[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 78, Subchapter A: Examination and Inspection
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26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 78, Subchapter A: Examination and Inspection
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle F—Procedure and AdministrationCHAPTER 78—DISCOVERY OF LIABILITY AND ENFORCEMENT OF TITLE

Subchapter A—Examination and Inspection

Sec.
7601.
Canvass of districts for taxable persons and objects.
7602.
Examination of books and witnesses.
7603.
Service of summons.
7604.
Enforcement of summons.
7605.
Time and place of examination.
7606.
Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.
[7607.
Repealed.]
7608.
Authority of internal revenue enforcement officers.
7609.
Special procedures for third-party summonses.
7610.
Fees and costs for witnesses.
7611.
Restrictions on church tax inquiries and examinations.
7612.
Special procedures for summonses for computer software.
7613.
Cross references.

        

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3413(d), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 754, added items 7612 and 7613 and struck out former item 7612 "Cross references".

1984Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §213(b)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2988, struck out item 7607 "Additional authority for Bureau of Customs".

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1033(c)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1039, added item 7611 and redesignated former item 7611 as 7612.

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1205(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1702, substituted "Special procedures for third-party summonses" for "Cross references" in item 7609 and added items 7610 and 7611.

1970Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1102(g)(2), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1293, struck out "Bureau of Narcotics and" before "Bureau of Customs" in item 7607.

1958Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §204(16), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1430, added item 7608 and redesignated former item 7608 as 7609.

1956—Act July 18, 1956, ch. 629, §104(b), 70 Stat. 570, added item 7607 and redesignated former item 7607 as 7608.

§7601. Canvass of districts for taxable persons and objects

(a) General rule

The Secretary shall, to the extent he deems it practicable, cause officers or employees of the Treasury Department to proceed, from time to time, through each internal revenue district and inquire after and concerning all persons therein who may be liable to pay any internal revenue tax, and all persons owning or having the care and management of any objects with respect to which any tax is imposed.

(b) Penalties

For penalties applicable to forcible obstruction or hindrance of Treasury officers or employees in the performance of their duties, see section 7212.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 901; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

§7602. Examination of books and witnesses

(a) Authority to summon, etc.

For the purpose of ascertaining the correctness of any return, making a return where none has been made, determining the liability of any person for any internal revenue tax or the liability at law or in equity of any transferee or fiduciary of any person in respect of any internal revenue tax, or collecting any such liability, the Secretary is authorized—

(1) To examine any books, papers, records, or other data which may be relevant or material to such inquiry;

(2) To summon the person liable for tax or required to perform the act, or any officer or employee of such person, or any person having possession, custody, or care of books of account containing entries relating to the business of the person liable for tax or required to perform the act, or any other person the Secretary may deem proper, to appear before the Secretary at a time and place named in the summons and to produce such books, papers, records, or other data, and to give such testimony, under oath, as may be relevant or material to such inquiry; and

(3) To take such testimony of the person concerned, under oath, as may be relevant or material to such inquiry.

(b) Purpose may include inquiry into offense

The purposes for which the Secretary may take any action described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) include the purpose of inquiring into any offense connected with the administration or enforcement of the internal revenue laws.

(c) Notice of contact of third parties

(1) General notice

An officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service may not contact any person other than the taxpayer with respect to the determination or collection of the tax liability of such taxpayer unless such contact occurs during a period (not greater than 1 year) which is specified in a notice which—

(A) informs the taxpayer that contacts with persons other than the taxpayer are intended to be made during such period, and

(B) except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, is provided to the taxpayer not later than 45 days before the beginning of such period.


Nothing in the preceding sentence shall prevent the issuance of notices to the same taxpayer with respect to the same tax liability with periods specified therein that, in the aggregate, exceed 1 year. A notice shall not be issued under this paragraph unless there is an intent at the time such notice is issued to contact persons other than the taxpayer during the period specified in such notice. The preceding sentence shall not prevent the issuance of a notice if the requirement of such sentence is met on the basis of the assumption that the information sought to be obtained by such contact will not be obtained by other means before such contact.

(2) Notice of specific contacts

The Secretary shall periodically provide to a taxpayer a record of persons contacted during such period by the Secretary with respect to the determination or collection of the tax liability of such taxpayer. Such record shall also be provided upon request of the taxpayer.

(3) Exceptions

This subsection shall not apply—

(A) to any contact which the taxpayer has authorized;

(B) if the Secretary determines for good cause shown that such notice would jeopardize collection of any tax or such notice may involve reprisal against any person; or

(C) with respect to any pending criminal investigation.

(d) No administrative summons when there is Justice Department referral

(1) Limitation of authority

No summons may be issued under this title, and the Secretary may not begin any action under section 7604 to enforce any summons, with respect to any person if a Justice Department referral is in effect with respect to such person.

(2) Justice Department referral in effect

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

A Justice Department referral is in effect with respect to any person if—

(i) the Secretary has recommended to the Attorney General a grand jury investigation of, or the criminal prosecution of, such person for any offense connected with the administration or enforcement of the internal revenue laws, or

(ii) any request is made under section 6103(h)(3)(B) for the disclosure of any return or return information (within the meaning of section 6103(b)) relating to such person.

(B) Termination

A Justice Department referral shall cease to be in effect with respect to a person when—

(i) the Attorney General notifies the Secretary, in writing, that—

(I) he will not prosecute such person for any offense connected with the administration or enforcement of the internal revenue laws,

(II) he will not authorize a grand jury investigation of such person with respect to such an offense, or

(III) he will discontinue such a grand jury investigation,


(ii) a final disposition has been made of any criminal proceeding pertaining to the enforcement of the internal revenue laws which was instituted by the Attorney General against such person, or

(iii) the Attorney General notifies the Secretary, in writing, that he will not prosecute such person for any offense connected with the administration or enforcement of the internal revenue laws relating to the request described in subparagraph (A)(ii).

(3) Taxable years, etc., treated separately

For purposes of this subsection, each taxable period (or, if there is no taxable period, each taxable event) and each tax imposed by a separate chapter of this title shall be treated separately.

(e) Limitation on examination on unreported income

The Secretary shall not use financial status or economic reality examination techniques to determine the existence of unreported income of any taxpayer unless the Secretary has a reasonable indication that there is a likelihood of such unreported income.

(f) Limitation on access of persons other than Internal Revenue Service officers and employees

The Secretary shall not, under the authority of section 6103(n), provide any books, papers, records, or other data obtained pursuant to this section to any person authorized under section 6103(n), except when such person requires such information for the sole purpose of providing expert evaluation and assistance to the Internal Revenue Service. No person other than an officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service or the Office of Chief Counsel may, on behalf of the Secretary, question a witness under oath whose testimony was obtained pursuant to this section.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 901; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §333(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §§3412, 3417(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 751, 757; Pub. L. 116–25, title I, §§1206(a), 1208(a), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 990, 991.)

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 116–25, §1206(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "An officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service may not contact any person other than the taxpayer with respect to the determination or collection of the tax liability of such taxpayer without providing reasonable notice in advance to the taxpayer that contacts with persons other than the taxpayer may be made."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 116–25, §1208(a), added subsec. (f).

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–206, §3417(a), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–206, §3417(a), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Pub. L. 105–206, §3412, added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–206, §3417(a), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e).

1982Pub. L. 97–248 redesignated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added subsec. (a) heading, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2019 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–25, title I, §1206(b), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 990, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to notices provided, and contacts of persons made, after the date which is 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 1, 2019]."

Pub. L. 116–25, title I, §1208(b), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 991, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section]—

"(1) shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 1, 2019]; and

"(2) shall not fail to apply to a contract in effect under section 6103(n) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 merely because such contract was in effect before the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3417(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 758, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to contacts made after the 180th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §333(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 623, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]."

§7603. Service of summons

(a) In general

A summons issued under section 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), 6427(j)(2), or 7602 shall be served by the Secretary, by an attested copy delivered in hand to the person to whom it is directed, or left at his last and usual place of abode; and the certificate of service signed by the person serving the summons shall be evidence of the facts it states on the hearing of an application for the enforcement of the summons. When the summons requires the production of books, papers, records, or other data, it shall be sufficient if such books, papers, records, or other data are described with reasonable certainty.

(b) Service by mail to third-party recordkeepers

(1) In general

A summons referred to in subsection (a) for the production of books, papers, records, or other data by a third-party recordkeeper may also be served by certified or registered mail to the last known address of such recordkeeper.

(2) Third-party recordkeeper

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "third-party recordkeeper" means—

(A) any mutual savings bank, cooperative bank, domestic building and loan association, or other savings institution chartered and supervised as a savings and loan or similar association under Federal or State law, any bank (as defined in section 581), or any credit union (within the meaning of section 501(c)(14)(A)),

(B) any consumer reporting agency (as defined under section 603(f) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681a(f))),

(C) any person extending credit through the use of credit cards or similar devices,

(D) any broker (as defined in section 3(a)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(4))),

(E) any attorney,

(F) any accountant,

(G) any barter exchange (as defined in section 6045(c)(3)),

(H) any regulated investment company (as defined in section 851) and any agent of such regulated investment company when acting as an agent thereof,

(I) any enrolled agent, and

(J) any owner or developer of a computer software source code (as defined in section 7612(d)(2)).


Subparagraph (J) shall apply only with respect to a summons requiring the production of the source code referred to in subparagraph (J) or the program and data described in section 7612(b)(1)(A)(ii) to which such source code relates.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 902; Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 160, §4(i), 70 Stat. 91; June 29, 1956, ch. 462, title II, §208(d)(4), 70 Stat. 396; Pub. L. 89–44, title II, §202(c)(4), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(d)(9), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 249; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 94–530, §1(c)(6), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2488; Pub. L. 95–599, title V, §505(c)(5), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2760; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(d)(4)(E), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(12), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(2)(G), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1007; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVII, §1703(e)(2)(G), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2778; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1017(c)(9), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3576, 3577; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §§3413(c), 3416(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 754, 756; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(26)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-648.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b)(2)(A) to (G). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted a comma for semicolon at end.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–206, §3416(a), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–206, §3416(a), added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, §3413(c), added subpar. (J) and concluding provisions.

1988Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), made technical correction to language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1703(e)(2)(G), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(9), substituted "6421(g)(2)" for "6421(f)(2)".

1986Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), substituted "6427(j)(2)" for "6427(i)(2)".

1984Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "6427(i)(2)" for "6427(h)(2)".

1983Pub. L. 97–424 struck out "6424(d)(2)," after "6421(f)(2),".

1980Pub. L. 96–223 substituted "6427(h)(2)" for "6427(g)(2)".

1978Pub. L. 95–599 substituted "6427(g)(2)" for "6427(f)(2)".

1976Pub. L. 94–530 substituted "6427(f)(2)" for "6427(e)(2)".

Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1970Pub. L. 91–258 inserted reference to section 6427(e)(2).

1965Pub. L. 89–44 inserted reference to section 6424(d)(2).

1956—Act June 29, 1956, inserted reference to section 6421(f)(2).

Act Apr. 2, 1956, inserted reference to section 6420(e)(2).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 3413(c) of Pub. L. 105–206 applicable to summonses issued, and software acquired, after July 22, 1998, see section 3413(e)(1) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7612 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3416(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 757, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to summonses served after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to gasoline removed (as defined in section 4082 of this title as amended by section 1703 of Pub. L. 99–514) after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1703(h) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 4081 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Aug. 1, 1984, see section 911(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–424 applicable with respect to articles sold after Jan. 6, 1983, see section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 232(h)(2) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–599 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 505(d) of Pub. L. 95–599, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–530 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 94–530, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–258 effective July 1, 1970, see section 211(a) of Pub. L. 91–258, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 effective Jan. 1, 1966, see section 701(a)(1), (2), of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 4161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act June 29, 1956, effective June 29, 1956, see section 211 of act June 29, 1956, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

§7604. Enforcement of summons

(a) Jurisdiction of district court

If any person is summoned under the internal revenue laws to appear, to testify, or to produce books, papers, records, or other data, the United States district court for the district in which such person resides or is found shall have jurisdiction by appropriate process to compel such attendance, testimony, or production of books, papers, records, or other data.

(b) Enforcement

Whenever any person summoned under section 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), 6427(j)(2), or 7602 neglects or refuses to obey such summons, or to produce books, papers, records, or other data, or to give testimony, as required, the Secretary may apply to the judge of the district court or to a United States magistrate judge for the district within which the person so summoned resides or is found for an attachment against him as for a contempt. It shall be the duty of the judge or magistrate judge to hear the application, and, if satisfactory proof is made, to issue an attachment, directed to some proper officer, for the arrest of such person, and upon his being brought before him to proceed to a hearing of the case; and upon such hearing the judge or the United States magistrate judge shall have power to make such order as he shall deem proper, not inconsistent with the law for the punishment of contempts, to enforce obedience to the requirements of the summons and to punish such person for his default or disobedience.

(c) Cross references

(1) Authority to issue orders, processes, and judgments

For authority of district courts generally to enforce the provisions of this title, see section 7402.

(2) Penalties

For penalties applicable to violation of section 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), 6427(j)(2), or 7602, see section 7210.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 902; Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 160, §4(i), 70 Stat. 91; June 29, 1956, ch. 462, title II, §208(d)(4), 70 Stat. 396; Pub. L. 89–44, title II, §202(c)(4), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(d)(9), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 249; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 94–530, §1(c)(6), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2488; Pub. L. 95–599, title V, §505(c)(5), (6), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2760; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(d)(4)(E), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(12), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(2)(G), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1007; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVII, §1703(e)(2)(G), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2778; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1017(c)(9), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3576, 3577; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1988—Subsecs. (b), (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), made technical correction to language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1703(e)(2)(G), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(9), substituted "6421(g)(2)" for "6421(f)(2)".

1986—Subsecs. (b), (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), substituted "6427(j)(2)" for "6427(i)(2)".

1984—Subsecs. (b), (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "6427(i)(2)" for "6427(h)(2)".

1983—Subsecs. (b), (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–424 struck out "6424(d)(2)," after "6421(f)(2),".

1980—Subsecs. (b), (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–223 substituted "6427(h)(2)" for "6427(g)(2)".

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–599, §505(c)(5), substituted "6427(g)(2)" for "6427(f)(2)".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 95–599, §505(c)(6), substituted "6427(g)(2)" for "6427(e)(2)".

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–530 substituted "6427(f)(2)" for "6427(e)(2)".

Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1970—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 91–258 inserted references to section 6427(e)(2).

1965—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 89–44 inserted references to section 6424(d)(2).

1956—Subsecs. (b), (c). Act Apr. 2, 1956, inserted references to section 6420(e)(2).

Act June 29, 1956, inserted references to section 6421(f)(2).

Change of Name

"United States magistrate judge" and "magistrate judge" substituted for "United States magistrate" and "magistrate", respectively, wherever appearing in subsec. (b) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, "United States magistrate" and "magistrate" substituted for "United States commissioner" and "commissioner", respectively, pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to gasoline removed (as defined in section 4082 of this title as amended by section 1703 of Pub. L. 99–514) after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1703(h) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 4081 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Aug. 1, 1984, see section 911(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–424 applicable with respect to articles sold after Jan. 6, 1983, see section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 232(h)(2) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–599 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 505(d) of Pub. L. 95–599, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–530 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 94–530, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–258 effective July 1, 1970, see section 211(a) of Pub. L. 91–258, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 effective Jan. 1, 1966, see section 701(a)(1), (2), of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 4161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act June 29, 1956, effective June 29, 1956, see section 211 of act June 29, 1956, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

§7605. Time and place of examination

(a) Time and place

The time and place of examination pursuant to the provisions of section 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), 6427(j)(2), or 7602 shall be such time and place as may be fixed by the Secretary and as are reasonable under the circumstances. In the case of a summons under authority of paragraph (2) of section 7602, or under the corresponding authority of section 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), or 6427(j)(2), the date fixed for appearance before the Secretary shall not be less than 10 days from the date of the summons.

(b) Restrictions on examination of taxpayer

No taxpayer shall be subjected to unnecessary examination or investigations, and only one inspection of a taxpayer's books of account shall be made for each taxable year unless the taxpayer requests otherwise or unless the Secretary, after investigation, notifies the taxpayer in writing that an additional inspection is necessary.

(c) Cross reference

For provisions restricting church tax inquiries and examinations, see section 7611.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 902; Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 160, §4(i), 70 Stat. 91; June 29, 1956, ch. 462, title II, §208(d)(4), 70 Stat. 396; Pub. L. 89–44, title II, §202(c)(4), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §121(f), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 548; Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(d)(9), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 249; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 94–530, §1(c)(6), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2488; Pub. L. 95–599, title V, §505(c)(5), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2760; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(d)(4)(E), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(12), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(2)(G), title X, §1033(c)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1007, 1039; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVII, §1703(e)(2)(G), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2778; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1017(c)(9), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3576, 3577.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), made technical correction to language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1703(e)(2)(G), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(9), substituted "6421(g)(2)" for "6421(f)(2)" in two places.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), substituted "6427(j)(2)" for "6427(i)(2)" in two places.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §911(d)(2)(G), substituted "6427(i)(2)" for "6427(h)(2)" in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §1033(c)(1), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting a cross reference relating to church tax inquiries for provisions relating to church tax inquiries.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–424 struck out "6424(d)(2)," after "6421(f)(2)," wherever appearing.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–223 substituted "6427(h)(2)" for "6427(g)(2)" wherever appearing.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–599 substituted "6427(g)(2)" for "6427(f)(2)" wherever appearing.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–530 substituted "6427(f)(2)" for "6427(e)(2)" wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–258 inserted references to section 6427(e)(2).

1969—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–172 added subsec. (c).

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–44 inserted references to section 6424(d)(2).

1956—Subsec. (a). Act June 29, 1956, inserted references to section 6421(f)(2).

Act Apr. 2, 1956, inserted references to section 6420(e)(2) in second sentence.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to gasoline removed (as defined in section 4082 of this title as amended by section 1703 of Pub. L. 99–514) after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1703(h) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 4081 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 911(d)(2)(G) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective Aug. 1, 1984, see section 911(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Amendment by section 1033(c)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to inquiries and examinations beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 1033(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7611 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–424 applicable with respect to articles sold after Jan. 6, 1983, see section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 232(h)(2) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–599 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 505(d) of Pub. L. 95–599, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–530 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 94–530, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–258 effective July 1, 1970, see section 211(a) of Pub. L. 91–258, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 effective Jan. 1, 1966, see section 701(a)(1), (2), of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 4161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act June 29, 1956, effective June 29, 1956, see section 211 of act June 29, 1956, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6228(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3732, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate shall issue regulations to implement subsection (a) of section 7605 of the 1986 Code (relating to time and place of examination) within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]."

§7606. Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects

(a) Entry during day

The Secretary may enter, in the daytime, any building or place where any articles or objects subject to tax are made, produced, or kept, so far as it may be necessary for the purpose of examining said articles or objects.

(b) Entry at night

When such premises are open at night, the Secretary may enter them while so open, in the performance of his official duties.

(c) Penalties

For penalty for refusal to permit entry or examination, see section 7342.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 903; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

[§7607. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §320(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2056, and Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §213(b)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2988]

Section, added July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, §104(a), 70 Stat. 570; amended Oct. 27, 1970, Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1102(g)(1), 84 Stat. 1292, set forth additional authority for Bureau of Customs with respect to firearms, warrants, etc.

Another section 7607 was renumbered section 7613 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 15, 1984, see section 214(e) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 1304 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

§7608. Authority of internal revenue enforcement officers

(a) Enforcement of subtitle E and other laws pertaining to liquor, tobacco, and firearms

Any investigator, agent, or other internal revenue officer by whatever term designated, whom the Secretary charges with the duty of enforcing any of the criminal, seizure, or forfeiture provisions of subtitle E or of any other law of the United States pertaining to the commodities subject to tax under such subtitle for the enforcement of which the Secretary is responsible, may—

(1) carry firearms;

(2) execute and serve search warrants and arrest warrants, and serve subpoenas and summonses issued under authority of the United States;

(3) in respect to the performance of such duty, make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in his presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if he has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed, or is committing, such felony; and

(4) in respect to the performance of such duty, make seizures of property subject to forfeiture to the United States.

(b) Enforcement of laws relating to internal revenue other than subtitle E

(1) Any criminal investigator of the Intelligence Division of the Internal Revenue Service whom the Secretary charges with the duty of enforcing any of the criminal provisions of the internal revenue laws, any other criminal provisions of law relating to internal revenue for the enforcement of which the Secretary is responsible, or any other law for which the Secretary has delegated investigatory authority to the Internal Revenue Service, is, in the performance of his duties, authorized to perform the functions described in paragraph (2).

(2) The functions authorized under this subsection to be performed by an officer referred to in paragraph (1) are—

(A) to execute and serve search warrants and arrest warrants, and serve subpoenas and summonses issued under authority of the United States;

(B) to make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States relating to the internal revenue laws committed in his presence, or for any felony cognizable under such laws if he has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing any such felony; and

(C) to make seizures of property subject to forfeiture under the internal revenue laws.

(c) Rules relating to undercover operations

(1) Certification required for exemption of undercover operations from certain laws

With respect to any undercover investigative operation of the Internal Revenue Service (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "Service") which is necessary for the detection and prosecution of offenses under the internal revenue laws, any other criminal provisions of law relating to internal revenue, or any other law for which the Secretary has delegated investigatory authority to the Internal Revenue Service—

(A) sums authorized to be appropriated for the Service may be used—

(i) to purchase property, buildings, and other facilities, and to lease space, within the United States, the District of Columbia, and the territories and possessions of the United States without regard to—

(I) sections 1341 and 3324 of title 31, United States Code,

(II) sections 6301(a) and (b)(1)–(3) and 6306 of title 41, United States Code,

(III) chapter 45 of title 41, United States Code,

(IV) section 8141 of title 40, United States Code, and

(V) section 3901 of title 41, United States Code, and


(ii) to establish or to acquire proprietary corporations or business entities as part of the undercover operation, and to operate such corporations or business entities on a commercial basis, without regard to sections 9102 and 9103 of title 31, United States Code;


(B) sums authorized to be appropriated for the Service and the proceeds from the undercover operations may be deposited in banks or other financial institutions without regard to the provisions of section 648 of title 18, United States Code, and section 3302 of title 31, United States Code, and

(C) the proceeds from the undercover operation may be used to offset necessary and reasonable expenses incurred in such operation without regard to the provisions of section 3302 of title 31, United States Code.


This paragraph shall apply only upon the written certification of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (or, if designated by the Commissioner, the Deputy Commissioner or an Assistant Commissioner of Internal Revenue) that any action authorized by subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) is necessary for the conduct of such undercover operation.

(2) Liquidation of corporations and business entities

If a corporation or business entity established or acquired as part of an undercover operation under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) with a net value over $50,000 is to be liquidated, sold, or otherwise disposed of, the Service, as much in advance as the Commissioner or his delegate determines is practicable, shall report the circumstances to the Secretary. The proceeds of the liquidation, sale, or other disposition, after obligations are met, shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(3) Deposit of proceeds

As soon as the proceeds from an undercover investigative operation with respect to which an action is authorized and carried out under subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1) are no longer necessary for the conduct of such operation, such proceeds or the balance of such proceeds remaining at the time shall be deposited into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(4) Audits

(A) The Service shall conduct a detailed financial audit of each undercover investigative operation which is closed in each fiscal year; and

(i) submit the results of the audit in writing to the Secretary; and

(ii) not later than 180 days after such undercover operation is closed, submit a report to the Congress concerning such audit.


(B) The Service shall also submit a report annually to the Congress specifying as to its undercover investigative operations—

(i) the number, by programs, of undercover investigative operations pending as of the end of the 1-year period for which such report is submitted;

(ii) the number, by programs, of undercover investigative operations commenced in the 1-year period for which such report is submitted;

(iii) the number, by programs, of undercover investigative operations closed in the 1-year period for which such report is submitted, and

(iv) the following information with respect to each undercover investigative operation pending as of the end of the 1-year period for which such report is submitted or closed during such 1-year period—

(I) the date the operation began and the date of the certification referred to in the last sentence of paragraph (1),

(II) the total expenditures under the operation and the amount and use of the proceeds from the operation,

(III) a detailed description of the operation including the potential violation being investigated and whether the operation is being conducted under grand jury auspices, and

(IV) the results of the operation including the results of criminal proceedings.

(5) Definitions

For purposes of paragraph (4)—

(A) Closed

The term "closed" means the date on which the later of the following occurs;

(i) all criminal proceedings (other than appeals) are concluded, or

(ii) covert activities are concluded, whichever occurs later.

(B) Employees

The term "employees" has the meaning given such term by section 2105 of title 5, United States Code.

(C) Undercover investigative operation

The term "undercover investigative operation" means any undercover investigative operation of the Service; except that, for purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (C) of paragraph (4), such term only includes an operation which is exempt from section 3302 or 9102 of title 31, United States Code.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §204(14), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1429; amended Pub. L. 87–863, §6(a), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1143; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7601(c)(1), (2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4504; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11704(a)(32), (33), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–519; Pub. L. 104–168, title XII, §1205(b)–(c)(2), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1471, 1472; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, §113, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3833; Pub. L. 105–206, title I, §1103(e)(4), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §303], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-632; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(f), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1299; Pub. L. 108–178, §4(e), Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2641; Pub. L. 109–135, title III, §304, Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2609; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §121, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3875; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(f), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3848.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7608 was renumbered section 7613 of this title.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i)(II). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(f)(1), substituted "sections 6301(a) and (b)(1)–(3) and 6306" for "sections 11(a) and 22".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i)(III). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(f)(2), substituted "chapter 45" for "section 255".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i)(V). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(f)(3), substituted "section 3901" for "section 254(a) and (c)".

2008—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 110–343 struck out par. (6). Text read as follows: "The provisions of this subsection—

"(A) shall apply after November 17, 1988, and before January 1, 1990, and

"(B) shall apply after the date of the enactment of this paragraph and before January 1, 2008.

All amounts expended pursuant to this subsection during the period described in subparagraph (B) shall be recovered to the extent possible, and deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts, before January 1, 2008."

2006—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 109–432 substituted "2008" for "2007" in subpar. (B) and concluding provisions.

2005—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 109–135 substituted "January 1, 2007" for "January 1, 2006" in subpar. (B) and concluding provisions.

2003—Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 108–178 substituted "title 40, United States Code" for "title 40".

2002—Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted "section 8141 of title 40" for "section 34 of title 40, United States Code".

2000—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted "January 1, 2006" for "January 1, 2001" in subpar. (B) and concluding provisions.

1998—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–206 struck out "or of the Internal Security Division" after "Intelligence Division".

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–316 struck out "and the Comptroller General of the United States" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–168, §1205(c)(1)(A), (B), struck out "preceding the period" after "in the 1-year period" and "and" at end.

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 104–168, §1205(c)(1)(C), added cls. (iii) and (iv) and struck out former cl. (iii) which read as follows: "the number, by programs, of undercover investigative operations closed in the 1-year period preceding the period for which such report is submitted and, with respect to each such closed undercover operation, the results obtained and any civil claims made with respect thereto."

Subsec. (c)(5)(C). Pub. L. 104–168, §1205(c)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The terms 'undercover investigative operation' and 'undercover operation' mean any undercover investigative operation of the Service—

"(i) in which—

"(I) the gross receipts (excluding interest earned) exceed $50,000; or

"(II) expenditures, both recoverable and nonrecoverable (other than expenditures for salaries of employees), exceed $150,000; and

"(ii) which is exempt from section 3302 or 9102 of title 31, United States Code.

Clauses (i) and (ii) shall not apply with respect to the report required under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4)."

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 104–168, §1205(b), added par. (6).

1990—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11704(a)(32), struck out comma after "operations".

Subsec. (c)(5)(C). Pub. L. 101–508, §11704(a)(33), substituted "interest" for "interested" in cl. (i)(I) and "title 31" for "title 3" in cl. (ii).

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–690, §7601(c)(1), substituted comma for "or" before "any other" and inserted ", or any other law for which the Secretary has delegated investigatory authority to the Internal Revenue Service," after "responsible".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–690, §7601(c)(2), added subsec. (c).

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

1962Pub. L. 87–863 redesignated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added subsec. (a) heading, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3875, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to operations conducted after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 3, 2008]."

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–178 effective Aug. 21, 2002, see section 5 of Pub. L. 108–178, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–168, title XII, §1205(c)(3), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1472, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 30, 1996]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7601(c)(3), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4507, as amended by Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXIII, §3301(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4917; Pub. L. 104–168, title XII, §1205(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1471, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–863, §6(b), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1143, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the day after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1962]."

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 3, 1958, see section 210(a)(1) of Pub. L. 85–859, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.

§7609. Special procedures for third-party summonses

(a) Notice

(1) In general

If any summons to which this section applies requires the giving of testimony on or relating to, the production of any portion of records made or kept on or relating to, or the production of any computer software source code (as defined in 7612(d)(2)) with respect to, any person (other than the person summoned) who is identified in the summons, then notice of the summons shall be given to any person so identified within 3 days of the day on which such service is made, but no later than the 23rd day before the day fixed in the summons as the day upon which such records are to be examined. Such notice shall be accompanied by a copy of the summons which has been served and shall contain an explanation of the right under subsection (b)(2) to bring a proceeding to quash the summons.

(2) Sufficiency of notice

Such notice shall be sufficient if, on or before such third day, such notice is served in the manner provided in section 7603 (relating to service of summons) upon the person entitled to notice, or is mailed by certified or registered mail to the last known address of such person, or, in the absence of a last known address, is left with the person summoned. If such notice is mailed, it shall be sufficient if mailed to the last known address of the person entitled to notice or, in the case of notice to the Secretary under section 6903 of the existence of a fiduciary relationship, to the last known address of the fiduciary of such person, even if such person or fiduciary is then deceased, under a legal disability, or no longer in existence.

(3) Nature of summons

Any summons to which this subsection applies (and any summons in aid of collection described in subsection (c)(2)(D)) shall identify the taxpayer to whom the summons relates or the other person to whom the records pertain and shall provide such other information as will enable the person summoned to locate the records required under the summons.

(b) Right to intervene; right to proceeding to quash

(1) Intervention

Notwithstanding any other law or rule of law, any person who is entitled to notice of a summons under subsection (a) shall have the right to intervene in any proceeding with respect to the enforcement of such summons under section 7604.

(2) Proceeding to quash

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other law or rule of law, any person who is entitled to notice of a summons under subsection (a) shall have the right to begin a proceeding to quash such summons not later than the 20th day after the day such notice is given in the manner provided in subsection (a)(2). In any such proceeding, the Secretary may seek to compel compliance with the summons.

(B) Requirement of notice to person summoned and to Secretary

If any person begins a proceeding under subparagraph (A) with respect to any summons, not later than the close of the 20-day period referred to in subparagraph (A) such person shall mail by registered or certified mail a copy of the petition to the person summoned and to such office as the Secretary may direct in the notice referred to in subsection (a)(1).

(C) Intervention; etc.

Notwithstanding any other law or rule of law, the person summoned shall have the right to intervene in any proceeding under subparagraph (A). Such person shall be bound by the decision in such proceeding (whether or not the person intervenes in such proceeding).

(c) Summons to which section applies

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section shall apply to any summons issued under paragraph (2) of section 7602(a) or under section 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), 6427(j)(2), or 7612.

(2) Exceptions

This section shall not apply to any summons—

(A) served on the person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued, or any officer or employee of such person;

(B) issued to determine whether or not records of the business transactions or affairs of an identified person have been made or kept;

(C) issued solely to determine the identity of any person having a numbered account (or similar arrangement) with a bank or other institution described in section 7603(b)(2)(A);

(D) issued in aid of the collection of—

(i) an assessment made or judgment rendered against the person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued; or

(ii) the liability at law or in equity of any transferee or fiduciary of any person referred to in clause (i); or


(E)(i) issued by a criminal investigator of the Internal Revenue Service in connection with the investigation of an offense connected with the administration or enforcement of the internal revenue laws; and

(ii) served on any person who is not a third-party recordkeeper (as defined in section 7603(b)).

(3) John Doe and certain other summonses

Subsection (a) shall not apply to any summons described in subsection (f) or (g).

(4) Records

For purposes of this section, the term "records" includes books, papers, and other data.

(d) Restriction on examination of records

No examination of any records required to be produced under a summons as to which notice is required under subsection (a) may be made—

(1) before the close of the 23rd day after the day notice with respect to the summons is given in the manner provided in subsection (a)(2), or

(2) where a proceeding under subsection (b)(2)(A) was begun within the 20-day period referred to in such subsection and the requirements of subsection (b)(2)(B) have been met, except in accordance with an order of the court having jurisdiction of such proceeding or with the consent of the person beginning the proceeding to quash.

(e) Suspension of statute of limitations

(1) Subsection (b) action

If any person takes any action as provided in subsection (b) and such person is the person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued (or is the agent, nominee, or other person acting under the direction or control of such person), then the running of any period of limitations under section 6501 (relating to the assessment and collection of tax) or under section 6531 (relating to criminal prosecutions) with respect to such person shall be suspended for the period during which a proceeding, and appeals therein, with respect to the enforcement of such summons is pending.

(2) Suspension after 6 months of service of summons

In the absence of the resolution of the summoned party's response to the summons, the running of any period of limitations under section 6501 or under section 6531 with respect to any person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued (other than a person taking action as provided in subsection (b)) shall be suspended for the period—

(A) beginning on the date which is 6 months after the service of such summons, and

(B) ending with the final resolution of such response.

(f) Additional requirement in the case of a John Doe summons

Any summons described in subsection (c)(1) which does not identify the person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued may be served only after a court proceeding in which the Secretary establishes that—

(1) the summons relates to the investigation of a particular person or ascertainable group or class of persons,

(2) there is a reasonable basis for believing that such person or group or class of persons may fail or may have failed to comply with any provision of any internal revenue law, and

(3) the information sought to be obtained from the examination of the records or testimony (and the identity of the person or persons with respect to whose liability the summons is issued) is not readily available from other sources.


The Secretary shall not issue any summons described in the preceding sentence unless the information sought to be obtained is narrowly tailored to information that pertains to the failure (or potential failure) of the person or group or class of persons referred to in paragraph (2) to comply with one or more provisions of the internal revenue law which have been identified for purposes of such paragraph.

(g) Special exception for certain summonses

A summons is described in this subsection if, upon petition by the Secretary, the court determines, on the basis of the facts and circumstances alleged, that there is reasonable cause to believe the giving of notice may lead to attempts to conceal, destroy, or alter records relevant to the examination, to prevent the communication of information from other persons through intimidation, bribery, or collusion, or to flee to avoid prosecution, testifying, or production of records.

(h) Jurisdiction of district court; etc.

(1) Jurisdiction

The United States district court for the district within which the person to be summoned resides or is found shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine any proceeding brought under subsection (b)(2), (f), or (g). An order denying the petition shall be deemed a final order which may be appealed.

(2) Special rule for proceedings under subsections (f) and (g)

The determinations required to be made under subsections (f) and (g) shall be made ex parte and shall be made solely on the petition and supporting affidavits.

(i) Duty of summoned party

(1) Recordkeeper must assemble records and be prepared to produce records

On receipt of a summons to which this section applies for the production of records, the summoned party shall proceed to assemble the records requested, or such portion thereof as the Secretary may prescribe, and shall be prepared to produce the records pursuant to the summons on the day on which the records are to be examined.

(2) Secretary may give summoned party certificate

The Secretary may issue a certificate to the summoned party that the period prescribed for beginning a proceeding to quash a summons has expired and that no such proceeding began within such period, or that the taxpayer consents to the examination.

(3) Protection for summoned party who discloses

Any summoned party, or agent or employee thereof, making a disclosure of records or testimony pursuant to this section in good faith reliance on the certificate of the Secretary or an order of a court requiring production of records or the giving of such testimony shall not be liable to any customer or other person for such disclosure.

(4) Notice of suspension of statute of limitations in the case of a John Doe summons

In the case of a summons described in subsection (f) with respect to which any period of limitations has been suspended under subsection (e)(2), the summoned party shall provide notice of such suspension to any person described in subsection (f).

(j) Use of summons not required

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the Secretary's ability to obtain information, other than by summons, through formal or informal procedures authorized by sections 7601 and 7602.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1205(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1699; amended Pub. L. 95–599, title V, §505(c)(6), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2760; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §703(l)(4), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2943; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(d)(4)(E), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§311(b), 331(a)–(d), 332(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 601, 620, 621; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(12), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §714(i), title IX, §911(d)(2)(G), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 962, 1007; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(28)(D), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §656(a), title XV, §1561(a), (b), title XVII, §1703(e)(2)(G), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2299, 2761, 2778; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1015(l)(1), (2), 1017(c)(9), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3571, 3572, 3576, 3577; Pub. L. 104–168, title X, §1001(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1467; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3415(a)–(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 755; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §408(a), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2635; Pub. L. 116–25, title I, §1204(a), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 988.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7609 was renumbered section 7613 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 116–25 inserted concluding provisions.

2005—Subsec. (c)(2)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 109–135, §408(a)(1), inserted "or" at end of subpar. (D), substituted period for "; or" at end of subpar. (E), and struck out subpar. (F) which read as follows: "described in subsection (f) or (g)."

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 109–135, §408(a)(2), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(a), reenacted heading without change and in text substituted "If any summons to which this section applies requires the giving of testimony on or relating to, the production of any portion of records made or kept on or relating to, or the production of any computer software source code (as defined in 7612(d)(2)) with respect to, any person (other than the person summoned) who is identified in the summons, then" for "If—

"(A) any summons described in subsection (c) is served on any person who is a third-party recordkeeper, and

"(B) the summons requires the production of any portion of records made or kept of the business transactions or affairs of any person (other than the person summoned) who is identified in the description of the records contained in the summons,

then".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(1), redesignated par. (5) as (3), substituted "subsection (c)(2)(D)" for "subsection (c)(2)(B)", and struck out heading and text of former par. (3). Text read as follows: "For purposes of this subsection, the term 'third-party recordkeeper' means—

"(A) any mutual savings bank, cooperative bank, domestic building and loan association, or other savings institution chartered and supervised as a savings and loan or similar association under Federal or State law, any bank (as defined in section 581), or any credit union (within the meaning of section 501(c)(14)(A));

"(B) any consumer reporting agency (as defined under section 603(d) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681a(f)));

"(C) any person extending credit through the use of credit cards or similar devices;

"(D) any broker (as defined in section 3(a)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(4)));

"(E) any attorney;

"(F) any accountant;

"(G) any barter exchange (as defined in section 6045(c)(3));

"(H) any regulated investment company (as defined in section 851) and any agent of such regulated investment company when acting as an agent thereof; and

"(I) any enrolled agent."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(1), struck out heading and text of par. (4). Text read as follows: "Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any summons—

"(A) served on the person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued, or any officer or employee of such person,

"(B) to determine whether or not records of the business transactions or affairs of an identified person have been made or kept, or

"(C) described in subsection (f)."

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(1), redesignated par. (5) as (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which had: in par. (1) declared a general rule of including within subsection summons issued under sections 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), 6427(j)(2), or 7602(a)(2); in par. (2) set forth exceptions where summons was solely to determine identity of person having a numbered account, or was in aid of collection of liability of person against whom assessment or judgment had been made, or his transferee or fiduciary; and in par. (3) defined "records" and declared that summons requiring testimony about records would be treated as summons requiring production of such records.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(3), substituted "summoned party's response to the summons" for "third-party recordkeeper's response to the summons described in subsection (c), or the summoned party's response to a summons described in subsection (f)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(4)(A), substituted "subsection (c)(1)" for "subsection (c)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(4)(B), inserted "or testimony" after "records".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(5), substituted "A summons is described in this subsection if" for "In the case of any summons described in subsection (c), the provisions of subsections (a)(1) and (b) shall not apply if".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(6)(A), struck out "third-party recordkeeper and" after "Duty of" in heading.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(6)(B), substituted "to which this section applies for the production of records, the summoned party" for "described in subsection (c), the third-party recordkeeper".

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(6)(C), substituted "summoned party" for "recordkeeper" in heading and "the summoned party" for "the third-party recordkeeper" in text.

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(c)(6)(D), substituted "summoned party" for "recordkeeper" in heading and amended text of par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any third-party recordkeeper, or agent or employee thereof, making a disclosure of records pursuant to this section in good-faith reliance on the certificate of the Secrtetary or an order of a court requiring production of records shall not be liable to any customer or other person for such disclosure."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–206, §3415(b), added subsec. (j).

1996—Subsec. (a)(3)(I). Pub. L. 104–168 added subpar. (I).

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), made technical correction to language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1703(e)(2)(G), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(9), substituted "6421(g)(2)" for "6421(f)(2)".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1015(l)(1), inserted "or the summoned party's response to a summons described in subsection (f)," after "the summons described in subsection (c)," and substituted "the summons is issued" for "the summons is issued other".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1015(l)(2)(B), inserted "and summoned party" after "recordkeeper" in heading.

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1015(l)(2)(A), substituted "the summoned party" for "the third-party recordkeeper".

1986—Subsec. (a)(3)(H). Pub. L. 99–514, §656(a), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1703(e)(2)(G), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), substituted "6427(j)(2)" for "6427(i)(2)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1561(a), amended subsec. (e) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1), inserting heading, and adding par. (2).

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1561(b), added par. (4).

1984—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §714(i), substituted "7602(a)" for "7602".

Pub. L. 98–369, §911(d)(2)(G), substituted "6427(i)(2)" for "6427(h)(2)".

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out par. (3) which had provided that except as to cases the court considered to be of greater importance, proceedings brought for the enforcement of any summons, or proceedings under this section, and appeals, would take precedence on the docket over all other cases and would be assigned for hearing and decided at the earliest practicable date.

1983—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–424 struck out "6424(d)(2)," after "6421(f)(2),".

1982—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–248, §331(d)(1), substituted "the 23rd day" for "the 14th day", and substituted "an explanation of the right under subsection (b)(2) to bring a proceeding to quash the summons" for "directions for staying compliance with the summons under subsection (b)(2)" at the end.

Subsec. (a)(3)(G). Pub. L. 97–248, §311(b), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–248, §331(a), (d)(2), substituted "right to proceeding to quash" for "right to stay compliance" in heading, and in par. (2) substituted "Proceeding to quash" for "Right to stay compliance" as par. (2) heading, designated former undesignated matter as subpar. (A), in (A) as so designated substituted provisions giving persons entitled to notice 20 days to begin a proceeding to quash, for provisions giving persons entitled to notice the right to stay compliance if they complied with the provisions of former subpars. (A) and (B) within 14 days, and inserted provision that the Secretary may seek to compel compliance with the summons, struck out former subpar. (A) which provided that notice to the person summoned not to comply with the summons be given in writing, in subpar. (B) substituted provisions that copies of the petition in the proceeding to quash the summons be mailed within the 20-day period, for provisions that copies of the notice not to comply with the summons be mailed, and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–248, §331(b), substituted in par. (1) provision that, no examination of records be made before the close of the 23rd day after the notice of summons, for provision that the examination may not be made before the end of the former 14-day period allowed for notice to be given to the person summoned not to comply, and in par. (2) substituted "where a proceeding under subsection (b)(2)(A) was begun within the 20-day period referred to in such subsection and the requirements of subsection (b)(2)(B) have been met," for "when the requirements of subsection (b)(2) have been met," and "of the court having jurisdiction of such proceeding or with the consent of the person beginning the proceeding to quash" for "issued by a court of competent jurisdiction authorizing examination of such records or with the consent of the person staying compliance".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–248, §331(c), inserted "; etc." after "court" in heading, in par. (1) added heading and substituted "any proceeding" for "proceedings" after "determine", substituted "subsection (b)(2), (f), or (g)" for "subsections (f) or (g)", designated former second sentence of par. (1) as par. (2) and added heading, redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and in par. (3) as so redesignated, added heading and substituted "all other cases" for "all cases".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–248, §332(a), added subsec. (i).

1980—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–223 substituted "6427(h)(2)" for "6427(g)(2)".

1978—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–600 which purported to substitute "6427(f)(2)" for "6427(e)(2)" was not executed in view of the amendment made by Pub. L. 95–599. See below.

Pub. L. 95–599 substituted "6427(g)(2)" for "6427(e)(2)".

Effective Date of 2019 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–25, title I, §1204(b), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 989, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to summonses served after the date that is 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 1, 2019]."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §408(b), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2635, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 3415 of the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 [Pub. L. 105–206]."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3415(d), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 756, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to summonses served after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–168, title X, §1001(b), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1468, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to summonses issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 30, 1996]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1015(l)(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3572, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]."

Amendment by section 1017(c)(9), (12) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §656(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2299, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to summonses served after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, §1561(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2761, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Amendment by section 1703(e)(2)(G) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to gasoline removed (as defined in section 4082 of this title, as amended by section 1703 of Pub. L. 99–514) after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1703(h) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 4081 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendment by section 714(i) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Amendment by section 911(d)(2)(G) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective Aug. 1, 1984, see section 911(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–424 applicable with respect to articles sold after Jan. 6, 1983, see section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §311(c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 601, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to summonses served after December 31, 1982."

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §331(e), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 621, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to summonses served after December 31, 1982."

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §332(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 622, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to summonses served after December 31, 1982."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 232(h)(2) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 effective Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out a note under section 46 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–599 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 505(d) of Pub. L. 95–599, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1205(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1703, as amended by Pub. L. 94–528, §2(b), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2483, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 7610 of this title] shall apply with respect to any summons issued after February 28, 1977."

§7610. Fees and costs for witnesses

(a) In general

The Secretary shall by regulations establish the rates and conditions under which payment may be made of—

(1) fees and mileage to persons who are summoned to appear before the Secretary, and

(2) reimbursement for such costs that are reasonably necessary which have been directly incurred in searching for, reproducing, or transporting books, papers, records, or other data required to be produced by summons.

(b) Exceptions

No payment may be made under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) if—

(1) the person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued has a proprietary interest in the books, papers, records or other data required to be produced, or

(2) the person summoned is the person with respect to whose liability the summons is issued or an officer, employee, agent, accountant, or attorney of such person who, at the time the summons is served, is acting as such.

(c) Summons to which section applies

This section applies with respect to any summons authorized under section 6420(e)(2), 6421(g)(2), 6427(j)(2), or 7602.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1205(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1699; amended Pub. L. 95–599, title V, §505(c)(6), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2760; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(d)(4)(E), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(12), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(2)(G), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1007; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVII, §1703(e)(2)(G), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2778; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1017(c)(9), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3576, 3577.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), made technical correction to language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1703(e)(2)(G), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(9), substituted "6421(g)(2)" for "6421(f)(2)".

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1017(c)(12), substituted "6427(j)(2)" for "6427(i)(2)".

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "6427(i)(2)" for "6427(h)(2)".

1983—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–424 struck out "6424(d)(2)," after "6421(f)(2),".

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–223 substituted "6427(h)(2)" for "6427(g)(2)".

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–599 substituted "6427(g)(2)" for "6427(e)(2)".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to gasoline removed (as defined in section 4082 of this title as amended by section 1703 of Pub. L. 99–514) after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1703(h) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 4081 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Aug. 1, 1984, see section 911(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–424 applicable with respect to articles sold after Jan. 6, 1983, see section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 232(h)(2) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–599 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 505(d) of Pub. L. 95–599, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

§7611. Restrictions on church tax inquiries and examinations

(a) Restrictions on inquiries

(1) In general

The Secretary may begin a church tax inquiry only if—

(A) the reasonable belief requirements of paragraph (2), and

(B) the notice requirements of paragraph (3), have been met.

(2) Reasonable belief requirements

The requirements of this paragraph are met with respect to any church tax inquiry if an appropriate high-level Treasury official reasonably believes (on the basis of facts and circumstances recorded in writing) that the church—

(A) may not be exempt, by reason of its status as a church, from tax under section 501(a), or

(B) may be carrying on an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513) or otherwise engaged in activities subject to taxation under this title.

(3) Inquiry notice requirements

(A) In general

The requirements of this paragraph are met with respect to any church tax inquiry if, before beginning such inquiry, the Secretary provides written notice to the church of the beginning of such inquiry.

(B) Contents of inquiry notice

The notice required by this paragraph shall include—

(i) an explanation of—

(I) the concerns which gave rise to such inquiry, and

(II) the general subject matter of such inquiry, and


(ii) a general explanation of the applicable—

(I) administrative and constitutional provisions with respect to such inquiry (including the right to a conference with the Secretary before any examination of church records), and

(II) provisions of this title which authorize such inquiry or which may be otherwise involved in such inquiry.

(b) Restrictions on examinations

(1) In general

The Secretary may begin a church tax examination only if the requirements of paragraph (2) have been met and such examination may be made only—

(A) in the case of church records, to the extent necessary to determine the liability for, and the amount of, any tax imposed by this title, and

(B) in the case of religious activities, to the extent necessary to determine whether an organization claiming to be a church is a church for any period.

(2) Notice of examination; opportunity for conference

The requirements of this paragraph are met with respect to any church tax examination if—

(A) at least 15 days before the beginning of such examination, the Secretary provides the notice described in paragraph (3) to both the church and the appropriate regional counsel of the Internal Revenue Service, and

(B) the church has a reasonable time to participate in a conference described in paragraph (3)(A)(iii), but only if the church requests such a conference before the beginning of the examination.

(3) Contents of examination notice, et cetera

(A) In general

The notice described in this paragraph is a written notice which includes—

(i) a copy of the church tax inquiry notice provided to the church under subsection (a),

(ii) a description of the church records and activities which the Secretary seeks to examine,

(iii) an offer to have a conference between the church and the Secretary in order to discuss, and attempt to resolve, concerns relating to such examination, and

(iv) a copy of all documents which were collected or prepared by the Internal Revenue Service for use in such examination and the disclosure of which is required by the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552).

(B) Earliest day examination notice may be provided

The examination notice described in subparagraph (A) shall not be provided to the church before the 15th day after the date on which the church tax inquiry notice was provided to the church under subsection (a).

(C) Opinion of regional counsel with respect to examination

Any regional counsel of the Internal Revenue Service who receives an examination notice under paragraph (1) may, within 15 days after such notice is provided, submit to the regional commissioner for the region an advisory objection to the examination.

(4) Examination of records and activities not specified in notice

Within the course of a church tax examination which (at the time the examination begins) meets the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2), the Secretary may examine any church records or religious activities which were not specified in the examination notice to the extent such examination meets the requirement of subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) (whichever applies).

(c) Limitation on period of inquiries and examinations

(1) Inquiries and examinations must be completed within 2 years

(A) In general

The Secretary shall complete any church tax status inquiry or examination (and make a final determination with respect thereto) not later than the date which is 2 years after the examination notice date.

(B) Inquiries not followed by examinations

In the case of a church tax inquiry with respect to which there is no examination notice under subsection (b), the Secretary shall complete such inquiry (and make a final determination with respect thereto) not later than the date which is 90 days after the inquiry notice date.

(2) Suspension of 2-year period

The running of the 2-year period described in paragraph (1)(A) and the 90-day period in paragraph (1)(B) shall be suspended—

(A) for any period during which—

(i) a judicial proceeding brought by the church against the Secretary with respect to the church tax inquiry or examination is pending or being appealed,

(ii) a judicial proceeding brought by the Secretary against the church (or any official thereof) to compel compliance with any reasonable request of the Secretary in a church tax examination for examination of church records or religious activities is pending or being appealed, or

(iii) the Secretary is unable to take actions with respect to the church tax inquiry or examination by reason of an order issued in any judicial proceeding brought under section 7609,


(B) for any period in excess of 20 days (but not in excess of 6 months) in which the church or its agents fail to comply with any reasonable request of the Secretary for church records or other information, or

(C) for any period mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the church.

(d) Limitations on revocation of tax-exempt status, etc.

(1) In general

The Secretary may—

(A) determine that an organization is not a church which—

(i) is exempt from taxation by reason of section 501(a), or

(ii) is described in section 170(c), or


(B)(i) send a notice of deficiency of any tax involved in a church tax examination, or

(ii) in the case of any tax with respect to which subchapter B of chapter 63 (relating to deficiency procedures) does not apply, assess any underpayment of such tax involved in a church tax examination,


only if the appropriate regional counsel of the Internal Revenue Service determines in writing that there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of this section and approves in writing of such revocation, notice of deficiency, or assessment.

(2) Limitations on period of assessment

(A) Revocation of tax-exempt status

(i) 3-year statute of limitations generally

In the case of any church tax examination with respect to the revocation of tax-exempt status under section 501(a), any tax imposed by chapter 1 (other than section 511) may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, only for the 3 most recent taxable years ending before the examination notice date.

(ii) 6-year statute of limitations where tax-exempt status revoked

If an organization is not a church exempt from tax under section 501(a) for any of the 3 taxable years described in clause (i), clause (i) shall be applied by substituting "6 most recent taxable years" for "3 most recent taxable years".

(B) Unrelated business tax

In the case of any church tax examination with respect to the tax imposed by section 511 (relating to unrelated business income), such tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, only with respect to the 6 most recent taxable years ending before the examination notice date.

(C) Exception where shorter statute of limitations otherwise applicable

Subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not be construed to increase the period otherwise applicable under subchapter A of chapter 66 (relating to limitations on assessment and collection).

(e) Information not collected in substantial compliance with procedures to stay summons proceeding

(1) In general

If there has not been substantial compliance with—

(A) the notice requirements of subsection (a) or (b),

(B) the conference requirement described in subsection (b)(3)(A)(iii), or

(C) the approval requirement of subsection (d)(1) (if applicable),


with respect to any church tax inquiry or examination, any proceeding to compel compliance with any summons with respect to such inquiry or examination shall be stayed until the court finds that all practicable steps to correct the noncompliance have been taken. The period applicable under paragraph (1) or subsection (c) shall not be suspended during the period of any stay under the preceding sentence.

(2) Remedy to be exclusive

No suit may be maintained, and no defense may be raised in any proceeding (other than as provided in paragraph (1)), by reason of any noncompliance by the Secretary with the requirements of this section.

(f) Limitations on additional inquiries and examinations

(1) In general

If any church tax inquiry or examination with respect to any church is completed and does not result in—

(A) a revocation, notice of deficiency, or assessment described in subsection (d)(1), or

(B) a request by the Secretary for any significant change in the operational practices of the church (including the adequacy of accounting practices),


no other church tax inquiry or examination may begin with respect to such church during the applicable 5-year period unless such inquiry or examination is approved in writing by the Secretary or does not involve the same or similar issues involved in the preceding inquiry or examination. For purposes of the preceding sentence, an inquiry or examination shall be treated as completed not later than the expiration of the applicable period under paragraph (1) of subsection (c).

(2) Applicable 5-year period

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "applicable 5-year period" means the 5-year period beginning on the date the notice taken into account for purposes of subsection (c)(1) was provided. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the rules of subsection (c)(2) shall apply.

(g) Treatment of final report of revenue agent

Any final report of an agent of the Internal Revenue Service shall be treated as a determination of the Secretary under paragraph (1) of section 7428(a), and any church receiving such a report shall be treated for purposes of sections 7428 and 7430 as having exhausted the administrative remedies available to it.

(h) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Church

The term "church" includes—

(A) any organization claiming to be a church, and

(B) any convention or association of churches.

(2) Church tax inquiry

The term "church tax inquiry" means any inquiry to a church (other than an examination) to serve as a basis for determining whether a church—

(A) is exempt from tax under section 501(a) by reason of its status as a church, or

(B) is carrying on an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513) or otherwise engaged in activities which may be subject to taxation under this title.

(3) Church tax examination

The term "church tax examination" means any examination for purposes of making a determination described in paragraph (2) of—

(A) church records at the request of the Internal Revenue Service, or

(B) the religious activities of any church.

(4) Church records

(A) In general

The term "church records" means all corporate and financial records regularly kept by a church, including corporate minute books and lists of members and contributors.

(B) Exception

Such term shall not include records acquired—

(i) pursuant to a summons to which section 7609 applies, or

(ii) from any governmental agency.

(5) Inquiry notice date

The term "inquiry notice date" means the date the notice with respect to a church tax inquiry is provided under subsection (a).

(6) Examination notice date

The term "examination notice date" means the date the notice with respect to a church tax examination is provided under subsection (b) to the church.

(7) Appropriate high-level Treasury official

The term "appropriate high-level Treasury official" means the Secretary of the Treasury or any delegate of the Secretary whose rank is no lower than that of a principal Internal Revenue officer for an internal revenue region.

(i) Section not to apply to criminal investigations, etc.

This section shall not apply to—

(1) any criminal investigation,

(2) any inquiry or examination relating to the tax liability of any person other than a church,

(3) any assessment under section 6851 (relating to termination assessments of income tax), section 6852 (relating to termination assessments in case of flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations), or section 6861 (relating to jeopardy assessments of income taxes, etc.),

(4) any willful attempt to defeat or evade any tax imposed by this title, or

(5) any knowing failure to file a return of tax imposed by this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1033(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1034; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1899A(61), (62), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2962; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10713(b)(2)(G), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–470; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(u)(49), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3593; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7822(d)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2425; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(59), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1890; Pub. L. 105–206, title I, §1102(e)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 705.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7611 was renumbered section 7613 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted "Secretary" for "Assistant Commissioner for Employee Plans and Exempt Organizations of the Internal Revenue Service" in concluding provisions.

1996—Subsec. (h)(7). Pub. L. 104–188 substituted "appropriate" for "approporiate" in text.

1989—Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 101–239 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 100–203, see 1987 Amendment note below.

1988—Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "this title" for "the title".

1987—Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 100–203, as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, substituted ", section 6852 (relating to termination assessments in case of flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations), or section 6861 (relating to jeopardy assessments of income taxes, etc.)," for "or section 6861 (relating to jeopardy assessments of income taxes, etc.),".

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(62), reenacted subpar. (B) without change.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(61), redesignated pars. (A) to (E) as (1) to (5), in par. (3), substituted "etc.)" for "etc)", and in par. (5), substituted "the title" for "the title".

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title X, to which such amendment relates, see section 7823 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1033(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1039, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 7428 and 7605 of this title] shall apply with respect to inquiries and examinations beginning after December 31, 1984."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§7612. Special procedures for summonses for computer software

(a) General rule

For purposes of this title—

(1) except as provided in subsection (b), no summons may be issued under this title, and the Secretary may not begin any action under section 7604 to enforce any summons to produce or analyze any tax-related computer software source code; and

(2) any software and related materials which are provided to the Secretary under this title shall be subject to the safeguards under subsection (c).

(b) Circumstances under which computer software source code may be provided

(1) In general

Subsection (a)(1) shall not apply to any portion, item, or component of tax-related computer software source code if—

(A) the Secretary is unable to otherwise reasonably ascertain the correctness of any item on a return from—

(i) the taxpayer's books, papers, records, or other data; or

(ii) the computer software executable code (and any modifications thereof) to which such source code relates and any associated data which, when executed, produces the output to ascertain the correctness of the item;


(B) the Secretary identifies with reasonable specificity the portion, item, or component of such source code needed to verify the correctness of such item on the return; and

(C) the Secretary determines that the need for the portion, item, or component of such source code with respect to such item outweighs the risks of unauthorized disclosure of trade secrets.

(2) Exceptions

Subsection (a)(1) shall not apply to—

(A) any inquiry into any offense connected with the administration or enforcement of the internal revenue laws;

(B) any tax-related computer software source code acquired or developed by the taxpayer or a related person primarily for internal use by the taxpayer or such person rather than for commercial distribution;

(C) any communications between the owner of the tax-related computer software source code and the taxpayer or related persons; or

(D) any tax-related computer software source code which is required to be provided or made available pursuant to any other provision of this title.

(3) Cooperation required

For purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall be treated as meeting the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such paragraph if—

(A) the Secretary determines that it is not feasible to determine the correctness of an item without access to the computer software executable code and associated data described in paragraph (1)(A)(ii);

(B) the Secretary makes a formal request to the taxpayer for such code and data and to the owner of the computer software source code for such executable code; and

(C) such code and data is not provided within 180 days of such request.

(4) Right to contest summons

In any proceeding brought under section 7604 to enforce a summons issued under the authority of this subsection, the court shall, at the request of any party, hold a hearing to determine whether the applicable requirements of this subsection have been met.

(c) Safeguards to ensure protection of trade secrets and other confidential information

(1) Entry of protective order

In any court proceeding to enforce a summons for any portion of software, the court may receive evidence and issue any order necessary to prevent the disclosure of trade secrets or other confidential information with respect to such software, including requiring that any information be placed under seal to be opened only as directed by the court.

(2) Protection of software

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, and in addition to any protections ordered pursuant to paragraph (1), in the case of software that comes into the possession or control of the Secretary in the course of any examination with respect to any taxpayer—

(A) the software may be used only in connection with the examination of such taxpayer's return, any appeal by the taxpayer to the Internal Revenue Service Independent Office of Appeals, any judicial proceeding (and any appeals therefrom), and any inquiry into any offense connected with the administration or enforcement of the internal revenue laws;

(B) the Secretary shall provide, in advance, to the taxpayer and the owner of the software a written list of the names of all individuals who will analyze or otherwise have access to the software;

(C) the software shall be maintained in a secure area or place, and, in the case of computer software source code, shall not be removed from the owner's place of business unless the owner permits, or a court orders, such removal;

(D) the software may not be copied except as necessary to perform such analysis, and the Secretary shall number all copies made and certify in writing that no other copies have been (or will be) made;

(E) at the end of the period during which the software may be used under subparagraph (A)—

(i) the software and all copies thereof shall be returned to the person from whom they were obtained and any copies thereof made under subparagraph (D) on the hard drive of a machine or other mass storage device shall be permanently deleted; and

(ii) the Secretary shall obtain from any person who analyzes or otherwise had access to such software a written certification under penalty of perjury that all copies and related materials have been returned and that no copies were made of them;


(F) the software may not be decompiled or disassembled;

(G) the Secretary shall provide to the taxpayer and the owner of any interest in such software, as the case may be, a written agreement, between the Secretary and any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States and who will analyze or otherwise have access to such software, which provides that such person agrees not to—

(i) disclose such software to any person other than persons to whom such information could be disclosed for tax administration purposes under section 6103; or

(ii) participate for 2 years in the development of software which is intended for a similar purpose as the software examined; and


(H) the software shall be treated as return information for purposes of section 6103.


For purposes of subparagraph (C), the owner shall make available any necessary equipment or materials for analysis of computer software source code required to be conducted on the owner's premises. The owner of any interest in the software shall be considered a party to any agreement described in subparagraph (G).

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Software

The term "software" includes computer software source code and computer software executable code.

(2) Computer software source code

The term "computer software source code" means—

(A) the code written by a programmer using a programming language which is comprehensible to appropriately trained persons and is not capable of directly being used to give instructions to a computer;

(B) related programmers' notes, design documents, memoranda, and similar documentation; and

(C) related customer communications.

(3) Computer software executable code

The term "computer software executable code" means—

(A) any object code, machine code, or other code readable by a computer when loaded into its memory and used directly by such computer to execute instructions; and

(B) any related user manuals.

(4) Owner

The term "owner" shall, with respect to any software, include the developer of the software.

(5) Related person

A person shall be treated as related to another person if such persons are related persons under section 267 or 707(b).

(6) Tax-related computer software source code

The term "tax-related computer software source code" means the computer source code for any computer software program intended for accounting, tax return preparation or compliance, or tax planning.

(Added Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3413(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 751; amended Pub. L. 116–25, title I, §1001(b)(1)(J), July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 985.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7612 was renumbered section 7613 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 116–25 substituted "Internal Revenue Service Independent Office of Appeals" for "Internal Revenue Service Office of Appeals".

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3413(e), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 754, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting this section, amending sections 7213 and 7603 of this title, and renumbering former section 7612 of this title as 7613] shall apply to summonses issued, and software acquired, after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998].

"(2) Software protection.—In the case of any software acquired on or before such date of enactment, the requirements of section 7612(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by such amendments) shall apply after the 90th day after such date. The preceding sentence shall not apply to the requirement under section 7612(c)(2)(G)(ii) of such Code (as so added)."

§7613. Cross references

(a) Inspection of books, papers, records, or other data

For inspection of books, papers, records, or other data in the case of—

(1) Wagering, see section 4423.

(2) Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes, see subtitle E.

(b) Search warrants

For provisions relating to—

(1) Searches and seizures, see Rule 41 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(2) Issuance of search warrants with respect to subtitle E, see section 5557.

(3) Search warrants with respect to property used in violation of the internal revenue laws, see section 7302.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 903, §7607; renumbered §7608, July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, §104(a), 70 Stat. 570; renumbered §7609 and amended Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §204(14), (15), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1429, 1430; Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1102(h), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1293; renumbered §7611 and amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1205(a), title XIX, §1904(b)(7)(D), (9)(E), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1699, 1815, 1816; renumbered §7612, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1033(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1034; renumbered §7613, Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3413(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 751.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1904(b)(7)(D), (9)(E), struck out pars. (1) and (2) relating to cross references to wholesale dealers in oleomargarine and wholesale dealers in process or renovated butter or adulterated butter, respectively, and redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (1) and (2), respectively.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–513 struck out pars. (3) and (4) which related to opium, opiates, and coca leaves and to marihuana, respectively, and which made reference to sections 4702(a), 4705, 4721, and 4773, and to sections 4742, 4753(b), and 4773, respectively.

1958—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 85–859, §204(15), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 85–859, §204(15), substituted "with respect to subtitle E, see section 5557" for "in connection with industrial alcohol, etc., see sections 5314 and 7302".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 85–859, §204(15), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–859 effective Sept. 3, 1958, see section 210(a)(1) of Pub. L. 85–859, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5001 of this title.

Savings Provision

Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring, and civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced, prior to the effective date of amendment of this section by section 1102 of Pub. L. 91–513 not to be affected or abated by reason thereof, see section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under sections 171 to 174 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.