[USC02] 29 USC Ch. 18: EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY PROGRAM
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*Public Laws 116-284 through 117-1 have been enacted but classifications have not yet been finalized. The currency ("laws in effect") date does not reflect acts for which classification has not been finalized.

29 USC Ch. 18: EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY PROGRAM
From Title 29—LABOR

CHAPTER 18—EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I—PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEE BENEFIT RIGHTS

Subtitle A—General Provisions

Sec.
1001.
Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
1001a.
Additional Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
1001b.
Findings and declaration of policy.
1002.
Definitions.
1003.
Coverage.

        

Subtitle B—Regulatory Provisions

part 1—reporting and disclosure

1021.
Duty of disclosure and reporting.
1022.
Summary plan description.
1023.
Annual reports.
1024.
Filing with Secretary and furnishing information to participants and certain employers.
1025.
Reporting of participant's benefit rights.
1026.
Reports made public information.
1027.
Retention of records.
1028.
Reliance on administrative interpretations.
1029.
Forms.
1030.
Alternative methods of compliance.
1031.
Repeal and effective date.

        

part 2—participation and vesting

1051.
Coverage.
1052.
Minimum participation standards.
1053.
Minimum vesting standards.
1054.
Benefit accrual requirements.
1055.
Requirement of joint and survivor annuity and preretirement survivor annuity.
1056.
Form and payment of benefits.
1057.
Repealed.
1058.
Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers of plan assets.
1059.
Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
1060.
Multiple employer plans and other special rules.
1061.
Effective dates.

        

part 3—funding

1081.
Coverage.
1082.
Minimum funding standards.
1083.
Minimum funding standards for single-employer defined benefit pension plans.
1084.
Minimum funding standards for multiemployer plans.
1085.
Additional funding rules for multiemployer plans in endangered status or critical status.
1085a.
Minimum funding standards.
1085b, 1086. Repealed.

        

part 4—fiduciary responsibility

1101.
Coverage.
1102.
Establishment of plan.
1103.
Establishment of trust.
1104.
Fiduciary duties.
1105.
Liability for breach of co-fiduciary.
1106.
Prohibited transactions.
1107.
Limitation with respect to acquisition and holding of employer securities and employer real property by certain plans.
1108.
Exemptions from prohibited transactions.
1109.
Liability for breach of fiduciary duty.
1110.
Exculpatory provisions; insurance.
1111.
Persons prohibited from holding certain positions.
1112.
Bonding.
1113.
Limitation of actions.
1114.
Effective date.

        

part 5—administration and enforcement

1131.
Criminal penalties.
1132.
Civil enforcement.
1133.
Claims procedure.
1134.
Investigative authority.
1135.
Regulations.
1136.
Coordination and responsibility of agencies enforcing this subchapter and related Federal laws.
1137.
Administration.
1138.
Appropriations.
1139.
Separability.
1140.
Interference with protected rights.
1141.
Coercive interference.
1142.
Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Pension Benefit Plans.
1143.
Research, studies, and reports.
1143a.
Studies by Comptroller General.
1144.
Other laws.
1144a.
Clarification of church welfare plan status under State insurance law.
1145.
Delinquent contributions.
1146.
Outreach to promote retirement income savings.
1147.
National Summit on Retirement Savings.
1148.
Authority to postpone certain deadlines by reason of Presidentially declared disaster or terroristic or military actions.
1149.
Prohibition on false statements and representations.
1150.
Applicability of State law to combat fraud and abuse.
1151.
Administrative summary cease and desist orders and summary seizure orders against multiple employer welfare arrangements in financially hazardous condition.

        

part 6—continuation coverage and additional standards for group health plans

1161.
Plans must provide continuation coverage to certain individuals.
1162.
Continuation coverage.
1163.
Qualifying event.
1164.
Applicable premium.
1165.
Election.
1166.
Notice requirements.
1167.
Definitions and special rules.
1168.
Regulations.
1169.
Additional standards for group health plans.

        

part 7—group health plan requirements

Subpart A—Requirements Relating to Portability, Access, and Renewability

1181.
Increased portability through limitation on preexisting condition exclusions.
1182.
Prohibiting discrimination against individual participants and beneficiaries based on health status.
1183.
Guaranteed renewability in multiemployer plans and multiple employer welfare arrangements.

        

Subpart B—Other Requirements

1185.
Standards relating to benefits for mothers and newborns.
1185a.
Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.
1185b.
Required coverage for reconstructive surgery following mastectomies.
1185c.
Coverage of dependent students on medically necessary leave of absence.
1185d.
Additional market reforms.

        

Subpart C—General Provisions

1191.
Preemption; State flexibility; construction.
1191a.
Special rules relating to group health plans.
1191b.
Definitions.
1191c.
Regulations.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—JURISDICTION, ADMINISTRATION, ENFORCEMENT; JOINT PENSION TASK FORCE, ETC.

Subtitle A—Jurisdiction, Administration, and Enforcement

1201.
Procedures in connection with the issuance of certain determination letters by the Secretary of the Treasury covering qualifications under Internal Revenue Code.
1202.
Procedures with respect to continued compliance with Internal Revenue requirements relating to participation, vesting, and funding standards.
1202a.
Employee plans compliance resolution system.
1203.
Procedures in connection with prohibited transactions.
1204.
Coordination between the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Labor.

        

Subtitle B—Joint Pension, Profit-Sharing, and Employee Stock Ownership Plan Task Force; Studies

part 1—joint pension, profit-sharing, and employee stock ownership plan task force

1221.
Establishment.
1222.
Duties.

        

part 2—other studies

1231.
Congressional study.
1232.
Protection for employees under Federal procurement, construction, and research contracts and grants.

        

Subtitle C—Enrollment of Actuaries

1241.
Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries.
1242.
Enrollment by Board; standards and qualifications; suspension or termination of enrollment.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PLAN TERMINATION INSURANCE

Subtitle A—Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

1301.
Definitions.
1302.
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.
1303.
Operation of corporation.
1304.
Participant and Plan Sponsor Advocate.
1304a.
Sponsor education and assistance.
1305.
Pension benefit guaranty funds.
1306.
Premium rates.
1307.
Payment of premiums.
1308.
Annual report by the corporation.
1309.
Portability assistance.
1310.
Authority to require certain information.
1311.
Repealed.

        

Subtitle B—Coverage

1321.
Coverage.
1322.
Single-employer plan benefits guaranteed.
1322a.
Multiemployer plan benefits guaranteed.
1322b.
Aggregate limit on benefits guaranteed; criteria applicable.
1323.
Plan fiduciaries.

        

Subtitle C—Terminations

1341.
Termination of single-employer plans.
1341a.
Termination of multiemployer plans.
1342.
Institution of termination proceedings by the corporation.
1343.
Reportable events.
1344.
Allocation of assets.
1345.
Recapture of payments.
1346.
Reports to trustee.
1347.
Restoration of plans.
1348.
Termination date.
1349.
Repealed.
1350.
Missing participants.

        

Subtitle D—Liability

1361.
Amounts payable by corporation.
1362.
Liability for termination of single-employer plans under a distress termination or a termination by corporation.
1363.
Liability of substantial employer for withdrawal from single-employer plans under multiple controlled groups.
1364.
Liability on termination of single-employer plans under multiple controlled groups.
1365.
Annual report of plan administrator.
1366.
Annual notification to substantial employers.
1367.
Recovery of liability for plan termination.
1368.
Lien for liability.
1369.
Treatment of transactions to evade liability; effect of corporate reorganization.
1370.
Enforcement authority relating to terminations of single-employer plans.
1371.
Penalty for failure to timely provide required information.

        

Subtitle E—Special Provisions for Multiemployer Plans

part 1—employer withdrawals

1381.
Withdrawal liability established; criteria and definitions.
1382.
Determination and collection of liability; notification of employer.
1383.
Complete withdrawal.
1384.
Sale of assets.
1385.
Partial withdrawals.
1386.
Adjustment for partial withdrawal; determination of amount; reduction for partial withdrawal liability; procedures applicable.
1387.
Reduction or waiver of complete withdrawal liability; procedures and standards applicable.
1388.
Reduction of partial withdrawal liability.
1389.
De minimis rule.
1390.
Nonapplicability of withdrawal liability for certain temporary contribution obligation periods; exception.
1391.
Methods for computing withdrawal liability.
1392.
Obligation to contribute.
1393.
Actuarial assumptions.
1394.
Application of plan amendments; exception.
1395.
Plan notification to corporation of potentially significant withdrawals.
1396.
Special rules for plans under section 404(c) of title 26.
1397.
Application of part in case of certain pre-1980 withdrawals; adjustment of covered plan.
1398.
Withdrawal not to occur because of change in business form or suspension of contributions during labor dispute.
1399.
Notice, collection, etc., of withdrawal liability.
1400.
Approval of amendments.
1401.
Resolution of disputes.
1402.
Reimbursements for uncollectible withdrawal liability.
1403.
Withdrawal liability payment fund.
1404.
Alternative method of withdrawal liability payments.
1405.
Limitation on withdrawal liability.

        

part 2—merger or transfer of plan assets or liabilities

1411.
Mergers and transfers between multiemployer plans.
1412.
Transfers between a multiemployer plan and a single-employer plan.
1413.
Partitions of eligible multiemployer plans.
1414.
Asset transfer rules.
1415.
Transfers pursuant to change in bargaining representative.

        

part 3—reorganization; insolvent plans

1421 to 1425. Repealed.
1426.
Insolvent plans.

        

part 4—financial assistance

1431.
Assistance by corporation.

        

part 5—benefits after termination

1441.
Benefits under certain terminated plans.

        

part 6—enforcement

1451.
Civil actions.
1452.
Penalty for failure to provide notice.
1453.
Election of plan status.

        

Subtitle F—Transition Rules and Effective Dates

1461.
Effective date; special rules.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEE BENEFIT RIGHTS

Subtitle A—General Provisions

§1001. Congressional findings and declaration of policy

(a) Benefit plans as affecting interstate commerce and the Federal taxing power

The Congress finds that the growth in size, scope, and numbers of employee benefit plans in recent years has been rapid and substantial; that the operational scope and economic impact of such plans is increasingly interstate; that the continued well-being and security of millions of employees and their dependents are directly affected by these plans; that they are affected with a national public interest; that they have become an important factor affecting the stability of employment and the successful development of industrial relations; that they have become an important factor in commerce because of the interstate character of their activities, and of the activities of their participants, and the employers, employee organizations, and other entities by which they are established or maintained; that a large volume of the activities of such plans are carried on by means of the mails and instrumentalities of interstate commerce; that owing to the lack of employee information and adequate safeguards concerning their operation, it is desirable in the interests of employees and their beneficiaries, and to provide for the general welfare and the free flow of commerce, that disclosure be made and safeguards be provided with respect to the establishment, operation, and administration of such plans; that they substantially affect the revenues of the United States because they are afforded preferential Federal tax treatment; that despite the enormous growth in such plans many employees with long years of employment are losing anticipated retirement benefits owing to the lack of vesting provisions in such plans; that owing to the inadequacy of current minimum standards, the soundness and stability of plans with respect to adequate funds to pay promised benefits may be endangered; that owing to the termination of plans before requisite funds have been accumulated, employees and their beneficiaries have been deprived of anticipated benefits; and that it is therefore desirable in the interests of employees and their beneficiaries, for the protection of the revenue of the United States, and to provide for the free flow of commerce, that minimum standards be provided assuring the equitable character of such plans and their financial soundness.

(b) Protection of interstate commerce and beneficiaries by requiring disclosure and reporting, setting standards of conduct, etc., for fiduciaries

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this chapter to protect interstate commerce and the interests of participants in employee benefit plans and their beneficiaries, by requiring the disclosure and reporting to participants and beneficiaries of financial and other information with respect thereto, by establishing standards of conduct, responsibility, and obligation for fiduciaries of employee benefit plans, and by providing for appropriate remedies, sanctions, and ready access to the Federal courts.

(c) Protection of interstate commerce, the Federal taxing power, and beneficiaries by vesting of accrued benefits, setting minimum standards of funding, requiring termination insurance

It is hereby further declared to be the policy of this chapter to protect interstate commerce, the Federal taxing power, and the interests of participants in private pension plans and their beneficiaries by improving the equitable character and the soundness of such plans by requiring them to vest the accrued benefits of employees with significant periods of service, to meet minimum standards of funding, and by requiring plan termination insurance.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §2, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 832.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments; Transitional Rules

Pub. L. 98–397, title III, §§302, 303, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1451, 1452, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XI, §1145(c), title XVIII, §1898(g), (h)(1)(A), (2), (3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2491, 2956, 2957; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7861(d)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2431, provided that:

"SEC. 302. GENERAL EFFECTIVE DATES.

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section or section 303, the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1984 Amendments note below] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 1984.

"(b) Special Rule for Collective Bargaining Agreements.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], except as provided in subsection (d) or section 303, the amendments made by this Act shall not apply to plan years beginning before the earlier of—

"(1) the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984]), or

"(2) July 1, 1988.

For purposes of paragraph (1), any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement added by title I or II [of Pub. L. 98–397] shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement.

"(c) Notice Requirement.—The amendments made by section 207 [amending sections 402 and 6652 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply to distributions after December 31, 1984.

"(d) Special Rules for Treatment of Plan Amendments.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 301 [amending section 1054 of this title and sections 401 and 411 of Title 26] shall apply to plan amendments made after July 30, 1984.

"(2) Special rule for collective bargaining agreements.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements entered into before January 1, 1985, which are—

"(A) between employee representatives and 1 or more employers, and

"(B) successor agreements to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements which terminate after July 30, 1984, and before January 1, 1985,

the amendments made by section 301 shall not apply to plan amendments adopted before April 1, 1985, pursuant to such successor agreements (without regard to any modification or reopening after December 31, 1984).

"SEC. 303. TRANSITIONAL RULES.

"(a) Amendments Relating to Vesting Rules; Breaks in Service; Maternity or Paternity Leave.—

"(1) Minimum age for vesting.—The amendments made by sections 102(b) and 202(b) [amending section 1053 of this title and section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply in the case of participants who have at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1984 Amendments note below] apply.

"(2) Break in service rules.—If, as of the day before the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply, section 202(a) or (b) or 203(b) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1052(a) or (b) or section 1053(b) of this title] or section 410(a) or 411(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 410(a) or section 411(a) of Title 26] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984]) would not require any service to be taken into account, nothing in the amendments made by subsections (c) and (d) of section 102 of this Act [amending sections 1052 and 1053 of this title] and subsections (c) and (d) of section 202 of this Act [amending sections 410 and 411 of Title 26] shall be construed as requiring such service to be taken into account under such section 202(a) or (b), 203(b), 410(a), or 411(a); as the case may be.

"(3) Maternity or paternity leave.—The amendments made by sections 102(e) and 202(e) [amending sections 1052 to 1054 of this title and sections 410 and 411 of Title 26] shall apply in the case of absences from work which begin on or after the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply.

"(b) Special Rule for Amendments Relating to Maternity or Paternity Absences.—If a plan is administered in a manner which would meet the amendments made by sections 102(e) and 202(e) [amending sections 1052 to 1054 of this title and sections 410 and 411 of Title 26] (relating to certain maternity or paternity absences not treated as breaks in service), such plan need not be amended to meet such requirements until the earlier of—

"(1) the date on which such plan is first otherwise amended after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], or

"(2) the beginning of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(c) Requirement of Joint and Survivor Annuity and Preretirement Survivor Annuity.—

"(1) Requirement that participant have at least 1 hour of service or paid leave on or after date of enactment.—The amendments made by sections 103 and 203 [amending section 1055 of this title and section 401 of Title 26 and enacting section 417 of Title 26] shall apply only in the case of participants who have at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984] or have at least 1 hour of paid leave on or after such date of enactment.

"(2) Requirement that preretirement survivor annuity be provided in case of certain participants dying on or after date of enactment.—In the case of any participant—

"(A) who has at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984] or has at least 1 hour of paid leave on or after such date of enactment,

"(B) who dies before the annuity starting date, and

"(C) who dies on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984] and before the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply,

the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 shall be treated as in effect as of the time of such participant's death. In the case of a profit-sharing or stock bonus plan to which this paragraph applies, the plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 with respect to any participant if the plan made a distribution in a form other than a life annuity to the surviving spouse of the participant of such participant's nonforfeitable benefit.

"(3) Spousal consent required for certain elections after december 31, 1984.—Any election after December 31, 1984, and before the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply not to take a joint and survivor annuity shall not be effective unless the requirements of section 205(c)(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1055(c)(2) of this title] (as amended by section 103 of this Act) and section 417(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 417(a)(2) of Title 26] (as added by section 203 of this Act) are met with respect to such election.

"(4) Elimination of double death benefits.—

"(A) In general.—In the case of a participant described in paragraph (2), death benefits (other than a qualified joint and survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity) payable to any beneficiary shall be reduced by the amount payable to the surviving spouse of such participant by reason of paragraph (2). The reduction under the preceding sentence shall be made on the basis of the respective present values (as of the date of the participant's death) of such death benefits and the amount so payable to the surviving spouse.

"(B) Spouse may waive provisions of paragraph (2).—In the case of any participant described in paragraph (2), the surviving spouse of such participant may waive the provisions of paragraph (2). Such waiver shall be made on or before the close of the second plan year to which the amendments made by section 103 of this Act [amending section 1055 of this title] apply. Such a waiver shall not be treated as a transfer of property for purposes of chapter 12 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and shall not be treated as an assignment or alienation for purposes of section 401(a)(13) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 401(a)(13) of Title 26] or section 206(d) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1056 of this title].

"(d) Amendments Relating to Assignments in Divorce, Etc., Proceedings.—The amendments made by sections 104 and 204 [amending sections 1056 and 1144 of this title and sections 72, 401, 402 and 414 of Title 26] shall take effect on January 1, 1985, except that in the case of a domestic relations order entered before such date, the plan administrator—

"(1) shall treat such order as a qualified domestic relations order if such administrator is paying benefits pursuant to such order on such date, and

"(2) may treat any other such order entered before such date as a qualified domestic relations order even if such order does not meet the requirements of such amendments.

"(e) Treatment of Certain Participants Who Separate From Service Before Date of Enactment.—

"(1) Joint and survivor annuity provisions of employee retirement income security act of 1974 apply to certain participants.—If—

"(A) a participant had at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after September 2, 1974,

"(B) section 205 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1055 of this title] and section 401(a)(11) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 401(a)(11) of Title 26] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984]) would not (but for this paragraph) apply to such participant,

"(C) the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 [amending section 1055 of this title and section 401 of Title 26 and enacting section 417 of Title 26] of this Act do not apply to such participant, and

"(D) as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], the participant's annuity starting date has not occurred and the participant is alive,

then such participant may elect to have section 205 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1055 of this title] and section 401(a)(11) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 401(a)(11) of Title 26] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act) apply.

"(2) Treatment of certain participants who perform service on or after january 1, 1976.—If—

"(A) a participant had at least 1 hour of service in any plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1976,

"(B) the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 [amending section 1055 of this title and section 401 of Title 26 and enacting section 417 of Title 26] would not (but for this paragraph) apply to such participant,

"(C) when such participant separated from service, such participant had at least 10 years of service under the plan and had a nonforfeitable right to all (or any portion) of such participant's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions, and

"(D) as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], such participant's annuity starting date has not occurred and such participant is alive,

then such participant may elect to have the qualified preretirement survivor annuity requirements of the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 apply.

"(3) Period during which election may be made.—An election under paragraph (1) or (2) may be made by any participant during the period—

"(A) beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], and

"(B) ending on the earlier of the participant's annuity starting date or the date of the participant's death.

"(4) Requirement of notice.—

"(A) In general.—

"(i) Time and manner.—Every plan shall give notice of the provisions of this subsection at such time or times and in such manner or manners as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

"(ii) Penalty.—If any plan fails to meet the requirements of clause (i), such plan shall pay a civil penalty to the Secretary of the Treasury equal to $1 per participant for each day during the period beginning with the first day on which such failure occurs and ending on the day before notice is given by the plan; except that the amount of such penalty imposed on any plan shall not exceed $2,500.

"(B) Responsibilities of secretary of labor.—The Secretary of Labor shall take such steps (by public announcements and otherwise) as may be necessary or appropriate to bring to public attention the provisions of this subsection.

"(f) The amendments made by section 301 of this Act [amending section 1054 of this title and sections 401 and 411 of Title 26] shall not apply to the termination of a defined benefit plan if such termination—

"(1) is pursuant to a resolution directing the termination of such plan which was adopted by the Board of Directors of a corporation on July 17, 1984, and

"(2) occurred on November 30, 1984."

[Amendment by section 1145(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable as if included in the amendments made by the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, see section 1145(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.]

[Amendment by section 1898(g), (h)(1)(A), (2), (3) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if included in the provision of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, to which such amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 1898(j) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.]

Short Title of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–235, div. O, §1, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2773, provided that: "This division [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Multiemployer Pension Reform Act of 2014' ".

Pub. L. 113–97, §1(a), Apr. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 1101, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Cooperative and Small Employer Charity Pension Flexibility Act'."

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–192, §1, June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1280, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 1021, 1023, 1053, 1054, 1056, 1057, 1083, 1084, 1103, 1108, 1301, 1303, 1310, 1362, 1371, and 1423 of this title, sections 430, 431, 436, and 6103 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and sections 1395w–4, 1395cc, and 1395ww of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 401, 430, 431, and 436 of Title 26 and section 1395ww of Title 42, amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1021 of this title and section 401 of Title 26, and amending Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1978, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act of 2010'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–458, §1(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5092, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Worker, Retiree, and Employer Recovery Act of 2008'."

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, §1(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 780, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Pension Protection Act of 2006'."

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–218, §1, Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 596, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Pension Funding Equity Act of 2004'."

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–92, §1, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2139, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1146 and 1147 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 1146 of this title] may be cited as the 'Savings Are Vital to Everyone's Retirement Act of 1997'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–401, §1, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4172, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1132 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1132 of this title] may be cited as the 'Pension Annuitants Protection Act of 1994'."

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–89, §1, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 446, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1002 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1002 of this title] may be cited as the 'Rural Telephone Cooperative Associations ERISA Amendments Act of 1991'."

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11001, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 237, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1001b, 1085a, 1143a, 1349, 1369, and 1370 of this title, amending sections 1002, 1023, 1024, 1054, 1061, 1083, 1084, 1086, 1301, 1303, 1305, 1306, 1322, 1322a, 1341, 1342, 1344, 1347, 1348, 1362 to 1364, and 1366 to 1368 of this title, and sections 402, 404, 412, and 501 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, repealing section 1304 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1023, 1054, 1085a, 1135, 1143a, 1303, 1306, 1341, 1362, and 1369 of this title and section 404 of Title 26] may be cited as 'Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–397, §1, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1426, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 417 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amending sections 1025, 1052 to 1056, and 1144 of this title and sections 72, 401, 402, 410, 411, 414, 6057, and 6652 of Title 26, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the 'Retirement Equity Act of 1984'."

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–364, §1, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1208, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1001a, 1145, 1322a, 1322b, 1323, 1341a, 1381 to 1405, 1411 to 1415, 1421 to 1426, 1431, 1441, and 1451 to 1453 of this title and sections 418 to 418E of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amending sections 1002, 1023, 1051, 1053, 1058, 1081, 1082, 1103, 1104, 1108, 1132, 1202, 1301 to 1303, 1305 to 1307, 1321, 1322, 1341, 1342, 1344, 1346, 1348, 1361 to 1366, and 1461 of this title, section 8521 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 194, 401, 404, 411 to 414, 501, 3304, 4971 and 4975 of Title 26, repealing former section 1323 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1001a, 1302, 1306, 1381, 1385, 1426 and 1461 of this title, section 8521 of Title 5, and sections 401, 404, 414, 418, and 3304 of Title 26] may be cited as the 'Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 93–406, §1, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 829, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter, sections 408 to 415, 4971 to 4975, 6057 to 6059, 6692, and 6693 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 1037 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 1320b–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending section 441 of this title, sections 5108 and 5109 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 664, 1027, and 1954 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 37, 46, 56, 62, 72, 101, 122, 219, 220, 275, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 503, 801, 805, 871, 901, 1304, 1348, 1379, 2039, 3401, 6033, 6047, 6051, 6103, 6104, 6161, 6201, 6204, 6211, 6212, 6213, 6214, 6344, 6501, 6503, 6511, 6512, 6601, 6652, 6653, 6659, 6676, 6677, 6679, 6682, 6688, 6690, 6861, 6862, 7422, 7451, 7459, 7482, 7701, and 7802, of Title 26, and section 846 of former Title 31, repealing sections 301 to 309 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 72, 122, 219, 401, 402, 403, 404, 410, 411, 412, 415, 501, 4973, 4975, 6057, 6059, 6103, 6104, 7476, and 7802 of Title 26] may be cited as the 'Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974'."

Congressional Findings and Declarations of Policy

Pub. L. 113–97, §2, Apr. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 1101, provided that: "Congress finds as follows:

"(1) Defined benefit pension plans are a cost-effective way for cooperative associations and charities to provide their employees with economic security in retirement.

"(2) Many cooperative associations and charitable organizations are only able to provide their employees with defined benefit pension plans because those organizations are able to pool their resources using the multiple employer plan structure.

"(3) The pension funding rules should encourage cooperative associations and charities to continue to provide their employees with pension benefits."

Coordination of Internal Revenue Code of 1986 With Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974

This subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter not applicable in interpreting Internal Revenue Code of 1986, except to the extent specifically provided in such Code, or as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, see section 9343(a) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Study by Comptroller General of the United States of Effect of Pension Rules on Women

Pub. L. 98–397, title III, §304, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1454, directed Comptroller General to conduct detailed study of effect on women of participation, vesting, funding, integration, survivorship features, and other relevant plan and Federal pension rules and, not later than Jan. 1, 1990, submit a report on the study to Congress.

Study by General Accounting Office Regarding Results of Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980; Procedures Applicable

Pub. L. 96–364, title IV, §413, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1309, directed Comptroller General to conduct a study of effects of amendments made by Pub. L. 99–364 on: participants, beneficiaries, employers, employee organizations, and other parties, and the self-sufficiency of the fund established under section 1305 of this title with respect to benefits guaranteed under section 1322a of this title, taking into account financial conditions of multiemployer plans and employers and to report to Congress no later than June 30, 1985, results of study including his recommendations with respect thereto.

President's Commission on Pension Policy; Extension of Term; Continuation of Effort

Pub. L. 96–14, May 24, 1979, 93 Stat. 29, known as the Pension Policy Commission Act, authorized the President's Commission on Pension Policy established by Ex. Ord. No. 12071 to continue in operation for two years following May 24, 1979, and set forth membership, compensation, implementation, and reporting requirements, with the Commission to cease to exist ninety days after submission of the final report.


Executive Documents

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 4 OF 1978

43 F.R. 47713, 92 Stat. 3790, as amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(c), formerly §107(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 820, renumbered §108(c), Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, August 10, 1978, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.1

EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT TRANSFERS

Section 101. Transfer to the Secretary of the Treasury

Except as otherwise provided in Sections 104 and 106 of this Plan, all authority of the Secretary of Labor to issue the following described documents pursuant to the statutes hereinafter specified is hereby transferred to the Secretary of the Treasury:

(a) regulations, rulings, opinions, variances and waivers under Parts 2 [29 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.] and 3 [29 U.S.C. 1081 et seq.] of Subtitle B of Title I and subsection 1012(c) [set out as a note under 26 U.S.C. 411] of Title II of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1001 note) (hereinafter referred to as "ERISA"),

EXCEPT for sections and subsections 201, 203(a)(3)(B), 209, and 301(a) of ERISA; [29 U.S.C. 1051, 1053(a)(3)(B), 1059, and 1081(a)];

(b) such regulations, rulings, and opinions which are granted to the Secretary of Labor under Sections 404, 410, 411, 412, and 413 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended [26 U.S.C. 404, 410, 411, 412, and 413], (hereinafter referred to as the "Code").

EXCEPT for subsection 411(a)(3)(B) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 411(a)(3)(B)] and the definitions of "collectively bargained plan" and "collective bargaining agreement" contained in subsections 404 (a)(1)(B) and (a)(1)(C), 410 (b)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(B), and 413(a)(1) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 404(a)(1)(B) and (a)(1)(C), 410 (b)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(B), and 413(a)(1)]; and

(c) regulations, rulings, and opinions under subsections 3(19), 3(22), 3(23), 3(24), 3(25), 3(27), 3(28), 3(29), 3(30), and 3(31) of Subtitle A of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1002(19), (22), (23), (24), (25), (27), (28), (29), (30), and (31)]. [As amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.]

Sec. 102. Transfer to the Secretary of Labor

Except as otherwise provided in Section 105 of this Plan, all authority of the Secretary of the Treasury to issue the following described documents pursuant to the statutes hereinafter specified is hereby transferred to the Secretary of Labor;

(a) regulations, rulings, opinions, and exemptions under section 4975 of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975],

EXCEPT for (i) subsections 4975(a), (b), (c)(3), (d)(3), (c)(1), and (e)(7) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975(a), (b), (c)(3), (d)(3), (e)(1), and (e)(7)]; (ii) to the extent necessary for the continued enforcement of subsections 4975(a) and (b) [26 U.S.C. 4975(a) and (b)] by the Secretary of the Treasury, subsections 4975(f)(1), (f)(2), (f)(4), (f)(5) and (f)(6) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975(f)(1), (f)(2), (f)(4), (f)(5) and (f)(6)]; and (iii) exemptions with respect to transactions that are exempted by subsection 404(c) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1104(c)] from the provisions of Part 4 of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.]; and

(b) regulations, rulings, and opinions under subsection 2003(c) of ERISA [set out as a note under 29 U.S.C. 4975].

EXCEPT for subsection 2003(c)(1)(B) [set out in the note under 26 U.S.C. 4975].

Sec. 103. Coordination Concerning Certain Fiduciary Actions

In the case of fiduciary actions which are subject to Part 4 of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], the Secretary of the Treasury shall notify the Secretary of Labor prior to the time of commencing any proceeding to determine whether the action violates the exclusive benefit rule of subsection 401(a) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 401(a)], but not later than prior to issuing a preliminary notice of intent to disqualify under that rule, and the Secretary of the Treasury shall not issue a determination that a plan or trust does not satisfy the requirements of subsection 401(a) by reason of the exclusive benefit rule of subsection 401(a), unless within 90 days after the date on which the Secretary of the Treasury notifies the Secretary of Labor of pending action, the Secretary of Labor certifies that he has no objection to the disqualification or the Secretary of Labor fails to respond to the Secretary of the Treasury. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply in the case of any termination or jeopardy assessment under sections 6851 or 6861 of the Code [26 U.S.C. 6851 or 6861] that has been approved in advance by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, or, as delegated, the Assistant Commissioner for Employee Plans and Exempt Organizations.

Sec. 104. Enforcement by the Secretary of Labor

The transfers provided for in Section 101 of this Plan shall not affect the ability of the Secretary of Labor, subject to the provisions of Title III of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1201 et seq.] relating to jurisdiction, administration, and enforcement, to engage in enforcement under Section 502 of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1132] or to exercise the authority set forth under Title III of ERISA, including the ability to make interpretations necessary to engage in such enforcement or to exercise such authority. However, in bringing such actions and in exercising such authority with respect to Parts 2 [29 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.] and 3 [29 U.S.C. 1081 et seq.] of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA and any definitions for which the authority of the Secretary of Labor is transferred to the Secretary of the Treasury as provided in Section 101 of this Plan, the Secretary of Labor shall be bound by the regulations, rulings, opinions, variances, and waivers issued by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Sec. 105. Enforcement by the Secretary of the Treasury

The transfers provided for in Section 102 of this Plan shall not affect the ability of the Secretary of the Treasury, subject to the provisions of Title III of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1201 et seq.] relating to jurisdiction, administration, and enforcement, (a) to audit plans and employers and to enforce the excise tax provisions of subsections 4975(a) and 4975(b) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975(a) and (b)], to exercise the authority set forth in subsections 502(b)(1) and 502(h) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1132(b)(1) and (h)], or to exercise the authority set forth in Title III of ERISA, including the ability to make interpretations necessary to audit, to enforce such taxes, and to exercise such authority; and (b) consistent with the coordination requirements under Section 103 of this Plan, to disqualify, under section 401 of the Code [26 U.S.C. 401], a plan subject to Part 4 of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], including the ability to make the interpretations necessary to make such disqualification. However, in enforcing such excise taxes and, to the extent applicable, in disqualifying such plans the Secretary of the Treasury shall be bound by the regulations, rulings, opinions, and exemptions issued by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the authority transferred to the Secretary of Labor as provided in Section 102 of this Plan.

Sec. 106. Coordination for Section 101 Transfer

(a) The Secretary of the Treasury shall not exercise the functions transferred pursuant to Section 101 of this Plan to issue in proposed or final form any of the documents described in subsection (b) of this Section in any case in which such documents would significantly impact on or substantially affect collectively bargained plans unless, within 100 calendar days after the Secretary of the Treasury notifies the Secretary of Labor of such proposed action, the Secretary of Labor certifies that he has no objection or he fails to respond to the Secretary of the Treasury. The fact of such a notification, except for such notification for documents described in subsection (b)(iv) of this Section, from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of Labor shall be announced by the Secretary of Labor to the public within ten days following the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary of Labor.

(b) The documents to which this Section applies are:

(i) amendments to regulations issued pursuant to subsections 202(a)(3), 203(b)(2) and (3)(A), 204(b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), and 210(a)(2) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1052(a)(3), 1053(b)(2) and (3)(A), 1054(b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), and 1060(a)(2)], and subsections 410(a)(3) and 411(a)(5), (6)(A), and (b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), 413(b)(4) and (c)(3) and 414(f) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 410(a)(3) and 411(a)(5), (6)(A), and (b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), 413 (b)(4) and (c)(3) and 414(f)];

(ii) regulations issued pursuant to subsections 204(b)(3)(D), 302(d)(2), and 304(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1054(b)(3)(D), 1082(d)(2), and 1084(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A)], and subsections 411(b)(3)(D), [former] 412(c)(2) and 431(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 411(b)(3)(D), [former] 412(c)(2) and 431(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A)]; and [As amended Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(c), formerly §107(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 820; renumbered §108(c), Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297.]

(iii) revenue rulings (within the meaning of 26 CFR Section 601.201(a)(6)), revenue procedures, and similar publications, if the rulings, procedures and publications are issued under one of the statutory provisions listed in (i) and (ii) of this subsection; and

(iv) rulings (within the meaning of 26 CFR Section 601.201(a)(2)) issued prior to the issuance of a published regulation under one of the statutory provisions listed in (i) and (ii) of this subsection and not issued under a published Revenue Ruling.

(c) For those documents described in subsections (b)(i), (b)(ii) and (b)(iii) of this Section, the Secretary of Labor may request the Secretary of the Treasury to initiate the actions described in this Section 106 of this Plan.

Sec. 107. Evaluation

On or before January 31, 1980, the President will submit to both Houses of the Congress an evaluation of the extent to which this Reorganization Plan has alleviated the problems associated with the present administrative structure under ERISA, accompanied by specific legislative recommendations for a long-term administrative structure under ERISA.

Sec. 108. Incidental Transfers

So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred under this Plan, as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the appropriate agency, or component at such time or times as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide, except that no such unexpended balances transferred shall be used for purposes other than those for which the appropriation was originally made. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide for terminating the affairs of any agencies abolished herein and for such further measures and dispositions as such Director deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of this Reorganization Plan.

Sec. 109. Effective Date

The provisions of this Reorganization Plan shall become effective at such time or times, on or before April 30, 1979, as the President shall specify, but not sooner than the earliest time allowable under Section 906 of Title 5, United States Code.

[Amendment by section 108(c) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.]

[For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.]

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

Today I am submitting to the Congress my fourth Reorganization Plan for 1978. This proposal is designed to simplify and improve the unnecessarily complex administrative requirements of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) [see Short Title note set out under this section]. The new plan will eliminate overlap and duplication in the administration of ERISA and help us achieve our goal of well regulated private pension plans.

ERISA was an essential step in the protection of worker pension rights. Its administrative provisions, however, have resulted in bureaucratic confusion and have been justifiably criticized by employers and unions alike. The biggest problem has been overlapping jurisdictional authority. Under current ERISA provisions, the Departments of Treasury and Labor both have authority to issue regulations and decisions.

This dual jurisdiction has delayed a good many important rulings and, more importantly, produced bureaucratic runarounds and burdensome reporting requirements.

The new plan will significantly reduce these problems. In addition, both Departments are trying to cut red tape and paperwork, to eliminate unnecessary reporting requirements, and to streamline forms wherever possible.

Both Departments have already made considerable progress, and both will continue the effort to simplify their rules and their forms.

The Reorganization Plan is the most significant result of their joint effort to modify and simplify ERISA. It will eliminate most of the jurisdictional overlap between Treasury and Labor by making the following changes:

1) Treasury will have statutory authority for minimum standards. The new plan puts all responsibility for funding, participation, and vesting of benefit rights in the Department of Treasury. These standards are necessary to ensure that employee benefit plans are adequately funded and that all beneficiary rights are protected. Treasury is the most appropriate Department to administer these provisions; however, Labor will continue to have veto power over Treasury decisions that significantly affect collectively bargained plans.

2) Labor will have statutory authority for fiduciary obligations. ERISA prohibits transactions in which self-interest or conflict of interest could occur, but allows certain exemptions from these prohibitions. Labor will be responsible for overseeing fiduciary conduct under these provisions.

3) Both Departments will retain enforcement powers. The Reorganization Plan will continue Treasury's authority to audit plans and levy tax penalties for any deviation from standards. The plan will also continue Labor's authority to bring civil action against plans and fiduciaries. These provisions are retained in order to keep the special expertise of each Department available. New coordination between the Departments will eliminate duplicative investigations of alleged violations.

This reorganization will make an immediate improvement in ERISA's administration. It will eliminate almost all of the dual and overlapping authority in the two departments and dramatically cut the time required to process applications for exemptions from prohibited transactions.

This plan is an interim arrangement. After the Departments have had a chance to administer ERISA under this new plan, the Office of Management and Budget and the Departments will jointly evaluate that experience. Based on that evaluation, early in 1980, the Administration will make appropriate legislative proposals to establish a long-term administrative structure for ERISA.

Each provision in this reorganization will accomplish one or more of the purposes in Title 5 of U.S.C. 901(a). There will be no change in expenditure or personnel levels, although a small number of people will be transferred from the Department of Treasury to the Department of Labor.

We all recognize that the administration of ERISA has been unduly burdensome. I am confident that this reorganization will significantly relieve much of that burden.

This plan is the culmination of our effort to streamline ERISA. It provides an administrative arrangement that will work.

ERISA has been a symbol of unnecessarily complex government regulation. I hope this new step will become equally symbolic of my Administration's commitment to making government more effective and less intrusive in the lives of our people.

Jimmy Carter.      

The White House, August 10, 1978.

Executive Order No. 12071

Ex. Ord. No. 12071, July 12, 1978, 43 F.R. 30259, which established the President's Commission on Pension Policy and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12379, §1, Aug. 17, 1982, 47 F.R. 36099, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Ex. Ord. No. 12108. Effective Date of ERISA Transfers

Ex. Ord. No. 12108, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1065, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 109 of Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1978 (43 F.R. 47713) [set out above], it is hereby ordered that the provisions of Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1978 shall be effective on Sunday, December 31, 1978.

Jimmy Carter.      

Executive Order No. 12262

Ex. Ord. No. 12262, Jan. 7, 1981, 46 F.R. 2313, which established the Interagency Employee Benefit Council and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12379, §9, Aug. 17, 1982, 47 F.R. 36099, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Ex. Ord. No. 13847. Strengthening Retirement Security in America

Ex. Ord. No. 13847, Aug. 31, 2018, 83 F.R. 45321, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It shall be the policy of the Federal Government to expand access to workplace retirement plans for American workers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 23 percent of all private-sector, full-time workers lack access to a workplace retirement plan. That percentage increases to 34 percent when part-time workers are taken into account. Small businesses are less likely to offer retirement benefits. In 2017, approximately 89 percent of workers at private-sector establishments with 500 or more workers were offered a retirement plan compared to only 53 percent for workers at private-sector establishments with fewer than 100 workers. Enhancing workplace retirement plan coverage is critical to ensuring that American workers will be financially prepared to retire.

Regulatory burdens and complexity can be costly and discourage employers, especially small businesses, from offering workplace retirement plans to their employees. Businesses are sensitive to the overall expense of setting up such plans. A recent survey by the Pew Charitable Trusts found that 71 percent of small- and medium-sized businesses that do not offer retirement plans were deterred from doing so by high costs; 37 percent cited high costs as their main reason for not offering such a plan. Federal agencies should revise or eliminate rules and regulations that impose unnecessary costs and burdens on businesses, especially small businesses, and that hinder formation of workplace retirement plans.

Expanding access to multiple employer plans (MEPs), under which employees of different private-sector employers may participate in a single retirement plan, is an efficient way to reduce administrative costs of retirement plan establishment and maintenance and would encourage more plan formation and broader availability of workplace retirement plans, especially among small employers.

Similarly, reducing the number and complexity of employee benefit plan notices and disclosures currently required would ease regulatory burdens. The costs and potential liabilities for employers and plan fiduciaries of complying with existing disclosure requirements may discourage plan formation or maintenance. Improving the effectiveness of required notices and disclosures and reducing their cost to employers promote retirement security by expanding access to workplace retirement plans.

Outdated distribution mandates may also reduce plan effectiveness by forcing retirees to make excessively large withdrawals from their accounts—potentially leaving them with insufficient savings in their later years.

In light of the foregoing it shall, therefore, be the policy of the Federal Government to address these problems and promote retirement security for America's workers.

Sec. 2. Improving Retirement Security. (a) Expanding access to Multiple Employer Plans and Other Retirement Plan Options.

(i) The Secretary of Labor shall examine policies that would:

(1) clarify and expand the circumstances under which United States employers, especially small and mid-sized businesses, may sponsor or adopt a MEP as a workplace retirement option for their employees, subject to appropriate safeguards; and

(2) increase retirement security for part-time workers, sole proprietors, working owners, and other entrepreneurial workers with non-traditional employer-employee relationships by expanding their access to workplace retirement plans, including MEPs.

(ii) Within 180 days of the date of this order [Aug. 31, 2018], the Secretary of Labor shall consider, consistent with applicable law and the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, whether to issue a notice of proposed rulemaking, other guidance, or both, that would clarify when a group or association of employers or other appropriate business or organization could be an "employer" within the meaning of section 3(5) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1002(5).

(b) Qualification Requirements for Multiple Employer Plans. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of the Treasury shall consider proposing amendments to regulations or other guidance, consistent with applicable law and the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, regarding the circumstances under which a MEP may satisfy the tax qualification requirements set forth in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.], including the consequences if one or more employers that sponsored or adopted the plan fails to take one or more actions necessary to meet those requirements. The Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with the Secretary of Labor in advance of issuing any such proposed guidance, and the Secretary of Labor shall take steps to facilitate the implementation of any guidance, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law.

(c) Improving the Effectiveness of and Reducing the Cost of Furnishing Required Notices and Disclosures. Within 1 year of the date of this order, the Secretary of Labor shall, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, complete a review of actions that could be taken through regulation or guidance, or both, to make retirement plan disclosures required under ERISA [Pub. L. 93–406, 29 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.] and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 more understandable and useful for participants and beneficiaries, while also reducing the costs and burdens they impose on employers and other plan fiduciaries responsible for their production and distribution. This review shall include an exploration of the potential for broader use of electronic delivery as a way to improve the effectiveness of disclosures and to reduce their associated costs and burdens. If the Secretary of Labor finds that action should be taken, the Secretary shall, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, consider proposing appropriate regulations or guidance, consistent with applicable law and the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.

(d) Updating Life Expectancy and Distribution Period Tables for Purposes of Required Minimum Distribution Rules. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of the Treasury shall, consistent with applicable law and the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, examine the life expectancy and distribution period tables in the regulations on required minimum distributions from retirement plans (67 Fed. Reg. 18988) and determine whether they should be updated to reflect current mortality data and whether such updates should be made annually or on another periodic basis.

Sec. 3. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.      

1 As amended September 20, 1978.

§1001a. Additional Congressional findings and declaration of policy

(a) Effects of multiemployer pension plans

The Congress finds that—

(1) multiemployer pension plans have a substantial impact on interstate commerce and are affected with a national public interest;

(2) multiemployer pension plans have accounted for a substantial portion of the increase in private pension plan coverage over the past three decades;

(3) the continued well-being and security of millions of employees, retirees, and their dependents are directly affected by multiemployer pension plans; and

(4)(A) withdrawals of contributing employers from a multiemployer pension plan frequently result in substantially increased funding obligations for employers who continue to contribute to the plan, adversely affecting the plan, its participants and beneficiaries, and labor-management relations, and

(B) in a declining industry, the incidence of employer withdrawals is higher and the adverse effects described in subparagraph (A) are exacerbated.

(b) Modification of multiemployer plan termination insurance provisions and replacement of program

The Congress further finds that—

(1) it is desirable to modify the current multiemployer plan termination insurance provisions in order to increase the likelihood of protecting plan participants against benefit losses; and

(2) it is desirable to replace the termination insurance program for multiemployer pension plans with an insolvency-based benefit protection program that will enhance the financial soundness of such plans, place primary emphasis on plan continuation, and contain program costs within reasonable limits.

(c) Policy

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act—

(1) to foster and facilitate interstate commerce,

(2) to alleviate certain problems which tend to discourage the maintenance and growth of multiemployer pension plans,

(3) to provide reasonable protection for the interests of participants and beneficiaries of financially distressed multiemployer pension plans, and

(4) to provide a financially self-sufficient program for the guarantee of employee benefits under multiemployer plans.

(Pub. L. 96–364, §3, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1209.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 96–364, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1208, known as the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980, and not as part of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 26, 1980, see section 1461(e)(1) of this title.

Study and Report Respecting Collective Bargaining for Contributions to, and Benefits From, Multiemployer Plans

Pub. L. 96–364, title IV, §412(b), Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1309, directed Secretary of Labor to study feasibility of requiring collective bargaining on both issues of contributions to, and benefits from, multiemployer plans, and submit a report on the study to Congress within 3 years of Sept. 26, 1980.

§1001b. Findings and declaration of policy

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) single-employer defined benefit pension plans have a substantial impact on interstate commerce and are affected with a national interest;

(2) the continued well-being and retirement income security of millions of workers, retirees, and their dependents are directly affected by such plans;

(3) the existence of a sound termination insurance system is fundamental to the retirement income security of participants and beneficiaries of such plans; and

(4) the current termination insurance system in some instances encourages employers to terminate pension plans, evade their obligations to pay benefits, and shift unfunded pension liabilities onto the termination insurance system and the other premium-payers.

(b) Additional findings

The Congress further finds that modification of the current termination insurance system and an increase in the insurance premium for single-employer defined benefit pension plans—

(1) is desirable to increase the likelihood that full benefits will be paid to participants and beneficiaries of such plans;

(2) is desirable to provide for the transfer of liabilities to the termination insurance system only in cases of severe hardship;

(3) is necessary to maintain the premium costs of such system at a reasonable level; and

(4) is necessary to finance properly current funding deficiencies and future obligations of the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system.

(c) Declaration of policy

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this title—

(1) to foster and facilitate interstate commerce;

(2) to encourage the maintenance and growth of single-employer defined benefit pension plans;

(3) to increase the likelihood that participants and beneficiaries under single-employer defined benefit pension plans will receive their full benefits;

(4) to provide for the transfer of unfunded pension liabilities onto the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system only in cases of severe hardship;

(5) to maintain the premium costs of such system at a reasonable level; and

(6) to assure the prudent financing of current funding deficiencies and future obligations of the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system by increasing termination insurance premiums.

(Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11002, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 237.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsec. (c), is title XI of Pub. L. 99–272, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 237, known as the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986, and not as part of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 1341 of this title.

§1002. Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter:

(1) The terms "employee welfare benefit plan" and "welfare plan" mean any plan, fund, or program which was heretofore or is hereafter established or maintained by an employer or by an employee organization, or by both, to the extent that such plan, fund, or program was established or is maintained for the purpose of providing for its participants or their beneficiaries, through the purchase of insurance or otherwise, (A) medical, surgical, or hospital care or benefits, or benefits in the event of sickness, accident, disability, death or unemployment, or vacation benefits, apprenticeship or other training programs, or day care centers, scholarship funds, or prepaid legal services, or (B) any benefit described in section 186(c) of this title (other than pensions on retirement or death, and insurance to provide such pensions).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the terms "employee pension benefit plan" and "pension plan" mean any plan, fund, or program which was heretofore or is hereafter established or maintained by an employer or by an employee organization, or by both, to the extent that by its express terms or as a result of surrounding circumstances such plan, fund, or program—

(i) provides retirement income to employees, or

(ii) results in a deferral of income by employees for periods extending to the termination of covered employment or beyond,


regardless of the method of calculating the contributions made to the plan, the method of calculating the benefits under the plan or the method of distributing benefits from the plan. A distribution from a plan, fund, or program shall not be treated as made in a form other than retirement income or as a distribution prior to termination of covered employment solely because such distribution is made to an employee who has attained age 62 and who is not separated from employment at the time of such distribution.

(B) The Secretary may by regulation prescribe rules consistent with the standards and purposes of this chapter providing one or more exempt categories under which—

(i) severance pay arrangements, and

(ii) supplemental retirement income payments, under which the pension benefits of retirees or their beneficiaries are supplemented to take into account some portion or all of the increases in the cost of living (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) since retirement,


shall, for purposes of this subchapter, be treated as welfare plans rather than pension plans. In the case of any arrangement or payment a principal effect of which is the evasion of the standards or purposes of this chapter applicable to pension plans, such arrangement or payment shall be treated as a pension plan. An applicable voluntary early retirement incentive plan (as defined in section 457(e)(11)(D)(ii) of title 26) making payments or supplements described in section 457(e)(11)(D)(i) of title 26, and an applicable employment retention plan (as defined in section 457(f)(4)(C) of title 26) making payments of benefits described in section 457(f)(4)(A) of title 26, shall, for purposes of this subchapter, be treated as a welfare plan (and not a pension plan) with respect to such payments and supplements.

(C) A pooled employer plan shall be treated as—

(i) a single employee pension benefit plan or single pension plan; and

(ii) a plan to which section 1060(a) of this title applies.


(3) The term "employee benefit plan" or "plan" means an employee welfare benefit plan or an employee pension benefit plan or a plan which is both an employee welfare benefit plan and an employee pension benefit plan.

(4) The term "employee organization" means any labor union or any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee, association, group, or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning an employee benefit plan, or other matters incidental to employment relationships; or any employees' beneficiary association organized for the purpose in whole or in part, of establishing such a plan.

(5) The term "employer" means any person acting directly as an employer, or indirectly in the interest of an employer, in relation to an employee benefit plan; and includes a group or association of employers acting for an employer in such capacity.

(6) The term "employee" means any individual employed by an employer.

(7) The term "participant" means any employee or former employee of an employer, or any member or former member of an employee organization, who is or may become eligible to receive a benefit of any type from an employee benefit plan which covers employees of such employer or members of such organization, or whose beneficiaries may be eligible to receive any such benefit.

(8) The term "beneficiary" means a person designated by a participant, or by the terms of an employee benefit plan, who is or may become entitled to a benefit thereunder.

(9) The term "person" means an individual, partnership, joint venture, corporation, mutual company, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization, association, or employee organization.

(10) The term "State" includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, and the Canal Zone. The term "United States" when used in the geographic sense means the States and the Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331–1343).

(11) The term "commerce" means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication between any State and any place outside thereof.

(12) The term "industry or activity affecting commerce" means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder or obstruct commerce or the free flow of commerce, and includes any activity or industry "affecting commerce" within the meaning of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947 [29 U.S.C. 141 et seq.], or the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.].

(13) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Labor.

(14) The term "party in interest" means, as to an employee benefit plan—

(A) any fiduciary (including, but not limited to, any administrator, officer, trustee, or custodian), counsel, or employee of such employee benefit plan;

(B) a person providing services to such plan;

(C) an employer any of whose employees are covered by such plan;

(D) an employee organization any of whose members are covered by such plan;

(E) an owner, direct or indirect, of 50 percent or more of—

(i) the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or the total value of shares of all classes of stock of a corporation.1

(ii) the capital interest or the profits interest of a partnership, or

(iii) the beneficial interest of a trust or unincorporated enterprise,


which is an employer or an employee organization described in subparagraph (C) or (D);

(F) a relative (as defined in paragraph (15)) of any individual described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E);

(G) a corporation, partnership, or trust or estate of which (or in which) 50 percent or more of—

(i) the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such corporation,

(ii) the capital interest or profits interest of such partnership, or

(iii) the beneficial interest of such trust or estate,


is owned directly or indirectly, or held by persons described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E);

(H) an employee, officer, director (or an individual having powers or responsibilities similar to those of officers or directors), or a 10 percent or more shareholder directly or indirectly, of a person described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D), (E), or (G), or of the employee benefit plan; or

(I) a 10 percent or more (directly or indirectly in capital or profits) partner or joint venturer of a person described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D), (E), or (G).


The Secretary, after consultation and coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, may by regulation prescribe a percentage lower than 50 percent for subparagraph (E) and (G) and lower than 10 percent for subparagraph (H) or (I). The Secretary may prescribe regulations for determining the ownership (direct or indirect) of profits and beneficial interests, and the manner in which indirect stockholdings are taken into account. Any person who is a party in interest with respect to a plan to which a trust described in section 501(c)(22) of title 26 is permitted to make payments under section 1403 of this title shall be treated as a party in interest with respect to such trust.

(15) The term "relative" means a spouse, ancestor, lineal descendant, or spouse of a lineal descendant.

(16)(A) The term "administrator" means—

(i) the person specifically so designated by the terms of the instrument under which the plan is operated;

(ii) if an administrator is not so designated, the plan sponsor; or

(iii) in the case of a plan for which an administrator is not designated and a plan sponsor cannot be identified, such other person as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.


(B) The term "plan sponsor" means (i) the employer in the case of an employee benefit plan established or maintained by a single employer, (ii) the employee organization in the case of a plan established or maintained by an employee organization, (iii) in the case of a plan established or maintained by two or more employers or jointly by one or more employers and one or more employee organizations, the association, committee, joint board of trustees, or other similar group of representatives of the parties who establish or maintain the plan, or (iv) in the case of a pooled employer plan, the pooled plan provider.

(17) The term "separate account" means an account established or maintained by an insurance company under which income, gains, and losses, whether or not realized, from assets allocated to such account, are, in accordance with the applicable contract, credited to or charged against such account without regard to other income, gains, or losses of the insurance company.

(18) The term "adequate consideration" when used in part 4 of subtitle B means (A) in the case of a security for which there is a generally recognized market, either (i) the price of the security prevailing on a national securities exchange which is registered under section 78f of title 15, or (ii) if the security is not traded on such a national securities exchange, a price not less favorable to the plan than the offering price for the security as established by the current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer and of any party in interest; and (B) in the case of an asset other than a security for which there is a generally recognized market, the fair market value of the asset as determined in good faith by the trustee or named fiduciary pursuant to the terms of the plan and in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(19) The term "nonforfeitable" when used with respect to a pension benefit or right means a claim obtained by a participant or his beneficiary to that part of an immediate or deferred benefit under a pension plan which arises from the participant's service, which is unconditional, and which is legally enforceable against the plan. For purposes of this paragraph, a right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable merely because the plan contains a provision described in section 1053(a)(3) of this title.

(20) The term "security" has the same meaning as such term has under section 77b(1) 2 of title 15.

(21)(A) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), a person is a fiduciary with respect to a plan to the extent (i) he exercises any discretionary authority or discretionary control respecting management of such plan or exercises any authority or control respecting management or disposition of its assets, (ii) he renders investment advice for a fee or other compensation, direct or indirect, with respect to any moneys or other property of such plan, or has any authority or responsibility to do so, or (iii) he has any discretionary authority or discretionary responsibility in the administration of such plan. Such term includes any person designated under section 1105(c)(1)(B) of this title.

(B) If any money or other property of an employee benefit plan is invested in securities issued by an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.], such investment shall not by itself cause such investment company or such investment company's investment adviser or principal underwriter to be deemed to be a fiduciary or a party in interest as those terms are defined in this subchapter, except insofar as such investment company or its investment adviser or principal underwriter acts in connection with an employee benefit plan covering employees of the investment company, the investment adviser, or its principal underwriter. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall limit the duties imposed on such investment company, investment adviser, or principal underwriter by any other law.

(22) The term "normal retirement benefit" means the greater of the early retirement benefit under the plan, or the benefit under the plan commencing at normal retirement age. The normal retirement benefit shall be determined without regard to—

(A) medical benefits, and

(B) disability benefits not in excess of the qualified disability benefit.


For purposes of this paragraph, a qualified disability benefit is a disability benefit provided by a plan which does not exceed the benefit which would be provided for the participant if he separated from the service at normal retirement age. For purposes of this paragraph, the early retirement benefit under a plan shall be determined without regard to any benefit under the plan which the Secretary of the Treasury finds to be a benefit described in section 1054(b)(1)(G) of this title.

(23) The term "accrued benefit" means—

(A) in the case of a defined benefit plan, the individual's accrued benefit determined under the plan and, except as provided in section 1054(c)(3) of this title, expressed in the form of an annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age, or

(B) in the case of a plan which is an individual account plan, the balance of the individual's account.


The accrued benefit of an employee shall not be less than the amount determined under section 1054(c)(2)(B) of this title with respect to the employee's accumulated contribution.

(24) The term "normal retirement age" means the earlier of—

(A) the time a plan participant attains normal retirement age under the plan, or

(B) the later of—

(i) the time a plan participant attains age 65, or

(ii) the 5th anniversary of the time a plan participant commenced participation in the plan.


(25) The term "vested liabilities" means the present value of the immediate or deferred benefits available at normal retirement age for participants and their beneficiaries which are nonforfeitable.

(26) The term "current value" means fair market value where available and otherwise the fair value as determined in good faith by a trustee or a named fiduciary (as defined in section 1102(a)(2) of this title) pursuant to the terms of the plan and in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, assuming an orderly liquidation at the time of such determination.

(27) The term "present value", with respect to a liability, means the value adjusted to reflect anticipated events. Such adjustments shall conform to such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

(28) The term "normal service cost" or "normal cost" means the annual cost of future pension benefits and administrative expenses assigned, under an actuarial cost method, to years subsequent to a particular valuation date of a pension plan. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.

(29) The term "accrued liability" means the excess of the present value, as of a particular valuation date of a pension plan, of the projected future benefit costs and administrative expenses for all plan participants and beneficiaries over the present value of future contributions for the normal cost of all applicable plan participants and beneficiaries. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.

(30) The term "unfunded accrued liability" means the excess of the accrued liability, under an actuarial cost method which so provides, over the present value of the assets of a pension plan. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.

(31) The term "advance funding actuarial cost method" or "actuarial cost method" means a recognized actuarial technique utilized for establishing the amount and incidence of the annual actuarial cost of pension plan benefits and expenses. Acceptable actuarial cost methods shall include the accrued benefit cost method (unit credit method), the entry age normal cost method, the individual level premium cost method, the aggregate cost method, the attained age normal cost method, and the frozen initial liability cost method. The terminal funding cost method and the current funding (pay-as-you-go) cost method are not acceptable actuarial cost methods. The Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations to further define acceptable actuarial cost methods.

(32) The term "governmental plan" means a plan established or maintained for its employees by the Government of the United States, by the government of any State or political subdivision thereof, or by any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing. The term "governmental plan" also includes any plan to which the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935, or 1937 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.] applies, and which is financed by contributions required under that Act and any plan of an international organization which is exempt from taxation under the provisions of the International Organizations Immunities Act [22 U.S.C. 288 et seq.]. The term "governmental plan" includes a plan which is established and maintained by an Indian tribal government (as defined in section 7701(a)(40) of title 26), a subdivision of an Indian tribal government (determined in accordance with section 7871(d) of title 26), or an agency or instrumentality of either, and all of the participants of which are employees of such entity substantially all of whose services as such an employee are in the performance of essential governmental functions but not in the performance of commercial activities (whether or not an essential government function) 3

(33)(A) The term "church plan" means a plan established and maintained (to the extent required in clause (ii) of subparagraph (B)) for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26.

(B) The term "church plan" does not include a plan—

(i) which is established and maintained primarily for the benefit of employees (or their beneficiaries) of such church or convention or association of churches who are employed in connection with one or more unrelated trades or businesses (within the meaning of section 513 of title 26), or

(ii) if less than substantially all of the individuals included in the plan are individuals described in subparagraph (A) or in clause (ii) of subparagraph (C) (or their beneficiaries).


(C) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) A plan established and maintained for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches includes a plan maintained by an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, the principal purpose or function of which is the administration or funding of a plan or program for the provision of retirement benefits or welfare benefits, or both, for the employees of a church or a convention or association of churches, if such organization is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches.

(ii) The term employee of a church or a convention or association of churches includes—

(I) a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry, regardless of the source of his compensation;

(II) an employee of an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 and which is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches; and

(III) an individual described in clause (v).


(iii) A church or a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 shall be deemed the employer of any individual included as an employee under clause (ii).

(iv) An organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, is associated with a church or a convention or association of churches if it shares common religious bonds and convictions with that church or convention or association of churches.

(v) If an employee who is included in a church plan separates from the service of a church or a convention or association of churches or an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 and which is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches, the church plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of this paragraph merely because the plan—

(I) retains the employee's accrued benefit or account for the payment of benefits to the employee or his beneficiaries pursuant to the terms of the plan; or

(II) receives contributions on the employee's behalf after the employee's separation from such service, but only for a period of 5 years after such separation, unless the employee is disabled (within the meaning of the disability provisions of the church plan or, if there are no such provisions in the church plan, within the meaning of section 72(m)(7) of title 26) at the time of such separation from service.


(D)(i) If a plan established and maintained for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 fails to meet one or more of the requirements of this paragraph and corrects its failure to meet such requirements within the correction period, the plan shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph for the year in which the correction was made and for all prior years.

(ii) If a correction is not made within the correction period, the plan shall be deemed not to meet the requirements of this paragraph beginning with the date on which the earliest failure to meet one or more of such requirements occurred.

(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "correction period" means—

(I) the period ending 270 days after the date of mailing by the Secretary of the Treasury of a notice of default with respect to the plan's failure to meet one or more of the requirements of this paragraph; or

(II) any period set by a court of competent jurisdiction after a final determination that the plan fails to meet such requirements, or, if the court does not specify such period, any reasonable period determined by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of all the facts and circumstances, but in any event not less than 270 days after the determination has become final; or

(III) any additional period which the Secretary of the Treasury determines is reasonable or necessary for the correction of the default,


whichever has the latest ending date.

(34) The term "individual account plan" or "defined contribution plan" means a pension plan which provides for an individual account for each participant and for benefits based solely upon the amount contributed to the participant's account, and any income, expenses, gains and losses, and any forfeitures of accounts of other participants which may be allocated to such participant's account.

(35) The term "defined benefit plan" means a pension plan other than an individual account plan; except that a pension plan which is not an individual account plan and which provides a benefit derived from employer contributions which is based partly on the balance of the separate account of a participant—

(A) for the purposes of section 1052 of this title, shall be treated as an individual account plan, and

(B) for the purposes of paragraph (23) of this section and section 1054 of this title, shall be treated as an individual account plan to the extent benefits are based upon the separate account of a participant and as a defined benefit plan with respect to the remaining portion of benefits under the plan.


(36) The term "excess benefit plan" means a plan maintained by an employer solely for the purpose of providing benefits for certain employees in excess of the limitations on contributions and benefits imposed by section 415 of title 26 on plans to which that section applies without regard to whether the plan is funded. To the extent that a separable part of a plan (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) maintained by an employer is maintained for such purpose, that part shall be treated as a separate plan which is an excess benefit plan.

(37)(A) The term "multiemployer plan" means a plan—

(i) to which more than one employer is required to contribute,

(ii) which is maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements between one or more employee organizations and more than one employer, and

(iii) which satisfies such other requirements as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph, all trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated) which are under common control within the meaning of section 1301(b)(1) of this title are considered a single employer.

(C) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a plan is a multiemployer plan on and after its termination date if the plan was a multiemployer plan under this paragraph for the plan year preceding its termination date.

(D) For purposes of this subchapter, notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, for any plan year which began before September 26, 1980, the term "multiemployer plan" means a plan described in this paragraph (37) as in effect immediately before such date.

(E) Within one year after September 26, 1980, a multiemployer plan may irrevocably elect, pursuant to procedures established by the corporation and subject to the provisions of sections 1453(b) and (c) of this title, that the plan shall not be treated as a multiemployer plan for all purposes under this chapter or the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 if for each of the last 3 plan years ending prior to the effective date of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980—

(i) the plan was not a multiemployer plan because the plan was not a plan described in subparagraph (A)(iii) of this paragraph and section 414(f)(1)(C) of title 26 (as such provisions were in effect on the day before September 26, 1980); and

(ii) the plan had been identified as a plan that was not a multiemployer plan in substantially all its filings with the corporation, the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of the Treasury.


(F)(i) For purposes of this subchapter a qualified football coaches plan—

(I) shall be treated as a multiemployer plan to the extent not inconsistent with the purposes of this subparagraph; and

(II) notwithstanding section 401(k)(4)(B) of title 26, may include a qualified cash and deferred arrangement.


(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "qualified football coaches plan" means any defined contribution plan which is established and maintained by an organization—

(I) which is described in section 501(c) of title 26;

(II) the membership of which consists entirely of individuals who primarily coach football as full-time employees of 4-year colleges or universities described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of title 26; and

(III) which was in existence on September 18, 1986.


(G)(i) Within 1 year after August 17, 2006—

(I) an election under subparagraph (E) may be revoked, pursuant to procedures prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, if, for each of the 3 plan years prior to August 17, 2006, the plan would have been a multiemployer plan but for the election under subparagraph (E), and

(II) a plan that meets the criteria in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph or that is described in clause (vi) may, pursuant to procedures prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, elect to be a multiemployer plan, if—

(aa) for each of the 3 plan years immediately preceding the first plan year for which the election under this paragraph is effective with respect to the plan, the plan has met those criteria or is so described,

(bb) substantially all of the plan's employer contributions for each of those plan years were made or required to be made by organizations that were exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26, and

(cc) the plan was established prior to September 2, 1974.


(ii) An election under this subparagraph shall be effective for all purposes under this chapter and under title 26, starting with any plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1999, and ending before January 1, 2008, as designated by the plan in the election made under clause (i)(II).

(iii) Once made, an election under this subparagraph shall be irrevocable, except that a plan described in clause (i)(II) shall cease to be a multiemployer plan as of the plan year beginning immediately after the first plan year for which the majority of its employer contributions were made or required to be made by organizations that were not exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26.

(iv) The fact that a plan makes an election under clause (i)(II) does not imply that the plan was not a multiemployer plan prior to the date of the election or would not be a multiemployer plan without regard to the election.

(v)(I) No later than 30 days before an election is made under this subparagraph, the plan administrator shall provide notice of the pending election to each plan participant and beneficiary, each labor organization representing such participants or beneficiaries, and each employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan, describing the principal differences between the guarantee programs under subchapter III and the benefit restrictions under this subchapter for single employer and multiemployer plans, along with such other information as the plan administrator chooses to include.

(II) Within 180 days after August 17, 2006, the Secretary shall prescribe a model notice under this clause.

(III) A plan administrator's failure to provide the notice required under this subparagraph shall be treated for purposes of section 1132(c)(2) of this title as a failure or refusal by the plan administrator to file the annual report required to be filed with the Secretary under section 1021(b)(1) of this title.

(vi) A plan is described in this clause if it is a plan sponsored by an organization which is described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such title and which was established in Chicago, Illinois, on August 12, 1881.

(vii) For purposes of this chapter and title 26, a plan making an election under this subparagraph shall be treated as maintained pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement if a collective bargaining agreement, expressly or otherwise, provides for or permits employer contributions to the plan by one or more employers that are signatory to such agreement, or participation in the plan by one or more employees of an employer that is signatory to such agreement, regardless of whether the plan was created, established, or maintained for such employees by virtue of another document that is not a collective bargaining agreement.

(38) The term "investment manager" means any fiduciary (other than a trustee or named fiduciary, as defined in section 1102(a)(2) of this title)—

(A) who has the power to manage, acquire, or dispose of any asset of a plan;

(B) who (i) is registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80b–1 et seq.]; (ii) is not registered as an investment adviser under such Act by reason of paragraph (1) of section 203A(a) of such Act [15 U.S.C. 80b–3a(a)], is registered as an investment adviser under the laws of the State (referred to in such paragraph (1)) in which it maintains its principal office and place of business, and, at the time the fiduciary last filed the registration form most recently filed by the fiduciary with such State in order to maintain the fiduciary's registration under the laws of such State, also filed a copy of such form with the Secretary; (iii) is a bank, as defined in that Act; or (iv) is an insurance company qualified to perform services described in subparagraph (A) under the laws of more than one State; and

(C) has acknowledged in writing that he is a fiduciary with respect to the plan.


(39) The terms "plan year" and "fiscal year of the plan" mean, with respect to a plan, the calendar, policy, or fiscal year on which the records of the plan are kept.

(40)(A) The term "multiple employer welfare arrangement" means an employee welfare benefit plan, or any other arrangement (other than an employee welfare benefit plan), which is established or maintained for the purpose of offering or providing any benefit described in paragraph (1) to the employees of two or more employers (including one or more self-employed individuals), or to their beneficiaries, except that such term does not include any such plan or other arrangement which is established or maintained—

(i) under or pursuant to one or more agreements which the Secretary finds to be collective bargaining agreements,

(ii) by a rural electric cooperative, or

(iii) by a rural telephone cooperative association.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) two or more trades or businesses, whether or not incorporated, shall be deemed a single employer if such trades or businesses are within the same control group,

(ii) the term "control group" means a group of trades or businesses under common control,

(iii) the determination of whether a trade or business is under "common control" with another trade or business shall be determined under regulations of the Secretary applying principles similar to the principles applied in determining whether employees of two or more trades or businesses are treated as employed by a single employer under section 1301(b) of this title, except that, for purposes of this paragraph, common control shall not be based on an interest of less than 25 percent,

(iv) the term "rural electric cooperative" means—

(I) any organization which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and which is engaged primarily in providing electric service on a mutual or cooperative basis, and

(II) any organization described in paragraph (4) or (6) of section 501(c) of title 26 which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and at least 80 percent of the members of which are organizations described in subclause (I), and


(v) the term "rural telephone cooperative association" means an organization described in paragraph (4) or (6) of section 501(c) of title 26 which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and at least 80 percent of the members of which are organizations engaged primarily in providing telephone service to rural areas of the United States on a mutual, cooperative, or other basis.


(41) Single-employer plan.—The term "single-employer plan" means an employee benefit plan other than a multiemployer plan.

(42) the 4 term "plan assets" means plan assets as defined by such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, except that under such regulations the assets of any entity shall not be treated as plan assets if, immediately after the most recent acquisition of any equity interest in the entity, less than 25 percent of the total value of each class of equity interest in the entity is held by benefit plan investors. For purposes of determinations pursuant to this paragraph, the value of any equity interest held by a person (other than such a benefit plan investor) who has discretionary authority or control with respect to the assets of the entity or any person who provides investment advice for a fee (direct or indirect) with respect to such assets, or any affiliate of such a person, shall be disregarded for purposes of calculating the 25 percent threshold. An entity shall be considered to hold plan assets only to the extent of the percentage of the equity interest held by benefit plan investors. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "benefit plan investor" means an employee benefit plan subject to part 4,5 any plan to which section 4975 of title 26 applies, and any entity whose underlying assets include plan assets by reason of a plan's investment in such entity.

(43) Pooled employer plan.—

(A) In general.—The term "pooled employer plan" means a plan—

(i) which is an individual account plan established or maintained for the purpose of providing benefits to the employees of 2 or more employers;

(ii) which is a plan described in section 401(a) of title 26 which includes a trust exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 or a plan that consists of individual retirement accounts described in section 408 of title 26 (including by reason of subsection (c) thereof); and

(iii) the terms of which meet the requirements of subparagraph (B).


Such term shall not include a plan maintained by employers which have a common interest other than having adopted the plan.

(B) Requirements for plan terms.—The requirements of this subparagraph are met with respect to any plan if the terms of the plan—

(i) designate a pooled plan provider and provide that the pooled plan provider is a named fiduciary of the plan;

(ii) designate one or more trustees meeting the requirements of section 408(a)(2) of title 26 (other than an employer in the plan) to be responsible for collecting contributions to, and holding the assets of, the plan and require such trustees to implement written contribution collection procedures that are reasonable, diligent, and systematic;

(iii) provide that each employer in the plan retains fiduciary responsibility for—

(I) the selection and monitoring in accordance with section 1104(a) of this title of the person designated as the pooled plan provider and any other person who, in addition to the pooled plan provider, is designated as a named fiduciary of the plan; and

(II) to the extent not otherwise delegated to another fiduciary by the pooled plan provider and subject to the provisions of section 1104(c) of this title, the investment and management of the portion of the plan's assets attributable to the employees of the employer (or beneficiaries of such employees);


(iv) provide that employers in the plan, and participants and beneficiaries, are not subject to unreasonable restrictions, fees, or penalties with regard to ceasing participation, receipt of distributions, or otherwise transferring assets of the plan in accordance with section 1058 of this title or paragraph (44)(C)(i)(II); 6

(v) require—

(I) the pooled plan provider to provide to employers in the plan any disclosures or other information which the Secretary may require, including any disclosures or other information to facilitate the selection or any monitoring of the pooled plan provider by employers in the plan; and

(II) each employer in the plan to take such actions as the Secretary or the pooled plan provider determines are necessary to administer the plan or for the plan to meet any requirement applicable under this chapter or title 26 to a plan described in section 401(a) of title 26 or to a plan that consists of individual retirement accounts described in section 408 of title 26 (including by reason of subsection (c) thereof), whichever is applicable, including providing any disclosures or other information which the Secretary may require or which the pooled plan provider otherwise determines are necessary to administer the plan or to allow the plan to meet such requirements; and


(vi) provide that any disclosure or other information required to be provided under clause (v) may be provided in electronic form and will be designed to ensure only reasonable costs are imposed on pooled plan providers and employers in the plan.


(C) Exceptions.—The term "pooled employer plan" does not include—

(i) a multiemployer plan; or

(ii) a plan established before December 20, 2019, unless the plan administrator elects that the plan will be treated as a pooled employer plan and the plan meets the requirements of this subchapter applicable to a pooled employer plan established on or after such date.


(D) Treatment of employers as plan sponsors.—Except with respect to the administrative duties of the pooled plan provider described in paragraph (44)(A)(i), each employer in a pooled employer plan shall be treated as the plan sponsor with respect to the portion of the plan attributable to employees of such employer (or beneficiaries of such employees).


(44) Pooled plan provider.—

(A) In general.—The term "pooled plan provider" means a person who—

(i) is designated by the terms of a pooled employer plan as a named fiduciary, as the plan administrator, and as the person responsible for the performance of all administrative duties (including conducting proper testing with respect to the plan and the employees of each employer in the plan) which are reasonably necessary to ensure that—

(I) the plan meets any requirement applicable under this chapter or title 26 to a plan described in section 401(a) of title 26 or to a plan that consists of individual retirement accounts described in section 408 of title 26 (including by reason of subsection (c) thereof), whichever is applicable; and

(II) each employer in the plan takes such actions as the Secretary or pooled plan provider determines are necessary for the plan to meet the requirements described in subclause (I), including providing the disclosures and information described in paragraph (43)(B)(v)(II);


(ii) registers as a pooled plan provider with the Secretary, and provides to the Secretary such other information as the Secretary may require, before beginning operations as a pooled plan provider;

(iii) acknowledges in writing that such person is a named fiduciary, and the plan administrator, with respect to the pooled employer plan; and

(iv) is responsible for ensuring that all persons who handle assets of, or who are fiduciaries of, the pooled employer plan are bonded in accordance with section 1112 of this title.


(B) Audits, examinations and investigations.—The Secretary may perform audits, examinations, and investigations of pooled plan providers as may be necessary to enforce and carry out the purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (43).

(C) Guidance.—The Secretary shall issue such guidance as the Secretary determines appropriate to carry out this paragraph and paragraph (43), including guidance—

(i) to identify the administrative duties and other actions required to be performed by a pooled plan provider under either such paragraph; and

(ii) which requires in appropriate cases that if an employer in the plan fails to take the actions required under subparagraph (A)(i)(II)—

(I) the assets of the plan attributable to employees of such employer (or beneficiaries of such employees) are transferred to a plan maintained only by such employer (or its successor), to an eligible retirement plan as defined in section 402(c)(8)(B) of title 26 for each individual whose account is transferred, or to any other arrangement that the Secretary determines is appropriate in such guidance; and

(II) such employer (and not the plan with respect to which the failure occurred or any other employer in such plan) shall, except to the extent provided in such guidance, be liable for any liabilities with respect to such plan attributable to employees of such employer (or beneficiaries of such employees).


The Secretary shall take into account under clause (ii) whether the failure of an employer or pooled plan provider to provide any disclosures or other information, or to take any other action, necessary to administer a plan or to allow a plan to meet requirements described in subparagraph (A)(i)(II) has continued over a period of time that demonstrates a lack of commitment to compliance. The Secretary may waive the requirements of subclause (ii)(I) in appropriate circumstances if the Secretary determines it is in the best interests of the employees of the employer referred to in such clause (and the beneficiaries of such employees) to retain the assets in the plan with respect to which the employer's failure occurred.


(D) Good faith compliance with law before guidance.—An employer or pooled plan provider shall not be treated as failing to meet a requirement of guidance issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (C) if, before the issuance of such guidance, the employer or pooled plan provider complies in good faith with a reasonable interpretation of the provisions of this paragraph, or paragraph (43), to which such guidance relates.

(E) Aggregation rules.—For purposes of this paragraph, in determining whether a person meets the requirements of this paragraph to be a pooled plan provider with respect to any plan, all persons who perform services for the plan and who are treated as a single employer under subsection (b), (c), (m), or (o) of section 414 of title 26 shall be treated as one person.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §3, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 833; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §§302, 305, title IV, §§407(a), 409, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1291, 1294, 1303, 1307; Pub. L. 97–473, title III, §302(a), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2612; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11016(c)(1), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §9203(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1979; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1879(u)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2913; Pub. L. 100–202, §136(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–441; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7871(b)(2), 7881(m)(2)(D), 7891(a)(1), 7893(a), 7894(a)(1)(A), (2)(A), (3), (4), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2435, 2444, 2445, 2447, 2448; Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12002(b)(2)(C), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–566; Pub. L. 102–89, §2, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 104–290, title III, §308(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3440; Pub. L. 105–72, §1(a), Nov. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1457; Pub. L. 109–280, title VI, §611(f), title IX, §§905(a), 906(a)(2)(A), title XI, §§1104(c), 1106(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 972, 1050, 1051, 1060; Pub. L. 110–28, title VI, §6611(a)(1), (b)(1), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 179, 180; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §111(c), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5113; Pub. L. 116–94, div. O, title I, §101(b), (c)(1), (3), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3141, 3144.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in pars. (2)(B), (37)(E), (G)(ii), (vii), (43)(B)(v)(II), and (44)(A)(i)(I), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in par. (10), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1301 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Labor Management Relations Act, 1947, referred to in par. (12), is act June 23, 1947, ch. 120, 61 Stat. 136, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 7 (§141 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 141 of this title and Tables.

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in par. (12), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.

Section 77b(1) of title 15, referred to in par. (20), was redesignated section 77b(a)(1) of title 15 by Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §106(a)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3424.

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in par. (21)(B), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 or 1937, referred to in par. (32), means act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 967, as amended, known as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935. The Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 was amended generally by act June 24, 1937, ch. 382, part I, 50 Stat. 307, and was known as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937. The Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 was amended generally and redesignated the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305 and is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The International Organizations Immunities Act, referred to in par. (32), is title I of act Dec. 29, 1945, ch. 652, 59 Stat. 669, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter XVIII (§288 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 288 of Title 22 and Tables.

Sections 1453(b) and (c) of this title, referred to in par. (37)(E), was in the original "sections 4403(b) and (c)", meaning sections 4403(b) and (c) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, which was translated as section 1453(b) and (c) of this title as the probable intent of Congress, in view of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 not containing a section 4403 and the subject matter of section 4303 of the Act which is classified to section 1453(b) and (c) of this title.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in par. (37)(E), was redesignated the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, and is classified to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

For the effective date of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980, referred to in par. (37)(E), see section 1461(e) of this title.

The Investment Advisers Act of 1940, referred to in par. (38)(B), is title II of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§80b–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80b–20 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2019—Par. (2)(C). Pub. L. 116–94, §101(b), added subpar. (C).

Par. (16)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 116–94, §101(c)(3)(A), added cl. (iv).

Par. (41). Pub. L. 116–94, §101(c)(3)(B), struck out second par. (41) which read as follows: "The term 'single-employer plan' means a plan which is not a multiemployer plan."

Pars. (43), (44). Pub. L. 116–94, §101(c)(1), added pars. (43) and (44).

2008—Par. (37)(G). Pub. L. 110–458 substituted "subparagraph" for "paragraph" in cls. (ii), (iii), and (v)(I), "clause (i)(II)" for "subclause (i)(II)" in cl. (iii), "clause" for "subparagraph" in cl. (v)(II), and "section 1021(b)(1)" for "section 1021(b)(4)" in cl. (v)(III).

2007—Par. (37)(G)(i)(II)(aa). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(a)(1)(A), substituted "for each of the 3 plan years immediately preceding the first plan year for which the election under this paragraph is effective with respect to the plan," for "for each of the 3 plan years immediately before August 17, 2006,".

Par. (37)(G)(ii). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(a)(1)(B), substituted "starting with any plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1999, and ending before January 1, 2008, as designated by the plan in the election made under clause (i)(II)" for "starting with the first plan year ending after August 17, 2006".

Par. (37)(G)(vi). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(b)(1), substituted "if it is a plan sponsored by an organization which is described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such title and which was established in Chicago, Illinois, on August 12, 1881." for "if it is a plan—

"(I) that was established in Chicago, Illinois, on August 12, 1881; and

"(II) sponsored by an organization described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26."

Par. (37)(G)(vii). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(a)(1)(C), added cl. (vii).

2006—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 109–280, §905(a), inserted at end "A distribution from a plan, fund, or program shall not be treated as made in a form other than retirement income or as a distribution prior to termination of covered employment solely because such distribution is made to an employee who has attained age 62 and who is not separated from employment at the time of such distribution."

Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §1104(c), inserted at end "An applicable voluntary early retirement incentive plan (as defined in section 457(e)(11)(D)(ii) of title 26) making payments or supplements described in section 457(e)(11)(D)(i) of title 26, and an applicable employment retention plan (as defined in section 457(f)(4)(C) of title 26) making payments of benefits described in section 457(f)(4)(A) of title 26, shall, for purposes of this subchapter, be treated as a welfare plan (and not a pension plan) with respect to such payments and supplements."

Par. (32). Pub. L. 109–280, §906(a)(2)(A), inserted at end "The term 'governmental plan' includes a plan which is established and maintained by an Indian tribal government (as defined in section 7701(a)(40) of title 26), a subdivision of an Indian tribal government (determined in accordance with section 7871(d) of title 26), or an agency or instrumentality of either, and all of the participants of which are employees of such entity substantially all of whose services as such an employee are in the performance of essential governmental functions but not in the performance of commercial activities (whether or not an essential government function)".

Par. (37)(G). Pub. L. 109–280, §1106(a), added subpar. (G).

Par. (42). Pub. L. 109–280, §611(f), added par. (42).

1997—Par. (38)(B). Pub. L. 105–72 added introductory provisions and cls. (i) and (ii), redesignated former cls. (ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively, and struck out former introductory provisions and cl. (i) which read as follows: "who is (i) registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 or under the laws of any State;".

1996—Par. (38)(B). Pub. L. 104–290 temporarily inserted "or under the laws of any State" before "; (ii) is a bank,". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment note below.

1991—Par. (40)(A)(iii), (B)(v). Pub. L. 102–89 added cl. (iii) at end of subpar. (A) and cl. (v) at end of subpar. (B).

1990—Par. (41). Pub. L. 101–508 added par. (41) which read as follows: "The term 'single-employer plan' means a plan which is not a multiemployer plan."

1989—Pars. (14), (33), (36), (40)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Par. (23). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(m)(2)(D), inserted at end "The accrued benefit of an employee shall not be less than the amount determined under section 1054(c)(2)(B) of this title with respect to the employee's accumulated contribution."

Par. (24)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7871(b)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "the latest of—

"(i) the time a plan participant attains age 65,

"(ii) in the case of a plan participant who commences participation in the plan within 5 years before attaining normal retirement age under the plan, the 5th anniversary of the time the plan participant commences participation in the plan, or

"(iii) in the case of a plan participant not described in clause (ii), the 10th anniversary of the time the plan participant commences participation in the plan."

Par. (33)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(1)(A), substituted "Secretary of the Treasury" for "Secretary" in subcls. (I) to (III).

Par. (37)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7893(a), substituted "section 1301(b)(1)" for "section 1301(c)(1)".

Par. (37)(F)(i)(II). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(2)(A)(i), substituted "the Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "such Code", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Par. (37)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(2)(A)(ii), (iii), inserted "of such Code" after "section 501(c)" in subcl. (I) and after "section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)" in subcl. (II), which for purposes of codification was translated as "of title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Par. (39). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(3), substituted "mean, with respect to a plan, the calendar" for "mean with respect to a plan, calendar".

Par. (41). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(4), added par. (41).

1987—Par. (37)(F). Pub. L. 100–202 added subpar. (F).

1986—Par. (24)(B). Pub. L. 99–509 amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "the later of—

"(i) the time a plan participant attains age 65, or

"(ii) the 10th anniversary of the time a plan participant commenced participation in the plan."

Par. (37)(A). Pub. L. 99–514 repealed the amendment made by Pub. L. 99–272. See note below.

Pub. L. 99–272, which, eff. Jan. 1, 1986, directed the substitution of "means a pension plan" for "means a plan" was repealed by Pub. L. 99–514, eff. Jan. 1, 1986.

1983—Par. (40). Pub. L. 97–473 added par. (40).

1980—Par. (2). Pub. L. 96–364, §409, redesignated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted exception for subpar. (B), substituted "(i)" for "(A)" and "(ii)" for "(B)", and added subpar. (B).

Par. (14). Pub. L. 96–364, §305, inserted provisions respecting a trust described in section 501(c)(22) of title 26.

Par. (33). Pub. L. 96–364, §407(a), substituted provisions defining "church plan" as a plan established and maintained (to the extent required in cl. (ii) of subpar. (B)) for employees or beneficiaries by a church, etc., exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26, for provisions defining "church plan" as a plan established and maintained for employees by a church, etc., exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26, or a plan in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, established and maintained by a church, etc., for employees and employees of agencies of the church, etc.

Par. (37). Pub. L. 96–364, §302(a), substantially revised definition of term "multiemployer plan" by, among other changes, restructuring subpar. (A), resulting in elimination of provisions covering amount of contributions and payment of benefits, and subpar. (B), resulting in elimination of provisions reworking amount of contributions for subsequent plan years, and added subpars. (C) to (E).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2019 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–94 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2020, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 116–94, set out as a note under section 408 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–28 effective as if included in section 1106 of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–280, see section 6611(c) of Pub. L. 110–28, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 611(f) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to transactions occurring after Aug. 17, 2006, see section 611(h)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 4975 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 905(a) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to distributions in plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, see section 905(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 906(a)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to any year beginning on or after Aug. 17, 2006, see section 906(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 1104(c) of Pub. L. 109–280 effective Aug. 17, 2006, and applicable to plan years ending after such date, see section 1104(d)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 457 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–72, §1(c), Nov. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1457, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 8, 1997, except that the requirement of section 3(38)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1002(38)(B)(ii) of this title] (as amended by this Act) for filing with the Secretary of Labor of a copy of a registration form which has been filed with a State before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1997], or is to be filed with a State during the 1-year period beginning with such date, shall be treated as satisfied upon the filing of such a copy with the Secretary at any time during such 1-year period. This section shall supersede section 308(b) of the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–290, amending this section and enacting provisions set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment note below] (and the amendment made thereby)."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–290 effective 270 days after Oct. 11, 1996, see section 308(a) of Pub. L. 104–290, as amended, set out as a note under section 80b–2 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Pub. L. 104–290, title III, §308(b)(2), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3440, which provided that the amendment made by paragraph (1), amending this section, ceased to be effective 2 years after Oct. 11, 1996, was superseded by section 1(c) of Pub. L. 105–72, set out as an Effective Date of 1997 Amendment note above.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–89, §3, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 446, provided that: "The amendments made by section 2 [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 1991]."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to reversions occurring after Sept. 30, 1990, but not applicable to any reversion after Sept. 30, 1990, if (1) in the case of plans subject to subchapter III of this chapter, notice of intent to terminate under such subchapter was provided to participants (or if no participants, to Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation) before Oct. 1, 1990, (2) in the case of plans subject to subchapter I of this chapter (and not subchapter III), notice of intent to reduce future accruals under section 1054(h) of this title was provided to participants in connection with termination before Oct. 1, 1990, (3) in the case of plans not subject to subchapter I or III of this chapter, a request for a determination letter with respect to termination was filed with Secretary of the Treasury or Secretary's delegate before Oct. 1, 1990, or (4) in the case of plans not subject to subchapter I or III of this chapter and having only one participant, a resolution terminating the plan was adopted by employer before Oct. 1, 1990, see section 12003 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 4980 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7871(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the amendments made by section 9203 of Pub. L. 99–509, see section 7871(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7881(m)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7891(f), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2447, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this section, any amendment made by this section [amending this section, sections 1003, 1025, 1051 to 1056, 1060, 1061, 1081 to 1084, 1085a, 1101, 1103, 1107, 1108, 1132, 1134, 1137, 1161, 1166, 1167, 1201 to 1203, 1222, 1301, 1302, 1307, 1309, 1321 to 1322a, 1342 to 1345, 1362, 1368, 1384, 1385, 1390, 1391, 1393, 1403, 1421, 1423, 1425, and 1453 of this title, and section 4980B of Title 26] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Reform Act [probably means Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514] to which such amendment relates."

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7893(h), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448, provided that: "Any amendment made by this section [amending this section and sections 1322a, 1341, 1342, 1347, 1366, 1367, and 1398 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–272, title XI] to which such amendment relates."

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(a)(1)(B), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448, provided that: "The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 407 of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 [Pub. L. 96–364]."

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(a)(2)(B), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448, provided that: "The amendment made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 136 of Public Law 100–202."

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(i), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2452, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this section, any amendment made by this section [amending this section and sections 1021, 1024 to 1026, 1028, 1031, 1051 to 1056, 1060, 1061, 1081, 1082, 1084, 1086, 1103, 1107, 1108, 1113, 1114, 1132, 1144, 1321 to 1322a, 1344, 1368, and 1461 of this title] shall take effect as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [Pub. L. 93–406] to which such amendment relates."

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–202, §136(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–442, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to years beginning after the date of the enactment of this joint resolution [Dec. 22, 1987]."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 1879(u)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if such provisions were included in the enactment of the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–272], see section 1879(u)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1054 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–509 applicable only with respect to plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1988, and only with respect to service performed on or after such date, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendments note under section 623 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 1341 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–473, title III, §302(c), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2612, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1144 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 14, 1983]."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment of pars. (2), (14), and (37), by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Amendment of par. (33) by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Jan. 1, 1974, see section 407(c) of Pub. L. 96–364, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Regulations

Secretary of Labor, Secretary of the Treasury, and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission each to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

Availability of Documents Via Filing Depository

Pub. L. 105–72, §1(b), Nov. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1457, provided that: "A fiduciary shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 3(38)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1002(38)(B)(ii)] (as amended by subsection (a)) relating to provision to the Secretary of Labor of a copy of the form referred to therein, if a copy of such form (or substantially similar information) is available to the Secretary of Labor from a centralized electronic or other record-keeping database."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

4 So in original. Probably should be "The".

5 So in original. Probably should be "part 4 of subtitle B,".

6 So in original. Probably should be "(44)(C)(ii)(I);".

§1003. Coverage

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b) or (c) and in sections 1051, 1081, and 1101 of this title, this subchapter shall apply to any employee benefit plan if it is established or maintained—

(1) by any employer engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting commerce; or

(2) by any employee organization or organizations representing employees engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting commerce; or

(3) by both.

(b) Exceptions for certain plans

The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to any employee benefit plan if—

(1) such plan is a governmental plan (as defined in section 1002(32) of this title);

(2) such plan is a church plan (as defined in section 1002(33) of this title) with respect to which no election has been made under section 410(d) of title 26;

(3) such plan is maintained solely for the purpose of complying with applicable workmen's compensation laws or unemployment compensation or disability insurance laws;

(4) such plan is maintained outside of the United States primarily for the benefit of persons substantially all of whom are nonresident aliens; or

(5) such plan is an excess benefit plan (as defined in section 1002(36) of this title) and is unfunded.


The provisions of part 7 of subtitle B of this subchapter shall not apply to a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) solely by reason of health insurance coverage (as defined in section 1191b(b)(1) of this title) provided by such issuer in connection with a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title) if the provisions of this subchapter do not apply to such group health plan.

(c) Voluntary employee contributions to accounts and annuities

If a pension plan allows an employee to elect to make voluntary employee contributions to accounts and annuities as provided in section 408(q) of title 26, such accounts and annuities (and contributions thereto) shall not be treated as part of such plan (or as a separate pension plan) for purposes of any provision of this subchapter other than section 1103(c), 1104, or 1105 of this title (relating to exclusive benefit, and fiduciary and co-fiduciary responsibilities) and part 5 of subtitle B of this subchapter 1 (relating to administration and enforcement). Such provisions shall apply to such accounts and annuities in a manner similar to their application to a simplified employee pension under section 408(k) of title 26.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §4, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7891(a)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(d), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1952; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(A), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §602(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(i)(2), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 47.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Part 5 of subtitle B of this subchapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original a reference to "part 5" and was translated as meaning part 5 of subtitle B of title I of Pub. L. 93–406, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–147 inserted "and part 5 of subtitle B of this subchapter (relating to administration and enforcement)" after "co-fiduciary responsibilities)" and "Such provisions shall apply to such accounts and annuities in a manner similar to their application to a simplified employee pension under section 408(k) of title 26." at end.

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–16, §602(b)(2), inserted "or (c)" after "subsection (b)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–16, §602(b)(1), added subsec. (c).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–204, in concluding provisions, made technical amendment to references in original act which appear in text as references to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191 inserted at end "The provisions of part 7 of subtitle B of this subchapter shall not apply to a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) solely by reason of health insurance coverage (as defined in section 1191b(b)(1) of this title) provided by such issuer in connection with a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title) if the provisions of this subchapter do not apply to such group health plan."

1989—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2002, see section 602(c) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 408 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(c), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1185 of this title and amending this section and sections 1021, 1022, 1024, 1132, 1136, 1144, 1181, 1191, and 1191a of this title] shall apply with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 1998."

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

Subtitle B—Regulatory Provisions

part 1—reporting and disclosure

§1021. Duty of disclosure and reporting

(a) Summary plan description and information to be furnished to participants and beneficiaries

The administrator of each employee benefit plan shall cause to be furnished in accordance with section 1024(b) of this title to each participant covered under the plan and to each beneficiary who is receiving benefits under the plan—

(1) a summary plan description described in section 1022(a)(1) 1 of this title; and

(2) the information described in subsection (f) and sections 1024(b)(3) and 1025(a) and (c) of this title.

(b) Reports to be filed with Secretary of Labor

The administrator shall, in accordance with section 1024(a) of this title, file with the Secretary—

(1) the annual report containing the information required by section 1023 of this title; and

(2) terminal and supplementary reports as required by subsection (c) of this section.

(c) Terminal and supplementary reports

(1) Each administrator of an employee pension benefit plan which is winding up its affairs (without regard to the number of participants remaining in the plan) shall, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, file such terminal reports as the Secretary may consider necessary. A copy of such report shall also be filed with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.

(2) The Secretary may require terminal reports to be filed with regard to any employee welfare benefit plan which is winding up its affairs in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(3) The Secretary may require that a plan described in paragraph (1) or (2) file a supplementary or terminal report with the annual report in the year such plan is terminated and that a copy of such supplementary or terminal report in the case of a plan described in paragraph (1) be also filed with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.

(d) Notice of failure to meet minimum funding standards

(1) In general

If an employer maintaining a plan other than a multiemployer plan fails to make a required installment or other payment required to meet the minimum funding standard under section 1082 of this title to a plan before the 60th day following the due date for such installment or other payment, the employer shall notify each participant and beneficiary (including an alternate payee as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title) of such plan of such failure. Such notice shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe.

(2) Subsection not to apply if waiver pending

This subsection shall not apply to any failure if the employer has filed a waiver request under section 1083 or 1085a of this title with respect to the plan year to which the required installment relates, except that if the waiver request is denied, notice under paragraph (1) shall be provided within 60 days after the date of such denial.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the terms "required installment" and "due date" have the same meanings given such terms by section 1083(j) or 1085a(f) of this title, whichever is applicable.

(e) Notice of transfer of excess pension assets to health benefits accounts

(1) Notice to participants

Not later than 60 days before the date of a qualified transfer by an employee pension benefit plan of excess pension assets to a health benefits account or applicable life insurance account, the administrator of the plan shall notify (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) each participant and beneficiary under the plan of such transfer. Such notice shall include information with respect to the amount of excess pension assets, the portion to be transferred, the amount of health benefits liabilities or applicable life insurance benefit liabilities expected to be provided with the assets transferred, and the amount of pension benefits of the participant which will be nonforfeitable immediately after the transfer.

(2) Notice to Secretaries, administrator, and employee organizations

(A) In general

Not later than 60 days before the date of any qualified transfer by an employee pension benefit plan of excess pension assets to a health benefits account or applicable life insurance account, the employer maintaining the plan from which the transfer is made shall provide the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury, the administrator, and each employee organization representing participants in the plan a written notice of such transfer. A copy of any such notice shall be available for inspection in the principal office of the administrator.

(B) Information relating to transfer

Such notice shall identify the plan from which the transfer is made, the amount of the transfer, a detailed accounting of assets projected to be held by the plan immediately before and immediately after the transfer, and the current liabilities under the plan at the time of the transfer.

(C) Authority for additional reporting requirements

The Secretary may prescribe such additional reporting requirements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of paragraph (1), any term used in such paragraph which is also used in section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on July 31, 2015) shall have the same meaning as when used in such section.

(f) Defined benefit plan funding notices

(1) In general

The administrator of a defined benefit plan to which subchapter III applies shall for each plan year provide a plan funding notice to the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, to each plan participant and beneficiary, to each labor organization representing such participants or beneficiaries, and, in the case of a multiemployer plan, to each employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan.

(2) Information contained in notices

(A) Identifying information

Each notice required under paragraph (1) shall contain identifying information, including the name of the plan, the address and phone number of the plan administrator and the plan's principal administrative officer, each plan sponsor's employer identification number, and the plan number of the plan.

(B) Specific information

A plan funding notice under paragraph (1) shall include—

(i)(I) in the case of a single-employer plan, a statement as to whether the plan's funding target attainment percentage (as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title) for the plan year to which the notice relates, and for the 2 preceding plan years, is at least 100 percent (and, if not, the actual percentages), or

(II) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement as to whether the plan's funded percentage (as defined in section 1085(i) 1 of this title) for the plan year to which the notice relates, and for the 2 preceding plan years, is at least 100 percent (and, if not, the actual percentages),

(ii)(I) in the case of a single-employer plan, a statement of—

(aa) the total assets (separately stating the prefunding balance and the funding standard carryover balance) and liabilities of the plan, determined in the same manner as under section 1083 of this title, for the plan year to which the notice relates and for the 2 preceding plan years, as reported in the annual report for each such plan year, and

(bb) the value of the plan's assets and liabilities for the plan year to which the notice relates as of the last day of the plan year to which the notice relates determined using the asset valuation under subclause (II) of section 1306(a)(3)(E)(iii) of this title and the interest rate under section 1306(a)(3)(E)(iv) of this title, and


(II) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement, for the plan year to which the notice relates and the preceding 2 plan years, of the value of the plan assets (determined both in the same manner as under section 1084 of this title and under the rules of subclause (I)(bb)) and the value of the plan liabilities (determined in the same manner as under section 1084 of this title except that the method specified in section 1085(i)(8) 1 of this title shall be used),

(iii) a statement of the number of participants who are—

(I) retired or separated from service and are receiving benefits,

(II) retired or separated participants entitled to future benefits, and

(III) active participants under the plan,


(iv) a statement setting forth the funding policy of the plan and the asset allocation of investments under the plan (expressed as percentages of total assets) as of the end of the plan year to which the notice relates,

(v) in the case of a multiemployer plan, whether the plan was in critical or endangered status under section 1085 of this title for such plan year and, if so—

(I) a statement describing how a person may obtain a copy of the plan's funding improvement or rehabilitation plan, as appropriate, adopted under section 1085 of this title and the actuarial and financial data that demonstrate any action taken by the plan toward fiscal improvement, and

(II) a summary of any funding improvement plan, rehabilitation plan, or modification thereof adopted under section 1085 of this title during the plan year to which the notice relates,


(vi) in the case of a multiemployer plan, whether the plan was in critical and declining status under section 1085 of this title for such plan year and, if so—

(I) the projected date of insolvency;

(II) a clear statement that such insolvency may result in benefit reductions; and

(III) a statement describing whether the plan sponsor has taken legally permitted actions to prevent insolvency.2


(vii) in the case of any plan amendment, scheduled benefit increase or reduction, or other known event taking effect in the current plan year and having a material effect on plan liabilities or assets for the year (as defined in regulations by the Secretary), an explanation of the amendment, schedule increase or reduction, or event, and a projection to the end of such plan year of the effect of the amendment, scheduled increase or reduction, or event on plan liabilities,

(viii)(I) in the case of a single-employer plan, a summary of the rules governing termination of single-employer plans under subtitle C of subchapter III, or

(II) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a summary of the rules governing reorganization or insolvency, including the limitations on benefit payments,

(ix) a general description of the benefits under the plan which are eligible to be guaranteed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, along with an explanation of the limitations on the guarantee and the circumstances under which such limitations apply,

(x) a statement that a person may obtain a copy of the annual report of the plan filed under section 1024(a) of this title upon request, through the Internet website of the Department of Labor, or through an Intranet website maintained by the applicable plan sponsor (or plan administrator on behalf of the plan sponsor), and

(xi) if applicable, a statement that each contributing sponsor, and each member of the contributing sponsor's controlled group, of the single-employer plan was required to provide the information under section 1310 of this title for the plan year to which the notice relates.

(C) Other information

Each notice under paragraph (1) shall include—

(i) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement that the plan administrator shall provide, upon written request, to any labor organization representing plan participants and beneficiaries and any employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan, a copy of the annual report filed with the Secretary under section 1024(a) of this title, and

(ii) any additional information which the plan administrator elects to include to the extent not inconsistent with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(D) Effect of segment rate stabilization on plan funding

(i) In general

In the case of a single-employer plan for an applicable plan year, each notice under paragraph (1) shall include—

(I) a statement that the MAP-21, the Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014, and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 modified the method for determining the interest rates used to determine the actuarial value of benefits earned under the plan, providing for a 25-year average of interest rates to be taken into account in addition to a 2-year average,

(II) a statement that, as a result of the MAP-21, the Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014, and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, the plan sponsor may contribute less money to the plan when interest rates are at historical lows, and

(III) a table which shows (determined both with and without regard to section 1083(h)(2)(C)(iv) of this title) the funding target attainment percentage (as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title), the funding shortfall (as defined in section 1083(c)(4) of this title), and the minimum required contribution (as determined under section 1083 of this title), for the applicable plan year and each of the 2 preceding plan years.

(ii) Applicable plan year

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "applicable plan year" means any plan year beginning after December 31, 2011, and before January 1, 2023, for which—

(I) the funding target (as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title) is less than 95 percent of such funding target determined without regard to section 1083(h)(2)(C)(iv) of this title,

(II) the plan has a funding shortfall (as defined in section 1083(c)(4) of this title and determined without regard to section 1083(h)(2)(C)(iv) of this title) greater than $500,000, and

(III) the plan had 50 or more participants on any day during the preceding plan year.


 For purposes of any determination under subclause (III), the aggregation rule under the last sentence of section 1083(g)(2)(B) of this title shall apply.

(iii) Special rule for plan years beginning before 2012

In the case of a preceding plan year referred to in clause (i)(III) which begins before January 1, 2012, the information described in such clause shall be provided only without regard to section 1083(h)(2)(C)(iv) of this title.

(E) Effect of CSEC plan rules on plan funding

In the case of a CSEC plan, each notice under paragraph (1) shall include—

(i) a statement that different rules apply to CSEC plans than apply to single-employer plans,

(ii) for the first 2 plan years beginning after December 31, 2013, a statement that, as a result of changes in the law made by the Cooperative and Small Employer Charity Pension Flexibility Act, the contributions to the plan may have changed, and

(iii) in the case of a CSEC plan that is in funding restoration status for the plan year, a statement that the plan is in funding restoration status for such plan year.


A copy of the statement required under clause (iii) shall be provided to the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.

(3) Time for providing notice

(A) In general

Any notice under paragraph (1) shall be provided not later than 120 days after the end of the plan year to which the notice relates.

(B) Exception for small plans

In the case of a small plan (as such term is used under section 1083(g)(2)(B) of this title) any notice under paragraph (1) shall be provided upon filing of the annual report under section 1024(a) of this title.

(4) Form and manner

Any notice under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall be provided in a form and manner prescribed in regulations of the Secretary,

(B) shall be written in a manner so as to be understood by the average plan participant, and

(C) may be provided in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to persons to whom the notice is required to be provided.

(g) Reporting by certain arrangements

The Secretary shall, by regulation, require multiple employer welfare arrangements providing benefits consisting of medical care (within the meaning of section 1191b(a)(2) of this title) which are not group health plans to register with the Secretary prior to operating in a State and may, by regulation, require such multiple employer welfare arrangements to report, not more frequently than annually, in such form and such manner as the Secretary may require for the purpose of determining the extent to which the requirements of part 7 are being carried out in connection with such benefits.

(h) Simple retirement accounts

(1) No employer reports

Except as provided in this subsection, no report shall be required under this section by an employer maintaining a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26.

(2) Summary description

The trustee of any simple retirement account established pursuant to a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26 shall provide to the employer maintaining the arrangement each year a description containing the following information:

(A) The name and address of the employer and the trustee.

(B) The requirements for eligibility for participation.

(C) The benefits provided with respect to the arrangement.

(D) The time and method of making elections with respect to the arrangement.

(E) The procedures for, and effects of, withdrawals (including rollovers) from the arrangement.

(3) Employee notification

The employer shall notify each employee immediately before the period for which an election described in section 408(p)(5)(C) of title 26 may be made of the employee's opportunity to make such election. Such notice shall include a copy of the description described in paragraph (2).

(i) Notice of blackout periods to participant or beneficiary under individual account plan

(1) Duties of plan administrator

In advance of the commencement of any blackout period with respect to an individual account plan, the plan administrator shall notify the plan participants and beneficiaries who are affected by such action in accordance with this subsection.

(2) Notice requirements

(A) In general

The notices described in paragraph (1) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall include—

(i) the reasons for the blackout period,

(ii) an identification of the investments and other rights affected,

(iii) the expected beginning date and length of the blackout period,

(iv) in the case of investments affected, a statement that the participant or beneficiary should evaluate the appropriateness of their current investment decisions in light of their inability to direct or diversify assets credited to their accounts during the blackout period, and

(v) such other matters as the Secretary may require by regulation.

(B) Notice to participants and beneficiaries

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, notices described in paragraph (1) shall be furnished to all participants and beneficiaries under the plan to whom the blackout period applies at least 30 days in advance of the blackout period.

(C) Exception to 30-day notice requirement

In any case in which—

(i) a deferral of the blackout period would violate the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1104(a)(1) of this title, and a fiduciary of the plan reasonably so determines in writing, or

(ii) the inability to provide the 30-day advance notice is due to events that were unforeseeable or circumstances beyond the reasonable control of the plan administrator, and a fiduciary of the plan reasonably so determines in writing,


subparagraph (B) shall not apply, and the notice shall be furnished to all participants and beneficiaries under the plan to whom the blackout period applies as soon as reasonably possible under the circumstances unless such a notice in advance of the termination of the blackout period is impracticable.

(D) Written notice

The notice required to be provided under this subsection shall be in writing, except that such notice may be in electronic or other form to the extent that such form is reasonably accessible to the recipient.

(E) Notice to issuers of employer securities subject to blackout period

In the case of any blackout period in connection with an individual account plan, the plan administrator shall provide timely notice of such blackout period to the issuer of any employer securities subject to such blackout period.

(3) Exception for blackout periods with limited applicability

In any case in which the blackout period applies only to 1 or more participants or beneficiaries in connection with a merger, acquisition, divestiture, or similar transaction involving the plan or plan sponsor and occurs solely in connection with becoming or ceasing to be a participant or beneficiary under the plan by reason of such merger, acquisition, divestiture, or transaction, the requirement of this subsection that the notice be provided to all participants and beneficiaries shall be treated as met if the notice required under paragraph (1) is provided to such participants or beneficiaries to whom the blackout period applies as soon as reasonably practicable.

(4) Changes in length of blackout period

If, following the furnishing of the notice pursuant to this subsection, there is a change in the beginning date or length of the blackout period (specified in such notice pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(iii)), the administrator shall provide affected participants and beneficiaries notice of the change as soon as reasonably practicable. In relation to the extended blackout period, such notice shall meet the requirements of paragraph (2)(D) and shall specify any material change in the matters referred to in clauses (i) through (v) of paragraph (2)(A).

(5) Regulatory exceptions

The Secretary may provide by regulation for additional exceptions to the requirements of this subsection which the Secretary determines are in the interests of participants and beneficiaries.

(6) Guidance and model notices

The Secretary shall issue guidance and model notices which meet the requirements of this subsection.

(7) Blackout period

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "blackout period" means, in connection with an individual account plan, any period for which any ability of participants or beneficiaries under the plan, which is otherwise available under the terms of such plan, to direct or diversify assets credited to their accounts, to obtain loans from the plan, or to obtain distributions from the plan is temporarily suspended, limited, or restricted, if such suspension, limitation, or restriction is for any period of more than 3 consecutive business days.

(B) Exclusions

The term "blackout period" does not include a suspension, limitation, or restriction—

(i) which occurs by reason of the application of the securities laws (as defined in section 78c(a)(47) of title 15),

(ii) which is a change to the plan which provides for a regularly scheduled suspension, limitation, or restriction which is disclosed to participants or beneficiaries through any summary of material modifications, any materials describing specific investment alternatives under the plan, or any changes thereto, or

(iii) which applies only to 1 or more individuals, each of whom is the participant, an alternate payee (as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title), or any other beneficiary pursuant to a qualified domestic relations order (as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(B)(i) of this title).

(8) Individual account plan

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, the term "individual account plan" shall have the meaning provided such term in section 1002(34) of this title, except that such term shall not include a one-participant retirement plan.

(B) One-participant retirement plan

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "one-participant retirement plan" means a retirement plan that on the first day of the plan year—

(i) covered only one individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) and the individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) owned 100 percent of the plan sponsor (whether or not incorporated), or

(ii) covered only one or more partners (or partners and their spouses) in the plan sponsor.

(j) Notice of funding-based limitation on certain forms of distribution

The plan administrator of a single-employer plan shall provide a written notice to plan participants and beneficiaries within 30 days—

(1) after the plan has become subject to a restriction described in paragraph (1) or (3) of section 1056(g) of this title),3

(2) in the case of a plan to which section 1056(g)(4) of this title applies, after the valuation date for the plan year described in section 1056(g)(4)(A) of this title for which the plan's adjusted funding target attainment percentage for the plan year is less than 60 percent (or, if earlier, the date such percentage is deemed to be less than 60 percent under section 1056(g)(7) of this title), and

(3) at such other time as may be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.


The notice required to be provided under this subsection shall be in writing, except that such notice may be in electronic or other form to the extent that such form is reasonably accessible to the recipient. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary, shall have the authority to prescribe rules applicable to the notices required under this subsection.

(k) Multiemployer plan information made available on request

(1) In general

Each administrator of a defined benefit plan that is a multiemployer plan shall, upon written request, furnish to any plan participant or beneficiary, employee representative, or any employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan a copy of—

(A) the current plan document (including any amendments thereto),

(B) the latest summary plan description of the plan,

(C) the current trust agreement (including any amendments thereto), or any other instrument or agreement under which the plan is established or operated,

(D) in the case of a request by an employer, any participation agreement with respect to the plan for such employer that relates to the employer's plan participation during the current or any of the 5 immediately preceding plan years,

(E) the annual report filed under section 1024 of this title for any plan year,

(F) the plan funding notice provided under subsection (f) for any plan year,

(G) any periodic actuarial report (including any sensitivity testing) received by the plan for any plan year which has been in the plan's possession for at least 30 days,

(H) any quarterly, semi-annual, or annual financial report prepared for the plan by any plan investment manager or advisor or other fiduciary which has been in the plan's possession for at least 30 days,

(I) audited financial statements of the plan for any plan year,

(J) any application filed with the Secretary of the Treasury requesting an extension under section 1084(d) of this title or section 431(d) of title 26 and the determination of such Secretary pursuant to such application, and

(K) in the case of a plan which was in critical or endangered status under section 1085 of this title for a plan year, the latest funding improvement or rehabilitation plan, and the contribution schedules applicable with respect to such funding improvement or rehabilitation plan (other than a contribution schedule applicable to a specific employer).

(2) Compliance

Information required to be provided under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall be provided to the requesting participant, beneficiary, or employer within 30 days after the request in a form and manner prescribed in regulations of the Secretary,

(B) may be provided in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to persons to whom the information is required to be provided, and

(C) shall not—

(i) include any individually identifiable information regarding any plan participant, beneficiary, employee, fiduciary, or contributing employer, or

(ii) reveal any proprietary information regarding the plan, any contributing employer, or entity providing services to the plan.


Subparagraph (C)(i) shall not apply to individually identifiable information with respect to any plan investment manager or adviser, or with respect to any other person (other than an employee of the plan) preparing a financial report required to be included under paragraph (1)(B).1

(3) Limitations

In no case shall a participant, beneficiary, employee representative, or employer be entitled under this subsection to receive more than one copy of any document described in paragraph (1) during any one 12-month period, or, in the case of any document described in subparagraph (E), (F), (G), (H) or (I) of paragraph (1), a copy of any such document that as of the date on which the request is received by the administrator, has been in the administrator's possession for 6 years or more. If the administrator provides a copy of a document described in paragraph (1) to any person upon request, the administrator shall be considered as having met any obligation the administrator may have under any other provision of this subchapter to furnish a copy of the same document to such person upon request. The administrator may make a reasonable charge to cover copying, mailing, and other costs of furnishing copies of information pursuant to paragraph (1). The Secretary may by regulations prescribe the maximum amount which will constitute a reasonable charge under the preceding sentence.

(l) Notice of potential withdrawal liability

(1) In general

The plan sponsor or administrator of a multiemployer plan shall, upon written request, furnish to any employer who has an obligation to contribute to the plan a notice of—

(A) the estimated amount which would be the amount of such employer's withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III if such employer withdrew on the last day of the plan year preceding the date of the request, and

(B) an explanation of how such estimated liability amount was determined, including the actuarial assumptions and methods used to determine the value of the plan liabilities and assets, the data regarding employer contributions, unfunded vested benefits, annual changes in the plan's unfunded vested benefits, and the application of any relevant limitations on the estimated withdrawal liability.


For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term "employer contribution" means, in connection with a participant, a contribution made by an employer as an employer of such participant.

(2) Compliance

Any notice required to be provided under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall be provided in a form and manner prescribed in regulations of the Secretary to the requesting employer within—

(i) 180 days after the request, or

(ii) subject to regulations of the Secretary, such longer time as may be necessary in the case of a plan that determines withdrawal liability based on any method described under paragraph (4) or (5) of section 1391(c) of this title; and


(B) may be provided in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to employers to whom the information is required to be provided.

(3) Limitations

In no case shall an employer be entitled under this subsection to receive more than one notice described in paragraph (1) during any one 12-month period. The person required to provide such notice may make a reasonable charge to cover copying, mailing, and other costs of furnishing such notice pursuant to paragraph (1). The Secretary may by regulations prescribe the maximum amount which will constitute a reasonable charge under the preceding sentence.

(m) Notice of right to divest

Not later than 30 days before the first date on which an applicable individual of an applicable individual account plan is eligible to exercise the right under section 1054(j) of this title to direct the proceeds from the divestment of employer securities with respect to any type of contribution, the administrator shall provide to such individual a notice—

(1) setting forth such right under such section, and

(2) describing the importance of diversifying the investment of retirement account assets.


The notice required by this subsection shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and may be delivered in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent that such form is reasonably accessible to the recipient.

(n) Cross reference

For regulations relating to coordination of reports to the Secretaries of Labor and the Treasury, see section 1204 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §101, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9304(d), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–348; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7881(b)(5)(A), 7894(b)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2438, 2448; Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12012(d)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–572; Pub. L. 103–66, title IV, §4301(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §731(c)(4)(A), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5004; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1421(d)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1799; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(e)(1), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1952; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(B), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1061; Pub. L. 105–200, title IV, §401(h)(1)(A), July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 668; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §535(a)(2)(A), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1934; Pub. L. 107–204, title III, §306(b)(1), July 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 108–218, title I, §103(a), title II, §204(b)(1), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 602, 609; Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §709(a)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1551; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §§103(b)(1), 108(a)(1), (11), formerly §107(a)(1), (11), title V, §§501(a), 502(a)(1), (b)(1), 503(c)(2), 507(a), 509(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 815, 818, 819, 936, 939, 940, 944, 948, 952, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §§101(c)(1)(A), 105(a), (b)(1), (g), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5097, 5104, 5105; Pub. L. 111–148, title VI, §6606, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 112–141, div. D, title II, §§40211(b)(2)(A), 40241(b)(1), 40242(e)(14), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 848, 859, 863; Pub. L. 113–97, title I, §104(a)(1), (b), Apr. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 113–159, title II, §2003(b)(2)(A), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1849; Pub. L. 113–235, div. O, title I, §111(a), (b), title II, §201(a)(4), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2792, 2793, 2799; Pub. L. 114–41, title II, §2007(b)(1), July 31, 2015, 129 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 114–74, title V, §504(b)(2)(A), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 594.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1022(a)(1) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was redesignated section 1022(a) of this title by Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(b)(1)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1061.

Section 1085(i) of this title, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B)(i)(II) and (ii)(II), was redesignated section 1085(j) of this title by Pub. L. 113–235, div. O, title I, §109(a)(3), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2789.

The MAP–21, referred to in subsecs. (f)(2)(D)(i)(I) and (II), also known as the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act, is Pub. L. 112–141, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 405. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2012 Amendment note set out under section 101 of Title 23, Highways, and Tables.

The Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(D)(i)(I) and (II), is Pub. L. 113–159, Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1839. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2014 Amendment note set out under section 101 of Title 23, Highways, and Tables.

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(D)(i)(I) and (II), is Pub. L. 114–74, Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 584. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2015 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and Tables.

The Cooperative and Small Employer Charity Pension Flexibility Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(E)(ii), is Pub. L. 113–97, Apr. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 1101. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2014 Amendment note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

The content of paragraph (1)(B) of subsec. (k) (relating to financial reports), referred to in subsec. (k)(2), was moved to subsec. (k)(1)(H) as a result of the general amendment of subsec. (k)(1) by Pub. L. 113–235, §111(a). See 2014 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 114–41 substituted "July 31, 2015" for "July 6, 2012". Amendment was executed to reflect the probable intent of Congress notwithstanding an extra closing quotation mark in the directory language.

Subsec. (f)(2)(D)(i)(I), (II). Pub. L. 114–74, §504(b)(2)(A)(i), substituted ", the Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014, and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015" for "and the Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014".

Subsec. (f)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 114–74, §504(b)(2)(A)(ii), substituted "2023" for "2020" in introductory provisions.

2014—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 113–97, §104(b)(1), substituted "section 1083 or 1085a of this title" for "section 1083 of this title".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 113–97, §104(b)(2), substituted "section 1083(j) or 1085a(f) of this title, whichever is applicable" for "section 1083(j) of this title".

Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(vi) to (xi). Pub. L. 113–235, §201(a)(4), added cl. (vi) and redesignated former cls. (vi) to (x) as (vii) to (xi), respectively.

Subsec. (f)(2)(D)(i)(I), (II). Pub. L. 113–159, §2003(b)(2)(A)(i), inserted "and the Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014" after "MAP-21".

Subsec. (f)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 113–159, §2003(b)(2)(A)(ii), substituted "2020" for "2015" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(2)(E). Pub. L. 113–97, §104(a)(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 113–235, §111(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) related to requirement to provide multiemployer plan information.

Subsec. (k)(3). Pub. L. 113–235, §111(b), substituted "In no case shall a participant, beneficiary, employee representative, or employer be entitled under this subsection to receive more than one copy of any document described in paragraph (1) during any one 12-month period, or, in the case of any document described in subparagraph (E), (F), (G), (H) or (I) of paragraph (1), a copy of any such document that as of the date on which the request is received by the administrator, has been in the administrator's possession for 6 years or more. If the administrator provides a copy of a document described in paragraph (1) to any person upon request, the administrator shall be considered as having met any obligation the administrator may have under any other provision of this subchapter to furnish a copy of the same document to such person upon request." for "In no case shall a participant, beneficiary, or employer be entitled under this subsection to receive more than one copy of any report or application described in paragraph (1) during any one 12-month period."

2012—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §40242(e)(14), inserted "or applicable life insurance account" after "health benefits account" and "or applicable life insurance benefit liabilities" after "health benefits liabilities".

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–141, §40242(e)(14)(A), inserted "or applicable life insurance account" after "health benefits account".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 112–141, §40241(b)(1), substituted "July 6, 2012" for "August 17, 2006".

Subsec. (f)(2)(D). Pub. L. 112–141, §40211(b)(2)(A), added subpar. (D).

2010—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–148, §6606(2), inserted "to register with the Secretary prior to operating in a State and may, by regulation, require such multiple employer welfare arrangements" after "not group health plans".

Pub. L. 111–148, §6606(1), which directed substitution of "Secretary shall" for "Secretary may", was executed by making the substitution the first place appearing, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2008—Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(ii)(I)(aa). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(a)(1), substituted "to which the notice relates" for "for which the latest annual report filed under section 1024(a) of this title was filed".

Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(a)(2), added subcl. (II) and struck out former subcl. (II) which read as follows: "in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement of the value of the plan's assets and liabilities for the plan year to which the notice relates as the last day of such plan year and the preceding 2 plan years,".

Subsec. (i)(8)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(g), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term 'one-participant retirement plan' means a retirement plan that—

"(i) on the first day of the plan year—

"(I) covered only one individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) and the individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) owned 100 percent of the plan sponsor (whether or not incorporated), or

"(II) covered only one or more partners (or partners and their spouses) in the plan sponsor, and

"(ii) does not cover a business that leases employees."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(A), substituted "section 1056(g)(4)(A)" for "section 1056(g)(4)(B)" in par. (2) and inserted "The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary, shall have the authority to prescribe rules applicable to the notices required under this subsection." in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(b)(1), inserted concluding provisions.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(c)(2), inserted "subsection (f) and" after "described in".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(1), formerly §107(a)(1), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted "1083(j)" for "1082(e)".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(11), formerly §107(a)(11), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted "August 17, 2006" for "October 22, 2004".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–280, §501(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (f) generally, substituting provisions relating to defined benefit plan funding notices for provisions relating to multiemployer defined benefit plan funding notices.

Subsec. (i)(8)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §509(a), added cl. (i), redesignated cl. (v) as (ii), and struck out former cls. (i) to (iv) which read as follows:

"(i) on the first day of the plan year—

"(I) covered only the employer (and the employer's spouse) and the employer owned the entire business (whether or not incorporated), or

"(II) covered only one or more partners (and their spouses) in a business partnership (including partners in an S or C corporation (as defined in section 1361(a) of title 26)),

"(ii) meets the minimum coverage requirements of section 410(b) of title 26 (as in effect on July 30, 2002) without being combined with any other plan of the business that covers the employees of the business,

"(iii) does not provide benefits to anyone except the employer (and the employer's spouse) or the partners (and their spouses),

"(iv) does not cover a business that is a member of an affiliated service group, a controlled group of corporations, or a group of businesses under common control, and".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–280, §103(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 109–280, §502(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).

Pub. L. 109–280, §103(b)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (j) as (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 109–280, §502(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m).

Pub. L. 109–280, §502(a)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (k) as (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 109–280, §507(a), added subsec. (m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (n).

Pub. L. 109–280, §502(b)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (l) as (m).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 109–280, §507(a), redesignated subsec. (m) as (n).

2004—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted "October 22, 2004" for "April 10, 2004".

Pub. L. 108–218, §204(b)(1), substituted "April 10, 2004" for "December 17, 1999".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–218, §103(a), added subsec. (f).

2002—Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 107–204 added subsec. (i) and redesignated subsec. (h) relating to cross reference as (j).

1999—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted "December 17, 1999" for "January 1, 1995".

1998—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–200 struck out subsec. (f) relating to information necessary to comply with Medicare and Medicaid Coverage Data Bank requirements.

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–34 redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (1) and (2), respectively, and struck out former pars. (1) to (3), which read as follows:

"(1) the summary plan description described in section 1022(a)(1) of this title;

"(2) a plan description containing the matter required in section 1022(b) of this title;

"(3) modifications and changes referred to in section 1022(a)(2) of this title;".

1996—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–204 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191, §101(e)(1)(B), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Pub. L. 104–188 added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–191, §101(e)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (g), relating to simple retirement accounts, as (h).

Pub. L. 104–188, §1421(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (g), relating to cross references, as (h).

1994—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 103–465 substituted "1995" for "1991".

1993—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 103–66 added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

1990—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 101–508 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(2), substituted "sections" for "section".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(b)(5)(A), substituted "an employer maintaining a plan" for "an employer of a plan".

1987—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 100–203 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–74 applicable with respect to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2015, see section 504(c) of Pub. L. 114–74, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–235, div. O, title I, §111(e), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2794, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1027 and 1132 of this title] shall apply with respect to plan years beginning after December 31, 2014."

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–159 applicable with respect to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, except as otherwise provided, see section 2003(e) of Pub. L. 113–159, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–97 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 2013, see section 3 of Pub. L. 113–97, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by section 40211(b)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 112–141 applicable with respect to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, except as otherwise provided, see section 40211(c) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as a note under section 404 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 40242(e)(14) of Pub. L. 112–141 applicable to transfers made after July 6, 2012, see section 40242(h) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as a note under section 420 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §103(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 816, as amended by Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §101(c)(3), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5098, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1056 and 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007.

"(2) Collective bargaining exception.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified before January 1, 2008, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to plan years beginning before the earlier of—

"(A) the later of—

"(i) the date on which the last collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006]), or

"(ii) the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this section would (but for this paragraph) apply, or

"(B) January 1, 2010.

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i), any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement added by this section shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement."

Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(e), formerly §107(e), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 820, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 1023, 1053, 1054, 1056, 1103, 1108, 1301, 1303, 1310, 1362, 1371, and 1423 of this title, and Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1978, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title and in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and repealing section 1057 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after 2007."

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §501(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 939, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and repealing section 1311 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007, except that the amendment made by subsection (b) [repealing section 1311 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2006.

"(2) Transition rule.—Any requirement under section 101(f) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)] (as amended by this section) to report the funding target attainment percentage or funded percentage of a plan with respect to any plan year beginning before January 1, 2008, shall be treated as met if the plan reports—

"(A) in the case of a plan year beginning in 2006, the funded current liability percentage (as defined in section 302(d)(8) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1082(d)(8)]) of the plan for such plan year, and

"(B) in the case of a plan year beginning in 2007, the funding target attainment percentage or funded percentage as determined using such methods of estimation as the Secretary of the Treasury may provide."

Amendment by section 502(a)(1), (b)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 502(d) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 4980F of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §503(f), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 945, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1023 and 1024 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007."

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §507(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 949, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2006.

"(2) Transition rule.—If notice under section 101(m) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(m)] (as added by this section) would otherwise be required to be provided before the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], such notice shall not be required to be provided until such 90th day."

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §509(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 952, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [probably means this section, amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of section 306 of Public Law 107–204 (116 Stat. 745 et seq.)."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–218, title I, §103(d), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 604, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2004."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–204 effective 180 days after July 30, 2002, see section 7244(c) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to qualified transfers occurring after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 535(c)(1) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 420 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–200, title IV, §401(h)(1)(B), July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 668, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of the Act entitled 'An Act to repeal the Medicare and Medicaid Coverage Data Bank', approved October 2, 1996 (Public Law 104–226; 110 Stat. 3033)."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–204 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 104–204 set out as a note under section 1003 of this title.

Amendment of Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1421(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title IV, §4301(d), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 377, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1169 of this title and amending this section and sections 1132 and 1144 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 1993].

"(2) Plan amendments not required until january 1, 1994.—Any amendment to a plan required to be made by an amendment made by this section shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1994, if—

"(A) during the period after the date before the date of the enactment of this Act and before such first plan year, the plan is operated in accordance with the requirements of the amendments made by this section, and

"(B) such plan amendment applies retroactively to the period after the date before the date of the enactment of this Act and before such first plan year.

A plan shall not be treated as failing to be operated in accordance with the provisions of the plan merely because it operates in accordance with this paragraph."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12012(e), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–573, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1082, 1103, 1108, and 1132 of this title] shall apply to qualified transfers under section 420 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 420] made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990]."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7881(b)(5)(A) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7894(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9304(d), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–348, as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7881(b)(5)(C), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2438, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987.

Regulations

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §502(a)(3), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 940, provided that: "The Secretary shall prescribe regulations under section 101(k)(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(k)(2)] (as added by paragraph (1)) not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006]."

Pub. L. 108–218, title I, §103(c), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 604, provided that: "The Secretary of Labor shall, not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 10, 2004], issue regulations (including a model notice) necessary to implement the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title]."

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Statements

Pub. L. 114–74, title V, §504(b)(2)(B), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 594, provided that: "The Secretary of Labor shall modify the statements required under subclauses (I) and (II) of section 101(f)(2)(D)(i) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)(2)(D)(i)] to conform to the amendments made by this section [amending this section, section 1083 of this title, and section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26]."

Pub. L. 113–159, title II, §2003(b)(2)(B), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1849, provided that: "The Secretary of Labor shall modify the statements required under subclauses (I) and (II) of section 101(f)(2)(D)(i) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)(2)(D)(i)] to conform to the amendments made by this section [probably means "this subsection", which amended this section and section 1083 of this title]."

Model Notices and Forms

Pub. L. 113–97, title I, §104(a)(2), Apr. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 1120, provided that: "The Secretary of Labor may modify the model notice required to be published under section 501(c) of the Pension Protection Act of 2006 [section 501(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out below] to include the information described in section 101(f)(2)(E) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)(2)(E)], as added by this subsection."

Pub. L. 112–141, div. D, title II, §40211(b)(2)(B), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 849, provided that: "The Secretary of Labor shall modify the model notice required to be published under section 501(c) of the Pension Protection Act of 2006 [section 501(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out below] to prominently include the information described in section 101(f)(2)(D) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)(2)(D)], as added by this paragraph."

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §501(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 939, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Labor shall publish a model version of the notice required by section 101(f) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)]. The Secretary of Labor may promulgate any interim final rules as the Secretary determines appropriate to carry out the provisions of this subsection."

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §503(e), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 945, as amended by Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §105(c)(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5105, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Labor shall publish a model form for providing the statements, schedules, and other material required to be provided under section 104(d) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1024(d)], as amended by this section. The Secretary of Labor may promulgate any interim final rules as the Secretary determines appropriate to carry out the provisions of this subsection."

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §507(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 949, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury shall, within 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection [Aug. 17, 2006], prescribe a model notice for purposes of satisfying the requirements of the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title]."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until July 30, 2002

For provisions directing that if any amendment made by section 306(b) of Pub. L. 107–204 requires an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after July 30, 2002, see section 7244(b)(3) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

3 So in original. The closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

§1022. Summary plan description

(a) A summary plan description of any employee benefit plan shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries as provided in section 1024(b) of this title. The summary plan description shall include the information described in subsection (b), shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant, and shall be sufficiently accurate and comprehensive to reasonably apprise such participants and beneficiaries of their rights and obligations under the plan. A summary of any material modification in the terms of the plan and any change in the information required under subsection (b) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall be furnished in accordance with section 1024(b)(1) of this title.

(b) The summary plan description shall contain the following information: The name and type of administration of the plan; in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), whether a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) is responsible for the financing or administration (including payment of claims) of the plan and (if so) the name and address of such issuer; the name and address of the person designated as agent for the service of legal process, if such person is not the administrator; the name and address of the administrator; names, titles, and addresses of any trustee or trustees (if they are persons different from the administrator); a description of the relevant provisions of any applicable collective bargaining agreement; the plan's requirements respecting eligibility for participation and benefits; a description of the provisions providing for nonforfeitable pension benefits; circumstances which may result in disqualification, ineligibility, or denial or loss of benefits; the source of financing of the plan and the identity of any organization through which benefits are provided; the date of the end of the plan year and whether the records of the plan are kept on a calendar, policy, or fiscal year basis; the procedures to be followed in presenting claims for benefits under the plan including the office at the Department of Labor through which participants and beneficiaries may seek assistance or information regarding their rights under this chapter and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 with respect to health benefits that are offered through a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), the remedies available under the plan for the redress of claims which are denied in whole or in part (including procedures required under section 1133 of this title), and if the employer so elects for purposes of complying with section 1181(f)(3)(B)(i) of this title, the model notice applicable to the State in which the participants and beneficiaries reside.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §102, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(c)(2), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(C), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1061; Pub. L. 111–3, title III, §311(b)(1)(B), Feb. 4, 2009, 123 Stat. 67.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 104–191, Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1936. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and Tables.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–3 substituted ", the remedies" for "and the remedies" and inserted ", and if the employer so elects for purposes of complying with section 1181(f)(3)(B)(i) of this title, the model notice applicable to the State in which the participants and beneficiaries reside" before the period at end.

1997Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(b)(2)(B), substituted "Summary plan description" for "Plan description and summary plan description" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(b)(1), struck out "(1)" after subsec. designation and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: "A plan description (containing the information required by subsection (b)) of any employee benefit plan shall be prepared on forms prescribed by the Secretary, and shall be filed with the Secretary as required by section 1024(a)(1) of this title. Any material modification in the terms of the plan and any change in the information described in subsection (b) shall be filed in accordance with section 1024(a)(1)(D) of this title."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(b)(2)(A), substituted "The summary plan description shall contain" for "The plan description and summary plan description shall contain".

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–204 made technical amendment to references in original act which appear in text as references to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191 inserted "in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), whether a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) is responsible for the financing or administration (including payment of claims) of the plan and (if so) the name and address of such issuer;" after "type of administration of the plan;" and "including the office at the Department of Labor through which participants and beneficiaries may seek assistance or information regarding their rights under this chapter and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 with respect to health benefits that are offered through a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title)" after "presenting claims for benefits under the plan".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–3 effective Apr. 1, 2009, and applicable to child health assistance and medical assistance provided on or after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–3, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1396 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–204 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 104–204 set out as a note under section 1003 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

§1023. Annual reports

(a) Publication and filing

(1)(A) An annual report shall be published with respect to every employee benefit plan to which this part applies. Such report shall be filed with the Secretary in accordance with section 1024(a) of this title, and shall be made available and furnished to participants in accordance with section 1024(b) of this title.

(B) The annual report shall include the information described in subsections (b) and (c) and where applicable subsections (d), (e), (f), and (g) and shall also include—

(i) a financial statement and opinion, as required by paragraph (3) of this subsection, and

(ii) an actuarial statement and opinion, as required by paragraph (4) of this subsection.


(2) If some or all of the information necessary to enable the administrator to comply with the requirements of this subchapter is maintained by—

(A) an insurance carrier or other organization which provides some or all of the benefits under the plan, or holds assets of the plan in a separate account,

(B) a bank or similar institution which holds some or all of the assets of the plan in a common or collective trust or a separate trust, or custodial account, or

(C) a plan sponsor as defined in section 1002(16)(B) of this title,


such carrier, organization, bank, institution, or plan sponsor shall transmit and certify the accuracy of such information to the administrator within 120 days after the end of the plan year (or such other date as may be prescribed under regulations of the Secretary).

(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the administrator of an employee benefit plan shall engage, on behalf of all plan participants, an independent qualified public accountant, who shall conduct such an examination of any financial statements of the plan, and of other books and records of the plan, as the accountant may deem necessary to enable the accountant to form an opinion as to whether the financial statements and schedules required to be included in the annual reports by subsection (b) of this section are presented fairly in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year. Such examination shall be conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and shall involve such tests of the books and records of the plan as are considered necessary by the independent qualified public accountant. The independent qualified public accountant shall also offer his opinion as to whether the separate schedules specified in subsection (b)(3) of this section and the summary material required under section 1024(b)(3) of this title present fairly, and in all material respects the information contained therein when considered in conjunction with the financial statements taken as a whole. The opinion by the independent qualified public accountant shall be made a part of the annual report. In a case where a plan is not required to file an annual report, the requirements of this paragraph shall not apply. In a case where by reason of section 1024(a)(2) of this title a plan is required only to file a simplified annual report, the Secretary may waive the requirements of this paragraph.

(B) In offering his opinion under this section the accountant may rely on the correctness of any actuarial matter certified to by an enrolled actuary, if he so states his reliance.

(C) The opinion required by subparagraph (A) need not be expressed as to any statements required by subsection (b)(3)(G) prepared by a bank or similar institution or insurance carrier regulated and supervised and subject to periodic examination by a State or Federal agency if such statements are certified by the bank, similar institution, or insurance carrier as accurate and are made a part of the annual report.

(D) For purposes of this subchapter, the term "qualified public accountant" means—

(i) a person who is a certified public accountant, certified by a regulatory authority of a State;

(ii) a person who is a licensed public accountant licensed by a regulatory authority of a State; or

(iii) a person certified by the Secretary as a qualified public accountant in accordance with regulations published by him for a person who practices in States where there is no certification or licensing procedure for accountants.


(4)(A) The administrator of an employee pension benefit plan subject to the reporting requirement of subsection (d) of this section shall engage, on behalf of all plan participants, an enrolled actuary who shall be responsible for the preparation of the materials comprising the actuarial statement required under subsection (d) of this section. In a case where a plan is not required to file an annual report, the requirement of this paragraph shall not apply, and, in a case where by reason of section 1024(a)(2) of this title, a plan is required only to file a simplified report, the Secretary may waive the requirement of this paragraph.

(B) The enrolled actuary shall utilize such assumptions and techniques as are necessary to enable him to form an opinion as to whether the contents of the matters reported under subsection (d) of this section—

(i) are in the aggregate reasonably related to the experience of the plan and to reasonable expectations; and

(ii) represent his best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan.


The opinion by the enrolled actuary shall be made with respect to, and shall be made a part of, each annual report.

(C) For purposes of this subchapter, the term "enrolled actuary" means an actuary enrolled under subtitle C of subchapter II of this chapter.

(D) In making a certification under this section the enrolled actuary may rely on the correctness of any accounting matter under subsection (b) to which any qualified public accountant has expressed an opinion, if he so states his reliance.

(b) Financial statement

An annual report under this section shall include a financial statement containing the following information:

(1) With respect to an employee welfare benefit plan: a statement of assets and liabilities; a statement of changes in fund balance; and a statement of changes in financial position. In the notes to financial statements, disclosures concerning the following items shall be considered by the accountant: a description of the plan including any significant changes in the plan made during the period and the impact of such changes on benefits; a description of material lease commitments, other commitments, and contingent liabilities; a description of agreements and transactions with persons known to be parties in interest; a general description of priorities upon termination of the plan; information concerning whether or not a tax ruling or determination letter has been obtained; and any other matters necessary to fully and fairly present the financial statements of the plan.

(2) With respect to an employee pension benefit plan: a statement of assets and liabilities, and a statement of changes in net assets available for plan benefits which shall include details of revenues and expenses and other changes aggregated by general source and application. In the notes to financial statements, disclosures concerning the following items shall be considered by the accountant: a description of the plan including any significant changes in the plan made during the period and the impact of such changes on benefits; the funding policy (including policy with respect to prior service cost), and any changes in such policies during the year; a description of any significant changes in plan benefits made during the period; a description of material lease commitments, other commitments, and contingent liabilities; a description of agreements and transactions with persons known to be parties in interest; a general description of priorities upon termination of the plan; information concerning whether or not a tax ruling or determination letter has been obtained; and any other matters necessary to fully and fairly present the financial statements of such pension plan.

(3) With respect to all employee benefit plans, the statement required under paragraph (1) or (2) shall have attached the following information in separate schedules:

(A) a statement of the assets and liabilities of the plan aggregated by categories and valued at their current value, and the same data displayed in comparative form for the end of the previous fiscal year of the plan;

(B) a statement of receipts and disbursements during the preceding twelve-month period aggregated by general sources and applications;

(C) a schedule of all assets held for investment purposes aggregated and identified by issuer, borrower, or lessor, or similar party to the transaction (including a notation as to whether such party is known to be a party in interest), maturity date, rate of interest, collateral, par or maturity value, cost, and current value;

(D) a schedule of each transaction involving a person known to be party in interest, the identity of such party in interest and his relationship or that of any other party in interest to the plan, a description of each asset to which the transaction relates; the purchase or selling price in case of a sale or purchase, the rental in case of a lease, or the interest rate and maturity date in case of a loan; expense incurred in connection with the transaction; the cost of the asset, the current value of the asset, and the net gain (or loss) on each transaction;

(E) a schedule of all loans or fixed income obligations which were in default as of the close of the plan's fiscal year or were classified during the year as uncollectable and the following information with respect to each loan on such schedule (including a notation as to whether parties involved are known to be parties in interest): the original principal amount of the loan, the amount of principal and interest received during the reporting year, the unpaid balance, the identity and address of the obligor, a detailed description of the loan (including date of making and maturity, interest rate, the type and value of collateral, and other material terms), the amount of principal and interest overdue (if any) and an explanation thereof;

(F) a list of all leases which were in default or were classified during the year as uncollectable; and the following information with respect to each lease on such schedule (including a notation as to whether parties involved are known to be parties in interest): the type of property leased (and, in the case of fixed assets such as land, buildings, leasehold, and so forth, the location of the property), the identity of the lessor or lessee from or to whom the plan is leasing, the relationship of such lessors and lessees, if any, to the plan, the employer, employee organization, or any other party in interest, the terms of the lease regarding rent, taxes, insurance, repairs, expenses, and renewal options; the date the leased property was purchased and its cost, the date the property was leased and its approximate value at such date, the gross rental receipts during the reporting period, expenses paid for the leased property during the reporting period, the net receipts from the lease, the amounts in arrears, and a statement as to what steps have been taken to collect amounts due or otherwise remedy the default;

(G) if some or all of the assets of a plan or plans are held in a common or collective trust maintained by a bank or similar institution or in a separate account maintained by an insurance carrier or a separate trust maintained by a bank as trustee, the report shall include the most recent annual statement of assets and liabilities of such common or collective trust, and in the case of a separate account or a separate trust, such other information as is required by the administrator in order to comply with this subsection; and

(H) a schedule of each reportable transaction, the name of each party to the transaction (except that, in the case of an acquisition or sale of a security on the market, the report need not identify the person from whom the security was acquired or to whom it was sold) and a description of each asset to which the transaction applies; the purchase or selling price in case of a sale or purchase, the rental in case of a lease, or the interest rate and maturity date in case of a loan; expenses incurred in connection with the transaction; the cost of the asset, the current value of the asset, and the net gain (or loss) on each transaction. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "reportable transaction" means a transaction to which the plan is a party if such transaction is—

(i) a transaction involving an amount in excess of 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan;

(ii) any transaction (other than a transaction respecting a security) which is part of a series of transactions with or in conjunction with a person in a plan year, if the aggregate amount of such transactions exceeds 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan;

(iii) a transaction which is part of a series of transactions respecting one or more securities of the same issuer, if the aggregate amount of such transactions in the plan year exceeds 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan; or

(iv) a transaction with or in conjunction with a person respecting a security, if any other transaction with or in conjunction with such person in the plan year respecting a security is required to be reported by reason of clause (i).


(4) The Secretary may, by regulation, relieve any plan from filing a copy of a statement of assets and liabilities (or other information) described in paragraph (3)(G) if such statement and other information is filed with the Secretary by the bank or insurance carrier which maintains the common or collective trust or separate account.

(c) Information to be furnished by administrator

The administrator shall furnish as a part of a report under this section the following information:

(1) The number of employees covered by the plan.

(2) The name and address of each fiduciary.

(3) Except in the case of a person whose compensation is minimal (determined under regulations of the Secretary) and who performs solely ministerial duties (determined under such regulations), the name of each person (including but not limited to, any consultant, broker, trustee, accountant, insurance carrier, actuary, administrator, investment manager, or custodian who rendered services to the plan or who had transactions with the plan) who received directly or indirectly compensation from the plan during the preceding year for services rendered to the plan or its participants, the amount of such compensation, the nature of his services to the plan or its participants, his relationship to the employer of the employees covered by the plan, or the employee organization, and any other office, position, or employment he holds with any party in interest.

(4) An explanation of the reason for any change in appointment of trustee, accountant, insurance carrier, enrolled actuary, administrator, investment manager, or custodian.

(5) Such financial and actuarial information including but not limited to the material described in subsections (b) and (d) of this section as the Secretary may find necessary or appropriate.

(d) Actuarial statement

With respect to an employee pension benefit plan (other than (A) a profit sharing, savings, or other plan, which is an individual account plan, (B) a plan described in section 1081(b) of this title, or (C) a plan described both in section 1321(b) of this title and in paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), or (7) of section 1081(a) of this title) an annual report under this section for a plan year shall include a complete actuarial statement applicable to the plan year which shall include the following:

(1) The date of the plan year, and the date of the actuarial valuation applicable to the plan year for which the report is filed.

(2) The date and amount of the contribution (or contributions) received by the plan for the plan year for which the report is filed and contributions for prior plan years not previously reported.

(3) The following information applicable to the plan year for which the report is filed: the normal costs or target normal costs, the accrued liabilities or funding target, an identification of benefits not included in the calculation; a statement of the other facts and actuarial assumptions and methods used to determine costs, and a justification for any change in actuarial assumptions or cost methods; and the minimum contribution required under section 1082 of this title.

(4) The number of participants and beneficiaries, both retired and nonretired, covered by the plan.

(5) The current value of the assets accumulated in the plan, and the present value of the assets of the plan used by the actuary in any computation of the amount of contributions to the plan required under section 1082 of this title and a statement explaining the basis of such valuation of present value of assets.

(6) Information required in regulations of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation with respect to:

(A) the current value of the assets of the plan,

(B) the present value of all nonforfeitable benefits for participants and beneficiaries receiving payments under the plan,

(C) the present value of all nonforfeitable benefits for all other participants and beneficiaries,

(D) the present value of all accrued benefits which are not nonforfeitable (including a separate accounting of such benefits which are benefit commitments, as defined in section 1301(a)(16) of this title), and

(E) the actuarial assumptions and techniques used in determining the values described in subparagraphs (A) through (D).


(7) A certification of the contribution necessary to reduce the minimum required contribution determined under section 1083 of this title, or the accumulated funding deficiency determined under section 1084 of this title, to zero.

(8) A statement by the enrolled actuary—

(A) that to the best of his knowledge the report is complete and accurate, and

(B) the applicable requirements of sections 1083(h), 1084(c)(3), and 1085a(c)(3) of this title (relating to reasonable actuarial assumptions and methods) have been complied with.


(9) A copy of the opinion required by subsection (a)(4).

(10) A statement by the actuary which discloses—

(A) any event which the actuary has not taken into account, and

(B) any trend which, for purposes of the actuarial assumptions used, was not assumed to continue in the future,


but only if, to the best of the actuary's knowledge, such event or trend may require a material increase in plan costs or required contribution rates.

(11) If the current value of the assets of the plan is less than 70 percent of—

(A) in the case of a single-employer plan, the funding target (as defined in section 1083(d)(1) of this title) of the plan, or

(B) in the case of a multiemployer plan, the current liability (as defined in section 1084(c)(6)(D) of this title) under the plan,


the percentage which such value is of the amount described in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(12) A statement explaining the actuarial assumptions and methods used in projecting future retirements and forms of benefit distributions under the plan.

(13) Such other information regarding the plan as the Secretary may by regulation require.

(14) Such other information as may be necessary to fully and fairly disclose the actuarial position of the plan.


Such actuary shall make an actuarial valuation of the plan for every third plan year, unless he determines that a more frequent valuation is necessary to support his opinion under subsection (a)(4) of this section.

(e) Statement from insurance company, insurance service, or other similar organizations which sell or guarantee plan benefits

If some or all of the benefits under the plan are purchased from and guaranteed by an insurance company, insurance service, or other similar organization, a report under this section shall include a statement from such insurance company, service, or other similar organization covering the plan year and enumerating—

(1) the premium rate or subscription charge and the total premium or subscription charges paid to each such carrier, insurance service, or other similar organization and the approximate number of persons covered by each class of such benefits; and

(2) the total amount of premiums received, the approximate number of persons covered by each class of benefits, and the total claims paid by such company, service, or other organization; dividends or retroactive rate adjustments, commissions, and administrative service or other fees or other specific acquisition costs paid by such company, service, or other organization; any amounts held to provide benefits after retirement; the remainder of such premiums; and the names and addresses of the brokers, agents, or other persons to whom commissions or fees were paid, the amount paid to each, and for what purpose. If any such company, service, or other organization does not maintain separate experience records covering the specific groups it serves, the report shall include in lieu of the information required by the foregoing provisions of this paragraph (A) a statement as to the basis of its premium rate or subscription charge, the total amount of premiums or subscription charges received from the plan, and a copy of the financial report of the company, service, or other organization and (B) if such company, service, or organization incurs specific costs in connection with the acquisition or retention of any particular plan or plans, a detailed statement of such costs.

(f) Additional information with respect to defined benefit plans

(1) Liabilities under 2 or more plans

(A) In general

In any case in which any liabilities to participants or their beneficiaries under a defined benefit plan as of the end of a plan year consist (in whole or in part) of liabilities to such participants and beneficiaries under 2 or more pension plans as of immediately before such plan year, an annual report under this section for such plan year shall include the funded percentage of each of such 2 or more pension plans as of the last day of such plan year and the funded percentage of the plan with respect to which the annual report is filed as of the last day of such plan year.

(B) Funded percentage

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "funded percentage"—

(i) in the case of a single-employer plan, means the funding target attainment percentage, as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title, and

(ii) in the case of a multiemployer plan, has the meaning given such term in section 1085(i)(2) of this title.

(2) Additional information for multiemployer plans

With respect to any defined benefit plan which is a multiemployer plan, an annual report under this section for a plan year shall include, in addition to the information required under paragraph (1), the following, as of the end of the plan year to which the report relates:

(A) The number of employers obligated to contribute to the plan.

(B) A list of the employers that contributed more than 5 percent of the total contributions to the plan during such plan year.

(C) The number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no contributions were made by an employer as an employer of the participant for such plan year and for each of the 2 preceding plan years.

(D) The ratios of—

(i) the number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no employer had an obligation to make an employer contribution during the plan year, to

(ii) the number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no employer had an obligation to make an employer contribution during each of the 2 preceding plan years.


(E) Whether the plan received an amortization extension under section 1084(d) of this title or section 431(d) of title 26 for such plan year and, if so, the amount of the difference between the minimum required contribution for the year and the minimum required contribution which would have been required without regard to the extension, and the period of such extension.

(F) Whether the plan used the shortfall funding method (as such term is used in section 1085 of this title) for such plan year and, if so, the amount of the difference between the minimum required contribution for the year and the minimum required contribution which would have been required without regard to the use of such method, and the period of use of such method.

(G) Whether the plan was in critical or endangered status under section 1085 of this title for such plan year, and if so, a summary of any funding improvement or rehabilitation plan (or modification thereto) adopted during the plan year, and the funded percentage of the plan.

(H) The number of employers that withdrew from the plan during the preceding plan year and the aggregate amount of withdrawal liability assessed, or estimated to be assessed, against such withdrawn employers.

(I) In the case of a multiemployer plan that has merged with another plan or to which assets and liabilities have been transferred, the actuarial valuation of the assets and liabilities of each affected plan during the year preceding the effective date of the merger or transfer, based upon the most recent data available as of the day before the first day of the plan year, or other valuation method performed under standards and procedures as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.

(g) Additional information with respect to pooled employer and multiple employer plans

An annual report under this section for a plan year shall include—

(1) with respect to any plan to which section 1060(a) of this title applies (including a pooled employer plan), a list of employers in the plan and a good faith estimate of the percentage of total contributions made by such employers during the plan year and the aggregate account balances attributable to each employer in the plan (determined as the sum of the account balances of the employees of such employer (and the beneficiaries of such employees)); and

(2) with respect to a pooled employer plan, the identifying information for the person designated under the terms of the plan as the pooled plan provider.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §103, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §307, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1295; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11016(b)(1), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 272; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9342(a)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–371; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7881(j)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2442; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(a)(2), (3), formerly §107(a)(2), (3), title V, §503(a)(1), (b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 818, 942, 943, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §101(d)(1)(A), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5098; Pub. L. 113–97, title I, §§102(b)(5), 104(c), Apr. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 1116, 1121; Pub. L. 116–94, div. O, title I, §101(d)(1), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3145.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 116–94, §101(d)(1)(A), substituted "applicable subsections (d), (e), (f), and (g)" for "applicable subsections (d), (e), and (f)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 116–94, §101(d)(1)(B), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "With respect to any multiple employer plan, an annual report under this section for a plan year shall include a list of participating employers and a good faith estimate of the percentage of total contributions made by such participating employers during the plan year."

2014—Subsec. (d)(8)(B). Pub. L. 113–97, §102(b)(5), substituted "sections 1083(h), 1084(c)(3), and 1085a(c)(3) of this title" for "sections 1083(h) and 1084(c)(3) of this title".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 113–97, §104(c), added subsec. (g).

2008—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(d)(1)(A)(i), substituted "the normal costs or target normal costs, the accrued liabilities or funding target" for "the normal costs, the accrued liabilities".

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(d)(1)(A)(ii), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "A certification of the contribution necessary to reduce the accumulated funding deficiency to zero."

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(a)(1)(A), substituted "subsections (d), (e), and (f)" for "subsections (d) and (e)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(8)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(2), formerly §107(a)(2), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted "the applicable requirements of sections 1083(h) and 1084(c)(3)" for "the requirements of section 1082(c)(3)".

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(3), formerly §107(a)(3), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, added par. (11) and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: "If the current value of the assets of the plan is less than 70 percent of the current liability under the plan (within the meaning of section 1082(d)(7) of this title), the percentage which such value is of such liability.."

Subsec. (d)(12) to (14). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(b), added par. (12) and redesignated former pars. (12) and (13) as (13) and (14), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (f).

1989—Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "70 percent" for "60 percent" and "the percentage which such value is of such liability." for "such percentage".

1987—Subsec. (d)(11) to (13). Pub. L. 100–203 added par. (11) and redesignated former pars. (11) and (12) as (12) and (13), respectively.

1986—Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 99–272 amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "The present value of all of the plan's liabilities for nonforfeitable pension benefits allocated by the termination priority categories as set forth in section 1344 of this title, and the actuarial assumptions used in these computations. The Secretary shall establish regulations defining (for purposes of this section) 'termination priority categories' and acceptable methods, including approximate methods, for allocating the plan's liabilities to such termination priority categories."

1980—Subsec. (d)(10) to (12). Pub. L. 96–364 added par. (10) and redesignated former pars. (10) and (11) as (11) and (12), respectively.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2019 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–94 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2020, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 116–94, set out as a note under section 408 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–97 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 2013, see section 3 of Pub. L. 113–97, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 108(a)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Amendment by section 503(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 503(f) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable with respect to reports required to be filed after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 9342(d)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 1132 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 1341 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Guidance by Secretary of Labor

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §503(a)(2), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 943, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Labor shall publish guidance to assist multiemployer defined benefit plans to—

"(A) identify and enumerate plan participants for whom there is no employer with an obligation to make an employer contribution under the plan; and

"(B) report such information under section 103(f)(2)(D) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1023(f)(2)(D)] (as added by this section)."

Transition Rules

Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11016(b)(3), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 273, provided that: "Any regulations, modifications, or waivers which have been issued by the Secretary of Labor with respect to section 103(d)(6) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1023(d)(6)] (as in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986]) shall remain in full force and effect until modified by any regulations with respect to such section 103(d)(6) prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation."

Consolidation of Actuarial Reports

Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of Labor to take such steps as may be necessary to assure coordination to the maximum extent feasible between the actuarial reports required by subsec. (d) of this section and section 6059 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, see section 1033(c) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 6059 of Title 26.

§1024. Filing with Secretary and furnishing information to participants and certain employers

(a) Filing of annual report with Secretary

(1) The administrator of any employee benefit plan subject to this part shall file with the Secretary the annual report for a plan year within 210 days after the close of such year (or within such time as may be required by regulations promulgated by the Secretary in order to reduce duplicative filing). The Secretary shall make copies of such annual reports available for inspection in the public document room of the Department of Labor.

(2)(A) With respect to annual reports required to be filed with the Secretary under this part, the Secretary may by regulation prescribe simplified annual reports for any pension plan that—

(i) covers fewer than 100 participants; or

(ii) is a plan described in section 1060(a) of this title that covers fewer than 1,000 participants, but only if no single employer in the plan has 100 or more participants covered by the plan.


(B) Nothing contained in this paragraph shall preclude the Secretary from requiring any information or data from any such plan to which this part applies where he finds such data or information is necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter nor shall the Secretary be precluded from revoking provisions for simplified reports for any such plan if he finds it necessary to do so in order to carry out the objectives of this subchapter.

(3) The Secretary may by regulation exempt any welfare benefit plan from all or part of the reporting and disclosure requirements of this subchapter, or may provide for simplified reporting and disclosure if he finds that such requirements are inappropriate as applied to welfare benefit plans.

(4) The Secretary may reject any filing under this section—

(A) if he determines that such filing is incomplete for purposes of this part; or

(B) if he determines that there is any material qualification by an accountant or actuary contained in an opinion submitted pursuant to section 1023(a)(3)(A) or section 1023(a)(4)(B) of this title.


(5) If the Secretary rejects a filing of a report under paragraph (4) and if a revised filing satisfactory to the Secretary is not submitted within 45 days after the Secretary makes his determination under paragraph (4) to reject the filing, and if the Secretary deems it in the best interest of the participants, he may take any one or more of the following actions—

(A) retain an independent qualified public accountant (as defined in section 1023(a)(3)(D) of this title) on behalf of the participants to perform an audit,

(B) retain an enrolled actuary (as defined in section 1023(a)(4)(C) of this title) on behalf of the plan participants, to prepare an actuarial statement,

(C) bring a civil action for such legal or equitable relief as may be appropriate to enforce the provisions of this part, or

(D) take any other action authorized by this subchapter.


The administrator shall permit such accountant or actuary to inspect whatever books and records of the plan are necessary for such audit. The plan shall be liable to the Secretary for the expenses for such audit or report, and the Secretary may bring an action against the plan in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover such expenses.

(6) The administrator of any employee benefit plan subject to this part shall furnish to the Secretary, upon request, any documents relating to the employee benefit plan, including but not limited to, the latest summary plan description (including any summaries of plan changes not contained in the summary plan description), and the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instrument under which the plan is established or operated.

(b) Publication of summary plan description and annual report to participants and beneficiaries of plan

Publication of the summary plan descriptions and annual reports shall be made to participants and beneficiaries of the particular plan as follows:

(1) The administrator shall furnish to each participant, and each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, a copy of the summary plan description, and all modifications and changes referred to in section 1022(a) of this title

(A) within 90 days after he becomes a participant, or (in the case of a beneficiary) within 90 days after he first receives benefits, or

(B) if later, within 120 days after the plan becomes subject to this part.


The administrator shall furnish to each participant, and each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, every fifth year after the plan becomes subject to this part an updated summary plan description described in section 1022 of this title which integrates all plan amendments made within such five-year period, except that in a case where no amendments have been made to a plan during such five-year period this sentence shall not apply. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the administrator shall furnish to each participant, and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, the summary plan description described in section 1022 of this title every tenth year after the plan becomes subject to this part. If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a) of this title (other than a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title)), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished not later than 210 days after the end of the plan year in which the change is adopted to each participant, and to each beneficiary who is receiving benefits under the plan. If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a) of this title that is a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided under a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries not later than 60 days after the date of the adoption of the modification or change. In the alternative, the plan sponsors may provide such description at regular intervals of not more than 90 days. The Secretary shall issue regulations within 180 days after August 21, 1996, providing alternative mechanisms to delivery by mail through which group health plans (as so defined) may notify participants and beneficiaries of material reductions in covered services or benefits.

(2) The administrator shall make copies of the latest updated summary plan description and the latest annual report and the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instruments under which the plan was established or is operated available for examination by any plan participant or beneficiary in the principal office of the administrator and in such other places as may be necessary to make available all pertinent information to all participants (including such places as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations).

(3) Within 210 days after the close of the fiscal year of the plan, the administrator (other than an administrator of a defined benefit plan to which the requirements of section 1021(f) of this title applies) 1 shall furnish to each participant, and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, a copy of the statements and schedules, for such fiscal year, described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1023(b)(3) of this title and such other material (including the percentage determined under section 1023(d)(11) of this title) as is necessary to fairly summarize the latest annual report.

(4) The administrator shall, upon written request of any participant or beneficiary, furnish a copy of the latest updated summary,2 plan description, and the latest annual report, any terminal report, the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instruments under which the plan is established or operated. The administrator may make a reasonable charge to cover the cost of furnishing such complete copies. The Secretary may by regulation prescribe the maximum amount which will constitute a reasonable charge under the preceding sentence.

(5) Identification and basic plan information and actuarial information included in the annual report for any plan year shall be filed with the Secretary in an electronic format which accommodates display on the Internet, in accordance with regulations which shall be prescribed by the Secretary. The Secretary shall provide for display of such information included in the annual report, within 90 days after the date of the filing of the annual report, on an Internet website maintained by the Secretary and other appropriate media. Such information shall also be displayed on any Intranet website maintained by the plan sponsor (or by the plan administrator on behalf of the plan sponsor) for the purpose of communicating with employees and not the public, in accordance with regulations which shall be prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Statement of rights

The Secretary may by regulation require that the administrator of any employee benefit plan furnish to each participant and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan a statement of the rights of participants and beneficiaries under this subchapter.

(d) Furnishing summary plan information to employers and employee representatives of multiemployer plans

(1) In general

With respect to a multiemployer plan subject to this section, within 30 days after the due date under subsection (a)(1) for the filing of the annual report for the fiscal year of the plan, the administrators shall furnish to each employee organization and to each employer with an obligation to contribute to the plan a report that contains—

(A) a description of the contribution schedules and benefit formulas under the plan, and any modification to such schedules and formulas, during such plan year;

(B) the number of employers obligated to contribute to the plan;

(C) a list of the employers that contributed more than 5 percent of the total contributions to the plan during such plan year;

(D) the number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no contributions were made by an employer as an employer of the participant for such plan year and for each of the 2 preceding plan years;

(E) whether the plan was in critical or endangered status under section 1085 of this title for such plan year and, if so, include—

(i) a list of the actions taken by the plan to improve its funding status; and

(ii) a statement describing how a person may obtain a copy of the plan's funding improvement or rehabilitation plan, as applicable, adopted under section 1085 of this title and the actuarial and financial data that demonstrate any action taken by the plan toward fiscal improvement;


(F) the number of employers that withdrew from the plan during the preceding plan year and the aggregate amount of withdrawal liability assessed, or estimated to be assessed, against such withdrawn employers, as reported on the annual report for the plan year to which the report under this subsection relates;

(G) in the case of a multiemployer plan that has merged with another plan or to which assets and liabilities have been transferred, the actuarial valuation of the assets and liabilities of each affected plan during the year preceding the effective date of the merger or transfer, based upon the most recent data available as of the day before the first day of the plan year, or other valuation method performed under standards and procedures as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation;

(H) a description as to whether the plan—

(i) sought or received an amortization extension under section 1084(d) of this title or section 431(d) of title 26 for such plan year; or

(ii) used the shortfall funding method (as such term is used in section 1085 of this title) for such plan year; and


(I) notification of the right under this section of the recipient to a copy of the annual report filed with the Secretary under subsection (a), summary plan description, summary of any material modification of the plan, upon written request, but that—

(i) in no case shall a recipient be entitled to receive more than one copy of any such document described during any one 12-month period; and

(ii) the administrator may make a reasonable charge to cover copying, mailing, and other costs of furnishing copies of information pursuant to this subparagraph.

(2) Effect of subsection

Nothing in this subsection waives any other provision under this subchapter requiring plan administrators to provide, upon request, information to employers that have an obligation to contribute under the plan.

(e) Cross references

For regulations respecting coordination of reports to the Secretaries of Labor and the Treasury, see section 1204 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §104, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11016(b)(2), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9342(a)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–371; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(b)(3), (4), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(c)(1), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(D), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(c)(1), (2)(A), (d)(1)–(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1062; Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §§503(c)(1), (d), 504(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 943–945; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §105(c)(1), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5105; Pub. L. 116–94, div. O, title I, §101(d)(2), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3145.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 116–94 added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "With respect to annual reports required to be filed with the Secretary under this part, he may by regulation prescribe simplified annual reports for any pension plan which covers less than 100 participants."

2008—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(c)(1)(A)(ii), which directed substitution of "the administrator" for "the administrators" in par. (3), could not be executed because the words "the administrators" did not appear.

Pub. L. 110–458, §105(c)(1)(A)(i), substituted "section 1021(f)" for "section 1023(f)".

Subsec. (d)(1)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(c)(1)(B), inserted "funding" after "plan's".

2006Pub. L. 109–280, §503(d)(1), substituted "participants and certain employers" for "participants" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(c)(1), which directed amendment of par. (3) by inserting "(other than an administrator of a defined benefit plan to which the requirements of section 1023(f) of this title applies)" after "the administrators", was executed by making the insertion after "the administrator", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–280, §504(a), added par. (5).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(d)(2), (3), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(c)(1), amended par. (1) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring filing of annual report, plan description, summary plan description, as well as modifications and changes in plan descriptions.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(c)(2)(A), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(d)(1), substituted "section 1022(a) of this title" for "section 1022(a)(1) of this title" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(d)(2), substituted "the latest updated summary plan description and" for "the plan description and".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(d)(3), struck out "plan description" before ", plan description, and the latest annual report".

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–204 made technical amendment to references in original act which appear in text as references to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191, in closing provisions, substituted "1022(a)(1) of this title (other than a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title))," for "1022(a)(1) of this title," and inserted at end "If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a)(1) of this title that is a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided under a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries not later than 60 days after the date of the adoption of the modification or change. In the alternative, the plan sponsors may provide such description at regular intervals of not more than 90 days. The Secretary shall issue regulations within 180 days after August 21, 1996, providing alternative mechanisms to delivery by mail through which group health plans (as so defined) may notify participants and beneficiaries of material reductions in covered services or benefits."

1989—Subsec. (a)(5)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(3), substituted a comma for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(4), struck out comma after "summary".

1987—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted "(including the percentage determined under section 1023(d)(11) of this title)" after "material".

1986—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–272 struck out provision permitting the Secretary to waive or modify the requirements of section 1023(d)(6) of this title if he found that the interests of the plan participants were not harmed and the expense of compliance was not justified by the needs of the participants, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, and the Department of Labor for some portion or all of the information otherwise required under section 1023(d)(6) of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2019 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–94 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2020, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 116–94, set out as a note under section 408 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 503(c)(1), (d) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 503(f) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §504(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 945, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–204 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 104–204 set out as a note under section 1003 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable with respect to reports required to be filed after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 9342(d)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 1132 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 1341 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Model Notices and Forms

For provisions requiring the Secretary of Labor to publish a model form for providing the statements, schedules, and other material required to be provided under subsec. (d) of this section, see section 503(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "apply)".

2 So in original. Comma probably should not appear.

§1025. Reporting of participant's benefit rights

(a) Requirements to provide pension benefit statements

(1) Requirements

(A) Individual account plan

The administrator of an individual account plan (other than a one-participant retirement plan described in section 1021(i)(8)(B) of this title) shall furnish a pension benefit statement—

(i) at least once each calendar quarter to a participant or beneficiary who has the right to direct the investment of assets in his or her account under the plan,

(ii) at least once each calendar year to a participant or beneficiary who has his or her own account under the plan but does not have the right to direct the investment of assets in that account, and

(iii) upon written request to a plan beneficiary not described in clause (i) or (ii).

(B) Defined benefit plan

The administrator of a defined benefit plan (other than a one-participant retirement plan described in section 1021(i)(8)(B) of this title) shall furnish a pension benefit statement—

(i) at least once every 3 years to each participant with a nonforfeitable accrued benefit and who is employed by the employer maintaining the plan at the time the statement is to be furnished, and

(ii) to a participant or beneficiary of the plan upon written request.


Information furnished under clause (i) to a participant may be based on reasonable estimates determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in consultation with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.

(2) Statements

(A) In general

A pension benefit statement under paragraph (1)—

(i) shall indicate, on the basis of the latest available information—

(I) the total benefits accrued, and

(II) the nonforfeitable pension benefits, if any, which have accrued, or the earliest date on which benefits will become nonforfeitable,


(ii) shall include an explanation of any permitted disparity under section 401(l) of title 26 or any floor-offset arrangement that may be applied in determining any accrued benefits described in clause (i),

(iii) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant, and

(iv) may be delivered in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to the participant or beneficiary.

(B) Additional information

In the case of an individual account plan, any pension benefit statement under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) shall include—

(i) the value of each investment to which assets in the individual account have been allocated, determined as of the most recent valuation date under the plan, including the value of any assets held in the form of employer securities, without regard to whether such securities were contributed by the plan sponsor or acquired at the direction of the plan or of the participant or beneficiary,

(ii) in the case of a pension benefit statement under paragraph (1)(A)(i)—

(I) an explanation of any limitations or restrictions on any right of the participant or beneficiary under the plan to direct an investment,

(II) an explanation, written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant, of the importance, for the long-term retirement security of participants and beneficiaries, of a well-balanced and diversified investment portfolio, including a statement of the risk that holding more than 20 percent of a portfolio in the security of one entity (such as employer securities) may not be adequately diversified, and

(III) a notice directing the participant or beneficiary to the Internet website of the Department of Labor for sources of information on individual investing and diversification, and


(iii) the lifetime income disclosure described in subparagraph (D)(i).


In the case of pension benefit statements described in clause (i) of paragraph (1)(A), a lifetime income disclosure under clause (iii) of this subparagraph shall be required to be included in only one pension benefit statement during any one 12-month period.

(C) Alternative notice

The requirements of subparagraph (A)(i)(II) are met if, at least annually and in accordance with requirements of the Secretary, the plan—

(i) updates the information described in such paragraph which is provided in the pension benefit statement, or

(ii) provides in a separate statement such information as is necessary to enable a participant or beneficiary to determine their nonforfeitable vested benefits.

(D) Lifetime income disclosure

(i) In general

(I) Disclosure

A lifetime income disclosure shall set forth the lifetime income stream equivalent of the total benefits accrued with respect to the participant or beneficiary.

(II) Lifetime income stream equivalent of the total benefits accrued

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "lifetime income stream equivalent of the total benefits accrued" means the amount of monthly payments the participant or beneficiary would receive if the total accrued benefits of such participant or beneficiary were used to provide lifetime income streams described in subclause (III), based on assumptions specified in rules prescribed by the Secretary.

(III) Lifetime income streams

The lifetime income streams described in this subclause are a qualified joint and survivor annuity (as defined in section 1055(d) of this title), based on assumptions specified in rules prescribed by the Secretary, including the assumption that the participant or beneficiary has a spouse of equal age, and a single life annuity. Such lifetime income streams may have a term certain or other features to the extent permitted under rules prescribed by the Secretary.

(ii) Model disclosure

Not later than 1 year after December 20, 2019, the Secretary shall issue a model lifetime income disclosure, written in a manner so as to be understood by the average plan participant, which—

(I) explains that the lifetime income stream equivalent is only provided as an illustration;

(II) explains that the actual payments under the lifetime income stream described in clause (i)(III) which may be purchased with the total benefits accrued will depend on numerous factors and may vary substantially from the lifetime income stream equivalent in the disclosures;

(III) explains the assumptions upon which the lifetime income stream equivalent was determined; and

(IV) provides such other similar explanations as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(iii) Assumptions and rules

Not later than 1 year after December 20, 2019, the Secretary shall—

(I) prescribe assumptions which administrators of individual account plans may use in converting total accrued benefits into lifetime income stream equivalents for purposes of this subparagraph; and

(II) issue interim final rules under clause (i).


 In prescribing assumptions under subclause (I), the Secretary may prescribe a single set of specific assumptions (in which case the Secretary may issue tables or factors which facilitate such conversions), or ranges of permissible assumptions. To the extent that an accrued benefit is or may be invested in a lifetime income stream described in clause (i)(III), the assumptions prescribed under subclause (I) shall, to the extent appropriate, permit administrators of individual account plans to use the amounts payable under such lifetime income stream as a lifetime income stream equivalent.

(iv) Limitation on liability

No plan fiduciary, plan sponsor, or other person shall have any liability under this subchapter solely by reason of the provision of lifetime income stream equivalents which are derived in accordance with the assumptions and rules described in clause (iii) and which include the explanations contained in the model lifetime income disclosure described in clause (ii). This clause shall apply without regard to whether the provision of such lifetime income stream equivalent is required by subparagraph (B)(iii).

(v) Effective date

The requirement in subparagraph (B)(iii) shall apply to pension benefit statements furnished more than 12 months after the latest of the issuance by the Secretary of—

(I) interim final rules under clause (i);

(II) the model disclosure under clause (ii); or

(III) the assumptions under clause (iii).

(3) Defined benefit plans

(A) Alternative notice

In the case of a defined benefit plan, the requirements of paragraph (1)(B)(i) shall be treated as met with respect to a participant if at least once each year the administrator provides to the participant notice of the availability of the pension benefit statement and the ways in which the participant may obtain such statement. Such notice may be delivered in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to the participant.

(B) Years in which no benefits accrue

The Secretary may provide that years in which no employee or former employee benefits (within the meaning of section 410(b) of title 26) under the plan need not be taken into account in determining the 3-year period under paragraph (1)(B)(i).

(b) Limitation on number of statements

In no case shall a participant or beneficiary of a plan be entitled to more than 1 statement described in subparagraph (A)(iii) or (B)(ii) of subsection (a)(1), whichever is applicable, in any 12-month period.

(c) Individual statement furnished by administrator to participants setting forth information in administrator's Internal Revenue registration statement and notification of forfeitable benefits

Each administrator required to register under section 6057 of title 26 shall, before the expiration of the time prescribed for such registration, furnish to each participant described in subsection (a)(2)(C) of such section, an individual statement setting forth the information with respect to such participant required to be contained in the registration statement required by section 6057(a)(2) of title 26. Such statement shall also include a notice to the participant of any benefits which are forfeitable if the participant dies before a certain date.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §105, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 98–397, title I, §106, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1436; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(b)(5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2448; Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §508(a)(1)–(2)(B), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 949, 951; Pub. L. 116–94, div. O, title II, §203, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3163.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 116–94, §203(a), added cl. (iii) and concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 116–94, §203(b), added subpar. (D).

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–280, §508(a)(1), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Each administrator of an employee pension benefit plan shall furnish to any plan participant or beneficiary who so requests in writing, a statement indicating, on the basis of the latest available information—

"(1) the total benefits accrued, and

"(2) the nonforfeitable pension benefits, if any, which have accrued, or the earliest date on which benefits will become nonforfeitable."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–280, §508(a)(2)(B), amended heading and text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In no case shall a participant or beneficiary be entitled under this section to receive more than one report described in subsection (a) during any one 12-month period."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–280, §508(a)(2)(A), struck out heading and text of subsec. (d). Text read as follows: "Subsection (a) of this section shall apply to a plan to which more than one unaffiliated employer is required to contribute only to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury."

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(5), substituted "12-month" for "12 month".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–397 inserted at end "Such statement shall also include a notice to the participant of any benefits which are forfeitable if the participant dies before a certain date."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §508(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 952, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2006.

"(2) Special rule for collectively bargained agreements.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified on or before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], paragraph (1) shall be applied to benefits pursuant to, and individuals covered by, any such agreement by substituting for 'December 31, 2006' the earlier of—

"(A) the later of—

"(i) December 31, 2007, or

"(ii) the date on which the last of such collective bargaining agreements terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof after such date of enactment), or

"(B) December 31, 2008."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(b)(5) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except as otherwise provided, see sections 302 and 303 of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary of Labor authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations by him, see section 1031 of this title.

Model Statements

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §508(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 951, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Labor shall, within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this section [Aug. 17, 2006], develop 1 or more model benefit statements that are written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and that may be used by plan administrators in complying with the requirements of section 105 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1025].

"(2) Interim final rules.—The Secretary of Labor may promulgate any interim final rules as the Secretary determines appropriate to carry out the provisions of this subsection."

§1026. Reports made public information

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the contents of the annual reports, statements, and other documents filed with the Secretary pursuant to this part shall be public information and the Secretary shall make any such information and data available for inspection in the public document room of the Department of Labor. The Secretary may use the information and data for statistical and research purposes, and compile and publish such studies, analyses, reports, and surveys based thereon as he may deem appropriate.

(b) Information described in sections 1025(a) and 1025(c) of this title with respect to a participant may be disclosed only to the extent that information respecting that participant's benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] may be disclosed under such Act.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §106, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(b)(6), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(d)(4), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1062.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–34 struck out "descriptions," before "annual reports,".

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "sections" for "section".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

§1027. Retention of records

Every person subject to a requirement to file any report (including the documents described in subparagraphs (E) through (I) of section 1021(k) of this title) or to certify any information therefor under this subchapter or who would be subject to such a requirement but for an exemption or simplified reporting requirement under section 1024(a)(2) or (3) of this title shall maintain a copy of such report and records on the matters of which disclosure is required which will provide in sufficient detail the necessary basic information and data from which the documents thus required may be verified, explained, or clarified, and checked for accuracy and completeness, and shall include vouchers, worksheets, receipts, and applicable resolutions, and shall keep such records available for examination for a period of not less than six years after the filing date of the documents based on the information which they contain, or six years after the date on which such documents would have been filed but for an exemption or simplified reporting requirement under section 1024(a)(2) or (3) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §107, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(d)(5), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1062; Pub. L. 113–235, div. O, title I, §111(c), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2793.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–235 inserted "(including the documents described in subparagraphs (E) through (I) of section 1021(k) of this title)" after "file any report" and "a copy of such report and" after "shall maintain".

1997Pub. L. 105–34