[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 51, SUBCHAPTER I, Part 1: Panama Canal Commission
Result 1 of 1
   
 
22 USC CHAPTER 51, SUBCHAPTER I, Part 1: Panama Canal Commission
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 51—PANAMA CANALSUBCHAPTER I—ADMINISTRATION AND REGULATIONS

Part 1—Panama Canal Commission

§3611. Establishment, purposes, offices, and residence of Commission

(a) For the purposes of managing, operating, and maintaining the Panama Canal and its complementary works, installations and equipment, and of conducting operations incident thereto, in accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements, the Panama Canal Commission (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the "Commission") is established as a wholly owned government corporation (as that term is used in chapter 91 of title 31) within the executive branch of the Government of the United States. The authority of the President with respect to the Commission shall be exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

(b) The principal office of the Commission shall be located in the Republic of Panama in one of the areas made available for use of the United States under the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements, but the Commission may establish branch offices in such other places as it considers necessary or appropriate for the conduct of its business. Within the meaning of the laws of the United States relating to venue in civil actions, the Commission is an inhabitant and resident of the District of Columbia and the eastern judicial district of Louisiana.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1101, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXV, §3522(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 638.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–70, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 452, known as the Panama Canal Act of 1979, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "There is established in the executive branch of the United States Government an agency to be known as the Panama Canal Commission (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the 'Commission'). The Commission shall, under the general supervision of the Board established by section 3612 of this title, be responsible for the maintenance and operation of the Panama Canal and the facilities and appurtenances related thereto. The authority of the President with respect to the Commission shall be exercised through the Secretary of Defense."

Recommendations by President on Changes to Panama Canal Commission Structure

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXV, §3522, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2657, provided that:

"(a) Report.—The President shall conduct a study and, if warranted, develop a plan setting forth recommendations for such changes, if any, to the Panama Canal Commission for the operation of the Panama Canal during the period before the termination of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 as the President determines would facilitate and encourage the operation of the canal through an autonomous entity under the Government of Panama after the transfer of the canal on December 31, 1999, pursuant to the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements. The President shall submit the study and, if warranted, plan to Congress, together with a legislative proposal containing any changes to existing law required to implement the plan, not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992].

"(b) Preparation of Plan.—Recommendations to the President for purposes of the study and plan required by subsection (a) shall be prepared with the participation of a representative of each of the following:

"(1) The Secretary of State.

"(2) The Secretary of Defense.

"(3) The Secretary of the Treasury.

"(4) The Secretary of Commerce.

"(5) The Secretary of Transportation.

"(6) The Panama Canal Commission.

"(c) Plan To Be Consistent With Panama Canal Treaty.—The study and, if warranted, plan submitted by the President pursuant to subsection (a) shall be consistent with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements."

Report by Comptroller General on Changes to Panama Canal Commission Structure

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXV, §3523, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2658, provided that:

"(a) Report.—The Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report analyzing the effectiveness of the fiscal, operational, and management structure of the Panama Canal Commission and setting forth recommendations for such changes to that structure as the Comptroller General determines would, if implemented, enable the Commission to operate more efficiently and, thereby, serve as a model for the Government of Panama for the operation of the Panama Canal after the transfer of the Panama Canal on December 31, 1999, pursuant to the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements. The Comptroller General shall submit the report to Congress not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992].

"(b) Preparation of Report.—In developing the report required by subsection (a), the Comptroller General shall seek the views of each of the following:

"(1) The Secretary of State.

"(2) The Secretary of Defense.

"(3) The Secretary of the Treasury.

"(4) The Secretary of Commerce.

"(5) The Secretary of Transportation.

"(6) The Panama Canal Commission.

"(c) Report To Be Consistent With Panama Canal Treaty.—The recommendations in the report submitted by the Comptroller General pursuant to subsection (a) shall be consistent with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements."

§3612. Supervisory Board

(a) Composition of Board

The Commission shall be supervised by a Board composed of nine members, one of whom shall be an officer of the Department of Defense. The officer of the Department of Defense who shall serve on the Board shall be designated by the Secretary of Defense and may continue to serve on the Board only while continuing to serve as an officer of the Department of Defense. Not less than five members of the Board shall be nationals of the United States and the remaining members of the Board shall be nationals of the Republic of Panama. Three members of the Board who are nationals of the United States shall hold no other office in, and shall not be employed by, the Government of the United States, and shall be chosen for the independent perspective they can bring to the Commission's affairs. Members of the Board who are nationals of the United States shall cast their votes as directed by the the 1 officer of the Department of Defense designated by the Secretary of Defense to be a member of the Board.

(b) Membership of Board; appointing authority; compensation and travel expenses; compensation for non-Government Board members

The President shall appoint the members of the Board. The members of the Board who are United States nationals shall be appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Each member of the Board shall hold office at the pleasure of the President and, before assuming the duties of such office, shall take an oath to discharge faithfully the duties of his office. Members of the Board shall serve without compensation but shall be allowed travel or transportation expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with section 3617 of this title, except that, in addition to such travel or transportation expenses, members of the Board who hold no other office with either the Government of the United States or the Republic of Panama for which they receive pay are authorized to be compensated at the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, for each day during which they are traveling to or from or attending meetings of the Board as provided in subsection (c) of this section or, as authorized by the Chairman of the Board, while on official Panama Canal Commission business.

(c) Meetings; quorum; proxies

The Board shall hold meetings as provided in regulations adopted by the Commission and approved by the Secretary of Defense. A quorum for the transaction of business shall consist of a majority of the Board members of which a majority of those present are nationals of the United States. The Secretary of Defense, or the officer of the Department of Defense designated by the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section, may act by proxy for any other member of the Board if that other member authorizes the proxy in writing and signs the proxy. The proxy may be counted to establish a quorum and may be used by the Secretary of Defense, or the officer of the Department of Defense designated by the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section, to cast the vote of the absent Board member and to act for that member with all the powers that member would possess if present.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1102, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 98–217, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 99–223, §6, Dec. 28, 1985, 99 Stat. 1740; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5416, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–270; Pub. L. 100–705, §7, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4686; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXV, §3504, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1846; Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXV, §3523, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 638; Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXV, §3511(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2270.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261 substituted "The Commission shall be supervised by a Board composed of nine members, one of whom shall be an officer of the Department of Defense. The officer of the Department of Defense who shall serve on the Board shall be designated by the Secretary of Defense and may continue to serve on the Board only while continuing to serve as an officer of the Department of Defense." for "The Commission shall be supervised by a Board composed of nine members, one of whom shall be the Secretary of Defense or an officer of the Department of Defense designated by the Secretary." and "the officer of the Department of Defense designated by the Secretary of Defense to be a member of the Board" for "Secretary of Defense or a designee of the Secretary of Defense".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106 added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: "The Commission shall be supervised by a Board composed of nine members, one of whom shall be the Secretary of Defense or an officer of the Department of Defense designated by the Secretary. Not less than five members of the Board shall be nationals of the United States and the remaining members shall be nationals of the Republic of Panama. At least one of the members of the Board who are nationals of the United States shall be experienced and knowledgeable in the management or operation of an American-flag steamship line which has or had ships regularly transiting the Panama Canal, at least one other such member shall be experienced and knowledgeable in United States port operations or in the business of exporting or importing one of the regular commodities dependent on the Panama Canal as a transportation route, and at least one other such member shall be experienced and knowledgeable in labor matters in the United States. Three members of the Board shall hold no other office in or be employed by the Government of the United States. Members of the Board who are nationals of the United States shall cast their votes as directed by the Secretary of Defense or his designee."

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted "level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316" for "grade GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332".

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–705 struck out after third sentence "Only one proxy may be valid at any one time."

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted before period at end "or, as authorized by the Chairman of the Board, while on official Panama Canal Commission business".

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–223 inserted provisions relating to compensation of members of the Board who hold no other office with either the Government of the United States or the Republic of Panama for which they receive pay.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–217 inserted provisions under which the Secretary of Defense or the officer of the Department of Defense designated by the Secretary may act by proxy for other members of the Board.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–705, §10, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4687, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 3715 to 3715d of this title, amending this section and sections 3712 and 3731 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3601 of this title] takes effect on October 1, 1988."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–223, §8, Dec. 28, 1985, 99 Stat. 1740, provided that: "Section 5 and section 6 of the Act [enacting section 3650 of this title and amending this section and sections 3647 and 3731 of this title] shall be effective as of October 1, 1985."

1 So in original.

§3612a. General powers of Commission

(a) Corporate seal

The Commission may adopt, alter, and use a corporate seal, which shall be judicially noticed.

(b) Bylaws

The Commission may by action of the Board of Directors adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws governing the conduct of its general business and the performance of the powers and duties granted to or imposed upon it by law.

(c) Suits by and against Commission

The Commission may sue and be sued in its corporate name, except that—

(1) the amenability of the Commission to suit is limited by Article VIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, section 3761 of this title, and otherwise by law;

(2) an attachment, garnishment, or similar process may not be issued against salaries or other moneys owed by the Commission to its employees except as provided by section 5520a of title 5 and sections 659, 661, and 662 1 of title 42, or as otherwise specifically authorized by the laws of the United States; and

(3) the Commission is exempt from the payment of interest on claims and judgments.

(d) Contracts, leases, agreements, or other transactions

The Commission may enter into contracts, leases, agreements, or other transactions.

(e) Obligations and expenditures

The Commission—

(1) may determine the character of, and necessity for, its obligations and expenditures and the manner in which they shall be incurred, allowed, and paid; and

(2) may incur, allow, and pay its obligations and expenditures, subject to pertinent provisions of law generally applicable to Government corporations.

(f) Priority in payment of debts out of bankrupt estates

The Commission shall have the priority of the Government of the United States in the payment of debts out of bankrupt estates.

(g) Appointment of notaries public

(1) The Commission may appoint any United States citizen to have the general powers of a notary public to perform, on behalf of Commission employees and their dependents outside the United States, any notarial act that a notary public is required or authorized to perform within the United States. Unless an earlier expiration is provided by the terms of the appointment, any such appointment shall expire three months after the Canal Transfer Date.

(2) Every notarial act performed by a person acting as a notary under paragraph (1) shall be as valid, and of like force and effect within the United States, as if executed by or before a duly authorized and competent notary public in the United States.

(3) The signature of any person acting as a notary under paragraph (1), when it appears with the title of that person's office, is prima facie evidence that the signature is genuine, that the person holds the designated title, and that the person is authorized to perform a notarial act.

(h) Limitations on authority

The authority of the Commission under this section and section 3612b of this title is subject to the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements, and to chapter 91 of title 31.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1102a, as added Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXV, §3524(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 639; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXV, §§3546, 3550(d)(3), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2073, 2074.)

References in Text

Sections 661 and 662 of title 42, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), were repealed by Pub. L. 104–193, title III, §362(b)(1), Aug. 22, 1994, 110 Stat. 2246.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–85, §3546(2), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–85, §3550(d)(3), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 3612b of this title.

Pub. L. 105–85, §3546(1), redesignated subsec. (g) as (h).

1 See References in Text note below.

§3612b. Specific powers of Commission

(a) Panama Canal management, operation, and maintenance

The Commission may manage, operate, and maintain the Panama Canal.

(b) Establishment, maintenance, and operation of activities, facilities, and appurtenances

The Commission may construct or acquire, establish, maintain, and operate such activities, facilities, and appurtenances as necessary and appropriate for the accomplishment of the purposes of this chapter, including the following:

(1) Docks, wharves, piers, and other shoreline facilities.

(2) Shops and yards.

(3) Marine railways, salvage and towing facilities, fuel-handling facilities, and motor transportation facilities.

(4) Power systems, water systems, and a telephone system.

(5) Construction facilities.

(6) Living quarters and other buildings.

(7) Warehouses, storehouses, a printing plant, and manufacturing, processing, or service facilities in connection therewith.

(8) Recreational facilities.

(c) Use of United States mails

The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as the executive departments of the Federal Government.

(d) Necessary or appropriate actions

The Commission may take such actions as are necessary or appropriate to carry out the powers specifically conferred upon it.

(e) Commercial activities

The Commission may conduct and promote commercial activities related to the management, operation, or maintenance of the Panama Canal. Any such commercial activity shall be carried out consistent with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements.

(f) Donations

(1) The Commission may seek and accept donations of funds, property, and services from individuals, foundations, corporations, and other private and public entities for the purpose of carrying out its promotional activities.

(2) The Commission shall establish written guidelines setting forth the criteria to be used in determining whether the acceptance of funds, property, or services authorized by paragraph (1) would reflect unfavorably upon the ability of the Commission (or any employee of the Commission) to carry out its responsibilities or official duties in a fair and objective manner or would compromise the integrity or the appearance of the integrity of its programs or of any official in those programs.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1102b, as added Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXV, §3524(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 639; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXV, §3547, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2073; Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXV, §3505, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2268.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–70, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 452, known as the Panama Canal Act of 1979 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–261 added subsec. (f).

1997—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–85 added subsec. (e).

§3613. Administrator

(a) Appointment

There shall be an Administrator of the Commission who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall hold office at the pleasure of the President.

(b) Compensation

The Administrator shall be paid compensation in an amount, established by the Board, not to exceed level III of the Executive Schedule.

(c) Authority for dual role

The Congress consents, for purposes of the 8th clause of article I, section 9 of the Constitution of the United States, to the acceptance by the individual serving as Administrator of the Commission of appointment by the Republic of Panama to the position of Administrator of the Panama Canal Authority. Such consent is effective only if that individual, while serving in both such positions, serves as Administrator of the Panama Canal Authority without compensation, except for payments by the Republic of Panama of travel and entertainment expenses, including per diem payments.

(d) Waiver of ethics and reporting requirements

If before the Canal Transfer Date the Republic of Panama appoints as the Administrator of the Panama Canal Authority the individual serving as the Administrator of the Commission and if that individual accepts the appointment—

(1) during any period during which that individual serves as both Administrator of the Commission and the Administrator of the Panama Canal Authority—

(A) the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, as amended (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), shall not apply to that individual with respect to service as the Administrator of the Panama Canal Authority;

(B) that individual, with respect to participation in any particular matter as the Administrator of the Panama Canal Commission, is not subject to section 208(a) of title 18, insofar as that section would otherwise apply to that matter only because the matter will have a direct and predictable effect on the financial interest of the Panama Canal Authority;

(C) that individual is not subject to sections 203 and 205 of title 18, with respect to official acts performed as an agent or attorney for or otherwise representing the Panama Canal Authority; and

(D) that individual is not subject to sections 501(a) and 502(a)(4) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.), with respect to compensation received for, and service in, the position of Administrator of the Panama Canal Authority; and


(2) effective upon termination of the individual's appointment as Administrator of the Panama Canal Commission at noon on the Canal Transfer Date, that individual is not subject to section 207 of title 18, with respect to acts done in carrying out official duties as Administrator of the Panama Canal Authority.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1103, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2860; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXV, §3521, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2063.)

References in Text

Level III of the Executive Schedule, referred to in subsec. (b), is set out in section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(A), is act June 8, 1938, ch. 327, 52 Stat. 631, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§611 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 611 of this title and Tables.

Sections 501(a) and 502(a)(4) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(D), are sections 501(a) and 502(a)(4) of Pub. L. 95–521, which are set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1997—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 105–85 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1996Pub. L. 104–201 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "There shall be an Administrator of the Commission, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall hold office at the pleasure of the President."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2860, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section] (or section 3549(3) [section 3549 of Pub. L. 104–201 did not contain a par. (3) and is not classified to the Code]) shall be considered to affect—

"(1) the tenure of the individual serving as Administrator of the Commission on the day before subsection (a) takes effect [section 3523(a) of Pub. L. 104–201, effective Sept. 23, 1996]; or

"(2) until modified under section 1103(b) of the Panama Canal Act of 1979 [subsec. (b) of this section], as amended by subsection (a), the compensation of the individual so serving."

§3614. Deputy Administrator

(a) Appointment and duties

There shall be a Deputy Administrator of the Commission who shall be appointed by the President. The Deputy Administrator shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the Board.

(b) Compensation

The Deputy Administrator shall be paid compensation at a rate of pay, established by the Board, which does not exceed the rate of basic pay in effect for level IV of the Executive Schedule, and, if eligible, shall be paid the overseas recruitment and retention differential provided for in section 3657 of this title.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1104, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXV, §3505, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1846; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXV, §3524(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2860.)

References in Text

Level IV of the Executive Schedule, referred to in subsec. (b), is set out in section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–201 struck out "and Chief Engineer" after "Deputy Administrator" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) There shall be a Deputy Administrator and a Chief Engineer of the Commission, both of whom shall be appointed by the President. The Deputy Administrator and the Chief Engineer shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the President.

"(b) The Deputy Administrator and the Chief Engineer shall each be paid compensation at a rate of pay established by the President which does not exceed the rate of basic pay in effect for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, and, if eligible, shall each be paid the overseas recruitment or retention differential provided for in section 3657 of this title."

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–510 inserted before period at end ", and, if eligible, shall each be paid the overseas recruitment or retention differential provided for in section 3657 of this title".

Delegation of Functions

Authority of President under this section to fix the compensation of and to define authorities and duties of Deputy Administrator delegated to Secretary of Defense, see section 1–302 of Ex. Ord. No. 12215, May 27, 1980, 45 F.R. 36044, set out as a note under section 3601 of this title.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXV, §3524(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2861, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section] shall be considered to affect—

"(1) the tenure of the individual serving as Deputy Administrator of the Commission on the day before subsection (a) takes effect [section 3524(a) of Pub. L. 104–201, effective Sept. 23, 1996]; or

"(2) until modified under section 1104(b) of the Panama Canal Act of 1979 [subsec. (b) of this section], as amended by subsection (a), the compensation of the individual so serving."

§3615. Consultative Committee

(a) Designation and coordination

The President shall designate, and the Secretary of State shall coordinate the participation of, representatives of the United States to the Consultative Committee to be established under paragraph 7 of Article III of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.

(b) Functions

The Consultative Committee shall function as a diplomatic forum for the exchange of views between the United States and the Republic of Panama. The Committee shall advise the United States Government and the Government of the Republic of Panama on matters of policy affecting the operation of the Panama Canal. The Committee shall have no authority to direct the Commission or any other department or agency of the United States to initiate or withhold action.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1105, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 457.)

§3616. Joint Commission on the Environment

(a) Establishment; composition

The United States and the Republic of Panama, in accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, shall establish a Joint Commission on the Environment (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Joint Commission") to be composed of not more than three representatives of the United States and three representatives of the Republic of Panama, or such other equivalent numbers of representatives as may be agreed upon by the Governments of the two countries. The United States members of the Joint Commission shall periodically review the implementation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 with respect to its impact on the environment and shall, jointly with the representatives of the Government of Panama, make recommendations to the United States Government and the Government of the Republic of Panama with respect to ways to avoid or mitigate adverse environmental impacts resulting from actions taken pursuant to such Treaty.

(b) Appointment; compensation and travel expenses

Representatives of the United States on the Joint Commission shall be appointed by the President and shall serve at the pleasure of the President. Such representatives shall serve without compensation but shall be allowed travel or transportation expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with section 3617 of this title.

(c) Protection of pay, seniority, or other rights or benefits of appointed or detailed Federal employees

Any Federal employee subject to the civil service laws and regulations who is detailed to serve with, or appointed by, the United States representatives on the Joint Commission shall not lose any pay, seniority, or other rights or benefits by reason of such detail or appointment.

(d) Compensation of necessary personnel

The United States representatives on the Joint Commission may, to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts, appoint and fix the compensation of such personnel as the representatives of the United States on the Joint Commission may consider necessary for the participation of the United States on the Joint Commission.

(e) Rules of procedure; establishment; approval

The United States representatives on the Joint Commission may, in cooperation with the representatives of the Republic of Panama on the Joint Commission, establish rules of procedure to be used by the Joint Commission in conducting its affairs, subject to the approval of such rules by the Governments of the United States and the Republic of Panama.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1106, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 457.)

§3617. Travel expenses

While away from their homes, regular places of business, or official stations in performance of services under this part, members of the Board of the Commission and the representatives of the United States on the Consultative Committee referred to in section 3615 of this title and on the Joint Commission on the Environment referred to in section 3616 of this title shall be allowed travel or transportation expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1107, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 458.)

§3618. Defense of Panama Canal

In the event of an armed attack against the Panama Canal, or when, in the opinion of the President, conditions exist which threaten the security of the Canal, the Administrator of the Commission shall, upon the order of the President, comply with such directives as the United States military officer charged with the protection and defense of the Panama Canal may consider necessary in the exercise of his duties.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1108, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 458.)

§3619. Joint sea level canal study

(a) Committee; appointment of representatives

The President shall appoint the representatives of the United States to any joint committee or body with the Republic of Panama to study the possibility of a sea level canal in the Republic of Panama pursuant to Article XII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.

(b) Transmittal of study to President of Senate and Speaker of House of Representatives

Upon the completion of any joint study between the United States and the Republic of Panama concerning the feasibility of a sea level canal in the Republic of Panama pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article XII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, the text of the study shall be transmitted by the President to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

(c) Congressional authorization respecting construction of sea level canal

No construction of a sea level canal by the United States in the Republic of Panama shall be undertaken except with express congressional authorization after submission of the study by the President as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1109, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 459.)

§3620. Authority of Ambassador; independence of Commission regarding its Panama Canal responsibilities

(a) Authority of Ambassador

The United States Ambassador to the Republic of Panama shall have full responsibility for the coordination of the transfer to the Republic of Panama of those functions that are to be assumed by the Republic of Panama pursuant to the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements.

(b) Independence of Commission regarding its Panama Canal responsibilities

(1) The Commission shall not be subject to the direction or supervision of the United States Chief of Mission in the Republic of Panama with respect to the responsibilities of the Commission for the operation, management, or maintenance of the Panama Canal, as established in this chapter or any other Act or in the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements, except that the Commission shall keep the Ambassador fully and currently informed with respect to all activities and operations of the Commission.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, section 3927 of this title shall apply with respect to the activities of the Commission.

(c) Agreements for United States to provide post-transfer administrative services for certain employee benefits

(1) The Secretary of State may enter into one or more agreements to provide for the United States to furnish administrative services relating to the benefits described in paragraph (2) after December 31, 1999, and to establish appropriate procedures for providing advance funding for the services.

(2) The benefits referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:

(A) Pension, disability, and medical benefits provided by the Panama Canal Commission pursuant to section 3682 of this title.

(B) Compensation for work injuries covered by chapter 81 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1110, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXV, §3550(d)(4), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2074; Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXV, §3506, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2269.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–70, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 452, known as the Panama Canal Act of 1979, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–261 added subsec. (c).

1997—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted "section 3927" for "section 2680a".

§3621. Security legislation

It is the sense of the Congress that the best interests of the United States require that the President enter into negotiations with the Republic of Panama for the purpose of arranging for the stationing of United States military forces, after the termination of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, in the area comprising the Canal Zone before October 1, 1979, and for the maintenance of installations and facilities, after the termination of such Treaty, for the use of United States military forces stationed in such area. The President shall report to the Congress in a timely manner the status of negotiations conducted pursuant to this section.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1111, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 459.)

Delegation of Functions

Functions vested in President by this section delegated to Secretary of State who shall perform such functions in coordination with Secretary of Defense, see section 1–401 of Ex. Ord. No. 12215, May 27, 1980, 45 F.R. 36044, set out as a note under section 3601 of this title.

§3622. Code of conduct for Commission personnel

(a) Oath; compliance with laws of United States regarding duties and responsibilities of Federal employees

Before assuming the duties of his office or employment, each member of the Board of the Commission and each officer and employee of the Commission shall take an oath to discharge faithfully the duties of his office or employment. All employees of the Commission shall be subject to the laws of the United States regarding duties and responsibilities of Federal employees.

(b) Adoption of code of conduct; time limit; contents

Not later than 60 days after all the members of the Board of the Commission have been appointed, the Board shall adopt a code of conduct applicable to the persons referred to in subsection (a) of this section. The code of conduct shall contain provisions substantially equivalent to those contained in part 735 of title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations on October 1, 1979. The code of conduct shall, at a minimum, contain provisions substantially equivalent to the following provisions of law:

(1) the provisions of chapter 11 of title 18, relating to bribery, graft, or conflicts of interest, as appropriate to the employees concerned;

(2) section 7352 of title 5;

(3) sections 207, 208, 285, 508, 641, 645, 1001, 1917, and 2071 of title 18;

(4) section 1343, 1344, and 1349(b) of title 31;

(5) the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 1824), as amended; and

(6) those provisions of the laws and regulations of the Republic of Panama which are substantially equivalent to those of the United States set forth in this subsection.

(c) Investigations by Commission respecting violations; recommendations for suspension

The Commission shall investigate any allegations regarding the violation of the code of conduct adopted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. The Commission may recommend that the President suspend from the performance of his duties any member of the Board of the Commission or any officer or employee of the Commission, pending judicial proceedings by appropriate authorities concerning such allegations.

(d) Measures to insure compliance with code of conduct

The President shall negotiate suitable arrangements with the Republic of Panama whereby each nation shall agree to take all measures within its legal authority to assure that members of the Board of the Commission comply with the code of conduct established pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Without prejudice to such jurisdiction as the United States may have with respect to members of the Board, the provisions of law enumerated in subsection (b) of this section shall be enforced with respect to members of the Board only in accordance with such arrangements.

(e) Waiver of post-employment restrictions

(1) Section 207 of title 18 does not apply to a covered individual with respect to acts done in carrying out official duties as an officer or employee of the Panama Canal Authority.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), a covered individual is an officer or employee of the Panama Canal Authority who was an officer or employee of the Commission (other than the Administrator) and whose employment with the Commission terminated at noon on the Canal Transfer Date.

(3) This subsection is effective as of the Canal Transfer Date.

(f) Consent for acceptance of employment by Panama Canal Authority

(1) The Congress consents to the following persons accepting civil employment (and compensation for that employment) with the Panama Canal Authority for which the consent of the Congress is required by the last paragraph of section 9 of article I of the Constitution of the United States, relating to acceptance of emoluments, offices, or titles from a foreign government:

(A) Retired members of the uniformed services.

(B) Members of a reserve component of the armed forces.

(C) Members of the Commissioned Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service.


(2) The consent of the Congress under paragraph (1) is effective without regard to subsection (b) of section 908 of title 37 (relating to approval required for employment of Reserve and retired members by foreign governments).

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1112, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXV, §§3522, 3550(d)(2)(A), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2064, 2074.)

References in Text

The Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 1824), as amended, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), is Pub. L. 95–521, Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1824, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of Pub. L. 95–521 in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (b)(4), "sections 1343, 1344, and 1349(b) of title 31" substituted for "section 5 of the Act of July 16, 1914 (31 U.S.C. 638a), as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–85, §3550(d)(2)(A), substituted "October 1, 1979" for "the effective date of this Act".

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 105–85, §3522, added subsecs. (e) and (f).

Delegation of Functions

Functions vested in President by subsec. (d) of this section delegated to Secretary of State, see section 1–402 of Ex. Ord. No. 12215, May 27, 1980, 45 F.R. 36044, set out as a note under section 3601 of this title.

§3623. Office of Ombudsman

(a) Establishment; appointment of Ombudsman; functions

There is established within the Commission an Office of Ombudsman, to be directed by an Ombudsman, who shall be appointed by the Commission. It shall be the function of the Office of Ombudsman to receive individual complaints, grievances, requests, and suggestions of employees (and their dependents) of the Commission and other departments and agencies of the United States, including the Smithsonian Institution, conducting operations before October 1, 1979, in the area then comprising the Canal Zone concerning administrative problems, inefficiencies, and conflicts caused within departments and agencies of the United States, including the Smithsonian Institution, as a result of the implementation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and related agreements.

(b) Authority to make findings, render assistance, and offer recommendations

The Ombudsman shall make findings and render assistance with respect to the complaints, grievances, requests, and suggestions submitted to the Office of Ombudsman, and shall make appropriate recommendations to the Commission or any other department or agency of the United States, including the Smithsonian Institution.

(c) Effect on procedures for grievances, appeals, or administrative matters under this chapter, in other provisions of law, or in Federal regulations

The establishment of the Office of Ombudsman shall not affect any procedures for grievances, appeals, or administrative matters in any other provision of this chapter, any other provision of law, or any Federal regulation.

(d) Termination date

The Office of Ombudsman shall terminate upon the termination of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.

(Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1113, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXV, §3525, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2861.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–70, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 452, known as the Panama Canal Act of 1979, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 104–201 redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: "The Ombudsman shall be a citizen of the United States."