[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter N, PART II, Subpart B: Foreign Corporations
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter N, PART II, Subpart B: Foreign Corporations
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter N—Tax Based on Income From Sources Within or Without the United StatesPART II—NONRESIDENT ALIENS AND FOREIGN CORPORATIONS

Subpart B—Foreign Corporations

Sec.
881.
Tax on income of foreign corporations not connected with United States business.
882.
Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business.
883.
Exclusions from gross income.
884.
Branch profits tax.
885.
Cross references.

        

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1241(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2580, added item 884 and redesignated former item 884 as 885.

1966Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(b)(3), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1557, substituted "Tax on income of foreign corporations not connected with United States business" for "Tax on foreign corporations not engaged in business in United States" in item 881, and "Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business" for "Tax on resident foreign corporations" in item 882.

§881. Tax on income of foreign corporations not connected with United States business

(a) Imposition of tax

Except as provided in subsection (c), there is hereby imposed for each taxable year a tax of 30 percent of the amount received from sources within the United States by a foreign corporation as—

(1) interest (other than original issue discount as defined in section 1273), dividends, rents, salaries, wages, premiums, annuities, compensations, remunerations, emoluments, and other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gains, profits, and income,

(2) gains described in section 631(b) or (c),

(3) in the case of—

(A) a sale or exchange of an original issue discount obligation, the amount of the original issue discount accruing while such obligation was held by the foreign corporation (to the extent such discount was not theretofore taken into account under subparagraph (B)), and

(B) a payment on an original issue discount obligation, an amount equal to the original issue discount accruing while such obligation was held by the foreign corporation (except that such original issue discount shall be taken into account under this subparagraph only to the extent such discount was not theretofore taken into account under this subparagraph and only to the extent that the tax thereon does not exceed the payment less the tax imposed by paragraph (1) thereon), and


(4) gains from the sale or exchange after October 4, 1966, of patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like property, or of any interest in any such property, to the extent such gains are from payments which are contingent on the productivity, use, or disposition of the property or interest sold or exchanged,


but only to the extent the amount so received is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(b) Exception for certain possessions

(1) Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands

For purposes of this section and section 884, a corporation created or organized in Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Virgin Islands or under the law of any such possession shall not be treated as a foreign corporation for any taxable year if—

(A) at all times during such taxable year less than 25 percent in value of the stock of such corporation is beneficially owned (directly or indirectly) by foreign persons,

(B) at least 65 percent of the gross income of such corporation is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary to be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in such a possession or the United States for the 3-year period ending with the close of the taxable year of such corporation (or for such part of such period as the corporation or any predecessor has been in existence), and

(C) no substantial part of the income of such corporation is used (directly or indirectly) to satisfy obligations to persons who are not bona fide residents of such a possession or the United States.

(2) Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

(A) In general

If dividends are received during a taxable year by a corporation—

(i) created or organized in, or under the law of, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and

(ii) with respect to which the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) are met for the taxable year,


subsection (a) shall be applied for such taxable year by substituting "10 percent" for "30 percent".

(B) Applicability

If, on or after the date of the enactment of this paragraph, an increase in the rate of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico's withholding tax which is generally applicable to dividends paid to United States corporations not engaged in a trade or business in the Commonwealth to a rate greater than 10 percent takes effect, this paragraph shall not apply to dividends received on or after the effective date of the increase.

(3) Definitions

(A) Foreign person

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "foreign person" means any person other than—

(i) a United States person, or

(ii) a person who would be a United States person if references to the United States in section 7701 included references to a possession of the United States.

(B) Indirect ownership rules

For purposes of paragraph (1), the rules of section 318(a)(2) shall apply except that "5 percent" shall be substituted for "50 percent" in subparagraph (C) thereof.

(c) Repeal of tax on interest of foreign corporations received from certain portfolio debt investments

(1) In general

In the case of any portfolio interest received by a foreign corporation from sources within the United States, no tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1) or (3) of subsection (a).

(2) Portfolio interest

For purposes of this subsection, the term "portfolio interest" means any interest (including original issue discount) which—

(A) would be subject to tax under subsection (a) but for this subsection, and

(B) is paid on an obligation—

(i) which is in registered form, and

(ii) with respect to which—

(I) the person who would otherwise be required to deduct and withhold tax from such interest under section 1442(a) receives a statement which meets the requirements of section 871(h)(5) that the beneficial owner of the obligation is not a United States person, or

(II) the Secretary has determined that such a statement is not required in order to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(3) Portfolio interest shall not include interest received by certain persons

For purposes of this subsection, the term "portfolio interest" shall not include any portfolio interest which—

(A) except in the case of interest paid on an obligation of the United States, is received by a bank on an extension of credit made pursuant to a loan agreement entered into in the ordinary course of its trade or business,

(B) is received by a 10-percent shareholder (within the meaning of section 871(h)(3)(B)), or

(C) is received by a controlled foreign corporation from a related person (within the meaning of section 864(d)(4)).

(4) Portfolio interest not to include certain contingent interest

For purposes of this subsection, the term "portfolio interest" shall not include any interest which is treated as not being portfolio interest under the rules of section 871(h)(4).

(5) Special rules for controlled foreign corporations

(A) In general

In the case of any portfolio interest received by a controlled foreign corporation, the following provisions shall not apply:

(i) Subparagraph (A) of section 954(b)(3) (relating to exception where foreign base company income is less than 5 percent or $1,000,000).

(ii) Paragraph (4) of section 954(b) (relating to exception for certain income subject to high foreign taxes).

(iii) Clause (i) of section 954(c)(3)(A) (relating to certain income received from related persons).

(B) Controlled foreign corporation

For purposes of this subsection, the term "controlled foreign corporation" has the meaning given to such term by section 957(a).

(6) Secretary may cease application of this subsection

Under rules similar to the rules of section 871(h)(6), the Secretary may provide that this subsection shall not apply to payments of interest described in section 871(h)(6).

(7) Registered form

For purposes of this subsection, the term "registered form" has the meaning given such term by section 163(f).

(d) Tax not to apply to certain interest and dividends

No tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1) or (3) of subsection (a) on any amount described in section 871(i)(2).

(e) Tax not to apply to certain dividends of regulated investment companies

(1) Interest-related dividends

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) on any interest-related dividend (as defined in section 871(k)(1)) received from a regulated investment company.

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply—

(i) to any dividend referred to in section 871(k)(1)(B), and

(ii) to any interest-related dividend received by a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957(a)) to the extent such dividend is attributable to interest received by the regulated investment company from a person who is a related person (within the meaning of section 864(d)(4)) with respect to such controlled foreign corporation.

(C) Treatment of dividends received by controlled foreign corporations

The rules of subsection (c)(5)(A) shall apply to any interest-related dividend received by a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957(a)) to the extent such dividend is attributable to interest received by the regulated investment company which is described in clause (ii) of section 871(k)(1)(E) (and not described in clause (i) or (iii) of such section).

(2) Short-term capital gain dividends

No tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) on any short-term capital gain dividend (as defined in section 871(k)(2)) received from a regulated investment company.

(f) Cross reference

For doubling of tax on corporations of certain foreign countries, see section 891.

For special rules for original issue discount, see section 871(g).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 282; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(a), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1555; Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §313(a), (c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 526, 527; Pub. L. 92–606, §1(e)(1), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(3)(I), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §§42(a)(10), 127(b), 128(b), 130(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 557, 650, 654, 660; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §§1211(b)(6), 1214(c)(2), 1223(b)(2), 1273(b)(1), (2)(A), title XVIII, §§1810(d)(1)(B), (3)(C), (e)(2)(B), 1899A(22), (23), (68), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2536, 2542, 2558, 2595, 2596, 2825, 2826, 2959, 2962; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(i)(17), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3510; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13237(a)(2), (c)(2), (3), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 507, 508; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §§411(a)(2), 420(a), (c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1503, 1513, 1514; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(jj), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2639; Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §502(b)(2)(B), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 107.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(B), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 111–147 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) defined portfolio interest to also include interest on certain obligations not in registered form.

2005—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–135 inserted "interest-related dividend received by a controlled foreign corporation" after "shall apply to any".

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–357, §420(c)(1), substituted "possessions" for "Guam and Virgin Islands corporations" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–357, §420(c)(2), substituted "Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands" for "In general" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 108–357, §420(a), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (e), (f). Pub. L. 108–357, §411(a)(2), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1993—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–66, §13237(c)(2), substituted "section 871(h)(5)" for "section 871(h)(4)".

Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 103–66, §13237(a)(2), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 103–66, §13237(a)(2), (c)(3), redesignated par. (5) as (6) and substituted "section 871(h)(6)" for "section 871(h)(5)" in two places. Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 103–66, §13237(a)(2), redesignated par. (6) as (7).

1988—Subsec. (c)(4)(A)(ii) to (v). Pub. L. 100–647 added cls. (ii) and (iii) and struck out former cls. (ii) to (v), which read as follows:

"(ii) Paragraph (4) of section 954(b) (relating to corporations not formed or availed of to avoid tax).

"(iii) Subparagraph (B) of section 954(c)(3) (relating to certain income derived in active conduct of trade or business).

"(iv) Subparagraph (C) of section 954(c)(3) (relating to certain income derived by an insurance company).

"(v) Subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 954(c)(4) (relating to exception for certain income received from related persons)."

1986—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(e)(2)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally, striking out "any gain not in excess of" before "the original issue discount".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(e)(2)(B), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "the payment of interest on an original issue discount obligation, an amount equal to the original issue discount accrued on such obligation since the last payment of interest thereon (except that such original issue discount shall be taken into account under this subparagraph only to the extent that the tax thereon does not exceed the interest payment less the tax imposed by paragraph (1) thereon), and".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(6), struck out "or from payments which are treated as being so contingent under section 871(e)," after "sold or exchanged,".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1273(b)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "For purposes of this section, a corporation created or organized in Guam or the Virgin Islands or under the law of Guam or the Virgin Islands shall not be treated as a foreign corporation for any taxable year if—

"(A) at all times during such taxable year less than 25 percent in value of the stock of such corporation is owned (directly or indirectly) by foreign persons, and

"(B) at least 20 percent of the gross income of such corporation is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary to have been derived from sources within Guam or the Virgin Islands (as the case may be) for the 3-year period ending with the close of the preceding taxable year of such corporation (or for such part of such period as the corporation has been in existence)."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1273(b)(1), (2)(A), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which provided that par. (1) of this subsection not apply with respect to income tax liability incurred to Guam.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(22), substituted "paragraph" for "Paragraph".

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1273(b)(2)(A), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out par. (4) which provided a cross reference to sections 934 and 934A.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(68), made clarifying amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 98–369, §127(b)(1). See 1984 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(d)(1)(B), (3)(C), inserted "which would be subject to tax under subsection (a) but for this subsection and" in introductory provisions and substituted "receives a statement" for "has received a statement" in subpar. (B)(ii).

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(23), inserted a closing parenthesis following "section 864(d)(4)".

Subsec. (c)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1223(b)(2), substituted "less than 5 percent or $1,000,000" for "less than 10 percent".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(c)(2), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §127(b)(2), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (c), there" for "There" in introductory provision.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §42(a)(10), substituted "section 1273" for "section 1232(b)".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §128(b)(1), amended par. (3) generally, substituting in subpar. (A), "a sale or exchange of an original issue discount obligation, the amount of any gain not in excess of the original issue discount accruing while such obligation was held by the foreign corporation (to the extent such discount was not theretofore taken into account under subparagraph (B)), and" for "bonds or other evidences of indebtedness issued after September 28, 1965, and before April 1, 1972, amounts which under section 1232(a)(2)(B) are considered as ordinary income, and, in the case of corporate obligations issued after May 27, 1969, and before April 1, 1972, amounts which would be so considered but for the fact the obligations were issued after May 27, 1969,", substituting in subpar. (B), "the payment of interest on an original issue discount obligation, an amount equal to the original issue discount accrued on such obligation since the last payment of interest thereon (except that such original issue discount shall be taken into account under this subparagraph only to the extent that the tax thereon does not exceed the interest payment less the tax imposed by paragraph (1) thereon), and" for "bonds or other evidences of indebtedness issued after March 31, 1972, and payable more than 6 months from the date of original issue (without regard to the period held by the taxpayer), amounts which under section 1232(a)(2)(B) would be considered as ordinary income but for the fact such obligations were issued after May 27, 1969, and", and striking out subpar. (C) which required that in the case of the payment of interest on an obligation described in subpar. (B), an amount equal to the original issue discount, but not in excess of such interest less the tax imposed by par. (1) thereon, accrued on such obligation since the last payment of interest thereon, be included for purpose of the 30 percent tax.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369, §130(a), amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provision establishing an exception for certain Guam and Virgin Islands corporations for provision establishing an exception for Guam corporations.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §127(b)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(68), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Pub. L. 98–369, §128(b)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting in heading "Cross reference" for "Doubling of tax" and inserting provision directing that for special rules for original issue discount, see section 871(g).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §127(b)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(68), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d).

1976—Subsec. (a)(3)(A), (B). Pub. L. 94–455 substituted "ordinary income" for "gain from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset".

1972—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 92–606 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1971—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 92–178, §313(a), inserted "(other than original issue discount as defined in section 1232(b))" after "interest".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 92–178, §313(c), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted "and before April 1, 1972," after "September 28, 1965,", substituted "section 1232(a)(2)(B)" for "section 1232", and inserted ", in the case of corporate obligations issued after May 27, 1969, and before April 1, 1972, amounts which would be so considered but for the fact that the obligations were issued after May 27, 1969,", and added subpars. (B) and (C).

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–809 substantially revised the income tax treatment of foreign corporations, substituted the concept of amounts received from sources within the United States by foreign corporations but not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States for the concept of amounts received from sources within the United States by foreign corporations not engaged in trade or business within the United States as the amount upon which the existing 30 percent levy should be imposed, and added contingent income received from the sale of patents and other intangibles and amounts of original issue discount which are treated as ordinary income received on retirement or sale or exchange of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness issued after Sept. 28, 1965, to the specified types of fixed or determinable income.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–147 applicable to obligations issued after the date which is 2 years after Mar. 18, 2010, see section 502(f) of Pub. L. 111–147, set out as a note under section 149 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 411(a)(2) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to dividends with respect to taxable years of regulated investment companies beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 411(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §420(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1514, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1442 of this title] shall apply to dividends paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to interest received after Dec. 31, 1993, see section 13237(d) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1211(b)(6) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1211(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 865 of this title.

Amendment by section 1214(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to payments made in taxable year of payor beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1214(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Amendment by section 1223(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1223(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 864 of this title.

Amendment by section 1273(b)(1), (2)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Amendment by section 1810(d)(1)(B), (3)(C), (e)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 42(a)(10) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years ending after July 18, 1984, see section 44 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1271 of this title.

Amendment by section 127(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to interest received after July 18, 1984, with respect to obligations issued after such date, in taxable years after such date, see section 127(g)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.

Amendment by section 128(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to payments made on or after the 60th day after July 18, 1984, with respect to obligations issued after Mar. 31, 1972, see section 128(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §130(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 661, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1442 and 7651 of this title] shall apply to payments made after March 1, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–606, §2, Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497, provided in part that: "The amendments made by section 1(e)(1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1971."

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–178 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 313(f) of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 104(n) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendments by sections 1211(b)(6) and 1214(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendments would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§882. Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

(a) Imposition of tax

(1) In general

A foreign corporation engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year shall be taxable as provided in section 11 or 59A,1 on its taxable income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(2) Determination of taxable income

In determining taxable income for purposes of paragraph (1), gross income includes only gross income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(3) [Cross reference 2]

For special tax treatment of gain or loss from the disposition by a foreign corporation of a United States real property interest, see section 897.

(b) Gross income

In the case of a foreign corporation, except where the context clearly indicates otherwise, gross income includes only—

(1) gross income which is derived from sources within the United States and which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, and

(2) gross income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(c) Allowance of deductions and credits

(1) Allocation of deductions

(A) General rule

In the case of a foreign corporation, the deductions shall be allowed only for purposes of subsection (a) and (except as provided by subparagraph (B)) only if and to the extent that they are connected with income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States; and the proper apportionment and allocation of the deductions for this purpose shall be determined as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(B) Charitable contributions

The deduction for charitable contributions and gifts provided by section 170 shall be allowed whether or not connected with income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(2) Deductions and credits allowed only if return filed

A foreign corporation shall receive the benefit of the deductions and credits allowed to it in this subtitle only by filing or causing to be filed with the Secretary a true and accurate return, in the manner prescribed in subtitle F, including therein all the information which the Secretary may deem necessary for the calculation of such deductions and credits. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of the tax imposed by section 541 (relating to personal holding company tax), and shall not be construed to deny the credit provided by section 33 for tax withheld at source or the credit provided by section 34 for certain uses of gasoline.

(3) Foreign tax credit

Except as provided by section 906, foreign corporations shall not be allowed the credit against the tax for taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States allowed by section 901.

(4) Cross reference

For rule that certain foreign taxes are not to be taken into account in determining deduction or credit, see section 906(b)(1).

(d) Election to treat real property income as income connected with United States business

(1) In general

A foreign corporation which during the taxable year derives any income—

(A) from real property located in the United States, or from any interest in such real property, including (i) gains from the sale or exchange of real property or an interest therein, (ii) rents or royalties from mines, wells, or other natural deposits, and (iii) gains described in section 631(b) or (c), and

(B) which, but for this subsection, would not be treated as income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States,


may elect for such taxable year to treat all such income as income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. In such case, such income shall be taxable as provided in subsection (a)(1) whether or not such corporation is engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year. An election under this paragraph for any taxable year shall remain in effect for all subsequent taxable years, except that it may be revoked with the consent of the Secretary with respect to any taxable year.

(2) Election after revocation, etc.

Paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 871(d) shall apply in respect of elections under this subsection in the same manner and to the same extent as they apply in respect of elections under section 871(d).

(e) Interest on United States obligations received by banks organized in possessions

In the case of a corporation created or organized in, or under the law of, a possession of the United States which is carrying on the banking business in a possession of the United States, interest on obligations of the United States which is not portfolio interest (as defined in section 881(c)(2)) shall—

(1) for purposes of this subpart, be treated as income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, and

(2) shall be taxable as provided in subsection (a)(1) whether or not such corporation is engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year.

(f) Returns of tax by agent

If any foreign corporation has no office or place of business in the United States but has an agent in the United States, the return required under section 6012 shall be made by the agent.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 282; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(b)(1), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1555; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §301(b)(13), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2822; Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1122(c)(2), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2687; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(6)(F), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(19), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 843; Pub. L. 99–514, title VII, §701(e)(4)(F), title XII, §1236(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2343, 2576; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(s)(2)(B), title II, §2001(c)(2), title VI, §6133(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3527, 3594, 3721; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(12)(F), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4038; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §§12001(b)(14), 13001(b)(2)(L), 14401(d)(2), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2094, 2097, 2233.)

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–97, §14401(d)(2), which directed insertion of "or 59A," after "section 11,", was executed by making the insertion after "section 11" to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the amendment by Pub. L. 115–97, §12001(b)(14). See below.

Pub. L. 115–97, §13001(b)(2)(L), struck out "or 1201(a)" before "on its taxable income".

Pub. L. 115–97, §12001(b)(14), struck out ", 55," after "section 11".

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–295 struck out ", 59A" after "section 11, 55".

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §2001(c)(2), inserted reference to section 59A.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(s)(2)(B), inserted ", except where the context clearly indicates otherwise" after "foreign corporation".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647, §6133(a), substituted "interest on obligations of the United States which is not portfolio interest (as defined in section 881(c)(2))" for "interest on obligations of the United States", and struck out at end "The preceding sentence shall not apply to any Guam corporation which is treated as not being a foreign corporation by section 881(b)(1) for the taxable year."

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(e)(4)(F), inserted reference to section 55.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1236(a), inserted "The preceding sentence shall not apply to any Guam corporation which is treated as not being a foreign corporation by section 881(b)(1) for the taxable year."

1984—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted reference to section "33" for "32" and "34" for "39".

1983—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–424 struck out "and lubricating oil" after "gasoline".

1980—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–499 added par. (3).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted in subsec. (a) heading "Imposition of tax" for "Normal tax and surtax" and in par. (1) heading "In general" for "Imposition of tax".

1976—Subsecs. (c)(1)(A), (2), (d). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1966Pub. L. 89–809 substantially revised the income tax treatment of foreign corporations, introduced the concept of taxable income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States into provisions dealing with the imposition of tax, substituted a concept of gross income that included gross income derived from sources within the United States not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and gross income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States for a concept of gross income that included only gross income from sources within the United States, and inserted provisions for an election to treat real property income as income connected with United States business, treatment of interest on United States obligations received by banks organized in possessions, and the returns of tax by agents, and inserted cross reference to section 906(b)(1).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by section 12001(b)(14) of Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 12001(c) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Amendment by section 13001(b)(2)(L) of Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 13001(c)(1) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Amendment by section 14401(d)(2) of Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to base erosion payments (as defined in section 59A(d) of this title) paid or accrued in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 14401(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 701(e)(4)(F) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Superfund Revenue Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–499, title V, to which it relates, see section 2001(e) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6133(c), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3721, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [probably means 'this section', which amended sections 882 and 884 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 701(e)(4)(F) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1236(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2576, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after November 16, 1985."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–424 applicable with respect to articles sold after Jan. 6, 1983, see section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–499 applicable to disposition after June 18, 1980, see section 1125(a) of Pub. L. 96–499, set out as an Effective Date note under section 897 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 104(n) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(e)(4)(F) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

2 Par. (3) heading editorially supplied.

§883. Exclusions from gross income

(a) Income of foreign corporations from ships and aircraft

The following items shall not be included in gross income of a foreign corporation, and shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle:

(1) Ships operated by certain foreign corporations

Gross income derived by a corporation organized in a foreign country from the international operation of a ship or ships if such foreign country grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States.

(2) Aircraft operated by certain foreign corporations

Gross income derived by a corporation organized in a foreign country from the international operation of aircraft if such foreign country grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States.

(3) Railroad rolling stock of foreign corporations

Earnings derived from payments by a common carrier for the use on a temporary basis (not expected to exceed a total of 90 days in any taxable year) of railroad rolling stock owned by a corporation of a foreign country which grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States.

(4) Special rules

The rules of paragraphs (6), (7), and (8) of section 872(b) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.

(5) Special rule for countries which tax on residence basis

For purposes of this subsection, there shall not be taken into account any failure of a foreign country to grant an exemption to a corporation organized in the United States if such corporation is subject to tax by such foreign country on a residence basis pursuant to provisions of foreign law which meets such standards (if any) as the Secretary may prescribe.

(b) Earnings derived from communications satellite system

The earnings derived from the ownership or operation of a communications satellite system by a foreign entity designated by a foreign government to participate in such ownership or operation shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle, if the United States, through its designated entity, participates in such system pursuant to the Communications Satellite Act of 1962 (47 U.S.C. 701 and following).

(c) Treatment of certain foreign corporations

(1) In general

Paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) (as the case may be) shall not apply to any foreign corporation if 50 percent or more of the value of the stock of such corporation is owned by individuals who are not residents of such foreign country or another foreign country meeting the requirements of such paragraph.

(2) Treatment of controlled foreign corporations

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any foreign corporation which is a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957(a)).

(3) Special rules for publicly traded corporations

(A) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any corporation which is organized in a foreign country meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) (as the case may be) and the stock of which is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in such foreign country, another foreign country meeting the requirements of such paragraph, or the United States.

(B) Treatment of stock owned by publicly traded corporation

Any stock in another corporation which is owned (directly or indirectly) by a corporation meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A) shall be treated as owned by individuals who are residents of the foreign country in which the corporation meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A) is organized.

(4) Stock ownership through entities

For purposes of paragraph (1), stock owned (directly or indirectly) by or for a corporation, partnership, trust, or estate shall be treated as being owned proportionately by its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. Stock considered to be owned by a person by reason of the application of the preceding sentence shall, for purposes of applying such sentence, be treated as actually owned by such person.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 283; Pub. L. 90–622, §1(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1311; Pub. L. 94–164, §6(a), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 975; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1212(c)(3)–(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2538; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(e)(1), (2)(A), (5), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3499, 3500; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(i)(8)(D), (10), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2411; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §419(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1513.)

References in Text

The Communications Satellite Act of 1962, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 87–624, Aug. 31, 1962, 76 Stat. 419, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6 (§701 et seq.) of Title 47, Telecommunications. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of Title 47 and Tables.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted "(6), (7), and (8)" for "(5), (6), and (7)".

1989—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(8)(D), substituted "(5), (6), and (7)" for "(5) and (6)".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(10), added par. (5).

1988—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(e)(2)(A), (5), struck out "to citizens of the United States and" after "exemption" and substituted "international operation" for "operation".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(e)(1)(B), substituted "Paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) (as the case may be)" for "Paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a)" and "such paragraph" for "such paragraphs (1) and (2)".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(e)(1)(A), substituted "Special rules" for "Exception" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any foreign corporation—

"(A) the stock of which is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in the foreign country in which such corporation is organized, or

"(B) which is wholly owned (either directly or indirectly) by another corporation meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A) and is organized in the same foreign country as such other corporation."

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1212(c)(3), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1), ships under foreign flag, which read as follows: "Earnings derived from the operation of a ship or ships documented under the laws of a foreign country which grants an equivalent exemption to citizens of the United States and to corporations organized in the United States."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1212(c)(3), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2), aircraft of foreign registry, which read as follows: "Earnings derived from the operation of aircraft registered under the laws of a foreign country which grants an equivalent exemption to citizens of the United States and to corporations organized in the United States."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1212(c)(4), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1212(c)(5), added subsec. (c).

1975—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–164 added par. (3).

1968Pub. L. 90–622 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added subsec. (a) heading, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to wagers made after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 419(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 872 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1212(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 863 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–164, §6(b), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 976, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments made after November 18, 1974."

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–622, §1(b), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1311, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966."

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendment by section 1212(c)(3)–(5) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

§884. Branch profits tax

(a) Imposition of tax

In addition to the tax imposed by section 882 for any taxable year, there is hereby imposed on any foreign corporation a tax equal to 30 percent of the dividend equivalent amount for the taxable year.

(b) Dividend equivalent amount

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "dividend equivalent amount" means the foreign corporation's effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year adjusted as provided in this subsection:

(1) Reduction for increase in U.S. net equity

If—

(A) the U.S. net equity of the foreign corporation as of the close of the taxable year, exceeds

(B) the U.S. net equity of the foreign corporation as of the close of the preceding taxable year,


the effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of such excess.

(2) Increase for decrease in net equity

(A) In general

If—

(i) the U.S. net equity of the foreign corporation as of the close of the preceding taxable year, exceeds

(ii) the U.S. net equity of the foreign corporation as of the close of the taxable year,


the effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year shall be increased by the amount of such excess.

(B) Limitation

(i) In general

The increase under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall not exceed the accumulated effectively connected earnings and profits as of the close of the preceding taxable year.

(ii) Accumulated effectively connected earnings and profits

For purposes of clause (i), the term "accumulated effectively connected earnings and profits" means the excess of—

(I) the aggregate effectively connected earnings and profits for preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, over

(II) the aggregate dividend equivalent amounts determined for such preceding taxable years.

(c) U.S. net equity

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "U.S. net equity" means—

(A) U.S. assets, reduced (including below zero) by

(B) U.S. liabilities.

(2) U.S. assets and U.S. liabilities

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(A) U.S. assets

The term "U.S. assets" means the money and aggregate adjusted bases of property of the foreign corporation treated as connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the adjusted basis of any property shall be its adjusted basis for purposes of computing earnings and profits.

(B) U.S. liabilities

The term "U.S. liabilities" means the liabilities of the foreign corporation treated as connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(C) Regulations to be consistent with allocation of deductions

The regulations prescribed under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be consistent with the allocation of deductions under section 882(c)(1).

(d) Effectively connected earnings and profits

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "effectively connected earnings and profits" means earnings and profits (without diminution by reason of any distributions made during the taxable year) which are attributable to income which is effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected) with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(2) Exception for certain income

The term "effectively connected earnings and profits" shall not include any earnings and profits attributable to—

(A) income not includible in gross income under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 883(a),

(B) income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States under section 921(d) or 926(b) (as in effect before their repeal by the FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000),

(C) gain on the disposition of a United States real property interest described in section 897(c)(1)(A)(ii),

(D) income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States under section 953(c)(3)(C), or

(E) income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States under section 882(e).


Property and liabilities of the foreign corporation treated as connected with such income under regulations prescribed by the Secretary shall not be taken into account in determining the U.S. assets or U.S. liabilities of the foreign corporation.

(e) Coordination with income tax treaties; etc.

(1) Limitation on treaty exemption

No treaty between the United States and a foreign country shall exempt any foreign corporation from the tax imposed by subsection (a) (or reduce the amount thereof) unless—

(A) such treaty is an income tax treaty, and

(B) such foreign corporation is a qualified resident of such foreign country.

(2) Treaty modifications

If a foreign corporation is a qualified resident of a foreign country with which the United States has an income tax treaty—

(A) the rate of tax under subsection (a) shall be the rate of tax specified in such treaty—

(i) on branch profits if so specified, or

(ii) if not so specified, on dividends paid by a domestic corporation to a corporation resident in such country which wholly owns such domestic corporation, and


(B) any other limitations under such treaty on the tax imposed by subsection (a) shall apply.

(3) Coordination with withholding tax

(A) In general

If a foreign corporation is subject to the tax imposed by subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined after the application of any treaty), no tax shall be imposed by section 871(a), 881(a), 1441, or 1442 on any dividends paid by such corporation out of its earnings and profits for such taxable year.

(B) Limitation on certain treaty benefits

If—

(i) any dividend described in section 861(a)(2)(B) is received by a foreign corporation, and

(ii) subparagraph (A) does not apply to such dividend,


rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (f)(3) shall apply to such dividend.

(4) Qualified resident

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term "qualified resident" means, with respect to any foreign country, any foreign corporation which is a resident of such foreign country unless—

(i) 50 percent or more (by value) of the stock of such foreign corporation is owned (within the meaning of section 883(c)(4)) by individuals who are not residents of such foreign country and who are not United States citizens or resident aliens, or

(ii) 50 percent or more of its income is used (directly or indirectly) to meet liabilities to persons who are not residents of such foreign country or citizens or residents of the United States.

(B) Special rule for publicly traded corporations

A foreign corporation which is a resident of a foreign country shall be treated as a qualified resident of such foreign country if—

(i) the stock of such corporation is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in such foreign country, or

(ii) such corporation is wholly owned (either directly or indirectly) by another foreign corporation which is organized in such foreign country and the stock of which is so traded.

(C) Corporations owned by publicly traded domestic corporations

A foreign corporation which is a resident of a foreign country shall be treated as a qualified resident of such foreign country if—

(i) such corporation is wholly owned (directly or indirectly) by a domestic corporation, and

(ii) the stock of such domestic corporation is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States.

(D) Secretarial authority

The Secretary may, in his sole discretion, treat a foreign corporation as being a qualified resident of a foreign country if such corporation establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such corporation meets such requirements as the Secretary may establish to ensure that individuals who are not residents of such foreign country do not use the treaty between such foreign country and the United States in a manner inconsistent with the purposes of this subsection.

(5) Exception for international organizations

This section shall not apply to an international organization (as defined in section 7701(a)(18)).

(f) Treatment of interest allocable to effectively connected income

(1) In general

In the case of a foreign corporation engaged in a trade or business in the United States (or having gross income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States), for purposes of this subtitle—

(A) any interest paid by such trade or business in the United States shall be treated as if it were paid by a domestic corporation, and

(B) to the extent that the allocable interest exceeds the interest described in subparagraph (A), such foreign corporation shall be liable for tax under section 881(a) in the same manner as if such excess were interest paid to such foreign corporation by a wholly owned domestic corporation on the last day of such foreign corporation's taxable year.


To the extent provided in regulations, subparagraph (A) shall not apply to interest in excess of the amounts reasonably expected to be allocable interest.

(2) Allocable interest

For purposes of this subsection, the term "allocable interest" means any interest which is allocable to income which is effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected) with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States.

(3) Coordination with treaties

(A) Payor must be qualified resident

In the case of any interest described in paragraph (1) which is paid or accrued by a foreign corporation, no benefit under any treaty between the United States and the foreign country of which such corporation is a resident shall apply unless—

(i) such treaty is an income tax treaty, and

(ii) such foreign corporation is a qualified resident of such foreign country.

(B) Recipient must be qualified resident

In the case of any interest described in paragraph (1) which is received or accrued by any corporation, no benefit under any treaty between the United States and the foreign country of which such corporation is a resident shall apply unless—

(i) such treaty is an income tax treaty, and

(ii) such foreign corporation is a qualified resident of such foreign country.

(g) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations providing for appropriate adjustments in the determination of the dividend equivalent amount in connection with the distribution to shareholders or transfer to a controlled corporation of the taxpayer's U.S. assets and other adjustments in such determination as are necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1241(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2576; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(q)(1)(A), (2)–(6), (14), title VI, §6133(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3522–3525, 3721; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(f)(3)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1879; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(8), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490.)

References in Text

The FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 106–519, Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2423. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Amendments note set out under section 1 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 884 was renumbered section 885 of this title.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–172 inserted "(as in effect before their repeal by the FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000)" before comma at end.

1996—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(f)(3)(A)(ii), substituted "reasonably expected to be allocable interest" for "reasonably expected to be deductible under section 882 in computing the effectively connected taxable income of such foreign corporation" in closing provisions.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(f)(3)(A)(i), substituted "to the extent that the allocable interest exceeds the interest described in subparagraph (A)" for "to the extent the amount of interest allowable as a deduction under section 882 in computing the effectively connected taxable income of such foreign corporation exceeds the interest described in subparagraph (A)".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(f)(3)(A)(iii), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Effectively connected taxable income.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'effectively connected taxable income' means taxable income which is effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected) with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States."

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(1)(A), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "The increase under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall not exceed the aggregate reductions under paragraph (1) for prior taxable years to the extent not previously taken into account under subparagraph (A)."

Subsec. (d)(2)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §6133(b), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(2)(A), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "No income tax treaty between the United States and a foreign country shall exempt any foreign corporation from the tax imposed by subsection (a) (or reduce the amount thereof) unless—

"(A) such foreign corporation is a qualified resident of such foreign country, or

"(B) such foreign corporation is not a qualified resident of such foreign country but such income tax treaty permits a withholding tax on dividends described in section 861(a)(2)(B) which are paid by such foreign corporation."

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(2)(B), substituted "withholding tax" for "2nd tier withholding tax" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(A) In general.—If a foreign corporation is not exempt for any taxable year from the tax imposed by subsection (a) by reason of a treaty, no tax shall be imposed by section 871(a), 881(a), 1441, or 1442 on any dividends paid by such corporation during the taxable year.

"(B) Limitation on certain treaty benefits.—No foreign corporation which is not a qualified resident of a foreign country shall be entitled to claim benefits under any income tax treaty between the United States and such foreign country with respect to dividends—

"(i) which are paid by such foreign corporation and with respect to which such foreign corporation is otherwise required to deduct and withhold tax under section 1441 or 1442, or

"(ii) which are received by such foreign corporation and are described in section 861(a)(2)(B)."

Subsec. (e)(4)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(5), substituted "50 percent or more" for "more than 50 percent" in cl. (i) and "citizens or residents of the United States" for "the United States" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (e)(4)(C), (D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(4), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(6), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(f)(3)(A), (14), substituted "this subtitle" for "sections 871, 881, 1441, and 1442" and inserted "(or having gross income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States)" after "United States".

Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(2)(C)(i), (3)(B), inserted sentence at end and struck out former last sentence which read as follows: "Rules similar to the rules of subsection (e)(3)(B) shall apply to interest described in the preceding sentence."

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(2)(C)(ii), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1704(f)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: "The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 1241(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1012(q)(1)(A), (2)–(6), (14) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 6133(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 6133(c) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 882 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 1241(e) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 884 of this title, renumbering former section 884 as section 885 of this title, and amending sections 861 and 906 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Determination of Earnings and Profits of Foreign Corporations

Section 1012(q)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647, as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(i)(5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2410, provided that: "For purposes of applying section 884 of the 1986 Code, the earnings and profits of any corporation shall be determined without regard to any increase in earnings and profits under sections 1023(e)(3)(C) [section 1023(e)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 846 of this title] and 1021(c)(2)(C) of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 832 of this title] or arising from section 832(b)(4)(C) of the 1986 Code."

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendment by section 1241(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 (enacting this section) to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

§885. Cross references

(1) For special provisions relating to foreign corporations carrying on an insurance business within the United States, see section 842.

(2) For rules applicable in determining whether any foreign corporation is engaged in trade or business within the United States, see section 864(b).

(3) For adjustment of tax in case of corporations of certain foreign countries, see section 896.

(4) For allowance of credit against the tax in case of a foreign corporation having income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, see section 906.

(5) For withholding at source of tax on income of foreign corporations, see section 1442.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 283, §884; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(m)(1), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1563; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(21), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 528; renumbered §885, Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1241(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2576.)

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514 renumbered section 884 of this title as this section.

1969Pub. L. 91–172 redesignated pars. (2) to (6) as (1) to (5), respectively. Former par. (1), referring to section 512(a), was struck out.

1966—Par. (1). Pub. L. 89–809 redesignated par. (4) as (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (6).

Par. (2). Pub. L. 89–809 redesignated par. (3) as (2) and substituted "foreign corporations carrying on an insurance business within the United States, see section 842" for "foreign insurance companies, see subchapter L (sec. 801 and following)". Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 89–809 redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and, in par. (3) as so redesignated, substituted "section 864(b)" for "section 871(c)". Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 89–809 added pars. (4) and (5). Former par. (4) redesignated (1).

Par. (6). Pub. L. 89–809 redesignated former par. (1) as (6).

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 101(k)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 104(n) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.