[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 39, SUBCHAPTER I, Part 3: Enforcement
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20 USC CHAPTER 39, SUBCHAPTER I, Part 3: Enforcement
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 39—EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRANSPORTATION OF STUDENTSSUBCHAPTER I—EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

Part 3—Enforcement

§1706. Civil actions by individuals denied equal educational opportunities or by Attorney General

An individual denied an equal educational opportunity, as defined by this subchapter may institute a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States against such parties, and for such relief, as may be appropriate. The Attorney General of the United States (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the "Attorney General"), for or in the name of the United States, may also institute such a civil action on behalf of such an individual.

(Pub. L. 93–380, title II, §207, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 516.)

Effective Date

Section effective on and after sixtieth day after Aug. 21, 1974, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 93–380, set out as a note under section 1221–1 of this title.

§1707. Population changes without effect, per se, on school population changes

When a court of competent jurisdiction determines that a school system is desegregated, or that it meets the constitutional requirements, or that it is a unitary system, or that it has no vestiges of a dual system, and thereafter residential shifts in population occur which result in school population changes in any school within such a desegregated school system, such school population changes so occurring shall not, per se, constitute a cause for civil action for a new plan of desegregation or for modification of the court approved plan.

(Pub. L. 93–380, title II, §208, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 516.)

Effective Date

Section effective on and after sixtieth day after Aug. 21, 1974, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 93–380, set out as a note under section 1221–1 of this title.

§1708. Jurisdiction of district courts

The appropriate district court of the United States shall have and exercise jurisdiction of proceedings instituted under section 1706 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–380, title II, §209, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 516.)

Effective Date

Section effective on and after sixtieth day after Aug. 21, 1974, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 93–380, set out as a note under section 1221–1 of this title.

§1709. Intervention by Attorney General

Whenever a civil action is instituted under section 1706 of this title by an individual, the Attorney General may intervene in such action upon timely application.

(Pub. L. 93–380, title II, §210, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 516.)

Effective Date

Section effective on and after sixtieth day after Aug. 21, 1974, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 93–380, set out as a note under section 1221–1 of this title.

§1710. Civil actions by Attorney General; notice of violations; certification respecting undertaking appropriate remedial action

The Attorney General shall not institute a civil action under section 1706 of this title before he—

(a) gives to the appropriate educational agency notice of the condition or conditions which, in his judgment, constitute a violation of part 2 of this subchapter; and

(b) certifies to the appropriate district court of the United States that he is satisfied that such educational agency has not, within a reasonable time after such notice, undertaken appropriate remedial action.

(Pub. L. 93–380, title II, §211, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 516.)

Effective Date

Section effective on and after sixtieth day after Aug. 21, 1974, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 93–380, set out as a note under section 1221–1 of this title.