[USC02] 18 USC PART II, CHAPTER 229, SUBCHAPTER C: IMPRISONMENT
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18 USC PART II, CHAPTER 229, SUBCHAPTER C: IMPRISONMENT
From Title 18—CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II—CRIMINAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 229—POSTSENTENCE ADMINISTRATION

SUBCHAPTER C—IMPRISONMENT

SUBCHAPTER C—IMPRISONMENT 1

Sec.
3621.
Imprisonment of a convicted person.
3622.
Temporary release of a prisoner.
3623.
Transfer of a prisoner to State authority.
3624.
Release of a prisoner.
3625.
Inapplicability of the Administrative Procedure Act.
3626.
Appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions.

        

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(c)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-70; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, which directed that table of sections at beginning of subchapter C of this chapter be amended generally to read "3626. Appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions.", was executed by making amendment in item 3626 to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, item 3626 read as follows: "3626. Appropriate remedies with respect to prison crowding."

1994Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(c), title XXXIII, §330010(3), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1828, 2143, transferred analysis of this subchapter to follow heading for this subchapter and added item 3626.

1 So in original. Probably should not appear.

§3621. Imprisonment of a convicted person

(a) Commitment to Custody of Bureau of Prisons.—A person who has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment pursuant to the provisions of subchapter D of chapter 227 shall be committed to the custody of the Bureau of Prisons until the expiration of the term imposed, or until earlier released for satisfactory behavior pursuant to the provisions of section 3624.

(b) Place of Imprisonment.—The Bureau of Prisons shall designate the place of the prisoner's imprisonment, and shall, subject to bed availability, the prisoner's security designation, the prisoner's programmatic needs, the prisoner's mental and medical health needs, any request made by the prisoner related to faith-based needs, recommendations of the sentencing court, and other security concerns of the Bureau of Prisons, place the prisoner in a facility as close as practicable to the prisoner's primary residence, and to the extent practicable, in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence. The Bureau shall, subject to consideration of the factors described in the preceding sentence and the prisoner's preference for staying at his or her current facility or being transferred, transfer prisoners to facilities that are closer to the prisoner's primary residence even if the prisoner is already in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence. The Bureau may designate any available penal or correctional facility that meets minimum standards of health and habitability established by the Bureau, whether maintained by the Federal Government or otherwise and whether within or without the judicial district in which the person was convicted, that the Bureau determines to be appropriate and suitable, considering—

(1) the resources of the facility contemplated;

(2) the nature and circumstances of the offense;

(3) the history and characteristics of the prisoner;

(4) any statement by the court that imposed the sentence—

(A) concerning the purposes for which the sentence to imprisonment was determined to be warranted; or

(B) recommending a type of penal or correctional facility as appropriate; and


(5) any pertinent policy statement issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994(a)(2) of title 28.


In designating the place of imprisonment or making transfers under this subsection, there shall be no favoritism given to prisoners of high social or economic status. The Bureau may at any time, having regard for the same matters, direct the transfer of a prisoner from one penal or correctional facility to another. The Bureau shall make available appropriate substance abuse treatment for each prisoner the Bureau determines has a treatable condition of substance addiction or abuse. Any order, recommendation, or request by a sentencing court that a convicted person serve a term of imprisonment in a community corrections facility shall have no binding effect on the authority of the Bureau under this section to determine or change the place of imprisonment of that person. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a designation of a place of imprisonment under this subsection is not reviewable by any court.

(c) Delivery of Order of Commitment.—When a prisoner, pursuant to a court order, is placed in the custody of a person in charge of a penal or correctional facility, a copy of the order shall be delivered to such person as evidence of this authority to hold the prisoner, and the original order, with the return endorsed thereon, shall be returned to the court that issued it.

(d) Delivery of Prisoner for Court Appearances.—The United States marshal shall, without charge, bring a prisoner into court or return him to a prison facility on order of a court of the United States or on written request of an attorney for the Government.

(e) Substance Abuse Treatment.—

(1) Phase-in.—In order to carry out the requirement of the last sentence of subsection (b) of this section, that every prisoner with a substance abuse problem have the opportunity to participate in appropriate substance abuse treatment, the Bureau of Prisons shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, provide residential substance abuse treatment (and make arrangements for appropriate aftercare)—

(A) for not less than 50 percent of eligible prisoners by the end of fiscal year 1995, with priority for such treatment accorded based on an eligible prisoner's proximity to release date;

(B) for not less than 75 percent of eligible prisoners by the end of fiscal year 1996, with priority for such treatment accorded based on an eligible prisoner's proximity to release date; and

(C) for all eligible prisoners by the end of fiscal year 1997 and thereafter, with priority for such treatment accorded based on an eligible prisoner's proximity to release date.


(2) Incentive for prisoners' successful completion of treatment program.—

(A) Generally.—Any prisoner who, in the judgment of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, has successfully completed a program of residential substance abuse treatment provided under paragraph (1) of this subsection, shall remain in the custody of the Bureau under such conditions as the Bureau deems appropriate. If the conditions of confinement are different from those the prisoner would have experienced absent the successful completion of the treatment, the Bureau shall periodically test the prisoner for substance abuse and discontinue such conditions on determining that substance abuse has recurred.

(B) Period of custody.—The period a prisoner convicted of a nonviolent offense remains in custody after successfully completing a treatment program may be reduced by the Bureau of Prisons, but such reduction may not be more than one year from the term the prisoner must otherwise serve.


(3) Report.—The Bureau of Prisons shall transmit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives on January 1, 1995, and on January 1 of each year thereafter, a report. Such report shall contain—

(A) a detailed quantitative and qualitative description of each substance abuse treatment program, residential or not, operated by the Bureau;

(B) a full explanation of how eligibility for such programs is determined, with complete information on what proportion of prisoners with substance abuse problems are eligible; and

(C) a complete statement of to what extent the Bureau has achieved compliance with the requirements of this title.


(4) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to carry out this subsection such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(5) Definitions.—As used in this subsection—

(A) the term "residential substance abuse treatment" means a course of individual and group activities and treatment, lasting at least 6 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population (which may include the use of pharmocotherapies,1 where appropriate, that may extend beyond the 6-month period);

(B) the term "eligible prisoner" means a prisoner who is—

(i) determined by the Bureau of Prisons to have a substance abuse problem; and

(ii) willing to participate in a residential substance abuse treatment program; and


(C) the term "aftercare" means placement, case management and monitoring of the participant in a community-based substance abuse treatment program when the participant leaves the custody of the Bureau of Prisons.


(6) Coordination of federal assistance.—The Bureau of Prisons shall consult with the Department of Health and Human Services concerning substance abuse treatment and related services and the incorporation of applicable components of existing comprehensive approaches including relapse prevention and aftercare services.


(f) Sex Offender Management.—

(1) In general.—The Bureau of Prisons shall make available appropriate treatment to sex offenders who are in need of and suitable for treatment, as follows:

(A) Sex offender management programs.—The Bureau of Prisons shall establish non-residential sex offender management programs to provide appropriate treatment, monitoring, and supervision of sex offenders and to provide aftercare during pre-release custody.

(B) Residential sex offender treatment programs.—The Bureau of Prisons shall establish residential sex offender treatment programs to provide treatment to sex offenders who volunteer for such programs and are deemed by the Bureau of Prisons to be in need of and suitable for residential treatment.


(2) Regions.—At least 1 sex offender management program under paragraph (1)(A), and at least one residential sex offender treatment program under paragraph (1)(B), shall be established in each region within the Bureau of Prisons.

(3) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Bureau of Prisons for each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.


(g) Continued Access to Medical Care.—

(1) In general.—In order to ensure a minimum standard of health and habitability, the Bureau of Prisons should ensure that each prisoner in a community confinement facility has access to necessary medical care, mental health care, and medicine through partnerships with local health service providers and transition planning.

(2) Definition.—In this subsection, the term "community confinement" has the meaning given that term in the application notes under section 5F1.1 of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual, as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007.


(h) Implementation of Risk and Needs Assessment System.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the Attorney General completes and releases the risk and needs assessment system (referred to in this subsection as the "System") developed under subchapter D, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, in accordance with that subchapter—

(A) implement and complete the initial intake risk and needs assessment for each prisoner (including for each prisoner who was a prisoner prior to the effective date of this subsection), regardless of the prisoner's length of imposed term of imprisonment, and begin to assign prisoners to appropriate evidence-based recidivism reduction programs based on that determination;

(B) begin to expand the effective evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities it offers and add any new evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities necessary to effectively implement the System; and

(C) begin to implement the other risk and needs assessment tools necessary to effectively implement the System over time, while prisoners are participating in and completing the effective evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities.


(2) Phase-in.—In order to carry out paragraph (1), so that every prisoner has the opportunity to participate in and complete the type and amount of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities they need, and be reassessed for recidivism risk as necessary to effectively implement the System, the Bureau of Prisons shall—

(A) provide such evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities for all prisoners before the date that is 2 years after the date on which the Bureau of Prisons completes a risk and needs assessment for each prisoner under paragraph (1)(A); and

(B) develop and validate the risk and needs assessment tool to be used in the reassessments of risk of recidivism, while prisoners are participating in and completing evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities.


(3) Priority during phase-in.—During the 2-year period described in paragraph (2)(A), the priority for such programs and activities shall be accorded based on a prisoner's proximity to release date.

(4) Preliminary expansion of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and authority to use incentives.—Beginning on the date of enactment of this subsection, the Bureau of Prisons may begin to expand any evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities that exist at a prison as of such date, and may offer to prisoners who successfully participate in such programs and activities the incentives and rewards described in subchapter D.

(5) Recidivism reduction partnerships.—In order to expand evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities, the Attorney General shall develop policies for the warden of each prison of the Bureau of Prisons to enter into partnerships, subject to the availability of appropriations, with any of the following:

(A) Nonprofit and other private organizations, including faith-based, art, and community-based organizations that will deliver recidivism reduction programming on a paid or volunteer basis.

(B) Institutions of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001)) that will deliver instruction on a paid or volunteer basis.

(C) Private entities that will—

(i) deliver vocational training and certifications;

(ii) provide equipment to facilitate vocational training or employment opportunities for prisoners;

(iii) employ prisoners; or

(iv) assist prisoners in prerelease custody or supervised release in finding employment.


(D) Industry-sponsored organizations that will deliver workforce development and training, on a paid or volunteer basis.


(6) Requirement to provide programs to all prisoners; priority.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall provide all prisoners with the opportunity to actively participate in evidence-based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities, according to their specific criminogenic needs, throughout their entire term of incarceration. Priority for participation in recidivism reduction programs shall be given to medium-risk and high-risk prisoners, with access to productive activities given to minimum-risk and low-risk prisoners.

(7) Definitions.—The terms in this subsection have the meaning given those terms in section 3635.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2007; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XXIX, §2903, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4913; Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20401, title III, §32001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1824, 1896; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1146, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3112; Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, §622, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 634; Pub. L. 110–199, title II, §§231(f), 251(b), 252, Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 687, 693; Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §102(a), title V, §504(f)(1), title VI, §601, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5208, 5234, 5237.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 115–391, title V, §504(f), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5234, provided that, effective 180 days after Dec. 21, 2018, this section is amended—

(1) by redesignating subsection (g) as subsection (i); and

(2) by inserting after subsection (f) the following:

(g) Partnerships To Expand Access to Reentry Programs Proven To Reduce Recidivism.—

(1) Definition.—The term "demonstrated to reduce recidivism" means that the Director of Bureau of Prisons has determined that appropriate research has been conducted and has validated the effectiveness of the type of program on recidivism.

(2) Eligibility for recidivism reduction partnership.—A faith-based or community-based nonprofit organization that provides mentoring or other programs that have been demonstrated to reduce recidivism is eligible to enter into a recidivism reduction partnership with a prison or community-based facility operated by the Bureau of Prisons.

(3) Recidivism reduction partnerships.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall develop policies to require wardens of prisons and community-based facilities to enter into recidivism reduction partnerships with faith-based and community-based nonprofit organizations that are willing to provide, on a volunteer basis, programs described in paragraph (2).

(4) Reporting requirement.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall submit to Congress an annual report on the last day of each fiscal year that—

(A) details, for each prison and community-based facility for the fiscal year just ended—

(i) the number of recidivism reduction partnerships under this section that were in effect;

(ii) the number of volunteers that provided recidivism reduction programming; and

(iii) the number of recidivism reduction programming hours provided; and


(B) explains any disparities between facilities in the numbers reported under subparagraph (A).

References in Text

The effective date of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (h)(1)(A), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which added subsec. (h) of this section and was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (h)(4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

The date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–199, which was approved Apr. 9, 2008.

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3621, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–391, §601, substituted in introductory provisions "shall designate the place of the prisoner's imprisonment, and shall, subject to bed availability, the prisoner's security designation, the prisoner's programmatic needs, the prisoner's mental and medical health needs, any request made by the prisoner related to faith-based needs, recommendations of the sentencing court, and other security concerns of the Bureau of Prisons, place the prisoner in a facility as close as practicable to the prisoner's primary residence, and to the extent practicable, in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence. The Bureau shall, subject to consideration of the factors described in the preceding sentence and the prisoner's preference for staying at his or her current facility or being transferred, transfer prisoners to facilities that are closer to the prisoner's primary residence even if the prisoner is already in a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence." for "shall designate the place of the prisoner's imprisonment." and inserted at end of concluding provisions "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a designation of a place of imprisonment under this subsection is not reviewable by any court."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(f)(1), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (i).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–391, §102(a), added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(f)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (g) as (i).

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–199, §251(b), inserted "Any order, recommendation, or request by a sentencing court that a convicted person serve a term of imprisonment in a community corrections facility shall have no binding effect on the authority of the Bureau under this section to determine or change the place of imprisonment of that person." at end of concluding provisions.

Subsec. (e)(5)(A). Pub. L. 110–199, §252, substituted "means a course of individual and group activities and treatment, lasting at least 6 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population (which may include the use of pharmocotherapies, where appropriate, that may extend beyond the 6-month period);" for "means a course of individual and group activities, lasting between 6 and 12 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population—

"(i) directed at the substance abuse problems of the prisoner;

"(ii) intended to develop the prisoner's cognitive, behavioral, social, vocational, and other skills so as to solve the prisoner's substance abuse and related problems; and

"(iii) which may include the use of pharmacoptherapies, if appropriate, that may extend beyond the treatment period;".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–199, §231(f), added subsec. (g).

2006—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 109–162, §1146(1), added par. (4) and struck out heading and text of former par. (4). Text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection—

"(A) $13,500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(B) $18,900,000 for fiscal year 1997;

"(C) $25,200,000 for fiscal year 1998;

"(D) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

"(E) $27,900,000 for fiscal year 2000."

Subsec. (e)(5)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 109–162, §1146(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–248 added subsec. (f).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §32001(1), struck out ", to the extent practicable," after "The Bureau shall" in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 103–322, §20401, inserted "In designating the place of imprisonment or making transfers under this subsection, there shall be no favoritism given to prisoners of high social or economic status." after subsec. (b)(5).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322, §32001(2), added subsec. (e).

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted at end "The Bureau shall, to the extent practicable, make available appropriate substance abuse treatment for each prisoner the Bureau determines has a treatable condition of substance addiction or abuse."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–391, title V, §504(f)(2), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5234, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018]."

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §105, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5214, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification], or the amendments made by this Act, may be construed to provide authority to place a prisoner in prerelease custody or supervised release who is serving a term of imprisonment pursuant to a conviction for an offense under the laws of one of the 50 States, or of a territory or possession of the United States or to amend or affect the enforcement of the immigration laws, as defined in section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101)."

Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendments by Pub. L. 110–199 and requirements for grants made under such amendments, see section 60504 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

GAO Report

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §103, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5213, provided that: "Not later than 2 years after the Director of the Bureau of Prisons implements the risk and needs assessment system under section 3621 of title 18, United States Code, and every 2 years thereafter, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an audit of the use of the risk and needs assessment system at Bureau of Prisons facilities. The audit shall include analysis of the following:

"(1) Whether inmates are being assessed under the risk and needs assessment system with the frequency required under such section 3621 of title 18, United States Code.

"(2) Whether the Bureau of Prisons is able to offer recidivism reduction programs and productive activities (as such terms are defined in section 3635 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act).

"(3) Whether the Bureau of Prisons is offering the type, amount, and intensity of recidivism reduction programs and productive activities for prisoners to earn the maximum amount of time credits for which they are eligible.

"(4) Whether the Attorney General is carrying out the duties under section 3631(b) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.

"(5) Whether officers and employees of the Bureau of Prisons are receiving the training described in section 3632(f) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.

"(6) Whether the Bureau of Prisons offers work assignments to all prisoners who might benefit from such an assignment.

"(7) Whether the Bureau of Prisons transfers prisoners to prerelease custody or supervised release as soon as they are eligible for such a transfer under section 3624(g) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 102(b) of this Act.

"(8) The rates of recidivism among similarly classified prisoners to identify any unwarranted disparities, including disparities among similarly classified prisoners of different demographic groups, in such rates."

Faith-Based Considerations

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §106, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5214, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In considering any program, treatment, regimen, group, company, charity, person, or entity of any kind under any provision of this Act [see Tables for classification], or the amendments made by this Act, the fact that it may be or is faith-based may not be a basis for any discrimination against it in any manner or for any purpose.

"(b) Eligibility for Earned Time Credit.—Participation in a faith-based program, treatment, or regimen may qualify a prisoner for earned time credit under subchapter D of chapter 229 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, however, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall ensure that non-faith-based programs that qualify for earned time credit are offered at each Bureau of Prisons facility in addition to any such faith-based programs.

"(c) Limitation on Activities.—A group, company, charity, person, or entity may not engage in explicitly religious activities using direct financial assistance made available under this title [enacting subchapter D of this chapter, amending this section and section 3624 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 3624 and 3631 of this title] or the amendments made by this title.

"(d) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this Act, or the amendments made by this Act, may be construed to amend any requirement under Federal law or the Constitution of the United States regarding funding for faith-based programs or activities."

Evidence-Based Treatment for Opioid and Heroin Abuse

Pub. L. 115–391, title VI, §607, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5244, provided that:

"(a) Report on Evidence-based Treatment for Opioid and Heroin Abuse.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and of the House of Representatives a report assessing the availability of and the capacity of the Bureau of Prisons to treat heroin and opioid abuse through evidence-based programs, including medication-assisted treatment where appropriate. In preparing the report, the Director shall consider medication-assisted treatment as a strategy to assist in treatment where appropriate and not as a replacement for holistic and other drug-free approaches. The report shall include a description of plans to expand access to evidence-based treatment for heroin and opioid abuse for prisoners, including access to medication-assisted treatment in appropriate cases. Following submission, the Director shall take steps to implement these plans.

"(b) Report on the Availability of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid and Heroin Abuse, and Implementation Thereof.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and of the House of Representatives a report assessing the availability of and capacity for the provision of medication-assisted treatment for opioid and heroin abuse by treatment service providers serving prisoners who are serving a term of supervised release, and including a description of plans to expand access to medication-assisted treatment for heroin and opioid abuse whenever appropriate among prisoners under supervised release. Following submission, the Director will take steps to implement these plans."

1 So in original. Probably should be "pharmacotherapies,".

§3622. Temporary release of a prisoner

The Bureau of Prisons may release a prisoner from the place of his imprisonment for a limited period if such release appears to be consistent with the purpose for which the sentence was imposed and any pertinent policy statement issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(2), if such release otherwise appears to be consistent with the public interest and if there is reasonable cause to believe that a prisoner will honor the trust to be imposed in him, by authorizing him, under prescribed conditions, to—

(a) visit a designated place for a period not to exceed thirty days, and then return to the same or another facility, for the purpose of—

(1) visiting a relative who is dying;

(2) attending a funeral of a relative;

(3) obtaining medical treatment not otherwise available;

(4) contacting a prospective employer;

(5) establishing or reestablishing family or community ties; or

(6) engaging in any other significant activity consistent with the public interest;


(b) participate in a training or educational program in the community while continuing in official detention at the prison facility; or

(c) work at paid employment in the community while continuing in official detention at the penal or correctional facility if—

(1) the rates of pay and other conditions of employment will not be less than those paid or provided for work of a similar nature in the community; and

(2) the prisoner agrees to pay to the Bureau such costs incident to official detention as the Bureau finds appropriate and reasonable under all the circumstances, such costs to be collected by the Bureau and deposited in the Treasury to the credit of the appropriation available for such costs at the time such collections are made.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2007.)

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3622, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 11755. Prison Labor

Ex. Ord. No. 11755, Dec. 29, 1973, 39 F.R. 779, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617; Ex. Ord. No. 12943, Dec. 13, 1994, 59 F.R. 64553, provided:

The development of the occupational and educational skills of prison inmates is essential to their rehabilitation and to their ability to make an effective return to free society. Meaningful employment serves to develop those skills. It is also true, however, that care must be exercised to avoid either the exploitation of convict labor or any unfair competition between convict labor and free labor in the production of goods and services.

Under sections 3621 and 3622 of title 18, United States Code, the Bureau of Prisons is empowered to authorize Federal prisoners to work at paid employment in the community during their terms of imprisonment under conditions that protect against both the exploitation of convict labor and unfair competition with free labor.

Several states and other jurisdictions have similar laws or regulations under which individuals confined for violations of the laws of those places may be authorized to work at paid employment in the community.

Executive Order No. 325A, which was originally issued by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1905, prohibits the employment, in the performance of Federal contracts, of any person who is serving a sentence of imprisonment at hard labor imposed by a court of a State, territory, or municipality.

I have now determined that Executive Order No. 325A should be replaced with a new Executive Order which would permit the employment of non-Federal prison inmates in the performance of Federal contracts under terms and conditions that are comparable to those now applicable to inmates of Federal prisons.

NOW, THEREFORE, pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. (a) All contracts involving the use of appropriated funds which shall hereafter be entered into by any department or agency of the executive branch for performance in any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands shall, unless otherwise provided by law, contain a stipulation forbidding in the performance of such contracts, the employment of persons undergoing sentences of imprisonment which have been imposed by any court of a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. This limitation, however, shall not prohibit the employment by a contractor in the performance of such contracts of persons on parole or probation to work at paid employment during the term of their sentence or persons who have been pardoned or who have served their terms. Nor shall it prohibit the employment by a contractor in the performance of such contracts of persons confined for violation of the laws of any of the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands who are authorized to work at paid employment in the community under the laws of such jurisdiction, if

(1)(A) The worker is paid or is in an approved work training program on a voluntary basis;

(B) Representatives of local union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted;

(C) Such paid employment will not result in the displacement of employed workers, or be applied in skills, crafts, or trades in which there is a surplus of available gainful labor in the locality, or impair existing contracts for services; and

(D) The rates of pay and other conditions of employment will not be less than those paid or provided for work of a similar nature in the locality in which the work is being performed; and

(2) The Attorney General has certified that the work-release laws or regulations of the jurisdiction involved are in conformity with the requirements of this order.

(b) After notice and opportunity for hearing, the Attorney General shall revoke any such certification under section 1(a)(2) if he finds that the work-release program of the jurisdiction involved is not being conducted in conformity with the requirements of this order or with its intent or purposes.

(c) The provisions of this order do not apply to purchases made under the micropurchase authority contained in section 32 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act, as amended [now 41 U.S.C. 1902].

Sec. 2. The Federal Procurement Regulations, the Armed Services Procurement Regulations, and to the extent necessary, any supplemental or comparable regulations issued by any agency of the executive branch shall be revised to reflect the policy prescribed by this order.

Sec. 3. Executive Order No. 325A is hereby superseded.

Sec. 4. This order shall be effective as of January 1, 1974.

§3623. Transfer of a prisoner to State authority

The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall order that a prisoner who has been charged in an indictment or information with, or convicted of, a State felony, be transferred to an official detention facility within such State prior to his release from a Federal prison facility if—

(1) the transfer has been requested by the Governor or other executive authority of the State;

(2) the State has presented to the Director a certified copy of the indictment, information, or judgment of conviction; and

(3) the Director finds that the transfer would be in the public interest.


If more than one request is presented with respect to a prisoner, the Director shall determine which request should receive preference. The expenses of such transfer shall be borne by the State requesting the transfer.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2008.)

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3623, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3624. Release of a prisoner

(a) Date of Release.—A prisoner shall be released by the Bureau of Prisons on the date of the expiration of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, less any time credited toward the service of the prisoner's sentence as provided in subsection (b). If the date for a prisoner's release falls on a Saturday, a Sunday, or a legal holiday at the place of confinement, the prisoner may be released by the Bureau on the last preceding weekday.

(b) Credit Toward Service of Sentence for Satisfactory Behavior.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), a prisoner who is serving a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year 1 other than a term of imprisonment for the duration of the prisoner's life, may receive credit toward the service of the prisoner's sentence of up to 54 days for each year of the prisoner's sentence imposed by the court, subject to determination by the Bureau of Prisons that, during that year, the prisoner has displayed exemplary compliance with institutional disciplinary regulations. Subject to paragraph (2), if the Bureau determines that, during that year, the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with such institutional regulations, the prisoner shall receive no such credit toward service of the prisoner's sentence or shall receive such lesser credit as the Bureau determines to be appropriate. In awarding credit under this section, the Bureau shall consider whether the prisoner, during the relevant period, has earned, or is making satisfactory progress toward earning, a high school diploma or an equivalent degree. Credit that has not been earned may not later be granted. Subject to paragraph (2), credit for the last year of a term of imprisonment shall be credited on the first day of the last year of the term of imprisonment.

(2) Notwithstanding any other law, credit awarded under this subsection after the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act shall vest on the date the prisoner is released from custody.

(3) The Attorney General shall ensure that the Bureau of Prisons has in effect an optional General Educational Development program for inmates who have not earned a high school diploma or its equivalent.

(4) Exemptions to the General Educational Development requirement may be made as deemed appropriate by the Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

(c) Prerelease Custody.—

(1) In general.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, ensure that a prisoner serving a term of imprisonment spends a portion of the final months of that term (not to exceed 12 months), under conditions that will afford that prisoner a reasonable opportunity to adjust to and prepare for the reentry of that prisoner into the community. Such conditions may include a community correctional facility.

(2) Home confinement authority.—The authority under this subsection may be used to place a prisoner in home confinement for the shorter of 10 percent of the term of imprisonment of that prisoner or 6 months. The Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, place prisoners with lower risk levels and lower needs on home confinement for the maximum amount of time permitted under this paragraph.

(3) Assistance.—The United States Probation System shall, to the extent practicable, offer assistance to a prisoner during prerelease custody under this subsection.

(4) No limitations.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit or restrict the authority of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons under section 3621.

(5) Reporting.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (and every year thereafter), the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall transmit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report describing the Bureau's utilization of community corrections facilities. Each report under this paragraph shall set forth the number and percentage of Federal prisoners placed in community corrections facilities during the preceding year, the average length of such placements, trends in such utilization, the reasons some prisoners are not placed in community corrections facilities, and number of prisoners not being placed in community corrections facilities for each reason set forth, and any other information that may be useful to the committees in determining if the Bureau is utilizing community corrections facilities in an effective manner.

(6) Issuance of regulations.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall issue regulations pursuant to this subsection not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2018, which shall ensure that placement in a community correctional facility by the Bureau of Prisons is—

(A) conducted in a manner consistent with section 3621(b) of this title;

(B) determined on an individual basis; and

(C) of sufficient duration to provide the greatest likelihood of successful reintegration into the community.


(d) Allotment of Clothing, Funds, and Transportation.—Upon the release of a prisoner on the expiration of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, the Bureau of Prisons shall furnish the prisoner with—

(1) suitable clothing;

(2) an amount of money, not more than $500, determined by the Director to be consistent with the needs of the offender and the public interest, unless the Director determines that the financial position of the offender is such that no sum should be furnished; and

(3) transportation to the place of the prisoner's conviction, to the prisoner's bona fide residence within the United States, or to such other place within the United States as may be authorized by the Director.


(e) Supervision After Release.—A prisoner whose sentence includes a term of supervised release after imprisonment shall be released by the Bureau of Prisons to the supervision of a probation officer who shall, during the term imposed, supervise the person released to the degree warranted by the conditions specified by the sentencing court. The term of supervised release commences on the day the person is released from imprisonment and runs concurrently with any Federal, State, or local term of probation or supervised release or parole for another offense to which the person is subject or becomes subject during the term of supervised release. A term of supervised release does not run during any period in which the person is imprisoned in connection with a conviction for a Federal, State, or local crime unless the imprisonment is for a period of less than 30 consecutive days. Upon the release of a prisoner by the Bureau of Prisons to supervised release, the Bureau of Prisons shall notify such prisoner, verbally and in writing, of the requirement that the prisoner adhere to an installment schedule, not to exceed 2 years except in special circumstances, to pay for any fine imposed for the offense committed by such prisoner, and of the consequences of failure to pay such fines under sections 3611 through 3614 of this title.

(f) Mandatory Functional Literacy Requirement.—

(1) The Attorney General shall direct the Bureau of Prisons to have in effect a mandatory functional literacy program for all mentally capable inmates who are not functionally literate in each Federal correctional institution within 6 months from the date of the enactment of this Act.

(2) Each mandatory functional literacy program shall include a requirement that each inmate participate in such program for a mandatory period sufficient to provide the inmate with an adequate opportunity to achieve functional literacy, and appropriate incentives which lead to successful completion of such programs shall be developed and implemented.

(3) As used in this section, the term "functional literacy" means—

(A) an eighth grade equivalence in reading and mathematics on a nationally recognized standardized test;

(B) functional competency or literacy on a nationally recognized criterion-referenced test; or

(C) a combination of subparagraphs (A) and (B).


(4) Non-English speaking inmates shall be required to participate in an English-As-A-Second-Language program until they function at the equivalence of the eighth grade on a nationally recognized educational achievement test.

(5) The Chief Executive Officer of each institution shall have authority to grant waivers for good cause as determined and documented on an individual basis.


(g) Prerelease Custody or Supervised Release for Risk and Needs Assessment System Participants.—

(1) Eligible prisoners.—This subsection applies in the case of a prisoner (as such term is defined in section 3635) who—

(A) has earned time credits under the risk and needs assessment system developed under subchapter D (referred to in this subsection as the "System") in an amount that is equal to the remainder of the prisoner's imposed term of imprisonment;

(B) has shown through the periodic risk reassessments a demonstrated recidivism risk reduction or has maintained a minimum or low recidivism risk, during the prisoner's term of imprisonment;

(C) has had the remainder of the prisoner's imposed term of imprisonment computed under applicable law; and

(D)(i) in the case of a prisoner being placed in prerelease custody, the prisoner—

(I) has been determined under the System to be a minimum or low risk to recidivate pursuant to the last 2 reassessments of the prisoner; or

(II) has had a petition to be transferred to prerelease custody or supervised release approved by the warden of the prison, after the warden's determination that—

(aa) the prisoner would not be a danger to society if transferred to prerelease custody or supervised release;

(bb) the prisoner has made a good faith effort to lower their recidivism risk through participation in recidivism reduction programs or productive activities; and

(cc) the prisoner is unlikely to recidivate; or


(ii) in the case of a prisoner being placed in supervised release, the prisoner has been determined under the System to be a minimum or low risk to recidivate pursuant to the last reassessment of the prisoner.


(2) Types of prerelease custody.—A prisoner shall be placed in prerelease custody as follows:

(A) Home confinement.—

(i) In general.—A prisoner placed in prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection who is placed in home confinement shall—

(I) be subject to 24-hour electronic monitoring that enables the prompt identification of the prisoner, location, and time, in the case of any violation of subclause (II);

(II) remain in the prisoner's residence, except that the prisoner may leave the prisoner's home in order to, subject to the approval of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons—

(aa) perform a job or job-related activities, including an apprenticeship, or participate in job-seeking activities;

(bb) participate in evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive activities assigned by the System, or similar activities;

(cc) perform community service;

(dd) participate in crime victim restoration activities;

(ee) receive medical treatment;

(ff) attend religious activities; or

(gg) participate in other family-related activities that facilitate the prisoner's successful reentry such as a family funeral, a family wedding, or to visit a family member who is seriously ill; and


(III) comply with such other conditions as the Director determines appropriate.


(ii) Alternate means of monitoring.—If the electronic monitoring of a prisoner described in clause (i)(I) is infeasible for technical or religious reasons, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may use alternative means of monitoring a prisoner placed in home confinement that the Director determines are as effective or more effective than the electronic monitoring described in clause (i)(I).

(iii) Modifications.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons may modify the conditions described in clause (i) if the Director determines that a compelling reason exists to do so, and that the prisoner has demonstrated exemplary compliance with such conditions.

(iv) Duration.—Except as provided in paragraph (4), a prisoner who is placed in home confinement shall remain in home confinement until the prisoner has served not less than 85 percent of the prisoner's imposed term of imprisonment.


(B) Residential reentry center.—A prisoner placed in prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection who is placed at a residential reentry center shall be subject to such conditions as the Director of the Bureau of Prisons determines appropriate.


(3) Supervised release.—If the sentencing court included as a part of the prisoner's sentence a requirement that the prisoner be placed on a term of supervised release after imprisonment pursuant to section 3583, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may transfer the prisoner to begin any such term of supervised release at an earlier date, not to exceed 12 months, based on the application of time credits under section 3632.

(4) Determination of conditions.—In determining appropriate conditions for prisoners placed in prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, provide that increasingly less restrictive conditions shall be imposed on prisoners who demonstrate continued compliance with the conditions of such prerelease custody, so as to most effectively prepare such prisoners for reentry.

(5) Violations of conditions.—If a prisoner violates a condition of the prisoner's prerelease custody, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may impose such additional conditions on the prisoner's prerelease custody as the Director of the Bureau of Prisons determines appropriate, or revoke the prisoner's prerelease custody and require the prisoner to serve the remainder of the term of imprisonment to which the prisoner was sentenced, or any portion thereof, in prison. If the violation is nontechnical in nature, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall revoke the prisoner's prerelease custody.

(6) Issuance of guidelines.—The Attorney General, in consultation with the Assistant Director for the Office of Probation and Pretrial Services, shall issue guidelines for use by the Bureau of Prisons in determining—

(A) the appropriate type of prerelease custody or supervised release and level of supervision for a prisoner placed on prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection; and

(B) consequences for a violation of a condition of such prerelease custody by such a prisoner, including a return to prison and a reassessment of evidence-based recidivism risk level under the System.


(7) Agreements with united states probation and pretrial services.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to the greatest extent practicable, enter into agreements with United States Probation and Pretrial Services to supervise prisoners placed in home confinement under this subsection. Such agreements shall—

(A) authorize United States Probation and Pretrial Services to exercise the authority granted to the Director pursuant to paragraphs (3) and (4); and

(B) take into account the resource requirements of United States Probation and Pretrial Services as a result of the transfer of Bureau of Prisons prisoners to prerelease custody or supervised release.


(8) Assistance.—United States Probation and Pretrial Services shall, to the greatest extent practicable, offer assistance to any prisoner not under its supervision during prerelease custody under this subsection.

(9) Mentoring, reentry, and spiritual services.—Any prerelease custody into which a prisoner is placed under this subsection may not include a condition prohibiting the prisoner from receiving mentoring, reentry, or spiritual services from a person who provided such services to the prisoner while the prisoner was incarcerated, except that the warden of the facility at which the prisoner was incarcerated may waive the requirement under this paragraph if the warden finds that the provision of such services would pose a significant security risk to the prisoner, persons who provide such services, or any other person. The warden shall provide written notice of any such waiver to the person providing such services and to the prisoner.

(10) Time limits inapplicable.—The time limits under subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to prerelease custody under this subsection.

(11) Prerelease custody capacity.—The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall ensure there is sufficient prerelease custody capacity to accommodate all eligible prisoners.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2008; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §§16(a), 17(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXIX, §§2902(a), 2904, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4913; Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §§20405, 20412, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1825, 1828; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1091(c), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-76; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 110–177, title V, §505, Jan. 7, 2008, 121 Stat. 2542; Pub. L. 110–199, title II, §251(a), Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 692; Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §102(b)(1), title V, §504(c), title VI, §602, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5210, 5233, 5238.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), probably means the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995, section 101[(a)] [title VIII] of Pub. L. 104–134, which was approved Apr. 26, 1996.

The date of the enactment of the Second Chance Act of 2007, referred to in subsec. (c)(5), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–199, which was approved Apr. 9, 2008.

The date of the enactment of the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), is the date of enactment of title V of Pub. L. 115–391, which was approved Dec. 21, 2018.

The date of the enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–647, which enacted subsec. (f) and was approved Nov. 29, 1990.

Prior Provisions

For a prior section 3624, applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, see note set out preceding section 3601 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–391, §102(b)(1)(A), substituted "of up to 54 days for each year of the prisoner's sentence imposed by the court," for ", beyond the time served, of up to 54 days at the end of each year of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, beginning at the end of the first year of the term," and "credit for the last year of a term of imprisonment shall be credited on the first day of the last year of the term of imprisonment" for "credit for the last year or portion of a year of the term of imprisonment shall be prorated and credited within the last six weeks of the sentence".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–391, §602, inserted at end "The Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, place prisoners with lower risk levels and lower needs on home confinement for the maximum amount of time permitted under this paragraph."

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(c)(1), inserted ", and number of prisoners not being placed in community corrections facilities for each reason set forth" before ", and any other information".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 115–391, §504(c)(2), substituted "the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2018" for "the Second Chance Act of 2007" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–391, §102(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (g).

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–199 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Bureau of Prisons shall, to the extent practicable, assure that a prisoner serving a term of imprisonment spends a reasonable part, not to exceed six months, of the last 10 per centum of the term to be served under conditions that will afford the prisoner a reasonable opportunity to adjust to and prepare for the prisoner's re-entry into the community. The authority provided by this subsection may be used to place a prisoner in home confinement. The United States Probation System shall, to the extent practicable, offer assistance to a prisoner during such pre-release custody."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–177 substituted "Upon the release of a prisoner by the Bureau of Prisons to supervised release, the Bureau of Prisons shall notify such prisoner, verbally and in writing, of the requirement that the prisoner adhere to an installment schedule, not to exceed 2 years except in special circumstances, to pay for any fine imposed for the offense committed by such prisoner, and of the consequences of failure to pay such fines under sections 3611 through 3614 of this title." for "No prisoner shall be released on supervision unless such prisoner agrees to adhere to an installment schedule, not to exceed two years except in special circumstances, to pay for any fine imposed for the offense committed by such prisoner."

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(A)], struck out at beginning "A prisoner (other than a prisoner serving a sentence for a crime of violence) who is serving a term of imprisonment of more than one year, other than a term of imprisonment for the duration of the prisoner's life, shall receive credit toward the service of the prisoner's sentence, beyond the time served, of fifty-four days at the end of each year of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, beginning at the end of the first year of the term, unless the Bureau of Prisons determines that, during that year, the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with such institutional disciplinary regulations as have been approved by the Attorney General and issued to the prisoner."

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(B)], in second sentence substituted "Subject to paragraph (2), a prisoner" for "A prisoner", struck out "for a crime of violence," after "1 year", and struck out "such" after "compliance with".

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(C)], in third sentence substituted "Subject to paragraph (2), if the Bureau" for "If the Bureau".

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(D)], in fourth sentence substituted "In awarding credit under this section, the Bureau shall consider whether the prisoner, during the relevant period, has earned, or is making satisfactory progress toward earning, a high school diploma or an equivalent degree." for "The Bureau's determination shall be made within fifteen days after the end of each year of the sentence."

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(1)(E)], in sixth sentence substituted "Subject to paragraph (2), credit for the last" for "Credit for the last".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §809(c)(2)], amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Credit toward a prisoner's service of sentence shall not be vested unless the prisoner has earned or is making satisfactory progress toward a high school diploma or an equivalent degree."

1995—Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out par. (6) which read as follows: "A report shall be provided to Congress on an annual basis summarizing the results of this program, including the number of inmate participants, the number successfully completing the program, the number who do not successfully complete the program, and the reasons for failure to successfully complete the program."

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §20405(2), substituted "the prisoner's" for "his" after "the expiration of" and "toward the service of".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §20412(1), (2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Credit that has not been earned may not later be granted." for "Such credit toward service of sentence vests at the time that it is received. Credit that has vested may not later be withdrawn, and credit that has not been earned may not later be granted.", and added pars. (2) to (4).

Pub. L. 103–322, §20405, inserted "(other than a prisoner serving a sentence for a crime of violence)" after "A prisoner" in first sentence, substituted "the prisoner" for "he" before "has not satisfactorily complied with" in first sentence and before "shall receive no such credit toward" in third sentence and "the prisoner's" for "his" wherever appearing in first and third sentences, and inserted after first sentence "A prisoner who is serving a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year for a crime of violence, other than a term of imprisonment for the duration of the prisoner's life, may receive credit toward the service of the prisoner's sentence, beyond the time served, of up to 54 days at the end of each year of the prisoner's term of imprisonment, beginning at the end of the first year of the term, subject to determination by the Bureau of Prisons that, during that year, the prisoner has displayed exemplary compliance with such institutional disciplinary regulations."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–322, §20405(2), substituted "the prisoner's re-entry" for "his re-entry".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–322, §20405(2), (3), substituted "the prisoner" for "him" in introductory provisions and "the prisoner's" for "his" wherever appearing in introductory provisions and par. (3).

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647, §2902(a), inserted after first sentence "The authority provided by this subsection may be used to place a prisoner in home confinement."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–647, §2904, added subsec. (f).

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §16(a), substituted "beginning at the end of" for "beginning after".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–646, §17(a), substituted "imprisonment and runs concurrently" for "imprisonment. The term runs concurrently" and "supervised released. A term of supervised release does not run" for "supervised release, except that it does not run", struck out ", other than during limited intervals as a condition of probation or supervised release," after "person is imprisoned", and inserted "unless the imprisonment is for a period of less than 30 consecutive days" before the period at end of third sentence.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–391, title I, §102(b)(2), (3), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5213, provided that:

"(2) Effective date.—The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect beginning on the date that the Attorney General completes and releases the risk and needs assessment system under subchapter D of chapter 229 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.

"(3) Applicability.—The amendments made by this subsection shall apply with respect to offenses committed before, on, or after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], except that such amendments shall not apply with respect to offenses committed before November 1, 1987."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–647, title XXIX, §2902(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4913, provided that: "Section 3624(c) of title 18, United States Code, as amended by this section, shall apply with respect to all inmates, regardless of the date of their offense."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–646, §16(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the taking effect of such section 3624 [Nov. 1, 1987]."

Pub. L. 99–646, §17(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3595, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the taking effect of such section 3624 [Nov. 1, 1987]."

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendments by Pub. L. 110–199 and requirements for grants made under such amendments, see section 60504 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§3625. Inapplicability of the Administrative Procedure Act

The provisions of sections 554 and 555 and 701 through 706 of title 5, United States Code, do not apply to the making of any determination, decision, or order under this subchapter.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2010.)

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.

§3626. Appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions

(a) Requirements for Relief.—

(1) Prospective relief.—(A) Prospective relief in any civil action with respect to prison conditions shall extend no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right of a particular plaintiff or plaintiffs. The court shall not grant or approve any prospective relief unless the court finds that such relief is narrowly drawn, extends no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right, and is the least intrusive means necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right. The court shall give substantial weight to any adverse impact on public safety or the operation of a criminal justice system caused by the relief.

(B) The court shall not order any prospective relief that requires or permits a government official to exceed his or her authority under State or local law or otherwise violates State or local law, unless—

(i) Federal law requires such relief to be ordered in violation of State or local law;

(ii) the relief is necessary to correct the violation of a Federal right; and

(iii) no other relief will correct the violation of the Federal right.


(C) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the courts, in exercising their remedial powers, to order the construction of prisons or the raising of taxes, or to repeal or detract from otherwise applicable limitations on the remedial powers of the courts.

(2) Preliminary injunctive relief.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, to the extent otherwise authorized by law, the court may enter a temporary restraining order or an order for preliminary injunctive relief. Preliminary injunctive relief must be narrowly drawn, extend no further than necessary to correct the harm the court finds requires preliminary relief, and be the least intrusive means necessary to correct that harm. The court shall give substantial weight to any adverse impact on public safety or the operation of a criminal justice system caused by the preliminary relief and shall respect the principles of comity set out in paragraph (1)(B) in tailoring any preliminary relief. Preliminary injunctive relief shall automatically expire on the date that is 90 days after its entry, unless the court makes the findings required under subsection (a)(1) for the entry of prospective relief and makes the order final before the expiration of the 90-day period.

(3) Prisoner release order.—(A) In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, no court shall enter a prisoner release order unless—

(i) a court has previously entered an order for less intrusive relief that has failed to remedy the deprivation of the Federal right sought to be remedied through the prisoner release order; and

(ii) the defendant has had a reasonable amount of time to comply with the previous court orders.


(B) In any civil action in Federal court with respect to prison conditions, a prisoner release order shall be entered only by a three-judge court in accordance with section 2284 of title 28, if the requirements of subparagraph (E) have been met.

(C) A party seeking a prisoner release order in Federal court shall file with any request for such relief, a request for a three-judge court and materials sufficient to demonstrate that the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.

(D) If the requirements under subparagraph (A) have been met, a Federal judge before whom a civil action with respect to prison conditions is pending who believes that a prison release order should be considered may sua sponte request the convening of a three-judge court to determine whether a prisoner release order should be entered.

(E) The three-judge court shall enter a prisoner release order only if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that—

(i) crowding is the primary cause of the violation of a Federal right; and

(ii) no other relief will remedy the violation of the Federal right.


(F) Any State or local official including a legislator or unit of government whose jurisdiction or function includes the appropriation of funds for the construction, operation, or maintenance of prison facilities, or the prosecution or custody of persons who may be released from, or not admitted to, a prison as a result of a prisoner release order shall have standing to oppose the imposition or continuation in effect of such relief and to seek termination of such relief, and shall have the right to intervene in any proceeding relating to such relief.


(b) Termination of Relief.—

(1) Termination of prospective relief.—(A) In any civil action with respect to prison conditions in which prospective relief is ordered, such relief shall be terminable upon the motion of any party or intervener—

(i) 2 years after the date the court granted or approved the prospective relief;

(ii) 1 year after the date the court has entered an order denying termination of prospective relief under this paragraph; or

(iii) in the case of an order issued on or before the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, 2 years after such date of enactment.


(B) Nothing in this section shall prevent the parties from agreeing to terminate or modify relief before the relief is terminated under subparagraph (A).

(2) Immediate termination of prospective relief.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, a defendant or intervener shall be entitled to the immediate termination of any prospective relief if the relief was approved or granted in the absence of a finding by the court that the relief is narrowly drawn, extends no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right, and is the least intrusive means necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right.

(3) Limitation.—Prospective relief shall not terminate if the court makes written findings based on the record that prospective relief remains necessary to correct a current and ongoing violation of the Federal right, extends no further than necessary to correct the violation of the Federal right, and that the prospective relief is narrowly drawn and the least intrusive means to correct the violation.

(4) Termination or modification of relief.—Nothing in this section shall prevent any party or intervener from seeking modification or termination before the relief is terminable under paragraph (1) or (2), to the extent that modification or termination would otherwise be legally permissible.


(c) Settlements.—

(1) Consent decrees.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions, the court shall not enter or approve a consent decree unless it complies with the limitations on relief set forth in subsection (a).

(2) Private settlement agreements.—(A) Nothing in this section shall preclude parties from entering into a private settlement agreement that does not comply with the limitations on relief set forth in subsection (a), if the terms of that agreement are not subject to court enforcement other than the reinstatement of the civil proceeding that the agreement settled.

(B) Nothing in this section shall preclude any party claiming that a private settlement agreement has been breached from seeking in State court any remedy available under State law.


(d) State Law Remedies.—The limitations on remedies in this section shall not apply to relief entered by a State court based solely upon claims arising under State law.

(e) Procedure for Motions Affecting Prospective Relief.—

(1) Generally.—The court shall promptly rule on any motion to modify or terminate prospective relief in a civil action with respect to prison conditions. Mandamus shall lie to remedy any failure to issue a prompt ruling on such a motion.

(2) Automatic stay.—Any motion to modify or terminate prospective relief made under subsection (b) shall operate as a stay during the period—

(A)(i) beginning on the 30th day after such motion is filed, in the case of a motion made under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b); or

(ii) beginning on the 180th day after such motion is filed, in the case of a motion made under any other law; and

(B) ending on the date the court enters a final order ruling on the motion.


(3) Postponement of automatic stay.—The court may postpone the effective date of an automatic stay specified in subsection (e)(2)(A) for not more than 60 days for good cause. No postponement shall be permissible because of general congestion of the court's calendar.

(4) Order blocking the automatic stay.—Any order staying, suspending, delaying, or barring the operation of the automatic stay described in paragraph (2) (other than an order to postpone the effective date of the automatic stay under paragraph (3)) shall be treated as an order refusing to dissolve or modify an injunction and shall be appealable pursuant to section 1292(a)(1) of title 28, United States Code, regardless of how the order is styled or whether the order is termed a preliminary or a final ruling.


(f) Special Masters.—

(1) In general.—(A) In any civil action in a Federal court with respect to prison conditions, the court may appoint a special master who shall be disinterested and objective and who will give due regard to the public safety, to conduct hearings on the record and prepare proposed findings of fact.

(B) The court shall appoint a special master under this subsection during the remedial phase of the action only upon a finding that the remedial phase will be sufficiently complex to warrant the appointment.

(2) Appointment.—(A) If the court determines that the appointment of a special master is necessary, the court shall request that the defendant institution and the plaintiff each submit a list of not more than 5 persons to serve as a special master.

(B) Each party shall have the opportunity to remove up to 3 persons from the opposing party's list.

(C) The court shall select the master from the persons remaining on the list after the operation of subparagraph (B).

(3) Interlocutory appeal.—Any party shall have the right to an interlocutory appeal of the judge's selection of the special master under this subsection, on the ground of partiality.

(4) Compensation.—The compensation to be allowed to a special master under this section shall be based on an hourly rate not greater than the hourly rate established under section 3006A for payment of court-appointed counsel, plus costs reasonably incurred by the special master. Such compensation and costs shall be paid with funds appropriated to the Judiciary.

(5) Regular review of appointment.—In any civil action with respect to prison conditions in which a special master is appointed under this subsection, the court shall review the appointment of the special master every 6 months to determine whether the services of the special master continue to be required under paragraph (1). In no event shall the appointment of a special master extend beyond the termination of the relief.

(6) Limitations on powers and duties.—A special master appointed under this subsection—

(A) may be authorized by a court to conduct hearings and prepare proposed findings of fact, which shall be made on the record;

(B) shall not make any findings or communications ex parte;

(C) may be authorized by a court to assist in the development of remedial plans; and

(D) may be removed at any time, but shall be relieved of the appointment upon the termination of relief.


(g) Definitions.—As used in this section—

(1) the term "consent decree" means any relief entered by the court that is based in whole or in part upon the consent or acquiescence of the parties but does not include private settlements;

(2) the term "civil action with respect to prison conditions" means any civil proceeding arising under Federal law with respect to the conditions of confinement or the effects of actions by government officials on the lives of persons confined in prison, but does not include habeas corpus proceedings challenging the fact or duration of confinement in prison;

(3) the term "prisoner" means any person subject to incarceration, detention, or admission to any facility who is accused of, convicted of, sentenced for, or adjudicated delinquent for, violations of criminal law or the terms and conditions of parole, probation, pretrial release, or diversionary program;

(4) the term "prisoner release order" includes any order, including a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunctive relief, that has the purpose or effect of reducing or limiting the prison population, or that directs the release from or nonadmission of prisoners to a prison;

(5) the term "prison" means any Federal, State, or local facility that incarcerates or detains juveniles or adults accused of, convicted of, sentenced for, or adjudicated delinquent for, violations of criminal law;

(6) the term "private settlement agreement" means an agreement entered into among the parties that is not subject to judicial enforcement other than the reinstatement of the civil proceeding that the agreement settled;

(7) the term "prospective relief" means all relief other than compensatory monetary damages;

(8) the term "special master" means any person appointed by a Federal court pursuant to Rule 53 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or pursuant to any inherent power of the court to exercise the powers of a master, regardless of the title or description given by the court; and

(9) the term "relief" means all relief in any form that may be granted or approved by the court, and includes consent decrees but does not include private settlement agreements.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1827; amended Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-66; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §123(a), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2470.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii), probably means the date of enactment of the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995, section 101[(a)] [title VIII] of Pub. L. 104–134, which was approved Apr. 26, 1996.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (g)(8), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(1)(A), substituted "requires" for "permits".

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(1)(B)(i), substituted "no court shall enter a prisoner release order unless" for "no prisoner release order shall be entered unless".

Subsec. (a)(3)(F). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(1)(B)(ii), inserted "including a legislator" after "local official" and substituted "prison facilities" for "program facilities".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(2), substituted "current and ongoing" for "current or ongoing".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(3)(A), inserted at end "Mandamus shall lie to remedy any failure to issue a prompt ruling on such a motion."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(3)(B), substituted "Any motion to modify or terminate prospective relief made under subsection (b) shall operate as a stay" for "Any prospective relief subject to a pending motion shall be automatically stayed".

Subsec. (e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–119, §123(a)(3)(C), added pars. (3) and (4).

1996Pub. L. 104–134 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to appropriate remedies with respect to prison conditions for former provisions relating to appropriate remedies with respect to prison crowding.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §123(b), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2471, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [probably should be "section", amending this section] shall take effect upon the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 26, 1997] and shall apply to pending cases."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(b)(1)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-70, provided that: "Section 3626 of title 18, United States Code, as amended by this section, shall apply with respect to all prospective relief whether such relief was originally granted or approved before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this title [Apr. 26, 1996]."

Effective and Termination Dates

Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1828, which provided that this section applied to all court orders outstanding on Sept. 13, 1994, and Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20409(d), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1828, which provided for the repeal of this section 5 years after Sept. 13, 1994, were repealed by Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §802(b)(2)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-70; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.

Severability

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §810], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-77, provided that: "If any provision of this title [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 3601 of this title], an amendment made by this title, or the application of such provision or amendment to any person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this title, the amendments made by this title, and the application of the provisions of such to any person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby."

Special Masters Appointed Prior to April 26, 1996; Prohibition on Use of Funds

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(a) [title III, §306], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009-45, provided that: "None of the funds available to the Judiciary in fiscal years 1996 and 1997 and hereafter shall be available for expenses authorized pursuant to section 802(a) of title VIII of section 101(a) of title I of the Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996, Public Law 104–134 [amending this section], for costs related to the appointment of Special Masters prior to April 26, 1996."

Payment of Damage Award in Satisfaction of Pending Restitution Orders

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §807], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-75, provided that: "Any compensatory damages awarded to a prisoner in connection with a civil action brought against any Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility or against any official or agent of such jail, prison, or correctional facility, shall be paid directly to satisfy any outstanding restitution orders pending against the prisoner. The remainder of any such award after full payment of all pending restitution orders shall be forwarded to the prisoner."

Notice to Crime Victims of Pending Damage Award

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §808], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-76, provided that: "Prior to payment of any compensatory damages awarded to a prisoner in connection with a civil action brought against any Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility or against any official or agent of such jail, prison, or correctional facility, reasonable efforts shall be made to notify the victims of the crime for which the prisoner was convicted and incarcerated concerning the pending payment of any such compensatory damages."