[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER III, Part II: Administrative Provisions
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22 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER III, Part II: Administrative Provisions
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 32—FOREIGN ASSISTANCESUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Part II—Administrative Provisions

§2381. Exercise of functions

(a) Delegation by President; rules and regulations; utilization of goods and services from private enterprise, and facilities and resources of Federal agencies when not competitive with private enterprise

The President may exercise any functions conferred upon him by this chapter through such agency or officer of the United States Government as he shall direct. The head of any such agency or such officer may from time to time promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out such functions, and may delegate authority to perform any such functions, including, if he shall so specify, the authority successively to redelegate any of such functions to any of his subordinates. In providing technical assistance under this chapter, the head of any such agency or such officer shall utilize, to the fullest extent practicable, goods and professional and other services from private enterprise on a contract basis. In such fields as education, health, housing, or agriculture, the facilities and resources of other Federal agencies shall be utilized when such facilities are particularly or uniquely suitable for technical assistance, are not competitive with private enterprise, and can be made available without interfering unduly with domestic programs.

(b) Eligibility of suppliers; debarment period; causes for debarment; conditions for reinstatement; periodic review

The President shall issue and enforce regulations determining the eligibility of any person to receive funds made available under this chapter. A person may be suspended under such regulations for a temporary period pending the completion of an investigation and any resulting judicial or debarment proceedings, upon cause for belief that such person or an affiliate thereof probably has undertaken conduct which constitutes a cause for debarment; and, after an opportunity has been afforded to such person for a hearing, he may be debarred for an additional period, not to exceed three years. Among the causes for debarment shall be (1) offering or accepting a bribe or other illegal payment or credit in connection with any transaction financed with funds made available under this chapter; or (2) committing a fraud in the procurement or performance of any contract financed with funds made available under this chapter; or (3) acting in any other manner which shows a lack of integrity or honesty in connection with any transaction financed with funds made available under this chapter. Reinstatement of eligibility in each particular case shall be subject to such conditions as the President shall direct. Each person whose eligibility is denied or suspended under this subsection shall, upon request, be entitled to a review of his eligibility not less often than once every two years.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §621, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(a), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(a), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 388; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §302(a), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 964.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–554 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1963Pub. L. 88–205 provided that goods and professional and other services from private enterprise should be utilized on a contract basis, and that Federal agencies be utilized only when not competitive with private enterprise and available without interfering unduly with domestic programs.

1962Pub. L. 87–565 struck out designation "(a)" from provisions of subsec. (a), and repealed subsecs. (b) to (e) which related to the abolition of the Development Loan Fund, International Cooperation Administration, and the Office of Inspector General and Comptroller, the transfer of their functions, and the transfer of the function of the Export-Import Bank under section 1704(e) of title 7.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out below.

AID Office of Security

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §587], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681-204, as amended by Pub. L. 106–31, title V, §5002(b), May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 109, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Office.—There shall be established within the Office of the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, an Office of Security. Such Office of Security shall, notwithstanding any other provision of law except section 207 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3927] and section 103 of Public Law 99–339 [22 U.S.C. 4802], have the responsibility for the supervision, direction, and control of all security activities relating to the programs and operations of that Agency.

"(b) Transfer and Allocation of Appropriations and Personnel.—There are transferred to the Office of Security all security functions exercised by the Office of Inspector General of the Agency for International Development exercised before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]. The Administrator shall transfer from the Office of the Inspector General of such Agency to the Office of Security established by subsection (a), the personnel (including the Senior Executive Service position designated for the Assistant Inspector General for Security), assets, liabilities, grants, contracts, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, and other funds held, used, available to, or to be made available in connection with such functions. Unexpended balances of appropriations, and other funds made available or to be made available in connection with such functions, shall be transferred to and merged with funds appropriated by this Act under the heading 'Operating Expenses of the Agency for International Development' [112 Stat. 2681–157].

"(c) Transfer of Employees.—Any employee in the career service who is transferred pursuant to this section shall be placed in a position in the Office of Security established by subsection (a) which is comparable to the position the employee held in the Office of the Inspector General of the Agency for International Development."

Agency for International Development Budget Submission

Pub. L. 106–429, §101(a) [title V, §576], Nov. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 1900, 1900A-54, provided that: "The Agency for International Development shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a detailed budget justification that is consistent with the requirements of section 515 [114 Stat. 1900A–26], for each fiscal year. The Agency shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a proposed budget justification format no later than November 15, 2000, or 30 days after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 2000], whichever occurs later. The proposed format shall include how the Agency's budget justification will address: (1) estimated levels of obligations for the current fiscal year and actual levels for the 2 previous fiscal years; (2) the President's request for new budget authority and estimated carryover obligational authority for the budget year; (3) the disaggregation of budget data and staff levels by program and activity for each bureau, field mission, and central office; and (4) the need for a user-friendly, transparent budget narrative."

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §581], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-116, provided that: "Beginning with the fiscal year 2001 budget, the Agency for International Development shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a detailed budget for each fiscal year. The Agency shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations a proposed budget format no later than October 31, 1999, or 30 days after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1999], whichever occurs later. The proposed format shall include how the Agency's budget submission will address: (1) estimated levels of obligations for the current fiscal year and actual levels for the two previous fiscal years; (2) the President's request for new budget authority and estimated carryover obligational authority for the budget year; (3) the disaggregation of budget data by program and activity for each bureau, field mission, and central office; and (4) staff levels identified by program."

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §599E, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1698, provided that: "The President shall include with each budget for a fiscal year submitted to the Congress under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, materials that shall identify clearly and separately the amounts requested in the budget for appropriation for that fiscal year for salaries and expenses related to administrative activities of the Agency for International Development."

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 2 OF 1979

Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979, 44 F.R. 41165, 93 Stat. 1378, which established the United States International Development Cooperation Agency, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIV, §§1401, 1422(a)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–790, 2681-792, effective Apr. 1, 1999.

Executive Order No. 10973

Ex. Ord. No. 10973, Nov. 3, 1961, 26 F.R. 10469, as amended, which related to the administration of foreign assistance and related functions, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12163, §1–903(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56679, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 10973, Nov. 3, 1961, 26 F.R. 10469, as amended, was superseded insofar as any provision therein was in conflict with any provision of Ex. Ord. No. 11579, Jan. 19, 1971, 36 F.R. 969, set out as a note under section 2191 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 12163. Administration of Foreign Assistance and Related Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12226, July 22, 1980, 45 F.R. 49235; Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968; Ex. Ord. No. 12321, Sept. 14, 1981, 46 F.R. 46109; Ex. Ord. No. 12365, May 24, 1982, 47 F.R. 22933; Ex. Ord. No. 12423, May 26, 1983, 48 F.R. 24025; Ex. Ord. No. 12458, Jan. 14, 1984, 49 F.R. 1977; Ex. Ord. No. 12500, Jan. 24, 1985, 50 F.R. 3733; Ex. Ord. No. 12560, May 24, 1986, 51 F.R. 19159; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617; Ex. Ord. No. 12620, Dec. 24, 1987, 52 F.R. 49135; Ex. Ord. No. 12639, May 6, 1988, 53 F.R. 16691; Ex. Ord. No. 12680, July 5, 1989, 54 F.R. 28995; Ex. Ord. No. 12695, Nov. 1, 1989, 54 F.R. 46589; Ex. Ord. No. 12738, §§1–6, Dec. 14, 1990, 55 F.R. 52033; Ex. Ord. No. 13030, §1, Dec. 12, 1996, 61 F.R. 66187; Ex. Ord. No. 13091, §2, June 29, 1998, 63 F.R. 36153; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIV, §1422(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–792; Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §§1–9, Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16595–16598; Ex. Ord. No. 13346, §3, July 8, 2004, 69 F.R. 41905; Ex. Ord. No. 13361, Nov. 16, 2004, 69 F.R. 67633; Ex. Ord. No. 13656, §6, Jan. 17, 2014, 79 F.R. 4263, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this chapter], Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979 [set out above], the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 [see Short Title of 1979 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title], and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–1. Department of State

1–100. Delegation of Functions. (a) Exclusive of the functions otherwise delegated, or reserved to the President, by this order, Executive Order 12884 [22 U.S.C. 5812 note], Executive Order 11579 [22 U.S.C. 2191 note], and Executive Order 12757 [former 7 U.S.C. 1738 note], and subject to the provisions of such orders, there are hereby delegated to the Secretary of State (referred to in this Part as the "Secretary") all functions conferred upon the President by:

(1) the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) ("Act");

(i) except that with respect to section 505(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2314(a)], such functions only insofar as those functions relate to other provisions which may be required by the President or only insofar as they relate to consent;

(ii) except that with respect to section 505(b) of the Act, such functions only insofar as those functions pertain to countries that agree to the conditions set forth therein;

(2) section 1205(b) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 ("ISDCA of 1985") [Pub. L. 99–83, 22 U.S.C. 2346 note];

(3) section 8(d) of the Act of January 12, 1971 (22 U.S.C. 2321b(d));

(4) section 607 of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976 (22 U.S.C. 2394a);

(5) section 402(b)(2) of title 10, United States Code, which shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of Defense;

(6) the third proviso under the heading "Development Assistance" contained in title II of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–153];

(7) section 572 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1989 (Public Law 100–461) [22 U.S.C. 2151v note];

(8) sections 508, 517 [22 U.S.C. 5814 note], 518, 528(a), 535 [50 U.S.C. 1701 note], 539 [50 U.S.C. 1701 note], 544, 561, 563, 572, 574, 575, 585, 594 [22 U.S.C. 2753 note] of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681–171, 2681–174, 2681–176, 2681–178, 2681–181, 2681–182, 2681–185, 2681–191, 2681–193, 2681–198, 2681–199, 2681–203, 2681–215];

(9) section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–177], which shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury;

(10) section 551 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–187];

(11) section 591 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105–118) [111 Stat. 2439], and the provisions of law referenced therein;

(12) section 821(b) of the Western Hemisphere Drug Elimination Act (as contained in Public Law 105–277) [22 U.S.C. 2291 note];

(13) title II of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107–115), under the heading "Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, [sic]" in subsections (g)(4) and (6) [22 U.S.C. 5812 note];

(14) section 512 of Division D of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004 (Public Law 108–199) [118 Stat. 170];

(15) sections 5(c) and 6 of the Anglo-Irish Agreement Support Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–415), as amended [100 Stat. 948, 949];

(16) the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003 (Public Law 108–25) (the "HIV/AIDS Act"), as amended [22 U.S.C. 7601 et seq.], and amendments made by the HIV/AIDS Act, which the Secretary shall perform, in the case of section 304 [22 U.S.C. 7634], after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(b) The functions under section 653 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2413] delegated to the Secretary shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, insofar as they relate to functions under the Act administered by the Department of Defense, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(c) The functions under sections 239(f), 620(e), 620(g), 620(j), 620(q), and 620(s) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2199(f), 2370(e), (g), (j), (q), (s)] delegated to the Secretary shall be exercised in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.

(d) The Secretary shall perform all public information functions abroad with respect to the foreign assistance, aid, and development programs of the United States Government, to the extent such functions are not specifically assigned by statute to be performed by a different officer.

(e) The Secretary may redelegate to any other officer or agency of the Executive branch functions delegated to the Secretary by this order to the extent such delegation is not otherwise prohibited by law.

1–2. United States Agency for International Development

1–200. United States Agency for International Development.

(a) The United States Agency for International Development is an independent establishment within the Executive branch. Any reference in the Act to the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], or to the Administrator of such agency, shall be deemed to be a reference to the United States Agency for International Development or to the Administrator of that agency, as appropriate.

(b) The United States Agency for International Development shall be headed by an Administrator appointed pursuant to section 624(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2384(a)].

(c) The officers provided for in section 624(a) of the Act shall serve in the United States Agency for International Development.

(d) The Office of Small Business provided for in section 602(b) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2352(b)] shall be in the United States Agency for International Development.

(e) To the extent practicable, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development will exercise functions relating to Foreign Service personnel in a manner that will assure maximum compatibility among agencies authorized by law to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system. To this end, the Administrator shall consult regularly with the Secretary of State.

1–3. Department of Defense

1–301. Delegation of Functions. Subject to the provisions of this order, there are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Defense:

(a) The functions conferred upon the President by Part II [22 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.] (except chapters 4, 6 and 8 thereof) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq., 2348 et seq., 2349aa et seq.] not otherwise delegated or reserved to the President.

(b) To the extent that they relate to other functions under the Act [this chapter] administered by the Department of Defense, the functions conferred upon the President by sections 602(a), 605(a), 625(a), 625(d)(1), 625(h), 627, 628, 630(3), 631(a), 634(B), 635(b) (except with respect to negotiation, conclusion, and termination of international agreements), 635(d), 635(g), and 636(i) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2352(a), 2355(a), 2385(a), (d)(1), (h), 2387, 2388, 2390(3), 2391(a), 2394–1a, 2395(b), (d), (g), and 2396(i)].

(c) Those functions under section 634A of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2394–1], to the extent they relate to notifications to the Congress concerning changes in programs under chapters 2 and 5 of part II of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq., 2347 et seq.] and under the Arms Export Control Act, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], subject to prior consultation with the Secretary of State.

(d) The functions under sections 627, 628, and 630(3) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2387, 2388, and 2390(3)] delegated to the Secretary of Defense shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of State.

(e) the functions under section 655 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2415] insofar as they relate to defense articles, defense services, and international military education and training furnished by grant or sale by the Secretary of Defense, except to the extent otherwise delegated.

(f) Those functions conferred upon the President under section 616 of the ISDCA of 1985 [Pub. L. 99–83, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 232].

(g) The functions conferred upon the President under section 573 [22 U.S.C. 2321j note] and section 581(b)(2) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990 (Public Law 101–167) [Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1246, 1250].

(h) The functions conferred upon the President under section 3 of the International Narcotics Control Act of 1989 (Public Law 101–231) [Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1955], which shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of State.

1–302. Reports and Information. In carrying out the functions under section 514 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2321h] delegated to him by section 301 of this order, the Secretary of Defense shall consult with the Secretary of State.

1–4. Institute for Scientific and Technological Cooperation

[Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §4, Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16596]

1–5. Other Agencies

1–501. Department of the Treasury. (a) There are delegated to the Secretary of the Treasury the functions conferred upon the President by:

(1) section 305 [22 U.S.C. 2225], insofar as it relates to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Fund, and the International Monetary Fund;

(2) the second sentence of section 612(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2362(a)];

(3) section 502 of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 (22 U.S.C. 1754); and

(4) section 655(c) of the Act [former 22 U.S.C. 2415(c)].

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury shall continue to administer any open special foreign country accounts established pursuant to former section 514 of the Act as enacted by section 201(f) of Public Law 92–226 (86 Stat. 25) and repealed by Section 12(b)(5) of Public Law 93–189 (87 Stat. 722) [22 U.S.C. 2321g].

(c) The functions under section 305 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2225] delegated to the Secretary of the Treasury shall be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of State.

1–502. Department of Commerce. There is hereby delegated to the Secretary of Commerce so much of the functions conferred upon the President by section 601(b)(1) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2351(b)(1)] as consists of drawing the attention of private enterprise to opportunities for investment and development in less developed friendly countries and areas.

1–503. Office of Personnel Management. There is hereby delegated to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management the function of prescribing regulations conferred upon the President by the proviso contained in section 625(b) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2385(b)].

[1–504. Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §5(2), Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16597.]

1–505. Trade and Development Agency. There is delegated to the Director of the Trade and Development Agency the functions conferred upon the President by section 661(d) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2421(d)].

[1–506. Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §5(4), Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16597.]

1–6. Additional Delegations and Limitations of Authority; Consultation

1–601. General Delegation of Functions. There are hereby delegated to the heads of agencies having responsibilities for carrying out the provisions of the Act [this chapter] all functions conferred upon the President by:

(a) section 654 [22 U.S.C. 2414] (except as reserved to the President); and

(b) those provisions of acts appropriating funds under the authority of the Act [this chapter] that relate to the Act, or other acts authorizing such funds, insofar as they relate to the functions delegated by this order.

1–602. Personnel. (a) In carrying out the functions conferred upon the President by the provisions of section 625(d) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2385(d)], and by this order delegated to the Secretary of State, the Secretary shall authorize such of the agencies that administer programs under the Act [this chapter] as he may deem appropriate to perform any of the functions under section 625(d) of the Act to the extent that the said functions relate to the programs administered by the respective agencies.

(b) Persons appointed, employed, or assigned after May 19, 1959, under section 527(c) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [former 22 U.S.C. 1787(c)] or section 625(d) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2385(d)] for the purpose of performing functions under such Acts outside the United States shall not, unless otherwise agreed by the agency in which such benefits may be exercised, be entitled to the benefits provided by section 310 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3950) in cases in which their service under the appointment, employment, or assignment exceeds thirty months.

1–603. Special Missions and Staffs Abroad. The maintenance of special missions or staffs abroad, the fixing of the ranks of the chiefs thereof after the chiefs of the United States diplomatic missions, and the authorization of the same compensation and allowances authorized for a chief of mission as defined in section 102(a)(3) of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3902(a)(3)), all under section 631 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2391], shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary of State.

1–604. International Agreements. The negotiation, conclusion, and termination of international agreements pursuant to the Act [this chapter] shall be subject to the requirements of 1 U.S.C. 112b and to applicable regulations and procedures.

1–605. Interagency Consultation. Each officer to whom functions are delegated by this order, shall, in carrying out such functions, consult with the heads of other departments and agencies, including the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, on matters pertaining to the responsibilities of departments and agencies other than his or her own.

1–7. Reserved Functions

1–701. Reservation of Functions to the President. There are hereby excluded from the functions delegated by the foregoing provisions of this order:

(a) The functions conferred upon the President by sections 122(e), 298(a), 493, 504(b), 613(a), 614(a), 620(a), 620(d), 620(x), 620A, 620C(c), 621(a), 622(b), 622(c), 633(a), 633(b), 640B, and 663(b) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151t(e), 2220c(a), 2292b, 2312(b), 2363(a), 2364(a), 2370(a), (d), (x), 2371, 2373(c), 2381(a), 2382(b), (c), 2393(a), (b), 2399c, and 2423(b)].

(b) The functions conferred upon the President by the Act [this chapter] and section 408(b) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [22 U.S.C. 1928] with respect to the appointment of officers required to be appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and with respect to the appointment of officers pursuant to sections 233(b) and 624(c) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2193(b), 2384(c)].

(c) The functions conferred upon the President with respect to determinations, certifications, directives, or transfers of funds, as the case may be, by sections 209(d), 303, 465(b), 490(h), 505(d)(2)(A), 505(d)(3), 506(a), 552(c), 552(e), 610, 614(c), 620E, 632(b), 633A, 663(a) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2169(d), 2223, 2275(b), 2291j(h), 2314(d)(2)(A), (d)(3), 2318(a), 2348a(c), (e), 2360, 2364(c), 2375, 2392(b), 2393a, 2423(a)].

[(d) Redesignated (c).]

(e) The following-described functions conferred upon the President:

(1) Those under section 503(a) [22 U.S.C. 2311(a)] that relate to findings: Provided, that the Secretary of State, in the implementation of the functions delegated to him under section 505(a)(1), (a)(4), and (e) of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2314(a)(1), (a)(4), and (e)], is authorized to find, in the case of a proposed transfer of a defense article or related training or a related defense service by a foreign country or international organization to a foreign country or international organization not otherwise eligible under section 503(a) of the Act, whether the proposed transfer will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace.

(2) Those under section 505(b) [22 U.S.C. 2314(b)] in respect of countries that do not agree to the conditions set forth therein.

(3) That under section 614(b) [22 U.S.C. 2364(b)] with respect to determining any provisions of law to be disregarded to achieve the purpose of that section.

(4) That under the second sentence of section 654(c) [22 U.S.C. 2414(c)] with respect to the publication in the Federal Register of any findings or determination reserved to the President: Provided, that any officer to whom there is delegated the function of making any finding or determination within the purview of section 654(a) [22 U.S.C. 2414(a)] is also authorized to reach the conclusion specified in performance of the function delegated to him.

(f) That under section 523(d) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 (22 U.S.C. 1783(d)).

(g) Those under sections 130 [Pub. L. 99–83, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 207], 504 and 505 [22 U.S.C. 2349aa–8, 2349aa–9] of the ISDCA of 1985[.]

(h) Those functions conferred by section 1(f)(1) and section 1(f)(2)(B)(ii)(VII) [now IX] of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2651a).

(i) Those functions conferred by section 202(d)(4)(C)(i) and (ii) of the HIV/AIDS Act, as amended [22 U.S.C. 7622(d)(4)(C)(i), (ii)].

1–702. Subsequent Amendments. Functions conferred upon the President by subsequent amendments to the Act [this chapter] are delegated to the Secretary only insofar as they do not relate directly and necessarily to the conduct of programs and activities that either the President or an agency other than the Department of State is authorized to administer pursuant to express reservation or delegation of authorities in a statute or in this or another Executive order.

1–703. Office of Management and Budget. In this order the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall retain all authorities related to the implementation of his budgetary and policy coordination functions, including the authority to:

(a) request and receive information from any agency that is subject to this delegation;

(b) carry out all responsibilities associated with implementing the Government Performance and Results Act [Pub. L. 103–62, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31, Money and Finance], the Government Management Reform Act [Pub. L. 103–356, see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 3301 of Title 31], and other comparable government-wide statutes dealing with management; and

(c) carry out all statutory budget and policy coordination responsibilities assigned to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget by statute or Executive order.

1–8. Funds

1–800. Allocation of Funds. Funds described below that are appropriated or otherwise made available to the President shall be deemed to be allocated without any further action of the President, as follows:

(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), there are allocated to the Secretary all funds made available for carrying out the Act, including any funds appropriated under the heading "Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs".

(b) There are allocated to the Secretary of Defense all funds made available for carrying out chapters 2 and 5 of Part II of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2311 et seq., 2347 et seq.].

(c) There are allocated to the Secretary of the Treasury all funds made available for carrying out section 129 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151aa].

(d) The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of the Treasury may allocate or transfer as appropriate any funds received under subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section, respectively, to any agency or part thereof for obligation or expenditure thereby consistent with applicable law.

1–9. General Provisions

1–901. Definition. As used in this order, the word "function" includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, discretion, or activity.

1–902. References to Orders and Acts. Except as may for any reason be inappropriate:

(a) References in this order or in any other Executive order to (1) the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this chapter] (including references herein to "the Act"), (2) unrepealed provisions of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended], or (3) any other act that relates to the subject of this order shall be deemed to include references to any subsequent amendments thereto.

(b) References in any prior Executive order to the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended] or any provisions thereof shall be deemed to be references to the Act [this chapter] or the corresponding provision, if any, thereof.

(c) References in this order to provisions of any Act, and references in any other Executive order or in any memorandum delegation to provisions of any Act related to the subject of this order shall be deemed to include references to any provision of law that is the same or substantially the same as such provisions, respectively.

(d) References in this order or in any other Executive order to this order or to any provision thereof shall be deemed to include references thereto, respectively, as amended from time to time.

(e) References in any prior Executive order not superseded by this order to any provisions of any Executive order so superseded shall hereafter be deemed to be references to the corresponding provisions, if any, of this order.

1–903. Prior Executive Orders. (a) The following are revoked:

(1) Executive Order No. 10973 [22 U.S.C. 2381 note] of November 3, 1961, as amended;

(2) section 2(a) of Executive Order No. 11579 [22 U.S.C. 2191 note], of January 19, 1971; and

(3) Executive Order No. 10893 [22 U.S.C. 2382 note] of November 8, 1960.

(b) The following are amended:

(1) section 3(a) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, as amended [19 U.S.C. 2111 note], by adding the following new paragraph (12) after paragraph (11):

"(12) The Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency";

(2) section 1–202 of [former] Executive Order 12065 of June 28, 1978, by striking out "The Administrator, Agency for International Development" and inserting in lieu thereof "The Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency";

(3) section 2(a) of Executive Order No. 11958 of January 18, 1977 [22 U.S.C. 2751 note], by striking out "the Administrator of the Agency for International Development" and inserting in lieu thereof "the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency";

(4) section 3 of Executive Order 10900 of January 5, 1961 [7 U.S.C. 1691 note], by adding thereto the following new subsection:

"(d) The Secretary of State may redelegate to the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency, or to any other officer or agency of the Executive branch, functions delegated to such Secretary by this order.";

(5) section 4 of Executive Order 11223 of May 12, 1965 [22 U.S.C. 2393 note], by inserting immediately following "the Secretary of State" the words "or the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency (with respect to functions vested in or delegated to the Director)"; and

(6) the President's memorandum of October 18, 1961, entitled "Determination Under Section 604(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961" (26 FR 10543) is amended by inserting after "the Secretary of State" each time it appears in such memorandum the words "or the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation Agency (with respect to non-military programs administered by such Agency)".

[(c), (d) Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §9, Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16598.]

1–904. Saving Provisions. Except to the extent inconsistent with this order, all delegations of authority, determinations, authorizations, regulations, rulings, certificates, orders, directives, contracts, agreements, and other actions made, issued, or entered into with respect to any function affected by this order and not revoked, superseded, or otherwise made inapplicable before the date of this order, shall continue in full force and effect until amended, modified, or terminated by appropriate authority.

1–905. Effective Date. The provisions of this order shall become effective as of October 1, 1979.

1–906. Implementation. In carrying out this order, officers of the United States shall ensure that all actions taken by them are consistent with the President's constitutional authority to: (a) conduct the foreign affairs of the United States; (b) withhold information the disclosure of which could impair the foreign relations, the national security, the deliberative processes of the Executive, or the performance of the Executive's constitutional duties; (c) recommend for congressional consideration such measures as the President may judge necessary and expedient; and (d) supervise the unitary executive branch.

[Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIV, §1422(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–792, provided that sections 1–101 through 1–103, 1–401 through 1–403, and 1–801(a), and other provisions of Ex. Ord. No. 12163 that relate to the United States International Development Cooperation Agency or the Director thereof were repealed.]

§2381a. Strengthened management practices

(a) Declaration of beliefs

The Congress believes that United States foreign aid funds could be utilized more effectively by the application of advanced management decisionmaking, information and analysis techniques such as systems analysis, automatic data processing, benefit-cost studies, and information retrieval.

(b) Management system; establishment; scope

To meet this need, the President shall establish a management system that includes: the definition of objectives and programs for United States foreign assistance; the development of quantitative indicators of progress toward these objectives; the orderly consideration of alternative means for accomplishing such objectives; and the adoption of methods for comparing actual results of programs and projects with those anticipated when they were undertaken. The system should provide information to the agency and to Congress that relates agency resources, expenditures, and budget projections to such objectives and results in order to assist in the evaluation of program performance, the review of budgetary requests, and the setting of program priorities.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §621A, as added Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §302(b), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 964; amended Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(d)(1), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959.)

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–424 struck out subsec. (c) relating to annual reports to Congress by the President evaluating the progress made toward implementation of this section.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2382. Coordination with foreign policy

(a) Powers or functions of Secretary of State

Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to infringe upon the powers or functions of the Secretary of State.

(b) Coordination among representatives of United States

The President shall prescribe appropriate procedures to assure coordination among representatives of the United States Government in each country, under the leadership of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission. The Chief of the diplomatic mission shall make sure that recommendations of such representatives pertaining to military assistance (including civic action) and military education and training programs are coordinated with political and economic considerations, and his comments shall accompany such recommendations if he so desires.

(c) Responsibility for supervision and general direction of assistance programs

Under the direction of the President, the Secretary of State shall be responsible for the continuous supervision and general direction of economic assistance, military assistance, and military education and training programs, including but not limited to determining whether there shall be a military assistance (including civic action) or a military education and training program for a country and the value thereof, to the end that such programs are effectively integrated both at home and abroad and the foreign policy of the United States is best served thereby.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §622, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(a), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §302(a), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 807; Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(b)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(2), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(2)(A), inserted "and military education and training" after "(including civic action)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(2)(B), inserted reference to military education and training programs in two places.

1968—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–629, §45(b)(1), struck out "or sales" before "programs".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–629, §45(b)(2), struck out "and sales" and "or sales" before "programs" and "program", respectively.

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–583, §302(a)(1), substituted "(including civic action) or sales programs" for "(including any civic action and sales program)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–583, §302(a)(2), substituted "economic assistance and military assistance and sales programs" and "military assistance (including civic action) or sales program" for "the assistance programs authorized by this chapter" and "military assistance program (including civic action and sales program)", respectively.

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(a)(1), inserted "(including any civic action and sales program)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(a)(2), inserted "including any civic action and sales program)".

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–629 effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 10338. Coordination Procedures

Ex. Ord. No. 10338, Apr. 4, 1952, 17 F.R. 3009, provided:

Section 1. Functions of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission. (a) The Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission in each country, as the representative of the President and acting on his behalf, shall coordinate the activities of the United States representatives (including the chiefs of economic missions, military assistance advisory groups, and other representatives of agencies of the United States Government) in such country engaged in carrying out programs under the Mutual Security Act of 1951 (hereinafter referred to as the Act) [section 1509 et seq. of this title], and he shall assume responsibility for assuring the unified development and execution of the said programs in such country. More particularly, the functions of each Chief of United States Diplomatic Mission shall include, with respect to the programs and country concerned:

(1) Exercising general direction and leadership of the entire effort.

(2) Assuring that recommendations and prospective plans and actions of the United States representatives are effectively coordinated and are consistent with and in furtherance of the established policy of the United States.

(3) Assuring that the interpretations and application of instructions received by the United States representatives from higher authority are in accordance with the established policy of the United States.

(4) Guiding the United States representatives in working out measures to prevent duplication in their efforts and to promote the most effective and efficient use of all United States officers and employees having mutual security responsibilities.

(5) Keeping the United States representatives fully informed as to current and prospective United States policies.

(6) Prescribing procedures governing the coordination of the activities of the United States representatives, and assuring that these representatives shall have access to all available information essential to the accomplishment of their prescribed duties.

(7) Preparing and submitting such reports on the operation and status of the programs under the Act as may be directed by the Director for Mutual Security.

(b) Each Chief of United States Diplomatic Mission shall perform his functions under this order in accordance with instructions from higher authority and subject to established policies and programs of the United States.

(c) No Chief of United States Diplomatic Mission shall delegate any function conferred upon him by the provisions of this order which directly involves the exercise of direction, coordination, or authority.

Sec. 2. Referral of unresolved matters. The Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission in each country shall initiate steps to reconcile any divergent views arising in the country concerned with respect to programs under the Act. If agreement cannot be reached the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission shall recommend a course of action, and such course of action shall be followed unless a United States representative requests that the issue be referred to higher authority for decision. If such a request is made, the parties concerned shall promptly refer the issue to higher authority for resolution prior to taking action at the country level. The Director for Mutual Security shall assure expeditious decisions on matters so submitted.

Sec. 3. Effect of order on United States representatives. (a) All United States representatives in each country shall be subject to the responsibilities imposed upon the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission in such country by section 507 of the Mutual Security Act of 1951 [section 1658 of this title] and by this order.

(b) Subject to compliance with the provisions of this order and with the prescribed procedures of their respective agencies, all United States representatives affected by this order (1) shall have direct communication with their respective agencies and with such other parties and in such manner as may be authorized by their respective agencies, (2) shall keep the respective Chiefs of United States Diplomatic Missions and each other fully and currently informed on all matters, including prospective plans, recommendations, and actions, relating to programs under the Act, and (3) shall furnish to the respective Chiefs of United States Diplomatic Missions, upon their request, documents and information concerning the said programs.

Sec. 4. Further coordination procedures. The Director for Mutual Security shall be responsible for assuring the carrying out of the provisions of this order. He is authorized to prescribe, after consultation with the interested Government agencies, any additional procedures he may find necessary to carry out the provisions of this order.

Sec. 5. Prior orders. (a) To the extent that provisions of any prior order are inconsistent with the provisions of this order, the latter shall control, and any such prior provisions are amended accordingly. All orders, regulations, rulings, certificates, directives, and other actions relating to any function affected by this order shall remain in effect except as they are inconsistent herewith or are hereafter amended or revoked under proper authority.

(b) Nothing in this order shall affect Executive Orders Nos. 10062, 10063, and 10144 of June 6, 1949, June 13, 1949, and July 21, 1950, respectively.

(c) Executive Orders Nos. 9857, 9862, 9864, 9914, 9944, 9960, 10208, and 10259 of May 22, 1947, May 31, 1947, December 26, 1947, April 9, 1948, May 19, 1948, January 25, 1951, and June 27, 1951, respectively, are hereby revoked.

Executive Order No. 10893

Ex. Ord. No. 10893, Nov. 8, 1960, 25 F.R. 10731, as amended, which related to the administration of mutual security and related functions, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12163, §1–903(a)(3), Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56679, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title. Ex. Ord. No. 10893 was also revoked, except section 201 thereof, by section 1–501(h) of Ex. Ord. No. 12220, June 27, 1980, 45 F.R. 44247, formerly set out as a note under section 1691 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Executive Order No. 12066

Ex. Ord. No. 12066, June 29, 1978, 43 F.R. 28965, which related to the inspection of foreign assistance programs, was revoked by section 10(k) of Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968, set out as a note under section 3901 of this title.

§2383. Responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense; priorities in procurement, delivery, and allocation of military equipment

(a) In the case of assistance under subchapter II of this chapter, the Secretary of Defense shall have primary responsibility for—

(1) the determination of military end-item requirements;

(2) the procurement of military equipment in a manner which permits its integration with service programs;

(3) the supervision of end-item use by the recipient countries;

(4) the supervision of the training of foreign military and related civilian personnel;

(5) the movement and delivery of military end-items; and

(6) within the Department of Defense, the performance of any other functions with respect to the furnishing of military assistance, education and training.


(b) The establishment of priorities in the procurement, delivery, and allocation of military equipment shall be determined by the Secretary of Defense.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §623, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(3), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733.)

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(3)(A), inserted "and related civilian" after "military".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(3)(B), inserted "education and training" after "assistance".

§2384. Statutory officers

(a) Appointment

The President may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, twelve officers in the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, and in the selection of one of such persons due consideration shall be given to persons qualified as professional engineers.

(b) Rate of compensation; title of officers; order of succession

Within the limitations established by subsection (a) of this section, the President may fix the rate of compensation, and may designate the title of, any officer appointed pursuant to the authority contained in that subsection. The President may also fix the order of succession among the officers provided for in subsection (a) of this section in the event of the absence, death, resignation, or disability of one or more of said officers.

(c) Appointment of certain statutory officers to comparable positions

Any person who was appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to any statutory position authorized by any provision of law repealed by section 642(a) and who is serving in one of such positions at the time of transfer of functions pursuant to subsections (c) and (d) of section 2381 of this title, may be appointed by the President to a comparable position authorized by subsection (a) of this section on the date of the establishment of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, without further action by the Senate.

(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541

(e) Coordinator for security assistance

In addition to the officers otherwise provided for in this section, the President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, one officer for the purpose of coordinating security assistance programs.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §624, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 447; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(b), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(b), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 388; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(33), (42), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 426, 428; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(b), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §302(b), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 807; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §304, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §302, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 94–329, title III, §301(b), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 750; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(1), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §504, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959; Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §706, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3158; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §705(b)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1002(b), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(4), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405.)

References in Text

Section 642(a), referred to in subsec. (c), means section 642(a) of Pub. L. 87–195, which is set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–236 struck out subsec. (f) which provided for an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and prescribed the Assistant Secretary's duties.

1983—Subsec. (f)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–164 inserted provisions relating to providing advice to the Administrator of the Agency for International Development on policy framework.

1981—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out subsec. (g) which related to the Inspector General and the duties, responsibilities, and compensation of such official. See sections 2, 8A, and 11 of the Inspector General Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1980—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–533 substituted in pars. (1) to (5) "Inspector General" for "Auditor General" wherever appearing; in par. (3), imposed upon the Inspector General requirement of supervising, directing, and controlling security activities, including audit, investigative, and security activities relating to programs and operations within the United States International Development Cooperation Agency; in par. (4) required submission of an annual report to the Director; and added pars. (6) to (9).

1978—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–424 added subsec. (g).

1977—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–88 struck out subsec. (d) which provided for an Inspector General, Foreign Assistance.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 95–105, §109(a)(1)(A), substituted references to the Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs for references to the Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 95–105, §109(a)(1)(B), substituted "Assistant Secretary of State" for "Coordinator".

1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–329 added subsec. (f).

1972—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–226 added subsec. (e).

1969—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 91–175, §304(1), inserted provision including the Overseas Private Investment Corporation in Inspector General's reviews and audits, and inserted provision authorizing the conduct of such reviews and audits for programs under section 290f of this title.

Subsec. (d)(5), (7). Pub. L. 91–175, §304(2), (3), included section 290f of this title within provisions of this section.

1967—Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 90–137 struck out "of assistance" after "programs" in two places.

1966—Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 89–583 added par. (8).

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(b)(1), struck out "paragraph (3) of" before "subsection (a) of this section" the second time it appears and substituted "of one or more of said officers" for "of the officers provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2) of that subsection".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A), (5), (7). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(b)(2), substituted "the Latin American Development Act, as amended" for "Public Law 86–735".

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–426, §305(42), repealed provisions which related to the appointment of an Under Secretary, Deputy Under Secretary and ten Assistant Secretaries and prescribed their rates of compensation.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 88–426, §305(33), repealed provisions which prescribed the compensation of the Inspector General, Deputy Inspector General and Assistant Inspector Generals. See section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1963—Subsecs. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 88–205, §302(b)(1), (2), reduced the number of Deputy Under Secretaries from two to one in par. (2), and increased the number of Assistant Secretaries from 9 to 10 in par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–205, §302(b)(3), made conforming changes in language to reflect that only one Deputy Under Secretary may now be appointed.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 88–205, §302(b)(4), inserted "who shall be appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate," and increased the salary of the Deputy Inspector General, Foreign Assistance, from $19,500 to $20,000.

1962—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 87–565 redesignated subsec. (e) as (d), inserted ", and programs being conducted by United States Government Agencies under sections 1942 to 1945 of this title," in par. 2(A), and ", and sections 1942 to 1945 of this title," in pars. (5) and (7), and repealed former subsec. (d) which related to the temporary continuation of certain statutory positions.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 applicable with respect to officials, offices, and bureaus of Department of State when executive orders, regulations, or departmental directives implementing the amendments by sections 161 and 162 of Pub. L. 103–236 become effective, or 90 days after Apr. 30, 1994, whichever comes earlier, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 103–236, as amended, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(c), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on July 1, 1978."

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–426 effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after July 1, 1964, except to the extent provided in section 501(c) of Pub. L. 88–426, see Pub. L. 88–426, title V, §501, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 435.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Assistant Administrator for Management

Pub. L. 112–166, §2(v)(1), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1288, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 624(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2384(a)), the appointment by the President of the Assistant Administrator for Management at the United States Agency for International Development shall not be subject to the advice and consent of the Senate."

Assumption of Duties by Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs

Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(6), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846, provided that: "The individual holding the position of Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs on the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 17, 1977] shall assume the duties of the Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and shall not be required to be reappointed by reason of the enactment of this section."

Report to Speaker of the House and Congressional Committees on Office of Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs

Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(7), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 847, which required the Secretary of State, not later than Jan. 31, 1978, to transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and the Senate Committee on the Judiciary a comprehensive report on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, including its current mandate and operations, the mandate and operations of its predecessor offices, and proposals for the reorganization of the Department of State that would strengthen human rights and humanitarian considerations in the conduct of United States foreign policy and promote the ability of the United States to participate effectively in international humanitarian efforts, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–241, title V, §505(a)(3), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 299, and Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1011(a)(5), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1061.

Assignment of Duties and Responsibilities to Inspector General, Foreign Service

Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(a)(2), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542, which provided that the President (A) may assign to the Inspector General, Foreign Service, any of the duties and responsibilities vested by such section 624(d) [subsec. (d) of this section] in the Inspector General, Foreign Assistance, and (B) may authorize the Inspector General, Foreign Service, to exercise such of the authorities granted by such section 624(d) [subsec. (d) of this section] to the Inspector General, Foreign Assistance, as the President determines are necessary to carry out any duties or responsibilities so assigned, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2205(11), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2160. See section 3929 of this title.

Agency for International Development

For appointments under subsec. (a) to United States Agency for International Development, see section 1–200(b) and (c) of Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2385. Employment of personnel

(a) Authorization

Any agency or officer of the United States Government carrying out functions under this chapter is authorized to employ such personnel as the President deems necessary to carry out the provisions and purposes of this chapter.

(b) Appointments excepted from civil-service laws; supergrade positions; reinstatement

Of the personnel employed in the United States to carry out subchapter I of this chapter or coordinate subchapter I and subchapter II of this chapter, not to exceed one hundred and ten may be appointed, compensated, or removed without regard to the provisions of any law, of whom not to exceed fifty-one may be compensated at rates higher than those provided for grade 15 of the general schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule: Provided, That, under such regulations as the President shall prescribe, officers and employees of the United States Government who are appointed to any of the above positions may be entitled, upon removal from such position, to reinstatement to the position occupied at the time of appointment or to a position of comparable grade and salary. Such positions shall be in addition to those authorized by law to be filled by Presidential appointment, and in addition to the number authorized by section 5108 of title 5.

(c) Additional supergrade positions

Of the personnel employed in the United States to carry out subchapter II of this chapter, or any Act superseding subchapter II of this chapter in whole or in part, not to exceed eight may be compensated at rates higher than those provided for grade 15 of the general schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule. Such positions shall be in addition to those authorized by law to be filled by Presidential appointment, and in addition to the number authorized by section 5108 of title 5.

(d) Employment or assignment of officers and employees to perform functions outside United States

For the purpose of performing functions under this chapter outside the United States, the President may employ or assign individuals, or may authorize the employment or assignment of officers or employees by agencies of the United States Government which are not authorized to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system, who shall receive compensation at any of the rates provided for under section 402 or section 403 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3962, 3963], or under chapter 53 of title 5, or at any other rate authorized by law, together with allowances and benefits under the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.]. Individuals so employed or assigned shall be entitled, except to the extent that the President may specify otherwise in cases in which the period of employment or assignment exceeds thirty months, to the same benefits as are provided by section 310 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 3950] for individuals appointed to the Foreign Service.

(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2205(8), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2160

(f) Funds for personnel services

Funds provided for in agreements with foreign countries for the furnishing of services under this chapter with respect to specific projects shall be deemed to be obligated for the services of personnel employed by agencies of the United States Government (other than the agencies primarily responsible for administering subchapter I or II of this chapter) as well as personnel not employed by the United States Government.

(g) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2205(8), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2160

(h) Acceptance of compensation or other benefits from foreign countries; arrangements for reimbursement

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, officers and employees of the United States Government performing functions under this chapter shall not accept from any foreign country any compensation or other benefits. Arrangements may be made by the President with such countries for reimbursement to the United States Government or other sharing of the cost of performing such functions.

(i) Assignment based on competency

To the maximum extent practicable officers and employees performing functions under this chapter abroad shall be assigned to countries and positions for which they have special competence, such as appropriate language and practical experience.

(j) Reemployment of annuitants under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees' Retirement System

(1)(A) To facilitate the assignment of persons to Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan or to posts vacated by members of the Service assigned to Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development may waive the application of the provisions of section 8344 or 8468 of title 5 on a case-by-case basis for employment of an annuitant in a position in the United States Agency for International Development for which there is exceptional difficulty in recruiting or retaining a qualified employee, or when a temporary emergency hiring need exists.

(B) The authority of the Administrator under subparagraph (A) shall terminate on October 1, 2010. An annuitant reemployed pursuant to such authority prior to such termination date may be employed for a period ending not later than one year after such date.

(2) The Administrator should prescribe procedures for the exercise of any authority under this subsection, including criteria for any exercise of authority and procedures for a delegation of authority.

(3) An employee for whom a waiver under this section is in effect shall not be considered an employee for purposes of subchapter III of chapter 83, or chapter 84 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §625, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 449; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(c), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 87–793, pt. II, §1001(k), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 865; Pub. L. 88–663, pt. III, §302(a), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1014; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(c), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(b)–(d), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 90–554, title III, §302(c), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 965; Pub. L. 93–189, §16, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §125, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §§2203(a), 2205(8), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2158, 2160; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §703, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1544; Pub. L. 109–234, title I, §1602(b)(2), June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 442; Pub. L. 111–32, title XI, §1115(c)(3), June 24, 2009, 123 Stat. 1905.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d), (f), (h), and (i), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, which is classified principally to chapter 52 (§3901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II, and References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Such Parts

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (j)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–32 inserted ", Pakistan," after "Iraq" in two places.

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–32 substituted "2010" for "2008".

2006—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–234 added subsec. (j).

1981—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted "or under chapter 53 of title 5, or at any other rate authorized by law, together with allowances and benefits under the Foreign Service Act of 1980" for "together with allowances and benefits under that Act".

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–465, §2203(a), substituted references to the Foreign Service Act of 1980, for references to the Foreign Service Act of 1946, and struck out provisions relating to the applicability of section 1005 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946 and relating to the utilization of Presidential authority under the Foreign Service Act of 1946 to carry out the functions of this chapter.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–465, §2205(8), struck out subsec. (e) which set forth requirement of standards or other criteria for maintenance of adequate performance levels for personnel. See sections 4007 and 4008 of this title.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–465, §2205(8), struck out subsec. (g) which related to competency in foreign languages. See section 4022 of this title.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 96–465, §2205(8), struck out subsec. (j) which related to appointment and compensation of an Inter-American Committee representative.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 96–465, §2205(8), struck out subsec. (k) which related to applicability, etc., of Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System. See sections 3922 and 4043 of this title.

1977—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–88 struck out a numerical limitation of fifty on the number of persons which the President may assign, at any one time, to duty within the United States for the purpose of preparation for assignments outside the United States.

1973—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 93–189 added subsec. (k).

1968—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–554 inserted "or any Act superseding subchapter II of this chapter in whole or in part" after "to carry out subchapter II of this chapter".

1967—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(b), (c), substituted references to section 5332 of title 5 for former references to the Classification Act of 1949, as amended, and to section 5108 for former section 1105 of title 5.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(d), authorized an increase in the assignment of foreign personnel from forty to fifty persons.

1965—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 89–171 substituted "forty" for "twenty".

1964—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 88–633, §302(a)(1), substituted "the assignment to such duty of more than twenty persons at any one time" for "more than thirty persons in the aggregate".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 88–633, §302(a)(2), added subsec. (j).

1962—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–793, §1001(k)(1), substituted "but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule" for "and of these, not to exceed eight may be compensated at a rate in excess of the highest rate provided for grades of such general schedule but not in excess of $19,000 per year".

Pub. L. 87–565, §302(c)(1), substituted "one hundred and ten" for "seventy-six".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–793, §1001(k)(2), substituted "but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule" for "and of these, not to exceed three may be compensated at a rate in excess of the highest rate provided for grades of such general schedule but not in excess of $19,000 per year".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 87–565, §302(c)(2), authorized the President to initially assign personnel, not exceeding 30 persons in the aggregate, for duty within the United States for a period not exceeding two years for preparation for duty outside the United States.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 87–565, §302(c)(3), inserted "with respect to specific projects", and "agencies of", and excluded services of employees of agencies primarily responsible for administering subchapter I or II of this chapter from the purview of this subsection.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment of subsec. (d) and repeal of subsecs. (e), (g), and (j) by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3901 of this title.

Repeal of subsec. (k) by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Oct. 17, 1980, see Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2403(d)(1), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2169.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–793 effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after Oct. 11, 1962, see Pub. L. 87–793, pt. II, §1008, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 868.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Extension of Authority

Pub. L. 116–6, div. F, title VII, §7034(m)(3), Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 327, provided that: "Section 625(j)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2385(j)(1)) shall be applied by substituting 'September 30, 2019' for 'October 1, 2010' in subparagraph (B)."

Prior extensions were contained in the following prior acts:

Pub. L. 115–141, div. K, title VII, §7034(l)(3), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 895.

Pub. L. 115–31, div. J, title VII, §7034(k)(3), May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 651.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. K, title VII, §7034(k)(6), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2765.

Pub. L. 113–235, div. J, title VII, §7034(l)(6), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2625.

Pub. L. 113–76, div. K, title VII, §7034(m)(6), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 515.

Pub. L. 112–74, div. I, title VII, §7034(m)(6), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1216.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Entitlement to Benefits for Services Performed Outside United States; Service Exceeding Thirty Months

Persons appointed, employed, or assigned after May 19, 1959, under former section 1787(c) of this title or subsec. (d) of this section for the purpose of performing functions under the Mutual Security Act of 1954 (see Short Title note set out under section 1754 of this title) and this chapter, outside the United States, shall not, unless otherwise agreed by the agency in which such benefits may be exercised, be entitled to the benefits provided for by section 3950 of this title in cases in which their service under the appointment, employment, or assignment exceeds thirty months, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, §1–602(b), Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56677, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2385a. Unified personnel system

(a) Establishment by regulations

Not later than May 1, 1979, the President shall submit to the Congress, and publish in the Federal Register, regulations establishing a unified personnel system for all employees of the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.]. In preparing such regulations, the President shall keep the appropriate committees of the Congress fully and currently informed, and shall consult with them on a regular basis, concerning the nature of the unified personnel system to be established.

(b) Effective date of regulations

The regulations submitted to the Congress pursuant to subsection (a)—

(1) may not become effective until after the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date of such submission in order to provide the appropriate committees of the Congress an opportunity to review them; and

(2) shall not become effective then if, during such 90-day period, either House of Congress adopts a resolution stating in substance that it disapproves the personnel system proposed to be established by the regulations.

(c) Force and effect of regulations

Regulations which take effect pursuant to this section shall have the force and effect of law and shall apply with respect to the personnel of the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], notwithstanding and 1 inconsistent provision of law unless that provision of law specifically states that it supersedes regulations issued under this section.

(Pub. L. 95–424, title IV, §401, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 96–53, title V, §503(a), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 378.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424. Part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 is classified generally to subchapter I (§2151 et seq.) of this chapter. For provisions deeming references to subchapter I to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, see section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section enacted as part of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–53 substituted "May 1" for "March 15".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–53, title V, §503(b), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 378, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective as of March 15, 1979."

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "any".

§2386. Experts, consultants, and retired officers

(a) Employment; compensation; renewal of contracts of employment

Experts and consultants or organizations thereof may as authorized by section 3109 of title 5 be employed for the performance of functions under this chapter, and individuals so employed may be compensated at rates not in excess of the daily equivalent of the highest rate which may be paid to an employee under the General Schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, and while away from their homes or regular places of business, they may be paid actual travel expenses and per diem in lieu of subsistence at the applicable rate prescribed in the standardized Government travel regulations, as amended from time to time. Contracts for such employment with such organizations, employment of personnel as experts and consultants, not to exceed ten in number, contracts for such employment of retired military personnel with specialized research and development experience, not to exceed ten in number, and contracts for such employment of retired military personnel with specialized experience of a broad politico-military nature, not to exceed five in number, may be renewed annually.

(b) Exemption from certain Federal laws

Service of an individual as an expert or consultant under subsection (a) of this section shall not be considered as employment or holding of office or position bringing such individual within the provisions of section 3323(a) of title 5.

(c) Employment without compensation of persons of outstanding experience and ability

Persons of outstanding experience and ability may be employed without compensation by any agency of the United States Government for the performance of functions under this chapter in accordance with the provisions of section 4560(b) of title 50, and regulations issued thereunder.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §626, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 451; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(c), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 88–448, title IV, §§401(e), 402(a)(35), Aug. 19, 1964, 78 Stat. 490, 495; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. III, §302(b), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1014; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(d), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(e), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 94–329, title VI, §603, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 766; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §126, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–88 struck out provisions under which service of an individual as an expert or consultant under subsec. (a) would not be considered employment as would bring a person under section 8344 of title 5, section 1112 of this title, and any other law limiting the reemployment of retired officers or employees or governing the simultaneous receipt of compensation and retired pay or annuities subject to section 5532 of title 5.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329 substituted "the daily equivalent of the highest rate which may be paid to an employee under the General Schedule established by section 5332 of title 5" for "$100 per diem".

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(e)(1), substituted reference to section 3109 for former section 55a of title 5.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(e)(2), substituted references to sections 3323(a) and 8344 of title 5 for former section 2263 of title 5 and to section 5532 of title 5 for former section 3102 of title 5.

1965—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 89–171 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c) was repealed by Pub. L. 88–448, title IV, §402(a)(35), Aug. 19, 1964, 78 Stat. 495.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–633, §302(b)(1), increased compensation limits from $75 to $100 per diem.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–448, §401(e), struck out provisions which stated that service as an expert or consultant under subsection (a) of this section shall not be considered as employment or holding of office or position bringing such individual within the provisions of section 59a of title 5, and inserted ", subject to section 3102 of title 5".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–448, §402(a)(35), repealed subsec. (c) which related to compensation of retired officers.

Pub. L. 88–633, §302(b)(2), substituted "section 101(3) of Title 37" for "Career Compensation Act of 1949, as amended," in subsec. (c) subsequent to the repeal of such subsection by Pub. L. 88–448.

1963—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–205 substituted "Service of an individual as an expert or consultant under subsection (a) of this section shall not" for "Nor shall such service", and struck out provisions exempting individuals serving under subsec. (a) of this section from coverage of sections 281, 283, or 284 of title 18, section 99 of title 5, or any Federal law imposing restrictions, requirements, or penalties in connection with claims or matters involving the U.S. Government, except insofar as such provisions prohibited such individuals from receiving compensation in respect of any matter in which such individual was directly involved in the performance of such service.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–448 effective on first day of first month which begins later than the ninetieth day following Aug. 19, 1964, see Pub. L. 88–448, title IV, §403(a), Aug. 19, 1964, 78 Stat. 496.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§2387. Detail of personnel to foreign governments

Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the head of any agency of the United States Government is authorized to detail or assign any officer or employee of his agency to any office or position with any foreign government or foreign government agency, where acceptance of such office or position does not involve the taking of an oath of allegiance to another government or the acceptance of compensation or other benefits from any foreign country by such officer or employee.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §627, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 452.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2388. Detail of personnel to international organizations

Whenever the President determines it to be consistent with and in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the head of any agency of the United States Government is authorized to detail, assign, or otherwise make available to any international organization any officer or employee of his agency to serve with, or as a member of, the international staff of such organization, or to render any technical, scientific, or professional advice or service to, or in cooperation with, such organization.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §628, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 452.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2389. Status and benefits of personnel assigned or detailed to foreign governments or international organizations

(a) Allowances, privileges, rights, seniority, and other benefits

Any officer or employee, while assigned or detailed under section 2387 or 2388 of this title shall be considered, for the purpose of preserving his allowances, privileges, rights, seniority, and other benefits as such, an officer or employee of the United States Government and of the agency of the United States Government from which detailed or assigned, and he shall continue to receive compensation, allowances, and benefits from funds appropriated to that agency or made available to that agency under this chapter.

(b) Representation allowances

Any officer or employee assigned, detailed, or appointed under section 2387, 2388, 2391, or 2384(d) 1 of this title is authorized to receive under such regulations as the President may prescribe, representation allowances similar to those allowed under section 4085 of this title. The authorization of such allowances and other benefits and the payment thereof out of any appropriations available therefor shall be considered as meeting all the requirements of section 5536 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §629, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 452; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(d), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(f), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2203(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2159.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Section 2384(d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §124(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 541.

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–465 substituted "section 4085 of this title" for "section 1131 of this title".

1967—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–137 substituted reference to section 5536 of title 5 for former section 70 of title 5.

1962—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–565 substituted "2384(d)" for "2384(e)".

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3901 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2390. Terms of detail or assignment of personnel

Details or assignments may be made under section 2387 or 2388 of this title or section 1928 of this title

(1) without reimbursement to the United States Government by the foreign government or international organization;

(2) upon agreement by the foreign government or international organization to reimburse the United States Government for compensation, travel expenses, benefits and allowances, or any part thereof, payable to the officer or employee concerned during the period of assignment or detail; and such reimbursements (including foreign currencies) shall be credited to the appropriation, fund, or account utilized for paying such compensation, travel expenses, benefits or allowances, or to the appropriation, fund, or account currently available for such purposes;

(3) upon an advance of funds, property, or services by the foreign government or international organization to the United States Government accepted with the approval of the President for specified uses in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter; and funds so advanced may be established as a separate fund in the Treasury of the United States Government, to be available for the specified uses, and to be used for reimbursement of appropriations or direct expenditure subject to the provisions of this chapter, any unexpended balance of such account to be returned to the foreign government or international organization; or

(4) subject to the receipt by the United States Government of a credit to be applied against the payment by the United States Government of its share of the expenses of the international organization to which the officer or employee is detailed or assigned, such credit to be based upon the compensation, travel expenses, benefits and allowances, or any part thereof, payable to such officer or employee during the period of detail or assignment in accordance with section 2389 of this title.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §630, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 452; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(e), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in par. (3), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1965Pub. L. 89–171 inserted "benefits" in pars. (2) and (4).

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2391. Missions and staffs abroad

(a) Authorization

The President may maintain special missions or staffs outside the United States in such countries and for such periods of time as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter. Each such special mission or staff shall be under the direction of a chief.

(b) Appointment of mission chief and deputy; compensation

The chief and his deputy of each special mission or staff carrying out the purposes of subchapter I of this chapter shall be appointed by the President, and may, notwithstanding any other law, be removed by the President at his discretion. Such chief shall be entitled to receive such compensation and allowances as are authorized by the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.], not to exceed those authorized for a chief of mission (as defined in section 102(a)(3) 1 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 3902(a)(3)]), as the President shall determine to be appropriate.

(c) Appointment of Chairman of Development Assistance Committee; compensation

The President may appoint any United States citizen who is not an employee of the United States Government or may assign any United States citizen who is a United States Government employee to serve as Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee or any successor committee thereto of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development upon election thereto by members of said Committee, and, in his discretion, may terminate such appointment or assignment, notwithstanding any other provision of law. Such person may receive such compensation and allowances as are authorized by the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.], not to exceed those authorized for a chief of mission (as defined in section 102(a)(3) 1 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 3902(a)(3)]), as the President shall determine to be appropriate. Such person (if not a United States Government employee who is assigned to serve as Chairman) shall be deemed to be an employee of the United States Government for purposes of chapters 81, 83, 87, and 89 of title 5. Such person may also, in the President's discretion, receive any other benefits and perquisites available under this chapter to chiefs of special missions or staffs outside the United States established under this section.

(d) Administration of assistance

Wherever practicable, especially in the case of the smaller programs, assistance under subchapter I of this chapter shall be administered under the direction of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission by the principal economic officer of the mission.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §631, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 453; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(d), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(f), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 95–92, §7(c), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2203(c), (d), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2159.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 52 (§3901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of this title and Tables.

Section 102(a)(3) of that Act, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was redesignated section 102(3) pursuant to Pub. L. 98–164, which struck out designation "(a)" and struck out subsec. (b) of section 102.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–465, §2203(c), among other changes, substituted references to the Foreign Service Act of 1980 for references to the Foreign Service Act of 1946 and section 2385(d) of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–465, §2203(d), among other changes, substituted references to the Foreign Service Act of 1980, for references to the Foreign Service Act of 1946, and inserted provisions relating to employee status for purposes of chapters 81, 83, 87 and 89 of title 5.

1977—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted reference to subchapter I of this chapter for reference to this chapter and struck out provisions requiring administration of assistance by the senior military officer of the mission for assistance under subchapter II of this chapter.

1965—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–171 added subsec. (d).

1963—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–205 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3901 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Flag and General Officers

Pub. L. 94–11, title I, §100, Mar. 26, 1975, 89 Stat. 20, provided in part that: "The total number of flag and general officers of the United States Armed Forces assigned or detailed to military assistance advisory groups, military missions, or similar organizations, or performing duties primarily with respect to the Military Assistance Program and the Foreign Military Sales Program shall not exceed twenty after May 1, 1975."

Approval of Secretary of State

The maintenance of special missions or staffs abroad, the fixing of ranks of chiefs thereof after the chiefs of United States diplomatic missions, and authorization of same compensation and allowances as chief of mission, as defined in section 3902(3) of this title, all under this section, shall be subject to approval of Secretary of State, see section 1–603 of Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56677, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2392. Government agencies

(a) Allocation and transfer of funds

The President may allocate or transfer to any agency of the United States Government any part of any funds available for carrying out the purposes of this chapter, including any advance to the United States Government by any country or international organization for the procurement of commodities, defense articles, military education and training, or services (including defense services). Such funds shall be available for obligation and expenditure for the purposes for which authorized, in accordance with authority granted in this chapter or under authority governing the activities of the agencies of the United States Government to which such funds are allocated or transferred.

(b) Utilization of services and facilities of other agencies

Any officer of the United States Government carrying out functions under this chapter may utilize the services (including defense services) and facilities of, or procure commodities, defense articles, or military education and training from, any agency of the United States Government as the President shall direct, or with the consent of the head of such agency, and funds allocated pursuant to this subsection to any such agency may be established in separate appropriation accounts on the books of the Treasury.

(c) Reimbursement for commodities, services, and facilities

In the case of any commodity, service, or facility procured from any agency of the United States Government to carry out subchapter I of this chapter, reimbursement or payment shall be made to such agency from funds available to carry out such subchapter. Such reimbursement or payment shall be at replacement cost, or, if required by law, at actual cost, or, in the case of services procured from the Department of Defense to carry out part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, the amount of the additional costs incurred by the Department of Defense in providing such services, or at any other price authorized by law and agreed to by the owning or disposing agency. The amount of any such reimbursement or payment shall be credited to current applicable appropriations, funds, or accounts, from which there may be procured replacements of similar commodities, services, or facilities, except that where such appropriations, funds, or accounts are not reimbursable except by reason of this subsection, and when the owning or disposing agency determines that such replacement is not necessary, any funds received in payment therefor shall be deposited into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(d) Reimbursement for military assistance

Except as otherwise provided in section 2318 of this title, reimbursement shall be made to any United States Government agency, from funds available for use under subchapter II of this chapter, for any assistance furnished under subchapter II of this chapter, from, by, or through such agency. Such reimbursement shall be in an amount equal to the value (as defined in section 2403(m) of this title) of the defense articles or of the defense services (other than salaries of members of the Armed Forces of the United States), or other assistance furnished, plus expenses arising from or incident to operations under subchapter II of this chapter (other than salaries of the Armed Forces of the United States and unfunded estimated costs of civilian retirement and other benefits). The amount of such reimbursement shall be credited to the current applicable appropriations, funds, or accounts of such agency.

(e) Establishment of accounts

In furnishing assistance under this chapter, accounts may be established on the books of any agency of the United States Government or, on terms and conditions approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, in banking institutions in the United States, (1) against which letters of commitment may be issued which shall constitute recordable obligations of the United States Government, and moneys due or to become due under such letters of commitment shall be assignable under the Assignment of Claims Act of 1940, as amended 1 (second and third paragraphs of 31 U.S.C. 203 and 41 U.S.C. 15), and (2) from which disbursements may be made to, or withdrawals may be made by, recipient countries or agencies, organizations, or persons upon presentation of contracts, invoices, or other appropriate documentation. Expenditure of funds which have been made available through accounts so established shall be accounted for on standard documentation required for expenditure of funds of the United States Government: Provided, That such expenditures for commodities, defense articles, military education and training, services (including defense services), or facilities procured outside the United States may be accounted for exclusively on such certification as may be prescribed in regulations approved by the Comptroller General of the United States.

(f) Credits made by Export-Import Bank of the United States

Credits made by the Export-Import Bank of the United States with funds allocated thereto under subsection (a) of this section or under section 1782(a) 1 of this title, shall not be considered in determining whether the Bank has outstanding at any one time loans and guaranties to the extent of the limitation imposed by section 635e of title 12.

(g) Charge of expenses to appropriation or account

Any appropriation or account available to carry out provisions of subchapter I of this chapter may initially be charged in any fiscal year, within the limit of available funds, to finance expenses for which funds are available in other appropriations or accounts under subchapter I of this chapter: Provided, That as of the end of such fiscal year such expenses shall be finally charged to applicable appropriations or accounts with proper credit to the appropriations or accounts initially utilized for financing purposes: Provided further, That such final charge to applicable appropriations or accounts shall not be required in the case of expenses (other than those provided for under section 2397(a) of this title) incurred in furnishing assistance by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter where it is determined that the accounting costs of identifying the applicable appropriation or account to which such expenses should be charged would be disproportionate to the advantage to be gained.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §632, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 453; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(g), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 90–267, §1(a), Mar. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 47; Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(b)(3), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(4), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4506, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4286; Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9104(b)(2), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1152.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (e), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Assignment of Claims Act of 1940, as amended, referred to in subsec. (e), means act Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 779, 54 Stat. 1029, which added the second and third pars. to section 203 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and the second and third pars. to section 15 of former Title 41, Public Contracts. Section 203 of former Title 31 was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, and reenacted by the first section thereof as section 3727 of Title 31, Money and Finance. Such second and third pars. were restated in section 3727(b) (last sentence) and (c) of Title 31. Section 15 of former Title 41 was amended generally by Pub. L. 103–355, title II, §2451, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3324, and was repealed and restated as section 6305 of Title 41, Public Contracts, by Pub. L. 111–350, §§3, 7(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3677, 3855.

Section 1782(a) of this title, referred to in subsec. (f), was repealed by Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II, and References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Such Parts

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–165 inserted at end of second sentence "(other than salaries of the Armed Forces of the United States and unfunded estimated costs of civilian retirement and other benefits)".

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted "or, in the case of services procured from the Department of Defense to carry out part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, the amount of the additional costs incurred by the Department of Defense in providing such services," after "at actual cost,".

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(4)(A), inserted "military education and training" after "articles".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(4)(B), substituted "defense articles, or military education and training" for "and defense articles".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(4)(A), inserted "military education and training" after "articles".

1968—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–629 struck out references to sections 2342 and 2343 of this title in the exception provision.

1967—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–137 substituted reference to sections 2318, 2342, and 2343 for former reference to sections 2315 and 2318 of this title.

Change of Name

"Export-Import Bank of Washington" changed to "Export-Import Bank of the United States" in text to conform to such change in name in the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, section 635 et seq. of Title 12, Banks and Banking, provided for in section 1(a) of Pub. L. 90–267, Mar. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 47.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–629 effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Accounting Adjustments Between Appropriations

Charge of expenses to appropriation or account not affected by provisions for accounting adjustments between appropriations, see section 3 of Pub. L. 89–473, June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 221, set out as a note under section 628a of Title 31, Money and Finance.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2393. Waiver of certain laws

(a) Contracts and expenditure of funds

Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the functions authorized under this chapter may be performed without regard to such provisions of law (other than the Renegotiation Act of 1951, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 1211 et seq.)),1 regulating the making, performance, amendment, or modification of contracts and the expenditure of funds of the United States Government as the President may specify.

(b) Neutrality laws

The functions authorized under subchapter II of this chapter may be performed without regard to such provisions as the President may specify of subchapter II of chapter 9 of this title.

(c) Assignment of personnel

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 3544(b) and 8544(b) 1 of title 10, personnel of the Department of Defense may be assigned or detailed to any civil office to carry out this chapter.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §633, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 454.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Renegotiation Act of 1951, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Mar. 23, 1951, ch. 15, 65 Stat. 7, which was classified principally to section 1211 et seq. of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to its omission from the Code.

Sections 3544 and 8544 of title 10, referred to in subsec. (c), were repealed by Pub. L. 90–235, §4(a)(6), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 759.

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Executive Order No. 10784

Ex. Ord. No. 10784, Oct. 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 7691, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10845, Oct. 12, 1959, 24 F.R. 8317, which specified laws from which functions authorized by this chapter shall be exempt, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11223, May 12, 1965, 30 F.R. 6635, set out below.

Executive Order No. 10845

Ex. Ord. No. 10845 of Oct. 12, 1959, setting out laws from which authorized functions were exempt, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11223, May 12, 1965, 30 F.R. 6635, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 11223. Specification of Laws From Which Functions Authorized by This Chapter Shall Be Exempt

Ex. Ord. No. 11223, May 12, 1965, 30 F.R. 6635, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673; Ex. Ord. No. 12178, Dec. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 71807; Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §10(10), Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16599, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Section 633 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 75 Stat. 454 (22 U.S.C. 2393), it is hereby determined that, to the extent hereinafter indicated, the performance of functions authorized by that Act, as amended, and any predecessor legislation, without regard to the laws specified in the numbered subdivisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this order and without regard to consideration as specified in Sections 3 and 4 of this order will further the purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [this chapter]:

Section 1. With respect to functions authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.), and any predecessor legislation except those functions exercised by the Department of Defense under authority of Sections 621 and 623 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2381 and 2383):

(1) The Act of March 26, 1934, 48 Stat. 500, as amended (15 U.S.C. 616a).

(2) Section 3648 of the Revised Statutes, as amended, 60 Stat. 809 (31 U.S.C. 529) [31 U.S.C. 3324].

(3) Section 305 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 396, as amended (41 U.S.C. 255).

(4) Section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U.S.C. 5).

(5) Section 3710 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 8).

(6) Section 2 of title III of the Act of March 3, 1933, 47 Stat. 1520 (41 U.S.C. 10a).

(7) Section 3735 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 13).

(8) Section 304(c) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as added by the Act of October 31, 1951, 65 Stat. 700 (41 U.S.C. 254(c)), but only with respect to contracts entered into with foreign governments or agencies thereof for the rendering of services to the United States or an agency thereof within the continental limits of the United States.

(9) Section 901(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, 49 Stat. 2015 as amended (46 U.S.C. [App.] 1241(a)) [now 46 U.S.C. 55302].

Sec. 2. With respect to purchases authorized to be made outside the limits of the United States or the District of Columbia under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [this chapter], and any predecessor legislation:

(1) [Former] Section 2276(a) of title 10 of the United States Code.

(2) Section 2313(b) of title 10 of the United States Code.

(3) Section 304(c) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as added by the Act of October 31, 1951, 65 Stat. 700 (41 U.S.C. 254(c)).

(4) Section 1301 of the Second War Powers Act, 1942, 56 Stat. 185 ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 643), as extended by the provisions of the Act of June 30, 1953, 67 Stat. 120.

(5) Section 3(b) of the Act of August 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 972 (50 U.S.C. 1433(b)), but only with respect to contracts in which the inclusion of the clause required by Section 3(b), or the compliance with that clause, if included in a contract, is deemed by the executive or military department concerned to be impracticable.

Sec. 3. With respect to cost-type contracts heretofore or hereafter made with non-profit institutions under which no fee is charged or paid, amendments and modifications of such contracts may be made with or without consideration and may be utilized to accomplish the same things as any original contract could have accomplished, irrespective of the time or circumstances of the making, or the form of the contract amended or modified, or of the amending or modifying contract and irrespective of rights which may have accrued under the contract or the amendments or modifications thereof.

Sec. 4. With respect to contracts heretofore or hereafter made, other than those described in Section 3 of this order, amendments and modifications of such contracts may be made with or without consideration and may be utilized to accomplish the same things as any original contract could have accomplished, irrespective of the time or circumstances of the making, or the form of the contract amended or modified, or of the amending or modifying contract, and irrespective of rights which may have accrued under the contract or the amendments or modifications thereof, if the Secretary of State or the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (with respect to functions vested in or delegated to the Administrator) determines in each case that such action is necessary to protect the foreign policy interests of the United States.

Sec. 5. Executive Order No. 10784 of October 1, 1958, and Executive Order No. 10845 of October 12, 1959, are hereby superseded.

Sec. 6. I determine it to be in furtherance of the purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], and in the national security interest of the United States that the functions authorized by chapter 7 of Part II of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2349 et seq.], relating to air base construction in Israel, be performed without regard to the following additional specified provisions of law:

(1) Title IX of the Federal Property and Administration Services Act of 1949, as amended (40 U.S.C. 541–544) [now 40 U.S.C. 1101–1104];

(2) Section 612 of the Military Construction Authorization Act, 1967, as amended (31 U.S.C. 723a) [10 U.S.C. 2661a(b)];

(3) Section 719 of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2168); and

(4) Section 111 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended ([former] 40 U.S.C. 759).

Determination Under This Section Waiving Requirements With Respect to Close Out of Prior Year Appropriations Accounts

Determination of President of the United States, No. 91–21, Feb. 27, 1991, 56 F.R. 10771, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 633(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the "Act"), 22 U.S.C. 2393(a), I hereby determine it to be in furtherance of the purposes of the Act [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] that the functions authorized by the Act be performed without regard to section 1405 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–510) [amending sections 1551 to 1557 of Title 31, Money and Finance, repealing section 2782 of Title 10, Armed Forces, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1551 of Title 31], and amendments contained therein.

This determination shall apply only to funds appropriated to carry out the provisions of the Act that were appropriated for fiscal year 1984 and for prior fiscal years, and shall suspend the application of the provisions of section 1405 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, and amendments contained therein, through September 30, 1992.

You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the Federal Register.

George Bush.      

1 See References in Text note below.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2393a. Requests by Government Accountability Office and Congressional committees for documents and materials

None of the funds made available pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall be used to carry out any provision of this chapter in any country or with respect to any project or activity, after the expiration of the thirty-five-day period which begins on the date the Government Accountability Office or any committee of the Congress charged with considering legislation, appropriations or expenditures under this chapter, has delivered to the office of the head of any agency carrying out such provision, a written request that it be furnished any document, paper, communication, audit, review, finding, recommendation, report, or other material in its custody or control relating to the administration of such provision in such country or with respect to such project or activity, unless and until there has been furnished to the Government Accountability Office, or to such committee, as the case may be, (1) the document, paper, communication, audit, review, finding, recommendation, report, or other material so requested, or (2) a certification by the President that he has forbidden the furnishing thereof pursuant to request and his reason for so doing.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §633A, as added Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(a)(1), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 957; amended Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

This section was formerly classified to subsec. (c) of section 2394 of this title prior to the complete revision of section 2394 of this title by Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(a)(2), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 957.

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–271 substituted "Government Accountability Office" for "General Accounting Office" in two places.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2394. Reports and information; definitions

(a) Annual report to Congress on programs having impact on developing countries; contents

In order that the Congress and the American people may be better and more currently informed regarding American foreign policy and the effectiveness of assistance provided by the United States Government to other countries and to international organizations, the Chairman of the Development Coordination Committee shall prepare and transmit to the Congress, no later than February 1 of each year, as a part of the annual presentation materials for foreign assistance, a report as described in this subsection. This report shall include—

(1)(A) a comprehensive and coordinated review of all United States policies and programs having a major impact on the development of developing countries, including but not limited to bilateral and multilateral assistance, trade, debt, employment, food, energy, technology, population, oceans, environment, human settlements, natural resources, and participation in international agencies concerned with development;

(B) an assessment of the impact of such policies and programs on the well-being of the poor majority in developing countries in accordance with the policy objectives of part I of subchapter I of this chapter, including increasing life expectancy and literacy, lowering infant mortality and birth rates, and increasing food production and employment, such assessment to include an evaluation of the extent to which programs under part I of subchapter I of this chapter directly benefit the poor majority; and

(C) an assessment of the impact of such policies and programs on economic conditions in the United States, including but not limited to employment, wages, and working conditions;

(2) the dollar value of all foreign assistance and guaranties by category and by country provided or made by the United States Government by any means to all foreign countries and international organizations—

(A) from 1946 to the fiscal year immediately preceding the fiscal year for which the report is required;

(B) as presented to Congress for the immediate preceding fiscal year;

(C) as obligated during the immediately preceding fiscal year;

(D) as planned for the fiscal year in which the report is presented;

(E) as proposed for the fiscal year following the year in which the report is presented; and

(F) of any contract in excess of $100,000 administered by the Agency for International Development which was entered into in the preceding fiscal year without competitive selection procedures, and the reasons for doing so;


(3) a summary of repayments, by country, to the United States from previous foreign assistance loans;

(4) the status of each sale of agricultural commodities on credit terms theretofore made under the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.] with respect to which there remains outstanding any unpaid obligation; and the status of each transaction with respect to which a loan, contract or guarantee of insurance, or extension of credit (or participation therein) was theretofore made under the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 [12 U.S.C. 635 et seq.] with respect to which there remains outstanding any unpaid obligation or potential liability; except that such report shall include individually only any loan, contract, sale, extension of credit, or other transactions listed in this paragraph which is in excess of $1,000,000;

(5)(A) the status of the debt servicing capacity of each country receiving assistance under this chapter;

(B) all forms of debt relief granted by the United States with respect to such countries, together with a detailed statement of the specific debt relief granted with respect to each such country and the purpose for which it was granted; and

(C) a summary of the net aid flow from the United States to such countries, taking into consideration the debt relief granted by the United States;

(6) the dollar value of all official development assistance, security assistance, international disaster assistance, refugee assistance, and international narcotics control assistance provided by each government of a country which is a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries;

(7) the percentage which each type of assistance described in paragraph (6) represents of (A) the gross national product of each country referred to in paragraph (6), and (B) the budget of the government of such country, as well as the per capita contribution for each country for each type of assistance described in paragraph (6);

(8) the amount of all foreign currencies acquired without payment of dollars on hand of each foreign country as of September 30 of the preceding fiscal year;

(9) the Development Coordination Committee's operations pursuant to section 2399c(f) of this title;

(10) the aggregate dollar value and quantity of grant military assistance, military education and training, and any other defense articles and services furnished under this chapter by the United States to each foreign country and international organization for the preceding fiscal year;

(11) information concerning the activities of the Minority Resource Center during the preceding fiscal year; and

(12) other information appropriate to the conduct of the foreign assistance program of the United States Government.

(b) "Foreign assistance" and "provided by the United States Government" defined

For purposes of this section—

(1) "foreign assistance" means any tangible or intangible item provided by the United States Government to a foreign country or international organization under this chapter or any other Act, including but not limited to any training, service, or technical advice, any item of real, personal, or mixed property, any agricultural commodity, United States dollars, and any currencies of any foreign country which are owned by the United States Government; and

(2) "provided by the United States Government" includes, but is not limited to, foreign assistance provided by means of gift, loan, sale, credit, or guaranty.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §634, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(e), (f), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §302(c), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 807; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(h), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), (b)(4), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §305, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(a)(3), (c)(2), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 28, 32; Pub. L. 93–189, §17, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 93–559, §14, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1799; Pub. L. 94–273, §6(1), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 377; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §209(b), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 739; Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(a)(1), (2), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 957; Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §707, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3159; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §733, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1559; Pub. L. 99–83, title III, §312(b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

The Food for Peace Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is act July 31, 1945, ch. 341, 59 Stat. 526, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§635 et seq.) of chapter 6A of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 635 of Title 12 and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(5)(A), (10), (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Codification

Prior to the complete revision of this section by section 502(a)(2) of Pub. L. 95–424, section 501(a)(1) of Pub. L. 95–424 redesignated former subsec. (c), relating to requests by the General Accounting Office and Congressional committees for documents and other material, as section 2393a of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".

1985—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–83 inserted provisions relating to evaluation of whether programs are benefiting the poor majority.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113, §733(1), substituted provision requiring information regarding American foreign policy and effectiveness of assistance to other countries for provision requiring information regarding United States development policy and effectiveness of assistance to developing countries and provision directing the Chairman prepare and transmit to Congress as part of the annual presentation materials for foreign assistance a report as described in this subsection for provision directing the Chairman to transmit a report on foreign assistance for the fiscal year ending the previous Sept. 30.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 97–113, §733(2), struck out "the progress developing countries are making toward achieving those objectives which are indicative of improved well-being of the poor majority, which objectives shall include but not be limited to" before "increasing life expectancy and literacy".

Subsec. (a)(2)(F). Pub. L. 97–113, §733(3), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 97–113, §733(4), struck out requirement that the report include the status of each loan and each contract of guaranty or insurance theretofore made under this chapter, predecessor Acts, or any Act authorizing international security assistance, with respect to which there remained outstanding any unpaid obligation or potential liability, and the status of each extension of credit for the procurement of defense articles or defense services, and of each contract of guarantee in connection with any such procurement, theretofore made under the Arms Export Control Act with respect to which there remained outstanding any unpaid obligation or potential liability.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 97–113, §733(5), struck out "and" after the semicolon.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 97–113, §733(6), substituted provision that the report contain the amount of all foreign currencies acquired without payment of dollars on hand of each foreign country as of Sept. 30 of the preceding fiscal year for provision that the report contain such other matters relating to foreign assistance provided under subchapter I of this chapter as the Chairman of the Development Coordination Committee considers appropriate.

Subsec. (a)(9) to (12). Pub. L. 97–113, §733(6), added pars. (9) to (12).

1980—Subsec. (a)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 96–533 added pars. (6) and (7) and redesignated former par. (6) as (8).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–424, §502(a)(2), added subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–424, §502(a)(2), substituted definitions of "foreign assistance" and "provided by the United States Government" for provisions requiring public disclosure of all information concerning operations under this chapter except that which is deemed incompatible with the Security of the United States.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–424, §502(a)(1), struck out "(c)" at beginning of subsection and transferred the remainder of subsection to section 2393a of this title.

Subsecs. (d) to (h). Pub. L. 95–424, §502(a)(2), struck out subsecs. (d), relating to presentation of programs to Congressional committees; (e), relating to inclusion of a specific plan in the President's recommendations to Congress; (f), relating to a report by the President to Congress showing the status of each outstanding loan; (g), relating to a report by the President to Congress showing debt-servicing problems; and (h), relating to military assistance to South Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.

1976—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–329 struck out provisions under which sales pursuant to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 or any other Act were included in the enumeration of factors used in developing, for purpose of presentation material, a chart showing the full extent of United States assistance planned or expected for each such country for the next fiscal year.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–273 substituted "September" for "June" and "March" for "December".

1974—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–559 substituted in item (1) respecting presentation material "economic assistance, military grants (and including for any such grant of any excess defense article, the value of such article expressed in terms of its acquisition cost to the United States), and military sales" for "economic assistance and military grants and sales".

1973—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–189 inserted references to contracts of guarantee or insurance, the status of sales of defense articles or defense services on credit terms, the status of sales of agricultural commodities on credit terms, and the status of loans, contracts of guarantee or insurance, or extensions of credit (or participations therein) made under the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, and inserted provisions limiting the reporting requirement of the subsection so as to include only loans, contracts, sales, extensions of credit, or other transactions in excess of $1,000,000.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–189 added subsec. (g).

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–226, §304(c)(2), struck out provisions for annual report to Congress concerning operations under this chapter, including information on the progress of the freedom of navigation and nondiscrimination declaration. See annual foreign assistance report provisions of section 2417 of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–226, §304(a)(3), substituted in last sentence reference to section "2360(b)" for prior reference to sections "2360, 2364(a)".

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–175 excluded operations reported to Congress pursuant to section 2200a of this title from report required by this section, and struck out of last sentence reference to the operation of the investment guaranty program.

1968—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–629, §45(b)(4), required the presentation material to include in the chart foreign assistance data under any other Act.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–629, §45(a), repealed provisions of subsec. (g) which related to exports of defense articles, contents of reports, and utilization of statistics and information of Government agencies, and is now covered by section 2776(a) of this title.

1967—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(h)(1), inserted introductory provision for presentation of programs to Congressional Committees in connection with requests for appropriations for fiscal year 1969, penultimate provision for inclusion of foreign assistance data (an assistance chart, contribution details, and a statement of projects), and provision for notification as to findings and reasons therefor under section 2311 or 2341(c) of this title.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(h)(2), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

1966—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 89–583 added subsec. (f).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–565, §302(e), required reports to include information on progress under the freedom of navigation and nondiscriminatory declaration contained in section 2151 of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–565, §302(f), substituted "At the end of each fiscal year" and "fiscal year" for "In January of each year" and "preceding twelve months", respectively, and provided that the presentation material submitted to Congress during its consideration of amendments to this chapter, or of any Act appropriating funds pursuant to authorizations contained in this chapter, should include a comparison of the current fiscal year programs and activities with those presented to Congress in the previous year and an explanation of any substantial changes.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §304(c)(3), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 32, provided that: "The provisions of this subsection [amending this section and section 2403 of this title] and section 657 of such Act [section 2417 of this title], as added by subsection (b) of this Act [this section], shall apply with respect to each fiscal year commencing on or after July 1, 1971."

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–629 effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Savings Provision

Determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of any provision of former subsec. (g) of this section as continuing in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority, see section 46 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under former section 2341 of this title.

Annual Report on Economic and Social Growth

Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §574, Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 749, required the President to submit to the appropriate congressional committees an annual report providing a concise overview of the prospects for economic and social growth in countries receiving economic assistance under title II of Pub. L. 104–107, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title VI, §671(2), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1407.

Progress Report of Implementation of Immunization and Oral Rehydration Promotion Programs

Annual report under this section to describe progress achieved during preceding fiscal year in carrying out section 2151b(c)(3) of this title, see section 305(b) of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151b of this title.

Negotiating Efforts Concerning Accelerated Loan Repayments To Be Included in Annual Reports for Foreign Assistance for 1980 and 1981

Annual reports on foreign assistance submitted in 1980 and 1981 pursuant to this section to contain negotiating efforts respecting accelerated loan repayments under section 2151y of this title, see section 508(b) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151y of this title.

§2394–1. Notification of program changes

(a) Covered programs; content of notifications

None of the funds appropriated to carry out the purposes of this chapter (except for programs under subpart III or subpart IV of part II of subchapter I of this chapter, part V of subchapter I of this chapter, and programs of disaster relief and rehabilitation) or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] may be obligated for any activities, programs, projects, types of materiel assistance, countries, or other operations not justified, or in excess of the amount justified, to the Congress for obligation under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act for any fiscal year unless the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Appropriations of each House of the Congress are notified fifteen days in advance of such obligation. Whenever a proposed reprograming exceeds $1,000,000 and the total amount proposed for obligation for a country under this chapter in a fiscal year exceeds by more than $5,000,000 the amount specified for that country in the report required by section 2413(a) of this title, notifications of such proposed reprogramings shall specify—

(1) the nature and purpose of such proposed obligation, and

(2) to the extent possible at the time of the proposed obligation, the country for which such funds would otherwise have been obligated.

(b) Exceptions

The notification requirement of this section does not apply to the reprogramming—

(1) of funds to be used for an activity, program, or project under part I of subchapter I of this chapter if the amounts to be obligated for that activity, program, or project for that fiscal year do not exceed by more than 10 percent the amount justified to the Congress for that activity, program, or project for that fiscal year; or

(2) of less than $25,000 to be used under part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, or under part V of subchapter II of this chapter, for a country for which a program under that part for that fiscal year was justified to the Congress.

(c) Funds in the International Affairs Budget Function; reprogramming

The President shall notify the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives concerning any reprogramming of funds in the International Affairs Budget Function, the authorizations of appropriations for which are in their respective jurisdictions, to the same degree and with the same conditions as the President notifies the Committees on Appropriations. The requirements of this subsection are in addition to, and not in lieu of, other notification requirements.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §634A, formerly §671, as added Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §130, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 543; renumbered §634A, Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(b), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959; amended Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §704, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1544; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1209(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 103–437, §9(a)(6), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 2429b of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Foreign Affairs" for "International Relations" in introductory provisions.

1985Pub. L. 99–83 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted references to the Arms Export Control Act in two places, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1981Pub. L. 97–113 inserted provision respecting notification of proposed reprograming of assistance.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2394–1a. Classification of reports

All information contained in any report transmitted under this chapter shall be public information. However, in the case of any item of information to be included in any such report that the President, on an extraordinary basis, determines is clearly detrimental to the security of the United States, he shall explain in a supplemental report why publication of each specific item would be detrimental to the security of the United States. A supplemental report shall be transmitted to the Congress at the time the report is transmitted.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §634B, as added Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(c), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2394a. Extortion and illegal payments to officials of foreign countries receiving international security assistance

Within 60 days after receiving information which substantiates that officials of a foreign country receiving international security assistance have (1) received illegal or otherwise improper payments from a United States corporation in return for a contract to purchase defense articles or services from such corporation, or (2) extorted, or attempted to extort, money or other things of value in return for actions by officials of that country that permit a United States citizen or corporation to conduct business in that country, the President shall submit to Congress a report outlining the circumstances of such payment or extortion. The report shall contain a recommendation from the President as to whether the United States should continue a security assistance program for that country.

(Pub. L. 94–329, title VI, §607, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 768.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, which comprises this chapter.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2394b. HELP Commission

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "HELP Commission Act".

(b) Findings

(1) The Congress finds that, despite the long-standing efforts and resources of the United States dedicated to helping needy people around the world, despair remains and in many areas is growing.

(2) Therefore, a commission should be established to bring together the best minds associated with development and humanitarian assistance to make a comprehensive review of—

(A) policy decisions, including why certain development projects are funded and others are not, successes, and best practices, including their applicability to other existing programs and projects;

(B) delivery obstacles, including the roles of United States agencies and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations;

(C) methodology, including whether the delivery of United States development assistance always represents best practices and whether it can be improved; and

(D) results, including measuring improvements in human capacity instead of in purely economic terms.


(3) An examination of these issues should present new approaches and ideas to ensure that United States development assistance reaches and benefits its intended recipients.

(c) Establishment of Commission; responsibilities

(1) There is established the Helping to Enhance the Livelihood of People (HELP) Around the Globe Commission (in this section referred to as the "Commission").

(2) The Commission shall—

(A) identify the past and present objectives of United States development assistance, identify cases in which those objectives have been met, identify the beneficiaries of such assistance, and what percentage of the funds provided actually reached the intended beneficiaries;

(B) identify cases in which United States development assistance has been most successful, and analyze how such successes may be transferable to other countries or areas;

(C) study ways to expand educational opportunities and investments in people, and assess infrastructure needs;

(D) analyze how the United States could place conditions on governments in countries receiving United States development assistance, in light of and notwithstanding the objectives of the Millennium Challenge Account;

(E) analyze ways in which the United States can coordinate its development assistance programs with those of other donor countries and international organizations;

(F) analyze ways in which the safety of development assistance workers can be ensured, particularly in the midst of conflicts;

(G) compare the effectiveness of increased and open trade with development assistance, and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of such trade and whether such trade could be a more effective alternative to United States development assistance;

(H) analyze ways in which the United States can strengthen the capacity of indigenous nongovernmental organizations to be more effective in grassroots development;

(I) analyze ways in which decisions on providing development assistance can involve more of the people of the recipient countries;

(J) analyze ways in which results can be measured if United States development assistance is targeted to the least developed countries;

(K) recommend standards that should be set for "graduating" recipient countries from United States development assistance;

(L) analyze whether United States development assistance should be used as a means to achieve United States foreign policy objectives;

(M) analyze how the United States can evaluate the performance of its development assistance programs not only against economic indicators, but in other ways, including how to measure the success of United States development assistance in democratization efforts; and evaluate the existing foreign assistance framework to ascertain the degree of coordination, or lack thereof, of the disparate foreign development programs as administered by the various Federal agencies, to identify and assess the redundancies of programs and organizational structures engaged in foreign assistance, and to recommend revisions to authorizing legislation for foreign assistance that would seek to reconcile competing foreign policy and foreign aid goals; and

(N) study any other areas that the Commission considers necessary relating to United States development assistance.

(d) Membership

(1) The Commission shall be composed of 21 members as follows:

(A) Six members shall be appointed by the President, of whom at least two shall be representatives of nongovernmental organizations.

(B) Four members shall be appointed by the majority leader of the Senate, and three members shall be appointed by the minority leader of the Senate.

(C) Four members shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and three members shall be appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives.

(D) The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall serve as a member of the Commission, ex officio.


(2) Members under subparagraphs (A) through (C) of paragraph (1) shall be appointed for the life of the Commission.

(3) Members of the Commission shall be selected from among individuals noted for their knowledge and experience in foreign assistance, particularly development and humanitarian assistance.

(4) The appointments under paragraph (1) shall be made not later than 60 days after January 23, 2004.

(5) The President shall designate one of the members of the Commission not currently in Government service as the Chair of the Commission.

(6) In order to facilitate the workload of the Commission, the Commission shall divide the membership of the Commission into three subcommittees representing the different regions of the world to which the United States provides development assistance, the membership of each subcommittee to be proportional to the percentage of United States development assistance provided to the region represented by the subcommittee. Each subcommittee shall elect one of its members as Chair of the subcommittee.

(7)(A) Eleven members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for purposes of transacting the business of the Commission. The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chair.

(B) A majority of the members of each regional subcommittee shall constitute a quorum for purposes of transacting the business of the subcommittee. Each subcommittee shall meet at the call of the Chair of the subcommittee.

(8) Any vacancy of the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.

(9) The Administrator of General Services shall provide to the Commission on a reimbursable basis (or, in the discretion of the Administrator, on a nonreimbursable basis) such administrative support services as the Commission may request to carry out this section.

(10)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), members of the Commission shall serve without pay.

(B) Members of the Commission who are full-time officers or employees of the United States or Members of Congress may not receive additional pay, allowances, or benefits by reason of their service on the Commission.

(11) Members of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5 while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission.

(12)(A) The Chairman of the Commission may, without regard to the civil service laws and regulations, appoint and terminate an executive director and such other additional personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to perform its duties. The employment of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by the Commission.

(B) To the extent or in the amounts provided in advance in appropriations Acts—

(i) the executive director shall be compensated at the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5; and

(ii) the Chairman of the Commission may fix the compensation of other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5 relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay for such personnel may not exceed the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

(e) Authority

(1) The Commission may, for the purpose of carrying out its functions under this section, hold hearings, sit and act at times and places in the United States and in countries that receive United States development assistance, take testimony, and receive evidence as the Commission considers advisable to carry out the purposes of this section.

(2) The Commission may secure directly from any Federal department or agency such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this section. Upon request of the Chair of the Commission, the head of such department or agency shall furnish such information to the Commission, subject to applicable law.

(3) The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

(4) The Commission may adopt such rules and regulations, relating to administrative procedure, as may be reasonably necessary to enable it to carry out the provisions of this section.

(5) The Members of the Commission may, with the approval of the Commission, conduct such travel as is necessary to carry out the purposes of this section. Each trip must be approved by a majority of the Commission.

(6) Upon the request of the Commission, the head of any Federal department or agency may detail, on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, any of the personnel of that department or agency to the Commission to assist it in carrying out its functions under this section. The detail of any such personnel shall be without interruption or loss of civil service or Foreign Service status or privilege.

(f) Report of Commission

(1) Not later than 2 years after the members of the Commission are appointed under subsection (d)(1), the Commission shall submit a report to the President, the Secretary of State, the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, setting forth its findings and recommendations under section 1 (c)(2).

(2) The report may be submitted in classified form, together with a public summary of recommendations, if the classification of information would further the purposes of this section.

(3) Each member of the Commission may include the individual or dissenting views of the member.

(g) Applicability of other laws

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Commission.

(h) Definition

In this section, the term "United States development assistance" means—

(1) assistance provided by the United States under chapters 1, 10, 11, and 12 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq., 2293 et seq., 2295 et seq., 2296 et seq.]; and

(2) assistance provided under any other provision of law to carry out purposes comparable to those set forth in the provisions referred to in paragraph (1).

(i) Authorization of appropriations

(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(2) Amounts authorized to be appropriated under subsection (a) are authorized to remain available until expended, but not later than the date of termination of the Commission.

(j) Termination

The Commission shall terminate 30 days after the submission of its report under subsection (f).

(k) Annual report of President

(1) Not later than April 1, 2004, and April 1 of each third year thereafter, the President shall transmit to the Congress a report that analyzes, on a country-by-country basis, the impact and effectiveness of United States economic assistance furnished to each country during the preceding 3 fiscal years. The report shall include the following for each recipient country:

(A) An analysis of the impact of United States economic assistance during the preceding 3 fiscal years on economic development in that country, with a discussion of the United States interests that were served by the assistance. The analysis shall be done on a sector-by-sector basis to the extent possible and shall identify any economic policy reforms that were promoted by the assistance. The analysis shall—

(i) include a description, quantified to the extent practicable, of the specific objectives the United States sought to achieve in providing economic assistance for that country; and

(ii) specify the extent to which those objectives were not achieved, with an explanation of why they were not achieved.


(B) A description of the amount and nature of economic assistance provided by other donors during the preceding 3 fiscal years, set forth by development sector to the extent possible.

(C) A discussion of the commitment of the host government to addressing the country's needs in each development sector, including a description of the resources devoted by that government to each development sector during the preceding 3 fiscal years.

(D) A description of the trends, both favorable and unfavorable, in each development sector.

(E) Statistical and other information necessary to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of United States economic assistance on development in the country.

(F) A comparison of the analysis provided in the report with relevant analyses by international financial institutions, other international organizations, other donor countries, or nongovernmental organizations.


(2) The report required by this section shall identify—

(A) each country in which United States economic assistance has been most successful, as indicated by the extent to which the specific objectives the United States sought to achieve in providing the assistance for the country, as referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(i), were achieved; and

(B) each country in which United States economic assistance has been least successful, as indicated by the extent to which the specific objectives the United States sought to achieve in providing the assistance for the country, as referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(i), were not achieved; and, for each such country, an explanation of why the assistance was not more successful and a specification of what the United States has done as a result.


(3) Information under paragraphs (1) and (2) for a fiscal year shall not be required with respect to a country for which United States economic assistance for the country for the fiscal year is less than $5,000,000.

(4) In this subsection, the term "United States economic assistance" means any bilateral economic assistance, from any budget functional category, that is provided by any department or agency of the United States to a foreign country, including such assistance that is intended—

(A) to assist the development and economic advancement of friendly foreign countries and peoples;

(B) to promote the freedom, aspirations, or sustenance of friendly peoples under oppressive rule by unfriendly governments;

(C) to promote international trade and foreign direct investment as a means of aiding economic growth;

(D) to save lives and alleviate suffering of foreign peoples during or following wars, natural disasters, or complex crisies 2 ;

(E) to assist in recovery and rehabilitation of countries or peoples following disaster or war;

(F) to protect refugees and promote durable solutions to aid refugees;

(G) to promote sound environmental practices;

(H) to assist in development of democratic institutions and good governance by the people of foreign countries;

(I) to promote peace and reconciliation or prevention of conflict;

(J) to improve the technical capacities of governments to reduce production of and demand for illicit narcotics; and

(K) to otherwise promote through bilateral foreign economic assistance the national objectives of the United States.

(Pub. L. 108–199, div. B, title VI, §637, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 101.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (h)(1), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended. Chapters 1, 10, 11, and 12 of part I of the Act are classified generally to parts I (§2151 et seq.), X (§2293 et seq.), XI (§2295 et seq.), and XII (§2296 et seq.) of subchapter I of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as the HELP Commission Act, and also as part of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2004, and the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Assignment of Functions Implementing the HELP Commission Act

Memorandum of President of the United States, Dec. 8, 2004, 69 F.R. 78847, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code:

1. The functions of the President under subsection 637(k) of the [Departments of] Commerce, Justice[,] and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2004 (Division B, Public Law 108–199) (22 U.S.C. 2394b(k)) (the "Act") are assigned to the Secretary of State (Secretary).

2. The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall provide support to assist the Secretary in the performance of functions assigned by this memorandum, and the heads of executive departments and agencies with information concerning assistance programs shall furnish promptly to the Secretary, consistent with applicable law, such information as the Secretary may request to assist in fulfillment of these responsibilities for the preparation of the report to which subsection 637(k) refers.

3. The Secretary shall coordinate the receipt by departments and agencies of requests from the HELP Commission under section 637(e) of the Act for information and their responses to such requests. Such departments and agencies shall provide relevant information and responses promptly. The Secretary shall ensure that such responses occur in a manner consistent with the President's constitutional authority to withhold information that could impair foreign relations, national security, the deliberate processes of the Executive, or the performance of the Executive's constitutional duties.

4. Heads of executive departments and agencies shall assist the Secretary in the implementation of this memorandum.

5. The Secretary is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

George W. Bush.      

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection".

2 So in original. Probably should be "crises".

§2394c. Information on covered United States foreign assistance programs

(a) Publication of information

(1) Update of existing website

Not later than 90 days after July 15, 2016, the Secretary of State shall update the Department of State's website, "ForeignAssistance.gov", to make publicly available comprehensive, timely, and comparable information on covered United States foreign assistance programs, including all information required under subsection (b) that is available to the Secretary of State.

(2) Information sharing

Not later than 2 years after July 15, 2016, and quarterly thereafter, the head of each Federal department or agency that administers covered United States foreign assistance shall provide the Secretary of State with comprehensive information about the covered United States foreign assistance programs carried out by such department or agency.

(3) Updates to website

Not later than 2 years after July 15, 2016, and quarterly thereafter, the Secretary of State shall publish, on the "ForeignAssistance.gov" website or through a successor online publication, the information provided under subsection (b).

(b) Matters to be included

(1) In general

The information described in subsection (a)—

(A) shall be published for each country on a detailed basis, such as award-by-award; or

(B) if assistance is provided on a regional level, shall be published for each such region on a detailed basis, such as award-by-award.

(2) Types of information

(A) In general

To ensure the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of covered United States foreign assistance programs, the information described in subsection (a) shall include—

(i) links to all regional, country, and sector assistance strategies, annual budget documents, congressional budget justifications, and evaluations in accordance with section 3(c)(2)(J);

(ii) basic descriptive summaries for covered United States foreign assistance programs and awards under such programs; and

(iii) obligations and expenditures.

(B) Publication

Each type of information described in subparagraph (A) shall be published or updated on the appropriate website not later than 90 days after the date on which the information is issued.

(C) Rule of construction

Nothing in this paragraph may be construed to require a Federal department or agency that administers covered United States foreign assistance to provide any information that does not relate to, or is not otherwise required by, the covered United States foreign assistance programs carried out by such department or agency.

(3) Report in lieu of inclusion

(A) Health or security of implementing partners

If the head of a Federal department or agency, in consultation with the Secretary of State, makes a determination that the inclusion of a required item of information online would jeopardize the health or security of an implementing partner or program beneficiary or would require the release of proprietary information of an implementing partner or program beneficiary, the head of the Federal department or agency shall provide such determination in writing to the appropriate congressional committees, including the basis for such determination.

(B) National interests of the United States

If the Secretary of State makes a determination that the inclusion of a required item of information online would be detrimental to the national interests of the United States, the Secretary of State shall provide such determination, including the basis for such determination, in writing to the appropriate congressional committees.

(C) Form

Information provided under this paragraph may be provided in classified form, as appropriate.

(4) Failure to comply

If a Federal department or agency fails to comply with the requirements under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a), or subsection (c), with respect to providing information described in subsection (a), and the information is not subject to a determination under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3) not to make the information publicly available, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, in consultation with the head of such department or agency, not later than one year after July 15, 2016, shall submit a consolidated report to the appropriate congressional committees that includes, with respect to each required item of information not made publicly available—

(A) a detailed explanation of the reason for not making such information publicly available; and

(B) a description of the department's or agency's plan and timeline for—

(i) making such information publicly available; and

(ii) ensuring that such information is made publicly available in subsequent years.

(c) Scope of information

The online publication required under subsection (a) shall, at a minimum—

(1) in each of the fiscal years 2016 through 2019, provide the information required under subsection (b) for fiscal years 2015 through the current fiscal year; and

(2) for fiscal year 2020 and each fiscal year thereafter, provide the information required under subsection (b) for the immediately preceding 5 fiscal years in a fully searchable form.

(d) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development should coordinate the consolidation of processes and data collection and presentation for the Department of State's website, "ForeignAssistance.gov", and the United States Agency for International Development's website, "Explorer.USAID.gov", to the extent that is possible to maximize efficiencies, no later than the end of fiscal year 2018.

(Pub. L. 114–191, §4, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 669.)

References in Text

Section 3(c)(2)(J), referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i), is section 3(c)(2)(J) of Pub. L. 114–191, which is set out as a note below.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Foreign Aid Transparency and Accountability Act of 2016, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Guidelines for Covered United States Foreign Assistance Programs

Pub. L. 114–191, §3, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 667, provided that:

"(a) Purposes.—The purposes of this section are to—

"(1) evaluate the performance of covered United States foreign assistance and its contribution to the policies, strategies, projects, program goals, and priorities undertaken by the Federal Government;

"(2) support and promote innovative programs to improve effectiveness; and

"(3) coordinate the monitoring and evaluation processes of Federal departments and agencies that administer covered United States foreign assistance.

"(b) Establishment of Guidelines.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the President shall set forth guidelines, according to best practices of monitoring and evaluation studies and analyses, for the establishment of measurable goals, performance metrics, and monitoring and evaluation plans that can be applied with reasonable consistency to covered United States foreign assistance.

"(c) Objectives of Guidelines.—

"(1) In general.—The guidelines established pursuant to subsection (b) shall provide direction to Federal departments and agencies that administer covered United States foreign assistance on—

"(A) monitoring the use of resources;

"(B) evaluating the outcomes and impacts of covered United States foreign assistance projects and programs; and

"(C) applying the findings and conclusions of such evaluations to proposed project and program design.

"(2) Objectives.—The guidelines established pursuant to subsection (b) shall provide direction to Federal departments and agencies that administer covered United States foreign assistance on how to—

"(A) establish annual monitoring and evaluation objectives and timetables to plan and manage the process of monitoring, evaluating, analyzing progress, and applying learning toward achieving results;

"(B) develop specific project monitoring and evaluation plans, including measurable goals and performance metrics, and to identify the resources necessary to conduct such evaluations, which should be covered by program costs;

"(C) apply rigorous monitoring and evaluation methodologies to such programs, including through the use of impact evaluations, ex-post evaluations, or other methods, as appropriate, that clearly define program logic, inputs, outputs, intermediate outcomes, and end outcomes;

"(D) disseminate guidelines for the development and implementation of monitoring and evaluation programs to all personnel, especially in the field, who are responsible for the design, implementation, and management of covered United States foreign assistance programs;

"(E) establish methodologies for the collection of data, including baseline data to serve as a reference point against which progress can be measured;

"(F) evaluate, at least once in their lifetime, all programs whose dollar value equals or exceeds the median program size for the relevant office or bureau or an equivalent calculation to ensure the majority of program resources are evaluated;

"(G) conduct impact evaluations on all pilot programs before replicating, or conduct performance evaluations and provide a justification for not conducting an impact evaluation when such an evaluation is deemed inappropriate or impracticable;

"(H) develop a clearinghouse capacity for the collection, dissemination, and preservation of knowledge and lessons learned to guide future programs for United States foreign assistance personnel, implementing partners, the donor community, and aid recipient governments;

"(I) internally distribute evaluation reports;

"(J) publicly report each evaluation, including an executive summary, a description of the evaluation methodology, key findings, appropriate context, including quantitative and qualitative data when available, and recommendations made in the evaluation within 90 days after the completion of the evaluation;

"(K) undertake collaborative partnerships and coordinate efforts with the academic community, implementing partners, and national and international institutions, as appropriate, that have expertise in program monitoring, evaluation, and analysis when such partnerships provide needed expertise or significantly improve the evaluation and analysis;

"(L) ensure verifiable, reliable, and timely data, including from local beneficiaries and stakeholders, are available to monitoring and evaluation personnel to permit the objective evaluation of the effectiveness of covered United States foreign assistance programs, including an assessment of assumptions and limitations in such evaluations; and

"(M) ensure that standards of professional evaluation organizations for monitoring and evaluation efforts are employed, including ensuring the integrity and independence of evaluations, permitting and encouraging the exercise of professional judgment, and providing for quality control and assurance in the monitoring and evaluation process.

"(d) President's Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the President shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees that contains a detailed description of the guidelines established pursuant to subsection (b). The report shall be submitted in unclassified form, but it may contain a classified annex.

"(e) Comptroller General's Report.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall, not later than 18 months after the report required by subsection (d) is submitted to Congress, submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that—

"(1) analyzes the guidelines established pursuant to subsection (b); and

"(2) assesses the implementation of the guidelines by the agencies, bureaus, and offices that implement covered United States foreign assistance as outlined in the President's budget request."

[For delegation of functions of President under section 3(b) and (d) of Pub. L. 114–191, set out above, see Memorandum of President of the United States, Nov. 21, 2017, 82 F.R. 56529, set out below.]

Definitions

Pub. L. 114–191, §2, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 666, provided that:

"In this Act [enacting this section and provisions set out as notes under this section and section 2151 of this title]:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;

"(B) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

"(C) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives; and

"(D) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

"(2) Evaluation.—The term 'evaluation' means, with respect to a covered United States foreign assistance program, the systematic collection and analysis of information about the characteristics and outcomes of the program, including projects conducted under such program, as a basis for—

"(A) making judgments and evaluations regarding the program;

"(B) improving program effectiveness; and

"(C) informing decisions about current and future programming.

"(3) Covered united states foreign assistance.—The term 'covered United States foreign assistance' means assistance authorized under—

"(A) part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.), except for—

"(i) title IV of chapter 2 of such part [22 U.S.C. 2191 et seq.] (relating to the Overseas Private Investment Corporation); and

"(ii) chapter 3 of such part [22 U.S.C. 2221 et seq.] (relating to International Organizations and Programs);

"(B) chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.; relating to Economic Support Fund);

"(C) the Millennium Challenge Act of 2003 (22 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.); and

"(D) the Food for Peace Act (7 U.S.C. 1721 [1691] et seq.)."

[Pub. L. 115–254, div. F, title VI, §1470(l), (w), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3517, 3519, provided that, effective at the end of the transition period as defined in section 9681 of this title, section 2(3) of the Foreign Aid Transparency and Accountability Act of 2016 (Public Law 114–191; 22 U.S.C. 2394c note), set out above, is amended in subparagraph (A), by striking "except for" and all that follows through "chapter 3" and insert "except for chapter 3"; in subparagraph (C), by striking "and" at the end; in subparagraph (D), by striking the period at the end and inserting "; and"; and by adding at the end the following: "(E) the Better Utilization of Investments Leading to Development Act of 2018 [22 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.].]

Delegation of Authority Under the Foreign Aid Transparency and Accountability Act of 2016

Memorandum of President of the United States, Nov. 21, 2017, 82 F.R. 56529, provided:

Memorandum for the Director of the Office of Management and Budget

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget the functions and authorities vested in the President by sections 3(b) and 3(d) of the Foreign Aid Transparency and Accountability Act of 2016 (Public Law 114–191) (the "Act"), including updating the guidelines required by section 3(b) as he may think proper, in accordance with the Act.

The delegation in this memorandum shall apply to any provision of any future public law that is the same or substantially the same as sections 3(b) and 3(d) of the Act.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.      

§2395. General authorities

(a) Manner of furnishing assistance; emphasis on loans

Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, assistance under this chapter may be furnished on a grant basis or on such terms, including cash, credit, or other terms of repayment (including repayment in foreign currencies or by transfer to the United States Government of commodities) as may be determined to be best suited to the achievement of the purposes of this chapter, and shall emphasize loans rather than grants wherever possible.

(b) Authority of the President

The President may make loans, advances, and grants to, make and perform agreements and contracts with, or enter into other transactions with, any individual, corporation, or other body of persons, friendly government or government agency, whether within or without the United States, and international organizations in furtherance of the purposes and within the limitations of this chapter.

(c) Utilization of services and facilities of voluntary, nonprofit organizations

It is the sense of Congress that the President, in furthering the purposes of this chapter, shall use to the maximum extent practicable the services and facilities of voluntary, nonprofit organizations registered with, and approved by, the Agency for International Development.

(d) Acceptance of gifts, devises, bequests, grants, etc.

The President may accept and use in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, money, funds, property, and services of any kind made available by gift, devise, bequest, grant, or otherwise for such purpose.

(e) Health and accident insurance for foreign participants and foreign employees

(1) Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to pay the cost of health and accident insurance for foreign participants in any program of furnishing technical information and assistance administered by such agency while such participants are absent from their homes for the purpose of participation in such program.

(2) Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to pay the cost of health and accident insurance for foreign employees of that agency while those employees are absent from their place of employment abroad for purposes of training or other official duties.

(f) Admission of alien participants

Alien participants in any program of furnishing technical information and assistance under this chapter may be admitted to the United States if otherwise qualified as nonimmigrants under section 1101(a)(15) of title 8, for such time and under such conditions as may be prescribed by regulations promulgated by the Secretary of State and the Attorney General.

(g) Powers and authorities of the President with respect to loans

In making loans under this chapter, the President—

(1) may issue letters of credit and letters of commitment;

(2) may collect or compromise any obligations assigned to, or held by, and any legal or equitable rights accruing to him, and, as he may determine, refer any such obligations or rights to the Attorney General for suit or collection;

(3) may acquire and dispose of, upon such terms and conditions as he may determine, any property, including any instrument evidencing indebtedness or ownership (provided that equity securities may not be directly purchased although such securities may be acquired by other means such as by exercise of conversion rights or through enforcement of liens or pledges or otherwise to satisfy a previously incurred indebtedness), and guarantee payment against any such instrument;

(4) may determine the character of, and necessity for, obligations and expenditures of funds used in making such loans and the manner in which they shall be incurred, allowed, and paid, subject to provisions of law specifically applicable to corporations of the United States Government; and

(5) shall cause to be maintained an integral set of accounts which shall be audited by the Government Accountability Office in accordance with principles and procedures applicable to commercial corporate transactions as provided by chapter 91 of title 31.

(h) Term of contracts and agreements

A contract or agreement which entails commitments for the expenditure of funds made available under part I (except development loans) and subpart II of part II of subchapter I and under subchapter II of this chapter, may, subject to any future action of the Congress, extend at any time for not more than five years.

(i) Settlement and arbitration of claims arising under investment guaranty operations

Claims arising as a result of investment guaranty operations may be settled, and disputes arising as a result thereof may be arbitrated with the consent of the parties, on such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Payment made pursuant to any such settlement, or as a result of an arbitration award, shall be final and conclusive notwithstanding any other provision of law.

(j) Financial transactions with foreign governments; exemption

The provisions of section 955 of title 18 shall not apply to prevent any person, including any individual, partnership, corporation, or association, from acting for, or participating in, any operation or transaction arising under this chapter, or from acquiring any obligation issued in connection with any operation or transaction arising under this chapter.

(k) Cost-type contracts with educational institutions; payment of reimbursable indirect costs

Any cost-type contract or agreement (including grants) entered into with a university, college, or other educational institution for the purpose of carrying out programs authorized by subchapter I of this chapter may provide for the payment of the reimbursable indirect costs of said university, college, or other educational institution on the basis of predetermined fixed-percentage rates applied to the total, or an element thereof, of the reimbursable direct costs incurred.

(l) Program oversight

The Administrator of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter may use funds made available under that subchapter to provide program and management oversight for activities that are funded under that subchapter and that are conducted in countries in which the agency does not have a field mission or office.

(m) Working capital fund

(1) There is established a working capital fund (in this subsection referred to as the "fund") for the United States Agency for International Development (in this subsection referred to as the "Agency") which shall be available without fiscal year limitation for the expenses of personal and nonpersonal services, equipment, and supplies for—

(A) International Cooperative Administrative Support Services; and

(B) rebates from the use of United States Government credit cards.


(2) The capital of the fund shall consist of—

(A) the fair and reasonable value of such supplies, equipment, and other assets pertaining to the functions of the fund as the Administrator determines,

(B) rebates from the use of United States Government credit cards, and

(C) any appropriations made available for the purpose of providing capital,


minus related liabilities.

(3) The fund shall be reimbursed or credited with advance payments for services, equipment, or supplies provided from the fund from applicable appropriations and funds of the Agency, other Federal agencies and other sources authorized by section 2357 of this title at rates that will recover total expenses of operation, including accrual of annual leave and depreciation. Receipts from the disposal of, or payments for the loss or damage to, property held in the fund, rebates, reimbursements, refunds and other credits applicable to the operation of the fund may be deposited in the fund.

(4) At the close of each fiscal year the Administrator of the Agency shall transfer out of the fund to the miscellaneous receipts account of the Treasury of the United States such amounts as the Administrator determines to be in excess of the needs of the fund.

(5) The fund may be charged with the current value of supplies and equipment returned to the working capital of the fund by a post, activity, or agency, and the proceeds shall he 1 credited to current applicable appropriations.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §635, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(g), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(e), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(g), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §302(d), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 807; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(i), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 461; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §102(g)(2)(G), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 943; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §121, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 106–264, title III, §301, Aug. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 760; Pub. L. 106–309, title IV, §404, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1098; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (d), (g), and (j), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II, and References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Such Parts

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Codification

In subsec. (g)(5), "chapter 91 of title 31" substituted for "the Government Corporation Control Act, as amended (31 U.S.C. 841 et seq.)" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted "Government Accountability Office" for "General Accounting Office".

2000—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 106–264 added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 106–309 added subsec. (m).

1979—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–53 substituted "Agency for International Development" for "Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid".

1978—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–424 substituted "part I (except development loans) and subpart II of part II of subchapter I" for "subparts II, V, and VI of part II of subchapter I (except development loans)".

1967—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(i)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(i)(2), struck out "and sales" after "loans" in introductory clause.

1966—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 89–583 excluded development loans under the Alliance for Progress from the provision that contracts or agreements which entail commitments for the expenditure of funds may not extend for more than five years.

1965—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89–171 inserted "and sales" in introductory clause.

1963—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 88–205 added subsec. (k).

1962—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 87–565 included sections 2211 to 2213 of this title within the limitation on the duration of contracts and agreements.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(i)(2), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 461, provided in part that amendment of subsec. (g) by such section 302(i)(2) shall take effect on June 30, 1968.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

International Agreements

The negotiation, conclusion, and termination of international agreements pursuant to this chapter shall be subject to requirements of section 112b of Title 1, General Provisions, and to applicable regulations and procedures, see section 1–604 of Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56677, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Information to Congressional Committees on Negotiations Regarding Debts Owed United States by Foreign Governments; Transmittal to Congress of Debt Modification Proposals

Pub. L. 93–333, §4, July 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 290, relating to cancellation, renegotiation, etc., of any debt owed by a foreign government, was repealed by Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §603(b), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 So in original. Probably should be "be".

§2395a. International agreements concerning debt relief; transmittal to congressional committees

(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(5), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

(2) The Secretary of State shall transmit to such committees a copy of the text of any agreement with any foreign government which would result in any such debt relief no less than thirty days prior to its entry into force, together with a detailed justification of the interest of the United States in the proposed debt relief. The requirements of this paragraph shall not apply with respect to an agreement if a statutory requirement exists that the amount of the debt relief provided by the agreement may not exceed the amount approved for such purposes in advance in an appropriation Act.

(Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §603(a), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 960; H. Res. 89, Feb. 5, 1979; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(5), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.)

References in Text

"Such committees" and "such debt relief", referred to in par. (2), mean the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Appropriations of each House of Congress named as the ongoing recipients of any information respecting debt relief negotiations with foreign governments regarding any debts owing to the United States in par. (1) provisions prior to repeal thereof by section 734(a)(1) of Pub. L. 97–113.

Codification

Section enacted as part of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1981—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out par. (1) which required Secretary of State keep the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Appropriations of each House of Congress informed respecting any debt relief negotiations with foreign governments regarding any debts owing to the United States.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title.

Actions To Provide Bilateral Debt Relief

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(5) [title V, §501], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-311, as amended by Pub. L. 108–447, div. D, title V, §591(b), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3037; Pub. L. 109–102, title V, §578, Nov. 14, 2005, 119 Stat. 2232; Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, §699H(b)(1), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2372, provided that:

"(a) Cancellation of Debt.—Subject to the availability of amounts provided in advance in appropriations Acts, the President shall cancel all amounts owed to the United States (or any agency of the United States) by any country eligible for debt reduction under this section, as a result of loans made or credits extended prior to June 20, 1999, under any of the provisions of law specified in subsection (b).

"(b) Provisions of Law.—The provisions of law referred to in subsection (a) are the following:

"(1) Sections 221 and 222 of the Foreign Assistance Act [of 1961] [22 U.S.C. 2181, 2182].

"(2) The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.).

"(3) Section 5(f) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act [15 U.S.C. 714c(f)], section 201 of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 (7 U.S.C. 5621), or section 202 of such Act (7 U.S.C. 5622), or predecessor provisions under the Food for Peace Act of 1966.

"(4) Title I of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 [now Food for Peace Act] (7 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

"(5) The Act of March 11, 1941 (chapter 11; 55 Stat. 31; 22 U.S.C. 411 et seq.; commonly known as the 'Lend-Lease Act').

"(c) Other Debt Reduction Authorities.—The authority provided in this section is in addition to any other debt relief authority and does not in any way limit such authority.

"(d) Eligible Countries.—A country that is performing satisfactorily under an economic reform program shall be eligible for cancellation of debt under this section if—

"(1) the country, as of December 31, 2000, is eligible to borrow from the International Development Association;

"(2) the country, as of December 31, 2000, is not eligible to borrow from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; and

"(3)(A) the country has outstanding public and publicly guaranteed debt, the net present value of which on December 31, 1996, was at least 150 percent of the average annual value of the exports of the country for the period 1994 through 1996; or

"(B)(i) the country has outstanding public and publicly guaranteed debt, the net present value of which, as of the date the President determines that the country is eligible for debt relief under this section, is at least 150 percent of the annual value of the exports of the country; or

"(ii) the country has outstanding public and publicly guaranteed debt, the net present value of which, as of the date the President determines that the country is eligible for debt relief under this section, is at least 250 percent of the annual fiscal revenues of the country, and has minimum ratios of exports to Gross Domestic Product of 30 percent, and of fiscal revenues to Gross Domestic Product of 15 percent.

"(e) Priority.—In carrying out subsection (a), the President should seek to leverage scarce foreign assistance and give priority to heavily indebted poor countries with demonstrated need and the capacity to use such relief effectively.

"(f) Exceptions.—A country shall not be eligible for cancellation of debt under this section if the government of the country—

"(1) has an excessive level of military expenditures;

"(2) has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism, as determined by the Secretary of State under [former] section 6(j)(1) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)(1)) [former 50 U.S.C. 4605(j)(1)] or section 620A(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2371(a));

"(3) is failing to cooperate on international narcotics control matters; or

"(4) (including its military or other security forces), engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights.

"(g) Additional Requirement.—A country which is otherwise eligible to receive cancellation of debt under this section may receive such cancellation only if the country has committed, in connection with a social and economic reform program—

"(1) to enable, facilitate, or encourage the implementation of policy changes and institutional reforms under economic reform programs, in a manner that ensures that such policy changes and institutional reforms are designed and adopted through transparent and participatory processes;

"(2) to adopt an integrated development strategy of the type described in section 1624(a) of the International Financial Institutions Act [22 U.S.C. 262p–7], to support poverty reduction through economic growth, that includes monitorable poverty reduction goals;

"(3) to take steps so that the financial benefits of debt relief are applied to programs to combat poverty (in particular through concrete measures to improve economic infrastructure, basic services in education, nutrition, and health, particularly treatment and prevention of the leading causes of mortality) and to redress environmental degradation;

"(4) to take steps to strengthen and expand the private sector, encourage increased trade and investment, support the development of free markets, and promote broad-scale economic growth;

"(5) to implement transparent policy making and budget procedures, good governance, and effective anticorruption measures;

"(6) to broaden public participation and popular understanding of the principles and goals of poverty reduction, particularly through economic growth, and good governance; and

"(7) to promote the participation of citizens and nongovernmental organizations in the economic policy choices of the government.

"(h) Certain Prohibitions Inapplicable.—Except as the President may otherwise determine for reasons of national security, a cancellation of debt under this section shall not be considered to be assistance for purposes of any provision of law limiting assistance to a country. The authority to provide for cancellation of debt under this section may be exercised notwithstanding section 620(r) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2370(r)], or any similar provision of law.

"(i) Authorization of Appropriations.—For the cost (as defined in section 502(5) of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 [2 U.S.C. 661a(5)]) of the cancellation of any debt under this section, there are authorized to be appropriated to the President such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2000–2010, which shall remain available until expended.

"(j) Annual Reports to the Congress.—Not later than December 31 of each year, the President shall prepare and transmit to the Committees on Banking and Financial Services [now Committee on Financial Services], Appropriations, and International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs] of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Foreign Relations, and Appropriations of the Senate a report, which shall be made available to the public, concerning the cancellation of debt under subsection (a), and a detailed description of debt relief provided by the United States as a member of the Paris Club of Official Creditors for the prior fiscal year."

[Pub. L. 108–447, §591(b), which directed amendment of section 501(i) of Public Law 106–113 by substituting "2000–2006" for "2003–2004", was executed in section 1000(a)(5) [title V, §501] of div. B of Pub. L. 106–113, set out above, by making substitution for "2000 through 2004", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

Notification to Congress on Debt Relief Agreements

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §548, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1673, provided that: "The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Appropriations Committees of the Congress and to such other Committees as appropriate, a copy of the text of any agreement with any foreign government which would result in any debt relief no less than thirty days prior to its entry into force, other than one entered into pursuant to this Act, together with a detailed justification of the interest of the United States in the proposed debt relief: Provided, That the term 'debt relief' shall include any and all debt prepayment, debt rescheduling, and debt restructuring proposals and agreements: Provided further, That the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the Treasury should in every feasible instance notify the Appropriations Committees of the Congress and such other Committees as appropriate not less than 15 days prior to any formal multilateral or bilateral negotiation for official debt restructuring, rescheduling, or relief: Provided further, That the Secretary of State or the Secretary of the Treasury, as appropriate, shall report not later than February 1 of each year a consolidated statement of the budgetary implications of all debt-related agreements entered into force during the preceding fiscal year."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §550, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2020.

Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §555, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1237.

Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §557, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–38.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §563], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-172.

§2396. Availability of funds

(a) General expenditures

Appropriations for the purposes of or pursuant to this chapter (except for subchapter II of this chapter), allocations to any agency of the United States Government, from other appropriations, for functions directly related to the purposes of this chapter, and funds made available for other purposes to the agency primarily responsible for administrating subchapter I of this chapter, shall be available for:

(1) rent of buildings and space in buildings in the United States, and for repair, alteration, and improvement of such leased properties;

(2) expenses of attendance at meetings concerned with the purposes of such appropriations or of this chapter, including (notwithstanding the provisions of section 1346(a) and (c) of title 31) expenses in connection with meetings of persons whose employment is authorized by section 2386 of this title;

(3) contracting with individuals for personal services abroad: Provided, That such individuals shall not be regarded as employees of the United States Government for the purpose of any law administered by the Civil Service Commission;

(4) purchase, maintenance, operation, and hire of aircraft: Provided, That aircraft for administrative purposes may be purchased only as specifically provided for in an appropriation or other Act;

(5) purchase and hire of passenger motor vehicles: Provided, That, except as may otherwise be provided in an appropriation or other Act, passenger motor vehicles for administrative purposes outside the United States may be purchased for replacement only, and such vehicles may be exchanged or sold and replaced by an equal number of such vehicles, and the cost, including exchange allowance, of each such replacement shall not exceed the current market price in the United States of a mid-sized sedan or station wagon meeting the requirements established by the General Services Administration for a Class III vehicle of United States manufacture (or, if the replacement vehicle is a right-hand drive vehicle, 120 percent of that price) in the case of an automobile for the chief of any special mission or staff outside the United States established under section 2391 of this title: Provided further, That passenger motor vehicles, other than one for the official use of the head of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, may be purchased for use in the United States only as may be specifically provided in an appropriation or other Act;

(6) entertainment (not to exceed $25,000 in any fiscal year except as may otherwise be provided in an appropriation or other Act);

(7) exchange of funds without regard to section 3651 1 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 543) and loss by exchange;

(8) expenditures (not to exceed $50,000 in any fiscal year except as may otherwise be provided in an appropriation or other Act) of a confidential character other than entertainment: Provided, That a certificate of the amount of each such expenditure, the nature of which it is considered inadvisable to specify, shall be made by the head of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter or such person as he may designate, and every such certificate shall be deemed a sufficient voucher for the amount therein specified;

(9) insurance of official motor vehicles or aircraft acquired for use in foreign countries;

(10) rent or lease outside the United States for not to exceed ten years of offices, buildings, grounds, and quarters, including living quarters to house personnel, and payments therefor in advance; maintenance, furnishings, necessary repairs, improvements, and alterations to properties owned or rented by the United States Government or made available for use to the United States Government outside the United States; and costs of fuel, water, and utilities for such properties;

(11) expenses of preparing and transporting to their former homes, or, with respect to foreign participants engaged in any program under subchapter I of this chapter, to their former homes or places of burial, and of care and disposition of, the remains of persons or members of the families of persons who may die while such persons are away from their homes participating in activities carried out with funds covered by this subsection;

(12) purchase of uniforms;

(13) payment of per diem in lieu of subsistence to foreign participants engaged in any program under subchapter I of this chapter while such participants are away from their homes in countries other than the United States, at rates not in excess of those prescribed by the standardized Government travel regulations, notwithstanding any other provision of law;

(14) use in accordance with authorities of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, as amended (22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.), not otherwise provided for;

(15) ice and drinking water for use outside the United States;

(16) services of commissioned officers of the Environmental Science Services Administration, and for the purposes of providing such services the Environmental Science Services Administration may appoint not to exceed twenty commissioned officers in addition to those otherwise authorized; 2

(b) Compensation, allowances, and travel of personnel; printing and binding; expenditures outside United States

Funds made available for the purposes of this chapter may be used for compensation, allowances, and travel of personnel including Foreign Service personnel whose services are utilized primarily for the purposes of this chapter, for printing and binding without regard to the provisions of any other law, and for expenditures outside the United States for the procurement of supplies and services and for other administrative and operating purposes (other than compensation of personnel) without regard to such laws and regulations governing the obligation and expenditure of funds of the United States Government as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Construction of living quarters, office space, and supporting facilities

Notwithstanding any other law, not to exceed $6,000,000 of the funds available for assistance under this chapter may be used in any fiscal year (in addition to funds available for such use under other authorities in this chapter) to construct or otherwise acquire outside the United States (1) essential living quarters, office space, and necessary supporting facilities for use of personnel carrying out activities authorized by this chapter, and (2) schools (including dormitories and boarding facilities) and hospitals for use of personnel carrying out activities authorized by this chapter, United States Government personnel, and their dependents. In addition, funds made available for assistance under this chapter may be used, notwithstanding any other law, to equip, staff, operate, and maintain such schools and hospitals.

(d) Education of dependents

Not to exceed $2,500,000 of the funds available for assistance under this chapter may be used in any fiscal year to provide assistance, on such terms and conditions as are deemed appropriate, to schools established, or to be established, outside the United States whenever it is determined that such action would be more economical or would best serve the interests of the United States in providing for the education of dependents of personnel carrying out activities authorized by this chapter and dependents of United States Government personnel, in lieu of acquisition or construction pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.

(e) Training costs

Funds available under this chapter may be used to pay costs of training United States citizen personnel employed or assigned pursuant to section 2385(d)(2) 3 of this title (through interchange or otherwise) at any State or local unit of government, public or private nonprofit institution, trade, labor, agricultural, or scientific association or organization, or commercial firm; and the provisions of sections 1881 to 1888 3 of title 7 may be used to carry out the foregoing authority notwithstanding that interchange of personnel may not be involved or that the training may not take place at the institutions specified in sections 1881 to 1888 3 of title 7. Such training shall not be considered employment or holding of office under section 5533 of title 5, and any payments or contributions in connection therewith may, as deemed appropriate by the head of the agency of the United States Government authorizing such training, be made by private or public sources and be accepted by any trainee, or may be accepted by and credited to the current applicable appropriation of such agency: Provided, however, That any such payments to any employee in the nature of compensation shall be in lieu, or in reduction, of compensation received from the United States Government.

(f) Assistance in carrying out functions under certain laws

Funds made available under part I of subchapter I of this chapter may be used for expenses (other than those provided for under section 2397(a) of this title) to assist in carrying out functions under part I of subchapter I of this chapter, under the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], and under the Latin American Development Act, as amended, performed by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter or by the Corporation established under subpart IV of part II of subchapter I of this chapter with respect to loan activities which it carries out under the provisions of the Food for Peace Act, as amended.

(g) Administrative, extraordinary, and operating expenses; reimbursement of military officers; training of foreign military personnel

Funds made available for the purposes of subchapter II of this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] shall be available for—

(1) administrative, extraordinary (not to exceed $300,000 in any fiscal year), and operating expenses incurred in furnishing defense articles, military education and training and defense services on a grant or sales basis by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter II of this chapter;

(2) reimbursement of actual expenses of military officers detailed or assigned as tour directors in connection with orientation visits of foreign military and related civilian personnel, in accordance with provisions of section 5702 of title 5, applicable to civilian officers and employees; and

(3) maintenance, repair, alteration and furnishing of United States-owned facilities in the District of Columbia or elsewhere for the training of foreign military and related civilian personnel, without regard to the provisions of section 6303 of title 41 or other provision of law requiring a specific authorization or specific appropriation for such public contracts.

(h) Recipient countries to contribute local currencies; utilization of foreign currencies owned by United States

In carrying out programs under this chapter, the President shall take all appropriate steps to assure that, to the maximum extent possible, (1) countries receiving assistance under this chapter contribute local currencies to meet the cost of contractual and other services rendered in conjunction with such programs, and (2) foreign currencies owned by the United States are utilized to meet the costs of such contractual and other services.

(i) Financing motor vehicle transactions; waiver of domestic manufacturing restriction

Notwithstanding section 2399a 4 of this title or any other provision of this chapter, none of the funds made available to carry out this chapter shall be used to finance the purchase, sale, long-term lease, exchange, or guaranty of a sale of motor vehicles unless such motor vehicles are manufactured in the United States: Provided, That where special circumstances exist the President is authorized to waive the provisions of this section in order to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §636, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(f), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(h), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(j)–(o), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 461, 462; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §302(d), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 965; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III, §306, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(5), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §102(g)(2)(H)–(J), title V, §505, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 943, 960; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1211(b)(1), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 279; Pub. L. 99–234, title I, §107(b), Jan. 2, 1986, 99 Stat. 1759; Pub. L. 99–550, §2(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3070; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title II, §201], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-141; Pub. L. 101–167, title III, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1214; Pub. L. 107–372, title II, §271(7), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3094; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (e), (h), and (i), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Section 3651 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 543), referred to in subsec. (a)(7), was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (a)(14), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 52 (§3901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of this title and Tables.

Section 2385(d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (e), was amended by Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2203(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2158, and as so amended does not contain a par. (2).

Sections 1881 to 1888 of title 7, referred to in subsec. (e), which related to the interchange of Department of Agriculture and State employees, were repealed by Pub. L. 91–648, title IV, §403, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1925. See section 3371 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Food for Peace Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (f), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7, and Tables.

The Latin American Development Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 86–735, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 869, as amended, which enacted sections 1942 to 1945 of this title and amended section 1753a of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1942 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Section 2399a of this title, referred to in subsec. (i), was repealed by Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327. See section 2753(a)(1) of this title.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II, and References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Such Parts

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Codification

In subsec. (a)(2), "section 1346(a) and (c) of title 31" substituted for "section 9 of Public Law 60–328 (31 U.S.C. 673))" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

In subsec. (g)(3), "section 6303 of title 41" substituted for "section 3733 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 12)" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954" in two places.

2002—Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 107–372 struck out par. (17) which read as follows: "expenses in connection with travel of personnel outside the United States, including travel expenses of dependents (including expenses during necessary stopovers while engaged in such travel), and transportation of personal effects, household goods, and automobiles of such personnel when any part of such travel or transportation begins in one fiscal year pursuant to travel orders issued in that fiscal year, notwithstanding the fact that such travel or transportation may not be completed during the same fiscal year, and cost of transporting automobiles to and from a place of storage, and the cost of storing automobiles of such personnel when it is in the public interest or more economical to authorize storage."

1989—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–167 inserted "or the Arms Export Control Act" after "subchapter II of this chapter" in introductory provisions.

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–202 substituted "$6,000,000" for "$3,000,000".

1986—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 99–550 struck out "(without regard to the limitations contained in section 5 of Public Law 63–127, as amended (31 U.S.C. 638a(c)(2)), and section 201 of Public Law 85–468 (31 U.S.C. 638c))" after "official use".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 99–234 substituted "5702" for "5702(c)".

1985—Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 99–83 substituted reference to Foreign Service Act of 1980 for reference to Foreign Service Act of 1946.

1978—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 95–424, §505, substituted "the current market price in the United States of a mid-sized sedan or station wagon meeting the requirements established by the General Services Administration for a Class III vehicle of United States manufacture (or, if the replacement vehicle is a right hand drive vehicle, 120 percent of that price)" for "$3,500".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–424, §102(g)(2)(H), struck out "(other than subpart I of part II of subchapter I of this chapter)" after "under this chapter" in two places.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 95–424, §102(g)(2)(I), struck out "(other than subpart I of part II of subchapter I of this chapter)" after "under this chapter".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–424, §102(g)(2)(J), substituted "available under part I of subchapter I of this chapter" for "section 2172 of this title", and "functions under part I" for "functions under subpart I of part II".

1976—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(5)(A), inserted "military education and training" after "articles".

Subsec. (g)(2), (3). Pub. L. 94–329, §106(b)(5)(B), substituted "and related civilian personnel" for "personnel".

1969—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–175 added Corporation established under sections 2191 to 2200a of this title to the enumeration of agencies administering programs.

1968—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 90–554 required that when funds are made available for operating expenses, such expenses be incurred in furnishing defense articles and defense services on a grant or sales basis by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter II of this chapter.

1967—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(j), substituted "section 638a(c)(2) and section 638c of title 31" for "section 78a(c)(2) and section 78a–1 of title 5".

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(k), substituted "Environmental Science Services Administration" for "Coast and Geodetic Survey" in two places.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(l), increased limitation on funds available for education of dependents from $1,500,000 to $2,500,000.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(m), substituted reference to section 5533 of title 5 for section 301 of the Dual Compensation Act (5 U.S.C. 3105).

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(n), substituted reference to section 5702(c) of title 5 for former section 836 of title 5.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 90–137, §302(o), added subsec. (i).

1965—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(h)(1), substituted "section 301 of the Dual Compensation Act (5 U.S.C. 3105)" for "section 2 of the Act of July 31, 1894, as amended (5 U.S.C. 62)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 89–171, §302(h)(2), substituted "Latin American Development Act, as amended" for "Act to provide for assistance in the development of Latin America and in the reconstruction of Chile, and for other purposes".

1963—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 88–205 added subsec. (h).

Change of Name

Commissioned Officer Corps of the Environmental Science Services Administration changed to Commissioned Officer Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, see 1970 Reorg Plan No. 4, §4(d), eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–234 effective (1) on effective date of regulations to be promulgated not later than 150 days after Jan. 2, 1986, or (2) 180 days after Jan. 2, 1986, whichever occurs first, see section 301(a) of Pub. L. 99–234, set out as a note under section 5701 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

3 See References in Text note below.

4 See References in Text note below.

§2396a. Property Management Fund

(a) The proceeds of overseas property acquired by the Agency for International Development under the authority of section 2396(c) of this title may be deposited in a separate fund, which shall be known as the Property Management Fund. Such proceeds shall be available for use only for the purposes of section 2396(c) of this title and for maintenance, and shall remain available until expended. The Administrator of the Agency for International Development shall report all uses of funds deposited into the Property Management Fund as part of the annual Congressional Presentation materials submitted by the Agency for International Development.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) shall be applicable to property acquired prior to November 5, 1990, and at any time thereafter.

(Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §585, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2047; Pub. L. 113–76, div. K, title VII, §7034(q), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 517.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–76 inserted "and for maintenance" after "purposes of section 2396(c) of this title".

§2397. Administrative expenses

(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §604, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961.

(b) There is authorized to be appropriated such amounts as may be necessary from time to time for administrative expenses which are incurred for functions of the Department of State under this chapter and unrepealed provisions of the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, or for normal functions of the Department of State which relate to such functions.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §637, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. III, §302(h), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(g), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. III, §302(c), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1014; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(i), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 661; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. III, §302(e), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 808; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(p), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 462; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §302(e), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 965; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. III. §307, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. III, §303, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 93–189, §18, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 95–424, title VI, §604, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 961.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Mutual Security Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended by acts July 8, 1955, ch. 301, 69 Stat. 283; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §§2–11, 70 Stat. 555; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–141, 71 Stat. 355; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85–477, ch. 1, §§101–103, ch. II, §§201–205, ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401, ch. V, §501, 72 Stat. 261; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86–108, §2, ch. 1, §101, ch. II, §§201–205(a)–(i), (k)–(n), ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401(a)–(k), (m), 73 Stat. 246; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. I to V, 74 Stat. 134, which was principally classified to chapter 24 (§1750 et seq.) of this title and which was repealed by act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §8(m), 70 Stat. 559, Pub. L. 85–141, §§2(e), 3, 4(b), 11(d), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 356, Pub. L. 86–108, ch. II, §§205(j), ch. IV, 401(1), July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 250, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. II, §§203(d), 204(k), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 138, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460, Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §212(b)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 745, Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §228, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 963, except for sections 1754, 1783, 1796, 1853, 1928, and 1937 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1754 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–424 struck out subsec. (a) which authorized appropriations for necessary administrative expenses of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter.

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–189 substituted "for each of the fiscal years 1974 and 1975, $45,000,000", for "for the fiscal year 1972, $50,000,000, and for the fiscal year 1973, $50,000,000".

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–226 authorized appropriations of $50,000,000 for fiscal years 1972 and 1973, and struck out appropriation authorization of $51,125,000 for fiscal years 1970 and 1971.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–175 substituted "fiscal year 1970, $51,125,000, and for the fiscal year 1971, $51,125,000" for "fiscal year 1969, $53,000,000".

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–554 substituted "1969" and "$53,000,000" for "1968" and "$55,814,000", respectively, and required a reduction in number of personnel, particularly administrative personnel, to keep within reduced funds for fiscal year 1969, excepting therefrom auditing or training activities.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–137 substituted "1968" and "$55,814,000" for "1967" and "$55,813,500", respectively.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–583 substituted "1967" and "$55,813,500" for "1966" and "54,240,000," respectively.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–171 substituted "1966" and "$54,200,000" for "1965" and "$52,500,000", respectively.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–633 substituted "1965" and "$52,500,000" for "1964" and "$54,000,000", respectively.

1963—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–205 substituted "1964" and "$54,000,000" for "1963" and "$53,000,000", respectively.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–565, §302(h)(1), substituted "1963" and "$53,000,000" for "1962" and "$50,000,000", respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–565, §302(h)(2), struck out "to the Secretary of State" after "authorized to be appropriated."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2398. Assistance to countries pursuant to other statutes

(a) No provision of this chapter shall be construed to prohibit assistance to any country pursuant to the Peace Corps Act, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.]; the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.]; or the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended [12 U.S.C. 635 et seq.].

(b) No provision of this chapter or any other provision of law shall be construed to prohibit assistance for any training activity which is funded under this chapter for Brazil or Argentina as long as such country continues to have a democractically 1 elected government and the assistance is otherwise consistent with sections 2151n, 2304, 2370(f), 2371, and 2420 of this title.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §638, as added Pub. L. 88–205, pt. III, §302(h), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 389; amended Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(j), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 661; Pub. L. 93–189, §19, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 725; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §588(a)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-186.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Peace Corps Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87–293, Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 612, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 34 (§2501 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2501 of this title and Tables.

The Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87–256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 33 (§2451 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and Tables.

The Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is act July 31, 1945, ch. 341, 59 Stat. 526, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§635 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 635 of Title 12 and Tables.

Amendments

1987Pub. L. 100–202 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1973Pub. L. 93–189 amended section catchline.

1965Pub. L. 89–171 struck out provisions which prohibited any provision of this chapter from being construed to prohibit famine or disaster relief, including such relief through voluntary agencies, under sections 1721 to 1724 of title 7.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §588(b)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329-187, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] does not apply with respect to funds appropriated prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1987]."

1 So in original. Probably should be "democratically".

§2399. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–161, title I, §101(6), Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 850

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §639, as added Pub. L. 80–171, pt. III, §302(k), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 661; amended Pub. L. 93–559, §28(a), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1803, provided for famine or disaster relief, authorized appropriation of $40,000,000 for fiscal year 1975, and required Presidential reports to Committees of the Senate and Speaker of the House. See sections 2292 and 2292a of this title.

§§2399–1a, 2399–1b. Transferred

Codification

Section 2399–1a, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. 1, §494A, formerly pt. III, §639A, as added Pub. L. 93–189, §20, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 725; amended Pub. L. 93–333, §3, July 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 290 renumbered pt. 1, §494A, Pub. L. 94–161, title I, §101(5), Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 850, which related to famine and disaster relief to drought stricken African nations, was transferred to section 2292d of this title.

Section 2399–1b, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §494B, formerly pt. III, §639B, as added Pub. L. 93–189, §20, Dec. 13, 1973, 87 Stat. 725; renumbered pt. 1, §494B, and amended Pub. L. 94–161, title I, §101(5), (7), Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 850, which related to an African Development program, was transferred to section 2292e of this title.

§2399a. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §640, as added Pub. L. 89–171, pt. III, §302(k), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 661; amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. III, §302(q), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 462, related to military sales. See section 2753(a)(1) of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Savings Provision

Determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of any provision of former section 2399a of this title as continuing in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority, see section 46 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under section 2341 of this title.

§2399b. False claims and ineligible commodities

(a) Penalties; costs

Any person who makes or causes to be made or presents or causes to be presented to any bank or other financial institution or to any officer, agent, or employee of any agency of the United States Government a claim for payment from funds made available under this chapter for the purposes of furnishing assistance and who knows the claim to be false, fraudulent, or fictitious or to cover a commodity or commodity-related service determined by the President to be ineligible for payment from funds made available under this chapter, or who uses to support his claim any certification, statement, or entry on any contract, abstract, bill of lading, Government or commercial invoice, or Government form, which he knows, or in the exercise of prudent business management should know, to contain false, fraudulent, or fictitious information, or who uses or engages in any other fraudulent trick, scheme, or device for the purpose of securing or obtaining, or aiding to secure or obtain, for any person any benefit or payment from funds so made available under this chapter in connection with the negotiation, procurement, award, or performance of a contract financed with funds so made available under this chapter, and any person who enters into an agreement, combination, or conspiracy so to do, (1) shall pay to the United States an amount equal to 25 per centum of any amount thereby sought to be wrongfully secured or obtained but not actually received, and (2) shall forfeit and refund any payment, compensation, loan, commission, or advance received as a result thereof, and (3) shall, in addition, pay to the United States for each such act (A) the sum of $2,000 and double the amount of any damage which the United States may have sustained by reason thereof, or (B) an amount equal to 50 per centum of any such payment, compensation, loan, commission, or advance so received, whichever is the greater, together with the costs of suit.

(b) Recovery of penalties; procedure; finality of withholding of funds; recovery of withheld funds; limitation period

In order to secure recovery under this section, the President may, as he deems appropriate, (1) institute suit in the United States district court for any judicial district in which the person alleged to have performed or participated in an act described by this section may reside or may be found, and (2) upon posting by registered mail to such person a notice of claim describing the basis therefor and identifying the funds to be withheld, withhold from funds owed by any agency of the United States Government to such person an amount equal to the refund, damages, liquidated damages, and exemplary damages claimed by the United States under this section. Any such withholding of funds from any person shall constitute a final determination of the rights and liabilities of such person under this section with respect to the amount so withheld, unless within one year of receiving the notice of claim such person brings suit for recovery, which is hereby authorized, against the United States in any United States district court.

(c) "Person" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "person" includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, or other legal entity.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §640A, as added Pub. L. 90–554, pt. III, §302(f), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 965.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2399c. Coordination of policies and programs

(a) Development Coordination Committee established

The President shall establish a system for coordination of United States policies and programs which affect United States interests in the development of low-income countries. To that end, the President shall establish a Development Coordination Committee which shall advise him with respect to coordination of United States policies and programs affecting the development of the developing countries, including programs of bilateral and multilateral development assistance. The Committee shall include the head of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, Chairman, and representatives of the Departments of State, Treasury, Commerce, Agriculture, Energy, and Labor, the Executive Office of the President, and other executive departments and agencies, as the President shall designate. The Committee shall advise the President concerning the degree to which bilateral and multilateral development assistance should focus on critical problems in those functional sectors which affect the lives of the majority of people in the developing countries: food production; rural development and nutrition; population planning and health; and education, public administration, and human resource development.

(b) Procedures to assure coordination

The President shall prescribe appropriate procedures to assure coordination among—

(1) the various departments and agencies of the United States Government having representatives in diplomatic missions abroad; and

(2) representatives of the United States Government in each country, under the direction of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission.


The President shall keep the Congress advised of his actions under this subsection.

(c) Guidance of Secretary of State

Programs authorized by this chapter shall be undertaken with the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State.

(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(d)(1), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959

(e) Temporary assignment of employees

The head of any of the departments or agencies referred to in subsection (a) may temporarily assign, upon the request of the Chairman, any employee from such department or agency to the staff of the Committee.

(f) Studies

To carry out the purposes of subsection (a), the Committee shall—

(1) prepare studies on various development problems;

(2) devise implementation strategies on developmental problems appropriate to each such department or agency;

(3) monitor and evaluate the results of the development activities of each such department or agency; and

(4) arrange for the exchange of information and studies between such agencies and departments.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §640B, as added Pub. L. 93–189, §21, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 725; amended Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §127, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 542; Pub. L. 95–424, title V, §502(d), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 959; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §118, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.)

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–113 struck our subsec. (g) which required annual reports to Congress by the Chairman of the Development Coordination Committee on the activities of the Committee respecting aid to low-income countries. See section 2394(a) of this title.

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–53 inserted reference to Department of Energy.

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–424, §502(d)(1), struck out subsec. (d) relating to annual reports to Congress by the President on United States actions affecting the development of less developed countries.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–424, §502(d)(2), substituted "section 2394 of this title, the Chairman of the Committee" for "subsection (d) of this section, the President".

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–88, §127(a), provided that the Committee advise the President concerning the degree to which bilateral and multilateral development assistance should focus on critical problems in those functional sectors which affect the lives of the majority of people in the developing countries: food production; rural development and nutrition; population planning and health; and education, public administration, and human resource development.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–88, §127(b), substituted "less developed countries" for "low-income countries" in the description of the subject matter of the Presidential reports to Congress, designated existing provisions setting out the subject matter of the reports as cl. (2)(A), and added cls. (1) and (2)(B).

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 95–88, §127(c), added subsecs. (e) to (g).

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§2399d. Shipping differential

For the purpose of facilitating implementation of section 55305 of title 46, funds made available for the purposes of part I of subchapter I of this chapter or for purposes of part IV of subchapter II of this chapter may be used to make grants to recipients to pay all or any portion of such differential as is determined by the Secretary of Commerce to exist between United States and foreign-flag vessel charter or freight rates. Grants made under this section shall be paid with United States-owned foreign currencies wherever feasible.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §640C, as added Pub. L. 93–189, §21, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 726; amended Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §708, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3159.)

References to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

References to part I of subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Codification

In text, "section 55305 of title 46" substituted for "section 901(b) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1241(b))" on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted section 55305 of Title 46, Shipping.

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–533 substituted "part IV of subchapter II of this chapter" for "subchapter IV of this chapter".