers in the first column of the table in subsection (a), the corresponding authorized strengths for each of the grades shown in that table for that component are determined by mathematical interpolation between the respective numbers of the two strengths. If the total number of members of a reserve component serving on full-time reserve component duty is more or less than the highest or lowest number, respectively, set forth in the first column of the table in subsection (a), the Secretary concerned shall fix the corresponding strengths for the grades shown in the table at the same proportion as is reflected in the nearest limit shown in the table.

(c) Reallocations to Lower Grade.—Whenever the number of members serving in pay grade E–9 for duty described in subsection (a) is less than the number authorized for that grade under this section, the difference between the two numbers may be applied to increase the number authorized under this section for pay grade E–8.

(d) Secretarial Waiver.—(1) Upon determining that it is in the national interest to do so, the Secretary of Defense may increase for a particular fiscal year the number of reserve enlisted members that may be on active duty or full-time National Guard duty as described in subsection (a) for a reserve component in a pay grade referred to in a table in subsection (a) by a number that does not exceed the number equal to 5 percent of the maximum number specified for that grade and reserve component in the table.

(2) Whenever the Secretary exercises the authority provided in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives notice in writing of the adjustment made.

(e) Full-Time Reserve Component Duty Defined.—In this section, the term "full-time reserve component duty" has the meaning given the term in section 12011(e) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2987; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §414(b), title XV, §1501(b)(10), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 288, 496; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §414(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1998; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §414(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §§415(b), 421(c), 424(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-94 to 1654A-96; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §415(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1073; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title X, §1084(d)(34), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2063; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(II), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §512(c), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4440; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title V, §515(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1753.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 517(b), (c) of this title, prior to amendment by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(4).

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232 inserted section of table relating to the Air National Guard and struck out corresponding former section.

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–417 inserted section of table relating to the Army National Guard and struck out corresponding former section.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in table.

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375 inserted colon after "Air National Guard" in table.

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of table setting out maximum number of enlisted members in pay grades E–8 and E–9 who may be on active duty (other than for training) or on full-time National Guard duty (other than for training) as of the end of any fiscal year in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components or the National Guard.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Whenever the number of members serving in pay grade E–9 for duty described in subsection (a) is less than the number authorized for that grade under subsection (a), the difference between the two numbers may be applied to increase the number authorized under such subsection for pay grade E–8."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Whenever under section 527 of this title the President may suspend the operation of any provision of section 523, 525, or 526 of this title, the Secretary of Defense may suspend the operation of any provision of this section. Any such suspension shall, if not sooner ended, end in the manner specified in section 527 for a suspension under that section."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Upon increasing under subsection (c)(2) of section 115 of this title the end strength that is authorized under subsection (a)(1)(B) of that section for a fiscal year for active-duty personnel and full-time National Guard duty personnel of an armed force who are to be paid from funds appropriated for reserve personnel, the Secretary of Defense may increase for that fiscal year the limitation that is set forth in subsection (a) of this section for the number of enlisted members of that armed force serving in any grade if the Secretary determines that such action is in the national interest. The percent of the increase may not exceed the percent by which the Secretary increases that end strength."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–107 added subsec. (e).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §415(b)], amended table generally, increasing the fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted members in the Army in grade of E–9 from 645 to 764 and in grade of E–8 from 2,593 to 2,821, and in the Air Force in grade of E–9 from 405 to 502 and in grade of E–8 from 1,041 to 1,117.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §421(c)], added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §424(b)], added subsec. (d).

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–65 amended table generally, increasing the fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted members in the Army in grade of E–9 from 623 to 645 and in grade of E–8 from 2,585 to 2,593, and in the Air Force in grade of E–9 from 395 to 405 and in grade of E–8 from 997 to 1,041.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261, in table, in grade E–9 increased figure for Army from 603 to 623 and for Air Force from 366 to 395, and in grade E–8 increased figure for Air Force from 890 to 997.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(b)(10), substituted "the National" for "National" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106, §414(b), in table, in grade E–9, increased figure for Army from 569 to 603, for Air Force from 328 to 366, and for Marine Corps from 14 to 20, and in grade E–8, increased figure for Air Force from 840 to 890 and for Marine Corps from 74 to 94. All other figures remained unchanged.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by section 1 [[div. A], title IV, §415(b)] of Pub. L. 106–398 effective Oct. 1, 2000, see section 1 [[div. A], title IV, §415(c)] of Pub. L. 106–398, set out as a note under section 12011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–261 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 414(c) of Pub. L. 105–261, set out as a note under section 12011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 1501(b)(10) of Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

CHAPTER 1203—ENLISTED MEMBERS

Sec.
12101.
Definition.
12102.
Reserve components: qualifications.
12103.
Reserve components: terms.
12104.
Reserve components: transfers.
12105.
Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve: transfer from Guard components.
12106.
Army and Air Force Reserve: transfer to upon withdrawal as member of National Guard.
12107.
Army National Guard of United States; Air National Guard of the United States: enlistment in.
12108.
Enlisted members: discharge or retirement for years of service or for age.

        

Amendments

2001Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(f)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1096, added item 12108.

§12101. Definition

In this chapter, the term "enlistment" means original enlistment or reenlistment.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2988.)

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12102. Reserve components: qualifications

(a) To become an enlisted member of a reserve component a person must be enlisted as a Reserve of an armed force and subscribe to the oath prescribed by section 502 of this title, or be transferred to that component according to law. In addition, to become an enlisted member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States, he must meet the requirements of section 12107 of this title.

(b) Except as otherwise provided by law, the Secretary concerned shall prescribe physical, mental, moral, professional, and age qualifications for the enlistment of persons as Reserves of the armed forces under his jurisdiction. However, no person may be enlisted as a Reserve unless—

(1) he is a citizen of the United States or has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.); or

(2) he has previously served in the armed forces or in the National Security Training Corps.


(c) A person who is otherwise qualified, but who has a physical defect that the Secretary concerned determines will not interfere with the performance of the duties to which that person may be assigned, may be enlisted as a Reserve of any armed force under the jurisdiction of that Secretary.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 17, §510; Pub. L. 88–236, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 474; Pub. L. 90–130, §1(2), Nov. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 90–623, §2(3), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1314; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(13), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; renumbered §12102 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1631(a), 1662(b)(2), 1675(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2964, 2989, 3017; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(5)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
510(a)

510(b)

 

510(c)

 

510(d)

50:952 (less proviso).

50:941(a) (as applicable to enlistments).

50:941(b) (as applicable to enlistments).

50:956 (as applicable to enlistments).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§217 (less (c), as applicable to enlistments), 228 (less proviso), 232 (as applicable to enlistments), 66 Stat. 486, 488, 489.

In subsection (a), the last sentence is inserted to reflect sections 3261 and 8261 of this title.

In subsection (b), the word "However" is substituted for the words "Subject to the limitation that". The words "as Reserves in the armed forces under his jurisdiction" are substituted for the words "of Reserve members of the Armed Forces of the United States". The words "its Territories" are omitted as surplusage, since citizens of the Territories are citizens of the United States.

In subsection (c), the words "armed force concerned" are substituted for the words "of the appropriate Armed Force of the United States". The words "in which she previously served satisfactorily" are substituted for the words "satisfactorily held by her".

In subsection (d), the words "under the jurisdiction of that Secretary" are inserted for clarity. The words "general or special" are omitted as surplusage.

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 104–106 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, §1631(a). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(b)(2), renumbered section 510 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(a), substituted "12107" for "3261 or 8261".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 103–337, §1631(a), as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "Women may be enlisted as Reserves of the armed forces. Women are enlisted in the grades and ratings authorized for enlisted women of the regular component of the armed force concerned. Any female former enlisted member of an armed force may, if otherwise qualified, be enlisted as a Reserve of that armed force in the highest grade or rating in which she previously served satisfactorily on active duty (other than for training)."

1980—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.)" for "chapter 12 of title 8".

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–623 substituted "section 502" for "section 501".

1967—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–130 struck out provision limiting the reserve components in which women may be enlisted as Reserves of the armed forces to the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, and Coast Guard Reserve.

1963—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 88–236 substituted "he is a citizen of the United States or has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under chapter 12 of title 8" for "he is, or has made a declaration of intention to become, a citizen of the United States or of a possession thereof".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1662(b)(2) and 1675(a) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, and amendment by section 1631(a) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–623 intended to restate without substantive change the law in effect on Oct. 22, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–623, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Treatment of Single Parents Enlisting in Reserve Components of the Armed Forces

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §523, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3871, as amended by Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title V, §503, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1085; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §504, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1437, which provided that, in determining under section 510 [now 12102] of title 10 whether a person who is applying to enlist in a reserve component of the Armed Forces upon discharge or release from active duty is qualified for enlistment as a Reserve of an Armed Force, the Secretary concerned may not disqualify the person because the person is a single parent if the person is otherwise qualified for enlistment, the person became a single parent while serving on active duty, and the person's status as a single parent was not a factor in the person's discharge or release from active duty, with provision that the requirements imposed with respect to parenthood not be more stringent than those imposed on a member who becomes a single parent during the term of the member's enlistment, and with provision defining "single parent" as a person who is not married and who has custody of a child under the age of 18 pursuant to a court order, expired on Sept. 30, 1991.

§12103. Reserve components: terms

(a) Except as otherwise prescribed by law, enlistments as Reserves are for terms prescribed by the Secretary concerned. However, an enlistment that is in effect at the beginning of a war or of a national emergency declared by Congress, or entered into during such a war or emergency, and that would otherwise expire, continues in effect until the expiration of six months after the end of that war or emergency, whichever is later, unless sooner terminated by the Secretary concerned.

(b) Under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, and by the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, a person who is qualified for enlistment for active duty in an armed force, and who is not under orders to report for induction into an armed force under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.), may be enlisted as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve, for a term of not less than six years nor more than eight years. Each person enlisted under this subsection shall serve—

(1) on active duty for a period of not less than two years; and

(2) the rest of his period of enlistment as a member of the Ready Reserve.


(c) In time of war or of national emergency declared by Congress the term of service of an enlisted member transferred to a reserve component according to law, that would otherwise expire, continues until the expiration of six months after the end of that war or emergency, whichever is later, unless sooner terminated by the Secretary concerned.

(d) Under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, a non-prior-service person who is qualified for induction for active duty in an armed force and who is not under orders to report for induction into an armed force under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.), except as provided in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 6(c)(2)(A) of such Act (50 U.S.C. 3806(c)(2)(A)), may be enlisted in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, or as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve, for a term of not less than six years nor more than eight years. Each person enlisted under this subsection shall perform an initial period of active duty for training of not less than twelve weeks to commence insofar as practicable within one year after the date of that enlistment.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 18, §511; Pub. L. 85–861, §1(8), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1439; Pub. L. 88–110, §3, Sept. 3, 1963, 77 Stat. 135; Pub. L. 90–168, §2(11), Dec. 1, 1967, 81 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §802(a), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 537; Pub. L. 95–485, title IV, §405(c)(1), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1615; Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §805(a), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 812; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(14), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1115(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 750; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(6), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1022(a)(1), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 670; renumbered §12103, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2989; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §533(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2547; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(JJ), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1081(b)(1)(A)(vii), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2418.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
511(a)

511(b)

50:951 (less (c)).

50:951(c).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §227, 66 Stat. 488.

In subsection (a), the first sentence is substituted for 50:951(a). The words "as Reserves in the Armed Forces of the United States" and "the existence of" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsections (a) and (b), the word "hereafter" is omitted as surplusage. The words "the expiration of" are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (b), the word "continues" is substituted for the words "shall * * * be extended".

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
511(b) 50:1012. Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §2(i) (1st 2 pars.), 69 Stat. 600.

In subsection (b), the words "respectively, pursuant to the provisions of this section" are omitted as surplusage. The words "as a Reserve for service" are inserted to reflect section 510 of this title. The last six words of the first sentence are substituted for 50:1012(b) (1st sentence).

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (d), is title I of act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, which is classified principally to chapter 49 (§3801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 3801 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–328, §1081(b)(1)(A)(vii)(I), substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.)" for "(50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–328, §1081(b)(1)(A)(vii), substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.)" for "(50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" and "clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 6(c)(2)(A) of such Act (50 U.S.C. 3806(c)(2)(A))" for "section 6(c)(2)(A)(ii) and (iii) of such Act".

2006—Subsecs. (b), (d). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–314 substituted "one year" for "270 days" in last sentence.

Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 511 of this title as this section.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–94, §1022(a)(1)(A), substituted "not less than six years nor more than eight years" for "six years".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–94, §1022(a)(1)(B), substituted "not less than six years nor more than eight years" for "six years".

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–295 substituted "(50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" for "(50 U.S.C. App. 451–473)" after "Military Selective Service Act".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–252 extended to 270 from 180 days requirement for commencement of initial period of active duty for training after date of enlistment.

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" for "Military Selective Service Act of 1967 (50 App. U.S.C. 451–473)".

1979—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–107 struck out requirement that a non-prior-service person be under 26 years of age.

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–485, in provision preceding cl. (1), substituted "the Secretary of Defense, and by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy" for "the Secretary concerned" and "the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451–473)" for "sections 451–473 of title 50, appendix", in cl. (1), substituted "not less than two years; and" for "two years;", struck out former cl. (2), requiring a person enlisted under this subsec. to serve satisfactorily as a member of the Ready Reserve for a period which when added to his active duty under cl. (1) totals five years, redesignated former cl. (3) as (2), and in cl. (2) as so redesignated, substituted "Ready Reserve" for "Standby Reserve".

1975—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–106 reduced initial period of active duty for training for persons enlisted under this subsection from four months to twelve weeks.

1967—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–168 substituted the Secretary of Transportation for the Secretary of the Treasury as the prescribing authority for regulations covering the Coast Guard when not operating as part of the Navy, inserted exception as provided in section 6(c)(2)(A)(ii) and (iii) of the Military Selective Service Act of 1967, added requirement that the initial period of four months' service commence insofar as practicable within 180 days after the date of enlistment, and struck out provision that the remainder of the period of service after the initial period of four months be served, subject to section 269(e)(4) of this title, as a member of the Ready Reserve.

1963—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–110 added subsec. (d).

1958—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 85–861, §1(8)(A), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendments

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §533(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2547, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to enlistments under section 12103(d) of title 10, United States Code, after the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1022(a)(2), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 670, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to persons who enlist under the authority of subsection (b) or (d) of section 511 [now 12103] of title 10, United States Code, 60 or more days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 24, 1983]."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1115(b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 750, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to persons enlisting in a reserve component of the Armed Forces after the end of the ninety-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 8, 1982]."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §805(c), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 813, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 651 of this title] shall apply only to individuals who become members of an Armed Force after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 9, 1979]."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–485, title IV, §405(c)(2), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1616, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall not apply with respect to a person who enlisted as a Reserve for service in the Armed Forces under section 511(b) [now 12103(b)] of title 10, United States Code, before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 20, 1978]."

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–168, see section 7 of Pub. L. 90–168, set out as a note under section 138 of this title.

Transition

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §533(c), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2547, provided that: "In the case of a person who enlisted under section 12103(d) of title 10, United States Code, before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002] and who as of such date has not commenced the required initial period of active duty for training under that section, the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] may be applied to that person, but only with the agreement of that person and the Secretary concerned."

§12104. Reserve components: transfers

(a) A person who would otherwise be required to be transferred to a reserve component under section 651 of this title or under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.), is entitled, if he is qualified and accepted, to be enlisted in any armed force that he chooses and to participate in the programs authorized for that armed force. However, unless the two Secretaries concerned consent, he may not be enlisted as a Reserve of an armed force other than that from which he is transferred. All periods of his participation shall be credited against the total period of service required of him under section 651 of this title or under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.). However, no period may be credited more than once.

(b) A person covered by subsection (a) shall perform the rest of his required term of service in the armed force in which he is so enlisted or in any other armed force in which he is later enlisted or appointed.

(c) This section does not change any term of service under an appointment, enlistment, or agreement, including an agreement made before or at the time when the member entered upon a program authorized by an armed force.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 18, §512; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(15), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; renumbered §12104, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2989; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1081(b)(1)(A)(viii), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2418.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
512(a)

 

 

512(b)

50:929(a) (less 2d sentence, as applicable to enlistments).

50:929(a) (2d sentence, as applicable to enlistments).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §209 (as applicable to enlistments), 66 Stat. 484.
512(c) 50:929(b) (as applicable to enlistments).

In subsection (a), the words "is entitled * * * to be enlisted in any armed force that he chooses" are substituted for the words "shall * * * be permitted to enlist * * * in such Armed Force of the United States as he may elect". The second sentence is substituted for 50:929(a) (words within parentheses). The words "of an Armed Force of the United States" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the word "rest" is substituted for the words "remaining period". The words "be required to" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (c), the words "This section does not" are substituted for the words "Nothing in this section shall be construed". The word "change" is substituted for the words "reduce, limit, or modify". The words "which any person may undertake to perform" are omitted as surplusage.

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is title I of act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, which is classified principally to chapter 49 (§3801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 3801 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.)" for "(50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" in two places.

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 512 of this title as this section.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" for "sections 451–473 of title 50, appendix" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§12105. Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve: transfer from Guard components

(a) Under such regulations as the Secretary concerned may prescribe—

(1) an enlisted member of the Army National Guard of the United States may be transferred in grade to the Army Reserve; and

(2) an enlisted member of the Air National Guard of the United States may be transferred in grade to the Air Force Reserve.


(b) Upon such a transfer, the member transferred is eligible for promotion to the highest regular or reserve grade ever held by him in the Army, if transferred under subsection (a)(1), or the Air Force, if transferred under subsection (a)(2), if his service has been honorable.

(c) A transfer under this section may only be made with the consent of the governor or other appropriate authority of the State concerned.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2988.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3259 and 8259 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(b)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12106. Army and Air Force Reserve: transfer to upon withdrawal as member of National Guard

(a) An enlisted member of the Army National Guard of the United States who ceases to be a member of the Army National Guard becomes a member of the Army Reserve unless he is also discharged from his enlistment as a Reserve.

(b) An enlisted member of the Air National Guard of the United States who ceases to be a member of the Air National Guard becomes a member of the Air Force Reserve unless he is also discharged from his enlistment as a Reserve.

(c) An enlisted member who becomes a member of the Army Reserve or the Air Force Reserve under this section ceases to be a member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States, as the case may be.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2989.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3260 and 8260 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(b)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12107. Army National Guard of United States; Air National Guard of the United States: enlistment in

(a) Except as provided in subsection (c), to become an enlisted member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States, a person must—

(1) be enlisted in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, as the case may be;

(2) subscribe to the oath set forth in section 304 of title 32; and

(3) be a member of a federally recognized unit or organization of the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, as the case may be, in the grade in which he is to be enlisted as a Reserve.


(b)(1) Under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Army, a person who enlists in the Army National Guard, or whose term of enlistment in the Army National Guard is extended, shall be concurrently enlisted, or his term of enlistment shall be concurrently extended, as the case may be, as a Reserve of the Army for service in the Army National Guard of the United States.

(2) Under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Air Force, a person who enlists in the Air National Guard, or whose term of enlistment in the Air National Guard is extended, shall be concurrently enlisted, or his term of enlistment shall be concurrently extended, as the case may be, as a Reserve of the Air Force for service in the Air National Guard of the United States.

(c)(1) A member of the Army Reserve who enlists in the Army National Guard in his reserve grade, and is a member of a federally recognized unit or organization of the Army National Guard, becomes a member of the Army National Guard of the United States and ceases to be a member of the Army Reserve.

(2) A member of the Air Force Reserve who enlists in the Air National Guard in his reserve grade, and is a member of a federally recognized unit or organization of the Air National Guard, becomes a member of the Air National Guard of the United States and ceases to be a member of the Air Force Reserve.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2989.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3261 and 8261 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(b)(3).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12108. Enlisted members: discharge or retirement for years of service or for age

Each reserve enlisted member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is in an active status and has reached the maximum years of service or age prescribed by the Secretary concerned shall—

(1) be transferred to the Retired Reserve if the member is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve; or

(2) be discharged if the member is not qualified for transfer to the Retired Reserve or has requested (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be so transferred.

(Added Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(f)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1095.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first month that begins more than 180 days after Dec. 28, 2001, see section 517(g) of Pub. L. 107–107, set out as an Effective Date of 2001 Amendment note under section 10154 of this title.

CHAPTER 1205—APPOINTMENT OF RESERVE OFFICERS

Sec.
12201.
Reserve officers: qualifications for appointment.
12202.
Commissioned officer grades.
12203.
Commissioned officers: appointment, how made; term.
12204.
Commissioned officers: original appointment; limitation.
12205.
Commissioned officers: appointment; educational requirement.
12206.
Commissioned officers: appointment of former commissioned officers.
12207.
Commissioned officers: service credit upon original appointment.
12208.
Officers: appointment upon transfer.
12209.
Officer candidates: enlisted Reserves.
12210.
Attending Physician to the Congress: reserve grade.
12211.
Officers: Army National Guard of the United States.
12212.
Officers: Air National Guard of the United States.
12213.
Officers; Army Reserve: transfer from Army National Guard of the United States.
12214.
Officers; Air Force Reserve: transfer from Air National Guard of the United States.
12215.
Commissioned officers: reserve grade of adjutants general and assistant adjutants general.

        

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §507(a)(2)(C), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2180, struck out "while so serving" after "reserve grade" in item 12210.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(11)(B), (13)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496, substituted "Reserve officers: qualifications" for "Qualifications" in item 12201 and inserted "the" after "National Guard of" in items 12211, 12212, 12213, and 12214.

§12201. Reserve officers: qualifications for appointment

(a)(1) To become an officer of a reserve component a person must be appointed as a Reserve of an armed force in a grade corresponding to a grade authorized for the regular component of the armed force concerned and, except as provided in paragraph (2), subscribe to the oath prescribed by section 3331 of title 5. In addition, to become an officer of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States, he must first be appointed to, and be federally recognized in, the same grade in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, as the case may be.

(2) If an officer is transferred from the active-duty list of an armed force to a reserve active-status list of an armed force in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the officer is not required to subscribe to the oath referred to in paragraph (1) in order to qualify for an appointment under that paragraph.

(b) Except as otherwise provided by law, the Secretary concerned shall prescribe physical, mental, moral, professional, and age qualifications for the appointment of persons as Reserves of the armed forces under his jurisdiction. However, no person may be appointed as a Reserve unless he is at least 18 years of age and—

(1) he is a citizen of the United States or has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.); or

(2) he has previously served in the armed forces or in the National Security Training Corps.


(c) A person who is otherwise qualified, but who has a physical defect that the Secretary concerned determines will not interfere with the performance of the duties to which that person may be assigned, may be appointed as a Reserve of any armed force under the jurisdiction of that Secretary.

(d) In prescribing age qualifications under subsection (b) for the appointment of persons as Reserves of the armed forces under his jurisdiction, the Secretary concerned may not prescribe a maximum age qualification of less than 47 years of age for the initial appointment of a person as a Reserve to serve in a health profession specialty which has been designated by the Secretary concerned as a specialty critically needed in wartime.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 24, §591; Pub. L. 85–861, §1(10)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440; Pub. L. 88–236, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 474; Pub. L. 89–718, §4, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 90–130, §1(3), Nov. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 96–513, title V §511(16), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VII, §718(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1115; renumbered §12201 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1631(b), 1662(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2964, 2990; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(5)(B), (b)(11)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495, 496; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(c)(3), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §515, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4213.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
591(a)

591(b)

 

591(c)

 

591(d)

50:946.

50:941(a) (less applicability to enlistments).

50:941(b) (less applicability to enlistments).

50:956 (less applicability to enlistments).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§217 (less (c), and less applicability to enlistments), 222, 232 (less applicability to enlistments), 66 Stat. 486, 487, 489.

In subsection (a), 50:946(a) (last 12 words of proviso) is omitted as covered by section 312 of title 32, 50:946(b) is omitted as covered by the revised subsection.

In subsection (b), the word "However" is substituted for the words "Subject to the limitation that". The exception as to section 4(i)(7) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act is inserted for clarity. The words "as Reserves of the armed forces under his jurisdiction" are substituted for the words "of Reserve members of the Armed Forces of the United States". The words "unless he is at least 18 years of age" are substituted for 50:941(a) (last sentence). The words "its Territories" are omitted as surplusage, since citizens of the Territories are citizens of the United States.

In subsection (c), the words "armed force concerned" are substituted for the words "of the appropriate Armed Force of the United States". The words "in the grades corresponding to the grades authorized for female officers of the" are substituted for the words "in the same grades * * * as are authorized for women in the", to conform to subsection (a). The words "in which she previously served satisfactorily" are substituted for the words "satisfactorily held by her".

In subsection (d), the words "under the jurisdiction of that Secretary" are inserted for clarity. The words "general or special" are omitted as surplusage.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
591(c) 50:941(b). July 30, 1956, ch. 789, §4(a), 70 Stat. 729.

The words "Subject to section 946(a) of this title" are omitted, since that section is restated in subsection (a) of the revised section and is applicable to all reserve appointments. 50:941(b) (last 2 sentences) is omitted as covered by sections 510 and 591 of this title.

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "If an officer is transferred from the active-duty list of an armed force to a reserve active-status list of an armed force in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the officer" for "An officer transferred from the active-duty list of an armed force to a reserve active-status list of an armed force under section 647 of this title".

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted ", except as provided in paragraph (2)," after "the armed force concerned and", and added par. (2).

1996Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(b)(11), substituted "Reserve officers: qualifications for appointment" for "Reserve components: qualifications" as section catchline.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(a)(5)(B), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, §1631(b). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(c)(2), renumbered section 591 of this title as this section.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 103–337, §1631(b), as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(a)(5)(B), redesignated subsecs. (d) and (e) as (c) and (d), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "Women may be appointed as Reserves of the armed forces for service in the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, and Coast Guard Reserve. Women who are otherwise qualified may be appointed as Reserves of the armed forces with a view to serving in the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States. Women are appointed in grades corresponding to the grades authorized for female officers of the regular component of the armed force concerned. Any female former officer of an armed force may, if otherwise qualified, be appointed as a Reserve of that armed force in the highest grade in which she previously served satisfactorily on active duty (other than for training)."

1987—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (e).

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.)" for "chapter 12 of title 8", and struck out reference to section 454(i)(7) of title 50, appendix.

1967—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–130 struck out provision limiting areas of service of women in Army National Guard of the United States and Air National Guard of the United States to service as nurses or medical specialists.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–718 substituted "3331" for "16".

1963—Subsec. (b) (1). Pub. L. 88–236 substituted "he is a citizen of the United States or has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under chapter 12 of title 8" for "he is, or has made a declaration of intention to become, a citizen of the United States or of a possession thereof".

1958—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–861 permitted appointment of women as Reserves of armed forces with a view to serving as nurses or medical specialists in Army National Guard of the United States or Air National Guard of the United States.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–375 effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 531 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 1631(b) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Baccalaureate Degree Required for Appointment or Promotion of Reserve Component Officers to Grades Above First Lieutenant or Lieutenant (Junior Grade)

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §523, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1363, provided that after Sept. 30, 1995, no person could be appointed to a grade above grade of first lieutenant in Army Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Marine Corps Reserve or to a grade above grade of lieutenant (junior grade) in Naval Reserve, or be federally recognized in a grade above grade of first lieutenant as a member of Army National Guard or Air National Guard, unless that person had been awarded a baccalaureate degree by an accredited educational institution, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §203(a), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 102. See section 12205 of this title.

Priority in Making Original Appointments in Guard and Reserve Components for ROTC Scholarship Program Graduates

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §524, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1363, as amended by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(h), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3237, provided that: "In making appointments of persons as second lieutenants in the Army Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Marine Corps Reserve or to the grade of ensign in the Navy Reserve, or in granting federal recognition in the grade of second lieutenant to members of the Army National Guard or Air National Guard, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall give preference to persons who have completed a post-secondary program of education pursued under a ROTC scholarship program at a college or university accredited to award baccalaureate degrees or pursued under a ROTC scholarship program at an accredited two-year or four-year military college."

Report on Initial Appointment of All Officers as Reserve Officers and on Appropriate Active Duty Obligation of Graduates of Service Academies

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §524, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1562, directed Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress a report on advantages, disadvantages, and desirability of initially appointing all persons commissioned as officers in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps as Reserve officers, and the appropriate active duty service obligation for graduates of the service academies, directed Secretary to submit report not later than 60 days after Nov. 5, 1990, and provided that if the report was not submitted by that date, all persons initially appointed as commissioned officers in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps after that date would be appointed as commissioned officers in a Reserve component of the Armed Forces, and all persons entering the service academies after that date would incur an obligation to serve on active duty for a period of five years.

Deadline for Regulations Implementing Subsection (e) of This Section

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VII, §718(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1115, provided that: "The Secretary concerned shall prescribe regulations implementing subsection (e) of section 591 [now 12201(d)] of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 1987]."

§12202. Commissioned officer grades

Except for commissioned warrant officers, the reserve commissioned officer grades in each armed force are those authorized for regular commissioned officers of that armed force.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(10)(B), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440, §592; renumbered §12202, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
592 50:1181(1) (as applicable to 50:1201).

50:1201.

Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §§102(1) (as applicable to §211), 211, 68 Stat. 1149, 1153.

The words "including those heretofore or hereafter transferred to the Retired Reserve", "permanent", and "pursuant to the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, as amended" are omitted as surplusage. The rule as to the Coast Guard is consolidated with the rule applicable to the other armed forces, since 14:754 prescribes the same substantive result as that prescribed by 50:1201 for the other armed forces.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 592 of this title as this section.

§12203. Commissioned officers: appointment, how made; term

(a) Appointments of reserve officers in commissioned grades of lieutenant colonel and commander or below, except commissioned warrant officer, shall be made by the President alone. Appointments of reserve officers in commissioned grades above lieutenant colonel and commander shall be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, except as provided in section 624, 12213, or 12214 of this title.

(b) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President, the Secretary concerned may appoint as a reserve commissioned officer any regular officer transferred from the active-duty list of an armed force to the reserve active-status list of a reserve component under section 647 of this title, notwithstanding the requirements of subsection (a).

(c) Appointments of Reserves in commissioned grades are for an indefinite term and are held during the pleasure of the President.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 25, §593; Pub. L. 85–861, §1(10)(C), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440; Pub. L. 92–129, title VI, §601, Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 361; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §501(7), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2907; renumbered §12203 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1632, 1662(c)(2), 1675(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2965, 2990, 3017; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(6), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(c)(4), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(b)(54), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4372.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
593(a)

 

593(b)

50:942.

50:943.

50:945.

50:948 (less 3d and 4th sentences, as applicable to commissioned officers).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§218, 219, 221, 224 (less 3d and 4th sentences, as applicable to commissioned officers), 66 Stat. 487.

In subsection (a), the word "alone" is inserted for clarity. The exception as to commissioned warrant officers is inserted to reflect section 597 of this title, since reserve chief warrant officers of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard are appointed by commission by the Secretary concerned.

In subsection (b), 50:948 (2d and last sentences) is omitted as executed.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
593(a) [No source]. [No source].

The exception is inserted to reflect section 3352(b) of title 10, United States Code.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "of" for "above" in first sentence.

2004—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 108–375 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, §1632. See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(c)(2), renumbered section 593 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(b), substituted "12213, or 12214" for "3352, or 8352".

Pub. L. 103–337, §1632, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, substituted "reserve officers in commissioned grades of lieutenant colonel and commander or below" for "Reserves in commissioned grades below lieutenant colonel and commander" and "reserve officers in commissioned grades above lieutenant colonel and commander" for "Reserves in commissioned grades above major and lieutenant commander".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513 inserted reference to section 624 of this title.

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–129 substituted "below lieutenant colonel and commander" for "below general officer and flag officer", "in commissioned grades above major and lieutenant commander" for "as general and flag officers", and "section 3352 or 8352 of this title" for "section 3352 of this title".

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–861 inserted ", except as provided in section 3352 of this title" after "consent of the Senate".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–375 effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 531 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1662(c)(2) and 1675(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, and amendment by section 1632 of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For assignment of functions of President under first sentence of subsec. (a) of this section, see sections 1(b) and 2(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 13358, Sept. 28, 2004, 69 F.R. 58797, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Indefinite Appointments for Certain Reserve Officers

Act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §41, 70A Stat. 636, provided that: "Each person who was a reserve officer on July 9, 1952, and who did not hold an appointment for an indefinite term on that date, shall be given an appointment for an indefinite term in place of the appointment he then held, if after written notification by competent authority before July 2, 1953, the officer agrees in writing to have that appointment continued for an indefinite term. In the event such officer does not agree in writing, the term of his current appointment shall not be changed by this section."

§12204. Commissioned officers: original appointment; limitation

(a) No person may be appointed as a Reserve in a commissioned grade above major or lieutenant commander, unless—

(1) he was formerly a commissioned officer of an armed force; or

(2) such an appointment is recommended by a board of officers convened by the Secretary concerned.


(b) This section does not apply to adjutants general and assistant adjutants general of the several States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 25, §594; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1234(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2059; renumbered §12204, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1057(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3440.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
594(a) 50:941(c) (less 1st 21 words). July 9, 1952, ch. 608 §217(c), 66 Stat. 487.
594(b) 50:941(c) (1st 21 words).

In subsection (a), the words "unless * * * he was formerly" are substituted for the words "has not held an appointment as". The words "or any component thereof" are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–163 struck out "and Territories" after "States".

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 594 of this title as this section.

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–456 struck out "the Canal Zone," after "Puerto Rico,".

§12205. Commissioned officers: appointment; educational requirement

(a) In General.—No person may be appointed to a grade above the grade of first lieutenant in the Army Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Marine Corps Reserve or to a grade above the grade of lieutenant (junior grade) in the Navy Reserve, or be federally recognized in a grade above the grade of first lieutenant as a member of the Army National Guard or Air National Guard, unless that person has been awarded a baccalaureate degree by a qualifying educational institution.

(b) Exceptions.—Subsection (a) does not apply to the following:

(1) The appointment to or recognition in a higher grade of a person who is appointed in or assigned for service in a health profession for which a baccalaureate degree is not a condition of original appointment or assignment.

(2) The appointment in the Navy Reserve or Marine Corps Reserve of a person appointed for service as an officer designated as a limited duty officer.

(3) The appointment in the Navy Reserve of a person appointed for service under the Naval Aviation Cadet (NAVCAD) program or the Seaman to Admiral program.

(4) The appointment to or recognition in a higher grade of any person who was appointed to, or federally recognized in, the grade of captain or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant before October 1, 1995.

(5) Recognition in the grade of captain or major in the Alaska Army National Guard of a person who resides permanently at a location in Alaska that is more than 50 miles from each of the cities of Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau, Alaska, by paved road and who is serving in a Scout unit or a Scout supporting unit.


(c) Qualifying Educational Institutions.—(1) A qualifying educational institution for purposes of this section is an educational institution that is accredited or that meets the requirements of paragraph (2).

(2)(A) An unaccredited educational institution shall be considered to be a qualifying educational institution for purposes of the appointment or recognition of a person who is a graduate of that institution if the Secretary concerned determines that (as of the year of the graduation of that person from that institution) at least three educational institutions that are accredited and that maintain Reserve Officers' Training Corps programs each generally grant baccalaureate degree credit for completion of courses of the unaccredited institution equivalent to the baccalaureate degree credit granted by the unaccredited institution for the completion of those courses.

(B) In order to assist the Secretary concerned in making determinations under subparagraph (A), any unaccredited institution that seeks to be considered to be a qualifying educational institution for purposes of this paragraph shall submit to the Secretary of Defense each year such information as the Secretary may require concerning the program of instruction at that institution.

(C) In the case of a person with a degree from an unaccredited institution that is a qualifying educational institution under this paragraph, the degree may not have been awarded more than eight years before the date on which the person is to be appointed to, or recognized in, the grade of captain or, in the case of the Navy Reserve, lieutenant, in order for that person to be considered for purposes of subsection (a) to have been awarded a baccalaureate degree by a qualifying educational institution.

(d) Waiver Authority for Army OCS Graduates and Certain Marine Corps Officers.—(1) The Secretary of the Army may waive the applicability of subsection (a) to any officer whose original appointment in the Army as a Reserve officer is through the Army Officer Candidate School program.

(2) The Secretary of the Navy may waive the applicability of subsection (a) to any officer whose original appointment in the Marine Corps as a Reserve officer is through the Marine Corps meritorious commissioning program.

(3) Any such waiver shall be made on a case-by-case basis, considering the individual circumstances of the officer involved, and may continue in effect for no more than two years after the waiver is granted. The Secretary concerned may provide for such a waiver to be effective before the date of the waiver, as appropriate in an individual case.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §515(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2406, §596; renumbered §12205 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §§519, 520, title XVI, §1662(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2755, 2990; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §§504, 505, title X, §1074(a)(22), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2512, 2660; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §512(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1092; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(KK), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3234.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §523, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1363, which was set out as a note under section 591 [now 12201] of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–35, §203(a).

Amendments

2006—Subsecs. (a), (b)(2), (3), (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

2001—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–107 added subsec. (d).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–201, §1074(a)(22), substituted "No person" for "After September 30, 1995, no person".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–201, §505, inserted "or the Seaman to Admiral program" after "(NAVCAD) program".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–201, §504, substituted "eight years" for "three years".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(c)(2), renumbered section 596 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §519(1), substituted "a qualifying educational institution" for "an accredited educational institution".

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 103–337, §520(b), substituted "a person" for "an individual".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 103–337, §520(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–337, §519(2), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §512(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1092, provided that: "Subsection (d) of section 12205 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to officers appointed before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2001]."

Authority for Temporary Waiver for Certain Army Reserve Officers of Baccalaureate Degree Requirement for Promotion of Reserve Officers

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §516, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2008, provided that:

"(a) Waiver Authority for Army OCS Graduates.—The Secretary of the Army may waive the applicability of section 12205(a) of title 10, United States Code, to any officer who before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1998] was commissioned through the Army Officer Candidate School. Any such waiver shall be made on a case-by-case basis, considering the individual circumstances of the officer involved, and may continue in effect for no more than 2 years after the waiver is granted. The Secretary may provide for such a waiver to be effective before the date of the waiver, as appropriate in an individual case.

"(b) Expiration of Authority.—A waiver under this section may not be granted after September 30, 2000."

§12206. Commissioned officers: appointment of former commissioned officers

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, a person who is a former commissioned officer may, if otherwise qualified, be appointed as a reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps. A person so appointed—

(1) may be placed on the reserve active-status list of that armed force in the grade equivalent to the permanent regular or reserve grade, and in the same competitive category, in which the person previously served satisfactorily on active duty or in an active status; and

(2) may be credited for the purpose of determining date of rank under section 741(d) of this title with service in grade equal to that held by that person when discharged or separated.

(Added §596a and renumbered §12206, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1633, 1662(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2965, 2990.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(c)(2), renumbered section 596a of this title as this section.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12207. Commissioned officers: service credit upon original appointment

(a)(1) For the purpose of determining the grade and the rank within grade of a person receiving an original appointment as a reserve commissioned officer (other than a commissioned warrant officer) in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps, the person shall be credited at the time of the appointment with any commissioned service (other than service as a commissioned warrant officer) performed before such appointment as a regular officer, or as a reserve officer in an active status, in any armed force, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or the Public Health Service.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations, which shall apply uniformly among the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, to authorize the Secretary of the military department concerned to limit the amount of prior commissioned service with which a person receiving an original appointment may be credited under paragraph (1), or to deny any such credit, in the case of a person who at the time of such appointment is credited with constructive service under subsection (b) or (e).

(b)(1) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, a person who is receiving an original appointment as a reserve commissioned officer (other than a commissioned warrant officer) of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or a designation in, or an assignment to, an officer category in which advanced education or training is required and who has advanced education or training, shall be credited with constructive service for such education, training, or experience, as follows:

(A) One year for each year of advanced education beyond the baccalaureate degree level, for persons appointed or designated in, or assigned to, officer categories requiring such advanced education or an advanced degree as a prerequisite for such appointment, designation, or assignment. In determining the number of years of constructive service to be credited under this subparagraph to officers in any professional field, the Secretary concerned shall credit an officer with, but with not more than, the number of years of advanced education required by a majority of institutions that award degrees in that professional field for completion of the advanced education or award of the advanced degree.

(B)(i) Credit for any period of advanced education in a health profession (other than medicine and dentistry) beyond the baccalaureate degree level which exceeds the basic education criteria for such appointment, designation, or assignment, if such advanced education will be directly used by the armed force concerned.

(ii) Credit for experience in a health profession (other than medicine or dentistry), if such experience will be directly used by the armed force concerned.

(C) Additional credit of (i) not more than one year for internship or equivalent graduate medical, dental, or other formal health professional training required by the armed forces, and (ii) not more than one year for each additional year of such graduate-level training or experience creditable toward certification in a speciality required by the armed force concerned.

(D) Additional credit for special training or experience in a particular officer career field as designated by the Secretary concerned, if such training or experience is directly related to the operational needs of the armed force concerned.

(E) Additional credit for experience as a physician or dentist, if appointed, assigned, or designated as a medical or dental officer.


(2)(A) If the Secretary of Defense determines that the number of officers in a health profession described in subparagraph (B) who are serving in an active status in a reserve component of the Army, Navy, or Air Force in grades below major or lieutenant commander is critically below the number needed in such health profession by such reserve component in such grades, the Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of the military department concerned to credit any person who is receiving an original appointment as an officer for service in such health profession with a period of constructive credit in such amount (in addition to any amount credited such person under paragraph (1)) as will result in the grade of such person being that of captain or, in the case of the Navy Reserve, lieutenant.

(B) The types of health professions referred to in subparagraph (A) include the following:

(i) Any health profession performed by officers in the Medical Corps of the Army or the Navy or by officers of the Air Force designated as a medical officer.

(ii) Any health profession performed by officers in the Dental Corps of the Army or the Navy or by officers of the Air Force designated as a dental officer.

(iii) Any health profession performed by officers in the Medical Service Corps of the Army or the Navy or by officers of the Air Force designated as a medical service officer or biomedical sciences officer.

(iv) Any health profession performed by officers in the Army Medical Specialist Corps.

(v) Any health profession performed by officers of the Nurse Corps of the Army or the Navy or by officers of the Air Force designated as a nurse.

(vi) Any health profession performed by officers in the Veterinary Corps of the Army or by officers designated as a veterinary officer.


(3) The amount of constructive service credit credited to an officer under this subsection may not exceed the amount required in order for the officer to be eligible for an original appointment as a reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of colonel or as a reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of captain.

(4) Constructive service credited an officer under this subsection is in addition to any service credited that officer under subsection (a) and shall be credited at the time of the original appointment of the officer or assignment to or designation in an officer category in which advanced education or training or special experience is required.

(c) Constructive service may not be credited under subsection (b) for education, training, or experience obtained while serving as a commissioned officer (other than a warrant officer) on active duty or in an active status. However, in the case of an officer who completes advanced education or receives an advanced degree while on active duty or in an active status and in less than the number of years normally required to complete such advanced education or receive such advanced degree, constructive service may, subject to regulations prescribed under subsection (a)(2), be credited to the officer under subsection (b)(1)(A) to the extent that the number of years normally required to complete such advanced education or receive such advanced degree exceeds the actual number of years in which such advanced education or degree is obtained by the officer.

(d) If the Secretary of Defense determines that the number of qualified judge advocates serving on the active-duty list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in grades below lieutenant commander or major is critically below the number needed by that armed force in those grades, the Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of the military department concerned to credit any person who is receiving an original appointment with a view to assignment to the Judge Advocate General's Corps of the Army or appointment to the Judge Advocate General's Corps of the Navy, or who is receiving an original appointment in the Air Force or Marine Corps with a view to designation as a judge advocate, with a period of constructive service in such an amount (in addition to any amount credited such person under subsection (b)) as will result in the grade of such person being that of captain or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant, and the date of rank of such person being junior to that of all other officers of the same grade serving on the active-duty list.

(e) Constructive service credited an officer under subsection (b) or (d) shall be used only for determining the officer's—

(1) initial grade as a reserve officer;

(2) rank in grade; and

(3) service in grade for promotion eligibility.


(f) The grade and position on the reserve active-status list of a person receiving an appointment as a reserve officer who at the time of appointment is credited with service under this section shall be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense based upon the amount of service credited.

(Added §596b and renumbered §12207, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1634, 1662(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2965, 2990; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(LL), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3234; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §512, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 98; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title V, §512(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1376; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title V, §502(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1739.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3353, 5600, and 8353 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1629(a)(1), (c)(1) and Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(c)(26).

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 115–232, §502(b)(1)(A), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "Additional credit, in unusual cases, based on special experience in a particular field."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–232, §502(b)(1)(B), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "Except as authorized by the Secretary concerned in individual cases and under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense in the case of officers covered by paragraph (2), the amount of constructive service credited an officer under this subsection may not exceed the amount required in order for the officer to be eligible for an original appointment as a reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of major or as a reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of lieutenant commander."

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 115–232, §502(b)(2), redesignated subsecs. (f) and (g) as (e) and (f), respectively, substituted "or (d)" for ", (d), or (e)" in introductory provisions of subsec. (e), and struck out former subsec. (e) which related to constructive service credited to commissioned officers with cyberspace-related experience or advanced education in reserve active-status.

2017—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §512(a)(1), inserted "or (e)" after "subsection (b)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–91, §512(a)(3), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–91, §512(a)(2), (4), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f) and substituted ", (d), or (e)" for "or (d)". Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–91, §512(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (f) as (g).

2008—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–181, §512(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "If the Secretary of Defense determines that the number of medical or dental officers serving in an active status in a reserve component of the Army, Navy, or Air Force in grades below major or lieutenant commander is critically below the number needed by such reserve component in such grades, the Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of the military department concerned to credit any person who is receiving an original appointment for service as a medical or dental officer with a period of constructive credit in such amount (in addition to any amount credited such person under subsection (b)) as will result in the grade of such person being that of captain or, in the case of the Navy Reserve, lieutenant."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–181, §512(b), substituted "officers covered by paragraph (2)" for "a medical or dental officer".

2006—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(c)(2), renumbered section 596b of this title as this section.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12208. Officers: appointment upon transfer

(a) A person who would otherwise be required to be transferred to a reserve component under section 651 of this title or under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.), is entitled, if he is qualified and accepted, to be appointed as an officer of any armed force that he chooses and to participate in the programs authorized for that armed force. However, unless the two Secretaries concerned consent, he may not be appointed as a Reserve of an armed force other than that from which he is transferred. All periods of his participation shall be credited against the total period of service required of him under section 651 of this title or under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.). However, no period may be credited more than once.

(b) A person covered by subsection (a) shall perform the rest of his required term of service in the armed force in which he is so appointed or in any other armed force in which he is later appointed or enlisted.

(c) This section does not change any term of service under an appointment, enlistment, or agreement, including an agreement made before or at the time when the member entered upon a program authorized by an armed force.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 25, §595; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(17), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; renumbered §12208, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1081(b)(1)(A)(ix), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2418.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
595(a)

 

 

595(b)

50:929(a) (less 2d sentence, less applicability to enlistments).

50:929(a) (2d sentence, and less applicability to enlistments).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §209 (less applicability to enlistments), 66 Stat. 484.
595(c) 50:929(b) (less applicability to enlistments).

In subsection (a), the words "is entitled * * * to be appointed as an officer of any armed force that he chooses" are substituted for the words "shall be permitted to * * * accept an appointment in such armed force of the United States as he may elect". The last sentence is substituted for 50:929(a) (words within parentheses). The words "of an armed force of the United States" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the word "rest" is substituted for the words "remaining period". The words "be required to" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (c), the words "This section does not" are substituted for the words "Nothing in this section shall be construed". The word "change" is substituted for the words "reduce, limit, or modify". The words "which any person may undertake to perform" are omitted as surplusage.

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is title I of act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, which is classified principally to chapter 49 (§3801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 3801 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.)" for "(50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" in two places.

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 595 of this title as this section.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" for "sections 451–473 of title 50, appendix" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§12209. Officer candidates: enlisted Reserves

(a) Within such numbers as the Secretary concerned may prescribe, enlisted Reserves may, with their consent, be selected for training as officer candidates. Enlisted Reserves so selected shall be designated as officer candidates during that training. However, no member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States may be so selected or designated unless—

(1) he is on active duty; or

(2) the governor or other appropriate authority of the jurisdiction concerned consents.


(b) The enlistment or term of service of a Reserve who is designated as an officer candidate under this section is extended to include any period, beyond its normal expiration date, during which he is an officer candidate.

(c) While he is on active duty, other than active duty for training without pay, or performing authorized travel to and from that duty, an officer candidate designated under this section is entitled to the pay and allowances of his enlisted grade, but not less than those prescribed for pay grade E–2.

(d) An officer candidate designated under this section may not participate in the program of a reserve officer training corps of any armed force.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 26, §600; renumbered §12209, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(12)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
600(a)

600(b)

600(c)

600(d)

50:935(a).

50:954(a).

50:973.

50:954(b).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§215(a), 230, 242, 66 Stat. 486, 489, 492.

In subsection (a), the words "who is not in active Federal service" are substituted for the words "when not in the active military service of the United States". The word "during" is substituted for the words "for the period of".

In subsection (c), the words "active duty other than active duty for training without pay" are substituted for the words "active duty or active duty for training with pay". The words "enlisted members of the reserve components designated as", "enlisted", and "under the Career Compensation Act of 1949, as amended" are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "candidates: enlisted Reserves" for "candidates" in section catchline.

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 600 of this title as this section.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

§12210. Attending Physician to the Congress: reserve grade

While serving as Attending Physician to the Congress, a Reserve holds the reserve grade of major general or rear admiral, as appropriate.

(Added Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §508(d)(1)(A), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3867, §600a; renumbered §12210, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(12)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §507(a)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2180.)

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–364 struck out "while so serving" after "reserve grade" in section catchline and substituted "holds the reserve grade of major general or rear admiral, as appropriate" for "who holds a reserve grade lower than major general or rear admiral shall hold the reserve grade of major general or rear admiral, as appropriate, if appointed to that grade by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate" in text.

1996Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Congress: reserve grade while so serving" for "Congress" in section catchline.

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 600a of this title as this section.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A. title V, §508(f), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3868, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 1374, 4335, 5149, and 9335 of this title] shall apply only with respect to appointments or details made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1986]."

§12211. Officers: Army National Guard of the United States

(a) Upon being federally recognized, an officer of the Army National Guard shall be appointed as a Reserve for service as a member of the Army National Guard of the United States in the grade that he holds in the Army National Guard. However, an officer of the Army Reserve who is federally recognized as an officer of the Army National Guard becomes an officer of the Army National Guard of the United States and ceases to be an officer of the Army Reserve. The acceptance of an appointment as a Reserve for service as a member of the Army National Guard of the United States by an officer of the Army National Guard does not vacate his office in the Army National Guard.

(b) When an officer of the Army National Guard to whom temporary Federal recognition has been extended is appointed as a Reserve for service as a member of the Army National Guard of the United States, his appointment shall bear the date of the temporary recognition and shall be considered to have been accepted and effective on that date.

(c) When the Army National Guard of the United States is ordered to active duty, any officer of the Army National Guard who is not a Reserve of the Army may be appointed by the President as a Reserve for service as a member of the Army National Guard of the United States in the grade that he holds in the Army National Guard.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 193, §3351; renumbered §12211, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(13)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
3351(a)

 

3351(b)

3351(c)

50:1113 (less (a)).

50:1115(a) (last 39 words).

50:1114 (2d sentence).

50:1123 (less (a)).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§703 (less (a)), 704 (2d sentence), 705(a) (last 39 words), 713 (less (a)), 66 Stat. 502–504.

In subsection (a), the words "as a Reserve" are substituted for the words "as Reserve officers of the appropriate Armed Force of the United States" and "as a Reserve officer of the Armed Force of the United States concerned", in 50:1113(b). The words "federally recognized appointments" and "in the same grade and branch", in 50:1113(b), are omitted as surplusage. The words "those officers who do not hold appointments as Reserve officers of the appropriate Armed Force of the United States", in 50:1113(b), are omitted as covered by the second sentence of the revised subsection.

In subsection (c), the words "active duty" are substituted for the words "active military service of the United States". The words "and branch" are omitted as surplusage. The words "of the Army National Guard of the United States" are inserted for clarity.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 inserted "the" after "National Guard of" in section catchline.

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 3351 of this title as this section.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

§12212. Officers: Air National Guard of the United States

(a) Upon being federally recognized, an officer of the Air National Guard shall be appointed as a Reserve for service as a member of the Air National Guard of the United States in the grade that he holds in the Air National Guard. However, an officer of the Air Force Reserve who is federally recognized as an officer of the Air National Guard becomes an officer of the Air National Guard of the United States and ceases to be an officer of the Air Force Reserve. The acceptance of an appointment as a Reserve for service as a member of the Air National Guard of the United States by an officer of the Air National Guard does not vacate his office in the Air National Guard.

(b) When an officer of the Air National Guard to whom temporary Federal recognition has been extended is appointed as a Reserve for service as a member of the Air National Guard of the United States, his appointment shall bear the date of the temporary recognition and shall be considered to have been accepted and effective on that date.

(c) When the Air National Guard of the United States is ordered to active duty, any officer of the Air National Guard who is not a Reserve of the Air Force may be appointed by the President as a Reserve for service as a member of the Air National Guard of the United States in the grade that he holds in the Air National Guard.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 519, §8351; renumbered §12212, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(13)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
8351(a)

 

8351(b)

8351(c)

50:1113 (less (a)).

50:1115(a) (last 39 words).

50:1114 (2d sentence).

50:1123 (less (a)).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§703 (less (a)), 704 (2d sentence), 705(a) (last 39 words), 713 (less (a)), 66 Stat. 502–504.

In subsection (a), the words "as a Reserve" are substituted for the words "as Reserve officers of the appropriate Armed Force of the United States" and "as a Reserve officer of the Armed Force of the United States concerned" in 50:1113(b). The words "federally recognized appointments" and "in the same grade and branch", in 50:1113(b), are omitted as surplusage. The words "those officers who do not hold appointments as reserve officers of the appropriate Armed Force of the United States", in 50:1113(b), are omitted as covered by the second sentence of the revised subsection.

In subsection (c), the words "active duty" are substituted for the words "active military service of the United States". The words "and branch" are omitted as surplusage. The words "of the Air National Guard of the United States" are inserted for clarity.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 inserted "the" after "National Guard of" in section catchline.

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 8351 of this title as this section.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

§12213. Officers; Army Reserve: transfer from Army National Guard of the United States

(a) Under such regulations as the Secretary of the Army may prescribe, and with the consent of the governor or other appropriate authority of the State concerned, an officer of the Army National Guard of the United States may be transferred in grade to the Army Reserve.

(b) Unless discharged from his appointment as a Reserve, an officer of the Army National Guard of the United States whose Federal recognition as a member of the Army National Guard is withdrawn becomes a member of the Army Reserve. An officer who so becomes a member of the Army Reserve ceases to be a member of the Army National Guard of the United States.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 194, §3352; Pub. L. 85–861, §1(80)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1468; Pub. L. 86–559, §1(7), June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 265; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1234(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2059; renumbered §12213 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1636(a), 1662(c)(3), 1675(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2968, 2990, 3017; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(13)(A), (14), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
3352(a)

 

 

 

3352(b)

50:1116 (less last 15 words of 1st sentence, and less applicability to enlistments).

50:1117 (less applicability to enlistments).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§706 (less last 15 words of 1st sentence, and less applicability to enlistments), 707 (less applicability to enlistments), 66 Stat. 503.

In subsection (a), the words "at any time", "of any person", and "from the National Guard of the United States or from the Air National Guard of the United States" are omitted as surplusage. The words "highest regular or reserve grade ever held by him in the Army" are substituted for the words "highest permanent grade previously held in the Army or any component thereof", since "permanent" grades are held only in a component and there are no "non-permanent" grades held in a component.

In subsection (b), the words "appointment as a Reserve" are substituted for the words "appointment or * * * as a Reserve officer or". The words "whose Federal recognition as a member * * * is withdrawn" are substituted for the words "ceases to hold a status as a federally recognized member".

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
3352(a) 50:1254. Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §322, 68 Stat. 1161.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(b)(13)(A), inserted "the" after "National Guard of" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(b)(14), substituted "section 12203" for "section 593" in last sentence.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(c)(3), renumbered section 3352 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(b), struck out "or Territory, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia, whichever is" after "authority of the State".

Pub. L. 103–337, §1636(a), struck out at end "Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or section 12203 of this title, an officer who is transferred under this section shall be advanced to the highest temporary, regular, or reserve grade ever held by him in the Army, unless the Secretary determines that it is not in the best interests of the service."

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–456 struck out "the Canal Zone," after "Puerto Rico,".

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–559 authorized officers transferred under this section to be advanced to the highest temporary grade ever held in the Army.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–861 substituted "Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or section 593 of this title, an officer who is transferred under this section shall be advanced to the highest regular or reserve grade ever held by him in the Army, unless the Secretary determines that it is not in the best interests of the service" for "Upon transfer, he is eligible for promotion to the highest regular or reserve grade ever held by him in the Army, if his service has been honorable".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(f)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 501, provided that: "Section 1636 of the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act [Pub. L. 103–337, amending this section and repealing sections 8356 and 8379 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996]."

Amendment by sections 1662(c)(3) and 1675(b)(2) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12214. Officers; Air Force Reserve: transfer from Air National Guard of the United States

(a) Under such regulations as the Secretary of the Air Force may prescribe, and with the consent of the governor or other appropriate authority of the State concerned, an officer of the Air National Guard of the United States may be transferred in grade to the Air Force Reserve.

(b) Unless discharged from his appointment as a Reserve, an officer of the Air National Guard of the United States whose Federal recognition as a member of the Air National Guard is withdrawn becomes a member of the Air Force Reserve. An officer who so becomes a member of the Air Force Reserve ceases to be a member of the Air National Guard of the United States.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 520, §8352; Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §126, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1234(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2059; renumbered §12214 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(c)(3), 1675(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990, 3017; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(13)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
8352(a)

 

 

 

8352(b)

50:1116 (less last 15 words of 1st sentence, and less applicability to enlistments).

50:1117 (less applicability to enlistments).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§706 (less last 15 words of 1st sentence, and less applicability to enlistments), 707 (less applicability to enlistments), 66 Stat. 503.

In subsection (a), the words "at any time", "of any person", and "from the National Guard of the United States or from the Air National Guard of the United States" are omitted as surplusage. The words "highest regular or reserve grade ever held by him in the Air Force" are substituted for the words "highest permanent grade previously held in * * * the Air Force or any component thereof", since "permanent" grades are held only in a component and there are no "nonpermanent" grades held in a component.

In subsection (b), the words "appointment as a Reserve" are substituted for the words "appointment or * * * as a Reserve officer or". The words "whose Federal recognition as a member * * * is withdrawn" are substituted for the words "ceases to hold a status as a federally recognized member".

1962 Act

The change reflects the implied repeal of the second sentence of section 8352(a) by section 502(a) of the Reserve Officer Personnel Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 1172).

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 inserted "the" after "National Guard of" in section catchline.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(c)(3), renumbered section 8352 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(b)(2), struck out "or Territory, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia, whichever is" after "authority of the State".

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–456 struck out "the Canal Zone," after "Puerto Rico,".

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–651 struck out sentence which provided that upon transfer, an officer is eligible for promotion to the highest regular or reserve grade ever held by him in the Air Force, if his service has been honorable.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12215. Commissioned officers: reserve grade of adjutants general and assistant adjutants general

(a) The adjutant general or an assistant adjutant general of the Army National Guard of a State may, upon being extended Federal recognition, be appointed as a reserve officer of the Army as of the date on which he is so recognized.

(b) The adjutant general or an assistant adjutant general of the Air National Guard of a State may be appointed in the reserve commissioned grade in which Federal recognition in the Air National Guard is extended to him.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2990.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3392 and 8392 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1629(a)(1), (c)(1).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

CHAPTER 1207—WARRANT OFFICERS

Sec.
12241.
Warrant officers: grades; appointment, how made; term.
12242.
Warrant officers: promotion.
12243.
Warrant officers: suspension of laws for promotion or mandatory retirement or separation during war or emergency.
12244.
Warrant officers: discharge or retirement for years of service or for age.

        

Amendments

2001Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(e)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1095, added item 12244.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(15), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496, substituted "promotion" for "promotions" in item 12243.

§12241. Warrant officers: grades; appointment, how made; term

(a) The permanent reserve warrant officer grades in each armed force are those prescribed for regular warrant officers by section 571(a) of this title.

(b) Appointments in permanent reserve warrant officer grades shall be made in the same manner as is prescribed for regular warrant officer grades by section 571(b) of this title.

(c) Appointments as Reserves in permanent warrant officer grades are for an indefinite term and are held during the pleasure of the Secretary concerned.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 26, §597; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §531(b), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 633; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1131(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1505; renumbered §12241, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(d)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2991; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §502(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4207.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
597(a) 10:600a(a) (less 3d and last sentences, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments).

34:135a(a) (less last sentence, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments).

May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §§3(a) (less last sentence, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments), 5(a) (last sentence, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments), 68 Stat. 157, 159.
597(b) 10:600a(a) (3d sentence, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments).

10:600c(a) (last sentence, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§220, 223, 224 (less 3d and 4th sentences, and less applicability to commissioned officers), 66 Stat. 487.
  34:135a(a) (last sentence, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments).
  34:135c(a) (last sentence, as applicable to permanent reserve appointments).

50:944.

597(c) 50:947.
  50:948 (less 3d and 4th sentences, and less applicability to commissioned officers).

In subsection (b), the words "W–4, W–3, and W–2" and "persons" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (c), the words "After July 9, 1952" are omitted as executed. 50:948 (2d and last sentence) is omitted as executed.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–383 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Appointments made in the permanent reserve grade of warrant officer, W–1, shall be made by warrant by the Secretary concerned. Appointments made in a permanent reserve grade of chief warrant officer shall be made by commission by the Secretary concerned."

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 597 of this title as this section.

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190 substituted "section 571(a)" for "section 555(a)".

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–145 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Reserve chief warrant officers of the Army and the Air Force shall be appointed in those grades, by warrant, by the Secretary concerned. Permanent reserve chief warrant officers of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard shall be appointed in those grades, by commission, by the Secretary concerned. Permanent reserve warrant officers, W-1, shall be appointed in those grades, by warrant, by the Secretary concerned."

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 521 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §531(d), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 633, provided that: "This section [amending this section and section 555 of this title and enacting provisions set out below] takes effect six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1985]."

Transition Provisions for 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §531(c), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 633, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 555 of this title] apply to any appointment of a warrant officer or chief warrant officer on or after the effective date of this section [see Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note above].

"(2) An officer who on the effective date of this section is serving in a chief warrant officer grade under an appointment by warrant may be appointed in that grade by commission under section 555(b) or 597(b) [now 12241(b)] of title 10, United States Code, as appropriate. The date of rank of an officer who receives an appointment under this paragraph is the date of rank for the officer's appointment by warrant to that grade."

Presidential Functions

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §502(c), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4207, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided by the President by Executive order, the provisions of Executive Order 13384 (10 U.S.C. 531 note) relating to the functions of the President under the second sentence of section 571(b) of title 10, United States Code, shall apply in the same manner to the functions of the President under section 12241(b) of title 10, United States Code."

§12242. Warrant officers: promotion

The promotion of permanent reserve warrant officers not on the warrant officer active-duty list to permanent reserve warrant officer grades shall be governed by such regulations as the Secretary concerned may prescribe.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 26, §598; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1131(3), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1505; renumbered §12242, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(d)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2991.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
598 10:600e (last sentence, less applicability to temporary promotions).

34:330 (last sentence, less applicability to temporary promotions).

May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §7 (last sentence, less applicability to temporary promotions), 68 Stat. 159.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 598 of this title as this section.

1991Pub. L. 102–190 inserted "not on the warrant officer active-duty list" after "reserve warrant officers".

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 521 of this title.

§12243. Warrant officers: suspension of laws for promotion or mandatory retirement or separation during war or emergency

In time of war, or of emergency declared after May 29, 1954, by Congress or the President, the President may suspend the operation of any provision of law relating to promotion, or mandatory retirement or separation, of permanent reserve warrant officers of any armed force.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 26, §599; renumbered §12243, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(d)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2991.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
599 10:600p (as applicable to reserve warrant officers).

34:330g (as applicable to reserve warrant officers).

May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §18 (as applicable to reserve warrant officers), 68 Stat. 165.
  34:430d (as applicable to reserve warrant officers).

The word "may" is substituted for the words "is authorized, in his discretion". The words "any provision of law" are substituted for the words "all or any part or parts of the several provisions of law".

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 599 of this title as this section.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of the President under this section delegated to the Secretary of Defense, see section 1(4) of Ex. Ord. No. 11390, Jan. 22, 1968, 33 F.R. 841, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

§12244. Warrant officers: discharge or retirement for years of service or for age

Each reserve warrant officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is in an active status and has reached the maximum years of service or age prescribed by the Secretary concerned shall—

(1) be transferred to the Retired Reserve if the warrant officer is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve; or

(2) be discharged if the warrant officer is not qualified for transfer to the Retired Reserve or has requested (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be so transferred.

(Added Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(e)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1095.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first month that begins more than 180 days after Dec. 28, 2001, see section 517(g) of Pub. L. 107–107, set out as an Effective Date of 2001 Amendment note under section 10154 of this title.

CHAPTER 1209—ACTIVE DUTY

Sec.
12301.
Reserve components generally.
12302.
Ready Reserve.
12303.
Ready Reserve: members not assigned to, or participating satisfactorily in, units.
12304.
Selected Reserve and certain Individual Ready Reserve members; order to active duty other than during war or national emergency.
12304a.
Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve: order to active duty to provide assistance in response to a major disaster or emergency.
12304b.
Selected Reserve: order to active duty for preplanned missions in support of the combatant commands.
12305.
Authority of President to suspend certain laws relating to promotion, retirement, and separation.
12306.
Standby Reserve.
12307.
Retired Reserve.
12308.
Retention after becoming qualified for retired pay.
12309.
Reserve officers: use of in expansion of armed forces.
12310.
Reserves: for organizing, administering, etc., reserve components.
12311.
Active duty agreements.
12312.
Active duty agreements: release from duty.
12313.
Reserves: release from active duty.
12314.
Reserves: kinds of duty.
12315.
Reserves: duty with or without pay.
12316.
Payment of certain Reserves while on duty.
12317.
Reserves: theological students; limitations.
12318.
Reserves on active duty: duties; funding.
12319.
Ready Reserve: muster duty.
12320.
Reserve officers: grade in which ordered to active duty.
12321.
Reserve Officer Training Corps units: limitation on number of Reserves assigned.
12322.
Active duty for health care.
12323.
Active duty pending line of duty determination required for response to sexual assault.

        

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §571(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1753, added item 12323.

2011Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §§515(a)(2), 516(a)(2), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1394, 1397, added items 12304a and 12304b.

1999Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VII, §705(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 683, added item 12322.

1997Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §511(e)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1729, inserted "and certain Individual Ready Reserve members" after "Selected Reserve" in item 12304.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(16), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 496, substituted a semicolon for a colon in item 12304 and struck out "on active duty" after "Retention" in item 12308.

§12301. Reserve components generally

(a) In time of war or of national emergency declared by Congress, or when otherwise authorized by law, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may, without the consent of the persons affected, order any unit, and any member not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of a reserve component under the jurisdiction of that Secretary to active duty for the duration of the war or emergency and for six months thereafter. However a member on an inactive status list or in a retired status may not be ordered to active duty under this subsection unless the Secretary concerned, with the approval of the Secretary of Defense in the case of the Secretary of a military department, determines that there are not enough qualified Reserves in an active status or in the inactive National Guard in the required category who are readily available.

(b) At any time, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may, without the consent of the persons affected, order any unit, and any member not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, in an active status in a reserve component under the jurisdiction of that Secretary to active duty for not more than 15 days a year. However, units and members of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States may not be ordered to active duty under this subsection without the consent of the governor of the State (or, in the case of the District of Columbia National Guard, the commanding general of the District of Columbia National Guard).

(c) So far as practicable, during any expansion of the active armed forces that requires that units and members of the reserve components be ordered to active duty as provided in subsection (a), members of units organized and trained to serve as units who are ordered to that duty without their consent shall be so ordered with their units. However, members of those units may be reassigned after being so ordered to active duty.

(d) At any time, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may order a member of a reserve component under his jurisdiction to active duty, or retain him on active duty, with the consent of that member. However, a member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States may not be ordered to active duty under this subsection without the consent of the governor or other appropriate authority of the State concerned.

(e) The period of time allowed between the date when a Reserve ordered to active duty as provided in subsection (a) is alerted for that duty and the date when the Reserve is required to enter upon that duty shall be determined by the Secretary concerned based upon military requirements at that time.

(f) The consent of a Governor described in subsections (b) and (d) may not be withheld (in whole or in part) with regard to active duty outside the United States, its territories, and its possessions, because of any objection to the location, purpose, type, or schedule of such active duty.

(g)(1) A member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty without his consent if the Secretary concerned determines that the member is in a captive status. A member ordered to active duty under this section may not be retained on active duty, without his consent, for more than 30 days after his captive status is terminated.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. Such regulations shall apply uniformly among the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. A determination for the purposes of this subsection that a member is in a captive status shall be made pursuant to such regulations.

(3) In this section, the term "captive status" means the status of a member of the armed forces who is in a missing status (as defined in section 551(2) of title 37) which occurs as the result of a hostile action and is related to the member's military status.

(h)(1) When authorized by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of a military department may, with the consent of the member, order a member of a reserve component to active duty—

(A) to receive authorized medical care;

(B) to be medically evaluated for disability or other purposes; or

(C) to complete a required Department of Defense health care study, which may include an associated medical evaluation of the member.


(2) A member ordered to active duty under this subsection may, with the member's consent, be retained on active duty, if the Secretary concerned considers it appropriate, for medical treatment for a condition associated with the study or evaluation, if that treatment of the member is otherwise authorized by law.

(3) A member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States may be ordered to active duty under this subsection only with the consent of the Governor or other appropriate authority of the State concerned.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 27, §672; Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(13), 33(a)(5), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440, 1564; Pub. L. 96–357, §6, Sept. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 1182; Pub. L. 96–584, §1, Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3377; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9122], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-127, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9122], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341-127; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §§522, 524(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3871; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1234(a)(1), (2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2059; renumbered §12301 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §512, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 592; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §514(a), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1882.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
672(a)

672(b)

672(c)

672(d)

50:961(a).

50:961(c).

50:961(g).

50:961(d).

50:962 (1st sentence).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§233 (less (b) and (f)), 234 (1st sentence), 66 Stat. 489, 490.
672(e) 50:961(e).

In subsection (a), the word "hereafter" is omitted as surplusage. The words "there are not enough * * * who are" are substituted for the words "adequate numbers of * * * are not". The words "without the consent of the persons affected" and "under the jurisdiction of that Secretary" are inserted for clarity. The words "and the members thereof" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the words "without the consent of the persons affected" are substituted for the words "without his consent", since units as well as individuals are covered by the revised subsection. The words "and the members thereof", "and required to perform", "or required to serve on", and "in the service of the United States" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsections (b) and (d), the words "active duty for training" are omitted as covered by the words "active duty".

In subsection (c), the words "to active duty" are substituted for the words "into the active military service of the United States", in 50:961(g) (1st and last sentences). The words "to serve" are substituted for the words "for the purpose of serving". The words "without their consent" are substituted for the word "involuntarily". The words "to that duty" are substituted for the words "into active duty". The last sentence of the revised subsection is substituted for 50:961(g) (last sentence).

In subsection (d), the words "the consent of that member" are substituted for the words "his consent". The words "under his jurisdiction" are inserted for clarity. 50:962 (last 15 words of 1st sentence) is omitted as covered by 50:961(d).

In subsection (e), the words "to active duty (other than for training)" are substituted for the words "into the active military service of the United States". The words "period of" are omitted as surplusage. The word "requirements" is substituted for the word "condition" for clarity.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
672(a) 50:961(a). Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §2(e), 69 Stat. 599.

The word "hereafter" is omitted as surplusage. The words "there are not enough . . . who are" are substituted for the words "adequate numbers of . . . are not". The words "without the consent of the persons affected" and "under the jurisdiction of that Secretary" are inserted for clarity.

The changes are necessary to reflect section 101(b) of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952 (50 U.S.C. 901(b)), which defines the term "active duty" to exclude active duty for training. This definition applied to the source law for these sections [sections 672 and 673], section 233(a), (b)(1), and (c) of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952 (50 U.S.C. 961(a), (b)(1), (c)).

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375, §514(a)(1), struck out "(other than for training)" after "that Secretary to active duty".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–375, §514(a)(2), substituted "as provided in subsection (a)" for "(other than for training)" and "so ordered to active duty" for "ordered to active duty (other than for training)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–375, §514(a)(3), substituted "as provided in subsection (a)" for "(other than for training)".

1999—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–65 added subsec. (h).

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 672 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(1)(A), substituted "(or, in the case of the District of Columbia National Guard, the commanding general of the District of Columbia National Guard)" for "or Territory or Puerto Rico or the commanding general of the District of Columbia National Guard, as the case may be".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(1)(B), struck out "or Territory, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia, whichever is" after "authority of the State".

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–456, §1234(a)(2), substituted "or Puerto Rico" for ", Puerto Rico, or the Canal Zone,".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–456, §1234(a)(1), struck out "the Canal Zone," after "Puerto Rico,".

1986—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§9122], Pub. L. 99–661, §522, amended section identically adding subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–661, §524(a), added subsec. (g).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–357 struck out cl. (1) designation for second sentence and cl. (2) prohibition against ordering a member of the Standby Reserve to active duty unless the Director of Selective Service determined that the member was available for active duty.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–584 substituted provisions respecting determination of the allowable time in terms of military requirements for provisions authorizing a reasonable time.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(13), 33(a)(5), inserted "(other than for training)" after "active duty", substituted "inactive National Guard" for "inactive Army National Guard or in the inactive Air National Guard", and inserted provisions prohibiting a member of the Standby Reserve from being ordered to active duty under this subsection unless the Director of Selective Service determines that the member is available for active duty.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–861, §33(a)(5), inserted "(other than for training)" after "active duty".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §524(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3872, provided that: "Section 672(g) [now 12301(g)] of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), does not authorize a member of a reserve component to be ordered to active duty for a period before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by section 33(a)(5) of Pub. L. 85–861 effective Aug. 10, 1956, see section 33(g) of Pub. L. 85–861, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Rule of Construction for Duplicate Authorization and Appropriation Provisions of Public Laws 99–500, 99–591, and 99–661

For rule of construction for certain duplicate provisions of Public Laws 99–500, 99–591, and 99–661, see Pub. L. 100–26, §6, Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 274, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Limitations on Cancellations of Deployment of Certain Reserve Component Units and Involuntary Mobilizations of Certain Reserves

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title V, §513, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 752, provided that:

"(a) Limitation on Cancellation of Deployment of Certain Units Within 180 Days of Scheduled Deployment.—

"(1) Limitation.—The deployment of a unit of a reserve component of the Armed Forces described in paragraph (2) may not be cancelled during the 180-day period ending on the date on which the unit is otherwise scheduled for deployment without the approval, in writing, of the Secretary of Defense.

"(2) Covered deployments.—A deployment of a unit of a reserve component described in this paragraph is a deployment whose cancellation as described in paragraph (1) is due to the deployment of a unit of a regular component of the Armed Forces to carry out the mission for which the unit of the reserve component was otherwise to be deployed.

"(3) Notice to congress and governors on approval of cancellation of deployment.—On approving the cancellation of deployment of a unit under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] and the Governor concerned a notice on the approval of cancellation of deployment of the unit.

"(b) Advance Notice to Certain Reserves on Involuntary Mobilization.—

"(1) Advance notice required.—The Secretary concerned may not provide less than 120 days advance notice of an involuntary mobilization to a member of the reserve component of the Armed Forces described in paragraph (2) without the approval, in writing, of the Secretary of Defense.

"(2) Covered reserves.—A member of a reserve component described in this paragraph is a member as follows:

"(A) A member who is not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit.

"(B) A member who is to be mobilized apart from the member's unit.

"(3) Commencement of applicability.—This subsection shall apply with respect to members who are mobilized on or after the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2013].

"(4) Secretary concerned defined.—In this subsection, the term 'Secretary concerned' has the meaning given that term in section 101(a)(9) of title 10, United States Code.

"(5) Sunset.—This subsection shall cease to apply as of the date of the completion of the withdrawal of United States combat forces from Afghanistan.

"(c) Nondelegation of Approval.—The Secretary of Defense may not delegate the approval of cancellations of deployments of units under subsection (a) or the approval of mobilization of Reserves without advance notice under subsection (b)."

Advance Notice to Members of Reserve Components of Deployment in Support of Contingency Operations

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §515, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 99, provided that:

"(a) Advance Notice Required.—The Secretary of a military department shall ensure that a member of a reserve component under the jurisdiction of that Secretary who will be called or ordered to active duty for a period of more than 30 days in support of a contingency operation (as defined in section 101(a)(13) of title 10, United States Code) receives notice in advance of the mobilization date. In so far as is practicable, the notice shall be provided not less than 30 days before the mobilization date, but with a goal of 90 days before the mobilization date.

"(b) Reduction or Waiver of Notice Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement of subsection (a), or authorize shorter notice than the minimum specified in such subsection, during a war or national emergency declared by the President or Congress or to meet mission requirements. If the waiver or reduction is made on account of mission requirements, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report detailing the reasons for the waiver or reduction and the mission requirements at issue."

§12302. Ready Reserve

(a) In time of national emergency declared by the President after January 1, 1953, or when otherwise authorized by law, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may, without the consent of the persons concerned, order any unit, and any member not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, in the Ready Reserve under the jurisdiction of that Secretary to active duty for not more than 24 consecutive months.

(b) To achieve fair treatment as between members in the Ready Reserve who are being considered for recall to duty without their consent, consideration shall be given to—

(1) the length and nature of previous service, to assure such sharing of exposure to hazards as the national security and military requirements will reasonably allow;

(2) family responsibilities; and

(3) employment necessary to maintain the national health, safety, or interest.


The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such policies and procedures as he considers necessary to carry out this subsection.

(c) Not more than 1,000,000 members of the Ready Reserve may be on active duty, without their consent, under this section at any one time.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 28, §673; Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(14), 33(a)(5), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1441, 1564; Pub. L. 93–155, title III, §303(a), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 607; renumbered §12302, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(a)(61), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1603; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §514(b), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1883; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1061(28), (30), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1584.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
673(a)

673(b)

50:961(b)(1).

50:961(b)(2).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §233(b), 66 Stat. 489.

In subsection (a), the words "after January 1, 1953" are substituted for the word "hereafter", to reflect the effective date of the source statute. The words "without the consent of the persons concerned" are substituted for the word "involuntarily".

The words "under the jurisdiction of that Secretary" are inserted for clarity. The last sentence of the revised subsection is substituted for 50:961(b)(1) (proviso). The words "and the members thereof" and "and required to perform" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the words "to achieve" are substituted for the words "in the interest of". The words "without their consent" are substituted for the word "involuntarily". The words "who are being considered for" are inserted for clarity. The words "prescribe such policies and procedures" are substituted for the words "promulgate such policies and establish such procedures". The words "as he considers necessary" are substituted for the words "as may be required in his opinion". The words "this subsection" are substituted for the words "our intent here declared". The words "at least once a year" are substituted for the words "from time to time, and at least annually". The words "Senate and the House of Representatives" are substituted for the word "Congress". 50:961(b)(2) (1st 18 words) is omitted as surplusage. The words "with the objective" and "found to be" are omitted as surplusage.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
673(a)

673(c)

50:961(b)(1) (less proviso).

50:961(b)(1) (proviso)

Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §2(f), 69 Stat. 599.

In subsection (c), the words "on active duty (other than for training)" are substituted for the words "may be required to perform active duty" for clarity. The words "without their consent" are substituted for the word "involuntarily". The words "of all reserve components" and "unless the Congress shall have authorized the exercise of the authority contained in this subsection" are omitted as surplusage.

The changes are necessary to reflect section 101(b) of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952 (50 U.S.C. 901(b)), which defines the term "active duty" to exclude active duty for training. This definition applied to the source law for these sections [sections 672 and 673], section 233(a), (b)(1), and (c) of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952 (50 U.S.C. 961(a), (b)(1), (c)).

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–81, in concluding provisions, struck out at end "He shall report on those policies and procedures at least once a year to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives."

2004—Subsecs. (a), (c). Pub. L. 108–375 struck out "(other than for training)" after "active duty".

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–136 struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: "Whenever one or more units of the Ready Reserve are ordered to active duty, the President shall, on the first day of the second fiscal year quarter immediately following the quarter in which the first unit or units are ordered to active duty and on the first day of each succeeding six-month period thereafter, so long as such unit is retained on active duty, submit a report to the Congress regarding the necessity for such unit or units being ordered to and retained on active duty. The President shall include in each such report a statement of the mission of each such unit ordered to active duty, an evaluation of such unit's performance of that mission, where each such unit is being deployed at the time of the report, and such other information regarding each unit as the President deems appropriate."

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security" in concluding provisions.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives" for "Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives".

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 673 of this title as this section.

1973—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–155 added subsec. (d).

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(14)(A), 33(a)(5), inserted "(other than for training)" after "active duty", and struck out provisions that made subsection inapplicable unless Congress determined how many members of the reserve components were necessary, in the interest of national security, to be ordered to active duty.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–861, §1(14)(B), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1973 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–155, title III, §303(b), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 608, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to any unit of the Ready Reserve ordered to active duty on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1973]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by section 33(a)(5) of Pub. L. 85–861 effective Aug. 10, 1956, see section 33(g) of Pub. L. 85–861, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Executive Order No. 12743

Ex. Ord. No. 12743, Jan. 18, 1991, 56 F.R. 2661, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §35, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10625, which related to ordering the Ready Reserve of the Armed Forces to active duty, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13350, July 29, 2004, 69 F.R. 46055, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Ex. Ord. No. 13223. Ordering the Ready Reserve of the Armed Forces To Active Duty and Delegating Certain Authorities to the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security

Ex. Ord. No. 13223, Sept. 14, 2001, 66 F.R. 48201, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13253, Jan. 16, 2002, 67 F.R. 2791; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §9, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10622; Ex. Ord. No. 13814, Oct. 20, 2017, 82 F.R. 49273, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and in furtherance of the proclamation of September 14, 2001, Declaration of National Emergency by Reason of Certain Terrorist Attacks [Proc. No. 7463, 50 U.S.C. 1621 note], which declared a national emergency by reason of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, New York, New York, and the Pentagon, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on the United States, I hereby order as follows:

Section 1. To provide additional authority to the Department of Defense and the Department of Transportation [Homeland Security] to respond to the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on the United States, the authority under title 10, United States Code, to order any unit, and any member of the Ready Reserve not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, in the Ready Reserve to active duty for not more than 24 consecutive months, is invoked and made available, according to its terms, to the Secretary concerned, subject in the case of the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, to the direction of the Secretary of Defense. The term "Secretary concerned" is defined in section 101(a)(9) of title 10, United States Code, to mean the Secretary of the Army with respect to the Army; the Secretary of the Navy with respect to the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard when it is operating as a service in the Navy; the Secretary of the Air Force with respect to the Air Force; and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy. The authorities available for use during a national emergency under sections 688 and 690 of title 10, United States Code, are also invoked and made available, according to their terms, to the Secretary concerned, subject in the case of the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, to the direction of the Secretary of Defense.

Sec. 2. To allow for the orderly administration of personnel within the armed forces, the following authorities vested in the President are hereby invoked to the full extent provided by the terms thereof: section 527 of title 10, United States Code, to suspend the operation of sections 523, 525, and 526 of that title, regarding officer and warrant officer strength and distribution; and sections 123, 123a, and 12006 of title 10, United States Code, to suspend certain laws relating to promotion, involuntary retirement, and separation of commissioned officers; end strength limitations; and Reserve component officer strength limitations.

Sec. 3. To allow for the orderly administration of personnel within the armed forces, the authorities vested in the President by sections 331, 359, and 367 [now 2127, 2308, and 2314] of title 14, United States Code, relating to the authority to order to active duty certain officers and enlisted members of the Coast Guard and to detain enlisted members, are invoked to the full extent provided by the terms thereof.

Sec. 4. The Secretary of Defense is hereby designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification, or other action by the President, to exercise the authority vested in the President by sections 123, 123a, 527, and 12006 of title 10, United States Code, as invoked by sections 2 and 3 of this order.

Sec. 5. The Secretary of Homeland Security is hereby designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification, or other action by the President, to exercise the authority vested in sections 331, 359, and 367 [now 2127, 2308, and 2314] of title 14, United States Code, when the Coast Guard is not serving as part of the Navy, as invoked by section 2 of this order, to recall any regular officer or enlisted member on the retired list to active duty and to detain any enlisted member beyond the term of his or her enlistment. The Secretary of Homeland Security is further designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification or any other action by the President, to exercise the authority vested in the President by sections 123 and 123a of title 10, United States Code, and sections 149 [now 710] (detail members to assist foreign governments), 275(a) [now 2125(a)] (suspension of provisions on selection, promotion, or involuntary separation of officers), and 722 [now 3733] (administration of reserve forces) of title 14, United States Code, as invoked by section 2 of Executive Order 13223.

Sec. 6. The authority delegated by this order to the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security may be redelegated and further subdelegated to civilian subordinates who are appointed to their offices by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

Sec. 7. Based upon my determination under 10 U.S.C. 2201(c) that it is necessary to increase (subject to limits imposed by law) the number of members of the armed forces on active duty for the Department of Defense beyond the number for which funds are provided in the appropriation Act for the Department of Defense, which, by virtue of 14 U.S.C. 652 [now 14 U.S.C. 104], applies to the Department of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security may provide for the cost of such additional members under their respective jurisdictions as an excepted expense under [former] section 11(a) of title 41, United States Code [see 41 U.S.C. 6301(a), (b)].

Sec. 8. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch, and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

Sec. 9. This order is effective immediately and shall be promptly transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register.

§12303. Ready Reserve: members not assigned to, or participating satisfactorily in, units

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President may order to active duty any member of the Ready Reserve of an armed force who—

(1) is not assigned to, or participating satisfactorily in, a unit of the Ready Reserve;

(2) has not fulfilled his statutory reserve obligation; and

(3) has not served on active duty for a total of 24 months.


(b) A member who is ordered to active duty under this section may be required to serve on active duty until his total service on active duty equals 24 months. If his enlistment or other period of military service would expire before he has served the required period under this section, it may be extended until he has served the required period.

(c) To achieve fair treatment among members of the Ready Reserve who are being considered for active duty under this section, appropriate consideration shall be given to—

(1) family responsibilities; and

(2) employment necessary to maintain the national health, safety, or interest.

(Added Pub. L. 90–40, §6(1), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 105, §673a; renumbered §12303, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 673a of this title as this section.

Ex. Ord. No. 11366. Authorization To Order Ready Reserve to Active Duty; Extension of Military Service

Ex. Ord. No. 11366, Aug. 4, 1967, 32 F.R. 11411, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §64, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10629, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 673a [now 12303] of title 10 of the United States Code, and by section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. (a) The Secretary of Defense is hereby authorized and empowered to exercise the authority vested in the President by section 673a [now 12303] of title 10 of the United States Code, to order to active duty any member of the Ready Reserve of an armed force (except the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy) who—

(1) is not assigned to, or participating satisfactorily in, a unit of the Ready Reserve;

(2) has not fulfilled his statutory reserve obligation; and

(3) has not served on active duty for a total of 24 months.

(b) In pursuance of the provisions of section 673a [now 12303] of title 10 of the United States Code, the Secretary of Defense is hereby authorized to require a member ordered to active duty under the authority of this Order to serve on active duty until his total service on active duty equals 24 months. If the enlistment or period of military service of a member of the Ready Reserve ordered to active duty under this authority would expire before he has served the required period of active duty prescribed herein, his enlistment or period of military service may be extended until he has served the required period.

(c) In pursuance of the provisions of section 673a [now 12303] of title 10 of the United States Code, and in order to achieve fair treatment among members of the Ready Reserve who are being considered for active duty under this authority, appropriate consideration shall be given to—

(1) family responsibilities; and

(2) employment necessary to maintain the national health, safety, or interest.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Homeland Security is hereby authorized and empowered to exercise the authority vested in the President by section 673a [now 12303] of the title 10 of the United States Code, with respect to any member of the Ready Reserve of the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, under the same conditions as such authority may be exercised by the Secretary of Defense under this Order with respect to any member of the Ready Reserve of any other armed force.

Sec. 3. (a) The Secretary of Defense may designate any of the Secretaries of the military departments of the Department of Defense to exercise the authority vested in him by section 1 of this Order.

(b) The Secretary of Homeland Security may designate the Commandant of the United States Coast Guard to exercise the authority vested in him by section 2 of this Order.

Sec. 4. Executive Order No. 11327 of February 15, 1967, is superseded except with respect to members of the Ready Reserve ordered to active duty under the authority of that Order.

Ex. Ord. No. 11406. Assigning Authority To Order Ready Reserve to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 11406, Apr. 10, 1968, 33 F.R. 5735, authorized Secretary of Defense and, when designated by him, any of Secretaries of military departments of Department of Defense to exercise authority vested in President until June 30, 1968 by paragraph (e) of title I of the Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1967 (80 Stat. 981) to order any unit in the Ready Reserve to active duty for a period not to exceed 24 months.

§12304. Selected Reserve and certain Individual Ready Reserve members; order to active duty other than during war or national emergency

(a) Authority.—Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12302(a) or any other provision of law, when the President determines that it is necessary to augment the active forces for any named operational mission or that it is necessary to provide assistance referred to in subsection (b), he may authorize the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, without the consent of the members concerned, to order any unit, and any member not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit of the Selected Reserve (as defined in section 10143(a) of this title), or any member in the Individual Ready Reserve mobilization category and designated as essential under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, under their respective jurisdictions, to active duty for not more than 365 consecutive days.

(b) Support for Responses to Certain Emergencies.—The authority under subsection (a) includes authority to order a unit or member to active duty to provide assistance in responding to an emergency involving—

(1) a use or threatened use of a weapon of mass destruction; or

(2) a terrorist attack or threatened terrorist attack in the United States that results, or could result, in significant loss of life or property.


(c) Limitations.—(1) No unit or member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty under this section to perform any of the functions authorized by chapter 13 or section 12406 of this title or, except as provided in subsection (b), to provide assistance to either the Federal Government or a State in time of a serious natural or manmade disaster, accident, or catastrophe.

(2) Not more than 200,000 members of the Selected Reserve and the Individual Ready Reserve may be on active duty under this section at any one time, of whom not more than 30,000 may be members of the Individual Ready Reserve.

(3) No unit or member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty under this section to provide assistance referred to in subsection (b) unless the President determines that the requirements for responding to an emergency referred to in that subsection have exceeded, or will exceed, the response capabilities of local, State, and Federal civilian agencies.

(d) Exclusion From Strength Limitations.—Members ordered to active duty under this section shall not be counted in computing authorized strength in members on active duty or members in grade under this title or any other law.

(e) Policies and Procedures.—The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall prescribe such policies and procedures for the armed forces under their respective jurisdictions as they consider necessary to carry out this section.

(f) Notification of Congress.—Whenever the President authorizes the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Homeland Security to order any unit or member of the Selected Reserve or Individual Ready Reserve to active duty, under the authority of subsection (a), he shall, within 24 hours after exercising such authority, submit to Congress a report, in writing, setting forth the circumstances necessitating the action taken under this section and describing the anticipated use of these units or members.

(g) Termination of Duty.—Whenever any unit of the Selected Reserve or any member of the Selected Reserve not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, or any member of the Individual Ready Reserve, is ordered to active duty under authority of subsection (a), the service of all units or members so ordered to active duty may be terminated by—

(1) order of the President, or

(2) law.


(h) Relationship to War Powers Resolution.—Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as amending or limiting the application of the provisions of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1541 et seq.).

(i) Considerations for Involuntary Order to Active Duty.—(1) In determining which members of the Selected Reserve and Individual Ready Reserve will be ordered to duty without their consent under this section, appropriate consideration shall be given to—

(A) the length and nature of previous service, to assure such sharing of exposure to hazards as the national security and military requirements will reasonably allow;

(B) the frequency of assignments during service career;

(C) family responsibilities; and

(D) employment necessary to maintain the national health, safety, or interest.


(2) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such policies and procedures as the Secretary considers necessary to carry out this subsection.

(j) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "Individual Ready Reserve mobilization category" means, in the case of any reserve component, the category of the Individual Ready Reserve described in section 10144(b) of this title.

(2) The term "weapon of mass destruction" has the meaning given that term in section 1403 of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 (50 U.S.C. 2302(1)).

(Added Pub. L. 94–286, §1, May 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 517, §673b; amended Pub. L. 96–584, §2, Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3377; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(9), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §521, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3870; renumbered §12304 and amended, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §511(a), title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2752, 2992, 3017; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §511(b)–(e)(1), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1728, 1729; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §511(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2005; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §514(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2539; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §515, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1460; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §514(c), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1883; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §522, title X, §1076(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2192, 2406; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §§1063(a)(15), 1068(c), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 322, 326; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §516(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1397; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XII, §1204(a)(5), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2017.)

References in Text

The War Powers Resolution, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 93–148, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 555, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1541 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Resolution to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1541 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "chapter 13" for "chapter 15".

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–81 inserted "named" before "operational mission" and substituted "365 consecutive days" for "365 days".

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181, §1063(a)(15), struck out second period at end.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–181, §1068(c), substituted "No unit or member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty under this section to perform any of the functions authorized by chapter 15 or section 12406 of this title or, except as provided in subsection (b)," for "Except to perform any of the functions authorized by chapter 15 or section 12406 of this title or by subsection (b), no unit or member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty under this section".

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–364, §522(a), substituted "365 days." for "270 days".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §1076(c), substituted "Except to perform any of the functions authorized by chapter 15 or section 12406 of this title or by subsection (b), no unit or member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty under this section" for "No unit or member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty under this section to perform any of the functions authorized by chapter 15 or section 12406 of this title or, except as provided in subsection (b),".

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 109–364, §522(b), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375 struck out "(other than for training)" after "active duty".

2003—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–136, §515(1), substituted "significant" for "catastrophic".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 108–136, §515(2), added par. (3).

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–314 substituted "involving—

"(1) a use or threatened use of a weapon of mass destruction; or

"(2) a terrorist attack or threatened terrorist attack in the United States that results, or could result, in catastrophic loss of life or property."

for "involving a use or threatened use of a weapon of mass destruction."

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261, §511(a)(1)(A), (3)(A), inserted heading and inserted "or that it is necessary to provide assistance referred to in subsection (b)" after "operational mission" in text.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–261, §511(a)(1)(D), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated subsec. (c)(1).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–261, §511(a)(1)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (b) as par. (1) of subsec. (c), inserted subsec. heading, substituted "or, except as provided in subsection (b), to provide" for ", or to provide", and redesignated former subsec. (c) as par. (2).

Subsecs. (d) to (h). Pub. L. 105–261, §511(a)(3)(B)–(F), inserted headings.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–261, §511(a)(2), amended subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (i) read as follows: "For purposes of this section, the term 'Individual Ready Reserve mobilization category' means, in the case of any reserve component, the category of the Individual Ready Reserve described in section 10144(b) of this title."

1997Pub. L. 105–85, §511(e)(1), inserted "and certain Individual Ready Reserve members" after "Selected Reserve" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–85, §511(b), inserted "or any member in the Individual Ready Reserve mobilization category and designated as essential under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned," after "of this title),".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–85, §511(c), inserted "and the Individual Ready Reserve" after "Selected Reserve" and ", of whom not more than 30,000 may be members of the Individual Ready Reserve" before period at end.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–85, §511(d)(1), inserted "or Individual Ready Reserve" after "Selected Reserve".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–85, §511(d)(2), inserted ", or any member of the Individual Ready Reserve," after "to serve as a unit" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–85, §511(d)(3), added subsec. (i).

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 673b of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(2)(A), (B), substituted "12302(a)" for "673(a)" and "10143(a)" for "268(b)".

Pub. L. 103–337, §511(a)(1), substituted "270 days" for "90 days".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(2)(C), substituted "12406" for "3500 or 8500".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–337, §511(a)(2), struck out subsec. (i) which read as follows: "When a unit of the Selected Reserve, or a member of the Selected Reserve not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit of the Selected Reserve, is ordered to active duty under this section and the President determines that an extension of the service of such unit or member on active duty is necessary in the interests of national security, he may authorize the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy to extend the period of such order to active duty for a period of not more than 90 additional days. Whenever the President exercises his authority under this subsection, he shall immediately notify Congress of such action and shall include in the notification a statement of reasons for the action. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting the authorities to terminate the service of units or members ordered to active duty under this section under subsection (g)."

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–661, §521(c)(1), substituted "reserve component" for "Reserve component".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–661, §521(a), substituted "200,000" for "100,000".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–661, §521(c)(2), substituted "armed forces" for "Armed Forces".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–661, §521(c)(3), substituted "Congress" for "the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President pro tempore of the Senate".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 99–661, §521(c)(4), substituted "law" for "a concurrent resolution of the Congress".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–661, §521(b), added subsec. (i).

1982—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–295 inserted "(50 U.S.C. 1541 et seq.)" after "the War Powers Resolution".

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–584 substituted "100,000" for "50,000".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1662(e)(2) and 1675(c)(2) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Orders to Active Duty for Selected Reserve Combat Units Involved in Operation Desert Shield; Extensions of Time for Fiscal Year 1991

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8132, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1908, provided that, during fiscal year 1991, the President, in authorizing under this section the order to active duty of units and members of the Selected Reserve, could use that authority in the case of orders to active duty in support of operations in and around the Arabian Peninsula and Operation Desert Shield as if "180" were substituted for "90" in subsecs. (a) and (i) of this section.

Ex. Ord. No. 12727. Ordering Selected Reserve of Armed Forces to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 12727, Aug. 22, 1990, 55 F.R. 35027, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §39, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10626, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 673b [now 12304] of title 10 of the United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active armed forces of the United States for the effective conduct of operational missions in and around the Arabian Peninsula. Further, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when the latter is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, to order to active duty units and individual members not assigned to units, of the Selected Reserve.

This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch, and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

This order shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted promptly to the Congress.

Ex. Ord. No. 12733. Authorizing Extension of Period of Active Duty of Personnel of Selected Reserve of Armed Forces

Ex. Ord. No. 12733, Nov. 13, 1990, 55 F.R. 47837, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §37, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10626, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 673b(i) [673b now 12304] of title 10 of the United States Code, I hereby determine that, in the interests of national security, extending the period of active duty is necessary for the following: units of the Selected Reserve, and members of the Selected Reserve not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit of the Selected Reserve, now serving on or hereafter ordered to active duty pursuant to section 673b(a) [now 12304(a)] of title 10 of the United States Code and Executive Order No. 12727 of August 22, 1990 [set out above]. Further, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when the latter is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, to extend the period of active duty of such units and members of the Selected Reserve.

This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch, and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

This order shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted promptly to the Congress.

Ex. Ord. No. 12927. Ordering Selected Reserve of Armed Forces to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 12927, Sept. 15, 1994, 59 F.R. 47781, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 673b [now 12304] of title 10 of the United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active armed forces of the United States for the effective conduct of operational missions to restore the civilian government in Haiti. Further, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, to order to active duty any units, and any individual members not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Selected Reserve.

This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch, and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

This order is effective immediately and shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12982. Ordering Selected Reserve of Armed Forces to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 12982, Dec. 8, 1995, 60 F.R. 63895, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §21, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10624, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 12304 of title 10, United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active armed forces of the United States for the effective conduct of operations in and around former Yugoslavia. Further, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, to order to active duty any units, and any individual members not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Selected Reserve.

This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

This order shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.

Ex. Ord. No. 13076. Ordering Selected Reserve of Armed Forces to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 13076, Feb. 24, 1998, 63 F.R. 9719, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §17, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10623, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 12304 of title 10, United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active armed forces of the United States for the effective conduct of operations in and around Southwest Asia. Further, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, to order to active duty any units, and any individual members not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Selected Reserve.

This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

Ex. Ord. No. 13120. Ordering Selected Reserve and Certain Individual Ready Reserve Members of Armed Forces to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 13120, Apr. 27, 1999, 64 F.R. 23007, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §14, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10623, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 12304 of title 10, United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active armed forces of the United States for the effective conduct of operations in and around the former Yugoslavia related to the conflict in Kosovo. Further, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, under their respective jurisdictions, to order to active duty any units, and any individual members not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Selected Reserve, or any member in the Individual Ready Reserve mobilization category and designated as essential under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, and to terminate the service of those units and members ordered to active duty.

This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

Ex. Ord. No. 13529. Ordering the Selected Reserve and Certain Individual Ready Reserve Members of the Armed Forces to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 13529, Jan. 16, 2010, 75 F.R. 3331, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 12304 of title 10, United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active Armed Forces of the United States for the effective conduct of operational missions, including those involving humanitarian assistance, related to relief efforts in Haiti necessitated by the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Further, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, under their respective jurisdictions, to order to active duty any units, and any individual members not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Selected Reserve, or any member in the Individual Ready Reserve mobilization category and designated as essential under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, and to terminate the service of those units and members ordered to active duty.

This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13680. Ordering the Selected Reserve and Certain Individual Ready Reserve Members of the Armed Forces to Active Duty

Ex. Ord. No. 13680, Oct. 16, 2014, 79 F.R. 63287, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 12304 of title 10, United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active Armed Forces of the United States for the effective conduct of Operation United Assistance, which is providing support to civilian-led humanitarian assistance and consequence management support related to the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. In furtherance of this operation, under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, under their respective jurisdictions, to order to active duty any units, and any individual members not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit of the Selected Reserve, or any member in the Individual Ready Reserve mobilization category and designated as essential under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, and to terminate the service of those units and members ordered to active duty.

This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.      

§12304a. Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, and Air Force Reserve: order to active duty to provide assistance in response to a major disaster or emergency

(a) Authority.—When a Governor requests Federal assistance in responding to a major disaster or emergency (as those terms are defined in section 102 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5122)), the Secretary of Defense may, without the consent of the member affected, order any unit, and any member not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, and Air Force Reserve to active duty for a continuous period of not more than 120 days to respond to the Governor's request.

(b) Exclusion From Strength Limitations.—Members ordered to active duty under this section shall not be counted in computing authorized strength of members on active duty or members in grade under this title or any other law.

(c) Termination of Duty.—Whenever any unit or member of the reserve components is ordered to active duty under this section, the service of all units or members so ordered to active duty may be terminated by order of the Secretary of Defense or law.

(Added Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §515(a)(1), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1394.)

§12304b. Selected Reserve: order to active duty for preplanned missions in support of the combatant commands

(a) Authority.—When the Secretary of a military department determines that it is necessary to augment the active forces for a preplanned mission in support of a combatant command, the Secretary may, subject to subsection (b), order any unit of the Selected Reserve (as defined in section 10143(a) of this title), without the consent of the members, to active duty for not more than 365 consecutive days.

(b) Limitations.—(1) Units may be ordered to active duty under this section only if—

(A) the manpower and associated costs of such active duty are specifically included and identified in the defense budget materials for the fiscal year or years in which such units are anticipated to be ordered to active duty; and

(B) the budget information on such costs includes a description of the mission for which such units are anticipated to be ordered to active duty and the anticipated length of time of the order of such units to active duty on an involuntary basis.


(2) Not more than 60,000 members of the reserve components of the armed forces may be on active duty under this section at any one time.

(c) Exclusion From Strength Limitations.—Members ordered to active duty under this section shall not be counted in computing authorized strength in members on active duty or total number of members in grade under this title or any other law.

(d) Notice to Congress.—Whenever the Secretary of a military department orders any unit of the Selected Reserve to active duty under subsection (a), such Secretary shall submit to Congress a report, in writing, setting forth the circumstances necessitating the action taken under this section and describing the anticipated use of such unit.

(e) Termination of Duty.—Whenever any unit of the Selected Reserve is ordered to active duty under subsection (a), the service of all units so ordered to active duty may be terminated—

(1) by order of the Secretary of the military department concerned; or

(2) by law.


(f) Relationship to War Powers Resolution.—Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as amending or limiting the application of the provisions of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1541 et seq.).

(g) Considerations for Involuntary Order to Active Duty.—In determining which units of the Selected Reserve will be ordered to duty without their consent under this section, appropriate consideration shall be given to—

(1) the length and nature of previous service, to assure such sharing of exposure to hazards as national security and military requirements will reasonably allow;

(2) the frequency of assignments during service career;

(3) family responsibilities; and

(4) employment necessary to maintain the national health, safety, or interest.


(h) Policies and Procedures.—The Secretaries of the military departments shall prescribe policies and procedures to carry out this section, including on determinations with respect to orders to active duty under subsection (g). Such policies and procedures shall not go into effect until approved by the Secretary of Defense.

(i) Defense Budget Materials Defined.—In this section, the term "defense budget materials" has the meaning given that term in section 231(f)(2) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §516(a)(1), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1395; amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1014(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1908.)

References in Text

The War Powers Resolution, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 93–148, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 555, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1541 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1541 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "section 231(f)(2)" for "section 231(g)(2)".

§12305. Authority of President to suspend certain laws relating to promotion, retirement, and separation

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, during any period members of a reserve component are serving on active duty pursuant to an order to active duty under authority of section 12301, 12302, or 12304 of this title, the President may suspend any provision of law relating to promotion, retirement, or separation applicable to any member of the armed forces who the President determines is essential to the national security of the United States.

(b) A suspension made under the authority of subsection (a) shall terminate (1) upon release from active duty of members of the reserve component ordered to active duty under the authority of section 12301, 12302, or 12304 of this title, as the case may be, or (2) at such time as the President determines the circumstances which required the action of ordering members of the reserve component to active duty no longer exist, whichever is earlier.

(c) Upon the termination of a suspension made under the authority of subsection (a) of a provision of law otherwise requiring the separation or retirement of officers on active duty because of age, length of service or length of service in grade, or failure of selection for promotion, the Secretary concerned shall extend by up to 90 days the otherwise required separation or retirement date of any officer covered by the suspended provision whose separation or retirement date, but for the suspension, would have been before the date of the termination of the suspension or within 90 days after the date of such termination.

(Added Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1021(a), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 670, §673c; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(16), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; renumbered §12305 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §508(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1090.)

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107 added subsec. (c).

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 673c of this title as this section.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(3), substituted "12301, 12302, or 12304" for "672, 673, or 673b".

1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–525 inserted "of this title" after "673b".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 12728. Delegating President's Authority To Suspend any Provision of Law Relating to Promotion, Retirement, or Separation of Members of Armed Forces

Ex. Ord. No. 12728, Aug. 22, 1990, 55 F.R. 35029, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §38, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10626, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 673c [now 12305] of title 10 of the United States Code and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby order:

Section 1. The Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, are hereby designated and empowered to exercise, without the approval, ratification, or other action of the President, the authority vested in the President by section 673c [now 12305] of title 10 of the United States Code (1) to suspend any provision of law relating to promotion, retirement, or separation applicable to any member of the armed forces determined to be essential to the national security of the United States, and (2) to determine, for the purposes of said section, that members of the armed forces are essential to the national security of the United States.

Sec. 2. The authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security by this order may be redelegated and further subdelegated to subordinates who are appointed to their offices by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

Sec. 3. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

§12306. Standby Reserve

(a) Units and members in the Standby Reserve may be ordered to active duty only as provided in section 12301 of this title, but subject to the limitations in subsection (b).

(b) In time of emergency—

(1) no unit in the Standby Reserve organized to serve as a unit or any member thereof may be ordered to active duty under section 12301(a) of this title, unless the Secretary concerned, with the approval of the Secretary of Defense in the case of a Secretary of a military department, determines that there are not enough of the required kinds of units in the Ready Reserve that are readily available; and

(2) notwithstanding section 12301(a) of this title, no other member in the Standby Reserve may be ordered to active duty as an individual under such section without his consent, unless the Secretary concerned, with the approval of the Secretary of Defense in the case of a Secretary of a military department, determines that there are not enough qualified members in the Ready Reserve in the required category who are readily available.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 29, §674; Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §130, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 514; renumbered §12306 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §514(d), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
674(a)

 

674(b)

50:926(a) (less 1st 28 words).

50:926(b).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §206 (less 1st 28 words of (a)), 66 Stat. 483.

In subsection (b), the words "to serve" are substituted for the words "for the purpose of serving". The words "there are not enough * * * that are" are substituted for the words "adequate numbers of * * * are not". The words "(other than for training)" are inserted, since the words "active duty" were defined in the source statute cited above to exclude "active duty for training".

1962 Act

The change is made to conform section 674(a) more closely to the source law for that section, section 206(a) of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952 (66 Stat. 483). Section 206(a) of that Act defined the Standby Reserve in terms of units and members of the reserve components according to their liability to be ordered to active duty. It did not provide authority to order units and members of the Standby Reserve to active duty. This authority was provided by section 233(a) of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952 (66 Stat. 489), which is restated in section 672(a) of title 10. Since the present language of section 674(a) may be interpreted to provide independent authority to order units and members of the Standby Reserve to active duty, it is revised to make clear that this is not the case and that section 672 is the authority for that action.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375, §514(d)(1), substituted "active duty only as provided in section 12301 of this title, but subject to the limitations in subsection (b)" for "active duty (other than for training) only as provided in section 12301 of this title".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–375, §514(d)(2)(A), substituted "under section 12301(a) of this title" for "(other than for training)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, §514(d)(2)(B), substituted "notwithstanding section 12301(a) of this title, no other member in the Standby Reserve may be ordered to active duty as an individual under such section without his consent" for "no other member in the Standby Reserve may be ordered to active duty (other than for training) as an individual without his consent".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 674 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(4), substituted "12301" for "672".

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–651 substituted "only as provided in section 672 of this title" for "only in time of war, of national emergency declared by Congress, or when otherwise authorized by law".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12307. Retired Reserve

A member in the Retired Reserve may, if qualified, be ordered to active duty without his consent, but only as provided in section 688 or 12301(a) of this title. A member of the Retired Reserve (other than a member transferred to the Retired Reserve under section 12641(b) of this title) who is ordered to active duty or other appropriate duty in a retired status may be credited under chapter 1223 of this title with service performed pursuant to such order. A member in a retired status is not eligible for promotion (or for consideration for promotion) as a Reserve.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 29, §675; Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1017(a), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 669; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §651(d), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1461; renumbered §12307 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(5), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(17), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
675 50:927(c). July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §207(c), 66 Stat. 483.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Retired Reserve (other" for "Ready Reserve (other".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(5), substituted "688 or 12301(a)" for "672(a) or 688", "12641(b)" for "1001(b)", and "1223" for "67".

Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 675 of this title as this section.

1989Pub. L. 101–189 inserted at end "A member of the Ready Reserve (other than a member transferred to the Retired Reserve under section 1001(b) of this title) who is ordered to active duty or other appropriate duty in a retired status may be credited under chapter 67 of this title with service performed pursuant to such order. A member in a retired status is not eligible for promotion (or for consideration for promotion) as a Reserve."

1983Pub. L. 98–94 inserted reference to section 688.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12308. Retention after becoming qualified for retired pay

Any person who has qualified for retired pay under chapter 1223 of this title may, with his consent and by order of the Secretary concerned, be retained on active duty, or in service in a reserve component other than that listed in section 12732(b) of this title. A member so retained shall be credited with that service for all purposes.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 29, §676; renumbered §12308 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(6), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
676 10:1036a(e).

34:440i(e).

June 29, 1948, ch. 708, §302(e), 62 Stat. 1088.

The words "active duty, or in service, in a reserve component other than that listed in section 1332(b) of this title" are inserted to reflect the words "Federal service", as used in Title III of the source statute. The words "that service for all purposes" are substituted for 10:1036a(e) (last 11 words) and 34:440i(e) (last 11 words). The words "upon attaining the age of sixty years" are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(6), substituted "1223" for "67" and "12732(b)" for "1332(b)".

Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 676 of this title as this section.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12309. Reserve officers: use of in expansion of armed forces

When an expansion of the active armed forces requires that officers of the reserve components who are not members of units organized to serve as such be ordered as individuals to active duty (other than for training) without their consent, the services of qualified and available reserve officers in all grades shall be used, so far as practicable, according to the needs of the branches, grades, or specialties concerned.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 29, §677; renumbered §12309, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
677 50:961(f). July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §233(f), 66 Stat. 490.

The words "without their consent" are substituted for the word "involuntarily". The words "it shall be the policy" are omitted as surplusage. The words "to active duty (other than for training)" are substituted for the words "into the active military service".

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 677 of this title as this section.

§12310. Reserves: for organizing, administering, etc., reserve components

(a) Authority.—(1) The Secretary concerned may order a member of a reserve component under the Secretary's jurisdiction to active duty pursuant to section 12301(d) of this title to perform Active Guard and Reserve duty organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components.

(2) A Reserve ordered to active duty under paragraph (1) shall be ordered in the Reserve's reserve grade. While so serving, the Reserve continues to be eligible for promotion as a Reserve, if otherwise qualified.

(b) Duties.—A Reserve on active duty under subsection (a) may perform the following additional duties to the extent that the performance of those duties does not interfere with the performance of the Reserve's primary Active Guard and Reserve duties described in subsection (a)(1):

(1) Supporting operations or missions assigned in whole or in part to the reserve components.

(2) Supporting operations or missions performed or to be performed by—

(A) a unit composed of elements from more than one component of the same armed force; or

(B) a joint forces unit that includes—

(i) one or more reserve component units; or

(ii) a member of a reserve component whose reserve component assignment is in a position in an element of the joint forces unit.


(3) Advising the Secretary of Defense, the Secretaries of the military departments, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the commanders of the combatant commands regarding reserve component matters.

(4) Instructing or training in the United States or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or possessions of the United States of—

(A) active-duty members of the armed forces;

(B) members of foreign military forces (under the same authorities and restrictions applicable to active-duty members providing such instruction or training);

(C) Department of Defense contractor personnel; or

(D) Department of Defense civilian employees.


(c) Operations Relating to Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorist Attacks.—(1) Notwithstanding subsection (b), a Reserve on active duty as described in subsection (a), or a Reserve who is a member of the National Guard serving on full-time National Guard duty under section 502(f) of title 32 in connection with functions referred to in subsection (a), may, subject to paragraph (3), perform duties in support of emergency preparedness programs to prepare for or to respond to any emergency involving any of the following:

(A) The use or threatened use of a weapon of mass destruction (as defined in section 1403 of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 (50 U.S.C. 2302(1))) in the United States.

(B) A terrorist attack or threatened terrorist attack in the United States that results, or could result, in catastrophic loss of life or property.

(C) The intentional or unintentional release of nuclear, biological, radiological, or toxic or poisonous chemical materials in the United States that results, or could result, in catastrophic loss of life or property.

(D) A natural or manmade disaster in the United States that results in, or could result in, catastrophic loss of life or property.


(2) The costs of the pay, allowances, clothing, subsistence, gratuities, travel, and related expenses for a Reserve performing duties under the authority of paragraph (1) shall be paid from the appropriation that is available to pay such costs for other members of the reserve component of that Reserve who are performing duties as described in subsection (a).

(3) A Reserve may perform duty described in paragraph (1) only while assigned to a reserve component weapons of mass destruction civil support team.

(4) Reserves on active duty who are performing duties described in paragraph (1) shall be counted against the annual end strength authorizations required by section 115(a)(1)(B) and 115(a)(2) of this title. The justification material for the defense budget request for a fiscal year shall identify the number and component of the Reserves programmed to be performing duties described in paragraph (1) during that fiscal year.

(5) A reserve component weapons of mass destruction civil support team, and any Reserve assigned to such a team, may not be used to respond to an emergency described in paragraph (1) unless the Secretary of Defense has certified to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives that that team, or that Reserve, possesses the requisite skills, training, and equipment to be proficient in all mission requirements.

(6) If the Secretary of Defense submits to Congress any request for the enactment of legislation to modify the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (3), the Secretary shall provide with the request—

(A) justification for each such requested modification; and

(B) the Secretary's plan for sustaining the qualifications of the personnel and teams described in paragraph (3).


(7) In this subsection, the term "United States" includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands.

(d) Training.—A Reserve on active duty as described in subsection (a) may be provided training consistent with training provided to other members on active duty, as the Secretary concerned sees fit.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 30, §678; renumbered §12310 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(7), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §541, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2521; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §511(b)(1), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2006; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §§555(a), (b), 556, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 617–619, 774; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §514(b), title IX, §933, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2539, 2626; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §§525(a), 527, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2193, 2196; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(34), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
678(a)

678(b)

50:962 (2d sentence).

50:962 (less 1st and 2d sentences).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §234, (less 1st sentence), 66 Stat. 490.

In subsection (a), the words "to active duty under section 672(d) of this title in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components" are substituted for the words "into the active military service of the United States under the provisions of this section". The words "his reserve grade" are substituted for the words "held by them in the Reserve of their Armed Force". The words "as a Reserve", in the last sentence of the revised subsection, are substituted for the words "in the Reserve of their Armed Force". The word "Hereafter" is omitted as surplusage.

Subsection (b) is substituted for 50:962 (less 1st and 2d sentences).

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–84 substituted "section 1403 of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 (50 U.S.C. 2302(1))" for "section 12304(i)(2) of this title".

2006—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 109–364, §525(a), amended subsecs. (a) and (b) generally, substituting provisions relating to authority of the Secretary concerned to order a member of a reserve component to active duty and setting forth duties including supporting operations or missions, providing advice regarding reserve component matters, and providing instruction or training of active-duty members of the armed forces or foreign military forces and Department of Defense contractor personnel or civilian employees, for provisions relating to grade when a Reserve is ordered to active duty and setting forth duties including supporting operations or missions and providing advice regarding reserve component matters.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(b)(1), substituted "Operations Relating to Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorist Attacks" for "Duties Relating to Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(a)(1)(A), substituted "involving any of the following:" for "involving—" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A) to (D). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(a)(1)(B), added subpars. (A) to (D) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) the use of a weapon of mass destruction (as defined in section 12304(i)(2) of this title); or

"(B) a terrorist attack or threatened terrorist attack in the United States that results, or could result, in catastrophic loss of life or property."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(a)(2), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "A Reserve may perform duties described in paragraph (1) only while assigned to a reserve component rapid assessment element team and performing those duties within the geographical limits of the United States, its territories and possessions, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico."

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(b)(2), substituted "weapons of mass destruction civil support team" for "rapid assessment element team".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(b)(3)(A), substituted "paragraphs (1) and (3)" for "paragraph (3)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(6)(B). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(b)(3)(B), substituted "(3)" for "(3)(B)".

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 109–364, §527(a)(3), added par. (7).

2002—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–314, §514(b), substituted "involving—

"(A) the use of a weapon of mass destruction (as defined in section 12304(i)(2) of this title); or

"(B) a terrorist attack or threatened terrorist attack in the United States that results, or could result, in catastrophic loss of life or property."

for "involving the use of a weapon of mass destruction (as defined in section 1403 of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 (50 U.S.C. 2302(1)))."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–314, §933, substituted "only while assigned" for "only—

"(A) while assigned to the Department of Defense Consequence Management Program Integration Office; or

"(B) while assigned".

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–65, §555(b)(1), inserted heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65, §555(a)(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–65, §555(b)(2), inserted heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–65, §555(b)(2), substituted "Notwithstanding subsection (b), a Reserve" for "A Reserve".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 106–65, §556(a), struck out first sentence which read as follows: "The number of Reserves on active duty who are performing duties described in paragraph (1) at the same time may not exceed 228."

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 106–65, §1067(1), substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 106–65, §556(b), struck out "or to increase the number of personnel authorized by paragraph (4)" after "requirements of paragraph (3)" in introductory provisions and "or for the requested additional personnel and explain the need for the increase in the context of existing or projected similar capabilities at the local, State, and Federal levels" after "modification" in subpar. (A).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–65, §555(a)(1), (b)(3), redesignated subsec. (b) as (d) and inserted heading.

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–261 added subsec. (c).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–201 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "To assure that a Reserve on duty under subsection (a) receives periodic refresher training in the categories for which he is qualified, the Secretary concerned may detail him to duty with any armed force, or otherwise as the Secretary sees fit."

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 678 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(7), substituted "12301(d)" for "672(d)".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Additional Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title XIV, §1403, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2676, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, §1435(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2051, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Additional Teams.—The Secretary of Defense shall—

"(1) establish 23 additional teams designated as Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams, for a total of 55 such teams; and

"(2) ensure that of such 55 teams, there is at least one team established in each State and territory.

"(b) Establishment of Further Additional Teams.—The Secretary of Defense is authorized to have established two additional teams designated as Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams, beyond the 55 teams required in subsection (a), if—

"(1) the Secretary of Defense has made the certification provided for in section 12310(c)(5) of title 10, United States Code, with respect to each of such additional teams before December 31, 2011; and

"(2) the establishment of such additional teams does not require an increase in authorized personnel levels above the numbers authorized as of the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 [Pub. L. 112–239, approved Jan. 2, 2013].

"(c) Limitation of Establishment of Further Teams.—No Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Team may be established beyond the number authorized by subsections (a) and (b) unless—

"(1) the Secretary submits to Congress a request for authority to establish such team, including a detailed justification for its establishment; and

"(2) the establishment of such team is specifically authorized by a law enacted after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013.

"(d) Notification of Disestablishment of Teams.—No Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Team established pursuant to this section may be disestablished unless, by not later than 90 days before the date on which such team is disestablished, the Secretary submits to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] notice of the proposed disestablishment of the team and the date on which the disestablishment is proposed to take place.

"(e) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

"(1) The term 'Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Team' means a team of members of the reserve components of the Armed Forces that is established under section 12310(c) of title 10, United States Code, in support of emergency preparedness programs to prepare for or to respond to any emergency involving the use of a weapon of mass destruction.

"(2) The term 'State and territory' means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands."

§12311. Active duty agreements

(a) To provide definite terms of active duty (other than for training) for Reserves with their consent, the Secretary concerned may make a standard written agreement with any member of a reserve component under his jurisdiction requiring the member to serve for a period of active duty (other than for training) of not more than five years. When such an agreement expires, a new one may be made. This subsection does not apply in time of war declared by Congress.

(b) An agreement may not be made under subsection (a) unless the specified period of duty is at least 12 months longer than any period of active duty that the member is otherwise required to perform.

(c) Agreements made under subsection (a) shall be uniform so far as practicable, and are subject to such standards and policies as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense for the armed forces under his jurisdiction or by the Secretary of Homeland Security for the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy.

(d) If an agreement made under subsection (a) expires during a war or during a national emergency declared by Congress or the President after January 1, 1953, the Reserve concerned may be kept on active duty, without his consent, as otherwise prescribed by law.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 30, §679; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(19), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; renumbered §12311, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
679(a)

 

 

 
50:963(a) (less last sentence).

50:963(c).

50:963(f).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§235 (less last sentence of (a), and less (b)), 236, 66 Stat. 491.
679(b) 50:963(d).
679(c) 50:963(e).
679(d) 50:964.

In subsection (a), the words "To provide definite terms of active duty for" are substituted for the words "In order that * * * may remain on or be ordered to active duty * * * for terms of service of definite duration". The words "with their consent" are substituted for the word "voluntarily". The words "requiring the member to serve" are substituted for 50:963(c). The words "more than" are substituted for the words "to exceed". The second sentence is substituted for 50:963(a) (2d sentence). The word "hereafter" is omitted as surplusage. 50:963(f) is omitted as executed. The words "under his jurisdiction" are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "is at least * * * longer" are substituted for the words "exceeds by at least". The words "active duty that the member is otherwise required to perform" are substituted for the words "obligated or involuntary active duty to which he is otherwise liable".

In subsection (c), the words "for the armed forces under his jurisdiction" are inserted for clarity.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Secretary of Transportation".

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 679 of this title as this section.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of the Treasury".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§12312. Active duty agreements: release from duty

(a) Each agreement made under section 12311(a) of this title shall provide that the member may not be released from active duty without his consent during the period of the agreement—

(1) because of a reduction in the actual personnel strength of the armed force concerned, unless the release is in accordance with the recommendation of a board of officers appointed by an authority designated by the Secretary concerned to determine the members to be released from active duty under regulations prescribed by the Secretary; or

(2) for any other reason, without an opportunity to be heard by a board of officers before the release, unless he is (A) dismissed or discharged under the sentence of a court-martial, (B) released because of an unexplained absence without leave for at least three months, (C) released because he is convicted and sentenced to confinement in a Federal or State penitentiary or correctional institution and the sentence has become final, or (D) released because he has been considered at least twice and has not been recommended for promotion to the next higher grade or because he is considered as having failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade and has not been recommended for promotion to that grade, under conditions that would require the release or separation of a reserve officer who is not serving under such agreement.


(b) A member who is released from active duty without his consent before the end of his agreement made under section 12311(a) of this title is entitled to an amount computed by multiplying the number of years and fractions of a year of his unexpired period of service under the agreement by the sum of one month's basic pay, special pay, and allowances to which he is entitled on the day of his release. The amount to which a member is entitled under this subsection is in addition to any pay and allowances to which he is otherwise entitled. For the purposes of this subsection, a fraction of a month of 15 days or more is counted as a whole month, and a fraction of a month of less than 15 days is disregarded. This subsection does not apply to a member if he is—

(1) released for a reason described in subsection (a)(2)(A)–(C);

(2) released because of a physical disability resulting from his intentional misconduct or wilful neglect;

(3) eligible for retired pay, separation pay, or severance pay under another provision of law;

(4) placed on a temporary disability retired list; or

(5) released to accept an appointment, or to be enlisted, in a regular component of an armed force.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 30, §680; Pub. L. 87–509, §2, June 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 121; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §533(b), title XIV, §1405(17), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2528, 2622; renumbered §12312 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(8), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
680(a)

680(b)

50:963(a) (last sentence).

50:963(b).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §235(a) (last sentence), (b), 66 Stat. 491.

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "without his consent" are substituted for the word "involuntary".

In subsection (a)(1), the word "because" is substituted for the words "by reason". The words "actual personnel strength" are substituted for the words "numerical strength of the military personnel".

In subsection (a)(2), the words "for any other reason" are substituted for the words "for reasons other than that prescribed in paragraph (1)". The words "dismissed or discharged" are inserted for clarity. The words "at least" are substituted for the word "duration". The words "is convicted and sentenced * * * and the sentence has become final" are substituted for the words "final conviction and sentence". The words "from active duty" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the words "before the end of" are substituted for the words "prior to the expiration of the period of service under". The words "computed by multiplying * * * and fractions of a year of his unexpired period of service under the agreement by the sum of one month's * * * pay, and allowances" are substituted for the words "equal to one month's pay and allowances multiplied by * * * (including any pro rata part thereof) remaining as the unexpired period of his agreement for active duty". The words "basic * * * special pay * * * to which he is entitled on the day of his release" are substituted for 50:963(b) (2d sentence). The third sentence is substituted for 50:963(b) (last sentence). The last sentence is substituted for 50:963(b) (words within 1st parentheses).

In subsection (b)(2), the words "because of" are substituted for the words "when such release is due to".

In subsection (b)(5), the words "to accept" are substituted for the words "for the purpose of accepting". The words "of an armed force" are inserted for clarity.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 680 of this title as this section.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(8), substituted "12311(a)" for "679(a)".

1984—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 98–525, §1405(17), substituted "reserve officer" for "Reserve Officer".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–525, §533(b), inserted ", separation pay," after "retired pay".

1962—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 87–509 added cl. (D).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12313. Reserves: release from active duty

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title, the Secretary concerned may at any time release a Reserve under his jurisdiction from active duty.

(b) In time of war or of national emergency declared by Congress or the President after January 1, 1953, a member of a reserve component may be released from active duty (other than for training) only if—

(1) a board of officers convened at his request by an authority designated by the Secretary concerned recommends the release and the recommendation is approved;

(2) the member does not request that a board be convened; or

(3) his release is otherwise authorized by law.


This subsection does not apply to an armed force during a period of demobilization or reduction in strength of that armed force.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 31, §681; renumbered §12313, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
681(a)

681(b)

50:967(a).

50:967 (less (a)).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §239, 66 Stat. 492.

In subsection (a), the word "title" is substituted for the word "chapter". The provisions of this title relating to active duty of Reserves are based on the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952. The words "under his jurisdiction" are inserted for clarity. The words "or active duty for training" are omitted as covered by the words "active duty".

Subsection (b) is substituted for 50:967(b). Clause (3) is inserted, since other provisions of law are necessarily exceptions to the general rule here stated.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 681 of this title as this section.

§12314. Reserves: kinds of duty

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a member of a reserve component who is on active duty other than for training may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, be detailed or assigned to any duty authorized by law for members of the regular component of the armed force concerned.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 31, §682; renumbered §12314, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
682 50:965. July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §237, 66 Stat. 492.

The words "armed force concerned" are substituted for the words "Armed Forces of the United States". The words "now or hereafter" and "officers and enlisted" are omitted as surplusage. The words "other than for training" are inserted, since the words "active duty" were defined in the source statute cited above to exclude active duty for training.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 682 of this title as this section.

§12315. Reserves: duty with or without pay

(a) Subject to other provisions of this title, any Reserve may be ordered to active duty or other duty—

(1) with the pay and allowances provided by law; or

(2) with his consent, without pay.


Duty without pay shall be considered for all purposes as if it were duty with pay.

(b) A Reserve who is kept on active duty after his term of service expires is entitled to pay and allowances while on that duty, except as they may be forfeited under the approved sentence of a court-martial or by non-judicial punishment by a commanding officer or when he is otherwise in a non-pay status.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 31, §683; renumbered §12315, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
683(a)

683(b)

50:971.

50:972.

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§240, 241, 66 Stat. 492.

In subsection (a), the word "title" is substituted for the word "chapter". The provisions of this title relating to active duty of reservists are based on the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952. The words "shall be considered * * * as if it were" are substituted for the words "shall be counted * * * the same as like".

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "active duty for training" are omitted as covered by the words "active duty".

In subsection (b), the word "kept" is substituted for the words "retained or continued". The words "pursuant to law" are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 683 of this title as this section.

§12316. Payment of certain Reserves while on duty

(a) Except as provided by subsection (b), a Reserve of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard who because of his earlier military service is entitled to a pension, retired or retainer pay, or disability compensation, and who performs duty for which he is entitled to compensation, may elect to receive for that duty either—

(1) the payments to which he is entitled because of his earlier military service; or

(2) if he specifically waives those payments, the pay and allowances authorized by law for the duty that he is performing.


(b) Unless the payments because of his earlier military service are greater than the compensation prescribed by subsection (a)(2), a Reserve of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard who because of his earlier military service is entitled to a pension, retired or retainer pay, or disability compensation, and who upon being ordered to active duty for a period of more than 30 days in time of war or national emergency is found physically qualified to perform that duty, ceases to be entitled to the payments because of his earlier military service until the period of active duty ends. While on that active duty, he is entitled to the compensation prescribed by subsection (a)(2). Other rights and benefits of the member or his dependents are unaffected by this subsection.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(15), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1441, §684; amended Pub. L. 93–586, §1, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1920; renumbered §12316, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
684(a) 10 App.:369b (less proviso and last 3 sentences).

34 App.:853e–1 (less provisos and last 3 sentences).

Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 756, §10; restated Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1053, §1, 64 Stat. 1067; July 12, 1955, ch. 337, §§1, 4, 69 Stat. 300, 301.
684(b) 10 App.:369b (proviso and last 3 sentences).

34 App.:853e–1 (provisos and last 3 sentences).

Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1053, §2, 64 Stat. 1067; July 12, 1955, ch. 337, §§2, 4, 69 Stat. 301.

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "retirement pay" are omitted as covered by the words "retired pay".

In subsection (a), the words "Except as provided by subsection (b)" are inserted for clarity. The words "who performs duty for which he is entitled to compensation, may elect to receive for that duty" are substituted for the words "may elect, with reference to periods of active duty, active duty for training, drill, training, instruction, or other duty for which they may be entitled to receive compensation pursuant to any provisions of law". The words "Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law", in 10 App.:369b, and "or relinquish" are omitted as surplusage.

Subsection (a)(1) is substituted for clause (2) of 10 App.:369b, and clause (2) of 34 App.:853e–1.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "pay and allowances authorized by law for the duty that he is performing" are substituted for clause (1) of 10 App.:369b and 34 App.:853e–1.

In subsection (b), the word "extended", the next to the last sentence of 10 App.: 369b and of 34 App.: 853e–1, and the first proviso of 34 App.:853e–1, are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 684 of this title as this section.

1975—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 93–586 inserted reference to Coast Guard.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§12317. Reserves: theological students; limitations

A Reserve may not be required to serve on active duty, or to participate in inactive duty training, while preparing for the ministry in a recognized theological or divinity school.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(15), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1441, §685; renumbered §12317, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
686 50:961(h) (last sentence). Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §2(g) (last sentence), 69 Stat. 599.

The words "active training and service, active duty for training" are omitted as covered by the words "active duty" as defined in section 101(22) of this title.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 685 of this title as this section.

§12318. Reserves on active duty: duties; funding

(a) During a period that members of a reserve component are serving on active duty pursuant to an order under section 12302 or 12304 of this title, members of reserve components serving on active duty may perform duties in connection with either such section.

(b) Funds available for the pay and allowances of Reserves referred to section 12310 of this title shall be available for the pay and allowances of such Reserves who perform duties in connection with section 12302 or 12304 of this title under the authority of subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IV, §412(b)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3861, §686; renumbered §12318 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(9), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3017.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 686 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(9), substituted "12302 or 12304" for "673 or 673b" in subsecs. (a) and (b) and "12310" for "678" in subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12319. Ready Reserve: muster duty

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, a member of the Ready Reserve may be ordered without his consent to muster duty one time each year. A member ordered to muster duty under this section shall be required to perform a minimum of two hours of muster duty on the day of muster.

(b) The period which a member may be required to devote to muster duty under this section, including round-trip travel to and from the location of that duty, may not total more than one day each calendar year.

(c) Except as specified in subsection (d), muster duty (and travel directly to and from that duty) under this section shall be treated as the equivalent of inactive-duty training (and travel directly to and from that training) for the purposes of this title and the provisions of title 37 (other than section 206(a)) and title 38, including provisions relating to the determination of eligibility for and the receipt of benefits and entitlements provided under those titles for Reserves performing inactive-duty training and for their dependents and survivors.

(d) Muster duty under this section shall not be credited in determining entitlement to, or in computing, retired pay under chapter 1223 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §502(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1436, §687; renumbered §12319 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(10), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992, 3018.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 687 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(10), substituted "1223" for "67".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12320. Reserve officers: grade in which ordered to active duty

A reserve officer who is ordered to active duty or full-time National Guard duty shall be ordered to active duty or full-time National Guard duty in his reserve grade, except that a reserve officer who is credited with service under section 12207 of this title and is ordered to active duty and placed on the active-duty list may be ordered to active duty in a reserve grade and with a date of rank and position on the active-duty list determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense based upon the amount of service credited.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §106, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2868, §689; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §4(g), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 127; renumbered §12320 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1625, 1662(e)(2), 1675(c)(11), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2962, 2992, 3018; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, §1625. See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(c)(11), substituted "12207" for "3353, 5600, or 8353".

Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(e)(2), renumbered section 689 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 103–337, §1625, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, inserted "or full-time National Guard duty" after "who is ordered to active duty" and after "shall be ordered to active duty" and inserted "and placed on the active-duty list" after "and is ordered to active duty".

1981Pub. L. 97–22 inserted provision relating to a reserve officer who is credited with service under section 3353, 5600, or 8353 of this title and is ordered to active duty.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1662(e)(2) and 1675(c)(11) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, and amendment by section 1625 of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this section effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

§12321. Reserve Officer Training Corps units: limitation on number of Reserves assigned

The number of members of the reserve components serving on active duty or full-time National Guard duty for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components who are assigned to duty with a unit of the Reserve Officer Training Corps program may not exceed 275.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §559(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1571, §687; renumbered §690 and amended Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §704(a)(3)(A), (B), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 118; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(a)(4)(A), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1472; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §512, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §512, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1649; renumbered §12321 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), (3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 690 of this title as this section and substituted "Reserve Officer Training Corps units: limitation on number of Reserves assigned" for "Limitation on duty with Reserve Officer Training Corps units" as section catchline.

1993Pub. L. 103–160 substituted "may not exceed 275" for "may not exceed 200".

1992Pub. L. 102–484 substituted "The number of members of the reserve components" for "A member of a reserve component", "who are assigned" for "may not be assigned", and "may not exceed 200." for period at end.

1991Pub. L. 102–190 substituted "Corps" for "Corp" in section catchline.

Pub. L. 102–25, §704(a)(3)(B), renumbered section 687 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–25, §704(a)(3)(A), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 101–510, §559(a)(1), which enacted this section.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §704(e), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 120, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6686 and 7381b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1701, 1705, 1721, 1724, 1733, 2302, 2306a, 2432, and 3074 of this title, and section 1928 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse] shall apply as if included in the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–510)."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §559(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1571, as amended by Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §704(a)(3)(C), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 118, provided that: "Section 690 [now 12321] of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall take effect on September 30, 1991."

Waiver of Prohibition on Certain Reserve Service With ROTC Program

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §525, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1363, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(d)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 500, permitted the Secretary of the military department concerned to waive the prohibition in this section in the case of a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces who is serving with the Reserve Officer Training Corps program on Sept. 30, 1991, if the removal of the member from that assignment would cause a financial hardship for that member.

§12322. Active duty for health care

A member of a uniformed service described in paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 1074a(a) of this title may be ordered to active duty, and a member of a uniformed service described in paragraph (1)(A) or (2)(A) of such section may be continued on active duty, for a period of more than 30 days while the member is being treated for (or recovering from) an injury, illness, or disease incurred or aggravated in the line of duty as described in any of such paragraphs.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VII, §705(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 683.)

§12323. Active duty pending line of duty determination required for response to sexual assault

(a) Continuation on Active Duty.—In the case of a member of a reserve component who is the alleged victim of sexual assault committed while on active duty and who is expected to be released from active duty before the determination is made regarding whether the member was assaulted while in the line of duty (in this section referred to as a "line of duty determination"), the Secretary concerned, upon the request of the member, may order the member to be retained on active duty until completion of the line of duty determination. A member eligible for continuation on active duty under this subsection shall be informed as soon as practicable after the alleged assault of the option to request continuation on active duty under this subsection.

(b) Return to Active Duty.—In the case of a member of a reserve component not on active duty who is the alleged victim of a sexual assault that occurred while the member was on active duty and when the line of duty determination is not completed, the Secretary concerned, upon the request of the member, may order the member to active duty for such time as necessary for completion of the line of duty determination.

(c) Regulations.—The Secretaries of the military departments shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section, subject to guidelines prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. The guidelines of the Secretary of Defense shall provide that—

(1) a request submitted by a member described in subsection (a) or (b) to continue on active duty, or to be ordered to active duty, respectively, must be decided within 30 days from the date of the request; and

(2) if the request is denied, the member may appeal to the first general officer or flag officer in the chain of command of the member, and in the case of such an appeal a decision on the appeal must be made within 15 days from the date of the appeal.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §571(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1753.)

CHAPTER 1211—NATIONAL GUARD MEMBERS IN FEDERAL SERVICE

Sec.
12401.
Army and Air National Guard of the United States: status.
12402.
Army and Air National Guard of the United States: commissioned officers; duty in National Guard Bureau.
12403.
Army and Air National Guard of the United States: members; status in which ordered into Federal service.
12404.
Army and Air National Guard of the United States: mobilization; maintenance of organization.
12405.
National Guard in Federal service: status.
12406.
National Guard in Federal service: call.
12407.
National Guard in Federal service: period of service; apportionment.
12408.
National Guard in Federal service: physical examination.

        

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(18)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497, inserted "the" after "Army and Air National Guard of" in items 12401, 12402, 12403, and 12404.

§12401. Army and Air National Guard of the United States: status

Members of the Army National Guard of the United States and the Air National Guard of the United States are not in active Federal service except when ordered thereto under law.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2993.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3495 and 8495 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12402. Army and Air National Guard of the United States: commissioned officers; duty in National Guard Bureau

(a) The President may, with their consent, order commissioned officers of the Army National Guard of the United States and the Air National Guard of the United States to active duty in the National Guard Bureau.

(b)(1) The number of officers of the Army National Guard of the United States in grades below brigadier general who are ordered to active duty in the National Guard Bureau may not be more than 40 percent of the number of officers of the Army authorized for duty in that Bureau and, to the extent practicable, shall not exceed 40 percent of the number of officers of the Army serving in that Bureau in any grade below brigadier general.

(2) The number of officers of the Air National Guard of the United States in grades below brigadier general who are ordered to active duty in the National Guard Bureau may not be more than 40 percent of the number of officers of the Air Force authorized for duty in that Bureau and, to the extent practicable, shall not exceed 40 percent of the number of officers of the Air Force serving in that Bureau in any grade below brigadier general.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2993; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(18)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3496 and 8496 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 inserted "the" in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12403. Army and Air National Guard of the United States: members; status in which ordered into Federal service

Members of the Army National Guard of the United States ordered to active duty shall be ordered to duty as Reserves of the Army. Members of the Air National Guard of the United States ordered to active duty shall be ordered to duty as Reserves of the Air Force.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2993; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(18)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3497 and 8497 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 inserted "the" in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12404. Army and Air National Guard of the United States: mobilization; maintenance of organization

During an initial mobilization, the organization of a unit of the Army National Guard of the United States or of the Air National Guard of the United States ordered into active Federal service shall, so far as practicable, be maintained as it existed on the date of the order to duty.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2993; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(18)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3498 and 8498 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 inserted "the" in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12405. National Guard in Federal service: status

Members of the National Guard called into Federal service are, from the time when they are required to respond to the call, subject to the laws and regulations governing the Army or the Air Force, as the case may be, except those applicable only to members of the Regular Army or Regular Air Force, as the case may be.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2993.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3499 and 8499 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12406. National Guard in Federal service: call

Whenever—

(1) the United States, or any of the Commonwealths or possessions, is invaded or is in danger of invasion by a foreign nation;

(2) there is a rebellion or danger of a rebellion against the authority of the Government of the United States; or

(3) the President is unable with the regular forces to execute the laws of the United States;


the President may call into Federal service members and units of the National Guard of any State in such numbers as he considers necessary to repel the invasion, suppress the rebellion, or execute those laws. Orders for these purposes shall be issued through the governors of the States or, in the case of the District of Columbia, through the commanding general of the National Guard of the District of Columbia.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2994; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1057(a)(5), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3440.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3500 and 8500 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Amendments

2006—Par. (1). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Commonwealths or possessions" for "Territories, Commonwealths, or possessions".

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12407. National Guard in Federal service: period of service; apportionment

(a) Whenever the President calls the National Guard of a State into Federal service, he may specify in the call the period of the service. Members and units called shall serve inside or outside the territory of the United States during the term specified, unless sooner relieved by the President. However, no member of the National Guard may be kept in Federal service beyond the term of his commission or enlistment.

(b) When the National Guard of a State is called into Federal service with the National Guard of another State, the President may apportion the total number called from the Army National Guard or from the Air National Guard, as the case may be, on the basis of the populations of the States affected by the call.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2994; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(19), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3501 and 8501 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "another State" for "another of those jurisdictions" and "States affected" for "jurisdictions affected".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12408. National Guard in Federal service: physical examination

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the President, each member of the National Guard called into Federal service under section 12301(a), 12302, or 12304 of this title shall be examined as to physical fitness, without further commission or enlistment.

(b) Immediately before such a member is mustered out of Federal service, he shall be examined as to physical fitness. The record of this examination shall be retained by the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2994; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §523, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2517.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3502 and 8502 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(f)(2).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted "under section 12301(a), 12302, or 12304 of this title" after "called into Federal service".

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

CHAPTER 1213—SPECIAL APPOINTMENTS, ASSIGNMENTS, DETAILS, AND DUTIES

Sec.
12501.
Reserve components: detail of members of regular and reserve components to assist.
12502.
Chief and assistant chief of staff of National Guard divisions and wings in Federal service: detail.
12503.
Ready Reserve: funeral honors duty.
[12505.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §507(f)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-105, struck out item 12505 "Selection of officers for certain senior reserve component positions".

1999Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §§554(a)(2), 578(k)(2)(B), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 616, 631, added items 12503 and 12505.

§12501. Reserve components: detail of members of regular and reserve components to assist

The Secretary concerned shall detail such members of the regular and reserve components under his jurisdiction as are necessary to effectively develop, train, instruct, and administer those reserve components.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(g)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2995.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 715 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(g)(2).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12502. Chief and assistant chief of staff of National Guard divisions and wings in Federal service: detail

(a) The President may detail a regular or reserve officer of the Army as chief of staff, and a regular or reserve officer or an officer of the Army National Guard as assistant to the chief of staff, of any division of the Army National Guard that is in Federal service as an Army National Guard organization.

(b) The President may detail a regular or reserve officer of the Air Force as chief of staff, and a regular or reserve officer or an officer of the Air National Guard as assistant to the chief of staff, of any wing of the Air National Guard that is in Federal service as an Air National Guard organization.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(g)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2995.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3542 and 8542 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(g)(2).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12503. Ready Reserve: funeral honors duty

(a) Order to Duty.—A member of the Ready Reserve may be ordered to funeral honors duty, with the consent of the member, in preparation for or to perform funeral honors functions at the funeral of a veteran as defined in section 1491 of this title. Performance of funeral honors duty by a Reserve not on active duty shall be treated as inactive-duty training (including with respect to travel to and from such duty) for purposes of any provision of law other than sections 206 and 495 of title 37.

(b) Service Credit.—A member ordered to funeral honors duty under this section shall be required to perform a minimum of two hours of such duty in order to receive—

(1) service credit under section 12732(a)(2)(E) of this title; and

(2) as directed by the Secretary concerned, either—

(A) the allowance under section 495 of title 37; or

(B) compensation under section 206 of title 37.


(c) Reimbursable Expenses.—A member who performs funeral honors duty under this section may be reimbursed for travel and transportation expenses incurred in conjunction with such duty as authorized under chapter 7 of title 37 if such duty is performed at a location 50 miles or more from the member's residence.

(d) Regulations.—The exercise of authority under subsection (a) is subject to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(e) Members of the National Guard.—This section does not apply to members of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States. The performance of funeral honors duty by those members is provided for in section 115 of title 32.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §578(g)(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 628; amended Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §575(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-138; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §562(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1119; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VI, §631(f)(4)(A), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(a)(9), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1948.)

Amendments

2013—Subsecs. (a), (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(a)(9), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 112–81, §631(f)(4)(A). See 2011 Amendment note below.

2011—Subsecs. (a), (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–81, §631(f)(4)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(a)(9), substituted "495" for "435".

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted at end "Performance of funeral honors duty by a Reserve not on active duty shall be treated as inactive-duty training (including with respect to travel to and from such duty) for purposes of any provision of law other than sections 206 and 435 of title 37."

2000—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–398 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "if authorized by the Secretary concerned, the allowance under section 435 of title 37."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1947, provided that the amendment made by section 1076(a)(9) is effective Dec. 31, 2011, and as if included in Pub. L. 112–81 as enacted.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §562(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1120, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 115 of Title 32, National Guard] shall apply to funeral honors duty performed on or after October 30, 2000."

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §575(c)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-138, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section, section 115 of Title 32, National Guard, and section 435 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services] shall apply with respect to funeral honors duty performed on or after October 1, 2000."

[§12505. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §507(f)(1)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-105]

Section, added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §554(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 616, related to selection of officers for certain senior reserve component positions.

CHAPTER 1214—READY RESERVE MOBILIZATION INCOME INSURANCE

Sec.
12521.
Definitions.
12522.
Establishment of insurance program.
12523.
Risk insured.
12524.
Enrollment and election of benefits.
12525.
Benefit amounts.
12526.
Premiums.
12527.
Payment of premiums.
12528.
Reserve Mobilization Income Insurance Fund.
12529.
Board of Actuaries.
12530.
Payment of benefits.
12531.
Purchase of insurance.
12532.
Termination for nonpayment of premiums; forfeiture.
12533.
Termination of program.

        

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §512(b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1729, added item 12533.

§12521. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) The term "insurance program" means the Ready Reserve Mobilization Income Insurance Program established under section 12522 of this title.

(2) The term "covered service" means active duty performed by a member of a reserve component under an order to active duty for a period of more than 30 days which specifies that the member's service—

(A) is in support of an operational mission for which members of the reserve components have been ordered to active duty without their consent; or

(B) is in support of forces activated during a period of war declared by Congress or a period of national emergency declared by the President or Congress.


(3) The term "insured member" means a member of the Ready Reserve who is enrolled for coverage under the insurance program in accordance with section 12524 of this title.

(4) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Defense.

(5) The term "Department" means the Department of Defense.

(6) The term "Board of Actuaries" means the Department of Defense Board of Actuaries under section 183 of this title.

(7) The term "Fund" means the Reserve Mobilization Income Insurance Fund established by section 12528(a) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 299; amended Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IX, §906(c)(4), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 277.)

Amendments

2008—Par. (6). Pub. L. 110–181 substituted "Department of Defense Board of Actuaries under section 183 of this title" for "Department of Defense Education Benefits Board of Actuaries referred to in section 2006(e)(1) of this title".

Effective Date

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 305, provided that: "The insurance program provided for in chapter 1214 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), and the requirement for deductions and contributions for that program shall take effect on September 30, 1996, or on any earlier date declared by the Secretary and published in the Federal Register."

§12522. Establishment of insurance program

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary shall establish for members of the Ready Reserve (including the Coast Guard Reserve) an insurance program to be known as the "Ready Reserve Mobilization Income Insurance Program".

(b) Administration.—The insurance program shall be administered by the Secretary. The Secretary may prescribe in regulations such rules, procedures, and policies as the Secretary considers necessary or appropriate to carry out the insurance program.

(c) Agreement With Secretary of Homeland Security.—The Secretary and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall enter into an agreement with respect to the administration of the insurance program for the Coast Guard Reserve.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 299; amended Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), (7), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "Homeland Security" for "Transportation" in heading and text.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§12523. Risk insured

(a) In General.—The insurance program shall insure members of the Ready Reserve against the risk of being ordered into covered service.

(b) Entitlement to Benefits.—(1) An insured member ordered into covered service shall be entitled to payment of a benefit for each month (and fraction thereof) of covered service that exceeds 30 days of covered service, except that no member may be paid under the insurance program for more than 12 months of covered service served during any period of 18 consecutive months.

(2) Payment shall be based solely on the insured status of a member and on the period of covered service served by the member. Proof of loss of income or of expenses incurred as a result of covered service may not be required.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 300.)

§12524. Enrollment and election of benefits

(a) Enrollment.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (f), upon first becoming a member of the Ready Reserve, a member shall be automatically enrolled for coverage under the insurance program. An automatic enrollment of a member shall be void if within 60 days after first becoming a member of the Ready Reserve the member declines insurance under the program in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Promptly after the insurance program is established, the Secretary shall offer to members of the reserve components who are then members of the Ready Reserve (other than members ineligible under subsection (f)) an opportunity to enroll for coverage under the insurance program. A member who fails to enroll within 60 days after being offered the opportunity shall be considered as having declined to be insured under the program.

(3) A member of the Ready Reserve ineligible to enroll under subsection (f) shall be afforded an opportunity to enroll upon being released from active duty in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary if the member has not previously had the opportunity to be enrolled under paragraph (1) or (2). A member who fails to enroll within 60 days after being afforded that opportunity shall be considered as having declined to be insured under the program.

(b) Election of Benefit Amount.—The amount of a member's monthly benefit under an enrollment shall be the basic benefit under subsection (a) of section 12525 of this title unless the member elects a different benefit under subsection (b) of such section within 60 days after first becoming a member of the Ready Reserve or within 60 days after being offered the opportunity to enroll, as the case may be.

(c) Elections Irrevocable.—(1) An election to decline insurance pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) is irrevocable.

(2) The amount of coverage may not be increased after enrollment.

(d) Election To Terminate.—A member may terminate an enrollment at any time.

(e) Information To Be Furnished.—The Secretary shall ensure that members referred to in subsection (a) are given a written explanation of the insurance program and are advised that they have the right to decline to be insured and, if not declined, to elect coverage for a reduced benefit or an enhanced benefit under subsection (b).

(f) Members Ineligible To Enroll.—Members of the Ready Reserve serving on active duty (or full-time National Guard duty) are not eligible to enroll for coverage under the insurance program. The Secretary may define any additional category of members of the Ready Reserve to be excluded from eligibility to purchase insurance under this chapter.

(g) Members of Individual Ready Reserve.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, and pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary, a member of the Individual Ready Reserve who becomes a member of the Selected Reserve shall not be denied eligibility to purchase insurance under this chapter upon becoming a member of the Selected Reserve unless the member previously declined to enroll in the program of insurance under this chapter while a member of the Selected Reserve.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 300; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §542, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2521.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsec. (g).

§12525. Benefit amounts

(a) Basic Benefit.—The basic benefit for an insured member under the insurance program is $1,000 per month (as adjusted under subsection (d)).

(b) Reduced and Enhanced Benefits.—Under the regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a person enrolled for coverage under the insurance program may elect—

(1) a reduced coverage benefit equal to one-half the amount of the basic benefit; or

(2) an enhanced benefit in the amount of $1,500, $2,000, $2,500, $3,000, $3,500, $4,000, $4,500, or $5,000 per month (as adjusted under subsection (d)).


(c) Amount for Partial Month.—The amount of insurance payable to an insured member for any period of covered service that is less than one month shall be determined by multiplying 1/30 of the monthly benefit rate for the member by the number of days of the covered service served by the member during such period.

(d) Adjustment of Amounts.—(1) The Secretary shall determine annually the effect of inflation on benefits and shall adjust the amounts set forth in subsections (a) and (b)(2) to maintain the constant dollar value of the benefit.

(2) If the amount of a benefit as adjusted under paragraph (1) is not evenly divisible by $10, the amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10, except that an amount evenly divisible by $5 but not by $10 shall be rounded to the next lower amount that is evenly divisible by $10.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 301.)

§12526. Premiums

(a) Establishment of Rates.—(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the Board of Actuaries, shall prescribe the premium rates for insurance under the insurance program.

(2) The Secretary shall prescribe a fixed premium rate for each $1,000 of monthly insurance benefit. The premium amount shall be equal to the share of the cost attributable to insuring the member and shall be the same for all members of the Ready Reserve who are insured under the insurance program for the same benefit amount. The Secretary shall prescribe the rate on the basis of the best available estimate of risk and financial exposure, levels of subscription by members, and other relevant factors.

(b) Level Premiums.—The premium rate prescribed for the first year of insurance coverage of an insured member shall be continued without change for subsequent years of insurance coverage, except that the Secretary, after consultation with the Board of Actuaries, may adjust the premium rate in order to fund inflation-adjusted benefit increases on an actuarially sound basis.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 301.)

§12527. Payment of premiums

(a) Methods of Payment.—(1) The monthly premium for coverage of a member of the Selected Reserve under the insurance program shall be deducted and withheld from the insured member's pay for each month.

(2) The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall prescribe regulations which specify the procedures for payment of premiums by members of the Individual Ready Reserve and other members who do not receive pay on a monthly basis.

(b) Advance Pay for Premium.—The Secretary concerned may advance to an insured member the amount equal to the first insurance premium payment due under this chapter. The advance may be paid out of appropriations for military pay. An advance to a member shall be collected from the member either by deducting and withholding the amount from basic pay payable for the member or by collecting it from the member directly. No disbursing or certifying officer shall be responsible for any loss resulting from an advance under this subsection.

(c) Premiums To Be Deposited in Fund.—Premium amounts deducted and withheld from the pay of insured members and premium amounts paid directly to the Secretary shall be credited monthly to the Fund.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 302; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §547, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–201, §547(1), inserted "of the Selected Reserve" after "a member".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §547(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "An insured member who does not receive pay on a monthly basis shall pay the Secretary directly the premium amount applicable for the level of benefits for which the member is insured."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§12528. Reserve Mobilization Income Insurance Fund

(a) Establishment.—There is established on the books of the Treasury a fund to be known as the "Reserve Mobilization Income Insurance Fund", which shall be administered by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Fund shall be used for the accumulation of funds in order to finance the liabilities of the insurance program on an actuarially sound basis.

(b) Assets of Fund.—There shall be deposited into the Fund the following:

(1) Premiums paid under section 12527 of this title.

(2) Any amount appropriated to the Fund.

(3) Any return on investment of the assets of the Fund.


(c) Availability.—Amounts in the Fund shall be available for paying insurance benefits under the insurance program.

(d) Investment of Assets of Fund.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall invest such portion of the Fund as is not in the judgment of the Secretary of Defense required to meet current liabilities. Such investments shall be in public debt securities with maturities suitable to the needs of the Fund, as determined by the Secretary of Defense, and bearing interest at rates determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration current market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities. The income on such investments shall be credited to the Fund.

(e) Annual Accounting.—At the beginning of each fiscal year, the Secretary, in consultation with the Board of Actuaries and the Secretary of the Treasury, shall determine the following:

(1) The projected amount of the premiums to be collected, investment earnings to be received, and any transfers or appropriations to be made for the Fund for that fiscal year.

(2) The amount for that fiscal year of any cumulative unfunded liability (including any negative amount or any gain to the Fund) resulting from payments of benefits.

(3) The amount for that fiscal year (including any negative amount) of any cumulative actuarial gain or loss to the Fund.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 302.)

§12529. Board of Actuaries

(a) Actuarial Responsibility.—The Board of Actuaries shall have the actuarial responsibility for the insurance program.

(b) Valuations and Premium Recommendations.—The Board of Actuaries shall carry out periodic actuarial valuations of the benefits under the insurance program and determine a premium rate methodology for the Secretary to use in setting premium rates for the insurance program. The Board shall conduct the first valuation and determine a premium rate methodology not later than six months after the insurance program is established.

(c) Effects of Changed Benefits.—If at the time of any actuarial valuation under subsection (b) there has been a change in benefits under the insurance program that has been made since the last such valuation and such change in benefits increases or decreases the present value of amounts payable from the Fund, the Board of Actuaries shall determine a premium rate methodology, and recommend to the Secretary a premium schedule, for the liquidation of any liability (or actuarial gain to the Fund) resulting from such change and any previous such changes so that the present value of the sum of the scheduled premium payments (or reduction in payments that would otherwise be made) equals the cumulative increase (or decrease) in the present value of such benefits.

(d) Actuarial Gains or Losses.—If at the time of any such valuation the Board of Actuaries determines that there has been an actuarial gain or loss to the Fund as a result of changes in actuarial assumptions since the last valuation or as a result of any differences, between actual and expected experience since the last valuation, the Board shall recommend to the Secretary a premium rate schedule for the amortization of the cumulative gain or loss to the Fund resulting from such changes in assumptions and any previous such changes in assumptions or from the differences in actual and expected experience, respectively, through an increase or decrease in the payments that would otherwise be made to the Fund.

(e) Insufficient Assets.—If at any time liabilities of the Fund exceed assets of the Fund as a result of members of the Ready Reserve being ordered to active duty as described in section 12521(2) of this title, and funds are unavailable to pay benefits completely, the Secretary shall request the President to submit to Congress a request for a special appropriation to cover the unfunded liability. If appropriations are not made to cover an unfunded liability in any fiscal year, the Secretary shall reduce the amount of the benefits paid under the insurance program to a total amount that does not exceed the assets of the Fund expected to accrue by the end of such fiscal year. Benefits that cannot be paid because of such a reduction shall be deferred and may be paid only after and to the extent that additional funds become available.

(f) Definition of Present Value.—The Board of Actuaries shall define the term "present value" for purposes of this subsection.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 303.)

§12530. Payment of benefits

(a) Commencement of Payment.—An insured member who serves in excess of 30 days of covered service shall be paid the amount to which such member is entitled on a monthly basis beginning not later than one month after the 30th day of covered service.

(b) Method of Payment.—The Secretary shall prescribe in the regulations the manner in which payments shall be made to the member or to a person designated in accordance with subsection (c).

(c) Designated Recipients.—(1) A member may designate in writing another person (including a spouse, parent, or other person with an insurable interest, as determined in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to receive payments of insurance benefits under the insurance program.

(2) A member may direct that payments of insurance benefits for a person designated under paragraph (1) be deposited with a bank or other financial institution to the credit of the designated person.

(d) Recipients in Event of Death of Insured Member.—Any insurance payable under the insurance program on account of a deceased member's period of covered service shall be paid, upon the establishment of a valid claim, to the beneficiary or beneficiaries which the deceased member designated in writing. If no such designation has been made, the amount shall be payable in accordance with the laws of the State of the member's domicile.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 304.)

§12531. Purchase of insurance

(a) Purchase Authorized.—The Secretary may, instead of or in addition to underwriting the insurance program through the Fund, purchase from one or more insurance companies a policy or policies of group insurance in order to provide the benefits required under this chapter. The Secretary may waive any requirement for full and open competition in order to purchase an insurance policy under this subsection.

(b) Eligible Insurers.—In order to be eligible to sell insurance to the Secretary for purposes of subsection (a), an insurance company shall—

(1) be licensed to issue insurance in each of the 50 States and in the District of Columbia; and

(2) as of the most recent December 31 for which information is available to the Secretary, have in effect at least one percent of the total amount of insurance that all such insurance companies have in effect in the United States.


(c) Administrative Provisions.—(1) An insurance company that issues a policy for purposes of subsection (a) shall establish an administrative office at a place and under a name designated by the Secretary.

(2) For the purposes of carrying out this chapter, the Secretary may use the facilities and services of any insurance company issuing any policy for purposes of subsection (a), may designate one such company as the representative of the other companies for such purposes, and may contract to pay a reasonable fee to the designated company for its services.

(d) Reinsurance.—The Secretary shall arrange with each insurance company issuing any policy for purposes of subsection (a) to reinsure, under conditions approved by the Secretary, portions of the total amount of the insurance under such policy or policies with such other insurance companies (which meet qualifying criteria prescribed by the Secretary) as may elect to participate in such reinsurance.

(e) Termination.—The Secretary may at any time terminate any policy purchased under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 304.)

§12532. Termination for nonpayment of premiums; forfeiture

(a) Termination for Nonpayment.—The coverage of a member under the insurance program shall terminate without prior notice upon a failure of the member to make required monthly payments of premiums for two consecutive months. The Secretary may provide in the regulations for reinstatement of insurance coverage terminated under this subsection.

(b) Forfeiture.—Any person convicted of mutiny, treason, spying, or desertion, or who refuses to perform service in the armed forces or refuses to wear the uniform of any of the armed forces shall forfeit all rights to insurance under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 305.)

§12533. Termination of program

(a) In General.—The Secretary shall terminate the insurance program in accordance with this section.

(b) Termination of New Enrollments.—The Secretary may not enroll a member of the Ready Reserve for coverage under the insurance program after November 18, 1997.

(c) Termination of Coverage.—(1) The enrollment under the insurance program of insured members other than insured members described in paragraph (2) is terminated as of November 18, 1997. The enrollment of an insured member described in paragraph (2) is terminated as of the date of the termination of the period of covered service of that member described in that paragraph.

(2) An insured member described in this paragraph is an insured member who on November 18, 1997, is serving on covered service for a period of service, or has been issued an order directing the performance of covered service, that satisfies or would satisfy the entitlement-to-benefits provisions of this chapter.

(d) Termination of Payment of Benefits.—The Secretary may not make any benefit payment under the insurance program after November 18, 1997, other than to an insured member who on that date (1) is serving on an order to covered service, (2) has been issued an order directing performance of covered service, or (3) has served on covered service before that date for which benefits under the program have not been paid to the member.

(e) Termination of Insurance Fund.—The Secretary shall close the Fund not later than 60 days after the date on which the last benefit payment from the Fund is made. Any amount remaining in the Fund when closed shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(Added Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §512(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1729; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(c)(15), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1226.)

Amendments

2001—Subsecs. (b), (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(c)(15)(A), substituted "November 18, 1997." for "the date of the enactment of this section."

Subsecs. (c)(2), (d). Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(c)(15)(B), substituted "November 18, 1997," for "the date of the enactment of this section".

CHAPTER 1215—MISCELLANEOUS PROHIBITIONS AND PENALTIES

Sec.
[12551.
Repealed.]
12552.
Funeral honors functions at funerals for veterans.

        

Amendments

2002Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §515(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2540, struck out item 12551 "Prohibition of use of Air Force Reserve AGR personnel for Air Force base security functions".

1999Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §578(k)(2)(C), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 631, substituted "honors functions at funerals for veterans" for "honor guard functions: prohibition of treatment as drill or training" in item 12552.

1998Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §567(c)(2), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2031, added item 12552.

1997Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §515(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1732, substituted table of sections consisting of item 12551 for "[No present sections]".

[§12551. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §515(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2539]

Section, added Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §515(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1732, related to prohibition of use of Air Force Reserve AGR personnel for Air Force base security functions.

§12552. Funeral honors functions at funerals for veterans

Performance by a Reserve of funeral honors functions at the funeral of a veteran (as defined in section 1491(h) of this title) may not be considered to be a period of drill or training, but may be performed as funeral honors duty under section 12503 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §567(c)(1), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2031; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §578(g)(4), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(a)(21)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-291.)

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–398 inserted period at end.

1999Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "honors functions at funerals for veterans" for "honor guard functions: prohibition of treatment as drill or training" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Performance by a Reserve of honor guard functions at the funeral of a veteran may not be considered to be a period of drill or training otherwise required."

CHAPTER 1217—MISCELLANEOUS RIGHTS AND BENEFITS

Sec.
12601.
Compensation: Reserve on active duty accepting from any person.
12602.
Members of Army National Guard of United States and Air National Guard of United States: credit for service as members of National Guard.
12603.
Attendance at inactive-duty training assemblies: commercial travel at Federal supply schedule rates.
12604.
Billeting in Department of Defense facilities: Reserves attending inactive-duty training.
12605.
Presentation of United States flag: members transferred from an active status or discharged after completion of eligibility for retired pay.

        

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VI, §663(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-168, added item 12604.

1999Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VI, §652(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 665, added item 12605.

1998Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title VI, §635(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2045, added item 12603.

§12601. Compensation: Reserve on active duty accepting from any person

Any Reserve who, before being ordered to active duty, was receiving compensation from any person may, while he is on that duty, receive compensation from that person.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(g)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2995.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 1033 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(g)(2).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12602. Members of Army National Guard of United States and Air National Guard of United States: credit for service as members of National Guard

(a) For the purposes of laws providing benefits for members of the Army National Guard of the United States and their dependents and beneficiaries—

(1) military training, duty, or other service performed by a member of the Army National Guard of the United States in his status as a member of the Army National Guard for which he is entitled to pay from the United States shall be considered military training, duty, or other service, as the case may be, in Federal service as a Reserve of the Army;

(2) full-time National Guard duty performed by a member of the Army National Guard of the United States shall be considered active duty in Federal service as a Reserve of the Army; and

(3) inactive-duty training performed by a member of the Army National Guard of the United States in his status as a member of the Army National Guard, in accordance with regulations prescribed under section 502 of title 32 or other express provision of law, shall be considered inactive-duty training in Federal service as a Reserve of the Army.


(b) For the purposes of laws providing benefits for members of the Air National Guard of the United States and their dependents and beneficiaries—

(1) military training, duty, or other service performed by a member of the Air National Guard of the United States in his status as a member of the Air National Guard for which he is entitled to pay from the United States shall be considered military training, duty, or other service, as the case may be, in Federal service as a Reserve of the Air Force;

(2) full-time National Guard duty performed by a member of the Air National Guard of the United States shall be considered active duty in Federal service as a Reserve of the Air Force; and

(3) inactive-duty training performed by a member of the Air National Guard of the United States in his status as a member of the Air National Guard, in accordance with regulations prescribed under section 502 of title 32 or other express provision of law, shall be considered inactive-duty training in Federal service as a Reserve of the Air Force.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(g)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2995.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3686 and 8686 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(g)(2).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§12603. Attendance at inactive-duty training assemblies: commercial travel at Federal supply schedule rates

(a) Federal Supply Schedule Travel.—Commercial travel under Federal supply schedules is authorized for the travel of a Reserve to the location of inactive duty training to be performed by the Reserve and from that location upon completion of the training.

(b) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe in regulations such requirements, conditions, and restrictions for travel under the authority of subsection (a) as the Secretary considers appropriate. The regulations shall include policies and procedures for preventing abuses of that travel authority.

(c) Reimbursement Not Authorized.—A Reserve is not entitled to Government reimbursement for the cost of travel authorized under subsection (a).

(d) Treatment of Transportation as Use by Military Departments.—For the purposes of section 501 of title 40, travel authorized under subsection (a) shall be treated as transportation for the use of a military department.

(Added Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title VI, §635(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2044; amended Pub. L. 107–217, §3(b)(41), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1298.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted "section 501 of title 40" for "section 201(a) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 481(a))".

§12604. Billeting in Department of Defense facilities: Reserves attending inactive-duty training

(a) Authority for Billeting on Same Basis as Active Duty Members Traveling Under Orders.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations authorizing a Reserve traveling to inactive-duty training at a location more than 50 miles from that Reserve's residence to be eligible for billeting in Department of Defense facilities on the same basis and to the same extent as a member of the armed forces on active duty who is traveling under orders away from the member's permanent duty station.

(b) Proof of Reason for Travel.—The Secretary shall include in the regulations the means for confirming a Reserve's eligibility for billeting under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VI, §663(a)(1)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-168.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VI, §663(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-168, provided that: "Section 12604 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to periods of inactive-duty training beginning more than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]."

§12605. Presentation of United States flag: members transferred from an active status or discharged after completion of eligibility for retired pay

(a) Presentation of Flag.—Upon the transfer from an active status or discharge of a Reserve who has completed the years of service required for eligibility for retired pay under chapter 1223 of this title, the Secretary concerned shall present a United States flag to the member.

(b) Multiple Presentations Not Authorized.—A member is not eligible for presentation of a flag under subsection (a) if the member has previously been presented a flag under this section or any provision of law providing for the presentation of a United States flag incident to release from active service for retirement.

(c) No Cost to Recipient.—The presentation of a flag under this section shall be at no cost to the recipient.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VI, §652(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 664.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VI, §652(d), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 665, provided that: "Section 12605 of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), section 213 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 214] (as added by subsection (b)), and section 25 of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Commissioned Officers' Act of 1948 [33 U.S.C. 853v] (as added by subsection (c)) shall apply with respect to releases from service described in those sections on or after October 1, 1999."

CHAPTER 1219—STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR RETENTION AND PROMOTION

Sec.
12641.
Standards and procedures: Secretary to prescribe.
12642.
Standards and qualifications: result of failure to comply with.
12643.
Boards for appointment, promotion, and certain other purposes: composition.
12644.
Members physically not qualified for active duty: discharge or transfer to retired status.
12645.
Commissioned officers: retention until completion of required service.
12646.
Commissioned officers: retention of after completing 18 or more, but less than 20, years of service.
12647.
Commissioned officers: retention in active status while assigned to Selective Service System or serving as United States property and fiscal officers.

        

§12641. Standards and procedures: Secretary to prescribe

(a) The Secretary concerned shall, by regulation, prescribe—

(1) standards and qualifications for the retention and promotion of members of the reserve components under his jurisdiction; and

(2) equitable procedures for the periodic determination of the compliance of each such Reserve with those standards and qualifications.


(b) If a Reserve fails to comply with the standards and qualifications prescribed under subsection (a), he shall—

(1) if qualified, be transferred to an inactive reserve status;

(2) if qualified, be retired without pay; or

(3) have his appointment or enlistment terminated.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 79, §1001; renumbered §12641 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(h)(2), (4)(A), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2996.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1001(a)

 

1001(b)

10:1036c (1st sentence).

34:440k (1st sentence).

10:1036c (2d sentence).

34:440k (2d sentence).

June 29, 1948, ch. 708, §304 (less last sentence), 62 Stat. 1088.

In subsection (a), the words "As soon as may be practicable after the effective date of sections 1036–1036i [440h–440q] of this title" are omitted as executed. The words "not inconsistent with said sections or any other Act" and "appropriate" are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 1001 of this title as this section and substituted "Standards and procedures: Secretary to prescribe" for "Secretary to prescribe" as section catchline.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12642. Standards and qualifications: result of failure to comply with

(a) To be retained in an active status, a reserve commissioned officer must, in any applicable yearly period, attain the number of points under section 12732(a)(2) of this title prescribed by the Secretary concerned, with the approval of the Secretary of Defense in the case of a Secretary of a military department, and must conform to such other standards and qualifications as the Secretary concerned may prescribe. The Secretary may not prescribe a minimum of more than 50 points under this subsection.

(b) Subject to section 12645 of this title, a reserve commissioned officer who fails to attain the number of points, or to conform to the standards and qualifications, prescribed in subsection (a) shall—

(1) be transferred to the Retired Reserve if he is qualified and applies therefor;

(2) if he is not qualified or does not apply for transfer to the Retired Reserve, be transferred to an inactive status, if he is qualified therefor; or

(3) if he is not transferred to the Retired Reserve or an inactive status, be discharged from his reserve appointment.


(c) This section does not apply to commissioned warrant officers or to adjutants general or assistant adjutants general of States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(22)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1443, §1002; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1234(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2059; renumbered §12642 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(h)(2), 1675(d)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2996, 3018; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1057(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3440.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1002(a)

 

 

 

1002(b)

50:1192(b) (1st sentence, less 11th through 29th words).

50:1181(4).

50:1192(b) (less 1st sentence).

Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §§102(1) (as applicable to §202(b)), 102(4), 202(b), 68 Stat. 1149, 1150.
1002(c) 50:1181(1) (as applicable to 50:1192(b)).
  50:1192(b) (11th through 29th words of 1st sentence).

In subsection (a), the word "minimum" is omitted as surplusage. The last sentence is substituted for the words "(not to exceed fifty)".

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–163 struck out "and Territories" after "States".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(h)(2), renumbered section 1002 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(d)(1)(A), substituted "12732(a)(2)" for "1332(a)(2)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(d)(1)(B), substituted "12645" for "1005".

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–456 struck out "the Canal Zone," after "Puerto Rico,".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12643. Boards for appointment, promotion, and certain other purposes: composition

(a) Except as provided in section 612(a)(3) of this title and except for boards that may be convened to select Reserves for appointment in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps, each board convened for the appointment, promotion, demotion, involuntary release from active duty, discharge, or retirement of Reserves shall include at least one member of the Reserves, with the exact number of Reserves determined by the Secretary concerned in his discretion.

(b) Each member of a board convened for the selection for promotion, or for the demotion or discharge, of Reserves must be senior in rank to the persons under consideration by that board. However, a member serving in a legal advisory capacity may be junior in rank to any person, other than a judge advocate or law specialist, being considered by that board; and a member serving in a medical advisory capacity may be junior in rank to any person, other than a medical officer, being considered by that board.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 11, §266; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §501(4), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2907; Pub. L. 97–22, §2(c), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 124; renumbered §12643, Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(h)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2996.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
266(a)

266(b)

50:1005(a).

50:1005(b).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §254, 66 Stat. 496.

In subsection (a), the words "under * * * prescribed" are substituted for the words "in accordance * * * established".

In subsection (b), the words "in rank" and "by that board" are inserted for clarity.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 renumbered section 266 of this title as this section.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–22 substituted "Except as provided in section 612(a)(3) of this title and except for Boards that may be convened to select Reserves for appointment in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps, each board convened for the appointment, promotion, demotion, involuntary release from active duty, discharge, or retirement of Reserves shall include at least one member of the Reserves, with the exact number of Reserves determined by the Secretary concerned in his discretion" for "Except as provided in section 612(a)(3) of this title, each board convened for the appointment, promotion, demotion, involuntary release from active duty, discharge, or retirement of Reserves shall include an appropriate number of Reserves, as prescribed by the Secretary concerned under standards and policies prescribed by the Secretary of Defense".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "Except as provided in section 612(a)(3) of this title, each" for "Each".

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§12644. Members physically not qualified for active duty: discharge or transfer to retired status

Except as otherwise provided by law, the Secretary concerned may provide for the honorable discharge or the transfer to a retired status of members of the reserve components under his jurisdiction who are found to be not physically qualified for active duty. However, no member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States may be transferred under this subsection without the consent of the governor or other appropriate authority of the jurisdiction concerned.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 79, §1004; Pub. L. 86–603, §1(1), July 7, 1960, 74 Stat. 357; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §519, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1651; renumbered §12644 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1661(a)(4), 1662(h)(2), (4)(B), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2980, 2996, 2997.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1004(a)

1004(b)

1004(c)

50:949.

50:950 (last sentence).

50:950 (less last sentence).

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §§225, 226, 66 Stat. 488.

In subsection (a), the words "Each * * * who is not on active duty" are substituted for the words "when not on active duty all". The words "examined as to his physical fitness" are substituted for the words "given physical examinations". The words "be required to" are omitted as surplusage. The words "execute and" are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "under his jurisdiction" are inserted for clarity.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(h)(2), (4)(B), renumbered section 1004 of this title as this section and substituted "Members physically not qualified for active duty: discharge or transfer to retired status" for "Physical examination" as section catchline.

Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(4), struck out "(c)" before "Except as otherwise provided" and struck out subsecs. (a) and (b) which read as follows:

"(a) Each member of the Ready Reserve who is not on active duty shall—

"(1) be examined as to his physical fitness every five years, or more often as the Secretary concerned considers necessary; and

"(2) execute and submit annually a certificate of physical condition.

Each Reserve in an active status, or on an inactive status list, who is not on active duty shall execute and submit annually a certificate of physical condition.

"(b) The kind of duty to which a Reserve ordered to active duty may be assigned shall be considered in determining physical qualifications for active duty."

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted "five years" for "four years".

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–603 limited the requirement for a physical examination every four years, and for the annual execution of a certificate of physical condition, to the Ready Reserve, and also required each Reserve in an active status, or on an inactive status list, who is not on active duty to execute and submit annually a certificate of physical condition.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§12645. Commissioned officers: retention until completion of required service

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), a reserve commissioned officer who has not completed the period of service required of him by section 651 of this title or any other provision of law may not be discharged or transferred from an active status under chapter 843, 1407, 1409, or 1411 of this title or chapter 21 1 of title 14. Unless, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, he is promoted to a higher reserve grade, he shall be retained in an active status in his reserve grade for the rest of his period of required service and shall be an additional number to the authorized strength of his grade.

(b) Subsection (a) does not prevent the discharge or transfer from an active status of—

(1) a commissioned warrant officer;

(2) an officer on the active-duty list or a reserve active-status list who is found not qualified for promotion to the grade of first lieutenant, in the case of an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or lieutenant (junior grade), in the case of an officer of the Navy;

(3) an officer on the active-duty list or reserve active-status list who has failed of selection for promotion for the second time to the grade of captain, in the case of an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or to the grade of lieutenant, in the case of an officer of the Navy; or

(4) an officer whose discharge or transfer from an active status is required by law.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(22)(B), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1444, §1005; amended Pub. L. 93–586, §2, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1920; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §528(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2525; renumbered §12645 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1627, 1662(h)(2), 1675(d)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2962, 2996, 3018; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(4), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §544(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2523; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1840.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1005 50:1181(1) (as applicable to 50: 1194).

50:1194.

Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §§102(1) (as applicable to §204), 204, 68 Stat. 1149, 1151.

The word "subsequently" is omitted as surplusage.

References in Text

Chapter 21 of title 14, referred to in text, was comprised of sections 701 to 713 and 720 to 746, prior to the renumbering of such sections as sections 3701 to 3714 and 3731 to 3757, respectively, of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §118(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4233. After renumbering, such sections now comprise chapter 37 (designated as chapter "1" in chapter analysis) of title 14.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "under chapter 843," for "under chapter 573,".

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted "or a reserve active-status list" after "active-duty list".

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 104–106 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, §1627. See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(h)(2), renumbered section 1005 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(d)(2), substituted "573, 1407, 1409, or 1411" for "337, 361, 363, 573, 837, 861, or 863".

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 103–337, §1627, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, added pars. (3) and (4).

1984Pub. L. 98–525 substituted "(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), a reserve commissioned officer" for "A reserve commissioned officer, other than a commissioned warrant officer,", struck out the comma before "may", and added subsec. (b).

1975Pub. L. 93–586 inserted reference to chapter 21 of title 14.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Feb. 1, 2019, with provision for the coordination of amendments and special rule for certain redesignations, see section 800 of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1627 and 1675(d)(2) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12646. Commissioned officers: retention of after completing 18 or more, but less than 20, years of service

(a) If on the date prescribed for the discharge or transfer from an active status of a reserve commissioned officer he is entitled to be credited with at least 18, but less than 19, years of service computed under section 12732 of this title, he may not be discharged or transferred from an active status under chapter 843, 1407, or 1409 of this title or chapter 21 1 of title 14, without his consent before the earlier of the following dates—

(1) the date on which he is entitled to be credited with 20 years of service computed under section 12732 of this title; or

(2) the third anniversary of the date on which he would otherwise be discharged or transferred from an active status.


(b) If on the date prescribed for the discharge or transfer from an active status of a reserve commissioned officer he is entitled to be credited with at least 19, but less than 20, years of service computed under section 12732 of this title, he may not be discharged or transferred from an active status under chapter 843, 1407, or 1409 of this title or chapter 21 1 of title 14, without his consent before the earlier of the following dates—

(1) the date on which he is entitled to be credited with 20 years of service computed under section 12732 of this title; or

(2) the second anniversary of the date on which he would otherwise be discharged or transferred from an active status.


(c) An officer who is retained in an active status under subsection (a) or (b) is an additional number to those otherwise authorized.

(d) Subsections (a) and (b) do not apply to—

(1) officers who are discharged or transferred from an active status for physical disability, for cause, or because they have reached the age at which transfer from an active status or discharge is required by law; or

(2) commissioned warrant officers.


(e)(1) A reserve commissioned officer on active duty (other than for training) or full-time National Guard duty (other than full-time National Guard duty for training only) who, on the date on which the officer would otherwise be removed from an active status under section 8373, 14513, or 14514 of this title or section 740 1 of title 14, is within two years of qualifying for retirement under section 7311, 8323, or 9311 of this title may, in the discretion of the Secretary concerned and subject to paragraph (2), be retained on that duty for a period of not more than two years.

(2) An officer may be retained on active duty or full-time National Guard duty under paragraph (1) only if—

(A) at the end of the period for which the officer is retained the officer will be qualified for retirement under section 7311, 8323, or 9311 of this title; and

(B) the officer will not, before the end of that period, reach the age at which transfer from an active status or discharge is required by this title or title 14.


(3) An officer who is retained on active duty or full-time National Guard duty under this section may not be removed from an active status while on that duty.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(22)(B), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1444, §1006; amended Pub. L. 86–559, §1(3)(A), June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §105, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 90–130, §1(4), Nov. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 93–586, §3, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1920; Pub. L. 96–322, §2, Aug. 4, 1980, 94 Stat. 1015; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(30), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2922; renumbered §12646 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(h)(2), 1675(d)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2996, 3018; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1840.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1006(a)

 

1006(b)

 

1006(c)

 

1006(d)

50:1195(a) (less last 30 words).

50:1195(b) (less last 30 words).

50:1227(c).

50:1333(c).

50:1181(1) (as applicable to 50:1195).

Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §§102(1) (as applicable to §205), 205, 307(c), 503(c), 68 Stat. 1149, 1151, 1155, 1173; June 30, 1955, ch. 247, §1(b), 69 Stat. 218.
  50:1195(a) (last 30 words).
  50:1195(b) (last 30 words).
1006(e) 50:1195(c).

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, except as provided in sections 1265 and 1279 of this title" and "has been credited with, or" are omitted as surplusage. The words "entitled to be" in clause (1) are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (e), the words "at the end of that period" are substituted for the word "then" for clarity. The words "before the end of that period" are substituted for the word "earlier" for clarity.

1962 Act

The change reflects the repeal of section 611 of the Reserve Officer Personnel Act of 1954, ch. 1257 (68 Stat. 1186), formerly section 1391 of title 50, and its restatement in section 787 of title 14 (see sections 5(2) and 36A of the Act of September 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85–861 (72 Stat. 1547 and 1569)).

References in Text

Chapter 21 of title 14, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was comprised of sections 701 to 713 and 720 to 746 prior to the renumbering of such sections as sections 3701 to 3714 and 3731 to 3757, respectively, of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §118(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4233. After renumbering, such sections now comprise chapter 37 (designated as chapter "1" in chapter analysis) of title 14.

Section 740 of title 14, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), was redesignated section 3751 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §118(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4233, and references to section 740 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Amendments

2018—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "under chapter 843," for "under chapter 573," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "under section 8373," for "under section 6389," and "section 7311, 8323, or 9311" for "section 3911, 6323, or 8911".

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "section 7311, 8323, or 9311" for "section 3911, 6323, or 8911".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(h)(2), renumbered section 1006 of this title as this section.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(d)(3)(B), substituted "573, 1407, or 1409" for "337, 361, 363, 573, 837, 861, or 863".

Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(d)(3)(A), substituted "12732" for "1332" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(d)(3)(C), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: "A reserve commissioned officer on active duty (other than for training) who, on the date on which he would otherwise be removed from an active status under section 3846, 3848, 3851, 3852, 6389, 6397, 6403, 6410, 8846, 8848, 8851, or 8852 of this title or section 740 of title 14, and who is within two years of qualifying for retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, may, in the discretion of the Secretary concerned, be retained on active duty for a period of not more than two years, if at the end of that period he will be qualified for retirement under one of those sections and will not, before the end of that period, reach the age at which transfer from an active status or discharge is required by this title or title 14. An officer who is retained on active duty under this section may not be removed from an active status while he is on that duty. For officers covered by section 3846, 3848, 3851, or 3852 of this title, the ages at which transfer from an active status or discharge is required are those set forth in section 3843, 3844, or 3845 of this title, or section 21(e) of Public Law 85–861, as the case may be."

1980—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "Public Law 85–861" for "the Act enacting this section".

Pub. L. 96–322 substituted "section 740 of title 14" for "section 787 of title 14".

1975—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 93–586, §3(1), inserted reference to chapter 21 of title 14.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–586, §3(2), substituted "An officer who is retained" for "An officer of the Army or the Air Force who is retained".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–586, §3(3), substituted "discharge is required by this title or title 14" for "discharge is required by this title".

1967—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–130 struck out references to sections 3847 and 8847 of this title.

1962—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 87—651 substituted "section 787 of title 14" for "section 1391 of title 50".

1960—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 86–559 struck out references to sections 3849 and 8849 of this title.

References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282

Section 740 of title 14 redesignated section 3751 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §118(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4233, and references to section 740 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Feb. 1, 2019, with provision for the coordination of amendments and special rule for certain redesignations, see section 800 of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1662(h)(2) and 1675(d)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, and amendment by section 1675(d)(3)(B), (C) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12647. Commissioned officers: retention in active status while assigned to Selective Service System or serving as United States property and fiscal officers

Notwithstanding chapters 843, 1407, and 1409 of this title, a reserve commissioned officer, other than a commissioned warrant officer, who is assigned to the Selective Service System or who is a property and fiscal officer appointed, designated, or detailed under section 708 of title 32, may be retained in an active status in that assignment or position until he becomes 62 years of age.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(22)(B), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1445, §1007; amended Pub. L. 86–559, §1(3)(B), June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 265; renumbered §12647 and amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1662(h)(2), 1675(d)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2996, 3018; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §514(a), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4441; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1840.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1007 50:1181(1) (as applicable to 50:1202).

50:1202.

Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §§102(1) (as applicable to §212), 212, 68 Stat. 1149, 1153.

The words "this title" are substituted for the words "this chapter", since the provisions of this title requiring transfer from an active status are based on the source statute for this section (the Reserve Officer Personnel Act of 1954).

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "chapters 843, 1407, and 1409" for "chapters 573, 1407, and 1409".

2008Pub. L. 110–417 substituted "62 years" for "60 years".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §1675(d)(4), substituted "573, 1407, and 1409" for "337, 363, 573, 837, and 863".

Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(h)(2), renumbered section 1007 of this title as this section.

1960Pub. L. 86–559 inserted "or serving as United States property and fiscal officers" in section catchline, and inserted provisions in text authorizing retention of reserve commissioned officers who are property and fiscal officers, appointed, designated, or detailed under section 708 of title 32.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Feb. 1, 2019, with provision for the coordination of amendments and special rule for certain redesignations, see section 800 of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 1675(d)(4) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

CHAPTER 1221—SEPARATION

Sec.
12681.
Reserves: discharge authority.
12682.
Reserves: discharge upon becoming ordained minister of religion.
12683.
Reserve officers: limitation on involuntary separation.
12684.
Reserves: separation for absence without authority or sentence to imprisonment.
12685.
Reserves separated for cause: character of discharge.
12686.
Reserves on active duty within two years of retirement eligibility: limitation on release from active duty.
12687.
Reserves under confinement by sentence of court-martial: separation after six months confinement.

        

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §563(a)(2)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 325, added item 12687.

§12681. Reserves: discharge authority

Subject to other provisions of this title, reserve commissioned officers may be discharged at the pleasure of the President. Other Reserves may be discharged under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(i)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2997.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 1162(a) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(i)(2).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Availability of Transition Assistance Advisors To Assist Members of Reserve Components Who Serve on Active Duty for More Than 180 Consecutive Days

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §513, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1718, provided that:

"(a) Transition Assistance Advisor Program Authorized.—The Chief of the National Guard Bureau may establish a program to provide professionals (to be known as Transition Assistance Advisors) in each State to serve as points of contact to assist eligible members of the reserve components in accessing benefits and health care furnished under laws administered by the Secretary of Defense and benefits and health care furnished under laws administered by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

"(b) Eligible Members.—To be eligible for assistance under this section, a member of a reserve component must have served on active duty in the Armed Forces for a period of more than 180 consecutive days.

"(c) Duties.—The duties of a Transition Assistance Advisor include the following:

"(1) To assist with the creation and execution of an individual transition plan for an eligible member of a reserve component and dependents of the member for the reintegration of the member into civilian life.

"(2) To provide employment support services to the member and dependents of the member, including assistance with finding employment opportunities and identifying and obtaining assistance from programs within and outside of the Federal Government.

"(3) To provide information on relocation, health care, mental health care, and financial support services available to the member and dependents of the member from the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other Federal, State, and local agencies.

"(4) To provide information on educational support services available to the member, including Post-9/11 Educational Assistance under chapter 33 of title 38, United States Code.

"(d) Transition Plans.—The individual transition plan referred to in subsection (c)(1) created for an eligible member of a reserve component shall include at a minimum the following:

"(1) A plan for the transition of the member to civilian life, including with respect to employment, education, and health care.

"(2) A description of the transition services that the member and dependents of the member will need to achieve their transition objectives, including information on any forms that the member will need to fill out to be eligible for such services.

"(3) A point of contact for each agency or entity that can provide the transition services described in paragraph (2).

"(4) Such other information determined to be essential for the transition of the member, as determined by the Chief of the National Guard Bureau in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

"(e) Funding.—Funding for Transition Assistance Advisors for a fiscal year shall be derived from amounts authorized to be appropriated for operation and maintenance for the National Guard for that fiscal year.

"(f) State Defined.—In this section, the term 'State' means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any territory of the United States."

Implementation of Agreement on Restructuring of Army National Guard and Army Reserve

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8129, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2652, provided that:

"(a) Finding.—Congress finds that the implementation of the off-site agreement may result in the loss to the Armed Forces of military personnel who have significant military experience and expertise.

"(b) Reassignment of Members.—(1) To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary of the Army shall ensure that members of the Armed Forces who would otherwise be separated from service as a result of the deactivation of military units of the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve under the off-site agreement be reassigned instead to units that are not being deactivated.

"(2) The reassignment of a member under paragraph (1) shall not affect the grade or rank in grade of the member.

"(c) Reports.—Not later than April 15 and October 15 of each calendar year while the off-site agreement is in effect, the Secretary of the Army shall submit to the congressional defense committees a semi-annual report on the number of members of the Armed Forces who were reassigned under subsection (b)(1) during the preceding six months.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'congressional defense committees' means the Committees on Armed Services and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

"(2) The term 'off-site agreement' means the agreement on the restructuring of the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve."

Guard and Reserve Transition Initiatives

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8050], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009-99, provided that: "During the current fiscal year and hereafter, annual payments granted under the provisions of section 4416 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993 (Public Law 102–484; 106 Stat. 2714) [set out below] shall be made from appropriations in this Act [Pub. L. 104–208] which are available for the pay of reserve component personnel."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8061, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 664.

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8073, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2635.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8087, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1459.


Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, subtitle B, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2712, as amended by Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §202(a)(17), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 102; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §561(f)(1)–(3), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1667, 1668; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §518(a), (b), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2754; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(d)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 500; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §561(l), (m), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2026; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §571(l), (m)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-135; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(h)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1229, provided that:

"SEC. 4411. FORCE REDUCTION TRANSITION PERIOD DEFINED.

"In this subtitle [subtitle B (§§4411–4422) of title XLIV of div. D of Pub. L. 102–484], the term 'force reduction transition period' means the period beginning on October 1, 1991, and ending on December 31, 2001.

"SEC. 4412. MEMBER OF SELECTED RESERVE DEFINED.

"In this subtitle, the term 'member of the Selected Reserve' means—

"(1) a member of a unit in the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve; and

"(2) a Reserve designated pursuant to section 268(b) [see 10143(a)] of title 10, United States Code, who is assigned to an authorized position the performance of the duties of which qualify the member for basic pay or compensation for inactive-duty training or both.

"SEC. 4413. RESTRICTION ON RESERVE FORCE REDUCTION.

"(a) In General.—During the force reduction transition period, a member of the Selected Reserve may not be involuntarily discharged from a reserve component of the Armed Forces, or involuntarily transferred from the Selected Reserve, before the Secretary of Defense has prescribed and implemented regulations that govern the treatment of members of the Selected Reserve assigned to such units and members of the Selected Reserve that are being subjected to such actions and a copy of such regulations has been transmitted to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives.

"(b) Savings Provision.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to actions completed before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992].

"SEC. 4414. TRANSITION PLAN REQUIREMENTS.

"(a) Purpose of Plan.—The purpose of the regulations referred to in section 4413 shall be to ensure that the members of the Selected Reserve are treated with fairness, with respect for their service to their country, and with attention to the adverse personal consequences of Selected Reserve unit inactivations, involuntary discharges of such members from the reserve components of the Armed Forces, and involuntary transfers of such members from the Selected Reserve.

"(b) Scope of Plan.—The regulations shall include—

"(1) such provisions as are necessary to implement the provisions of this subtitle and the amendments made by this subtitle; and

"(2) such other policies and procedures for the recruitment of personnel for service in the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve, and for the reassignment, retraining, separation, and retirement of members of the Selected Reserve, as are appropriate for satisfying the needs of the Selected Reserve together with the purpose set out in subsection (a).

"(c)