[USC02] 21 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER II: IMPORT AND EXPORT
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21 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER II: IMPORT AND EXPORT
From Title 21—FOOD AND DRUGSCHAPTER 13—DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL

SUBCHAPTER II—IMPORT AND EXPORT

Codification

This subchapter is comprised of Part A of title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285. Part B of title III contains amendatory, repealing, and transitional provisions generally classified elsewhere.

§951. Definitions

(a) For purposes of this subchapter—

(1) The term "import" means, with respect to any article, any bringing in or introduction of such article into any area (whether or not such bringing in or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the tariff laws of the United States).

(2) The term "customs territory of the United States" has the meaning assigned to such term by general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.


(b) Each term defined in section 802 of this title shall have the same meaning for purposes of this subchapter as such term has for purposes of subchapter I.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1001, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(m), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1158.)

References in Text

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the original "this title", meaning title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended. Part A of title III comprises this subchapter. For classification of Part B, consisting of sections 1101 to 1105 of title III, see Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 2 to the Tariff Schedules of the United States".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1105(a)–(c), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1295, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, this title [see Short Title note below] shall become effective on the first day of the seventh calendar month that begins after the day immediately preceding the date of enactment [Oct. 27, 1970].

"(b) Sections 1000, 1001, 1006, 1015, 1016, 1103, 1104 [see Short Title note below and sections 171 note, 951, 956, 957 note, 965, and 966 of this title], and this section shall become effective upon enactment [Oct. 27, 1970].

"(c)(1) If the Attorney General, pursuant to the authority of section 704(c) of title II [set out as a note under section 801 of this title], postpones the effective date of section 306 (relating to manufacturing quotas) [section 826 of this title] for any period beyond the date specified in section 704(a) [set out as a note under section 801 of this title], and such postponement applies to narcotic drugs, the repeal of the Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960 [sections 501 to 517 of this title] by paragraph (10) of section 1101(a) of this title is hereby postponed for the same period, except that the postponement made by this paragraph shall not apply to the repeal of sections 4, 5, 13, 15, and 16 of that Act [which were classified to sections 182, 503, 511, and 513 of this title and sections 4702, 4731, and 4731 note of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code].

"(2) Effective for any period of postponement, by paragraph (1) of this subsection, of the repeal of provisions of the Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960 [sections 501 to 517 of this title], that Act shall be applied subject to the following modifications:

"(A) The term 'narcotic drug' shall mean a narcotic drug as defined in section 102(16) of title II [section 802(16) of this title], and all references, in the Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960 [sections 501 to 517 of this title], to a narcotic drug as defined by section 4731 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954, section 4731 of Title 26] are amended to refer to a narcotic drug as defined by such section 102(16) [section 802(16) of this title].

"(B) On and after the date prescribed by the Attorney General pursuant to clause (2) of section 703(c) of title II, [set out as a note under section 822 of this title], the requirements of a manufacturer's license with respect to a basic class of narcotic drug under the Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960 [sections 501 to 517 of this title], and of a registration under section 4722 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954, section 4722 of Title 26] as a prerequisite to issuance of such a license, shall be superseded by a requirement of actual registration (as distinguished from provisional registration) as a manufacturer of that class of drug under section 303(a) of title II [section 823(a) of this title].

"(C) On and after the effective date of the repeal of such section 4722 [section 4722 of title 26] by section 1101(b)(3) of this title, but prior to the date specified in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the requirement of registration under such section 4722 [section 4722 of title 26] as a prerequisite of a manufacturer's license under the Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960 [sections 501 to 517 of this title] shall be superseded by a requirement of either (i) actual registration as a manufacturer under section 303 of title II [section 823 of this title] or (ii) provisional registration (by virtue of a preexisting registration under such section 4722) under section 703 of title II [set out as a note under section 822 of this title]."

Short Title

Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1000, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, provided that: "This title [enacting this subchapter, amending sections 162 and 967 of this title, section 4251 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, section 1584 of Title 19, Customs Duties, sections 4901, 4905, 6808, 7012, 7103, 7326, 7607, 7609, 7641, 7651, and 7655 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 2901 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, sections 529d, 529e, and 529f of former Title 31, Money and Finance, section 304m of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, section 3411 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, section 239a of former Title 46, Shipping, and section 787 of former Title 49, Transportation, repealing sections 171 to 174, 176 to 185, 188 to 188n, 191 to 193, 197, 198, 199, and 501 to 517 of this title, sections 1401 to 1407, and 3616 of Title 18, sections 4701 to 4707, 4711 to 4716, 4721 to 4726, 4731 to 4736, 4741 to 4746, 4751 to 4757, 4761, 4762, 4771 to 4776, 7237, 7238, and 7491 of Title 26, sections 529a and 529g of former Title 31, section 1421m of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 171 and 957 of this title] may be cited as the 'Controlled Substances Import and Export Act'."

Rules and Regulations

Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1105(d), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1296, provided: "Any orders, rules and regulations which have been promulgated under any law affected by this title [see Short Title note above] and which are in effect on the day preceding enactment of this title [Oct. 27, 1970] shall continue in effect until modified, superseded, or repealed."

§952. Importation of controlled substances

(a) Controlled substances in schedule I or II and narcotic drugs in schedule III, IV, or V; exceptions

It shall be unlawful to import into the customs territory of the United States from any place outside thereof (but within the United States), or to import into the United States from any place outside thereof, any controlled substance in schedule I or II of subchapter I, or any narcotic drug in schedule III, IV, or V of subchapter I, or ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, except that—

(1) such amounts of crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca leaves, and of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, as the Attorney General finds to be necessary to provide for medical, scientific, or other legitimate purposes, and

(2) such amounts of any controlled substance in schedule I or II or any narcotic drug in schedule III, IV, or V that the Attorney General finds to be necessary to provide for the medical, scientific, or other legitimate needs of the United States—

(A) during an emergency in which domestic supplies of such substance or drug are found by the Attorney General to be inadequate,

(B) in any case in which the Attorney General finds that competition among domestic manufacturers of the controlled substance is inadequate and will not be rendered adequate by the registration of additional manufacturers under section 823 of this title, or

(C) in any case in which the Attorney General finds that such controlled substance is in limited quantities exclusively for scientific, analytical, or research uses,


may be so imported under such regulations as the Attorney General shall prescribe. No crude opium may be so imported for the purpose of manufacturing heroin or smoking opium.

(b) Nonnarcotic controlled substances in schedule III, IV, or V

It shall be unlawful to import into the customs territory of the United States from any place outside thereof (but within the United States), or to import into the United States from  any  place  outside  thereof,  any  nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule III, IV, or V, unless such nonnarcotic controlled substance—

(1) is imported for medical, scientific, or other legitimate uses, and

(2) is imported pursuant to such notification, or declaration, or in the case of any nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule III, such import permit, notification, or declaration, as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe, except that if a nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule IV or V is also listed in schedule I or II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances it shall be imported pursuant to such import permit requirements, prescribed by regulation of the Attorney General, as are required by the Convention.

(c) Coca leaves

In addition to the amount of coca leaves authorized to be imported into the United States under subsection (a), the Attorney General may permit the importation of additional amounts of coca leaves. All cocaine and ecgonine (and all salts, derivatives, and preparations from which cocaine or ecgonine may be synthesized or made) contained in such additional amounts of coca leaves imported under this subsection shall be destroyed under the supervision of an authorized representative of the Attorney General.

(d) Application for increased importation of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine

(1) With respect to a registrant under section 958 of this title who is authorized under subsection (a)(1) to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, at any time during the year the registrant may apply for an increase in the amount of such chemical that the registrant is authorized to import, and the Attorney General may approve the application if the Attorney General determines that the approval is necessary to provide for medical, scientific, or other legitimate purposes regarding the chemical.

(2) With respect to the application under paragraph (1):

(A) Not later than 60 days after receiving the application, the Attorney General shall approve or deny the application.

(B) In approving the application, the Attorney General shall specify the period of time for which the approval is in effect, or shall provide that the approval is effective until the registrant involved is notified in writing by the Attorney General that the approval is terminated.

(C) If the Attorney General does not approve or deny the application before the expiration of the 60-day period under subparagraph (A), the application is deemed to be approved, and such approval remains in effect until the Attorney General notifies the registrant in writing that the approval is terminated.

(e) Reference to ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine

Each reference in this section to ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine includes each of the salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers of such chemical.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1002, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 95–633, title I, §105, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3772; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§519–521, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2075; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §715, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 264.)

References in Text

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–177, §715(1)(A), inserted "or ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine," after "schedule III, IV, or V of subchapter I," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–177, §715(1)(B), inserted ", and of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine," after "coca leaves".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–177, §715(2), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §519, amended par. (1) generally, inserting references to poppy straw and concentrate of poppy straw.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–473, §520, added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–473, §521, substituted "is imported pursuant to such notification, or declaration, or in the case of any nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule III, such import permit, notification, or declaration, as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe, except that if a nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule IV or V is also listed in schedule I or II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances it shall be imported pursuant to such import permit requirements, prescribed by regulation of the Attorney General, as are required by the Convention" for "is imported pursuant to such notification or declaration requirements as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe, except that if a nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule III, IV, or V is also listed in schedule I or II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances it shall be imported pursuant to such import permit requirements, prescribed by regulation of the Attorney General, as are required by the Convention".

1978—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–633 inserted provision relating to exception for nonnarcotic controlled substances listed in schedule I or II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–633 effective on date the Convention on Psychotropic Substances enters into force in the United States [July 15, 1980], see section 112 of Pub. L. 95–633, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801a of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§953. Exportation of controlled substances

(a) Narcotic drugs in schedule I, II, III, or IV

It shall be unlawful to export from the United States any narcotic drug in schedule I, II, III, or IV unless—

(1) it is exported to a country which is a party to—

(A) the International Opium Convention of 1912 for the Suppression of the Abuses of Opium, Morphine, Cocaine, and Derivative Drugs, or to the International Opium Convention signed at Geneva on February 19, 1925; or

(B) the Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs concluded at Geneva, July 13, 1931, as amended by the protocol signed at Lake Success on December 11, 1946, and the protocol bringing under international control drugs outside the scope of the convention of July 13, 1931, for limiting the manufacture and regulating the distribution of narcotic drugs (as amended by the protocol signed at Lake Success on December 11, 1946), signed at Paris, November 19, 1948; or

(C) the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, signed at New York, March 30, 1961;


(2) such country has instituted and maintains, in conformity with the conventions to which it is a party, a system for the control of imports of narcotic drugs which the Attorney General deems adequate;

(3) the narcotic drug is consigned to a holder of such permits or licenses as may be required under the laws of the country of import, and a permit or license to import such drug has been issued by the country of import;

(4) substantial evidence is furnished to the Attorney General by the exporter that (A) the narcotic drug is to be applied exclusively to medical or scientific uses within the country of import, and (B) there is an actual need for the narcotic drug for medical or scientific uses within such country; and

(5) a permit to export the narcotic drug in each instance has been issued by the Attorney General.

(b) Exception for exportation for special scientific purposes

Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Attorney General may authorize any narcotic drug (including crude opium and coca leaves) in schedule I, II, III, or IV to be exported from the United States to a country which is a party to any of the international instruments mentioned in subsection (a) if the particular drug is to be applied to a special scientific purpose in the country of destination and the authorities of such country will permit the importation of the particular drug for such purpose.

(c) Nonnarcotic controlled substances in schedule I or II

It shall be unlawful to export from the United States any nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule I or II unless—

(1) it is exported to a country which has instituted and maintains a system which the Attorney General deems adequate for the control of imports of such substances;

(2) the controlled substance is consigned to a holder of such permits or licenses as may be required under the laws of the country of import;

(3) substantial evidence is furnished to the Attorney General that (A) the controlled substance is to be applied exclusively to medical, scientific, or other legitimate uses within the country to which exported, (B) it will not be exported from such country, and (C) there is an actual need for the controlled substance for medical, scientific, or other legitimate uses within the country; and

(4) a permit to export the controlled substance in each instance has been issued by the Attorney General.

(d) Exception for exportation for special scientific purposes

Notwithstanding subsection (c), the Attorney General may authorize any nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule I or II to be exported from the United States if the particular substance is to be applied to a special scientific purpose in the country of destination and the authorities of such country will permit the importation of the particular drug for such purpose.

(e) Nonnarcotic controlled substances in schedule III or IV; controlled substances in schedule V

It shall be unlawful to export from the United States to any other country any nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule III or IV or any controlled substances in schedule V unless—

(1) there is furnished (before export) to the Attorney General documentary proof that importation is not contrary to the laws or regulations of the country of destination for consumption for medical, scientific, or other legitimate purposes;

(2) it is exported pursuant to such notification or declaration, or in the case of any nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule III, such export permit, notification, or declaration as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe; and

(3) in the case of a nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule IV or V which is also listed in schedule I or II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, it is exported pursuant to such export permit requirements, prescribed by regulation of the Attorney General, as are required by the Convention.

(f) Exception for exportation for subsequent export

Notwithstanding subsections (a)(4) and (c)(3), the Attorney General may authorize any controlled substance that is in schedule I or II, or is a narcotic drug in schedule III or IV, to be exported from the United States to a country for subsequent export from that country to another country, if each of the following conditions is met:

(1) Both the country to which the controlled substance is exported from the United States (referred to in this subsection as the "first country") and the country to which the controlled substance is exported from the first country (referred to in this subsection as the "second country") are parties to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971.

(2) The first country and the second country have each instituted and maintain, in conformity with such Conventions, a system of controls of imports of controlled substances which the Attorney General deems adequate.

(3) With respect to the first country, the controlled substance is consigned to a holder of such permits or licenses as may be required under the laws of such country, and a permit or license to import the controlled substance has been issued by the country.

(4) With respect to the second country, substantial evidence is furnished to the Attorney General by the person who will export the controlled substance from the United States that—

(A) the controlled substance is to be consigned to a holder of such permits or licenses as may be required under the laws of such country, and a permit or license to import the controlled substance is to be issued by the country; and

(B) the controlled substance is to be applied exclusively to medical, scientific, or other legitimate uses within the country.


(5)(A) The controlled substance will not be exported from the second country, except that the controlled substance may be exported from a second country that is a member of the European Economic Area to another country that is a member of the European Economic Area, provided that the first country is also a member of the European Economic Area.

(B) Subsequent to any re-exportation described in subparagraph (A), a controlled substance may continue to be exported from any country that is a member of the European Economic Area to any other such country, if—

(i) the conditions applicable with respect to the first country under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), (6), and (7) are met by each subsequent country from which the controlled substance is exported pursuant to this paragraph; and

(ii) the conditions applicable with respect to the second country under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), (6), and (7) are met by each subsequent country to which the controlled substance is exported pursuant to this paragraph.


(6)(A) Within 30 days after the controlled substance is exported from the first country to the second country, the person who exported the controlled substance from the United States delivers to the Attorney General documentation certifying that such export from the first country has occurred.

(B) In the case of re-exportation among members of the European Economic Area, within 30 days after each re-exportation, the person who exported the controlled substance from the United States delivers to the Attorney General—

(i) documentation certifying that such re-exportation has occurred; and

(ii) information concerning the consignee, country, and product.


(7) A permit to export the controlled substance from the United States has been issued by the Attorney General.

(g) Limitation

Subject to paragraphs (5) and (6) of subsection (f) in the case of any controlled substance in schedule I or II or any narcotic drug in schedule III or IV, the Attorney General shall not promulgate nor enforce any regulation, subregulatory guidance, or enforcement policy which impedes re-exportation of any controlled substance among European Economic Area countries, including by promulgating or enforcing any requirement that—

(1) re-exportation from the first country to the second country or re-exportation from the second country to another country occur within a specified period of time; or

(2) information concerning the consignee, country, and product be provided prior to exportation of the controlled substance from the United States or prior to each re-exportation among members of the European Economic Area.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1003, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1286; Pub. L. 95–633, title I, §106, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3772; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §522, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2076; Pub. L. 109–57, §1(b), Aug. 2, 2005, 119 Stat. 592; Pub. L. 114–89, §4, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 701.)

References in Text

Schedules I, II, III, IV and V, referred to in text, are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 114–89, §4(1)(A), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted ", except that the controlled substance may be exported from a second country that is a member of the European Economic Area to another country that is a member of the European Economic Area, provided that the first country is also a member of the European Economic Area" before period at end, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 114–89, §4(1)(B), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–89, §4(2), added subsec. (g).

2005—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–57 added subsec. (f).

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–473 in cl. (1) inserted provisions for consumption for medical, etc., purposes, added cls. (2) and (3), and struck out former cls. (2) to (4), respectively, relating to a special controlled substance invoice, two additional copies of the invoice, and exportation of a nonnarcotic controlled substance in schedule III, IV, or V, also listed in schedule I or II of the Convention.

1978—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 95–633 added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–633 effective on date the Convention on Psychotropic Substances enters into force in the United States [July 15, 1980], see section 112 of Pub. L. 95–633, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801a of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§954. Transshipment and in-transit shipment of controlled substances

Notwithstanding sections 952, 953, and 957 of this title

(1) A controlled substance in schedule I may—

(A) be imported into the United States for transshipment to another country, or

(B) be transferred or transshipped from one vessel, vehicle, or aircraft to another vessel, vehicle, or aircraft within the United States for immediate exportation,


if and only if it is so imported, transferred, or transshipped (i) for scientific, medical, or other legitimate purposes in the country of destination, and (ii) with the prior written approval of the Attorney General (which shall be granted or denied within 21 days of the request).

(2) A controlled substance in schedule II, III, or IV may be so imported, transferred, or transshipped if and only if advance notice is given to the Attorney General in accordance with regulations of the Attorney General.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1004, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1287.)

References in Text

Schedules I, II, III, and IV, referred to in text, are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§955. Possession on board vessels, etc., arriving in or departing from United States

It shall be unlawful for any person to bring or possess on board any vessel or aircraft, or on board any vehicle of a carrier, arriving in or departing from the United States or the customs territory of the United States, a controlled substance in schedule I or II or a narcotic drug in schedule III or IV, unless such substance or drug is a part of the cargo entered in the manifest or part of the official supplies of the vessel, aircraft, or vehicle.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1005, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1287.)

References in Text

Schedules I, II, III, and IV, referred to in text, are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§§955a to 955d. Transferred

Codification

Sections, Pub. L. 96–350, §§1–4, Sept. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1159, 1160, relating to maritime drug law enforcement, were transferred to sections 1901 to 1904 of the former Appendix to Title 46, Shipping. Sections 1901 to 1904 of the former Appendix to Title 46 were repealed and restated in chapter 705 of Title 46, Shipping, by Pub. L. 109–304, §§10(2), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1683, 1710. For disposition of sections of the former Appendix to Title 46, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of Title 46.

§956. Exemption authority

(a) Individual possessing controlled substance

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Attorney General may by regulation exempt from sections 952(a) and (b), 953, 954, and 955 of this title any individual who has a controlled substance (except a substance in schedule I) in his possession for his personal medical use, or for administration to an animal accompanying him, if he lawfully obtained such substance and he makes such declaration (or gives such other notification) as the Attorney General may by regulation require.

(2) Notwithstanding any exemption under paragraph (1), a United States resident who enters the United States through an international land border with a controlled substance (except a substance in schedule I) for which the individual does not possess a valid prescription issued by a practitioner (as defined in section 802 of this title) in accordance with applicable Federal and State law (or documentation that verifies the issuance of such a prescription to that individual) may not import the controlled substance into the United States in an amount that exceeds 50 dosage units of the controlled substance.

(b) Compound, mixture, or preparation

The Attorney General may by regulation except any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any depressant or stimulant substance listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of schedule III or in schedule IV or V from the application of all or any part of this subchapter if (1) the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a depressant or stimulant effect on the central nervous system, and (2) such ingredients are included therein in such combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration as to vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which do have a depressant or stimulant effect on the central nervous system.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1006, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1288; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title VIII, §872(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–707; Pub. L. 105–357, §2(a), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3271.)

References in Text

Schedules I, III, IV, and V, referred to in text, are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–277 and Pub. L. 105–357 amended subsec. (a) identically, designating existing provisions as par. (1), substituting "Subject to paragraph (2), the Attorney General" for "The Attorney General", and adding par. (2).

Federal Minimum Requirement

Pub. L. 105–357, §2(b), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3271, provided that: "Section 1006(a)(2) of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act [21 U.S.C. 956(a)(2)], as added by this section, is a minimum Federal requirement and shall not be construed to limit a State from imposing any additional requirement."

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title VIII, §872(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–707, enacted a provision substantially identical to that enacted by Pub. L. 105–357, §2(b), set out above.

Jurisdiction of Secretary of Health and Human Services

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title VIII, §872(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–707, and Pub. L. 105–357, §2(c), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3271, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not be construed to affect the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.)."

§957. Persons required to register

(a) Coverage

No person may—

(1) import into the customs territory of the United States from any place outside thereof (but within the United States), or import into the United States from any place outside thereof, any controlled substance or list I chemical, or

(2) export from the United States any controlled substance or list I chemical,


unless there is in effect with respect to such person a registration issued by the Attorney General under section 958 of this title, or unless such person is exempt from registration under subsection (b).

(b) Exemptions

(1) The following persons shall not be required to register under the provisions of this section and may lawfully possess a controlled substance or list I chemical:

(A) An agent or an employee of any importer or exporter registered under section 958 of this title if such agent or employee is acting in the usual course of his business or employment.

(B) A common or contract carrier or warehouseman, or an employee thereof, whose possession of any controlled substance or list I chemical is in the usual course of his business or employment.

(C) An ultimate user who possesses such substance for a purpose specified in section 802(25) 1 of this title and in conformity with an exemption granted under section 956(a) of this title.


(2) The Attorney General may, by regulation, waive the requirement for registration of certain importers and exporters if he finds it consistent with the public health and safety; and may authorize any such importer or exporter to possess controlled substances or list I chemicals for purposes of importation and exportation.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1007, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1288; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §523, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2076; Pub. L. 103–200, §3(e), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2337.)

References in Text

Section 802(25) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(C), was redesignated section 802(26) of this title by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §507(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2071, and was further redesignated section 802(27) of this title by Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1003(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–6.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(e)(1)(A), inserted "or list I chemical" after "controlled substance".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(e)(1)(B), substituted "or list I chemical," for "in schedule I, II, III, IV, or V,".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(e)(2)(A), inserted "or list I chemical" after "controlled substance" in introductory provisions and subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(e)(2)(B), inserted "or list I chemicals" after "controlled substances".

1984—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98–473 inserted reference to schedule V.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–200 effective on date that is 120 days after Dec. 17, 1993, see section 11 of Pub. L. 103–200, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

Provisional Registration

Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1104, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1294, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a)(1) Any person—

"(A) who is engaged in importing or exporting any controlled substance on the day before the effective date of section 1007 [May 1, 1971],

"(B) who notifies the Attorney General that he is so engaged, and

"(C) who is registered on such day under section 510 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 360 of this title] or under section 4722 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954, section 4722 of title 26],

shall, with respect to each establishment for which such registration is in effect under any such section, be deemed to have a provisional registration under section 1008 [section 958 of this title] for the import or export (as the case may be) of controlled substances.

"(2) During the period his provisional registration is in effect under this section, the registration number assigned such person under such section 510 or under such section 4722 (as the case may be) shall be his registration number for purposes of part A of this title [this subchapter].

"(b) The provisions of section 304 [section 824 of this title], relating to suspension and revocation of registration, shall apply to a provisional registration under this section.

"(c) Unless sooner suspended or revoked under subsection (b), a provisional registration of a person under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall be in effect until—

"(1) the date on which such person has registered with the Attorney General under section 1008 [section 958 of this title] or has had his registration denied under such section, or

"(2) such date as may be prescribed by the Attorney General for registration of importers or exporters, as the case may be,

whichever occurs first."

1 See References in Text note below.

§958. Registration requirements

(a) Applicants to import or export controlled substances in schedule I or II

The Attorney General shall register an applicant to import or export a controlled substance in schedule I or II if he determines that such registration is consistent with the public interest and with United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. In determining the public interest, the factors enumerated in paragraph (1) through (6) of section 823(a) of this title shall be considered.

(b) Activity limited to specified substances

Registration granted under this section shall not entitle a registrant to import or export controlled substances other than specified in the registration.

(c) Applicants to import controlled substances in schedule III, IV, or V or to export controlled substances in schedule III or IV; applicants to import or export list I chemicals

(1) The Attorney General shall register an applicant to import a controlled substance in schedule III, IV, or V or to export a controlled substance in schedule III or IV, unless he determines that the issuance of such registration is inconsistent with the public interest. In determining the public interest, the factors enumerated in paragraphs (1) through (6) of section 823(d) of this title shall be considered.

(2)(A) The Attorney General shall register an applicant to import or export a list I chemical unless the Attorney General determines that registration of the applicant is inconsistent with the public interest. Registration under this subsection shall not be required for the import or export of a drug product that is exempted under section 802(39)(A)(iv) of this title.

(B) In determining the public interest for the purposes of subparagraph (A), the Attorney General shall consider the factors specified in section 823(h) of this title.

(d) Denial of application

(1) The Attorney General may deny an application for registration under subsection (a) if he is unable to determine that such registration is consistent with the public interest (as defined in subsection (a)) and with the United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971.

(2) The Attorney General may deny an application for registration under subsection (c), or revoke or suspend a registration under subsection (a) or (c), if he determines that such registration is inconsistent with the public interest (as defined in subsection (a) or (c)) or with the United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971.

(3) The Attorney General may limit the revocation or suspension of a registration to the particular controlled substance, or substances, or list I chemical or chemicals, with respect to which grounds for revocation or suspension exist.

(4) Before taking action pursuant to this subsection, the Attorney General shall serve upon the applicant or registrant an order to show cause as to why the registration should not be denied, revoked, or suspended. The order to show cause shall contain a statement of the basis thereof and shall call upon the applicant or registrant to appear before the Attorney General, or his designee, at a time and place stated in the order, but in no event less than thirty days after the date of receipt of the order. Proceedings to deny, revoke, or suspend shall be conducted pursuant to this subsection in accordance with subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5. Such proceedings shall be independent of, and not in lieu of, criminal prosecutions or other proceedings under this subchapter or any other law of the United States.

(5) The Attorney General may, in his discretion, suspend any registration simultaneously with the institution of proceedings under this subsection, in cases where he finds that there is an imminent danger to the public health and safety. Such suspension shall continue in effect until the conclusion of such proceedings, including judicial review thereof, unless sooner withdrawn by the Attorney General or dissolved by a court of competent jurisdiction.

(6) In the event that the Attorney General suspends or revokes a registration granted under this section, all controlled substances or list I chemicals owned or possessed by the registrant pursuant to such registration at the time of suspension or the effective date of the revocation order, as the case may be, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be seized or placed under seal. No disposition may be made of any controlled substances or list I chemicals under seal until the time for taking an appeal has elapsed or until all appeals have been concluded, except that a court, upon application therefor, may at any time order the sale of perishable controlled substances or list I chemicals. Any such order shall require the deposit of the proceeds of the sale with the court. Upon a revocation order becoming final, all such controlled substances or list I chemicals (or proceeds of the sale thereof which have been deposited with the court) shall be forfeited to the United States; and the Attorney General shall dispose of such controlled substances or list I chemicals in accordance with section 881(e) of this title.

(e) Registration period

No registration shall be issued under this subchapter for a period in excess of one year. Unless the regulations of the Attorney General otherwise provide, sections 822(f), 825, 827, and 830 of this title shall apply to persons registered under this section to the same extent such sections apply to persons registered under section 823 of this title.

(f) Rules and regulations

The Attorney General is authorized to promulgate rules and regulations and to charge reasonable fees relating to the registration and control of importers and exporters of controlled substances or listed chemicals.

(g) Scope of authorized activity

Persons registered by the Attorney General under this section to import or export controlled substances or list I chemicals may import or export (and for the purpose of so importing or exporting, may possess) such substances to the extent authorized by their registration and in conformity with the other provisions of this subchapter and subchapter I.

(h) Separate registrations for each principal place of business

A separate registration shall be required at each principal place of business where the applicant imports or exports controlled substances or list I chemicals.

(i) Emergency situations

Except in emergency situations as described in section 952(a)(2)(A) of this title, prior to issuing a registration under this section to a bulk manufacturer of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, and prior to issuing a regulation under section 952(a) of this title authorizing the importation of such a substance, the Attorney General shall give manufacturers holding registrations for the bulk manufacture of the substance an opportunity for a hearing.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1008, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§524, 525, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2076; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1866(d), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–55; Pub. L. 103–200, §3(f), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2337; Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title VI, §633(c), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2922.)

References in Text

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c), and (i), are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (d)(4) and (g), was in the original "this title", meaning title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended. Part A of title III comprises this subchapter. For classification of Part B, consisting of sections 1101 to 1105 of title III, see Tables.

Codification

In subsecs. (a) and (d), "May 1, 1971" substituted for "the effective date of this section" and "the effective date of this part", respectively.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–447, which directed amendment of subsec. (f) of section 1088 of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act by inserting "and control" after "the registration" and substituting "listed chemicals" for "list I chemicals under this section", was executed to subsec. (f) of this section, which is section 1008 of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(f)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(f)(2)(A), inserted "or list I chemical or chemicals," after "substances,".

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(f)(2)(B), inserted "or list I chemicals" after "controlled substances" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(f)(3), inserted reference to section 830 of this title.

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 103–200, §3(f)(4), inserted "or list I chemicals" after "controlled substances".

1986—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–570 substituted "sections" for first reference to "section".

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §524, substituted "Registration granted under this section shall not entitle a registrant to import or export controlled substances other than specified in the registration" for "Registration granted under subsection (a) of this section shall not entitle a registrant to import or export controlled substances in schedule I or II other than those specified in the registration".

Subsecs. (d) to (i). Pub. L. 98–473, §525, added subsec. (d), redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e) and struck out reference to section 824 of this title, and redesignated former subsecs. (e) to (h) as (f) to (i), respectively.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–200 effective on date that is 120 days after Dec. 17, 1993, see section 11 of Pub. L. 103–200, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§959. Possession, manufacture, or distribution of controlled substance

(a) Manufacture or distribution for purpose of unlawful importation

It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture or distribute a controlled substance in schedule I or II or flunitrazepam or a listed chemical intending, knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe that such substance or chemical will be unlawfully imported into the United States or into waters within a distance of 12 miles of the coast of the United States.

(b) Manufacture or distribution of listed chemical for purpose of manufacture or unlawful importation of controlled substance

It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture or distribute a listed chemical—

(1) intending or knowing that the listed chemical will be used to manufacture a controlled substance; and

(2) intending, knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe that the controlled substance will be unlawfully imported into the United States.

(c) Possession, manufacture, or distribution by person on board aircraft

It shall be unlawful for any United States citizen on board any aircraft, or any person on board an aircraft owned by a United States citizen or registered in the United States, to—

(1) manufacture or distribute a controlled substance or listed chemical; or

(2) possess a controlled substance or listed chemical with intent to distribute.

(d) Acts committed outside territorial jurisdiction of United States

This section is intended to reach acts of manufacture or distribution committed outside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1009, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3161(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–94; Pub. L. 104–237, title I, §102(a), (b), Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3100; Pub. L. 104–305, §2(b)(2)(A), Oct. 13, 1996, 110 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 114–154, §2, May 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 387; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1012(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1546.)

References in Text

Schedules I and II, referred to in subsec. (a), are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–91 struck out "; venue" after "United States" in heading and "Any person who violates this section shall be tried in the United States district court at the point of entry where such person enters the United States, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia." after "United States." in text.

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–154, §2(2), substituted "It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture or distribute a controlled substance in schedule I or II or flunitrazepam or a listed chemical intending, knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe that such substance or chemical will be unlawfully imported into the United States or into waters within a distance of 12 miles of the coast of the United States." for "It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture or distribute a controlled substance in schedule I or II or flunitrazepam or listed chemical—

"(1) intending that such substance or chemical will be unlawfully imported into the United States or into waters within a distance of 12 miles of the coast of the United States; or

"(2) knowing that such substance or chemical will be unlawfully imported into the United States or into waters within a distance of 12 miles of the coast of the United States."

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 114–154 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–305 inserted "or flunitrazepam" after "schedule I or II" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 104–237, §102(a), inserted "or listed chemical" after "schedule I or II" in introductory provisions and "or chemical" after "substance" in pars. (1) and (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–237, §102(b), inserted "or listed chemical" after "controlled substance" in pars. (1) and (2).

1986Pub. L. 99–570 designated first sentence as subsec. (a) and inserted "or into waters within a distance of 12 miles of the coast of the United States" in pars. (1) and (2), added subsec. (b), and designated last two sentences as subsec. (c).

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§960. Prohibited acts A

(a) Unlawful acts

Any person who—

(1) contrary to section 825, 952, 953, or 957 of this title, knowingly or intentionally imports or exports a controlled substance,

(2) contrary to section 955 of this title, knowingly or intentionally brings or possesses on board a vessel, aircraft, or vehicle a controlled substance, or

(3) contrary to section 959 of this title, manufactures, possesses with intent to distribute, or distributes a controlled substance,


shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).

(b) Penalties

(1) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—

(A) 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;

(B) 5 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—

(i) coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;

(ii) cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts or isomers;

(iii) ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or

(iv) any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in clauses (i) through (iii);


(C) 280 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in subparagraph (B) which contains cocaine base;

(D) 100 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);

(E) 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

(F) 400 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N- [1- ( 2-phenylethyl ) -4-piperidinyl] propanamide or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;

(G) 1000 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana; or

(H) 50 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers.1


the person committing such violation shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 10 years and not more than life and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 20 years and not more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $10,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a serious drug felony or serious violent felony has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 15 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $20,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $75,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 5 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 10 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this paragraph. No person sentenced under this paragraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

(2) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—

(A) 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;

(B) 500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—

(i) coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;

(ii) cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts or isomers;

(iii) ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or

(iv) any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in clauses (i) through (iii);


(C) 28 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in subparagraph (B) which contains cocaine base;

(D) 10 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);

(E) 1 gram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

(F) 40 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N- [1- ( 2-phenylethyl ) -4-piperidinyl] propanamide or 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;

(G) 100 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana; or

(H) 5 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 50 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers.1


the person committing such violation shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 5 years and not more than 40 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than twenty years and not more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $5,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $25,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a serious drug felony or serious violent felony has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 10 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $8,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposed under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 8 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this paragraph. No person sentenced under this paragraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

(3) In the case of a violation under subsection (a) of this section involving a controlled substance in schedule I or II, gamma hydroxybutyric acid (including when scheduled as an approved drug product for purposes of section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000), or flunitrazepam, the person committing such violation shall, except as provided in paragraphs (1), (2), and (4), be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than twenty years and not more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $2,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 3 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 6 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding the prior sentence, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under the provisions of this paragraph which provide for a mandatory term of imprisonment if death or serious bodily injury results.

(4) In the case of a violation under subsection (a) with respect to less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, except in the case of 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight, less than 10 kilograms of hashish, or less than one kilogram of hashish oil, the person committing such violation shall be sentenced in accordance with section 841(b)(1)(D) of this title.

(5) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) involving a controlled substance in schedule III, such person shall be sentenced in accordance with section 841(b)(1) of this title.

(6) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) involving a controlled substance in schedule IV, such person shall be sentenced in accordance with section 841(b)(2) of this title.

(7) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) involving a controlled substance in schedule V, such person shall be sentenced in accordance with section 841(b)(3) of this title.

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §225, formerly §225(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2030, as amended by Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1005(c), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–6

(d) Penalty for importation or exportation

A person who knowingly or intentionally—

(1) imports or exports a listed chemical with intent to manufacture a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter or subchapter I;

(2) exports a listed chemical in violation of the laws of the country to which the chemical is exported or serves as a broker or trader for an international transaction involving a listed chemical, if the transaction is in violation of the laws of the country to which the chemical is exported;

(3) imports or exports a listed chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the chemical will be used to manufacture a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter or subchapter I;

(4) exports a listed chemical, or serves as a broker or trader for an international transaction involving a listed chemical, knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the chemical will be used to manufacture a controlled substance in violation of the laws of the country to which the chemical is exported;

(5) imports or exports a listed chemical, with the intent to evade the reporting or recordkeeping requirements of section 971 of this title applicable to such importation or exportation by falsely representing to the Attorney General that the importation or exportation qualifies for a waiver of the 15-day notification requirement granted pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3) of section 971(f) of this title by misrepresenting the actual country of final destination of the listed chemical or the actual listed chemical being imported or exported;

(6) imports a listed chemical in violation of section 952 of this title, imports or exports such a chemical in violation of section 957 or 971 of this title, or transfers such a chemical in violation of section 971(d) of this title; or

(7) manufactures, possesses with intent to distribute, or distributes a listed chemical in violation of section 959 of this title.2


shall be fined in accordance with title 18, imprisoned not more than 20 years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (3) involving a list I chemical or not more than 10 years in the case of a violation of this subsection other than a violation of paragraph (1) or (3) involving a list I chemical, or both.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1010, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1290; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§225, formerly §225(a), 504, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2030, 2070; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §§1004(a), 1005(c), 1302, 1866(e), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–6, 3207-15, 3207-55; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6053(c), 6475, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4315, 4380; Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1204, title XXXV, §3599J, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4830, 4932; Pub. L. 103–200, §§4(b), 5(b), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2338, 2339; Pub. L. 103–322, title IX, §90105(a), title XXXIII, §330024(d)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1987, 2151; Pub. L. 104–237, title I, §102(c), title III, §302(b), Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3100, 3105; Pub. L. 104–305, §2(b)(2)(B), (C), Oct. 13, 1996, 110 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 105–277, div. E, §2(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–759; Pub. L. 106–172, §3(b)(2), Feb. 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, §3005(b), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1806; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §§716(b)(1)(A), 717, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 267; Pub. L. 110–425, §3(i), Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4832; Pub. L. 111–220, §§2(b), 4(b), Aug. 3, 2010, 124 Stat. 2372; Pub. L. 113–260, §3(b), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2931; Pub. L. 115–391, title IV, §401(b), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5221.)

References in Text

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V, referred to in subsec. (b), are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prohibition Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is section 3(a)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 106–172, which is set out in a note under section 812 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–391, §401(b)(1), in concluding provisions, substituted "If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a serious drug felony or serious violent felony has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 15 years" for "If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 20 years".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–391, §401(b)(2), substituted "serious drug felony or serious violent felony" for "felony drug offense" in concluding provisions.

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–260 inserted "825," before "952".

2010—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–220, §4(b)(1), in concluding provisions, substituted "$10,000,000" for "$4,000,000", "$50,000,000" for "$10,000,000", "$20,000,000" for "$8,000,000", and "$75,000,000" for "$20,000,000".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–220, §2(b)(1), substituted "280 grams" for "50 grams".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–220, §4(b)(2), in concluding provisions, substituted "$5,000,000" for "$2,000,000", "$25,000,000" for "$5,000,000", "$8,000,000" for "$4,000,000", and "$50,000,000" for "$10,000,000".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 111–220, §2(b)(2), substituted "28 grams" for "5 grams".

2008—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–425, §3(i)(3), struck out before period at end ", nor shall a person so sentenced be eligible for parole during the term of such a sentence".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–425, §3(i)(1), inserted "or" after "hashish,", struck out "or any quantity of a controlled substance in schedule III, IV, or V, (except a violation involving flunitrazepam and except a violation involving gamma hydroxybutyric acid)" after "hashish oil,", and substituted "sentenced in accordance with section 841(b)(1)(D) of this title" for "imprisoned not more than five years, or be fined not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If a sentence under this paragraph provides for imprisonment, the sentence shall, notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, in addition to such term of imprisonment, include (A) a term of supervised release of not less than two years if such controlled substance is in schedule I, II, III, or (B) a term of supervised release of not less than one year if such controlled substance is in schedule IV".

Subsec. (b)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 110–425, §3(i)(2), added pars. (5) to (7).

2006—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 109–177, §716(b)(1)(A), substituted "paragraph (2) or (3) of section 971(f) of this title" for "section 971(e)(2) or (3) of this title".

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 109–177, §717, amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "imports or exports a listed chemical in violation of section 957 or 971 of this title; or".

2002—Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 107–273, §3005(b)(1), substituted "Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence" for "Any sentence" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–273, §3005(b)(1), substituted "Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence" for "Any sentence".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–273, §3005(b)(2), inserted "notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18," before "in addition to such term of imprisonment".

2000—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–172, §3(b)(2)(A), inserted "gamma hydroxybutyric acid (including when scheduled as an approved drug product for purposes of section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000)," after "schedule I or II," in first sentence.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–172, §3(b)(2)(B), substituted "flunitrazepam and except a violation involving gamma hydroxybutyric acid)" for "flunitrazepam)".

1998—Subsec. (b)(1)(H). Pub. L. 105–277, §2(b)(1), substituted "50 grams" and "500 grams" for "100 grams" and "1 kilogram", respectively.

Subsec. (b)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–277, §2(b)(2), substituted "5 grams" and "50 grams" for "10 grams" and "100 grams", respectively.

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–305, §2(b)(2)(B), inserted "or flunitrazepam," after "schedule I or II,".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–305, §2(b)(2)(C), inserted "(except a violation involving flunitrazepam)" after "schedule III, IV, or V,".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–237, §302(b), in closing provisions, substituted "not more than 20 years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (3) involving a list I chemical or not more than 10 years in the case of a violation of this subsection other than a violation of paragraph (1) or (3) involving a list I chemical," for "not more than 10 years,".

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 104–237, §102(c), added par. (7).

1994—Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–322, §90105(a), in sentence in concluding provisions beginning "If any person commits", substituted "a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final" for "one or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this subsection, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter I of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–322, §90105(a), in sentence beginning "If any person commits", substituted "a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final" for "one or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this subsection, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter I of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final".

Subsec. (d)(5), (6). Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(d)(2), amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–200, §5(b)(3). See 1993 Amendment note below.

1993—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–200, §5(b), as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(d)(2), added pars. (5) and (6).

Pub. L. 103–200, §4(b), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "Any person who knowingly or intentionally—

"(1) imports or exports a listed chemical with intent to manufacture a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter or, in the case of an exportation, in violation of the law of the country to which the chemical is exported; or

"(2) imports or exports a listed chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the listed chemical will be used to manufacture a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter or, in the case of an exportation, in violation of the law of the country to which the chemical is exported;

shall be fined in accordance with title 18, or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both."

1990—Subsec. (b)(1)(H). Pub. L. 101–647, §1204(a), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–647, §3599J, substituted "supervised" for "suspervised" in two places in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(H). Pub. L. 101–647, §1204(b), added subpar. (H).

1988—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–690, §6475, substituted "manufactures, possesses with intent to distribute, or distributes a controlled substance" for "manufactures or distributes a controlled substance".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–690, §6053(c), added subsec. (d).

1986Pub. L. 99–570, §1005(c), amended Pub. L. 98–473, §225. See 1984 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 99–570, §1302(a)(2), added pars. (1) and (2) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which read as follows:

"(1) In the case of a violation under subsection (a) of this section involving—

"(A) 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of a narcotic drug in schedule I or II other than a narcotic drug consisting of—

"(i) coca leaves;

"(ii) a compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves; or

"(iii) a substance chemically identical thereto;

"(B) a kilogram or more of any other narcotic drug in schedule I or II;

"(C) 500 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP);

"(D) 5 grams or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

the person committing such violation shall be imprisoned for not more than twenty years, or fined not more than $250,000, or both.

"(2) In the case of a violation under subsection (a) of this section with respect to a controlled substance in schedule I or II, the person committing such violation shall, except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (3), be imprisoned not more than fifteen years, or fined not more than $125,000, or both. If a sentence under this paragraph provides for imprisonment, the sentence shall include a special parole term of not less than three years in addition to such term of imprisonment."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–570, §1302(a)(2), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99–570, §1302(a)(1), (3), (b)(2), (3), redesignated former par. (3) as (4), inserted "except in the case of 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight," and substituted "fined not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual" for "fined not more than $50,000".

Pub. L. 99–570, §§1302(b)(1), 1866(e), made identical amendment striking out ", except as provided in paragraph (4)" after "such violation shall".

Pub. L. 99–570, §1004(a), substituted "term of supervised release" for "special parole term" in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–570, §1004(a), substituted "term of supervised release" for "special parole term" wherever appearing, effective Nov. 1, 1987, the effective date of the repeal of subsec. (c) by Pub. L. 98–473, §225. See 1984 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §225(a), which directed amendment of this subsection effective Nov. 1, 1987 (see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473 set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure) was omitted in the general amendment of section 225 of Pub. L. 98–473 by Pub. L. 99–570, §1005(c).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §504(1), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–473, §504(1), (2), redesignated former par. (1) as (2), inserted provisions excepting pars. (1) and (3), and substituted reference to controlled substance for reference to narcotic drug, and "$125,000" for "$25,000". Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–473, §504(1), (3), redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and substituted "less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, less than 10 kilograms of hashish, less than one kilogram of hashish oil, or any quantity of a controlled substance in schedule III, IV, or V, the person committing such violation shall, except as provided in paragraph (4)" for "a controlled substance other than a narcotic drug in schedule I or II, the person committing such violation shall", and "$50,000" for "$15,000".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473, §225, as amended by Pub. L. 99–570, §1005(c), struck out subsec. (c) which related to special parole terms imposed under this section or section 962 of this title. Notwithstanding directory language that the amendment be made to "Section 1515 of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 960)", the amendment was executed to this section as the probable intent of Congress.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–391 applicable to any offense that was committed before Dec. 21, 2018, if a sentence for the offense has not been imposed as of Dec. 21, 2018, see section 401(c) of Pub. L. 115–391, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–425 effective 180 days after Oct. 15, 2008, except as otherwise provided, see section 3(j) of Pub. L. 110–425, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 330024(d)(2) of Pub. L. 103–322 effective 120 days after Dec. 17, 1993, see section 330024(f) of Pub. L. 103–322, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–200 effective on date that is 120 days after Dec. 17, 1993, see section 11 of Pub. L. 103–200, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 6053(c) of Pub. L. 100–690 effective 120 days after Nov. 18, 1988, see section 6061 of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1004(a) of Pub. L. 99–570 effective on date of taking effect of section 3583 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure (Nov. 1, 1987), see section 1004(b) of Pub. L. 99–570 set out as a note under section 841 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 225 of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

2 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

§960a. Foreign terrorist organizations, terrorist persons and groups

(a) Prohibited acts

Whoever engages in conduct that would be punishable under section 841(a) 1 of this title if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States, or attempts or conspires to do so, knowing or intending to provide, directly or indirectly, anything of pecuniary value to any person or organization that has engaged or engages in terrorist activity (as defined in section 1182(a)(3)(B) of title 8) or terrorism (as defined in section 2656f(d)(2) of title 22), shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than twice the minimum punishment under section 841(b)(1),1 and not more than life, a fine in accordance with the provisions of title 18, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposed under this subsection shall include a term of supervised release of at least 5 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.

(b) Jurisdiction

There is jurisdiction over an offense under this section if—

(1) the prohibited drug activity or the terrorist offense is in violation of the criminal laws of the United States;

(2) the offense, the prohibited drug activity, or the terrorist offense occurs in or affects interstate or foreign commerce;

(3) an offender provides anything of pecuniary value for a terrorist offense that causes or is designed to cause death or serious bodily injury to a national of the United States while that national is outside the United States, or substantial damage to the property of a legal entity organized under the laws of the United States (including any of its States, districts, commonwealths, territories, or possessions) while that property is outside of the United States;

(4) the offense or the prohibited drug activity occurs in whole or in part outside of the United States (including on the high seas), and a perpetrator of the offense or the prohibited drug activity is a national of the United States or a legal entity organized under the laws of the United States (including any of its States, districts, commonwealths, territories, or possessions); or

(5) after the conduct required for the offense occurs an offender is brought into or found in the United States, even if the conduct required for the offense occurs outside the United States.

(c) Proof requirements

To violate subsection (a), a person must have knowledge that the person or organization has engaged or engages in terrorist activity (as defined in section 1182(a)(3)(B) of title 8) or terrorism (as defined in section 2656f(d)(2) of title 22).

(d) Definition

As used in this section, the term "anything of pecuniary value" has the meaning given the term in section 1958(b)(1) of title 18.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1010A, as added Pub. L. 109–177, title I, §122, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 225.)

References in Text

Section 841, referred to in the original in subsec. (a), probably should have been a reference to section 401 of Pub. L. 91–513, which is classified to section 841 of this title. Pub. L. 91–513 does not contain a section 841.

1 See References in Text note below.

§961. Prohibited acts B

Any person who violates section 954 of this title or fails to notify the Attorney General of an importation or exportation under section 971 of this title shall be subject to the following penalties:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), any such person shall, with respect to any such violation, be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $25,000. Sections 842(c)(1) and (c)(3) of this title shall apply to any civil penalty assessed under this paragraph.

(2) If such a violation is prosecuted by an information or indictment which alleges that the violation was committed knowingly or intentionally and the trier of fact specifically finds that the violation was so committed, such person shall be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or a fine of not more than $25,000 or both.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1011, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1290; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6053(d), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4316.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 inserted "or fails to notify the Attorney General of an importation or exportation under section 971 of this title".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–690 effective 120 days after Nov. 18, 1988, see section 6061 of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§962. Second or subsequent offenses

(a) Term of imprisonment and fine

Any person convicted of any offense under this subchapter is, if the offense is a second or subsequent offense, punishable by a term of imprisonment twice that otherwise authorized, by twice the fine otherwise authorized, or by both. If the conviction is for an offense punishable under section 960(b) of this title, and if it is the offender's second or subsequent offense, the court shall impose, in addition to any term of imprisonment and fine, twice the term of supervised release otherwise authorized.

(b) Determination of status

For purposes of this section, a person shall be considered convicted of a second or subsequent offense if, prior to the commission of such offense, one or more prior convictions of such person for a felony drug offense have become final.

(c) Procedures applicable

Section 851 of this title shall apply with respect to any proceeding to sentence a person under this section.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1012, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1290; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§225(b), 505, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2030, 2070; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §§1004(a), 1005(c), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–6; Pub. L. 103–322, title IX, §90105(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1988.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "one or more prior convictions of such person for a felony drug offense have become final" for "one or more prior convictions of him for a felony under any provision of this subchapter or subchapter I of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs, have become final".

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–570, §1005(c), amended Pub. L. 98–473, §225. See 1984 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 99–570, §1004(a), substituted "term of supervised release" for "special parole term".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §225(b), which directed amendment of this section effective Nov. 1, 1987 (see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473 set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure) was omitted in the general amendment of section 225 of Pub. L. 98–473 by Pub. L. 99–570, §1005(c).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §505, inserted references to laws of a State or of a foreign country.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1004(a) of Pub. L. 99–570 effective on date of taking effect of section 3583 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure (Nov. 1, 1987), see section 1004(b) of Pub. L. 99–570 set out as a note under section 841 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§963. Attempt and conspiracy

Any person who attempts or conspires to commit any offense defined in this subchapter shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense, the commission of which was the object of the attempt or conspiracy.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1013, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6470(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4377.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 substituted "shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense" for "is punishable by imprisonment or fine or both which may not exceed the maximum punishment prescribed for the offense".

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§964. Additional penalties

Any penalty imposed for violation of this subchapter shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, any civil or administrative penalty or sanction authorized by law.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1014, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291.)

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a under section 951 of this title.

§965. Applicability of part E of subchapter I

Part E of subchapter I shall apply with respect to functions of the Attorney General (and of officers and employees of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs) under this subchapter, to administrative and judicial proceedings under this subchapter, and to violations of this subchapter, to the same extent that such part applies to functions of the Attorney General (and such officers and employees) under subchapter I, to such proceedings under subchapter I, and to violations of subchapter I. For purposes of the application of this section to section 880 or 881 of this title, any reference in such section 880 or 881 of this title to "this subchapter" shall be deemed to be a reference to this subchapter, any reference to section 823 of this title shall be deemed to be a reference to section 958 of this title, and any reference to section 822(d) of this title shall be deemed to be a reference to section 957(b)(2) of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1015, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291; Pub. L. 95–633, title III, §301(b), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3778.)

Amendments

1978Pub. L. 95–633 inserted "or 881" after "880" wherever appearing.

Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, including Office of Director thereof, and creation of a single comprehensive agency for enforcement of drug laws by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1973, eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 15932, 87 Stat. 1091, see note set out under section 881 of this title.

§966. Authority of Secretary of the Treasury

Nothing in this chapter shall derogate from the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury under the customs and related laws.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1016, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1236. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

§967. Smuggling of controlled substances; investigations; oaths; subpenas; witnesses; evidence; production of records; territorial limits; fees and mileage of witnesses

For the purpose of any investigation which, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Treasury, is necessary and proper to the enforcement of section 545 of title 18 (relating to smuggling goods into the United States) with respect to any controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of this title), the Secretary of the Treasury may administer oaths and affirmations, subpena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of records (including books, papers, documents and tangible things which constitute or contain evidence) relevant or material to the investigation. The attendance of witnesses and the production of records may be required from any place within the customs territory of the United States, except that a witness shall not be required to appear at any hearing distant more than 100 miles from the place where he was served with subpena. Witnesses summoned by the Secretary shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. Oaths and affirmations may be made at any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 800, §1, 69 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1102(t), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1294.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 1034 of Title 31 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97–258, §1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.

Section was also formerly classified to section 198a of this title.

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–513 substituted "section 545 of title 18 (relating to smuggling goods into the United States) with respect to any controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of this title)" for "the laws of the United States relating to narcotic drugs and marihuana" and substituted the customs territory of the United States for any State or any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States is the defined area from within which the attendance of witnesses and the production of records may be required, and struck out provisions making the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury the determinative factor as to what is relevant or material to the investigation.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Savings Provision

Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring, and civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced, prior to the effective date of amendment of this section by section 1102 of Pub. L. 91–513 not to be affected or abated by reason thereof, see section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under sections 171 to 174 of this title.

§968. Service of subpena; proof of service

A subpena of the Secretary of the Treasury may be served by any person designated in the subpena to serve it. Service upon a natural person may be made by personal delivery of the subpena to him. Service may be made upon a domestic or foreign corporation or upon a partnership or other unincorporated association which is subject to suit under a common name, by delivering the subpena to an officer, a managing or general agent, or to any other agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process. The affidavit of the person serving the subpena entered on a true copy thereof by the person serving it shall be proof of service.

(Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 800, §2, 69 Stat. 685.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 1035 of Title 31 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97–258, §1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.

Section was also formerly classified to section 198b of this title.

§969. Contempt proceedings

In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpena issued to, any person, the Secretary of the Treasury may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which the investigation is carried on or of which the subpenaed person is an inhabitant, carries on business or may be found, to compel compliance with the subpena of the Secretary of the Treasury. The court may issue an order requiring the subpenaed person to appear before the Secretary of the Treasury there to produce records, if so ordered, or to give testimony touching the matter under investigation. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district whereof the subpenaed person is an inhabitant or wherever he may be found.

(Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 800, §3, 69 Stat. 685.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 1036 of Title 31 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97–258, §1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.

Section was also formerly classified to section 198c of this title.

§970. Criminal forfeitures

Section 853 of this title, relating to criminal forfeitures, shall apply in every respect to a violation of this subchapter punishable by imprisonment for more than one year.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1017, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §307, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2051.)

§971. Notification, suspension of shipment, and penalties with respect to importation and exportation of listed chemicals

(a) Notification prior to transaction

Each regulated person who imports or exports a listed chemical shall notify the Attorney General of the importation or exportation not later than 15 days before the transaction is to take place.

(b) Regular customers or importers

(1) The Attorney General shall provide by regulation for circumstances in which the requirement of subsection (a) does not apply to a transaction between a regulated person and a regular customer or to a transaction that is an importation by a regular importer. At the time of any importation or exportation constituting a transaction referred to in the preceding sentence, the regulated person shall notify the Attorney General of the transaction.

(2) The regulations under this subsection shall provide that the initial notification under subsection (a) with respect to a customer of a regulated person or to an importer shall, upon the expiration of the 15-day period, qualify the customer as a regular customer or the importer as a regular importer, unless the Attorney General otherwise notifies the regulated person in writing.

(c) Suspension of importation or exportation; disqualification of regular customers or importers; hearing

(1) The Attorney General may order the suspension of any importation or exportation of a listed chemical (other than a regulated transaction to which the requirement of subsection (a) does not apply by reason of subsection (b)) or may disqualify any regular customer or regular importer on the ground that the chemical may be diverted to the clandestine manufacture of a controlled substance (without regard to the form of the chemical that may be diverted, including the diversion of a finished drug product to be manufactured from bulk chemicals to be transferred). From and after the time when the Attorney General provides written notice of the order (including a statement of the legal and factual basis for the order) to the regulated person, the regulated person may not carry out the transaction.

(2) Upon written request to the Attorney General, a regulated person to whom an order applies under paragraph (1) is entitled to an agency hearing on the record in accordance with subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5. The hearing shall be held on an expedited basis and not later than 45 days after the request is made, except that the hearing may be held at a later time, if so requested by the regulated person.

(d) Information required in notice; updated notice for change in circumstances

(1)(A) Information provided in a notice under subsection (a) or (b) shall include the name of the person to whom the importer or exporter involved intends to transfer the listed chemical involved, and the quantity of such chemical to be transferred.

(B) In the case of a notice under subsection (b) submitted by a regular importer, if the transferee identified in the notice is not a regular customer, such importer may not transfer the listed chemical until after the expiration of the 15-day period beginning on the date on which the notice is submitted to the Attorney General.

(C) After a notice under subsection (a) or (b) is submitted to the Attorney General, if circumstances change and the importer or exporter will not be transferring the listed chemical to the transferee identified in the notice, or will be transferring a greater quantity of the chemical than specified in the notice, the importer or exporter shall update the notice to identify the most recent prospective transferee or the most recent quantity or both (as the case may be) and may not transfer the listed chemical until after the expiration of the 15-day period beginning on the date on which the update is submitted to the Attorney General, except that such 15-day restriction does not apply if the prospective transferee identified in the update is a regular customer. The preceding sentence applies with respect to changing circumstances regarding a transferee or quantity identified in an update to the same extent and in the same manner as such sentence applies with respect to changing circumstances regarding a transferee or quantity identified in the original notice under subsection (a) or (b).

(D) In the case of a transfer of a listed chemical that is subject to a 15-day restriction under subparagraph (B) or (C), the transferee involved shall, upon the expiration of the 15-day period, be considered to qualify as a regular customer, unless the Attorney General otherwise notifies the importer or exporter involved in writing.

(2) With respect to a transfer of a listed chemical with which a notice or update referred to in paragraph (1) is concerned:

(A) The Attorney General, in accordance with the same procedures as apply under subsection (c)(2)—

(i) may order the suspension of the transfer of the listed chemical by the importer or exporter involved, except for a transfer to a regular customer, on the ground that the chemical may be diverted to the clandestine manufacture of a controlled substance (without regard to the form of the chemical that may be diverted, including the diversion of a finished drug product to be manufactured from bulk chemicals to be transferred), subject to the Attorney General ordering such suspension before the expiration of the 15-day period referred to in paragraph (1) with respect to the importation or exportation (in any case in which such a period applies); and

(ii) may, for purposes of clause (i) and paragraph (1), disqualify a regular customer on such ground.


(B) From and after the time when the Attorney General provides written notice of the order under subparagraph (A) (including a statement of the legal and factual basis for the order) to the importer or exporter, the importer or exporter may not carry out the transfer.


(3) For purposes of this subsection:

(A) The terms "importer" and "exporter" mean a regulated person who imports or exports a listed chemical, respectively.

(B) The term "transfer", with respect to a listed chemical, includes the sale of the chemical.

(C) The term "transferee" means a person to whom an importer or exporter transfers a listed chemical.

(e) Broker or trader for international transaction in listed chemical

A person located in the United States who is a broker or trader for an international transaction in a listed chemical that is a regulated transaction solely because of that person's involvement as a broker or trader shall, with respect to that transaction, be subject to all of the notification, reporting, recordkeeping, and other requirements placed upon exporters of listed chemicals by this subchapter and subchapter I.

(f) Application of notification requirement to exports of listed chemical; waiver

(1) The Attorney General may by regulation require that the 15-day notification requirement of subsection (a) apply to all exports of a listed chemical to a specified country, regardless of the status of certain customers in such country as regular customers, if the Attorney General finds that such notification is necessary to support effective chemical diversion control programs or is required by treaty or other international agreement to which the United States is a party.

(2) The Attorney General may by regulation waive the 15-day notification requirement for exports of a listed chemical to a specified country if the Attorney General determines that such notification is not required for effective chemical diversion control. If the notification requirement is waived, exporters of the listed chemical shall be required to submit to the Attorney General reports of individual exportations or periodic reports of such exportation of the listed chemical, at such time or times and containing such information as the Attorney General shall establish by regulation.

(3) The Attorney General may by regulation waive the 15-day notification requirement for the importation of a listed chemical if the Attorney General determines that such notification is not necessary for effective chemical diversion control. If the notification requirement is waived, importers of the listed chemical shall be required to submit to the Attorney General reports of individual importations or periodic reports of the importation of the listed chemical, at such time or times and containing such information as the Attorney General shall establish by regulation.

(g) Return declaration

Within 30 days after a transaction covered by this section is completed, the importer or exporter shall send the Attorney General a return declaration containing particulars of the transaction, including the date, quantity, chemical, container, name of transferees, and such other information as the Attorney General may specify in regulations. For importers, a single return declaration may include the particulars of both the importation and distribution. If the importer has not distributed all chemicals imported by the end of the initial 30-day period, the importer shall file supplemental return declarations no later than 30 days from the date of any further distribution, until the distribution or other disposition of all chemicals imported pursuant to the import notification or any update are accounted for.

(h) Importation and distribution of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine

(1) With respect to a regulated person importing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine (referred to in this section as an "importer"), a notice of importation under subsection (a) or (b) shall include all information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of such chemical from the manufacturer to the importer.

(2) For the purpose of preventing or responding to the diversion of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine for use in the illicit production of methamphetamine, the Attorney General may, in the case of any person who is a manufacturer or distributor of such chemical in the chain of distribution referred to in paragraph (1) (which person is referred to in this subsection as a "foreign-chain distributor"), request that such distributor provide to the Attorney General information known to the distributor on the distribution of the chemical, including sales.

(3) If the Attorney General determines that a foreign-chain distributor is refusing to cooperate with the Attorney General in obtaining the information referred to in paragraph (2), the Attorney General may, in accordance with procedures that apply under subsection (c), issue an order prohibiting the importation of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine in any case in which such distributor is part of the chain of distribution for such chemical. Not later than 60 days prior to issuing the order, the Attorney General shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of intent to issue the order. During such 60-day period, imports of the chemical with respect to such distributor may not be restricted under this paragraph.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1018, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6053(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4314; amended Pub. L. 103–200, §§4(a), 5(a), 9(b), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2338–2340; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330024(c), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2150; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §§716(a), (b)(1)(B), 721, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 265, 267.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–177, §716(a)(1), substituted "or to a transaction that is an importation by a regular importer" for "or to an importation by a regular importer".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–177, §716(b)(1)(B), inserted "(without regard to the form of the chemical that may be diverted, including the diversion of a finished drug product to be manufactured from bulk chemicals to be transferred)" after "manufacture of a controlled substance".

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 109–177, §716(a)(2), (3), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) and (e) as (e) and (f), respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–177, §716(a)(4), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–177, §721, added subsec. (h).

1994—Subsecs. (b)(1), (2), (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(c)(2), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 103–200, §9(b). See 1993 Amendment notes below.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(c)(1), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 103–200, §5(a). See 1993 Amendment note below.

1993—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–200, §9(b)(1)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(c)(2), substituted "to an importation by a regular importer" for "regular supplier of the regulated person".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–200, §9(b)(1)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(c)(2), substituted "a customer of a regulated person or to an importer" for "a customer or supplier of a regulated person" and "the importer as a regular importer" for "regular supplier".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–200, §9(b)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(c)(2), substituted "regular importer" for "regular supplier".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–200, §4(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–200, §5(a), as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, §330024(c)(1), added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–322 effective 120 days after Dec. 17, 1993, see section 330024(f) of Pub. L. 103–322, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–200 effective on date that is 120 days after Dec. 17, 1993, see section 11 of Pub. L. 103–200, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6053(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4315, provided that:

"(1) Not later than 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1988], the Attorney General shall forward to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget proposed regulations required by the amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section].

"(2) Not later than 55 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall—

"(A) review such proposed regulations of the Attorney General; and

"(B) forward any comments and recommendations for modifications to the Attorney General.

"(3) Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Attorney General shall publish the proposed final regulations required by the amendment made by subsection (a).

"(4) Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Attorney General shall promulgate final regulations required by the amendment made by subsection (a).

"(5) Subsection (a) of section 1018 of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act [subsection (a) of this section], as added by subsection (a) of this section, shall take effect 90 days after the promulgation of the final regulations under paragraph (4).

"(6) Each regulated person shall provide to the Attorney General the identity of any regular customer or regular supplier of the regulated person not later than 30 days after the promulgation of the final regulations under paragraph (4). Not later than 60 days after the end of such 30-day period, each regular customer and regular supplier so identified shall be a regular customer or regular supplier for purposes of any applicable exception from the requirement of subsection (a) of such section 1018, unless the the [sic] Attorney General otherwise notifies the regulated person in writing."

Section effective 120 days after Nov. 18, 1988 [except subsec. (a), see above], see section 6061 of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 802 of this title.

Exception for Iodine to Importation and Exportation Requirements for Listed Chemicals

Pub. L. 104–237, title II, §204(b), Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3102, provided that:

"(1) Iodine shall not be subject to the requirements for listed chemicals provided in section 1018 of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 971).

"(2) Effect of Exception.—The exception made by paragraph (1) shall not limit the authority of the Attorney General to impose the requirements for listed chemicals provided in section 1018 of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 971)."