[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER II, Part IX: Nonproliferation and Export Control Assistance
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*Public Laws 116-92 through 116-105 have been enacted but classifications have not yet been finalized. The currency ("laws in effect") date does not reflect acts for which classification has not been finalized.

22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER II, Part IX: Nonproliferation and Export Control Assistance
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 32—FOREIGN ASSISTANCESUBCHAPTER II—MILITARY ASSISTANCE AND SALES

Part IX—Nonproliferation and Export Control Assistance

§2349bb. Purposes

The purposes of assistance under this part are to halt the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and conventional weaponry, through support of activities designed—

(1) to enhance the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of friendly countries by providing training and equipment to detect, deter, monitor, interdict, and counter proliferation;

(2) to strengthen the bilateral ties of the United States with friendly governments by offering concrete assistance in this area of vital national security interest;

(3) to accomplish the activities and objectives set forth in sections 5853 and 5854 of this title, without regard to the limitation of those sections to the independent states of the former Soviet Union; and

(4) to promote multilateral activities, including cooperation with international organizations, relating to nonproliferation.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §581, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851.)

Nonproliferation Technology Acquisition Programs for Friendly Foreign Countries

Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1302, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1435, provided that:

"(a) In General.—For the purpose of enhancing the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of friendly countries, of the amount authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 2003 by section 585 [586] of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2349bb et seq.) [22 U.S.C. 2349bb–4], the Secretary is authorized to make available—

"(1) $5,000,000 for the procurement and provision of nuclear, chemical, and biological detection systems, including spectroscopic and pulse echo technologies; and

"(2) $10,000,000 for the procurement and provision of x-ray systems capable of imaging sea-cargo containers.

"(b) Reports on Training Program.—

"(1) Initial report.—Not later than March 31, 2003, the Secretary shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees setting forth his plans and budget for a multiyear training program to train foreign personnel in the utilization of the systems described in subsection (a).

"(2) Subsequent reports.—Not later than March 31, 2004, and annually thereafter for the next three years, the Secretary shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees describing the progress, current status, and budget of that training program and of the provision of those systems."

[For definitions of "Secretary" and "appropriate congressional committees" as used in section 1302 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 3 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2651 of this title.]

§2349bb–1. Authorization of assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 2304 or section 2371 of this title), the President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, assistance in order to carry out the purposes of this part. Such assistance may include training services and the provision of funds, equipment, and other commodities related to the detection, deterrence, monitoring, interdiction, and prevention or countering of proliferation, the establishment of effective nonproliferation laws and regulations, and the apprehension of those individuals involved in acts of proliferation of such weapons.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §582, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852.)

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349bb–2. Transit interdiction

(a) Allocation of funds

In providing assistance under this part, the President shall ensure that, beginning in fiscal year 2007, not less than one-quarter of the total of such assistance is obligated for the purpose of enhancing the capabilities of friendly countries to detect and interdict proliferation-related shipments of cargo to non-State actors and States of proliferation concern.

(b) Priority to certain countries

Priority shall be given in the apportionment of the assistance described under subsection (a) to any friendly country that has been determined by the Secretary of State to be a country frequently transited by proliferation-related shipments of cargo.

(c) Cooperative agreements

In order to promote cooperation regarding the interdiction of weapons of mass destruction and related materials and delivery systems, the President is authorized to conclude agreements, including reciprocal maritime agreements, with other countries to facilitate effective measures to prevent the transportation of such items to non-state actors and states of proliferation concern.

(d) Determination and notice to Congress

The Secretary of State shall notify the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate in writing not more than 30 days after making a determination that any friendly country has been determined to be a country eligible for priority consideration of any assistance under subsection (a). Such determination shall set forth the reasons for such determination, and may be submitted in classified and unclassified form, as necessary.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §583, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; amended Pub. L. 109–472, §10(c), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–472, §10(c)(1), substituted "shall ensure that, beginning in fiscal year 2007," for "should ensure that", "obligated" for "expended", and "to non-State actors and States of proliferation concern" for "that originate from, and are destined for, other countries".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 109–472, §10(c)(2), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349bb–2a. International nonproliferation export control training

(a) General authority

The President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions consistent with this part (but whenever feasible on a reimbursable basis), education and training to appropriate military and civilian personnel of foreign countries for the purpose of enhancing the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of such personnel through their attendance in special courses of instruction conducted by the United States.

(b) Administration of courses

The Secretary of State shall have overall responsibility for the development and conduct of international nonproliferation education and training programs under this section, and may utilize other departments and agencies of the United States, as appropriate, to recommend personnel for the education and training and to administer specific courses of instruction.

(c) Purposes

Education and training activities conducted under this section shall be—

(1) of a technical nature, emphasizing techniques for detecting, deterring, monitoring, interdicting, and countering proliferation;

(2) designed to encourage effective and mutually beneficial relations and increased understanding between the United States and friendly countries; and

(3) designed to improve the ability of friendly countries to utilize their resources with maximum effectiveness, thereby contributing to greater self-reliance by such countries.

(d) Priority to certain countries

In selecting personnel for education and training pursuant to this section, priority should be given to personnel from countries determined by the Secretary of State to be countries frequently transited by proliferation-related shipments of cargo.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §584, as added Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1303(2), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1436.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 584 of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 585 and is classified to section 2349bb–3 of this title.

§2349bb–3. Limitations

The limitations contained in section 2349aa–2(a) and (d) of this title shall apply to this part.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §585, formerly §584,as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; renumbered §585, Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1303(1), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1436.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 585 of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 586 and is classified to section 2349bb–4 of this title.

§2349bb–4. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this part $162,000,000 for fiscal year 2003.

(b) Availability of funds

Funds made available under subsection (a) may be used notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 2304 or 2371 of this title) and shall remain available until expended.

(c) Treatment of appropriations

Amounts made available by the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, under "Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related Programs" and "Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union" accounts for the activities described in subsection (d) shall be considered to be made available pursuant to this part.

(d) Covered activities

The activities referred to in subsection (c) are—

(1) assistance under the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund;

(2) assistance for science and technology centers in the independent states of the former Soviet Union;

(3) export control assistance; and

(4) export control and border assistance under part XI of subchapter I of this chapter or the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §586, formerly §585, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; renumbered §586 and amended Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §§1301(a), 1303(1), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1435, 1436.)

References in Text

The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 107–115, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2118, also known as the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 2002. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The FREEDOM Support Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), is Pub. L. 102–511, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3320, as amended, also known as the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–228, §1301(a)(1), substituted "$162,000,000 for fiscal year 2003" for "$129,000,000 for fiscal year 2001 and $142,000,000 for fiscal year 2002".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–228, §1301(a)(2), struck out "fiscal year 2001" before "appropriations" in heading and substituted "2002" for "2001" in text.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349bb–5. Proliferation interdiction assistance

Consistent with section 2349bb–2 of this title, the President is authorized to provide assistance to friendly foreign countries for proliferation detection and interdiction activities and for developing complementary capabilities.

(Pub. L. 109–472, §10(a), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of State Authorities Act of 2006, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

§2349bb–6. Safeguarding and elimination of conventional arms

(a) In general

The Secretary of State is authorized to secure, remove, or eliminate stocks of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), small arms and light weapons, stockpiled munitions, abandoned ordnance, and other conventional weapons, including tactical missile systems (hereafter in this section referred to as "MANPADS and other conventional weapons"), as well as related equipment and facilities, located outside the United States that are determined by the Secretary to pose a proliferation threat.

(b) Elements

The activities authorized under subsection (a) may include the following:

(1) Humanitarian demining activities.

(2) The elimination or securing of MANPADS.

(3) The elimination or securing of other conventional weapons.

(4) Assistance to countries in the safe handling and proper storage of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(5) Cooperative programs with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and other international organizations to assist countries in the safe handling and proper storage or elimination of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(6) The utilization of funds for the elimination or safeguarding of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(7) Activities to secure and safeguard MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(8) Actions to ensure that equipment and funds, including security upgrades at locations for the storage or disposition of MANPADS and other conventional weapons and related equipment that are determined by the Secretary of State to pose a proliferation threat, continue to be used for authorized purposes.

(c) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the authorities of the Secretary of Defense.

(Pub. L. 109–472, §11, Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of State Authorities Act of 2006, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Man-Portable Air-Defense Systems Originating From Libya

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title XII, §1235, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1638, provided that:

"(a) Statement of Policy.—Pursuant to section 11 of the Department of State Authorities Act of 2006 (22 U.S.C. 2349bb–6), the following is the policy of the United States:

"(1) To reduce and mitigate, to the greatest extent feasible, the threat posed to United States citizens and citizens of allies of the United States by man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS) that were in Libya as of March 19, 2011.

"(2) To seek the cooperation of, and to assist, the Government of Libya and governments of neighboring countries and other countries (as determined by the President) to secure, remove, or eliminate stocks of man-portable air-defense systems described in paragraph (1) that pose a threat to United States citizens and citizens of allies of the United States.

"(3) To pursue, as a matter of priority, an agreement with the Government of Libya and governments of neighboring countries and other countries (as determined by the Secretary of State) to formalize cooperation with the United States to limit the availability, transfer, and proliferation of man-portable air-defense systems described in paragraph (1).

"(b) Intelligence Community Assessment on MANPADS in Libya.—

"(1) In general.—The Director of National Intelligence shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress an assessment by the intelligence community that accounts for the disposition of, and the threat to United States citizens and citizens of allies of the United States posed by man-portable air-defense systems that were in Libya as of March 19, 2011. The assessment shall be submitted as soon as practicable, but not later than the end of the 45-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011].

"(2) Elements.—The assessment submitted under this subsection shall include the following:

"(A) An estimate of the number of man-portable air-defense systems that were in Libya as of March 19, 2011.

"(B) An estimate of the number of man-portable air-defense systems in Libya as of March 19, 2011, that are currently in the secure custody of the Government of Libya, the United States, an ally of the United States, a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), or the United Nations.

"(C) An estimate of the number of man-portable air-defense systems in Libya as of March 19, 2011, that were destroyed, disabled, or otherwise rendered unusable during Operation Unified Protector and since the end of Operation Unified Protector.

"(D) An assessment of the number of man-portable air-defense systems that is the difference between the number of man-portable air-defense systems in Libya as of March 19, 2011, and the cumulative number of man-portable air-defense systems accounted for under subparagraphs (B) and (C), and the current disposition and locations of such man-portable air-defense systems.

"(E) An assessment of the number of man-portable air-defense systems that are currently in the custody of militias in Libya.

"(F) A list of any organizations designated as terrorist organizations by the Department of State, or affiliate organizations or members of such organizations, that are known or believed to have custody of any man-portable air-defense systems that were in the custody of the Government of Libya as of March 19, 2011.

"(G) An assessment of the threat posed to United States citizens and citizens of allies of the United States from unsecured man-portable air-defense systems (as defined in section 11 of the Department of State Authorities Act of 2006) originating from Libya.

"(H) An assessment of the effect of the proliferation of man-portable air-defense systems that were in Libya as of March 19, 2011, on the price and availability of man-portable air-defense systems that are on the global arms market.

"(3) Notice regarding delay in submittal.—If, before the end of the 45-day period specified in paragraph (1), the Director determines that the assessment required by that paragraph cannot be submitted by the end of that period as required by that paragraph, the Director shall (before the end of that period) submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report setting forth—

"(A) the reasons why the assessment cannot be submitted by the end of that period; and

"(B) an estimated date for the submittal of the assessment.

"(c) Comprehensive Strategy on Threat of MANPADS Originating From Libya.—

"(1) Strategy required.—The President shall develop and implement, and from time to time update, a comprehensive strategy, pursuant to section 11 of the Department of State Authorities Act of 2006 [22 U.S.C. 2349bb–6], to reduce and mitigate the threat posed to United States citizens and citizens of allies of the United States from man-portable air-defense systems that were in Libya as of March 19, 2011.

"(2) Report required.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 45 days after the assessment required by subsection (b) is submitted to the appropriate committees of Congress, the President shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report setting forth the strategy required by paragraph (1).

"(B) Elements.—The report required by this paragraph shall include the following:

"(i) An assessment of the effectiveness of efforts undertaken to date by the United States, Libya, Mauritania, Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Chad, the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and any other country or entity (as determined by the President) to reduce the threat posed to United States citizens and citizens of allies of the United States from man-portable air-defense systems that were in Libya as of March 19, 2011.

"(ii) A timeline for future efforts by the United States, Libya, and neighboring countries to—

     "(I) secure, remove, or disable any man-portable air-defense systems that remain in Libya;

     "(II) counter proliferation of man-portable air-defense systems originating from Libya that are in the region; and

     "(III) disrupt the ability of terrorists, non-state actors, and state sponsors of terrorism to acquire such man-portable air-defense systems.

"(iii) A description of any additional funding required to address the threat of man-portable air-defense systems originating from Libya.

"(iv) A description of technologies currently available to reduce the susceptibility and vulnerability of civilian aircraft to man-portable air-defense systems, including an assessment of the feasibility of using aircraft-based anti-missile systems to protect United States passenger jets.

"(v) Recommendations for the most effective policy measures that can be taken to reduce and mitigate the threat posed to United States citizens and citizens of allies of the United States from man-portable air-defense systems that were in Libya as of March 19, 2011.

"(vi) Such recommendations for legislative or administrative action as the President considers appropriate to implement the strategy required by paragraph (1).

"(C) Form.—The report required by this paragraph shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

"(d) Appropriate Committees of Congress Defined.—In this section, the term 'appropriate committees of Congress' means—

"(1) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

"(2) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives."

[Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 20, 2012, 77 F.R. 28757, delegated the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 1235(c) of Pub. L. 112–81, set out above, to the Secretary of State.]