[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 33, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part C: Supports To Improve Results for Children With Disabilities
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20 USC CHAPTER 33, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part C: Supports To Improve Results for Children With Disabilities
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 33—EDUCATION OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIESSUBCHAPTER IV—NATIONAL ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

Part C—Supports To Improve Results for Children With Disabilities

§1470. Purposes

The purposes of this part are to ensure that—

(1) children with disabilities and their parents receive training and information designed to assist the children in meeting developmental and functional goals and challenging academic achievement goals, and in preparing to lead productive independent adult lives;

(2) children with disabilities and their parents receive training and information on their rights, responsibilities, and protections under this chapter, in order to develop the skills necessary to cooperatively and effectively participate in planning and decision making relating to early intervention, educational, and transitional services;

(3) parents, teachers, administrators, early intervention personnel, related services personnel, and transition personnel receive coordinated and accessible technical assistance and information to assist such personnel in improving early intervention, educational, and transitional services and results for children with disabilities and their families; and

(4) appropriate technology and media are researched, developed, and demonstrated, to improve and implement early intervention, educational, and transitional services and results for children with disabilities and their families.

(Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §670, as added Pub. L. 108–446, title I, §101, Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2788.)

§1471. Parent training and information centers

(a) Program authorized

(1) In general

The Secretary may award grants to, and enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with, parent organizations to support parent training and information centers to carry out activities under this section.

(2) Definition of parent organization

In this section, the term "parent organization" means a private nonprofit organization (other than an institution of higher education) that—

(A) has a board of directors—

(i) the majority of whom are parents of children with disabilities ages birth through 26;

(ii) that includes—

(I) individuals working in the fields of special education, related services, and early intervention; and

(II) individuals with disabilities; and


(iii) the parent and professional members of which are broadly representative of the population to be served, including low-income parents and parents of limited English proficient children; and


(B) has as its mission serving families of children with disabilities who—

(i) are ages birth through 26; and

(ii) have the full range of disabilities described in section 1401(3) of this title.

(b) Required activities

Each parent training and information center that receives assistance under this section shall—

(1) provide training and information that meets the needs of parents of children with disabilities living in the area served by the center, particularly underserved parents and parents of children who may be inappropriately identified, to enable their children with disabilities to—

(A) meet developmental and functional goals, and challenging academic achievement goals that have been established for all children; and

(B) be prepared to lead productive independent adult lives, to the maximum extent possible;


(2) serve the parents of infants, toddlers, and children with the full range of disabilities described in section 1401(3) of this title;

(3) ensure that the training and information provided meets the needs of low-income parents and parents of limited English proficient children;

(4) assist parents to—

(A) better understand the nature of their children's disabilities and their educational, developmental, and transitional needs;

(B) communicate effectively and work collaboratively with personnel responsible for providing special education, early intervention services, transition services, and related services;

(C) participate in decisionmaking processes and the development of individualized education programs under subchapter II and individualized family service plans under subchapter III;

(D) obtain appropriate information about the range, type, and quality of—

(i) options, programs, services, technologies, practices and interventions based on scientifically based research, to the extent practicable; and

(ii) resources available to assist children with disabilities and their families in school and at home;


(E) understand the provisions of this chapter for the education of, and the provision of early intervention services to, children with disabilities;

(F) participate in activities at the school level that benefit their children; and

(G) participate in school reform activities;


(5) in States where the State elects to contract with the parent training and information center, contract with State educational agencies to provide, consistent with subparagraphs (B) and (D) of section 1415(e)(2) of this title, individuals who meet with parents to explain the mediation process to the parents;

(6) assist parents in resolving disputes in the most expeditious and effective way possible, including encouraging the use, and explaining the benefits, of alternative methods of dispute resolution, such as the mediation process described in section 1415(e) of this title;

(7) assist parents and students with disabilities to understand their rights and responsibilities under this chapter, including those under section 1415(m) of this title upon the student's reaching the age of majority (as appropriate under State law);

(8) assist parents to understand the availability of, and how to effectively use, procedural safeguards under this chapter, including the resolution session described in section 1415(e) of this title;

(9) assist parents in understanding, preparing for, and participating in, the process described in section 1415(f)(1)(B) of this title;

(10) establish cooperative partnerships with community parent resource centers funded under section 1472 of this title;

(11) network with appropriate clearinghouses, including organizations conducting national dissemination activities under section 1463 of this title and the Institute of Education Sciences, and with other national, State, and local organizations and agencies, such as protection and advocacy agencies, that serve parents and families of children with the full range of disabilities described in section 1401(3) of this title; and

(12) annually report to the Secretary on—

(A) the number and demographics of parents to whom the center provided information and training in the most recently concluded fiscal year;

(B) the effectiveness of strategies used to reach and serve parents, including underserved parents of children with disabilities; and

(C) the number of parents served who have resolved disputes through alternative methods of dispute resolution.

(c) Optional activities

A parent training and information center that receives assistance under this section may provide information to teachers and other professionals to assist the teachers and professionals in improving results for children with disabilities.

(d) Application requirements

Each application for assistance under this section shall identify with specificity the special efforts that the parent organization will undertake—

(1) to ensure that the needs for training and information of underserved parents of children with disabilities in the area to be served are effectively met; and

(2) to work with community based organizations, including community based organizations that work with low-income parents and parents of limited English proficient children.

(e) Distribution of funds

(1) In general

The Secretary shall—

(A) make not less than 1 award to a parent organization in each State for a parent training and information center that is designated as the statewide parent training and information center; or

(B) in the case of a large State, make awards to multiple parent training and information centers, but only if the centers demonstrate that coordinated services and supports will occur among the multiple centers.

(2) Selection requirement

The Secretary shall select among applications submitted by parent organizations in a State in a manner that ensures the most effective assistance to parents, including parents in urban and rural areas, in the State.

(f) Quarterly review

(1) Meetings

The board of directors of each parent organization that receives an award under this section shall meet not less than once in each calendar quarter to review the activities for which the award was made.

(2) Continuation award

When a parent organization requests a continuation award under this section, the board of directors shall submit to the Secretary a written review of the parent training and information program conducted by the parent organization during the preceding fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §671, as added Pub. L. 108–446, title I, §101, Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2788.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1471, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §671, as added Pub. L. 105–17, title I, §101, June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 135, related to congressional findings and purposes for subpart 1 of part B of former subchapter IV of this chapter, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 108–446.

Another prior section 1471, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §671, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1145; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3301; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(158)–(161), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1149; Pub. L. 102–119, §§11, 25(a)(16), (b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 595, 606, 607, related to congressional findings and policy with regard to early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–17, title II, §203(b), June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 157, effective July 1, 1998.

§1472. Community parent resource centers

(a) Program authorized

(1) In general

The Secretary may award grants to, and enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with, local parent organizations to support community parent resource centers that will help ensure that underserved parents of children with disabilities, including low income parents, parents of limited English proficient children, and parents with disabilities, have the training and information the parents need to enable the parents to participate effectively in helping their children with disabilities—

(A) to meet developmental and functional goals, and challenging academic achievement goals that have been established for all children; and

(B) to be prepared to lead productive independent adult lives, to the maximum extent possible.

(2) Definition of local parent organization

In this section, the term "local parent organization" means a parent organization, as defined in section 1471(a)(2) of this title, that—

(A) has a board of directors the majority of whom are parents of children with disabilities ages birth through 26 from the community to be served; and

(B) has as its mission serving parents of children with disabilities who—

(i) are ages birth through 26; and

(ii) have the full range of disabilities described in section 1401(3) of this title.

(b) Required activities

Each community parent resource center assisted under this section shall—

(1) provide training and information that meets the training and information needs of parents of children with disabilities proposed to be served by the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement;

(2) carry out the activities required of parent training and information centers under paragraphs (2) through (9) of section 1471(b) of this title;

(3) establish cooperative partnerships with the parent training and information centers funded under section 1471 of this title; and

(4) be designed to meet the specific needs of families who experience significant isolation from available sources of information and support.

(Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §672, as added Pub. L. 108–446, title I, §101, Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2791.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1472, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §672, as added Pub. L. 105–17, title I, §101, June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 136, related to research and innovation to improve services and results for children with disabilities, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 108–446.

Another prior section 1472, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §672, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1146; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(b), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3301; Pub. L. 101–476, title VIII, §801, title IX, §901(b)(162), (163), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1141, 1149; Pub. L. 102–119, §§12, 25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 595, 607, related to definitions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–17, title II, §203(b), June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 157, effective July 1, 1998.

§1473. Technical assistance for parent training and information centers

(a) Program authorized

(1) In general

The Secretary may, directly or through awards to eligible entities, provide technical assistance for developing, assisting, and coordinating parent training and information programs carried out by parent training and information centers receiving assistance under section 1471 of this title and community parent resource centers receiving assistance under section 1472 of this title.

(2) Definition of eligible entity

In this section, the term "eligible entity" has the meaning given the term in section 1461(b) of this title.

(b) Authorized activities

The Secretary may provide technical assistance to a parent training and information center or a community parent resource center under this section in areas such as—

(1) effective coordination of parent training efforts;

(2) dissemination of scientifically based research and information;

(3) promotion of the use of technology, including assistive technology devices and assistive technology services;

(4) reaching underserved populations, including parents of low-income and limited English proficient children with disabilities;

(5) including children with disabilities in general education programs;

(6) facilitation of transitions from—

(A) early intervention services to preschool;

(B) preschool to elementary school;

(C) elementary school to secondary school; and

(D) secondary school to postsecondary environments; and


(7) promotion of alternative methods of dispute resolution, including mediation.

(c) Collaboration with the resource centers

Each eligible entity receiving an award under subsection (a) shall develop collaborative agreements with the geographically appropriate regional resource center and, as appropriate, the regional educational laboratory supported under section 9564 of this title, to further parent and professional collaboration.

(Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §673, as added Pub. L. 108–446, title I, §101, Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2791.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1473, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §673, as added Pub. L. 105–17, title I, §101, June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 139, related to personnel preparation to improve services and results for children with disabilities, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 108–446.

Another prior section 1473, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §673, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1147; amended Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(164), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 102–119, §25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 607, related to general authority of Secretary to make grants to States for development of system to provide early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–17, title II, §203(b), June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 157, effective July 1, 1998.

§1474. Technology development, demonstration, and utilization; media services; and instructional materials

(a) Program authorized

(1) In general

The Secretary, on a competitive basis, shall award grants to, and enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with, eligible entities to support activities described in subsections (b) and (c).

(2) Definition of eligible entity

In this section, the term "eligible entity" has the meaning given the term in section 1461(b) of this title.

(b) Technology development, demonstration, and use

(1) In general

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall support activities to promote the development, demonstration, and use of technology.

(2) Authorized activities

The following activities may be carried out under this subsection:

(A) Conducting research on and promoting the demonstration and use of innovative, emerging, and universally designed technologies for children with disabilities, by improving the transfer of technology from research and development to practice.

(B) Supporting research, development, and dissemination of technology with universal design features, so that the technology is accessible to the broadest range of individuals with disabilities without further modification or adaptation.

(C) Demonstrating the use of systems to provide parents and teachers with information and training concerning early diagnosis of, intervention for, and effective teaching strategies for, young children with reading disabilities.

(D) Supporting the use of Internet-based communications for students with cognitive disabilities in order to maximize their academic and functional skills.

(c) Educational media services

(1) In general

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall support—

(A) educational media activities that are designed to be of educational value in the classroom setting to children with disabilities;

(B) providing video description, open captioning, or closed captioning, that is appropriate for use in the classroom setting, of—

(i) television programs;

(ii) videos;

(iii) other materials, including programs and materials associated with new and emerging technologies, such as CDs, DVDs, video streaming, and other forms of multimedia; or

(iv) news (but only until September 30, 2006);


(C) distributing materials described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) through such mechanisms as a loan service; and

(D) providing free educational materials, including textbooks, in accessible media for visually impaired and print disabled students in elementary schools and secondary schools, postsecondary schools, and graduate schools.

(2) Limitation

The video description, open captioning, or closed captioning described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be provided only when the description or captioning has not been previously provided by the producer or distributor, or has not been fully funded by other sources.

(d) Applications

(1) In general

Any eligible entity that wishes to receive a grant, or enter into a contract or cooperative agreement, under subsection (b) or (c) shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

(2) Special rule

For the purpose of an application for an award to carry out activities described in subsection (c)(1)(D), such eligible entity shall—

(A) be a national, nonprofit entity with a proven track record of meeting the needs of students with print disabilities through services described in subsection (c)(1)(D);

(B) have the capacity to produce, maintain, and distribute in a timely fashion, up-to-date textbooks in digital audio formats to qualified students; and

(C) have a demonstrated ability to significantly leverage Federal funds through other public and private contributions, as well as through the expansive use of volunteers.

(e) National Instructional Materials Access Center

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish and support, through the American Printing House for the Blind, a center to be known as the "National Instructional Materials Access Center" not later than 1 year after December 3, 2004.

(2) Duties

The duties of the National Instructional Materials Access Center are the following:

(A) To receive and maintain a catalog of print instructional materials prepared in the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard, as established by the Secretary, made available to such center by the textbook publishing industry, State educational agencies, and local educational agencies.

(B) To provide access to print instructional materials, including textbooks, in accessible media, free of charge, to blind or other persons with print disabilities in elementary schools and secondary schools, in accordance with such terms and procedures as the National Instructional Materials Access Center may prescribe.

(C) To develop, adopt and publish procedures to protect against copyright infringement, with respect to the print instructional materials provided under sections 1412(a)(23) and 1413(a)(6) of this title.

(3) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Blind or other persons with print disabilities

The term "blind or other persons with print disabilities" means children served under this chapter and who may qualify in accordance with the Act entitled "An Act to provide books for the adult blind", approved March 3, 1931 (2 U.S.C. 135a; 46 Stat. 1487) to receive books and other publications produced in specialized formats.

(B) National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard

The term "National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard" means the standard established by the Secretary to be used in the preparation of electronic files suitable and used solely for efficient conversion into specialized formats.

(C) Print instructional materials

The term "print instructional materials" means printed textbooks and related printed core materials that are written and published primarily for use in elementary school and secondary school instruction and are required by a State educational agency or local educational agency for use by students in the classroom.

(D) Specialized formats

The term "specialized formats" has the meaning given the term in section 121(d)(3) of title 17.

(4) Applicability

This subsection shall apply to print instructional materials published after the date on which the final rule establishing the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard was published in the Federal Register.

(5) Liability of the Secretary

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to establish a private right of action against the Secretary for failure to provide instructional materials directly, or for failure by the National Instructional Materials Access Center to perform the duties of such center, or to otherwise authorize a private right of action related to the performance by such center, including through the application of the rights of children and parents established under this chapter.

(6) Inapplicability

Subsections (a) through (d) shall not apply to this subsection.

(Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §674, as added Pub. L. 108–446, title I, §101, Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2792.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(A), (5), was in the original "this Act" and was translated as reading "this title", meaning title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, as amended, which enacted this chapter, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

"An Act to provide books for the adult blind", approved March 3, 1931, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(A), is act Mar. 3, 1931, ch. 400, 46 Stat. 1487, as amended, which is classified generally to sections 135a and 135b of Title 2, The Congress. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Section 121(d) of title 17, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(D), was amended by Pub. L. 115–261, §2(a)(1)(D), Oct. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 3667, and no longer defines the term "specialized formats".

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1474, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §674, as added Pub. L. 105–17, title I, §101, June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 143, related to studies and evaluations, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 108–446.

Another prior section 1474, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §674, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1147, related to general eligibility, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–17, title II, §203(b), June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 157, effective July 1, 1998.

§1475. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2005 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §675, as added Pub. L. 108–446, title I, §101, Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2795.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 1475 to 1480 were repealed by Pub. L. 105–17, title II, §203(b), June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 157, effective July 1, 1998.

Section 1475, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §675, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1147; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(c), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3301; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(165), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 102–52, §10, June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 263; Pub. L. 102–119, §§19(c), 25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 601, 607, related to continuing eligibility.

Section 1476, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §675, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1147; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(c), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3301; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(165), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 102–52, §10, June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 263; Pub. L. 102–119, §§19(c), 25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 601, 607, related to the minimum components for a statewide system providing early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.

Section 1477, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §677, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1149; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(f), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3301; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(174)–(176), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 102–119, §§14, 25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 597, 607, related to the individualized family service plan.

Section 1478, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §678, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1150; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(g), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3302; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(177), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 102–119, §§15, 25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 597, 607, related to contents of State application, statement of assurances, and approval process.

Section 1479, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §679, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1151; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(h), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3302; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(178), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 102–119, §§16, 25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 598, 607, related to permissible uses of funds.

Section 1480, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, §680, as added Pub. L. 99–457, title I, §101(a), Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1152; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title I, §108(i), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3302; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(b)(179), (180), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 102–119, §§17, 25(b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 598, 607, related to procedural safeguards.