[USC02] 18 USC Ch. 229: POSTSENTENCE ADMINISTRATION
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18 USC Ch. 229: POSTSENTENCE ADMINISTRATION
From Title 18—CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II—CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

CHAPTER 229—POSTSENTENCE ADMINISTRATION

Subchapter
Sec.1

        

A.
Probation
3601
B.
Fines
3611
C.
Imprisonment
3621
D.
Risk and Needs Assessment 2
3631

        

Prior Provisions

A prior chapter 229 (§3611 et seq.) was repealed (except sections 3611, 3612, 3615, 3617 to 3620 which were renumbered sections 3665 to 3671, respectively), by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§212(a)(1), (2), 235(a)(1), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1987, 2031, as amended, effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such repeal. See Effective Date note set out under section 3551 of this title.

Section 3611 renumbered section 3665 of this title.

Section 3612 renumbered section 3666 of this title.

Section 3613, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 840, related to fines for setting grass and timber fires.

Section 3614, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 840, related to fine for seduction.

Section 3615 renumbered section 3667 of this title.

Section 3616, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 840, authorized use of confiscated vehicles by narcotics agents and payment of costs of acquisition, maintenance, repair, and operation thereof, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(b)(2)(A), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292.

Section 3617 renumbered section 3668 of this title.

Section 3618 renumbered section 3669 of this title.

Section 3619 renumbered section 3670 of this title.

Section 3620 renumbered section 3671 of this title.

Section 3621, added Pub. L. 98–596, §6(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3136, related to criminal default on fine.

Section 3622, added Pub. L. 98–596, §6(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3136, related to factors relating to imposition of fines.

Section 3623, added Pub. L. 98–596, §6(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3137, related to alternative fines.

Section 3624, added Pub. L. 98–596, §6(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3138, related to security for stayed fine.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §101(b), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5208, added item for subchapter D.

1 Editorially supplied.

2 So in original. Does not conform to subchapter heading.

SUBCHAPTER A—PROBATION

SUBCHAPTER A—PROBATION 1

Sec.
3601.
Supervision of probation.
3602.
Appointment of probation officers.
3603.
Duties of probation officers.
3604.
Transportation of a probationer.
3605.
Transfer of jurisdiction over a probationer.
3606.
Arrest and return of a probationer.
3607.
Special probation and expungement procedures for drug possessors.
3608.
Drug testing of Federal offenders on post-conviction release.

        

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20414(a)(2), title XXXIII, §330010(3), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1830, 2143, transferred analysis of this subchapter to follow heading for this subchapter and added item 3608.

1990Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3590, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4930, substituted "possessors" for "possessor" in item 3607.

1 So in original. Probably should not appear.

§3601. Supervision of probation

A person who has been sentenced to probation pursuant to the provisions of subchapter B of chapter 227, or placed on probation pursuant to the provisions of chapter 403, or placed on supervised release pursuant to the provisions of section 3583, shall, during the term imposed, be supervised by a probation officer to the degree warranted by the conditions specified by the sentencing court.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2001.)

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §801], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-66; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1915A and 1932 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 3624 and 3626 of this title, section 523 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, sections 1346 and 1915 of Title 28, and sections 1997a to 1997c, 1997e, 1997f, and 1997h of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 3626 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3626 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995'."

Post Incarceration Vocational and Remedial Educational Opportunities for Inmates

Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title II, §2411, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1799, provided that:

"(a) Federal Reentry Center Demonstration.—

"(1) Authority and establishment of demonstration project.—The Attorney General, in consultation with the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, shall establish the Federal Reentry Center Demonstration project. The project shall involve appropriate prisoners from the Federal prison population and shall utilize community corrections facilities, home confinement, and a coordinated response by Federal agencies to assist participating prisoners in preparing for and adjusting to reentry into the community.

"(2) Project elements.—The project authorized by paragraph (1) shall include the following core elements:

"(A) A Reentry Review Team for each prisoner, consisting of a representative from the Bureau of Prisons, the United States Probation System, the United States Parole Commission, and the relevant community corrections facility, who shall initially meet with the prisoner to develop a reentry plan tailored to the needs of the prisoner.

"(B) A system of graduated levels of supervision with the community corrections facility to promote community safety, provide incentives for prisoners to complete the reentry plan, including victim restitution, and provide a reasonable method for imposing sanctions for a prisoner's violation of the conditions of participation in the project.

"(C) Substance abuse treatment and aftercare, mental and medical health treatment and aftercare, vocational and educational training, life skills instruction, conflict resolution skills training, batterer intervention programs, assistance obtaining suitable affordable housing, and other programming to promote effective reintegration into the community as needed.

"(3) Probation officers.—From funds made available to carry out this section, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall assign 1 or more probation officers from each participating judicial district to the Reentry Demonstration project. Such officers shall be assigned to and stationed at the community corrections facility and shall serve on the Reentry Review Teams.

"(4) Project duration.—The Reentry Center Demonstration project shall begin not later than 6 months following the availability of funds to carry out this subsection, and shall last 3 years.

"(b) Definitions.—In this section, the term 'appropriate prisoner' shall mean a person who is considered by prison authorities—

"(1) to pose a medium to high risk of committing a criminal act upon reentering the community; and

"(2) to lack the skills and family support network that facilitate successful reintegration into the community.

"(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—To carry out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated, to remain available until expended—

"(1) to the Federal Bureau of Prisons—

"(A) $1,375,000 for fiscal year 2003;

"(B) $1,110,000 for fiscal year 2004;

"(C) $1,130,000 for fiscal year 2005;

"(D) $1,155,000 for fiscal year 2006; and

"(E) $1,230,000 for fiscal year 2007; and

"(2) to the Federal Judiciary—

"(A) $3,380,000 for fiscal year 2003;

"(B) $3,540,000 for fiscal year 2004;

"(C) $3,720,000 for fiscal year 2005;

"(D) $3,910,000 for fiscal year 2006; and

"(E) $4,100,000 for fiscal year 2007."

§3602. Appointment of probation officers

(a) Appointment.—A district court of the United States shall appoint qualified persons to serve, with or without compensation, as probation officers within the jurisdiction and under the direction of the court making the appointment. A person appointed as a probation officer in one district may serve in another district with the consent of the appointing court and the court in the other district. The appointing court may, for cause, remove a probation officer appointed to serve with compensation, and may, in its discretion, remove a probation officer appointed to serve without compensation.

(b) Record of Appointment.—The order of appointment shall be entered on the records of the court, a copy of the order shall be delivered to the officer appointed, and a copy shall be sent to the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(c) Chief Probation Officer.—If the court appoints more than one probation officer, one may be designated by the court as chief probation officer and shall direct the work of all probation officers serving in the judicial district.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2001; amended Pub. L. 114–113, div. E, title III, §307, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2443.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–113 inserted "A person appointed as a probation officer in one district may serve in another district with the consent of the appointing court and the court in the other district." after first sentence and "appointing" before "court may, for cause, remove".

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3603. Duties of probation officers

A probation officer shall—

(1) instruct a probationer or a person on supervised release, who is under his supervision, as to the conditions specified by the sentencing court, and provide him with a written statement clearly setting forth all such conditions;

(2) keep informed, to the degree required by the conditions specified by the sentencing court, as to the conduct and condition of a probationer or a person on supervised release, who is under his supervision, and report his conduct and condition to the sentencing court;

(3) use all suitable methods, not inconsistent with the conditions specified by the court, to aid a probationer or a person on supervised release who is under his supervision, and to bring about improvements in his conduct and condition;

(4) be responsible for the supervision of any probationer or a person on supervised release who is known to be within the judicial district;

(5) keep a record of his work, and make such reports to the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts as the Director may require;

(6) upon request of the Attorney General or his designee, assist in the supervision of and furnish information about, a person within the custody of the Attorney General while on work release, furlough, or other authorized release from his regular place of confinement, or while in prerelease custody pursuant to the provisions of section 3624(c);

(7) keep informed concerning the conduct, condition, and compliance with any condition of probation, including the payment of a fine or restitution of each probationer under his supervision and report thereon to the court placing such person on probation and report to the court any failure of a probationer under his supervision to pay a fine in default within thirty days after notification that it is in default so that the court may determine whether probation should be revoked;

(8)(A) when directed by the court, and to the degree required by the regimen of care or treatment ordered by the court as a condition of release, keep informed as to the conduct and provide supervision of a person conditionally released under the provisions of section 4243, 4246, or 4248 of this title, and report such person's conduct and condition to the court ordering release and to the Attorney General or his designee; and

(B) immediately report any violation of the conditions of release to the court and the Attorney General or his designee;

(9) if approved by the district court, be authorized to carry firearms under such rules and regulations as the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts may prescribe; and

(10) perform any other duty that the court may designate.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2002; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §15(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595; Pub. L. 102–572, title VII, §701(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4514; Pub. L. 104–317, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3848; Pub. L. 115–391, title VI, §609(a), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5245.)

Amendments

2018—Par. (8)(A). Pub. L. 115–391 substituted ", 4246, or 4248" for "or 4246".

1996—Pars. (9), (10). Pub. L. 104–317 added par. (9) and redesignated former par. (9) as (10).

1992—Pars. (8), (9). Pub. L. 102–572 added par. (8) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

1986Pub. L. 99–646 redesignated pars. (a) to (h) as (1) to (8), respectively, and in par. (6) substituted "assist in the supervision of" for "supervise" and inserted a comma after "about".

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–646, §15(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the taking effect of section 3603 of title 18, United States Code [Nov. 1, 1987]."

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3604. Transportation of a probationer

A court, after imposing a sentence of probation, may direct a United States marshal to furnish the probationer with—

(a) transportation to the place to which he is required to proceed as a condition of his probation; and

(b) money, not to exceed such amount as the Attorney General may prescribe, for subsistence expenses while traveling to his destination.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2002.)

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3605. Transfer of jurisdiction over a probationer

A court, after imposing a sentence, may transfer jurisdiction over a probationer or person on supervised release to the district court for any other district to which the person is required to proceed as a condition of his probation or release, or is permitted to proceed, with the concurrence of such court. A later transfer of jurisdiction may be made in the same manner. A court to which jurisdiction is transferred under this section is authorized to exercise all powers over the probationer or releasee that are permitted by this subchapter or subchapter B or D of chapter 227.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2003.)

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3606. Arrest and return of a probationer

If there is probable cause to believe that a probationer or a person on supervised release has violated a condition of his probation or release, he may be arrested, and, upon arrest, shall be taken without unnecessary delay before the court having jurisdiction over him. A probation officer may make such an arrest wherever the probationer or releasee is found, and may make the arrest without a warrant. The court having supervision of the probationer or releasee, or, if there is no such court, the court last having supervision of the probationer or releasee, may issue a warrant for the arrest of a probationer or releasee for violation of a condition of release, and a probation officer or United States marshal may execute the warrant in the district in which the warrant was issued or in any district in which the probationer or releasee is found.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2003.)

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3607. Special probation and expungement procedures for drug possessors

(a) Pre-judgment Probation.—If a person found guilty of an offense described in section 404 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 844)—

(1) has not, prior to the commission of such offense, been convicted of violating a Federal or State law relating to controlled substances; and

(2) has not previously been the subject of a disposition under this subsection;


the court may, with the consent of such person, place him on probation for a term of not more than one year without entering a judgment of conviction. At any time before the expiration of the term of probation, if the person has not violated a condition of his probation, the court may, without entering a judgment of conviction, dismiss the proceedings against the person and discharge him from probation. At the expiration of the term of probation, if the person has not violated a condition of his probation, the court shall, without entering a judgment of conviction, dismiss the proceedings against the person and discharge him from probation. If the person violates a condition of his probation, the court shall proceed in accordance with the provisions of section 3565.

(b) Record of Disposition.—A nonpublic record of a disposition under subsection (a), or a conviction that is the subject of an expungement order under subsection (c), shall be retained by the Department of Justice solely for the purpose of use by the courts in determining in any subsequent proceeding whether a person qualifies for the disposition provided in subsection (a) or the expungement provided in subsection (c). A disposition under subsection (a), or a conviction that is the subject of an expungement order under subsection (c), shall not be considered a conviction for the purpose of a disqualification or a disability imposed by law upon conviction of a crime, or for any other purpose.

(c) Expungement of Record of Disposition.—If the case against a person found guilty of an offense under section 404 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 844) is the subject of a disposition under subsection (a), and the person was less than twenty-one years old at the time of the offense, the court shall enter an expungement order upon the application of such person. The expungement order shall direct that there be expunged from all official records, except the nonpublic records referred to in subsection (b), all references to his arrest for the offense, the institution of criminal proceedings against him, and the results thereof. The effect of the order shall be to restore such person, in the contemplation of the law, to the status he occupied before such arrest or institution of criminal proceedings. A person concerning whom such an order has been entered shall not be held thereafter under any provision of law to be guilty of perjury, false swearing, or making a false statement by reason of his failure to recite or acknowledge such arrests or institution of criminal proceedings, or the results thereof, in response to an inquiry made of him for any purpose.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2003.)

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3608. Drug testing of Federal offenders on post-conviction release

The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, establish a program of drug testing of Federal offenders on post-conviction release. The program shall include such standards and guidelines as the Director may determine necessary to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the drug testing programs. In each judicial district the chief probation officer shall arrange for the drug testing of defendants on post-conviction release pursuant to a conviction for a felony or other offense described in section 3563(a)(4).1

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20414(a)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1830.)

References in Text

Section 3563(a)(4), referred to in text, probably means the par. (4) of section 3563(a) added by section 20414(b)(3) of Pub. L. 103–322, which was renumbered par. (5) by Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §203(1)(C), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1227.

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER B—FINES

SUBCHAPTER B—FINES 1

 
Sec.
3611.
Payment of a fine or restitution.
3612.
Collection of an unpaid fine or restitution.2

        

3613.
Civil remedies for satisfaction of an unpaid fine.
3613A.
Effect of default.
3614.
Resentencing upon failure to pay a fine or restitution.
3615.
Criminal default.

        

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §207(d), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1240, amended table of sections generally, inserting "or restitution" after "fine" in items 3611, 3612, and 3614, reenacting items 3613 and 3615 without change, and adding item 3613A.

1994Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330010(3), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2143, transferred analysis of this subchapter to follow heading for this subchapter.

1 So in original. Probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§3611. Payment of a fine or restitution

A person who is sentenced to pay a fine, assessment, or restitution, shall pay the fine, assessment, or restitution (including any interest or penalty), as specified by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. Such Director may specify that such payment be made to the clerk of the court or in the manner provided for under section 604(a)(18) of title 28, United States Code.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2004; amended Pub. L. 100–185, §10(a), Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1283; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3591, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4931; Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §207(c)(1), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1237.)

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3611, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–132 substituted "Payment of a fine or restitution" for "Payment of a fine" in section catchline and ", assessment, or restitution, shall pay the fine, assessment, or restitution" for "or assessment shall pay the fine or assessment" in text.

1990Pub. L. 101–647 substituted "604(a)(18)" for "604(a)(17)".

1987Pub. L. 100–185 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "A person who has been sentenced to pay a fine pursuant to the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 227 shall pay the fine immediately, or by the time and method specified by the sentencing court, to the clerk of the court. The clerk shall forward the payment to the United States Treasury."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–132 to be effective, to extent constitutionally permissible, for sentencing proceedings in cases in which defendant is convicted on or after Apr. 24, 1996, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2248 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–185, §10(b), Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1283, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any fine imposed after October 31, 1988. Such amendment shall also apply with respect to any fine imposed on or before October 31, 1988, if the fine remains uncollected as of February 1, 1989, unless the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts determines further delay is necessary. If the Director so determines, the amendment made by this section shall apply with respect to any such fine imposed on or before October 31, 1988, if the fine remains uncollected as of May 1, 1989."

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Receipt of Fines—Interim Provisions

Pub. L. 100–185, §9, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1282, provided that:

"(a) November 1, 1987, to April 30, 1988.—Notwithstanding section 3611 of title 18, United States Code, a person who, during the period beginning on November 1, 1987, and ending on April 30, 1988, is sentenced to pay a fine or assessment shall pay the fine or assessment (including any interest or penalty) to the clerk of the court, with respect to an offense committed on or before December 31, 1984, and to the Attorney General, with respect to an offense committed after December 31, 1984.

"(b) May 1, 1988, to October 31, 1988.—(1) Notwithstanding section 3611 of title 18, United States Code, a person who during the period beginning on May 1, 1988, and ending on October 31, 1988, is sentenced to pay a fine or assessment shall pay the fine or assessment in accordance with this subsection.

"(2) In a case initiated by citation or violation notice, such person shall pay the fine or assessment (including any interest or penalty), as specified by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. Such Director may specify that such payment be made to the clerk of the court or in the manner provided for under section 604(a)(17) of title 28, United States Code.

"(3) In any other case, such person shall pay the fine or assessment (including any interest or penalty) to the clerk of the court, with respect to an offense committed on or before December 31, 1984, and to the Attorney General, with respect to an offense committed after December 31, 1984."

§3612. Collection of unpaid fine or restitution

(a) Notification of Receipt and Related Matters.—The clerk or the person designated under section 604(a)(18) of title 28 shall notify the Attorney General of each receipt of a payment with respect to which a certification is made under subsection (b), together with other appropriate information relating to such payment. The notification shall be provided—

(1) in such manner as may be agreed upon by the Attorney General and the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts; and

(2) within 15 days after the receipt or at such other time as may be determined jointly by the Attorney General and the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.


If the fifteenth day under paragraph (2) is a Saturday, Sunday, or legal public holiday, the clerk, or the person designated under section 604(a)(18) of title 28, shall provide notification not later than the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal public holiday.

(b) Information to be Included in Judgment; Judgment to be Transmitted to Attorney General.—(1) A judgment or order imposing, modifying, or remitting a fine or restitution order of more than $100 shall include—

(A) the name, social security account number, mailing address, and residence address of the defendant;

(B) the docket number of the case;

(C) the original amount of the fine or restitution order and the amount that is due and unpaid;

(D) the schedule of payments (if other than immediate payment is permitted under section 3572(d));

(E) a description of any modification or remission;

(F) if other than immediate payment is permitted, a requirement that, until the fine or restitution order is paid in full, the defendant notify the Attorney General of any change in the mailing address or residence address of the defendant not later than thirty days after the change occurs; and

(G) in the case of a restitution order, information sufficient to identify each victim to whom restitution is owed. It shall be the responsibility of each victim to notify the Attorney General, or the appropriate entity of the court, by means of a form to be provided by the Attorney General or the court, of any change in the victim's mailing address while restitution is still owed the victim. The confidentiality of any information relating to a victim shall be maintained.


(2) Not later than ten days after entry of the judgment or order, the court shall transmit a certified copy of the judgment or order to the Attorney General.

(c) Responsibility for Collection.—The Attorney General shall be responsible for collection of an unpaid fine or restitution concerning which a certification has been issued as provided in subsection (b). An order of restitution, pursuant to section 3556, does not create any right of action against the United States by the person to whom restitution is ordered to be paid. Any money received from a defendant shall be disbursed so that each of the following obligations is paid in full in the following sequence:

(1) A penalty assessment under section 3013 of title 18, United States Code.

(2) Restitution of all victims.

(3) All other fines, penalties, costs, and other payments required under the sentence.


(d) Notification of Delinquency.—Within ten working days after a fine or restitution is determined to be delinquent as provided in section 3572(h), the Attorney General shall notify the person whose fine or restitution is delinquent, to inform the person of the delinquency.

(e) Notification of Default.—Within ten working days after a fine or restitution is determined to be in default as provided in section 3572(i), the Attorney General shall notify the person defaulting to inform the person that the fine or restitution is in default and the entire unpaid balance, including interest and penalties, is due within thirty days.

(f) Interest on Fines and restitution.—

(1) In general.—The defendant shall pay interest on any fine or restitution of more than $2,500, unless the fine is paid in full before the fifteenth day after the date of the judgment. If that day is a Saturday, Sunday, or legal public holiday, the defendant shall be liable for interest beginning with the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal public holiday.

(2) Computation.—Interest on a fine shall be computed—

(A) daily (from the first day on which the defendant is liable for interest under paragraph (1)); and

(B) at a rate equal to the weekly average 1-year constant maturity Treasury yield, as published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, for the calendar week preceding the first day on which the defendant is liable for interest under paragraph (1).


(3) Modification of interest by court.—If the court determines that the defendant does not have the ability to pay interest under this subsection, the court may—

(A) waive the requirement for interest;

(B) limit the total of interest payable to a specific dollar amount; or

(C) limit the length of the period during which interest accrues.


(g) Penalty for Delinquent Fine.—If a fine or restitution becomes delinquent, the defendant shall pay, as a penalty, an amount equal to 10 percent of the principal amount that is delinquent. If a fine or restitution becomes in default, the defendant shall pay, as a penalty, an additional amount equal to 15 percent of the principal amount that is in default.

(h) Waiver of Interest or Penalty by Attorney General.—The Attorney General may waive all or part of any interest or penalty under this section or any interest or penalty relating to a fine imposed under any prior law if, as determined by the Attorney General, reasonable efforts to collect the interest or penalty are not likely to be effective.

(i) Application of Payments.—Payments relating to fines and restitution shall be applied in the following order: (1) to principal; (2) to costs; (3) to interest; and (4) to penalties.

(j) Evaluation of Offices of the United States Attorney and Department Components.—

(1) In general.—The Attorney General shall, as part of the regular evaluation process, evaluate each office of the United States attorney and each component of the Department of Justice on the performance of the office or the component, as the case may be, in seeking and recovering restitution for victims under each provision of this title and the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) that authorizes restitution.

(2) Requirement.—Following an evaluation under paragraph (1), each office of the United States attorney and each component of the Department of Justice shall work to improve the practices of the office or component, as the case may be, with respect to seeking and recovering restitution for victims under each provision of this title and the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) that authorizes restitution.


(k) GAO Reports.—

(1) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Comptroller General of the United States shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report on restitution sought by the Attorney General under each provision of this title and the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) that authorizes restitution during the 3-year period preceding the report.

(2) Contents.—The report required under paragraph (1) shall include statistically valid estimates of—

(A) the number of cases in which a defendant was convicted and the Attorney General could seek restitution under this title or the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.);

(B) the number of cases in which the Attorney General sought restitution;

(C) of the cases in which the Attorney General sought restitution, the number of times restitution was ordered by the district courts of the United States;

(D) the amount of restitution ordered by the district courts of the United States;

(E) the amount of restitution collected pursuant to the restitution orders described in subparagraph (D);

(F) the percentage of restitution orders for which the full amount of restitution has not been collected; and

(G) any other measurement the Comptroller General determines would assist in evaluating how to improve the restitution process in Federal criminal cases.


(3) Recommendations.—The report required under paragraph (1) shall include recommendations on the best practices for—

(A) requesting restitution in cases in which restitution may be sought under each provision of this title and the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) that authorizes restitution;

(B) obtaining restitution orders from the district courts of the United States; and

(C) collecting restitution ordered by the district courts of the United States.


(4) Report.—Not later than 3 years after the date on which the report required under paragraph (1) is submitted, the Comptroller General of the United States shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report on the implementation by the Attorney General of the best practices recommended under paragraph (3).

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2004; amended Pub. L. 100–185, §11, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1283; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7082(c), (d), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4408; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3592, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4931; Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §207(c)(2), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1237; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §307(b)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-635; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(b)(15), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1808; Pub. L. 114–324, §18, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1962.)

References in Text

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsecs. (j) and (k), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (k)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–324, which was approved Dec. 16, 2016.

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3612, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

2016—Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 114–324 added subsecs. (j) and (k).

2002—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "preceding the first day" for "preceding. the first day".

2000—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted "the weekly average 1-year constant maturity Treasury yield, as published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, for the calendar week preceding." for "the coupon issue yield equivalent (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) of the average accepted auction price for the last auction of fifty-two week United States Treasury bills settled before".

1996Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(A), substituted "Collection of unpaid fine or restitution" for "Collection of an unpaid fine" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(B)(i), inserted "or restitution order" after "fine" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(B)(ii), inserted "or restitution order" after "fine".

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(B)(iii), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(1)(F). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(B)(iv), inserted "or restitution order" after "fine" and substituted "; and" for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(1)(G). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(B)(v), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(C), inserted "or restitution" after "unpaid fine" in first sentence and inserted at end "Any money received from a defendant shall be disbursed so that each of the following obligations is paid in full in the following sequence:

"(1) A penalty assessment under section 3013 of title 18, United States Code.

"(2) Restitution of all victims.

"(3) All other fines, penalties, costs, and other payments required under the sentence."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(D)(ii), which directed substitution of "or restitution is delinquent, to inform the person of the delinquency" for "is delinquent, to inform him that the fine is delinquent", was executed by making the substitution for "is delinquent to inform him that the fine is delinquent" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(D)(i), inserted "or restitution" after "Within ten working days after a fine".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(E), inserted "or restitution" after "days after a fine" and substituted "the person that the fine or restitution is in default" for "him that the fine is in default".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(F)(i), which directed amendment of heading by inserting "and restitution" after "on fines", was executed by inserting the material after "on fines" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(F)(ii), inserted "or restitution" after "any fine".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(G), inserted "or restitution" after "fine" in two places.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–132, §207(c)(2)(H), inserted "and restitution" after "fines".

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted "604(a)(18)" for "604(a)(17)" wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–690, §7082(d), struck out ", by certified mail," after "fine is delinquent".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–690, §7082(d), struck out ", by certified mail," after "the person defaulting".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–690, §7082(c), inserted "or any interest or penalty relating to a fine imposed under any prior law" after "under this section".

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–185, §11(a), substituted "Notification of receipt and related matters" for "Disposition of payment" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The clerk shall forward each fine payment to the United States Treasury and shall notify the Attorney General of its receipt within ten working days."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–185, §11(b), substituted "Information to be included in judgment; judgment to be transmitted to Attorney General" for "Certification of imposition" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If a fine exceeding $100 is imposed, modified, or remitted, the sentencing court shall incorporate in the order imposing, remitting, or modifying such fine, and promptly certify to the Attorney General—

"(1) the name of the person fined;

"(2) his current address;

"(3) the docket number of the case;

"(4) the amount of the fine imposed;

"(5) any installment schedule;

"(6) the nature of any modification or remission of the fine or installment schedule; and

"(7) the amount of the fine that is due and unpaid."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–185, §11(c)(1), substituted "section 3572(h)" for "section 3572(i)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–185, §11(c)(2), substituted "section 3572(i)" for "section 3572(j)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–185, §11(d), amended subsec. (f) generally, substituting provisions relating to interest on fines, computation of interest, and modification of interest by court, for provisions relating to interest and monetary penalties for delinquent fines.

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 100–185, §11(e), added subsecs. (g) to (i).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–132 to be effective, to extent constitutionally permissible, for sentencing proceedings in cases in which defendant is convicted on or after Apr. 24, 1996, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2248 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Collection of Outstanding Fines

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §237, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2033, provided that:

"(a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), for each criminal fine for which the unpaid balance exceeds $100 as of the effective date of this Act [see section 235 of Pub. L. 98–473, as amended, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title], the Attorney General shall, within one hundred and twenty days, notify the person by certified mail of his obligation, within thirty days after notification, to—

"(A) pay the fine in full;

"(B) specify, and demonstrate compliance with, an installment schedule established by a court before enactment of the amendments made by this Act [Oct. 12, 1984], specifying the dates on which designated partial payments will be made; or

"(C) establish with the concurrence of the Attorney General, a new installment schedule of a duration not exceeding two years, except in special circumstances, and specifying the dates on which designated partial payments will be made.

"(2) This subsection shall not apply in cases in which—

"(A) the Attorney General believes the likelihood of collection is remote; or

"(B) criminal fines have been stayed pending appeal.

"(b) The Attorney General shall, within one hundred and eighty days after the effective date of this Act, declare all fines for which this obligation is unfulfilled to be in criminal default, subject to the civil and criminal remedies established by amendments made by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 3551 of this title]. No interest or monetary penalties shall be charged on any fines subject to this section.

"(c) Not later than one year following the effective date of this Act, the Attorney General shall include in the annual crime report steps taken to implement this Act and the progress achieved in criminal fine collection, including collection data for each judicial district."

§3613. Civil remedies for satisfaction of an unpaid fine

(a) Enforcement.—The United States may enforce a judgment imposing a fine in accordance with the practices and procedures for the enforcement of a civil judgment under Federal law or State law. Notwithstanding any other Federal law (including section 207 of the Social Security Act), a judgment imposing a fine may be enforced against all property or rights to property of the person fined, except that—

(1) property exempt from levy for taxes pursuant to section 6334(a)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (10), and (12) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be exempt from enforcement of the judgment under Federal law;

(2) section 3014 of chapter 176 of title 28 shall not apply to enforcement under Federal law; and

(3) the provisions of section 303 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 U.S.C. 1673) shall apply to enforcement of the judgment under Federal law or State law.


(b) Termination of Liability.—The liability to pay a fine shall terminate the later of 20 years from the entry of judgment or 20 years after the release from imprisonment of the person fined, or upon the death of the individual fined. The liability to pay restitution shall terminate on the date that is the later of 20 years from the entry of judgment or 20 years after the release from imprisonment of the person ordered to pay restitution. In the event of the death of the person ordered to pay restitution, the individual's estate will be held responsible for any unpaid balance of the restitution amount, and the lien provided in subsection (c) of this section shall continue until the estate receives a written release of that liability.

(c) Lien.—A fine imposed pursuant to the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 227 of this title, an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2259A of this title, or an order of restitution made pursuant to sections 1 2248, 2259, 2264, 2327, 3663, 3663A, or 3664 of this title, is a lien in favor of the United States on all property and rights to property of the person fined as if the liability of the person fined were a liability for a tax assessed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The lien arises on the entry of judgment and continues for 20 years or until the liability is satisfied, remitted, set aside, or is terminated under subsection (b).

(d) Effect of Filing Notice of Lien.—Upon filing of a notice of lien in the manner in which a notice of tax lien would be filed under section 6323(f)(1) and (2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the lien shall be valid against any purchaser, holder of a security interest, mechanic's lienor or judgment lien creditor, except with respect to properties or transactions specified in subsection (b), (c), or (d) of section 6323 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for which a notice of tax lien properly filed on the same date would not be valid. The notice of lien shall be considered a notice of lien for taxes payable to the United States for the purpose of any State or local law providing for the filing of a notice of a tax lien. A notice of lien that is registered, recorded, docketed, or indexed in accordance with the rules and requirements relating to judgments of the courts of the State where the notice of lien is registered, recorded, docketed, or indexed shall be considered for all purposes as the filing prescribed by this section. The provisions of section 3201(e) of chapter 176 of title 28 shall apply to liens filed as prescribed by this section.

(e) Discharge of Debt Inapplicable.—No discharge of debts in a proceeding pursuant to any chapter of title 11, United States Code, shall discharge liability to pay a fine pursuant to this section, and a lien filed as prescribed by this section shall not be voided in a bankruptcy proceeding.

(f) Applicability to Order of Restitution.—In accordance with section 3664(m)(1)(A) of this title, all provisions of this section are available to the United States for the enforcement of an order of restitution.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2005; amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3593, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4931; Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §207(c)(3), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1238; Pub. L. 114–324, §2(b), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 115–299, §7(a), Dec. 7, 2018, 132 Stat. 4388.)

References in Text

Section 207 of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is classified to section 407 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (c), and (d), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3613, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–299 inserted "an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2259A of this title," after "pursuant to the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 227 of this title,".

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–324 inserted at end "The liability to pay restitution shall terminate on the date that is the later of 20 years from the entry of judgment or 20 years after the release from imprisonment of the person ordered to pay restitution. In the event of the death of the person ordered to pay restitution, the individual's estate will be held responsible for any unpaid balance of the restitution amount, and the lien provided in subsection (c) of this section shall continue until the estate receives a written release of that liability."

1996Pub. L. 104–132 amended section generally, reenacting section catchline without change and substituting, in subsec. (a), provisions relating to enforcement for provisions relating to lien, in subsec. (b), provisions relating to termination of liability for provisions relating to expiration of lien, in subsec. (c), provisions relating to lien for provisions relating to application of other lien provisions, in subsec. (d), provisions relating to effect of filing notice of lien for provisions relating to effect of notice of lien, in subsec. (e), provisions relating to inapplicability of bankruptcy discharges of debt for provisions relating to alternative enforcement, and in subsec. (f), provisions relating to applicability to order of restitution for provisions relating to inapplicability of bankruptcy discharges of debt.

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647, which directed amendment of "Section 3613(c)" by striking the period before the closing quotation marks and inserting a period after such marks, without identifying a Code title or Act for section 3613, was executed by substituting "construed to mean 'fine'." for "construed to mean 'fine.' " in subsec. (c) of this section to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1986—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–132 to be effective, to extent constitutionally permissible, for sentencing proceedings in cases in which defendant is convicted on or after Apr. 24, 1996, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2248 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§3613A. Effect of default

(a)(1) Upon a finding that the defendant is in default on a payment of a fine or restitution, the court may, pursuant to section 3565, revoke probation or a term of supervised release, modify the terms or conditions of probation or a term of supervised release, resentence a defendant pursuant to section 3614, hold the defendant in contempt of court, enter a restraining order or injunction, order the sale of property of the defendant, accept a performance bond, enter or adjust a payment schedule, or take any other action necessary to obtain compliance with the order of a fine or restitution.

(2) In determining what action to take, the court shall consider the defendant's employment status, earning ability, financial resources, the willfulness in failing to comply with the fine or restitution order, and any other circumstances that may have a bearing on the defendant's ability or failure to comply with the order of a fine or restitution.

(b)(1) Any hearing held pursuant to this section may be conducted by a magistrate judge, subject to de novo review by the court.

(2) To the extent practicable, in a hearing held pursuant to this section involving a defendant who is confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility, proceedings in which the prisoner's participation is required or permitted shall be conducted by telephone, video conference, or other communications technology without removing the prisoner from the facility in which the prisoner is confined.

(Added Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §207(c)(4), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1239.)

Effective Date

Section to be effective, to extent constitutionally permissible, for sentencing proceedings in cases in which the defendant is convicted on or after Apr. 24, 1996, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 2248 of this title.

§3614. Resentencing upon failure to pay a fine or restitution

(a) Resentencing.—Subject to the provisions of subsection (b), if a defendant knowingly fails to pay a delinquent fine or restitution the court may resentence the defendant to any sentence which might originally have been imposed.

(b) Imprisonment.—The defendant may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment under subsection (a) only if the court determines that—

(1) the defendant willfully refused to pay the delinquent fine or had failed to make sufficient bona fide efforts to pay the fine; or

(2) in light of the nature of the offense and the characteristics of the person, alternatives to imprisonment are not adequate to serve the purposes of punishment and deterrence.


(c) Effect of Indigency.—In no event shall a defendant be incarcerated under this section solely on the basis of inability to make payments because the defendant is indigent.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2006; amended Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §207(c)(5), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1240.)

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3614, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–232, §207(c)(5)(A), inserted "or restitution" after "fine" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–232, §207(c)(5)(B), inserted "or restitution" after "fine".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–232, §207(c)(5)(C), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–132 to be effective, to extent constitutionally permissible, for sentencing proceedings in cases in which defendant is convicted on or after Apr. 24, 1996, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2248 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3615. Criminal default

Whoever, having been sentenced to pay a fine, willfully fails to pay the fine, shall be fined not more than twice the amount of the unpaid balance of the fine or $10,000, whichever is greater, imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2006.)

Prior Provisions

For prior sections 3615 to 3620, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER C—IMPRISONMENT

SUBCHAPTER C—IMPRISONMENT 1

Sec.
3621.
Imprisonment of a convicted person.
3622.
Temporary release of a prisoner.
3623.
Transfer of a prisoner to State authority.
3624.
Release of a prisoner.
3625.
Inapplicability of the Administrative Procedure Act.
3626.
Appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions.

        

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(c)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-70; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, which directed that table of sections at beginning of subchapter C of this chapter be amended generally to read "3626. Appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions.", was executed by making amendment in item 3626 to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, item 3626 read as follows: "3626. Appropriate remedies with respect to prison crowding."

1994Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(c), title XXXIII, §330010(3), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1828, 2143, transferred analysis of this subchapter to follow heading for this subchapter and added item 3626.

1 So in original. Probably should not appear.

§3621. Imprisonment of a convicted person

(a) Commitment to Custody of Bureau of Prisons.—A person who has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment pursuant to the provisions of subchapter D of chapter 227 shall be committed to the custody of the Bureau of Prisons until the expiration of the term imposed, or until earlier released for satisfactory behavior pursuant to the provisions of section 3624.

(b) Place of Imprisonment.—The Bureau of Prisons shall designate the place of the prisoner's imprisonment, and shall, subject to bed availability, the prisoner's security designation, the prisoner's programmatic needs, the prisoner's mental and medical health needs, any request made by the prisoner related to faith-based needs, recommendations of the sentencing court, and other security concerns of the Bureau of Prisons, place the prisoner in a facility as close as practicable to the prisoner's primary residence, and to the extent practicable, in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence. The Bureau shall, subject to consideration of the factors described in the preceding sentence and the prisoner's preference for staying at his or her current facility or being transferred, transfer prisoners to facilities that are closer to the prisoner's primary residence even if the prisoner is already in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence. The Bureau may designate any available penal or correctional facility that meets minimum standards of health and habitability established by the Bureau, whether maintained by the Federal Government or otherwise and whether within or without the judicial district in which the person was convicted, that the Bureau determines to be appropriate and suitable, considering—

(1) the resources of the facility contemplated;

(2) the nature and circumstances of the offense;

(3) the history and characteristics of the prisoner;

(4) any statement by the court that imposed the sentence—

(A) concerning the purposes for which the sentence to imprisonment was determined to be warranted; or

(B) recommending a type of penal or correctional facility as appropriate; and


(5) any pertinent policy statement issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994(a)(2) of title 28.


In designating the place of imprisonment or making transfers under this subsection, there shall be no favoritism given to prisoners of high social or economic status. The Bureau may at any time, having regard for the same matters, direct the transfer of a prisoner from one penal or correctional facility to another. The Bureau shall make available appropriate substance abuse treatment for each prisoner the Bureau determines has a treatable condition of substance addiction or abuse. Any order, recommendation, or request by a sentencing court that a convicted person serve a term of imprisonment in a community corrections facility shall have no binding effect on the authority of the Bureau under this section to determine or change the place of imprisonment of that person. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a designation of a place of imprisonment under this subsection is not reviewable by any court.

(c) Delivery of Order of Commitment.—When a prisoner, pursuant to a court order, is placed in the custody of a person in charge of a penal or correctional facility, a copy of the order shall be delivered to such person as evidence of this authority to hold the prisoner, and the original order, with the return endorsed thereon, shall be returned to the court that issued it.

(d) Delivery of Prisoner for Court Appearances.—The United States marshal shall, without charge, bring a prisoner into court or return him to a prison facility on order of a court of the United States or on written request of an attorney for the Government.

(e) Substance Abuse Treatment.—

(1) Phase-in.—In order to carry out the requirement of the last sentence of subsection (b) of this section, that every prisoner with a substance abuse problem have the opportunity to participate in appropriate substance abuse treatment, the Bureau of Prisons shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, provide residential substance abuse treatment (and make arrangements for appropriate aftercare)—

(A) for not less than 50 percent of eligible prisoners by the end of fiscal year 1995, with priority for such treatment accorded based on an eligible prisoner's proximity to release date;

(B) for not less than 75 percent of eligible prisoners by the end of fiscal year 1996, with priority for such treatment accorded based on an eligible prisoner's proximity to release date; and

(C) for all eligible prisoners by the end of fiscal year 1997 and thereafter, with priority for such treatment accorded based on an eligible prisoner's proximity to release date.


(2) Incentive for prisoners' successful completion of treatment program.—

(A) Generally.—Any prisoner who, in the judgment of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, has successfully completed a program of residential substance abuse treatment provided under paragraph (1) of this subsection, shall remain in the custody of the Bureau under such conditions as the Bureau deems appropriate. If the conditions of confinement are different from those the prisoner would have experienced absent the successful completion of the treatment, the Bureau shall periodically test the prisoner for substance abuse and discontinue such conditions on determining that substance abuse has recurred.

(B) Period of custody.—The period a prisoner convicted of a nonviolent offense remains in custody after successfully completing a treatment program may be reduced by the Bureau of Prisons, but such reduction may not be more than one year from the term the prisoner must otherwise serve.


(3) Report.—The Bureau of Prisons shall transmit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives on January 1, 1995, and on January 1 of each year thereafter, a report. Such report shall contain—

(A) a detailed quantitative and qualitative description of each substance abuse treatment program, residential or not, operated by the Bureau;

(B) a full explanation of how eligibility for such programs is determined, with complete information on what proportion of prisoners with substance abuse problems are eligible; and

(C) a complete statement of to what extent the Bureau has achieved compliance with the requirements of this title.


(4) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to carry out this subsection such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(5) Definitions.—As used in this subsection—

(A) the term "residential substance abuse treatment" means a course of individual and group activities and treatment, lasting at least 6 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population (which may include the use of pharmocotherapies,1 where appropriate, that may extend beyond the 6-month period);

(B) the term "eligible prisoner" means a prisoner who is—

(i) determined by the Bureau of Prisons to have a substance abuse problem; and

(ii) willing to participate in a residential substance abuse treatment program; and


(C) the term "aftercare" means placement, case management and monitoring of the participant in a community-based substance abuse treatment program when the participant leaves the custody of the Bureau of Prisons.


(6) Coordination of federal assistance.—The Bureau of Prisons shall consult with the Department of Health and Human Services concerning substance abuse treatment and related services and the incorporation of applicable components of existing comprehensive approaches including relapse prevention and aftercare services.


(f) Sex Offender Management.—

(1) In general.—The Bureau of Prisons shall make available appropriate treatment to sex offenders who are in need of and suitable for treatment, as follows:

(A) Sex offender management programs.—The Bureau of Prisons shall establish non-residential sex offender management programs to provide appropriate treatment, monitoring, and supervision of sex offenders and to provide aftercare during pre-release custody.

(B) Residential sex offender treatment programs.—The Bureau of Prisons shall establish residential sex offender treatment programs to provide treatment to sex offenders who volunteer for such programs and are deemed by the Bureau of Prisons to be in need of and suitable for residential treatment.


(2) Regions.—At least 1 sex offender management program under paragraph (1)(A), and at least one residential sex offender treatment program under paragraph (1)(B), shall be established in each region within the Bureau of Prisons.

(3) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Bureau of Prisons for each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.


(g) Partnerships To Expand Access to Reentry Programs Proven To Reduce Recidivism.—

(1) Definition.—The term "demonstrated to reduce recidivism" means that the Director of Bureau of Prisons has determined that appropriate research has been conducted and has validated the effectiveness of the type of program on recidivism.

(2) Eligibility for recidivism reduction partnership.—A faith-based or community-based nonprofit organization that provides mentoring or other programs that have been demonstrated to reduce recidivism is eligible to enter into a recidivism reduction partnership with a prison or community-based facility operated by the Bureau of Prisons.

(3) Recidivism reduction partnerships.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall develop policies to require wardens of prisons and community-based facilities to enter into recidivism reduction partnerships with faith-based and community-based nonprofit organizations that are willing to provide, on a volunteer basis, programs described in paragraph (2).

(4) Reporting requirement.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall submit to Congress an annual report on the last day of each fiscal year that—

(A) details, for each prison and community-based facility for the fiscal year just ended—

(i) the number of recidivism reduction partnerships under this section that were in effect;

(ii) the number of volunteers that provided recidivism reduction programming; and

(iii) the number of recidivism reduction programming hours provided; and


(B) explains any disparities between facilities in the numbers reported under subparagraph (A).


(h) Implementation of Risk and Needs Assessment System.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the Attorney General completes and releases the risk and needs assessment system (referred to in this subsection as the "System") developed under subchapter D, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, in accordance with that subchapter—

(A) implement and complete the initial intake risk and needs assessment for each prisoner (including for each prisoner who was a prisoner prior to the effective date of this subsection), regardless of the prisoner's length of imposed term of imprisonment, and begin to assign prisoners to appropriate evidence-based recidivism reduction programs based on that determination;

(B) begin to expand the effective evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities it offers and add any new evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities necessary to effectively implement the System; and

(C) begin to implement the other risk and needs assessment tools necessary to effectively implement the System over time, while prisoners are participating in and completing the effective evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities.


(2) Phase-in.—In order to carry out paragraph (1), so that every prisoner has the opportunity to participate in and complete the type and amount of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities they need, and be reassessed for recidivism risk as necessary to effectively implement the System, the Bureau of Prisons shall—

(A) provide such evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities for all prisoners before the date that is 2 years after the date on which the Bureau of Prisons completes a risk and needs assessment for each prisoner under paragraph (1)(A); and

(B) develop and validate the risk and needs assessment tool to be used in the reassessments of risk of recidivism, while prisoners are participating in and completing evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities.


(3) Priority during phase-in.—During the 2-year period described in paragraph (2)(A), the priority for such programs and activities shall be accorded based on a prisoner's proximity to release date.

(4) Preliminary expansion of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and authority to use incentives.—Beginning on the date of enactment of this subsection, the Bureau of Prisons may begin to expand any evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities that exist at a prison as of such date, and may offer to prisoners who successfully participate in such programs and activities the incentives and rewards described in subchapter D.

(5) Recidivism reduction partnerships.—In order to expand evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities, the Attorney General shall develop policies for the warden of each prison of the Bureau of Prisons to enter into partnerships, subject to the availability of appropriations, with any of the following:

(A) Nonprofit and other private organizations, including faith-based, art, and community-based organizations that will deliver recidivism reduction programming on a paid or volunteer basis.

(B) Institutions of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001)) that will deliver instruction on a paid or volunteer basis.

(C) Private entities that will—

(i) deliver vocational training and certifications;

(ii) provide equipment to facilitate vocational training or employment opportunities for prisoners;

(iii) employ prisoners; or

(iv) assist prisoners in prerelease custody or supervised release in finding employment.


(D) Industry-sponsored organizations that will deliver workforce development and training, on a paid or volunteer basis.


(6) Requirement to provide programs to all prisoners; priority.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall provide all prisoners with the opportunity to actively participate in evidence-based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities, according to their specific criminogenic needs, throughout their entire term of incarceration. Priority for participation in recidivism reduction programs shall be given to medium-risk and high-risk prisoners, with access to productive activities given to minimum-risk and low-risk prisoners.

(7) Definitions.—The terms in this subsection have the meaning given those terms in section 3635.


(i) Continued Access to Medical Care.—

(1) In general.—In order to ensure a minimum standard of health and habitability, the Bureau of Prisons should ensure that each prisoner in a community confinement facility has access to necessary medical care, mental health care, and medicine through partnerships with local health service providers and transition planning.

(2) Definition.—In this subsection, the term "community confinement" has the meaning given that term in the application notes under section 5F1.1 of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual, as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2007; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XXIX, §2903, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4913; Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20401, title III, §32001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1824, 1896; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1146, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3112; Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, §622, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 634; Pub. L. 110–199, title II, §§231(f), 251(b), 252, Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 687, 693; Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §102(a), title V, §504(f)(1), title VI, §601, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5208, 5234, 5237.)

References in Text

The effective date of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (h)(1)(A), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which added subsec. (h) of this section and was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (h)(4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

The date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007, referred to in subsec. (i)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–199, which was approved Apr. 9, 2008.

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3621, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–391, §601, substituted in introductory provisions "shall designate the place of the prisoner's imprisonment, and shall, subject to bed availability, the prisoner's security designation, the prisoner's programmatic needs, the prisoner's mental and medical health needs, any request made by the prisoner related to faith-based needs, recommendations of the sentencing court, and other security concerns of the Bureau of Prisons, place the prisoner in a facility as close as practicable to the prisoner's primary residence, and to the extent practicable, in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence. The Bureau shall, subject to consideration of the factors described in the preceding sentence and the prisoner's preference for staying at his or her current facility or being transferred, transfer prisoners to facilities that are closer to the prisoner's primary residence even if the prisoner is already in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence." for "shall designate the place of the prisoner's imprisonment." and inserted at end of concluding provisions "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a designation of a place of imprisonment under this subsection is not reviewable by any court."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(f)(1), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (i).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–391, §102(a), added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(f)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (g) as (i).

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–199, §251(b), inserted "Any order, recommendation, or request by a sentencing court that a convicted person serve a term of imprisonment in a community corrections facility shall have no binding effect on the authority of the Bureau under this section to determine or change the place of imprisonment of that person." at end of concluding provisions.

Subsec. (e)(5)(A). Pub. L. 110–199, §252, substituted "means a course of individual and group activities and treatment, lasting at least 6 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population (which may include the use of pharmocotherapies, where appropriate, that may extend beyond the 6-month period);" for "means a course of individual and group activities, lasting between 6 and 12 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population—

"(i) directed at the substance abuse problems of the prisoner;

"(ii) intended to develop the prisoner's cognitive, behavioral, social, vocational, and other skills so as to solve the prisoner's substance abuse and related problems; and

"(iii) which may include the use of pharmacoptherapies, if appropriate, that may extend beyond the treatment period;".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–199, §231(f), added subsec. (g).

2006—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 109–162, §1146(1), added par. (4) and struck out heading and text of former par. (4). Text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection—

"(A) $13,500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(B) $18,900,000 for fiscal year 1997;

"(C) $25,200,000 for fiscal year 1998;

"(D) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

"(E) $27,900,000 for fiscal year 2000."

Subsec. (e)(5)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 109–162, §1146(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–248 added subsec. (f).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §32001(1), struck out ", to the extent practicable," after "The Bureau shall" in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 103–322, §20401, inserted "In designating the place of imprisonment or making transfers under this subsection, there shall be no favoritism given to prisoners of high social or economic status." after subsec. (b)(5).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322, §32001(2), added subsec. (e).

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted at end "The Bureau shall, to the extent practicable, make available appropriate substance abuse treatment for each prisoner the Bureau determines has a treatable condition of substance addiction or abuse."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–391, title V, §504(f)(2), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5234, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018]."

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §105, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5214, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification], or the amendments made by this Act, may be construed to provide authority to place a prisoner in prerelease custody or supervised release who is serving a term of imprisonment pursuant to a conviction for an offense under the laws of one of the 50 States, or of a territory or possession of the United States or to amend or affect the enforcement of the immigration laws, as defined in section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101)."

Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendments by Pub. L. 110–199 and requirements for grants made under such amendments, see section 60504 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

Bureau of Prisons

Pub. L. 116–136, div. B, title II, §12003, Mar. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 515, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section—

"(1) the term 'Bureau' means the Bureau of Prisons;

"(2) the term 'covered emergency period' means the period beginning on the date on which the President declared a national emergency under the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) with respect to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID–19) [declaration issued Mar. 13, 2020, beginning Mar. 1, 2020, see 85 F.R. 15337] and ending on the date that is 30 days after the date on which the national emergency declaration terminates; and

"(3) the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

"(b) Supply of Personal Protective Equipment and Test Kits to Bureau of Prisons; Home Confinement Authority.—

"(1) Personal protective equipment and test kits.—

"(A) Findings.—Congress finds the following:

"(i) There is an urgent need for personal protective equipment and test kits to the Bureau based on the density of the inmate population, the high traffic, the high volume of inmates, the high rate of turnover of inmates and personnel, and the number of high-security areas, within the facilities of the Bureau.

"(ii) The inability of the Bureau to secure the purchase of infectious disease personal protective equipment and related supplies now and in the future is a vulnerability.

"(iii) The Bureau is currently competing in and engaging the same landscape of vendors as all other Federal agencies and private entities.

"(iv) The ability of the Bureau to purchase needed equipment and supplies is currently subject to an individual manufacturer's specific recognition of the Bureau as a priority and subsequent allocation of the inventory of the manufacturer to the Bureau.

"(B) Consideration.—The Secretary shall appropriately consider, relative to other priorities of the Department of Health and Human Services for high-risk and high-need populations, the distribution of infectious disease personal protective equipment and COVID–19 test kits to the Bureau for use by inmates and personnel of the Bureau.

"(2) Home confinement authority.—During the covered emergency period, if the Attorney General finds that emergency conditions will materially affect the functioning of the Bureau, the Director of the Bureau may lengthen the maximum amount of time for which the Director is authorized to place a prisoner in home confinement under the first sentence of section 3624(c)(2) of title 18, United States Code, as the Director determines appropriate.

"(c) Video Visitation.—

"(1) In general.—During the covered emergency period, if the Attorney General finds that emergency conditions will materially affect the functioning of the Bureau, the Director of the Bureau shall promulgate rules regarding the ability of inmates to conduct visitation through video teleconferencing and telephonically, free of charge to inmates, during the covered emergency period.

"(2) Exemption from notice-and-comment rulemaking requirements.—Section 553 of title 5, United States Code, shall not apply to the promulgation of rules under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

"(d) Emergency Requirement.—The amount provided by this section is designated by the Congress as being for an emergency requirement pursuant to section 251(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 [2 U.S.C. 901(b)(2)(A)(i)]."

GAO Report

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §103, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5213, provided that: "Not later than 2 years after the Director of the Bureau of Prisons implements the risk and needs assessment system under section 3621 of title 18, United States Code, and every 2 years thereafter, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an audit of the use of the risk and needs assessment system at Bureau of Prisons facilities. The audit shall include analysis of the following:

"(1) Whether inmates are being assessed under the risk and needs assessment system with the frequency required under such section 3621 of title 18, United States Code.

"(2) Whether the Bureau of Prisons is able to offer recidivism reduction programs and productive activities (as such terms are defined in section 3635 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act).

"(3) Whether the Bureau of Prisons is offering the type, amount, and intensity of recidivism reduction programs and productive activities for prisoners to earn the maximum amount of time credits for which they are eligible.

"(4) Whether the Attorney General is carrying out the duties under section 3631(b) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.

"(5) Whether officers and employees of the Bureau of Prisons are receiving the training described in section 3632(f) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.

"(6) Whether the Bureau of Prisons offers work assignments to all prisoners who might benefit from such an assignment.

"(7) Whether the Bureau of Prisons transfers prisoners to prerelease custody or supervised release as soon as they are eligible for such a transfer under section 3624(g) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 102(b) of this Act.

"(8) The rates of recidivism among similarly classified prisoners to identify any unwarranted disparities, including disparities among similarly classified prisoners of different demographic groups, in such rates."

Faith-Based Considerations

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §106, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5214, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In considering any program, treatment, regimen, group, company, charity, person, or entity of any kind under any provision of this Act [see Tables for classification], or the amendments made by this Act, the fact that it may be or is faith-based may not be a basis for any discrimination against it in any manner or for any purpose.

"(b) Eligibility for Earned Time Credit.—Participation in a faith-based program, treatment, or regimen may qualify a prisoner for earned time credit under subchapter D of chapter 229 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, however, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall ensure that non-faith-based programs that qualify for earned time credit are offered at each Bureau of Prisons facility in addition to any such faith-based programs.

"(c) Limitation on Activities.—A group, company, charity, person, or entity may not engage in explicitly religious activities using direct financial assistance made available under this title [enacting subchapter D of this chapter, amending this section and section 3624 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 3624 and 3631 of this title] or the amendments made by this title.

"(d) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this Act, or the amendments made by this Act, may be construed to amend any requirement under Federal law or the Constitution of the United States regarding funding for faith-based programs or activities."

Evidence-Based Treatment for Opioid and Heroin Abuse

Pub. L. 115–391, title VI, §607, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5244, provided that:

"(a) Report on Evidence-based Treatment for Opioid and Heroin Abuse.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and of the House of Representatives a report assessing the availability of and the capacity of the Bureau of Prisons to treat heroin and opioid abuse through evidence-based programs, including medication-assisted treatment where appropriate. In preparing the report, the Director shall consider medication-assisted treatment as a strategy to assist in treatment where appropriate and not as a replacement for holistic and other drug-free approaches. The report shall include a description of plans to expand access to evidence-based treatment for heroin and opioid abuse for prisoners, including access to medication-assisted treatment in appropriate cases. Following submission, the Director shall take steps to implement these plans.

"(b) Report on the Availability of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid and Heroin Abuse, and Implementation Thereof.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and of the House of Representatives a report assessing the availability of and capacity for the provision of medication-assisted treatment for opioid and heroin abuse by treatment service providers serving prisoners who are serving a term of supervised release, and including a description of plans to expand access to medication-assisted treatment for heroin and opioid abuse whenever appropriate among prisoners under supervised release. Following submission, the Director will take steps to implement these plans."

1 So in original. Probably should be "pharmacotherapies,".

§3622. Temporary release of a prisoner

The Bureau of Prisons may release a prisoner from the place of his imprisonment for a limited period if such release appears to be consistent with the purpose for which the sentence was imposed and any pertinent policy statement issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(2), if such release otherwise appears to be consistent with the public interest and if there is reasonable cause to believe that a prisoner will honor the trust to be imposed in him, by authorizing him, under prescribed conditions, to—

(a) visit a designated place for a period not to exceed thirty days, and then return to the same or another facility, for the purpose of—

(1) visiting a relative who is dying;

(2) attending a funeral of a relative;

(3) obtaining medical treatment not otherwise available;

(4) contacting a prospective employer;

(5) establishing or reestablishing family or community ties; or

(6) engaging in any other significant activity consistent with the public interest;


(b) participate in a training or educational program in the community while continuing in official detention at the prison facility; or

(c) work at paid employment in the community while continuing in official detention at the penal or correctional facility if—

(1) the rates of pay and other conditions of employment will not be less than those paid or provided for work of a similar nature in the community; and

(2) the prisoner agrees to pay to the Bureau such costs incident to official detention as the Bureau finds appropriate and reasonable under all the circumstances, such costs to be collected by the Bureau and deposited in the Treasury to the credit of the appropriation available for such costs at the time such collections are made.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2007.)

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3622, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 11755. Prison Labor

Ex. Ord. No. 11755, Dec. 29, 1973, 39 F.R. 779, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617; Ex. Ord. No. 12943, Dec. 13, 1994, 59 F.R. 64553, provided:

The development of the occupational and educational skills of prison inmates is essential to their rehabilitation and to their ability to make an effective return to free society. Meaningful employment serves to develop those skills. It is also true, however, that care must be exercised to avoid either the exploitation of convict labor or any unfair competition between convict labor and free labor in the production of goods and services.

Under sections 3621 and 3622 of title 18, United States Code, the Bureau of Prisons is empowered to authorize Federal prisoners to work at paid employment in the community during their terms of imprisonment under conditions that protect against both the exploitation of convict labor and unfair competition with free labor.

Several states and other jurisdictions have similar laws or regulations under which individuals confined for violations of the laws of those places may be authorized to work at paid employment in the community.

Executive Order No. 325A, which was originally issued by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1905, prohibits the employment, in the performance of Federal contracts, of any person who is serving a sentence of imprisonment at hard labor imposed by a court of a State, territory, or municipality.

I have now determined that Executive Order No. 325A should be replaced with a new Executive Order which would permit the employment of non-Federal prison inmates in the performance of Federal contracts under terms and conditions that are comparable to those now applicable to inmates of Federal prisons.

NOW, THEREFORE, pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. (a) All contracts involving the use of appropriated funds which shall hereafter be entered into by any department or agency of the executive branch for performance in any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands shall, unless otherwise provided by law, contain a stipulation forbidding in the performance of such contracts, the employment of persons undergoing sentences of imprisonment which have been imposed by any court of a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. This limitation, however, shall not prohibit the employment by a contractor in the performance of such contracts of persons on parole or probation to work at paid employment during the term of their sentence or persons who have been pardoned or who have served their terms. Nor shall it prohibit the employment by a contractor in the performance of such contracts of persons confined for violation of the laws of any of the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands who are authorized to work at paid employment in the community under the laws of such jurisdiction, if

(1)(A) The worker is paid or is in an approved work training program on a voluntary basis;

(B) Representatives of local union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted;

(C) Such paid employment will not result in the displacement of employed workers, or be applied in skills, crafts, or trades in which there is a surplus of available gainful labor in the locality, or impair existing contracts for services; and

(D) The rates of pay and other conditions of employment will not be less than those paid or provided for work of a similar nature in the locality in which the work is being performed; and

(2) The Attorney General has certified that the work-release laws or regulations of the jurisdiction involved are in conformity with the requirements of this order.

(b) After notice and opportunity for hearing, the Attorney General shall revoke any such certification under section 1(a)(2) if he finds that the work-release program of the jurisdiction involved is not being conducted in conformity with the requirements of this order or with its intent or purposes.

(c) The provisions of this order do not apply to purchases made under the micropurchase authority contained in section 32 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act, as amended [now 41 U.S.C. 1902].

Sec. 2. The Federal Procurement Regulations, the Armed Services Procurement Regulations, and to the extent necessary, any supplemental or comparable regulations issued by any agency of the executive branch shall be revised to reflect the policy prescribed by this order.

Sec. 3. Executive Order No. 325A is hereby superseded.

Sec. 4. This order shall be effective as of January 1, 1974.

§3623. Transfer of a prisoner to State authority

The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall order that a prisoner who has been charged in an indictment or information with, or convicted of, a State felony, be transferred to an official detention facility within such State prior to his release from a Federal prison facility if—

(1) the transfer has been requested by the Governor or other executive authority of the State;

(2) the State has presented to the Director a certified copy of the indictment, information, or judgment of conviction; and

(3) the Director finds that the transfer would be in the public interest.


If more than one request is presented with respect to a prisoner, the Director shall determine which request should receive preference. The expenses of such transfer shall be borne by the State requesting the transfer.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2008.)

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3623, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3624. Release of a prisoner

(a) Date of Release.—A prisoner shall be released by the Bureau of Prisons on the date of the expiration of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, less any time credited toward the service of the prisoner's sentence as provided in subsection (b). If the date for a prisoner's release falls on a Saturday, a Sunday, or a legal holiday at the place of confinement, the prisoner may be released by the Bureau on the last preceding weekday.

(b) Credit Toward Service of Sentence for Satisfactory Behavior.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), a prisoner who is serving a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year 1 other than a term of imprisonment for the duration of the prisoner's life, may receive credit toward the service of the prisoner's sentence of up to 54 days for each year of the prisoner's sentence imposed by the court, subject to determination by the Bureau of Prisons that, during that year, the prisoner has displayed exemplary compliance with institutional disciplinary regulations. Subject to paragraph (2), if the Bureau determines that, during that year, the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with such institutional regulations, the prisoner shall receive no such credit toward service of the prisoner's sentence or shall receive such lesser credit as the Bureau determines to be appropriate. In awarding credit under this section, the Bureau shall consider whether the prisoner, during the relevant period, has earned, or is making satisfactory progress toward earning, a high school diploma or an equivalent degree. Credit that has not been earned may not later be granted. Subject to paragraph (2), credit for the last year of a term of imprisonment shall be credited on the first day of the last year of the term of imprisonment.

(2) Notwithstanding any other law, credit awarded under this subsection after the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act shall vest on the date the prisoner is released from custody.

(3) The Attorney General shall ensure that the Bureau of Prisons has in effect an optional General Educational Development program for inmates who have not earned a high school diploma or its equivalent.

(4) Exemptions to the General Educational Development requirement may be made as deemed appropriate by the Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

(c) Prerelease Custody.—

(1) In general.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, ensure that a prisoner serving a term of imprisonment spends a portion of the final months of that term (not to exceed 12 months), under conditions that will afford that prisoner a reasonable opportunity to adjust to and prepare for the reentry of that prisoner into the community. Such conditions may include a community correctional facility.

(2) Home confinement authority.—The authority under this subsection may be used to place a prisoner in home confinement for the shorter of 10 percent of the term of imprisonment of that prisoner or 6 months. The Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, place prisoners with lower risk levels and lower needs on home confinement for the maximum amount of time permitted under this paragraph.

(3) Assistance.—The United States Probation System shall, to the extent practicable, offer assistance to a prisoner during prerelease custody under this subsection.

(4) No limitations.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit or restrict the authority of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons under section 3621.

(5) Reporting.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (and every year thereafter), the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall transmit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report describing the Bureau's utilization of community corrections facilities. Each report under this paragraph shall set forth the number and percentage of Federal prisoners placed in community corrections facilities during the preceding year, the average length of such placements, trends in such utilization, the reasons some prisoners are not placed in community corrections facilities, and number of prisoners not being placed in community corrections facilities for each reason set forth, and any other information that may be useful to the committees in determining if the Bureau is utilizing community corrections facilities in an effective manner.

(6) Issuance of regulations.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall issue regulations pursuant to this subsection not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2018, which shall ensure that placement in a community correctional facility by the Bureau of Prisons is—

(A) conducted in a manner consistent with section 3621(b) of this title;

(B) determined on an individual basis; and

(C) of sufficient duration to provide the greatest likelihood of successful reintegration into the community.


(d) Allotment of Clothing, Funds, and Transportation.—Upon the release of a prisoner on the expiration of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, the Bureau of Prisons shall furnish the prisoner with—

(1) suitable clothing;

(2) an amount of money, not more than $500, determined by the Director to be consistent with the needs of the offender and the public interest, unless the Director determines that the financial position of the offender is such that no sum should be furnished; and

(3) transportation to the place of the prisoner's conviction, to the prisoner's bona fide residence within the United States, or to such other place within the United States as may be authorized by the Director.


(e) Supervision After Release.—A prisoner whose sentence includes a term of supervised release after imprisonment shall be released by the Bureau of Prisons to the supervision of a probation officer who shall, during the term imposed, supervise the person released to the degree warranted by the conditions specified by the sentencing court. The term of supervised release commences on the day the person is released from imprisonment and runs concurrently with any Federal, State, or local term of probation or supervised release or parole for another offense to which the person is subject or becomes subject during the term of supervised release. A term of supervised release does not run during any period in which the person is imprisoned in connection with a conviction for a Federal, State, or local crime unless the imprisonment is for a period of less than 30 consecutive days. Upon the release of a prisoner by the Bureau of Prisons to supervised release, the Bureau of Prisons shall notify such prisoner, verbally and in writing, of the requirement that the prisoner adhere to an installment schedule, not to exceed 2 years except in special circumstances, to pay for any fine imposed for the offense committed by such prisoner, and of the consequences of failure to pay such fines under sections 3611 through 3614 of this title.

(f) Mandatory Functional Literacy Requirement.—

(1) The Attorney General shall direct the Bureau of Prisons to have in effect a mandatory functional literacy program for all mentally capable inmates who are not functionally literate in each Federal correctional institution within 6 months from the date of the enactment of this Act.

(2) Each mandatory functional literacy program shall include a requirement that each inmate participate in such program for a mandatory period sufficient to provide the inmate with an adequate opportunity to achieve functional literacy, and appropriate incentives which lead to successful completion of such programs shall be developed and implemented.

(3) As used in this section, the term "functional literacy" means—

(A) an eighth grade equivalence in reading and mathematics on a nationally recognized standardized test;

(B) functional competency or literacy on a nationally recognized criterion-referenced test; or

(C) a combination of subparagraphs (A) and (B).


(4) Non-English speaking inmates shall be required to participate in an English-As-A-Second-Language program until they function at the equivalence of the eighth grade on a nationally recognized educational achievement test.

(5) The Chief Executive Officer of each institution shall have authority to grant waivers for good cause as determined and documented on an individual basis.


(g) Prerelease Custody or Supervised Release for Risk and Needs Assessment System Participants.—

(1) Eligible prisoners.—This subsection applies in the case of a prisoner (as such term is defined in section 3635) who—

(A) has earned time credits under the risk and needs assessment system developed under subchapter D (referred to in this subsection as the "System") in an amount that is equal to the remainder of the prisoner's imposed term of imprisonment;

(B) has shown through the periodic risk reassessments a demonstrated recidivism risk reduction or has maintained a minimum or low recidivism risk, during the prisoner's term of imprisonment;

(C) has had the remainder of the prisoner's imposed term of imprisonment computed under applicable law; and

(D)(i) in the case of a prisoner being placed in prerelease custody, the prisoner—

(I) has been determined under the System to be a minimum or low risk to recidivate pursuant to the last 2 reassessments of the prisoner; or

(II) has had a petition to be transferred to prerelease custody or supervised release approved by the warden of the prison, after the warden's determination that—

(aa) the prisoner would not be a danger to society if transferred to prerelease custody or supervised release;

(bb) the prisoner has made a good faith effort to lower their recidivism risk through participation in recidivism reduction programs or productive activities; and

(cc) the prisoner is unlikely to recidivate; or


(ii) in the case of a prisoner being placed in supervised release, the prisoner has been determined under the System to be a minimum or low risk to recidivate pursuant to the last reassessment of the prisoner.


(2) Types of prerelease custody.—A prisoner shall be placed in prerelease custody as follows:

(A) Home confinement.—

(i) In general.—A prisoner placed in prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection who is placed in home confinement shall—

(I) be subject to 24-hour electronic monitoring that enables the prompt identification of the prisoner, location, and time, in the case of any violation of subclause (II);

(II) remain in the prisoner's residence, except that the prisoner may leave the prisoner's home in order to, subject to the approval of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons—

(aa) perform a job or job-related activities, including an apprenticeship, or participate in job-seeking activities;

(bb) participate in evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive activities assigned by the System, or similar activities;

(cc) perform community service;

(dd) participate in crime victim restoration activities;

(ee) receive medical treatment;

(ff) attend religious activities; or

(gg) participate in other family-related activities that facilitate the prisoner's successful reentry such as a family funeral, a family wedding, or to visit a family member who is seriously ill; and


(III) comply with such other conditions as the Director determines appropriate.


(ii) Alternate means of monitoring.—If the electronic monitoring of a prisoner described in clause (i)(I) is infeasible for technical or religious reasons, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may use alternative means of monitoring a prisoner placed in home confinement that the Director determines are as effective or more effective than the electronic monitoring described in clause (i)(I).

(iii) Modifications.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons may modify the conditions described in clause (i) if the Director determines that a compelling reason exists to do so, and that the prisoner has demonstrated exemplary compliance with such conditions.

(iv) Duration.—Except as provided in paragraph (4), a prisoner who is placed in home confinement shall remain in home confinement until the prisoner has served not less than 85 percent of the prisoner's imposed term of imprisonment.


(B) Residential reentry center.—A prisoner placed in prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection who is placed at a residential reentry center shall be subject to such conditions as the Director of the Bureau of Prisons determines appropriate.


(3) Supervised release.—If the sentencing court included as a part of the prisoner's sentence a requirement that the prisoner be placed on a term of supervised release after imprisonment pursuant to section 3583, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may transfer the prisoner to begin any such term of supervised release at an earlier date, not to exceed 12 months, based on the application of time credits under section 3632.

(4) Determination of conditions.—In determining appropriate conditions for prisoners placed in prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, provide that increasingly less restrictive conditions shall be imposed on prisoners who demonstrate continued compliance with the conditions of such prerelease custody, so as to most effectively prepare such prisoners for reentry.

(5) Violations of conditions.—If a prisoner violates a condition of the prisoner's prerelease custody, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may impose such additional conditions on the prisoner's prerelease custody as the Director of the Bureau of Prisons determines appropriate, or revoke the prisoner's prerelease custody and require the prisoner to serve the remainder of the term of imprisonment to which the prisoner was sentenced, or any portion thereof, in prison. If the violation is nontechnical in nature, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall revoke the prisoner's prerelease custody.

(6) Issuance of guidelines.—The Attorney General, in consultation with the Assistant Director for the Office of Probation and Pretrial Services, shall issue guidelines for use by the Bureau of Prisons in determining—

(A) the appropriate type of prerelease custody or supervised release and level of supervision for a prisoner placed on prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection; and

(B) consequences for a violation of a condition of such prerelease custody by such a prisoner, including a return to prison and a reassessment of evidence-based recidivism risk level under the System.


(7) Agreements with united states probation and pretrial services.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to the greatest extent practicable, enter into agreements with United States Probation and Pretrial Services to supervise prisoners placed in home confinement under this subsection. Such agreements shall—

(A) authorize United States Probation and Pretrial Services to exercise the authority granted to the Director pursuant to paragraphs (3) and (4); and

(B) take into account the resource requirements of United States Probation and Pretrial Services as a result of the transfer of Bureau of Prisons prisoners to prerelease custody or supervised release.


(8) Assistance.—United States Probation and Pretrial Services shall, to the greatest extent practicable, offer assistance to any prisoner not under its supervision during prerelease custody under this subsection.

(9) Mentoring, reentry, and spiritual services.—Any prerelease custody into which a prisoner is placed under this subsection may not include a condition prohibiting the prisoner from receiving mentoring, reentry, or spiritual services from a person who provided such services to the prisoner while the prisoner was incarcerated, except that the warden of the facility at which the prisoner was incarcerated may waive the requirement under this paragraph if the warden finds that the provision of such services would pose a significant security risk to the prisoner, persons who provide such services, or any other person. The warden shall provide written notice of any such waiver to the person providing such services and to the prisoner.

(10) Time limits inapplicable.—The time limits under subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to prerelease custody under this subsection.

(11) Prerelease custody capacity.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall ensure there is sufficient prerelease custody capacity to accommodate all eligible prisoners.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2008; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §§16(a), 17(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXIX, §§2902(a), 2904, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4913; Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §§20405, 20412, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1825, 1828; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1091(c), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-76; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 110–177, title V, §505, Jan. 7, 2008, 121 Stat. 2542; Pub. L. 110–199, title II, §251(a), Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 692; Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §102(b)(1), title V, §504(c), title VI, §602, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5210, 5233, 5238.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), probably means the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995, section 101[(a)] [title VIII] of Pub. L. 104–134, which was approved Apr. 26, 1996.

The date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007, referred to in subsec. (c)(5), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–199, which was approved Apr. 9, 2008.

The date of the enactment of the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), is the date of enactment of title V of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

The date of the enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–647, which enacted subsec. (f) and was approved Nov. 29, 1990.

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3624, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–391, §102(b)(1)(A), substituted "of up to 54 days for each year of the prisoner's sentence imposed by the court," for ", beyond the time served, of up to 54 days at the end of each year of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, beginning at the end of the first year of the term," and "credit for the last year of a term of imprisonment shall be credited on the first day of the last year of the term of imprisonment" for "credit for the last year or portion of a year of the term of imprisonment shall be prorated and credited within the last six weeks of the sentence".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–391, §602, inserted at end "The Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, place prisoners with lower risk levels and lower needs on home confinement for the maximum amount of time permitted under this paragraph."

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(c)(1), inserted ", and number of prisoners not being placed in community corrections facilities for each reason set forth" before ", and any other information".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(c)(2), substituted "the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2018" for "the Second Chance Act of 2007" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–391, §102(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (g).

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–199 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, assure that a prisoner serving a term of imprisonment spends a reasonable part, not to exceed six months, of the last 10 per centum of the term to be served under conditions that will afford the prisoner a reasonable opportunity to adjust to and prepare for the prisoner's re-entry into the community. The authority provided by this subsection may be used to place a prisoner in home confinement. The United States Probation System shall, to the extent practicable, offer assistance to a prisoner during such pre-release custody."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–177 substituted "Upon the release of a prisoner by the Bureau of Prisons to supervised release, the Bureau of Prisons shall notify such prisoner, verbally and in writing, of the requirement that the prisoner adhere to an installment schedule, not to exceed 2 years except in special circumstances, to pay for any fine imposed for the offense committed by such prisoner, and of the consequences of failure to pay such fines under sections 3611 through 3614 of this title." for "No prisoner shall be released on supervision unless such prisoner agrees to adhere to an installment schedule, not to exceed two years except in special circumstances, to pay for any fine imposed for the offense committed by such prisoner."

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(A)], struck out at beginning "A prisoner (other than a prisoner serving a sentence for a crime of violence) who is serving a term of imprisonment of more than one year, other than a term of imprisonment for the duration of the prisoner's life, shall receive credit toward the service of the prisoner's sentence, beyond the time served, of fifty-four days at the end of each year of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, beginning at the end of the first year of the term, unless the Bureau of Prisons determines that, during that year, the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with such institutional disciplinary regulations as have been approved by the Attorney General and issued to the prisoner."

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(B)], in second sentence substituted "Subject to paragraph (2), a prisoner" for "A prisoner", struck out "for a crime of violence," after "1 year", and struck out "such" after "compliance with".

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(C)], in third sentence substituted "Subject to paragraph (2), if the Bureau" for "If the Bureau".

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(D)], in fourth sentence substituted "In awarding credit under this section, the Bureau shall consider whether the prisoner, during the relevant period, has earned, or is making satisfactory progress toward earning, a high school diploma or an equivalent degree." for "The Bureau's determination shall be made within fifteen days after the end of each year of the sentence."

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(E)], in sixth sentence substituted "Subject to paragraph (2), credit for the last" for "Credit for the last".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(2)], amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Credit toward a prisoner's service of sentence shall not be vested unless the prisoner has earned or is making satisfactory progress toward a high school diploma or an equivalent degree."

1995—Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out par. (6) which read as follows: "A report shall be provided to Congress on an annual basis summarizing the results of this program, including the number of inmate participants, the number successfully completing the program, the number who do not successfully complete the program, and the reasons for failure to successfully complete the program."

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §20405(2), substituted "the prisoner's" for "his" after "the expiration of" and "toward the service of".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §20412(1), (2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Credit that has not been earned may not later be granted." for "Such credit toward service of sentence vests at the time that it is received. Credit that has vested may not later be withdrawn, and credit that has not been earned may not later be granted.", and added pars. (2) to (4).

Pub. L. 103–322, §20405, inserted "(other than a prisoner serving a sentence for a crime of violence)" after "A prisoner" in first sentence, substituted "the prisoner" for "he" before "has not satisfactorily complied with" in first sentence and before "shall receive no such credit toward" in third sentence and "the prisoner's" for "his" wherever appearing in first and third sentences, and inserted after first sentence "A prisoner who is serving a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year for a crime of violence, other than a term of imprisonment for the duration of the prisoner's life, may receive credit toward the service of the prisoner's sentence, beyond the time served, of up to 54 days at the end of each year of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, beginning at the end of the first year of the term, subject to determination by the Bureau of Prisons that, during that year, the prisoner has displayed exemplary compliance with such institutional disciplinary regulations."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–322, §20405(2), substituted "the prisoner's re-entry" for "his re-entry".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–322, §20405(2), (3), substituted "the prisoner" for "him" in introductory provisions and "the prisoner's" for "his" wherever appearing in introductory provisions and par. (3).

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647, §2902(a), inserted after first sentence "The authority provided by this subsection may be used to place a prisoner in home confinement."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–647, §2904, added subsec. (f).

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §16(a), substituted "beginning at the end of" for "beginning after".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–646, §17(a), substituted "imprisonment and runs concurrently" for "imprisonment. The term runs concurrently" and "supervised released. A term of supervised release does not run" for "supervised release, except that it does not run", struck out ", other than during limited intervals as a condition of probation or supervised release," after "person is imprisoned", and inserted "unless the imprisonment is for a period of less than 30 consecutive days" before the period at end of third sentence.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §102(b)(2), (3), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5213, provided that:

"(2) Effective date.—The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect beginning on the date that the Attorney General completes and releases the risk and needs assessment system under subchapter D of chapter 229 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.

"(3) Applicability.—The amendments made by this subsection shall apply with respect to offenses committed before, on, or after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], except that such amendments shall not apply with respect to offenses committed before November 1, 1987."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–647, title XXIX, §2902(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4913, provided that: "Section 3624(c) of title 18, United States Code, as amended by this section, shall apply with respect to all inmates, regardless of the date of their offense."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–646, §16(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the taking effect of such section 3624 [Nov. 1, 1987]."

Pub. L. 99–646, §17(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the taking effect of such section 3624 [Nov. 1, 1987]."

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendments by Pub. L. 110–199 and requirements for grants made under such amendments, see section 60504 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§3625. Inapplicability of the Administrative Procedure Act

The provisions of sections 554 and 555 and 701 through 706 of title 5, United States Code, do not apply to the making of any determination, decision, or order under this subchapter.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2010.)

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3626. Appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions

(a) Requirements for Relief.—

(1) Prospective relief.—(A) Prospective relief in any civil action with respect to prison conditions shall extend no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right of a particular plaintiff or plaintiffs. The court shall not grant or approve any prospective relief unless the court finds that such relief is narrowly drawn, extends no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right, and is the least intrusive means necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right. The court shall give substantial weight to any adverse impact on public safety or the operation of a criminal justice system caused by the relief.

(B) The court shall not order any prospective relief that requires or permits a government official to exceed his or her authority under State or local law or otherwise violates State or local law, unless—

(i) Federal law requires such relief to be ordered in violation of State or local law;

(ii) the relief is necessary to correct the violation of a Federal right; and

(iii) no other relief will correct the violation of the Federal right.


(C) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the courts, in exercising their remedial powers, to order the construction of prisons or the raising of taxes, or to repeal or detract from otherwise applicable limitations on the remedial powers of the courts.

(2) Preliminary injunctive relief.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, to the extent otherwise authorized by law, the court may enter a temporary restraining order or an order for preliminary injunctive relief. Preliminary injunctive relief must be narrowly drawn, extend no further than necessary to correct the harm the court finds requires preliminary relief, and be the least intrusive means necessary to correct that harm. The court shall give substantial weight to any adverse impact on public safety or the operation of a criminal justice system caused by the preliminary relief and shall respect the principles of comity set out in paragraph (1)(B) in tailoring any preliminary relief. Preliminary injunctive relief shall automatically expire on the date that is 90 days after its entry, unless the court makes the findings required under subsection (a)(1) for the entry of prospective relief and makes the order final before the expiration of the 90-day period.

(3) Prisoner release order.—(A) In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, no court shall enter a prisoner release order unless—

(i) a court has previously entered an order for less intrusive relief that has failed to remedy the deprivation of the Federal right sought to be remedied through the prisoner release order; and

(ii) the defendant has had a reasonable amount of time to comply with the previous court orders.


(B) In any civil action in Federal court with respect to prison conditions, a prisoner release order shall be entered only by a three-judge court in accordance with section 2284 of title 28, if the requirements of subparagraph (E) have been met.

(C) A party seeking a prisoner release order in Federal court shall file with any request for such relief, a request for a three-judge court and materials sufficient to demonstrate that the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.

(D) If the requirements under subparagraph (A) have been met, a Federal judge before whom a civil action with respect to prison conditions is pending who believes that a prison release order should be considered may sua sponte request the convening of a three-judge court to determine whether a prisoner release order should be entered.

(E) The three-judge court shall enter a prisoner release order only if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that—

(i) crowding is the primary cause of the violation of a Federal right; and

(ii) no other relief will remedy the violation of the Federal right.


(F) Any State or local official including a legislator or unit of government whose jurisdiction or function includes the appropriation of funds for the construction, operation, or maintenance of prison facilities, or the prosecution or custody of persons who may be released from, or not admitted to, a prison as a result of a prisoner release order shall have standing to oppose the imposition or continuation in effect of such relief and to seek termination of such relief, and shall have the right to intervene in any proceeding relating to such relief.


(b) Termination of Relief.—

(1) Termination of prospective relief.—(A) In any civil action with respect to prison conditions in which prospective relief is ordered, such relief shall be terminable upon the motion of any party or intervener—

(i) 2 years after the date the court granted or approved the prospective relief;

(ii) 1 year after the date the court has entered an order denying termination of prospective relief under this paragraph; or

(iii) in the case of an order issued on or before the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, 2 years after such date of enactment.


(B) Nothing in this section shall prevent the parties from agreeing to terminate or modify relief before the relief is terminated under subparagraph (A).

(2) Immediate termination of prospective relief.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, a defendant or intervener shall be entitled to the immediate termination of any prospective relief if the relief was approved or granted in the absence of a finding by the court that the relief is narrowly drawn, extends no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right, and is the least intrusive means necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right.

(3) Limitation.—Prospective relief shall not terminate if the court makes written findings based on the record that prospective relief remains necessary to correct a current and ongoing violation of the Federal right, extends no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right, and that the prospective relief is narrowly drawn and the least intrusive means to correct the violation.

(4) Termination or modification of relief.—Nothing in this section shall prevent any party or intervener from seeking modification or termination before the relief is terminable under paragraph (1) or (2), to the extent that modification or termination would otherwise be legally permissible.


(c) Settlements.—

(1) Consent decrees.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, the court shall not enter or approve a consent decree unless it complies with the limitations on relief set forth in subsection (a).

(2) Private settlement agreements.—(A) Nothing in this section shall preclude parties from entering into a private settlement agreement that does not comply with the limitations on relief set forth in subsection (a), if the terms of that agreement are not subject to court enforcement other than the reinstatement of the civil proceeding that the agreement settled.

(B) Nothing in this section shall preclude any party claiming that a private settlement agreement has been breached from seeking in State court any remedy available under State law.


(d) State Law Remedies.—The limitations on remedies in this section shall not apply to relief entered by a State court based solely upon claims arising under State law.

(e) Procedure for Motions Affecting Prospective Relief.—

(1) Generally.—The court shall promptly rule on any motion to modify or terminate prospective relief in a civil action with respect to prison conditions. Mandamus shall lie to remedy any failure to issue a prompt ruling on such a motion.

(2) Automatic stay.—Any motion to modify or terminate prospective relief made under subsection (b) shall operate as a stay during the period—

(A)(i) beginning on the 30th day after such motion is filed, in the case of a motion made under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b); or

(ii) beginning on the 180th day after such motion is filed, in the case of a motion made under any other law; and

(B) ending on the date the court enters a final order ruling on the motion.


(3) Postponement of automatic stay.—The court may postpone the effective date of an automatic stay specified in subsection (e)(2)(A) for not more than 60 days for good cause. No postponement shall be permissible because of general congestion of the court's calendar.

(4) Order blocking the automatic stay.—Any order staying, suspending, delaying, or barring the operation of the automatic stay described in paragraph (2) (other than an order to postpone the effective date of the automatic stay under paragraph (3)) shall be treated as an order refusing to dissolve or modify an injunction and shall be appealable pursuant to section 1292(a)(1) of title 28, United States Code, regardless of how the order is styled or whether the order is termed a preliminary or a final ruling.


(f) Special Masters.—

(1) In general.—(A) In any civil action in a Federal court with respect to prison conditions, the court may appoint a special master who shall be disinterested and objective and who will give due regard to the public safety, to conduct hearings on the record and prepare proposed findings of fact.

(B) The court shall appoint a special master under this subsection during the remedial phase of the action only upon a finding that the remedial phase will be sufficiently complex to warrant the appointment.

(2) Appointment.—(A) If the court determines that the appointment of a special master is necessary, the court shall request that the defendant institution and the plaintiff each submit a list of not more than 5 persons to serve as a special master.

(B) Each party shall have the opportunity to remove up to 3 persons from the opposing party's list.

(C) The court shall select the master from the persons remaining on the list after the operation of subparagraph (B).

(3) Interlocutory appeal.—Any party shall have the right to an interlocutory appeal of the judge's selection of the special master under this subsection, on the ground of partiality.

(4) Compensation.—The compensation to be allowed to a special master under this section shall be based on an hourly rate not greater than the hourly rate established under section 3006A for payment of court-appointed counsel, plus costs reasonably incurred by the special master. Such compensation and costs shall be paid with funds appropriated to the Judiciary.

(5) Regular review of appointment.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions in which a special master is appointed under this subsection, the court shall review the appointment of the special master every 6 months to determine whether the services of the special master continue to be required under paragraph (1). In no event shall the appointment of a special master extend beyond the termination of the relief.

(6) Limitations on powers and duties.—A special master appointed under this subsection—

(A) may be authorized by a court to conduct hearings and prepare proposed findings of fact, which shall be made on the record;

(B) shall not make any findings or communications ex parte;

(C) may be authorized by a court to assist in the development of remedial plans; and

(D) may be removed at any time, but shall be relieved of the appointment upon the termination of relief.


(g) Definitions.—As used in this section—

(1) the term "consent decree" means any relief entered by the court that is based in whole or in part upon the consent or acquiescence of the parties but does not include private settlements;

(2) the term "civil action with respect to prison conditions" means any civil proceeding arising under Federal law with respect to the conditions of confinement or the effects of actions by government officials on the lives of persons confined in prison, but does not include habeas corpus proceedings challenging the fact or duration of confinement in prison;

(3) the term "prisoner" means any person subject to incarceration, detention, or admission to any facility who is accused of, convicted of, sentenced for, or adjudicated delinquent for, violations of criminal law or the terms and conditions of parole, probation, pretrial release, or diversionary program;

(4) the term "prisoner release order" includes any order, including a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunctive relief, that has the purpose or effect of reducing or limiting the prison population, or that directs the release from or nonadmission of prisoners to a prison;

(5) the term "prison" means any Federal, State, or local facility that incarcerates or detains juveniles or adults accused of, convicted of, sentenced for, or adjudicated delinquent for, violations of criminal law;

(6) the term "private settlement agreement" means an agreement entered into among the parties that is not subject to judicial enforcement other than the reinstatement of the civil proceeding that the agreement settled;

(7) the term "prospective relief" means all relief other than compensatory monetary damages;

(8) the term "special master" means any person appointed by a Federal court pursuant to Rule 53 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or pursuant to any inherent power of the court to exercise the powers of a master, regardless of the title or description given by the court; and

(9) the term "relief" means all relief in any form that may be granted or approved by the court, and includes consent decrees but does not include private settlement agreements.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1827; amended Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-66; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §123(a), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2470.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii), probably means the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995, section 101[(a)] [title VIII] of Pub. L. 104–134, which was approved Apr. 26, 1996.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (g)(8), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(1)(A), substituted "requires" for "permits".

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(1)(B)(i), substituted "no court shall enter a prisoner release order unless" for "no prisoner release order shall be entered unless".

Subsec. (a)(3)(F). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(1)(B)(ii), inserted "including a legislator" after "local official" and substituted "prison facilities" for "program facilities".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(2), substituted "current and ongoing" for "current or ongoing".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(3)(A), inserted at end "Mandamus shall lie to remedy any failure to issue a prompt ruling on such a motion."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(3)(B), substituted "Any motion to modify or terminate prospective relief made under subsection (b) shall operate as a stay" for "Any prospective relief subject to a pending motion shall be automatically stayed".

Subsec. (e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(3)(C), added pars. (3) and (4).

1996Pub. L. 104–134 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions for former provisions relating to appropriate remedies with respect to prison crowding.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §123(b), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2471, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [probably should be "section", amending this section] shall take effect upon the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 26, 1997] and shall apply to pending cases."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(b)(1)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-70, provided that: "Section 3626 of title 18, United States Code, as amended by this section, shall apply with respect to all prospective relief whether such relief was originally granted or approved before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this title [Apr. 26, 1996]."

Effective and Termination Dates

Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1828, which provided that this section applied to all court orders outstanding on Sept. 13, 1994, and Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(d), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1828, which provided for the repeal of this section 5 years after Sept. 13, 1994, were repealed by Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(b)(2)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-70; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.

Severability

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §810], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-77, provided that: "If any provision of this title [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 3601 of this title], an amendment made by this title, or the application of such provision or amendment to any person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this title, the amendments made by this title, and the application of the provisions of such to any person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby."

Special Masters Appointed Prior to April 26, 1996; Prohibition on Use of Funds

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(a) [title III, §306], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009-45, provided that: "None of the funds available to the Judiciary in fiscal years 1996 and 1997 and hereafter shall be available for expenses authorized pursuant to section 802(a) of title VIII of section 101(a) of title I of the Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996, Public Law 104–134 [amending this section], for costs related to the appointment of Special Masters prior to April 26, 1996."

Payment of Damage Award in Satisfaction of Pending Restitution Orders

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §807], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-75, provided that: "Any compensatory damages awarded to a prisoner in connection with a civil action brought against any Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility or against any official or agent of such jail, prison, or correctional facility, shall be paid directly to satisfy any outstanding restitution orders pending against the prisoner. The remainder of any such award after full payment of all pending restitution orders shall be forwarded to the prisoner."

Notice to Crime Victims of Pending Damage Award

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §808], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-76, provided that: "Prior to payment of any compensatory damages awarded to a prisoner in connection with a civil action brought against any Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility or against any official or agent of such jail, prison, or correctional facility, reasonable efforts shall be made to notify the victims of the crime for which the prisoner was convicted and incarcerated concerning the pending payment of any such compensatory damages."

SUBCHAPTER D—RISK AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

Sec.
3631.
Duties of the Attorney General.
3632.
Development of risk and needs assessment system.
3633.
Evidence-based recidivism reduction program and recommendations.
3634.
Report.
3635.
Definitions.

        

§3631. Duties of the Attorney General

(a) In General.—The Attorney General shall carry out this subchapter in consultation with—

(1) the Director of the Bureau of Prisons;

(2) the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts;

(3) the Director of the Office of Probation and Pretrial Services;

(4) the Director of the National Institute of Justice;

(5) the Director of the National Institute of Corrections; and

(6) the Independent Review Committee authorized by the First Step Act of 2018 1


(b) Duties.—The Attorney General shall—

(1) conduct a review of the existing prisoner risk and needs assessment systems in operation on the date of enactment of this subchapter;

(2) develop recommendations regarding evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities in accordance with section 3633;

(3) conduct ongoing research and data analysis on—

(A) evidence-based recidivism reduction programs relating to the use of prisoner risk and needs assessment tools;

(B) the most effective and efficient uses of such programs;

(C) which evidence-based recidivism reduction programs are the most effective at reducing recidivism, and the type, amount, and intensity of programming that most effectively reduces the risk of recidivism; and

(D) products purchased by Federal agencies that are manufactured overseas and could be manufactured by prisoners participating in a prison work program without reducing job opportunities for other workers in the United States;


(4) on an annual basis, review, validate, and release publicly on the Department of Justice website the risk and needs assessment system, which review shall include—

(A) any subsequent changes to the risk and needs assessment system made after the date of enactment of this subchapter;

(B) the recommendations developed under paragraph (2), using the research conducted under paragraph (3);

(C) an evaluation to ensure that the risk and needs assessment system bases the assessment of each prisoner's risk of recidivism on indicators of progress and of regression that are dynamic and that can reasonably be expected to change while in prison;

(D) statistical validation of any tools that the risk and needs assessment system uses; and

(E) an evaluation of the rates of recidivism among similarly classified prisoners to identify any unwarranted disparities, including disparities among similarly classified prisoners of different demographic groups, in such rates;


(5) make any revisions or updates to the risk and needs assessment system that the Attorney General determines appropriate pursuant to the review under paragraph (4), including updates to ensure that any disparities identified in paragraph (4)(E) are reduced to the greatest extent possible; and

(6) report to Congress in accordance with section 3634.

(Added Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §101(a), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5195.)

References in Text

The First Step Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (a)(6), is Pub. L. 115–391, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5194. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note under section 1 of this title and Tables.

The date of enactment of this subchapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), (4)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

Independent Review Committee

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §107, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5215, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Attorney General shall consult with an Independent Review Committee in carrying out the Attorney General's duties under sections 3631(b), 3632 and 3633 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.

"(b) Formation of Independent Review Committee.—The National Institute of Justice shall select a nonpartisan and nonprofit organization with expertise in the study and development of risk and needs assessment tools to host the Independent Review Committee. The Independent Review Committee shall be established not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018].

"(c) Appointment of Independent Review Committee.—The organization selected by the National Institute of Justice shall appoint not fewer than 6 members to the Independent Review Committee.

"(d) Composition of the Independent Review Committee.—The members of the Independent Review Committee shall all have expertise in risk and needs assessment systems and shall include—

"(1) 2 individuals who have published peer-reviewed scholarship about risk and needs assessments in both corrections and community settings;

"(2) 2 corrections practitioners who have developed and implemented a risk assessment tool in a corrections system or in a community supervision setting, including 1 with prior experience working within the Bureau of Prisons; and

"(3) 1 individual with expertise in assessing risk assessment implementation.

"(e) Duties of the Independent Review Committee.—The Independent Review Committee shall assist the Attorney General in carrying out the Attorney General's duties under sections 3631(b), 3632 and 3633 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, including by assisting in—

"(1) conducting a review of the existing prisoner risk and needs assessment systems in operation on the date of enactment of this Act;

"(2) developing recommendations regarding evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities;

"(3) conducting research and data analysis on—

"(A) evidence-based recidivism reduction programs relating to the use of prisoner risk and needs assessment tools;

"(B) the most effective and efficient uses of such programs; and

"(C) which evidence-based recidivism reduction programs are the most effective at reducing recidivism, and the type, amount, and intensity of programming that most effectively reduces the risk of recidivism; and

"(4) reviewing and validating the risk and needs assessment system.

"(f) Bureau of Prisons Cooperation.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall assist the Independent Review Committee in performing the Committee's duties and promptly respond to requests from the Committee for access to Bureau of Prisons facilities, personnel, and information.

"(g) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Independent Review Committee shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives a report that includes—

"(1) a list of all offenses of conviction for which prisoners were ineligible to receive time credits under section 3632(d)(4)(D) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, and for each offense the number of prisoners excluded, including demographic percentages by age, race, and sex;

"(2) the criminal history categories of prisoners ineligible to receive time credits under section 3632(d)(4)(D) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, and for each category the number of prisoners excluded, including demographic percentages by age, race, and sex;

"(3) the number of prisoners ineligible to apply time credits under section 3632(d)(4)(D) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, who do not participate in recidivism reduction programming or productive activities, including the demographic percentages by age, race, and sex;

"(4) any recommendations for modifications to section 3632(d)(4)(D) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, and any other recommendations regarding recidivism reduction.

"(h) Termination.—The Independent Review Committee shall terminate on the date that is 2 years after the date on which the risk and needs assessment system authorized by sections 3632 and 3633 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, is released."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§3632. Development of risk and needs assessment system

(a) In General.—Not later than 210 days after the date of enactment of this subchapter, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Independent Review Committee authorized by the First Step Act of 2018, shall develop and release publicly on the Department of Justice website a risk and needs assessment system (referred to in this subchapter as the "System"), which shall be used to—

(1) determine the recidivism risk of each prisoner as part of the intake process, and classify each prisoner as having minimum, low, medium, or high risk for recidivism;

(2) assess and determine, to the extent practicable, the risk of violent or serious misconduct of each prisoner;

(3) determine the type and amount of evidence-based recidivism reduction programming that is appropriate for each prisoner and assign each prisoner to such programming accordingly, and based on the prisoner's specific criminogenic needs, and in accordance with subsection (b);

(4) reassess the recidivism risk of each prisoner periodically, based on factors including indicators of progress, and of regression, that are dynamic and that can reasonably be expected to change while in prison;

(5) reassign the prisoner to appropriate evidence-based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities based on the revised determination to ensure that—

(A) all prisoners at each risk level have a meaningful opportunity to reduce their classification during the period of incarceration;

(B) to address 1 the specific criminogenic needs of the prisoner; and

(C) all prisoners are able to successfully participate in such programs;


(6) determine when to provide incentives and rewards for successful participation in evidence-based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities in accordance with subsection (e);

(7) determine when a prisoner is ready to transfer into prerelease custody or supervised release in accordance with section 3624; and

(8) determine the appropriate use of audio technology for program course materials with an understanding of dyslexia.


In carrying out this subsection, the Attorney General may use existing risk and needs assessment tools, as appropriate.

(b) Assignment of Evidence-based Recidivism Reduction Programs.—The System shall provide guidance on the type, amount, and intensity of evidence-based recidivism reduction programming and productive activities that shall be assigned for each prisoner, including—

(1) programs in which the Bureau of Prisons shall assign the prisoner to participate, according to the prisoner's specific criminogenic needs; and

(2) information on the best ways that the Bureau of Prisons can tailor the programs to the specific criminogenic needs of each prisoner so as to most effectively lower each prisoner's risk of recidivism.


(c) Housing and Assignment Decisions.—The System shall provide guidance on program grouping and housing assignment determinations and, after accounting for the safety of each prisoner and other individuals at the prison, provide that prisoners with a similar risk level be grouped together in housing and assignment decisions to the extent practicable.

(d) Evidence-Based Recidivism Reduction Program Incentives and Productive Activities Rewards.—The System shall provide incentives and rewards for prisoners to participate in and complete evidence-based recidivism reduction programs as follows:

(1) Phone and visitation privileges.—A prisoner who is successfully participating in an evidence-based recidivism reduction program shall receive—

(A) phone privileges, or, if available, video conferencing privileges, for up to 30 minutes per day, and up to 510 minutes per month; and

(B) additional time for visitation at the prison, as determined by the warden of the prison.


(2) Transfer to institution closer to release residence.—A prisoner who is successfully participating in an evidence-based recidivism reduction program shall be considered by the Bureau of Prisons for placement in a facility closer to the prisoner's release residence upon request from the prisoner and subject to—

(A) bed availability at the transfer facility;

(B) the prisoner's security designation; and

(C) the recommendation from the warden of the prison at which the prisoner is incarcerated at the time of making the request.


(3) Additional policies.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall develop additional policies to provide appropriate incentives for successful participation and completion of evidence-based recidivism reduction programming. The incentives shall include not less than 2 of the following:

(A) Increased commissary spending limits and product offerings.

(B) Extended opportunities to access the email system.

(C) Consideration of transfer to preferred housing units (including transfer to different prison facilities).

(D) Other incentives solicited from prisoners and determined appropriate by the Director.


(4) Time credits.—

(A) In general.—A prisoner, except for an ineligible prisoner under subparagraph (D), who successfully completes evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive activities, shall earn time credits as follows:

(i) A prisoner shall earn 10 days of time credits for every 30 days of successful participation in evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive activities.

(ii) A prisoner determined by the Bureau of Prisons to be at a minimum or low risk for recidivating, who, over 2 consecutive assessments, has not increased their risk of recidivism, shall earn an additional 5 days of time credits for every 30 days of successful participation in evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive activities.


(B) Availability.—A prisoner may not earn time credits under this paragraph for an evidence-based recidivism reduction program that the prisoner successfully completed—

(i) prior to the date of enactment of this subchapter; or

(ii) during official detention prior to the date that the prisoner's sentence commences under section 3585(a).


(C) Application of time credits toward prerelease custody or supervised release.—Time credits earned under this paragraph by prisoners who successfully participate in recidivism reduction programs or productive activities shall be applied toward time in prerelease custody or supervised release. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall transfer eligible prisoners, as determined under section 3624(g), into prerelease custody or supervised release.

(D) Ineligible prisoners.—A prisoner is ineligible to receive time credits under this paragraph if the prisoner is serving a sentence for a conviction under any of the following provisions of law:

(i) Section 32, relating to destruction of aircraft or aircraft facilities.

(ii) Section 33, relating to destruction of motor vehicles or motor vehicle facilities.

(iii) Section 36, relating to drive-by shootings.

(iv) Section 81, relating to arson within special maritime and territorial jurisdiction.

(v) Section 111(b), relating to assaulting, resisting, or impeding certain officers or employees using a deadly or dangerous weapon or inflicting bodily injury.

(vi) Paragraph (1), (7), or (8) of section 113(a), relating to assault with intent to commit murder, assault resulting in substantial bodily injury to a spouse or intimate partner, a dating partner, or an individual who has not attained the age of 16 years, or assault of a spouse, intimate partner, or dating partner by strangling, suffocating, or attempting to strangle or suffocate.

(vii) Section 115, relating to influencing, impeding, or retaliating against a Federal official by injuring a family member, except for a threat made in violation of that section.

(viii) Section 116, relating to female genital mutilation.

(ix) Section 117, relating to domestic assault by a habitual offender.

(x) Any section of chapter 10, relating to biological weapons.

(xi) Any section of chapter 11B, relating to chemical weapons.

(xii) Section 351, relating to Congressional, Cabinet, and Supreme Court assassination, kidnapping, and assault.

(xiii) Section 521, relating to criminal street gangs.

(xiv) Section 751, relating to prisoners in custody of an institution or officer.

(xv) Section 793, relating to gathering, transmitting, or losing defense information.

(xvi) Section 794, relating to gathering or delivering defense information to aid a foreign government.

(xvii) Any section of chapter 39, relating to explosives and other dangerous articles, except for section 836 (relating to the transportation of fireworks into a State prohibiting sale or use).

(xviii) Section 842(p), relating to distribution of information relating to explosives, destructive devices, and weapons of mass destruction, but only if the conviction involved a weapon of mass destruction (as defined in section 2332a(c)).

(xix) Subsection (f)(3), (h), or (i) of section 844, relating to the use of fire or an explosive.

(xx) Section 871, relating to threats against the President and successors to the Presidency.

(xxi) Section 879, relating to threats against former Presidents and certain other persons.

(xxii) Section 924(c), relating to unlawful possession or use of a firearm during and in relation to any crime of violence or drug trafficking crime.

(xxiii) Section 1030(a)(1), relating to fraud and related activity in connection with computers.

(xxiv) Section 1091, relating to genocide.

(xxv) Any section of chapter 51, relating to homicide, except for section 1112 (relating to manslaughter), 1113 (relating to attempt to commit murder or manslaughter, but only if the conviction was for an attempt to commit manslaughter), 1115 (relating to misconduct or neglect of ship officers), or 1122 (relating to protection against the human immunodeficiency virus).

(xxvi) Any section of chapter 55, relating to kidnapping.

(xxvii) Any offense under chapter 77, relating to peonage, slavery, and trafficking in persons, except for sections 1593 through 1596.

(xxviii) Section 1751, relating to Presidential and Presidential staff assassination, kidnapping, and assault.

(xxix) Section 1791, relating to providing or possessing contraband in prison.

(xxx) Section 1792, relating to mutiny and riots.

(xxxi) Section 1841(a)(2)(C), relating to intentionally killing or attempting to kill an unborn child.

(xxxii) Section 1992, relating to terrorist attacks and other violence against railroad carriers and against mass transportation systems on land, on water, or through the air.

(xxxiii) Section 2113(e), relating to bank robbery resulting in death.

(xxxiv) Section 2118(c), relating to robberies and burglaries involving controlled substances resulting in assault, putting in jeopardy the life of any person by the use of a dangerous weapon or device, or death.

(xxxv) Section 2119, relating to taking a motor vehicle (commonly referred to as "carjacking").

(xxxvi) Any section of chapter 105, relating to sabotage, except for section 2152.

(xxxvii) Any section of chapter 109A, relating to sexual abuse.

(xxxviii) Section 2250, relating to failure to register as a sex offender.

(xxxix) Section 2251, relating to the sexual exploitation of children.

(xl) Section 2251A, relating to the selling or buying of children.

(xli) Section 2252, relating to certain activities relating to material involving the sexual exploitation of minors.

(xlii) Section 2252A, relating to certain activities involving material constituting or containing child pornography.

(xliii) Section 2260, relating to the production of sexually explicit depictions of a minor for importation into the United States.

(xliv) Section 2283, relating to the transportation of explosive, biological, chemical, or radioactive or nuclear materials.

(xlv) Section 2284, relating to the transportation of terrorists.

(xlvi) Section 2291, relating to the destruction of a vessel or maritime facility, but only if the conduct that led to the conviction involved a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury.

(xlvii) Any section of chapter 113B, relating to terrorism.

(xlviii) Section 2340A, relating to torture.

(xlix) Section 2381, relating to treason.

(l) Section 2442, relating to the recruitment or use of child soldiers.

(li) An offense described in section 3559(c)(2)(F), for which the offender was sentenced to a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year, if the offender has a previous conviction, for which the offender served a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year, for a Federal or State offense, by whatever designation and wherever committed, consisting of murder (as described in section 1111), voluntary manslaughter (as described in section 1112), assault with intent to commit murder (as described in section 113(a)), aggravated sexual abuse and sexual abuse (as described in sections 2241 and 2242), abusive sexual contact (as described in sections 2244(a)(1) and (a)(2)), kidnapping (as described in chapter 55), carjacking (as described in section 2119), arson (as described in section 844(f)(3), (h), or (i)), or terrorism (as described in chapter 113B).

(lii) Section 57(b) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2077(b)), relating to the engagement or participation in the development or production of special nuclear material.

(liii) Section 92 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2122), relating to prohibitions governing atomic weapons.

(liv) Section 101 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2131), relating to the atomic energy license requirement.

(lv) Section 224 or 225 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2274, 2275), relating to the communication or receipt of restricted data.

(lvi) Section 236 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2284), relating to the sabotage of nuclear facilities or fuel.

(lvii) Section 60123(b) of title 49, relating to damaging or destroying a pipeline facility, but only if the conduct which led to the conviction involved a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury.

(lviii) Section 401(a) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841), relating to manufacturing or distributing a controlled substance in the case of a conviction for an offense described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (b)(1) of that section for which death or serious bodily injury resulted from the use of such substance.

(lix) Section 276(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1326), relating to the reentry of a removed alien, but only if the alien is described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b) of that section.

(lx) Section 277 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1327), relating to aiding or assisting certain aliens to enter the United States.

(lxi) Section 278 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1328), relating to the importation of an alien into the United States for an immoral purpose.

(lxii) Any section of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 4611 et seq.2

(lxiii) Section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705).

(lxiv) Section 601 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3121), relating to the protection of identities of certain United States undercover intelligence officers, agents, informants, and sources.

(lxv) Subparagraph (A)(i) or (B)(i) of section 401(b)(1) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(1)) or paragraph (1)(A) or (2)(A) of section 1010(b) of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 960(b)), relating to manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, dispense, or knowingly importing or exporting, a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin if the sentencing court finds that the offender was an organizer, leader, manager, or supervisor of others in the offense, as determined under the guidelines promulgated by the United States Sentencing Commission.

(lxvi) Subparagraph (A)(vi) or (B)(vi) of section 401(b)(1) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(1)) or paragraph (1)(F) or (2)(F) of section 1010(b) of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 960(b)), relating to manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide, or any analogue thereof.

(lxvii) Subparagraph (A)(viii) or (B)(viii) of section 401(b)(1) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(1)) or paragraph (1)(H) or (2)(H) of section 1010(b) the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 960(b)), relating to manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, or knowingly importing or exporting, a mixture of substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers, if the sentencing court finds that the offender was an organizer, leader, manager, or supervisor of others in the offense, as determined under the guidelines promulgated by the United States Sentencing Commission.

(lxviii) Subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 401(b)(1) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(1)) or paragraph (1) or (2) of section 1010(b) of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 960(b)), relating to manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled substance, or knowingly importing or exporting a controlled substance, if the sentencing court finds that—

(I) the offense involved a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide, or any analogue thereof; and

(II) the offender was an organizer, leader, manager, or supervisor of others in the offense, as determined under the guidelines promulgated by the United States Sentencing Commission.


(E) Deportable prisoners ineligible to apply time credits.—

(i) In general.—A prisoner is ineligible to apply time credits under subparagraph (C) if the prisoner is the subject of a final order of removal under any provision of the immigration laws (as such term is defined in section 101(a)(17) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(17))).

(ii) Proceedings.—The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall ensure that any alien described in section 212 or 237 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182, 1227) who seeks to earn time credits are subject to proceedings described in section 238(a) of that Act (8 U.S.C. 1228(a)) at a date as early as practicable during the prisoner's incarceration.


(5) Risk reassessments and level adjustment.—A prisoner who successfully participates in evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive activities shall receive periodic risk reassessments not less often than annually, and a prisoner determined to be at a medium or high risk of recidivating and who has less than 5 years until his or her projected release date shall receive more frequent risk reassessments. If the reassessment shows that the prisoner's risk of recidivating or specific needs have changed, the Bureau of Prisons shall update the determination of the prisoner's risk of recidivating or information regarding the prisoner's specific needs and reassign the prisoner to appropriate evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive activities based on such changes.

(6) Relation to other incentive programs.—The incentives described in this subsection shall be in addition to any other rewards or incentives for which a prisoner may be eligible.


(e) Penalties.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall develop guidelines for the reduction of rewards and incentives earned under subsection (d) for prisoners who violate prison rules or evidence-based recidivism reduction program or productive activity rules, which shall provide—

(1) general levels of violations and resulting reductions;

(2) that any reduction that includes the loss of time credits shall require written notice to the prisoner, shall be limited to time credits that a prisoner earned as of the date of the prisoner's rule violation, and shall not include any future time credits that the prisoner may earn; and

(3) for a procedure to restore time credits that a prisoner lost as a result of a rule violation, based on the prisoner's individual progress after the date of the rule violation.


(f) Bureau of Prisons Training.—The Attorney General shall develop and implement training programs for Bureau of Prisons officers and employees responsible for administering the System, which shall include—

(1) initial training to educate officers and employees on how to use the System in an appropriate and consistent manner, as well as the reasons for using the System;

(2) continuing education;

(3) periodic training updates; and

(4) a requirement that such officers and employees demonstrate competence in administering the System, including interrater reliability, on a biannual basis.


(g) Quality Assurance.—In order to ensure that the Bureau of Prisons is using the System in an appropriate and consistent manner, the Attorney General shall monitor and assess the use of the System, which shall include conducting annual audits of the Bureau of Prisons regarding the use of the System.

(h) Dyslexia Screening.—

(1) Screening.—The Attorney General shall incorporate a dyslexia screening program into the System, including by screening for dyslexia during—

(A) the intake process; and

(B) each periodic risk reassessment of a prisoner.


(2) Treatment.—The Attorney General shall incorporate programs designed to treat dyslexia into the evidence-based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities required to be implemented under this section. The Attorney General may also incorporate programs designed to treat other learning disabilities.

(Added Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §101(a), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5196.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d)(4)(B)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

The First Step Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 115–391, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5194. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note under section 1 of this title and Tables.

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (d)(4)(D)(lxii), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, which was classified principally to chapter 56 (§4601 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232, except for sections 11A, 11B, and 11C thereof (50 U.S.C. 4611, 4612, 4613).

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§3633. Evidence-based recidivism reduction program and recommendations

(a) In General.—Prior to releasing the System, in consultation with the Independent Review Committee authorized by the First Step Act of 2018, the Attorney General shall—

(1) review the effectiveness of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs that exist as of the date of enactment of this subchapter in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons;

(2) review available information regarding the effectiveness of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities that exist in State-operated prisons throughout the United States;

(3) identify the most effective evidence-based recidivism reduction programs;

(4) review the policies for entering into evidence-based recidivism reduction partnerships described in section 3621(h)(5); and

(5) direct the Bureau of Prisons regarding—

(A) evidence-based recidivism reduction programs;

(B) the ability for faith-based organizations to function as a provider of educational evidence-based programs outside of the religious classes and services provided through the Chaplaincy; and

(C) the addition of any new effective evidence-based recidivism reduction programs that the Attorney General finds.


(b) Review and Recommendations Regarding Dyslexia Mitigation.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Attorney General shall consider the prevalence and mitigation of dyslexia in prisons, including by—

(1) reviewing statistics on the prevalence of dyslexia, and the effectiveness of any programs implemented to mitigate the effects of dyslexia, in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons and State-operated prisons throughout the United States; and

(2) incorporating the findings of the Attorney General under paragraph (1) of this subsection into any directives given to the Bureau of Prisons under paragraph (5) of subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §101(a), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5204.)

References in Text

The First Step Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 115–391, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5194. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note under section 1 of this title and Tables.

The date of enactment of this subchapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

§3634. Report

Beginning on the date that is 2 years after the date of enactment of this subchapter, and annually thereafter for a period of 5 years, the Attorney General shall submit a report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives and the Subcommittees on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies of the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives that contains the following:

(1) A summary of the activities and accomplishments of the Attorney General in carrying out this Act.

(2) A summary and assessment of the types and effectiveness of the evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons, including—

(A) evidence about which programs have been shown to reduce recidivism;

(B) the capacity of each program and activity at each prison, including the number of prisoners along with the recidivism risk of each prisoner enrolled in each program; and

(C) identification of any gaps or shortages in capacity of such programs and activities.


(3) Rates of recidivism among individuals who have been released from Federal prison, based on the following criteria:

(A) The primary offense of conviction.

(B) The length of the sentence imposed and served.

(C) The Bureau of Prisons facility or facilities in which the prisoner's sentence was served.

(D) The evidence-based recidivism reduction programming that the prisoner successfully completed, if any.

(E) The prisoner's assessed and reassessed risk of recidivism.

(F) The productive activities that the prisoner successfully completed, if any.


(4) The status of prison work programs at facilities operated by the Bureau of Prisons, including—

(A) a strategy to expand the availability of such programs without reducing job opportunities for workers in the United States who are not in the custody of the Bureau of Prisons, including the feasibility of prisoners manufacturing products purchased by Federal agencies that are manufactured overseas;

(B) an assessment of the feasibility of expanding such programs, consistent with the strategy required under subparagraph (A), with the goal that 5 years after the date of enactment of this subchapter, not less than 75 percent of eligible minimum- and low-risk offenders have the opportunity to participate in a prison work program for not less than 20 hours per week; and

(C) a detailed discussion of legal authorities that would be useful or necessary to achieve the goals described in subparagraphs (A) and (B).


(5) An assessment of the Bureau of Prisons' compliance with section 3621(h).

(6) An assessment of progress made toward carrying out the purposes of this subchapter, including any savings associated with—

(A) the transfer of prisoners into prerelease custody or supervised release under section 3624(g), including savings resulting from the avoidance or deferral of future construction, acquisition, and operations costs; and

(B) any decrease in recidivism that may be attributed to the System or the increase in evidence-based recidivism reduction programs required under this subchapter.


(7) An assessment of budgetary savings resulting from this subchapter, including—

(A) a summary of the amount of savings resulting from the transfer of prisoners into prerelease custody under this chapter, including savings resulting from the avoidance or deferral of future construction, acquisition, or operations costs;

(B) a summary of the amount of savings resulting from any decrease in recidivism that may be attributed to the implementation of the risk and needs assessment system or the increase in recidivism reduction programs and productive activities required by this subchapter;

(C) a strategy to reinvest the savings described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) in other—

(i) Federal, State, and local law enforcement activities; and

(ii) expansions of recidivism reduction programs and productive activities in the Bureau of Prisons; and


(D) a description of how the reduced expenditures on Federal corrections and the budgetary savings resulting from this subchapter are currently being used and will be used to—

(i) increase investment in law enforcement and crime prevention to combat gangs of national significance and high-level drug traffickers through the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas Program and other task forces;

(ii) hire, train, and equip law enforcement officers and prosecutors; and

(iii) promote crime reduction programs using evidence-based practices and strategic planning to help reduce crime and criminal recidivism.


(8) Statistics on—

(A) the prevalence of dyslexia among prisoners in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons; and

(B) any change in the effectiveness of dyslexia mitigation programs among such prisoners that may be attributed to the incorporation of dyslexia screening into the System and of dyslexia treatment into the evidence-based recidivism reduction programs, as required under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §101(a), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5205.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subchapter, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

This Act, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 115–391, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5194, known as the First Step Act of 2018. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note under section 1 of this title and Tables.

§3635. Definitions

In this subchapter the following definitions apply:

(1) Dyslexia.—The term "dyslexia" means an unexpected difficulty in reading for an individual who has the intelligence to be a much better reader, most commonly caused by a difficulty in the phonological processing (the appreciation of the individual sounds of spoken language), which affects the ability of an individual to speak, read, and spell.

(2) Dyslexia screening program.—The term "dyslexia screening program" means a screening program for dyslexia that is—

(A) evidence-based (as defined in section 8101(21) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801(21))) with proven psychometrics for validity;

(B) efficient and low-cost; and

(C) readily available.


(3) Evidence-based recidivism reduction program.—The term "evidence-based recidivism reduction program" means either a group or individual activity that—

(A) has been shown by empirical evidence to reduce recidivism or is based on research indicating that it is likely to be effective in reducing recidivism;

(B) is designed to help prisoners succeed in their communities upon release from prison; and

(C) may include—

(i) social learning and communication, interpersonal, anti-bullying, rejection response, and other life skills;

(ii) family relationship building, structured parent-child interaction, and parenting skills;

(iii) classes on morals or ethics;

(iv) academic classes;

(v) cognitive behavioral treatment;

(vi) mentoring;

(vii) substance abuse treatment;

(viii) vocational training;

(ix) faith-based classes or services;

(x) civic engagement and reintegrative community services;

(xi) a prison job, including through a prison work program;

(xii) victim impact classes or other restorative justice programs; and

(xiii) trauma counseling and trauma-informed support programs.


(4) Prisoner.—The term "prisoner" means a person who has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment pursuant to a conviction for a Federal criminal offense, or a person in the custody of the Bureau of Prisons.

(5) Productive activity.—The term "productive activity" means either a group or individual activity that is designed to allow prisoners determined as having a minimum or low risk of recidivating to remain productive and thereby maintain a minimum or low risk of recidivating, and may include the delivery of the programs described in paragraph (1) 1 to other prisoners.

(6) Risk and needs assessment tool.—The term "risk and needs assessment tool" means an objective and statistically validated method through which information is collected and evaluated to determine—

(A) as part of the intake process, the risk that a prisoner will recidivate upon release from prison;

(B) the recidivism reduction programs that will best minimize the risk that the prisoner will recidivate upon release from prison; and

(C) the periodic reassessment of risk that a prisoner will recidivate upon release from prison, based on factors including indicators of progress and of regression, that are dynamic and that can reasonably be expected to change while in prison.

(Added Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §101(a), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5207.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "paragraph (3)".