[USC02] 11 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER II: THE PLAN
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11 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER II: THE PLAN
From Title 11—BANKRUPTCYCHAPTER 12—ADJUSTMENT OF DEBTS OF A FAMILY FARMER OR FISHERMAN WITH REGULAR ANNUAL INCOME

SUBCHAPTER II—THE PLAN

§1221. Filing of plan

The debtor shall file a plan not later than 90 days after the order for relief under this chapter, except that the court may extend such period if the need for an extension is attributable to circumstances for which the debtor should not justly be held accountable.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3109, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §§1, 2, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Amendments

1993Pub. L. 103–65 substituted "the need for an extension is attributable to circumstances for which the debtor should not justly be held accountable" for "an extension is substantially justified".

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–65, §3, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311, provided that:

"(a) Effective Date.—Except as provided in subsection (b), this Act [amending this section and provisions set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 6, 1993].

"(b) Application of Amendment Made by Section 2.—The amendment made by section 2 [amending this section] shall not apply with respect to cases commenced under title 11 of the United States Code before the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1222. Contents of plan

(a) The plan shall—

(1) provide for the submission of all or such portion of future earnings or other future income of the debtor to the supervision and control of the trustee as is necessary for the execution of the plan;

(2) provide for the full payment, in deferred cash payments, of all claims entitled to priority under section 507, unless the holder of a particular claim agrees to a different treatment of that claim;

(3) if the plan classifies claims and interests, provide the same treatment for each claim or interest within a particular class unless the holder of a particular claim or interest agrees to less favorable treatment;

(4) notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a plan may provide for less than full payment of all amounts owed for a claim entitled to priority under section 507(a)(1)(B) only if the plan provides that all of the debtor's projected disposable income for a 5-year period beginning on the date that the first payment is due under the plan will be applied to make payments under the plan; and

(5) subject to section 1232, provide for the treatment of any claim by a governmental unit of a kind described in section 1232(a).


(b) Subject to subsections (a) and (c) of this section, the plan may—

(1) designate a class or classes of unsecured claims, as provided in section 1122 of this title, but may not discriminate unfairly against any class so designated; however, such plan may treat claims for a consumer debt of the debtor if an individual is liable on such consumer debt with the debtor differently than other unsecured claims;

(2) modify the rights of holders of secured claims, or of holders of unsecured claims, or leave unaffected the rights of holders of any class of claims;

(3) provide for the curing or waiving of any default;

(4) provide for payments on any unsecured claim to be made concurrently with payments on any secured claim or any other unsecured claim;

(5) provide for the curing of any default within a reasonable time and maintenance of payments while the case is pending on any unsecured claim or secured claim on which the last payment is due after the date on which the final payment under the plan is due;

(6) subject to section 365 of this title, provide for the assumption, rejection, or assignment of any executory contract or unexpired lease of the debtor not previously rejected under such section;

(7) provide for the payment of all or part of a claim against the debtor from property of the estate or property of the debtor;

(8) provide for the sale of all or any part of the property of the estate or the distribution of all or any part of the property of the estate among those having an interest in such property;

(9) provide for payment of allowed secured claims consistent with section 1225(a)(5) of this title, over a period exceeding the period permitted under section 1222(c);

(10) provide for the vesting of property of the estate, on confirmation of the plan or at a later time, in the debtor or in any other entity;

(11) provide for the payment of interest accruing after the date of the filing of the petition on unsecured claims that are nondischargeable under section 1228(a), except that such interest may be paid only to the extent that the debtor has disposable income available to pay such interest after making provision for full payment of all allowed claims; and

(12) include any other appropriate provision not inconsistent with this title.


(c) Except as provided in subsections (b)(5) and (b)(9), the plan may not provide for payments over a period that is longer than three years unless the court for cause approves a longer period, but the court may not approve a period that is longer than five years.

(d) Notwithstanding subsection (b)(2) of this section and sections 506(b) and 1225(a)(5) of this title, if it is proposed in a plan to cure a default, the amount necessary to cure the default, shall be determined in accordance with the underlying agreement and applicable nonbankruptcy law.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3109, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 103–394, title III, §305(b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4134; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title II, §213(3), (4), title X, §§1001(a)(1), (c), 1003(a), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 52, 185, 186; Pub. L. 115–72, div. B, §1005(b)(1)(A), Oct. 26, 2017, 131 Stat. 1233.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–72, §1005(b)(1)(A)(i), substituted "unless" for "unless—", struck out subpar. (B) designation before "the holder", and struck out subpar. (A) which read as follows: "the claim is a claim owed to a governmental unit that arises as a result of the sale, transfer, exchange, or other disposition of any farm asset used in the debtor's farming operation, in which case the claim shall be treated as an unsecured claim that is not entitled to priority under section 507, but the debt shall be treated in such manner only if the debtor receives a discharge; or".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 115–72, §1005(b)(1)(A)(ii)–(iv), added par. (5).

2005—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–8, §1003(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "provide for the full payment, in deferred cash payments, of all claims entitled to priority under section 507 of this title, unless the holder of a particular claim agrees to a different treatment of such claim;".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109–8, §213(3), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(11), (12). Pub. L. 109–8, §213(4), added par. (11) and redesignated former par. (11) as (12).

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–394 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–72, div. B, §1005(c), Oct. 26, 2017, 131 Stat. 1234, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1232 of this title and amending this section and sections 1228 and 1229 of this title] shall apply to—

"(1) any bankruptcy case—

"(A) that is pending on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 2017];

"(B) in which the plan under chapter 12 of title 11, United States Code, has not been confirmed on the date of enactment of this Act; and

"(C) relating to which an order of discharge under section 1228 of title 11, United States Code, has not been entered; and

"(2) any bankruptcy case that commences on or after the date of enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §1003(c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 186, provided that: "This section [amending this section and section 1231 of this title] and the amendments made by this section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 2005] and shall not apply with respect to cases commenced under title 11 of the United States Code before such date."

Amendment by section 213(3), (4) of Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and applicable only to agreements entered into after Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103–394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1223. Modification of plan before confirmation

(a) The debtor may modify the plan at any time before confirmation, but may not modify the plan so that the plan as modified fails to meet the requirements of section 1222 of this title.

(b) After the debtor files a modification under this section, the plan as modified becomes the plan.

(c) Any holder of a secured claim that has accepted or rejected the plan is deemed to have accepted or rejected, as the case may be, the plan as modified, unless the modification provides for a change in the rights of such holder from what such rights were under the plan before modification, and such holder changes such holder's previous acceptance or rejection.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3110, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1224. Confirmation hearing

After expedited notice, the court shall hold a hearing on confirmation of the plan. A party in interest, the trustee, or the United States trustee may object to the confirmation of the plan. Except for cause, the hearing shall be concluded not later than 45 days after the filing of the plan.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3110, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1225. Confirmation of plan

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the court shall confirm a plan if—

(1) the plan complies with the provisions of this chapter and with the other applicable provisions of this title;

(2) any fee, charge, or amount required under chapter 123 of title 28, or by the plan, to be paid before confirmation, has been paid;

(3) the plan has been proposed in good faith and not by any means forbidden by law;

(4) the value, as of the effective date of the plan, of property to be distributed under the plan on account of each allowed unsecured claim is not less than the amount that would be paid on such claim if the estate of the debtor were liquidated under chapter 7 of this title on such date;

(5) with respect to each allowed secured claim provided for by the plan—

(A) the holder of such claim has accepted the plan;

(B)(i) the plan provides that the holder of such claim retain the lien securing such claim; and

(ii) the value, as of the effective date of the plan, of property to be distributed by the trustee or the debtor under the plan on account of such claim is not less than the allowed amount of such claim; or

(C) the debtor surrenders the property securing such claim to such holder;


(6) the debtor will be able to make all payments under the plan and to comply with the plan; and

(7) the debtor has paid all amounts that are required to be paid under a domestic support obligation and that first become payable after the date of the filing of the petition if the debtor is required by a judicial or administrative order, or by statute, to pay such domestic support obligation.


(b)(1) If the trustee or the holder of an allowed unsecured claim objects to the confirmation of the plan, then the court may not approve the plan unless, as of the effective date of the plan—

(A) the value of the property to be distributed under the plan on account of such claim is not less than the amount of such claim;

(B) the plan provides that all of the debtor's projected disposable income to be received in the three-year period, or such longer period as the court may approve under section 1222(c), beginning on the date that the first payment is due under the plan will be applied to make payments under the plan; or

(C) the value of the property to be distributed under the plan in the 3-year period, or such longer period as the court may approve under section 1222(c), beginning on the date that the first distribution is due under the plan is not less than the debtor's projected disposable income for such period.


(2) For purposes of this subsection, "disposable income" means income which is received by the debtor and which is not reasonably necessary to be expended—

(A) for the maintenance or support of the debtor or a dependent of the debtor or for a domestic support obligation that first becomes payable after the date of the filing of the petition; or

(B) for the payment of expenditures necessary for the continuation, preservation, and operation of the debtor's business.


(c) After confirmation of a plan, the court may order any entity from whom the debtor receives income to pay all or any part of such income to the trustee.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3110, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title II, §§213(5), 218, title X, §§1001(a)(1), (c), 1006(a), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 52, 55, 185-187.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 109–8, §213(5), added par. (7).

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–8, §1006(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–8, §218, inserted "or for a domestic support obligation that first becomes payable after the date of the filing of the petition" after "dependent of the debtor".

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by sections 213(5), 218, and 1006(a) of Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1226. Payments

(a) Payments and funds received by the trustee shall be retained by the trustee until confirmation or denial of confirmation of a plan. If a plan is confirmed, the trustee shall distribute any such payment in accordance with the plan. If a plan is not confirmed, the trustee shall return any such payments to the debtor, after deducting—

(1) any unpaid claim allowed under section 503(b) of this title; and

(2) if a standing trustee is serving in the case, the percentage fee fixed for such standing trustee.


(b) Before or at the time of each payment to creditors under the plan, there shall be paid—

(1) any unpaid claim of the kind specified in section 507(a)(2) of this title; and

(2) if a standing trustee appointed under section 1202(c) 1 of this title is serving in the case, the percentage fee fixed for such standing trustee under section 1202(d) 1 of this title.


(c) Except as otherwise provided in the plan or in the order confirming the plan, the trustee shall make payments to creditors under the plan.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3111, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 103–394, title V, §501(d)(36), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4147; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), title XV, §1502(a)(9), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186, 217.)

References in Text

Section 1202(c) and (d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was repealed by section 227 of Pub. L. 99–554, and provisions relating to appointment of and fixing percentage fees for standing trustees are contained in section 586(b) and (e) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, as amended by section 113(b), (c) of Pub. L. 99–554.

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–8, §1502(a)(9), substituted "507(a)(2)" for "507(a)(1)".

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–394 substituted "1202(c)" for "1202(d)" and "1202(d)" for "1202(e)".

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 1502(a)(9) of Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103–394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1227. Effect of confirmation

(a) Except as provided in section 1228(a) of this title, the provisions of a confirmed plan bind the debtor, each creditor, each equity security holder, and each general partner in the debtor, whether or not the claim of such creditor, such equity security holder, or such general partner in the debtor is provided for by the plan, and whether or not such creditor, such equity security holder, or such general partner in the debtor has objected to, has accepted, or has rejected the plan.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in the plan or the order confirming the plan, the confirmation of a plan vests all of the property of the estate in the debtor.

(c) Except as provided in section 1228(a) of this title and except as otherwise provided in the plan or in the order confirming the plan, the property vesting in the debtor under subsection (b) of this section is free and clear of any claim or interest of any creditor provided for by the plan.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3112, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1228. Discharge

(a) Subject to subsection (d), as soon as practicable after completion by the debtor of all payments under the plan, and in the case of a debtor who is required by a judicial or administrative order, or by statute, to pay a domestic support obligation, after such debtor certifies that all amounts payable under such order or such statute that are due on or before the date of the certification (including amounts due before the petition was filed, but only to the extent provided for by the plan) have been paid, other than payments to holders of allowed claims provided for under section 1222(b)(5) or 1222(b)(9) of this title, unless the court approves a written waiver of discharge executed by the debtor after the order for relief under this chapter, the court shall grant the debtor a discharge of all debts provided for by the plan, allowed under section 503 of this title, or disallowed under section 502 of this title, except any debt—

(1) provided for under section 1222(b)(5) or 1222(b)(9) of this title; or

(2) of a kind specified in section 523(a) of this title, except as provided in section 1232(c).


(b) Subject to subsection (d), at any time after the confirmation of the plan and after notice and a hearing, the court may grant a discharge to a debtor that has not completed payments under the plan only if—

(1) the debtor's failure to complete such payments is due to circumstances for which the debtor should not justly be held accountable;

(2) the value, as of the effective date of the plan, of property actually distributed under the plan on account of each allowed unsecured claim is not less than the amount that would have been paid on such claim if the estate of the debtor had been liquidated under chapter 7 of this title on such date; and

(3) modification of the plan under section 1229 of this title is not practicable.


(c) A discharge granted under subsection (b) of this section discharges the debtor from all unsecured debts provided for by the plan or disallowed under section 502 of this title, except any debt—

(1) provided for under section 1222(b)(5) or 1222(b)(9) of this title; or

(2) of a kind specified in section 523(a) of this title, except as provided in section 1232(c).


(d) On request of a party in interest before one year after a discharge under this section is granted, and after notice and a hearing, the court may revoke such discharge only if—

(1) such discharge was obtained by the debtor through fraud; and

(2) the requesting party did not know of such fraud until after such discharge was granted.


(e) After the debtor is granted a discharge, the court shall terminate the services of any trustee serving in the case.

(f) The court may not grant a discharge under this chapter unless the court after notice and a hearing held not more than 10 days before the date of the entry of the order granting the discharge finds that there is no reasonable cause to believe that—

(1) section 522(q)(1) may be applicable to the debtor; and

(2) there is pending any proceeding in which the debtor may be found guilty of a felony of the kind described in section 522(q)(1)(A) or liable for a debt of the kind described in section 522(q)(1)(B).

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3112, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 106–518, title II, §208, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2415; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title II, §213(6), title III, §330(c), title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 53, 101, 185, 186; Pub. L. 115–72, div. B, §1005(b)(1)(B), Oct. 26, 2017, 131 Stat. 1233.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–72, §1005(b)(1)(B)(i)(I), in introductory provisions, inserted a comma after "all debts provided for by the plan" and after "allowed under section 503 of this title".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–72, §1005(b)(1)(B)(i)(II), substituted "a kind specified in section 523(a) of this title, except as provided in section 1232(c)." for "the kind specified in section 523(a) of this title."

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–72, §1005(b)(1)(B)(ii), inserted ", except as provided in section 1232(c)" before period at end.

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–8, §330(c)(1), substituted "Subject to subsection (d), as" for "As" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–8, §213(6), inserted ", and in the case of a debtor who is required by a judicial or administrative order, or by statute, to pay a domestic support obligation, after such debtor certifies that all amounts payable under such order or such statute that are due on or before the date of the certification (including amounts due before the petition was filed, but only to the extent provided for by the plan) have been paid" after "completion by the debtor of all payments under the plan" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–8, §330(c)(2), substituted "Subject to subsection (d), at" for "At" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–8, §330(c)(3), added subsec. (f).

2000—Subsecs. (a), (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–518 substituted "1222(b)(9)" for "1222(b)(10)" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–72 applicable to bankruptcy cases pending on Oct. 26, 2017, in which the plan under this chapter has not been confirmed on Oct. 26, 2017, and relating to which an order of discharge under this section has not been entered, and to bankruptcy cases that commence on or after Oct. 26, 2017, see section 1005(c) of Pub. L. 115–72, set out as a note under section 1222 of this title.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendments by sections 213(6) and 330(c) of Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, with amendment by section 213(6) of Pub. L. 109–8 not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, and amendment by section 330(c) of Pub. L. 109–8 applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title on or after Apr. 20, 2005, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1229. Modification of plan after confirmation

(a) At any time after confirmation of the plan but before the completion of payments under such plan, the plan may be modified, on request of the debtor, the trustee, or the holder of an allowed unsecured claim, to—

(1) increase or reduce the amount of payments on claims of a particular class provided for by the plan;

(2) extend or reduce the time for such payments;

(3) alter the amount of the distribution to a creditor whose claim is provided for by the plan to the extent necessary to take account of any payment of such claim other than under the plan; or

(4) provide for the payment of a claim described in section 1232(a) that arose after the date on which the petition was filed.


(b)(1) Sections 1222(a), 1222(b), and 1223(c) of this title and the requirements of section 1225(a) of this title apply to any modification under subsection (a) of this section.

(2) The plan as modified becomes the plan unless, after notice and a hearing, such modification is disapproved.

(c) A plan modified under this section may not provide for payments over a period that expires after three years after the time that the first payment under the original confirmed plan was due, unless the court, for cause, approves a longer period, but the court may not approve a period that expires after five years after such time.

(d) A plan may not be modified under this section—

(1) to increase the amount of any payment due before the plan as modified becomes the plan;

(2) by anyone except the debtor, based on an increase in the debtor's disposable income, to increase the amount of payments to unsecured creditors required for a particular month so that the aggregate of such payments exceeds the debtor's disposable income for such month; or

(3) in the last year of the plan by anyone except the debtor, to require payments that would leave the debtor with insufficient funds to carry on the farming operation after the plan is completed.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3113, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §§1001(a)(1), (c), 1006(b), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185–187; Pub. L. 115–72, div. B, §1005(b)(1)(C), Oct. 26, 2017, 131 Stat. 1234.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 115–72 added par. (4).

2005—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–8, §1006(b), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–72 applicable to bankruptcy cases pending on Oct. 26, 2017, in which the plan under this chapter has not been confirmed on Oct. 26, 2017, and relating to which an order of discharge under section 1228 of this title has not been entered, and to bankruptcy cases that commence on or after Oct. 26, 2017, see section 1005(c) of Pub. L. 115–72, set out as a note under section 1222 of this title.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 1006(b) of Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1230. Revocation of an order of confirmation

(a) On request of a party in interest at any time within 180 days after the date of the entry of an order of confirmation under section 1225 of this title, and after notice and a hearing, the court may revoke such order if such order was procured by fraud.

(b) If the court revokes an order of confirmation under subsection (a) of this section, the court shall dispose of the case under section 1207 of this title, unless, within the time fixed by the court, the debtor proposes and the court confirms a modification of the plan under section 1229 of this title.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3113, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1231. Special tax provisions

(a) The issuance, transfer, or exchange of a security, or the making or delivery of an instrument of transfer under a plan confirmed under section 1225 of this title, may not be taxed under any law imposing a stamp tax or similar tax.

(b) The court may authorize the proponent of a plan to request a determination, limited to questions of law, by any governmental unit charged with responsibility for collection or determination of a tax on or measured by income, of the tax effects, under section 346 of this title and under the law imposing such tax, of the plan. In the event of an actual controversy, the court may declare such effects after the earlier of—

(1) the date on which such governmental unit responds to the request under this subsection; or

(2) 270 days after such request.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 99–554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3113, 3124; Pub. L. 103–65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 106–5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106–70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107–8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107–17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107–170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107–377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108–73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108–369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109–8, title VII, §719(b)(4), title X, §§1001(a)(1), (c), 1003(b), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 133, 185, 186.)

Codification

For repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding section 1201 of this title.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–8, §719(b)(4), redesignated subsec. (c) as (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: "For the purpose of any State or local law imposing a tax on or measured by income, the taxable period of a debtor that is an individual shall terminate on the date of the order for relief under this chapter, unless the case was converted under section 706 of this title."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–8, §1003(b), substituted "any governmental unit" for "a State or local governmental unit".

Pub. L. 109–8, §719(b)(4), redesignated subsec. (d) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: "The trustee shall make a State or local tax return of income for the estate of an individual debtor in a case under this chapter for each taxable period after the order for relief under this chapter during which the case is pending."

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 109–8, §719(b)(4)(B), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (a) and (b), respectively.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 1003(b) of Pub. L. 109–8 effective Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Apr. 20, 2005, see section 1003(c) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 1222 of this title.

Amendment by section 719(b)(4) of Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Dates

Permanent reenactment of section effective July 1, 2005, see section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a Repeal, Reenactment, and Termination of Chapter note under section 1201 of this title. For effective dates of section and amendments extending periods for which section was reenacted prior to permanent reenactment, see Effective Date and Effective Date of 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 Amendment notes set out under section 1201 of this title.

§1232. Claim by a governmental unit based on the disposition of property used in a farming operation

(a) Any unsecured claim of a governmental unit against the debtor or the estate that arises before the filing of the petition, or that arises after the filing of the petition and before the debtor's discharge under section 1228, as a result of the sale, transfer, exchange, or other disposition of any property used in the debtor's farming operation—

(1) shall be treated as an unsecured claim arising before the date on which the petition is filed;

(2) shall not be entitled to priority under section 507;

(3) shall be provided for under a plan; and

(4) shall be discharged in accordance with section 1228.


(b) For purposes of applying sections 1225(a)(4), 1228(b)(2), and 1229(b)(1) to a claim described in subsection (a) of this section, the amount that would be paid on such claim if the estate of the debtor were liquidated in a case under chapter 7 of this title shall be the amount that would be paid by the estate in a chapter 7 case if the claim were an unsecured claim arising before the date on which the petition was filed and were not entitled to priority under section 507.

(c) For purposes of applying sections 523(a), 1228(a)(2), and 1228(c)(2) to a claim described in subsection (a) of this section, the claim shall not be treated as a claim of a kind specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 523(a)(1).

(d)(1) A governmental unit may file a proof of claim for a claim described in subsection (a) that arises after the date on which the petition is filed.

(2) If a debtor files a tax return after the filing of the petition for a period in which a claim described in subsection (a) arises, and the claim relates to the tax return, the debtor shall serve notice of the claim on the governmental unit charged with the responsibility for the collection of the tax at the address and in the manner designated in section 505(b)(1). Notice under this paragraph shall state that the debtor has filed a petition under this chapter, state the name and location of the court in which the case under this chapter is pending, state the amount of the claim, and include a copy of the filed tax return and documentation supporting the calculation of the claim.

(3) If notice of a claim has been served on the governmental unit in accordance with paragraph (2), the governmental unit may file a proof of claim not later than 180 days after the date on which such notice was served. If the governmental unit has not filed a timely proof of the claim, the debtor or trustee may file proof of the claim that is consistent with the notice served under paragraph (2). If a proof of claim is filed by the debtor or trustee under this paragraph, the governmental unit may not amend the proof of claim.

(4) A claim filed under this subsection shall be determined and shall be allowed under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 502, or disallowed under subsection (d) or (e) of section 502, in the same manner as if the claim had arisen immediately before the date of the filing of the petition.

(Added Pub. L. 115–72, div. B, §1005(a), Oct. 26, 2017, 131 Stat. 1232.)

Effective Date

Section applicable to bankruptcy cases pending on Oct. 26, 2017, in which the plan under this chapter has not been confirmed on Oct. 26, 2017, and relating to which an order of discharge under section 1228 of this title has not been entered, and to bankruptcy cases that commence on or after Oct. 26, 2017, see section 1005(c) of Pub. L. 115–72, set out as an Effective Date of 2017 Amendment note under section 1222 of this title.