[USC02] 29 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER I, Part B, subpart 3: adult and dislocated worker employment and training activities
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29 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER I, Part B, subpart 3: adult and dislocated worker employment and training activities
From Title 29—LABORCHAPTER 32—WORKFORCE INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITYSUBCHAPTER I—WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIESPart B—Workforce Investment Activities and Providers

subpart 3—adult and dislocated worker employment and training activities

§3171. General authorization

The Secretary shall make allotments under paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title to each State that meets the requirements of section 3112 or 3113 of this title and grants under paragraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of section 3172(b) of this title to each outlying area that complies with the requirements of this subchapter, to assist the State or outlying area, and to enable the State or outlying area to assist local areas, for the purpose of providing workforce investment activities for adults, and dislocated workers, in the State or outlying area and in the local areas.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §131, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1511.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Veterans Energy-Related Employment Program

Pub. L. 111–275, title I, §106, Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2870, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Pilot Program.—To encourage the employment of eligible veterans in the energy industry, the Secretary of Labor, as part of the Veterans Workforce Investment Program, shall carry out a pilot program to be known as the 'Veterans Energy-Related Employment Program'. Under the pilot program, the Secretary shall award competitive grants to not more than three States for the establishment and administration of a State program to make grants to energy employers that provide covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes to eligible veterans. Such a program shall be known as a 'State Energy-Related Employment Program'.

"(b) Eligibility for Grants.—To be eligible to receive a grant under the pilot program, a State shall submit to the Secretary an application that includes each of the following:

"(1) A proposal for the expenditure of grant funds to establish and administer a public-private partnership program designed to provide covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes to a significant number of eligible veterans and ensure lasting and sustainable employment in well-paying jobs in the energy industry.

"(2) Evidence that the State has—

"(A) a population of eligible veterans of an appropriate size to carry out the State program;

"(B) a robust and diverse energy industry; and

"(C) the ability to carry out the State program described in the proposal under paragraph (1).

"(3) Such other information and assurances as the Secretary may require.

"(c) Use of Funds.—A State that is the recipient of a grant under this section shall use the grant for the following purposes:

"(1) Making grants to energy employers to reimburse such employers for the cost of providing covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes to eligible veterans who are first hired by the employer on or after November 1, 2010.

"(2) Conducting outreach to inform energy employers and veterans, including veterans in rural areas, of their eligibility or potential eligibility for participation in the State program.

"(d) Conditions.—Under the pilot program, each grant to a State shall be subject to the following conditions:

"(1) The State shall repay to the Secretary, on such date as shall be determined by the Secretary, any amount received under the pilot program that is not used for the purposes described in subsection (c).

"(2) The State shall submit to the Secretary, at such times and containing such information as the Secretary shall require, reports on the use of grant funds.

"(e) Employer Requirements.—In order to receive a grant made by a State under the pilot program, an energy employer shall—

"(1) submit to the administrator of the State Energy-Related Employment Program an application that includes—

"(A) the rate of pay, during and after training, for each eligible veteran proposed to be trained using grant funds;

"(B) the average rate of pay for an individual employed by the energy employer in a similar position who is not an eligible veteran; and

"(C) such other information and assurances as the administrator may require; and

"(2) agree to submit to the administrator, for each quarter, a report containing such information as the Secretary may specify.

"(f) Limitation.—None of the funds made available to an energy employer through a grant under the pilot program may be used to provide training of any kind to—

"(1) a person who is not an eligible veteran; or

"(2) an eligible veteran for whom the employer has received a grant, credit, or subsidy under any other provision of law.

"(g) Report to Congress.—Together with the report required to be submitted annually under section 4107(c) of title 38, United States Code, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the pilot program for the year covered by such report. The report on the pilot program shall include a detailed description of activities carried out under this section and an evaluation of the program.

"(h) Administrative and Reporting Costs.—Of the amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under subsection (j), two percent shall be made available to the Secretary for administrative costs associated with implementing and evaluating the pilot program under this section and for preparing and submitting the report required under subsection (f). The Secretary shall determine the appropriate maximum amount of each grant awarded under this section that may be used by the recipient for administrative and reporting costs.

"(i) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

"(1) The term 'covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes' means training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes that are—

"(A) designed to provide the veteran with skills that are particular to an energy industry and not directly transferable to employment in another industry; and

"(B) approved as provided in paragraph (1) or (2), as appropriate, of subsection (a) of section 3687 of title 38, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'eligible veteran' means a veteran, as that term is defined in section 101(2) of title 38, United States Code, who is employed by an energy employer and enrolled or participating in a covered training, on-job training, apprenticeship, or certification class.

"(3) The term 'energy employer' means an entity that employs individuals in a trade or business in an energy industry.

"(4) The term 'energy industry' means any of the following industries:

"(A) The energy-efficient building, construction, or retrofits industry.

"(B) The renewable electric power industry, including the wind and solar energy industries.

"(C) The biofuels industry.

"(D) The energy efficiency assessment industry that serves the residential, commercial, or industrial sectors.

"(E) The oil and natural gas industry.

"(F) The nuclear industry.

"(j) Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2014, for the purpose of carrying out the pilot program under this section."

Coordination of Information and Assistance

Pub. L. 100–689, title IV, §402, Nov. 18, 1988, 100 Stat. 4178, as amended by Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(24), (f)(16)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-423, 2681-432, provided that:

"(a) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this section to ensure that veterans who are dislocated workers eligible for assistance under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.] or are otherwise unemployed receive, to the extent feasible, assistance (including information on vocational guidance or vocational counseling, or information on both vocational guidance or vocational counseling), including information on counseling, needed by such veterans—

"(1) to apply for services and benefits for which they are eligible as veterans, dislocated workers, or unemployed persons;

"(2) to obtain resolution of questions and problems relating to such services and benefit[s]; and

"(3) to initiate any authorized administrative appeals of determinations or other actions relating to such services and benefits.

"(b) Memorandum of Understanding.—(1) Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1988], the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs shall enter into a memorandum of understanding to carry out the purpose of this section. The memorandum shall include provisions that define the relationships and responsibilities of the Veterans' Administration, the Department of Labor, and State and local agencies with respect to the provision of the following information, forms, and assistance:

"(A) Information on services and benefits referred to in subsection (d).

"(B) All application forms and related forms necessary for individuals to apply for such services and to claim such benefits.

"(C) Assistance in resolving questions and problems relating to receipt of such services and benefits.

"(D) Assistance in contacting other Federal Government offices and State offices where such services or benefits are provided or administered.

"(2) The memorandum of understanding entered into pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include a provision for the periodic evaluation, by the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs, of the implementation of their respective responsibilities under such memorandum.

"(c) Coordination of Department of Labor Activities.—The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Veterans' Employment and Training, in consultation with the unit or office designated or created under section 322(b) of the Job Training Partnership Act [former 29 U.S.C. 1662a(b)] or any successor to such unit or office under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.], shall, except as the Secretary of Labor may otherwise direct, coordinate the activities of the components of the Department of Labor performing the responsibilities of the Secretary of Labor under this section.

"(d) Covered Services and Benefits.—This section applies with respect to the following services and benefits:

"(1) Employment assistance under—

"(A) title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.]; and

"(B) the Veterans' Job Training Act (97 Stat. 443; 29 U.S.C. 1721 note [now set out below]).

"(2) Employment and training activities for dislocated workers under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.].

"(3) Employment assistance and unemployment compensation under the trade adjustment assistance program provided in chapter 2 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 (29 [19] U.S.C. 2271 et seq.) and under any other program administered by the Employment and Training Administration of the Department of Labor.

"(4) Educational assistance under—

"(A) the Adult Education Act ([former] 20 U.S.C. 1201 et seq.); and

"(B) chapters 30, 31, 32, 34, and 35 of title 38, United States Code, and chapter 106 of title 10, United States Code.

"(5) Certification of a veteran as a member of a targeted group eligible for the targeted jobs credit determined under section 51 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 51].

"(e) Definition.—In this section, the term 'veteran' has the meaning given such term in section 101(2) of title 38, United States Code."

Veterans' Job Training Act

Pub. L. 98–77, Aug. 15, 1983, 97 Stat. 443, as amended by Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §704, Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 98–543, title II, §212, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2744; Pub. L. 99–108, §4, Sept. 30, 1985, 99 Stat. 481; Pub. L. 99–238, title II, §201(a)(1), (b)–(e), Jan. 13, 1986, 99 Stat. 1767, 1768; Pub. L. 100–77, title IX, §901, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 538; Pub. L. 100–227, title II, §201, Dec. 31, 1987, 101 Stat. 1555; Pub. L. 100–323, §§11(a)(1), (2), (3)(B), (4), (b)–(f), 15(b)(2), (c)(2), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 567–570, 574; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(2), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(25), (f)(17)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-423, 2681-432, provided that:

"short title

"Section 1. This Act may be cited as the 'Veterans' Job Training Act'.

"purpose

"Sec. 2. The purpose of this Act is to address the problem of severe and continuing unemployment among veterans by providing, in the form of payments to defray the costs of training, incentives to employers to hire and train certain wartime veterans who have been unemployed for long periods of time for stable and permanent positions that involve significant training.

"definitions

"Sec. 3. For the purposes of this Act:

"(1) The term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs.

"(2) The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Labor.

"(3) The terms 'veteran', 'Korean conflict', 'compensation', 'service-connected', 'State', 'active military, naval, or air service', and 'Vietnam era', have the meanings given such terms in paragraphs (2), (9), (13), (16), (20), (24), and (29), respectively, of section 101 of title 38, United States Code.

"establishment of program

"Sec. 4. (a) The Administrator and, to the extent specifically provided by this Act, the Secretary shall carry out a program in accordance with this Act to assist eligible veterans in obtaining employment through training for employment in stable and permanent positions that involve significant training. The program shall be carried out through payments to employers who employ and train eligible veterans in such jobs in order to assist such employers in defraying the costs of necessary training.

"(b) The Secretary shall carry out the Secretary's responsibilities under this Act through the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Veterans' Employment and Training established under section 4102A of title 38, United States Code.

"eligibility for program; duration of assistance

"Sec. 5. (a)(1) To be eligible for participation in a job training program under this Act, a veteran must be a Korean conflict or Vietnam-era veteran who—

"(A) is unemployed at the time of applying for participation in a program under this Act; and

"(B) has been unemployed for at least 10 of the 15 weeks immediately preceding the date of such veteran's application for participation in a program under this Act.

"(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term 'Korean conflict or Vietnam-era veteran' means a veteran—

"(A) who served in the active military, naval, or air service for a period of more than one hundred and eighty days, any part of which was during the Korean conflict or the Vietnam era; or

"(B) who served in the active military, naval, or air service during the Korean conflict or the Vietnam era and—

"(i) was discharged or released therefrom for a service-connected disability; or

"(ii) is entitled to compensation (or but for the receipt of retirement pay would be entitled to compensation).

"(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), a veteran shall be considered to be unemployed during any period the veteran is without a job and wants and is available for work.

"(b)(1) A veteran who desires to participate in a program of job training under this Act shall submit to the Administrator an application for participation in such a program. Such an application—

"(A) shall include a certification by the veteran that the veteran is unemployed and meets the other criteria for eligibility prescribed by subsection (a); and

"(B) shall be in such form and contain such additional information as the Administrator may prescribe.

"(2)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the Administrator shall approve an application by a veteran for participation in a program of job training under this Act unless the Administrator finds that the veteran is not eligible to participate in a program of job training under this Act.

"(B) The Administrator may withhold approval of an application of a veteran under this Act if the Administrator determines that, because of limited funds available for the purpose of making payments to employers under this Act, it is necessary to limit the number of participants in programs under this Act.

"(3)(A) Subject to section 14(c), the Administrator shall certify as eligible for participation under this Act a veteran whose application is approved under this subsection and shall furnish the veteran with a certificate of that veteran's eligibility for presentation to an employer offering a program of job training under this Act. Any such certificate shall expire 90 days after it is furnished to the veteran. The date on which a certificate is furnished to a veteran under this paragraph shall be stated on the certificate.

"(B) A certificate furnished under this paragraph may, upon the veteran's application, be renewed in accordance with the terms and conditions of subparagraph (A).

"(c) The maximum period of training for which assistance may be provided on behalf of a veteran under this Act is—

"(1) fifteen months in the case of—

"(A) a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 30 percent or more; or

"(B) a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent or 20 percent who has been determined under section 3106 of title 38, United States Code, to have a serious employment handicap; and

"(2) nine months in the case of any other veteran.

"employer job training programs

"Sec. 6. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), in order to be approved as a program of job training under this Act, a program of job training of an employer approved under section 7 must provide training for a period of not less than six months in an occupation in a growth industry, in an occupation requiring the use of new technological skills, or in an occupation for which demand for labor exceeds supply.

"(2) A program of job training providing training for a period of at least three but less than six months may be approved if the Administrator determines (in accordance with standards which the Administrator shall prescribe) that the purpose of this Act would be met through that program.

"(b) Subject to section 10 and the other provisions of this Act, a veteran who has been approved for participation in a program of job training under this Act and has a current certificate of eligibility for such participation may enter a program of job training that has been approved under section 7 and that is offered to the veteran by the employer.

"approval of employer programs

"Sec. 7. (a)(1) An employer may be paid assistance under section 8(a) on behalf of an eligible veteran employed by such employer and participating in a program of job training offered by that employer only if the program is approved under this section and in accordance with such procedures as the Administrator may by regulation prescribe.

"(2) Except as provided in subsection (b), the Administrator shall approve a proposed program of job training of an employer unless the Administrator determines that the application does not contain a certification and other information meeting the requirements established under this Act or that withholding of approval is warranted under subsection (g).

"(b) The Administrator may not approve a program of job training—

"(1) for employment which consists of seasonal, intermittent, or temporary jobs;

"(2) for employment under which commissions are the primary source of income;

"(3) for employment which involves political or religious activities;

"(4) for employment with any department, agency, instrumentality, or branch of the Federal Government (including the United States Postal Service and the Postal Rate Commission [Postal Regulatory Commission]); or

"(5) if the training will not be carried out in a State.

"(c) An employer offering a program of job training that the employer desires to have approved for the purposes of this Act shall submit to the Administrator a written application for such approval. Such application shall be in such form as the Administrator shall prescribe.

"(d) An application under subsection (c) shall include a certification by the employer of the following:

"(1) That the employer is planning that, upon a veteran's completion of the program of job training, the employer will employ the veteran in a position for which the veteran has been trained and that the employer expects that such a position will be available on a stable and permanent basis to the veteran at the end of the training period.

"(2) That the wages and benefits to be paid to a veteran participating in the employer's program of job training will be not less than the wages and benefits normally paid to other employees participating in a comparable program of job training.

"(3) That the employment of a veteran under the program—

"(A) will not result in the displacement of currently employed workers (including partial displacement such as a reduction in the hours of nonovertime work, wages, or employment benefits); and

"(B) will not be in a job (i) while any other individual is on layoff from the same or any substantially equivalent job, or (ii) the opening for which was created as a result of the employer having terminated the employment of any regular employee or otherwise having reduced its work force with the intention of hiring a veteran in such job under this Act.

"(4) That the employer will not employ in the program of job training a veteran who is already qualified by training and experience for the job for which training is to be provided.

"(5) That the job which is the objective of the training program is one that involves significant training.

"(6) That the training content of the program is adequate, in light of the nature of the occupation for which training is to be provided and of comparable training opportunities in such occupation, to accomplish the training objective certified under clause (2) of subsection (e).

"(7) That each participating veteran will be employed full time in the program of job training.

"(8) That the training period under the proposed program is not longer than the training periods that employers in the community customarily require new employees to complete in order to become competent in the occupation or job for which training is to be provided.

"(9) That there are in the training establishment or place of employment such space, equipment, instructional material, and instructor personnel as needed to accomplish the training objective certified under clause (2) of subsection (e).

"(10) That the employer will keep records adequate to show the progress made by each veteran participating in the program and otherwise to demonstrate compliance with the requirements established under this Act.

"(11) That the employer will furnish each participating veteran, before the veteran's entry into training, with a copy of the employer's certification under this subsection and will obtain and retain the veteran's signed acknowledgment of having received such certification.

"(12) That, as applicable, the employer will provide each participating veteran with the full opportunity to participate in a personal interview pursuant to section 14(b)(1)(A) during the veteran's normal workday.

"(13) That the program meets such other criteria as the Administrator may determine are essential for the effective implementation of the program established by this Act.

"(e) A certification under subsection (d) shall include—

"(1) a statement indicating (A) the total number of hours of participation in the program of job training to be offered a veteran, (B) the length of the program of job training, and (C) the starting rate of wages to be paid to a participant in the program; and

"(2) a description of the training content of the program (including any agreement the employer has entered into with an educational institution under section 10) and of the objective of the training.

"(f)(1) Except as specified in paragraph (2), each matter required to be certified to in paragraphs (1) through (11) of subsection (d) shall be considered to be a requirement established under this Act.

"(2)(A) For the purposes of section 8(c), only matters required to be certified in paragraphs (1) through (10) of subsection (d) shall be so considered.

"(B) For the purposes of section 11, a matter required to be certified under paragraph (12) of subsection (d) shall also be so considered.

"(g) In accordance with regulations which the Administrator shall prescribe, the Administrator may withhold approval of an employer's proposed program of job training pending the outcome of an investigation under section 12 and, based on the outcome of such an investigation, may disapprove such program.

"(h) For the purposes of this section, approval of a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training for the purposes of section 3687 of title 38, United States Code, shall be considered to meet all requirements established under the provisions of this Act (other than subsections (b) and (d)(3)) for approval of a program of job training.

"payments to employers; overpayment

"Sec. 8. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3) and subsection (b) and subject to the provisions of section 9, the Administrator shall make quarterly payments to an employer of a veteran participating in an approved program of job training under this Act. Subject to section 5(c) and paragraph (2), the amount paid to an employer on behalf of a veteran for any period of time shall be 50 percent of the product of (A) the starting hourly rate of wages paid to the veteran by the employer (without regard to overtime or premium pay), and (B) the number of hours worked by the veteran during that period.

"(2) The total amount that may be paid to an employer on behalf of a veteran participating in a program of job training under this Act is $10,000.

"(3) In order to relieve financial burdens on business enterprises with relatively few numbers of employees, the Administrator may make payments under this Act on a monthly, rather than quarterly, basis to an employer with a number of employees less than a number which shall be specified in regulations which the Administrator shall prescribe for the purposes of this paragraph.

"(b) Payment may not be made to an employer for a period of training under this Act on behalf of a veteran until the Administrator has received—

"(1) from the veteran, a certification that the veteran was employed full time by the employer in a program of job training during such period; and

"(2) from the employer, a certification—

"(A) that the veteran was employed by the employer during that period and that the veteran's performance and progress during such period were satisfactory; and

"(B) of the number of hours worked by the veteran during that period.

With respect to the first such certification by an employer with respect to a veteran, the certification shall indicate the date on which the employment of the veteran began and the starting hourly rate of wages paid to the veteran (without regard to overtime or premium pay).

"(c)(1)(A) Whenever the Administrator finds that an overpayment under this Act has been made to an employer on behalf of a veteran as a result of a certification, or information contained in an application, submitted by an employer which was false in any material respect, the amount of such overpayment shall constitute a liability of the employer to the United States.

"(B) Whenever the Administrator finds that an employer has failed in any substantial respect to comply for a period of time with a requirement established under this Act (unless the employer's failure is the result of false or incomplete information provided by the veteran), each amount paid to the employer on behalf of a veteran for that period shall be considered to be an overpayment under this Act, and the amount of such overpayment shall constitute a liability of the employer to the United States.

"(2) Whenever the Administrator finds that an overpayment under this Act has been made to an employer on behalf of a veteran as a result of a certification by the veteran, or as a result of information provided to an employer or contained in an application submitted by the veteran, which was willfully or negligently false in any material respect, the amount of such overpayment shall constitute a liability of the veteran to the United States.

"(3) Any overpayment referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) may be recovered in the same manner as any other debt due the United States. Any overpayment recovered shall be credited to funds available to make payments under this Act. If there are no such funds, any overpayment recovered shall be deposited into the Treasury.

"(4) Any overpayment referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) may be waived, in whole or in part, in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in section 5302 of title 38, United States Code.

"entry into program of job training

"Sec. 9. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Administrator may withhold or deny approval of a veteran's entry into an approved program of job training if the Administrator determines that funds are not available to make payments under this Act on behalf of the veteran to the employer offering that program. Before the entry of a veteran into an approved program of job training of an employer for purposes of assistance under this Act, the employer shall notify the Administrator of the employer's intention to employ that veteran. The veteran may begin such program of job training with the employer two weeks after the notice is transmitted to the Administrator unless within that time the employer has received notice from the Administrator that approval of the veteran's entry into that program of job training must be withheld or denied in accordance with this section.

"provision of training through educational institutions

"Sec. 10. An employer may enter into an agreement with an educational institution that has been approved for the enrollment of veterans under chapter 34 of title 38, United States Code, in order that such institution may provide a program of job training (or a portion of such a program) under this Act. When such an agreement has been entered into, the application of the employer under section 7 shall so state and shall include a description of the training to be provided under the agreement.

"discontinuance of approval of participation in certain employer programs

"Sec. 11. (a) If the Administrator finds at any time that a program of job training previously approved by the Administrator for the purposes of this Act thereafter fails to meet any of the requirements established under this Act, the Administrator may immediately disapprove further participation by veterans in that program. The Administrator shall provide to the employer concerned, and to each veteran participating in the employer's program, a statement of the reasons for, and an opportunity for a hearing with respect to, such disapproval. The employer and each such veteran shall be notified of such disapproval, the reasons for such disapproval, and the opportunity for a hearing. Notification shall be by a certified or registered letter, and a return receipt shall be secured.

"(b)(1) If the Administrator determines that the rate of veterans' successful completion of an employer's programs of job training previously approved by the Administrator for the purposes of this Act is disproportionately low because of deficiencies in the quality of such programs, the Administrator shall disapprove participation in such programs on the part of veterans who had not begun such participation on the date that the employer is notified of the disapproval. In determining whether any such rate is disproportionately low because of such deficiencies, the Administrator shall take into account appropriate data, including—

"(A) the quarterly data provided by the Secretary with respect to the number of veterans who receive counseling in connection with training under this Act, are referred to employers under this Act, participate in job training under this Act, complete such training or do not complete such training, and the reasons for noncompletion; and

"(B) data compiled through the particular employer's compliance surveys.

"(2) With respect to a disapproval under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall provide to the employer concerned the kind of statement, opportunity for hearing, and notice described in subsection (a).

"(3) A disapproval under paragraph (1) shall remain in effect until such time as the Administrator determines that adequate remedial action has been taken.

"inspection of records; investigations

"Sec. 12. (a) The records and accounts of employers pertaining to veterans on behalf of whom assistance has been paid under this Act, as well as other records that the Administrator determines to be necessary to ascertain compliance with the requirements established under this Act, shall be available at reasonable times for examination by authorized representatives of the Federal Government.

"(b) The Administrator may monitor employers and veterans participating in programs of job training under this Act to determine compliance with the requirements established under this Act.

"(c) The Administrator may investigate any matter the Administrator considers necessary to determine compliance with the requirements established under this Act. The investigations authorized by this subsection may include examining records (including making certified copies of records), questioning employees, and entering into any premises or onto any site where any part of a program of job training is conducted under this Act, or where any of the records of the employer offering or providing such program are kept.

"(d) The Administrator may administer functions under subsections (b) and (c) in accordance with an agreement between the Administrator and the Secretary providing for the administration of such subsections (or any portion of such subsections) by the Department of Labor. Under such an agreement, any entity of the Department of Labor specified in the agreement may administer such subsections, notwithstanding section 4(b).

"coordination with other programs

"Sec. 13. (a)(1) Assistance may not be paid under this Act to an employer on behalf of a veteran for any period of time described in paragraph (2) and to such veteran under chapter 31, 32, 34, 35, or 36 of title 38, United States Code, for the same period of time.

"(2) A period of time referred to in paragraph (1) is the period of time beginning on the date on which the veteran enters into an approved program of job training of an employer for purposes of assistance under this Act and ending on the last date for which such assistance is payable.

"(b) Assistance may not be paid under this Act to an employer on behalf of an eligible veteran for any period if the employer receives for that period any other form of assistance on account of the training or employment of the veteran, including assistance under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.] or a credit under section 44B of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 ([former] 26 U.S.C. 44B) (relating to credit for employment of certain new employees).

"(c) Assistance may not be paid under this Act on behalf of a veteran who has completed a program of job training under this Act.

"counseling

"Sec. 14. (a)(1) The Administrator and the Secretary may, upon request, provide employment counseling services to any veteran eligible to participate under this Act in order to assist such veteran in selecting a suitable program of job training under this Act.

"(2) The Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary, provide a program of job-readiness skills development and counseling services designed to assist veterans in need of such assistance in finding, applying for, and successfully participating in a suitable program of job training under this Act. As part of providing such services, the Administrator shall coordinate activities, to the extent practicable, with the readjustment counseling program described in section 1712A of title 38, United States Code. The Administrator shall advise veterans participating under this Act of the availability of such services and encourage them to request such services whenever appropriate.

"(b)(1) The Secretary shall provide for a program under which—

"(A) except as provided in paragraph (2), a disabled veteran's outreach program specialist appointed under section 4103A(a) of title 38, United States Code, is assigned as a case manager for each veteran participating in a program of job training under this Act;

"(B) the veteran has an in-person interview with the case manager not later than 60 days after entering into a program of training under this Act; and

"(C) periodic (not less frequent than monthly) contact is maintained with each such veteran for the purpose of (i) avoiding unnecessary termination of employment, (ii) referring the veteran to appropriate counseling, if necessary, (iii) facilitating the veteran's successful completion of such program, and (iv) following up with the employer and the veteran in order to determine the veteran's progress in the program and the outcome regarding the veteran's participation in and successful completion of the program.

"(2) No case manager shall be assigned pursuant to paragraph (1)(A)—

"(A) for a veteran if, on the basis of a recommendation made by a disabled veterans' outreach program specialist, the Secretary determines that there is no need for a case manager for such veteran; or

"(B) in the case of the employees of an employer, if the Secretary determines that—

"(i) the employer has an appropriate and effective employee assistance program that is available to all veterans participating in the employer's programs of job training under this Act; or

"(ii) the rate of veterans' successful completion of the employer's programs of job training under this Act, either cumulatively or during the previous program year, is 60 percent or higher.

"(3) The Secretary and the Administrator shall jointly provide, to the extent feasible—

"(A) a program of counseling or other services (to be provided pursuant to subchapter IV of chapter 3 [see chapter 63] of title 38, United States Code, and sections 1712A, 4103A, and 4104 of such title) designed to resolve difficulties that may be encountered by veterans during their training under this Act; and

"(B) a program of information services under which—

"(i) each veteran who enters into a program of job training under this Act and each employer participating under this Act is informed of the supportive services and resources available to the veteran (I) under clauses (A) and (B), (II) through Veterans' Administration counseling and career-development activities (especially, in the case of a Vietnam-era veteran, readjustment counseling services under section 1712A of such title) and under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.], and (III) through other appropriate agencies in the community; and

"(ii) veterans and employers are encouraged to request such services whenever appropriate.

"(c) Before a veteran who voluntarily terminates from a program of job training under this Act or is involuntarily terminated from such program by the employer may be eligible to be provided with a further certificate, or renewal of certification, of eligibility for participation under this Act, such veteran must be provided by the Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator, with a case manager.

"(d) Payments made under this Act pursuant to contracts entered into for the provision of job-readiness skills development and counseling services under subsection (a)(2) may only be paid out of the same account used to make payments under section 3104(a)(7) of title 38, United States Code, and the amount paid out of such account in any fiscal year for such services shall not exceed an amount equal to 5 percent of the amount obligated to carry out this Act for such fiscal year, except that for fiscal year 1988 the amount shall not exceed 5 percent of the amount available to carry out this Act on October 1, 1987.

"information and outreach; use of agency resources

"Sec. 15. (a)(1) The Administrator and the Secretary shall jointly provide for an outreach and public information program—

"(A) to inform veterans about the employment and job training opportunities available under this Act, under chapters 31, 34, 36, 41, and 42 of title 38, United States Code, and under other provisions of law; and

"(B) to inform private industry and business concerns (including small business concerns), public agencies and organizations, educational institutions, trade associations, and labor unions about the job training opportunities available under, and the advantages of participating in, the program established by this Act.

"(2) The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, shall promote the development of employment and job training opportunities for veterans by encouraging potential employers to make programs of job training under this Act available for eligible veterans, by advising other appropriate Federal departments and agencies of the program established by this Act, and by advising employers of applicable responsibilities under chapters 41 and 42 of title 38, United States Code, with respect to veterans.

"(b) The Administrator and the Secretary shall coordinate the outreach and public information program under subsection (a)(1), and job development activities under subsection (a)(2), with job counseling, placement, job development, and other services provided for under chapters 41 and 42 of title 38, United States Code, and with other similar services offered by other public agencies and organizations.

"(c)(1) The Administrator and the Secretary shall make available in regional and local offices of the Veterans' Administration and the Department of Labor such personnel as are necessary to facilitate the effective implementation of this Act.

"(2) In carrying out the responsibilities of the Secretary under this Act, the Secretary shall make maximum use of the services of Directors and Assistant Directors for Veterans' Employment and Training, disabled veterans' outreach program specialists, and employees of local offices appointed pursuant to sections 4103, 4103A, and 4104 of title 38, United States Code. The Secretary shall also use such resources as are available under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.]. To the extent that the Administrator withholds approval of veterans' applications under this Act pursuant to section 5(b)(2)(B), the Secretary shall take steps to assist such veterans in taking advantage of opportunities that may be available to them under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.] or under any other program carried out with funds provided by the Secretary.

"(d) The Secretary shall request and obtain from the Administrator of the Small Business Administration a list of small business concerns and shall, on a regular basis, update such list. Such list shall be used to identify and promote possible training and employment opportunities for veterans.

"(e) The Administrator and the Secretary shall assist veterans and employers desiring to participate under this Act in making application and completing necessary certifications.

"(f) The Secretary shall, on a not less frequent than quarterly basis, collect and compile from the heads of State employment services and Directors for Veterans' Employment and Training for each State information available to such heads and Directors, and derived from programs carried out in their respective States, with respect to the numbers of veterans who receive counseling services pursuant to section 14, who are referred to employers participating under this Act, who participate in programs of job training under this Act, and who complete such programs, and the reasons for veterans' noncompletion.

"authorization of appropriations

"Sec. 16. (a) There is authorized to be appropriated to the Veterans' Administration (1) $150,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1984 and 1985, (2) a total of $65,000,000 for fiscal years 1986, and 1987, and (3) $60,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1988 and 1989 for the purpose of making payments to employers under this Act and for the purpose of section 18 of this Act. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this section shall remain available until September 30, 1991.

"(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any funds appropriated under subsection (a) for any fiscal year which are obligated for the purpose of making payments under section 8 on behalf of a veteran (including funds so obligated which previously had been obligated for such purpose on behalf of another veteran and were thereafter deobligated) and are later deobligated shall immediately upon deobligation become available to the Administrator for obligation for such purpose. The further obligation of such funds by the Administrator for such purpose shall not be delayed, directly or indirectly, in any manner by any officer or employee in the executive branch.

"time periods for application and initiation of training

"Sec. 17. Assistance may not be paid to an employer under this Act—

"(1) on behalf of a veteran who initially applies for a program of job training under this Act after September 30, 1989; or

"(2) for any such program which begins after March 31, 1990.

"expansion of targeted delimiting date extension

"Sec. 18. (a) Subject to the limitation on the availability of funds set forth in subsection (b), an associate degree program which is predominantly vocational in content may be considered by the Administrator, for the purposes of section 3462(a)(3) of title 38, United States Code, to be a course with an approved vocational objective if such degree program meets the requirements established in such title for approval of such program.

"(b) Funds for the purpose of carrying out subsection (a) shall be derived only from amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorizations of appropriations in section 16. Not more than a total of $25,000,000 of amounts so appropriated for fiscal years 1984 and 1985 shall be available for that purpose.

"effective date

"Sec. 19. This Act shall take effect on October 1, 1983."

[Amendment of Pub. L. 98–77, set out above, by Pub. L. 100–323 effective on 60th day after May 20, 1988, see section 16(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–323, set out as a note under section 3104 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.]

[Pub. L. 99–238, title II, §201(f), Jan. 13, 1986, 99 Stat. 1768, provided that:

["(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending Pub. L. 98–77 above] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 13, 1986].

["(2) The amendment made by subsection (e)(2) [amending section 17(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–77 above] shall take effect on February 1, 1986."]

Coordination With Programs Under Other Laws

For provisions requiring coordination of programs under section 3116(b) of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, with programs under the Veterans' Job Training Act, Pub. L. 98–77, set out above, see section 202 of Pub. L. 99–238, set out as a note under section 3116 of Title 38.

§3172. State allotments

(a) In general

The Secretary shall—

(1) make allotments and grants from the amount appropriated under section 3181(b) of this title for a fiscal year in accordance with subsection (b)(1); and

(2)(A) reserve 20 percent of the amount appropriated under section 3181(c) of this title for the fiscal year for use under subsection (b)(2)(A), and under sections 3223(b) (relating to dislocated worker technical assistance), 3224(c) (relating to dislocated worker projects), and 3225 of this title (relating to national dislocated worker grants); and

(B) make allotments from 80 percent of the amount appropriated under section 3181(c) of this title for the fiscal year in accordance with subsection (b)(2)(B).

(b) Allotment among States

(1) Adult employment and training activities

(A) Reservation for outlying areas

(i) In general

From the amount made available under subsection (a)(1) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve not more than ¼ of 1 percent of such amount to provide assistance to the outlying areas.

(ii) Applicability of additional requirements

From the amount reserved under clause (i), the Secretary shall provide assistance to the outlying areas for adult employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities in accordance with the requirements of section 3162(b)(1)(B) of this title.

(B) States

(i) In general

After determining the amount to be reserved under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall allot the remainder of the amount made available under subsection (a)(1) for that fiscal year to the States pursuant to clause (ii) for adult employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities.

(ii) Formula

Subject to clauses (iii) and (iv), of the remainder—

(I) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of unemployed individuals in areas of substantial unemployment in each State, compared to the total number of unemployed individuals in areas of substantial unemployment in all States;

(II) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative excess number of unemployed individuals in each State, compared to the total excess number of unemployed individuals in all States; and

(III) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of disadvantaged adults in each State, compared to the total number of disadvantaged adults in all States, except as described in clause (iii).

(iii) Calculation

In determining an allotment under clause (ii)(III) for any State in which there is an area that was designated as a local area as described in section 3122(c)(1)(C) of this title, the allotment shall be based on the higher of—

(I) the number of adults in families with an income below the low-income level in such area; or

(II) the number of disadvantaged adults in such area.

(iv) Minimum and maximum percentages and minimum allotments

In making allotments under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall ensure the following:

(I) Minimum percentage and allotment

Subject to subclause (IV), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment for a fiscal year that is less than an amount based on 90 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(II) Small State minimum allotment

Subject to subclauses (I), (III), and (IV), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment under this subparagraph that is less than the total of—

(aa) 3/10 of 1 percent of $960,000,000 of the remainder described in clause (i) for the fiscal year; and

(bb) if the remainder described in clause (i) for the fiscal year exceeds $960,000,000, 2/5 of 1 percent of the excess.

(III) Maximum percentage

Subject to subclause (I), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment percentage for a fiscal year that is more than 130 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(IV) Minimum funding

In any fiscal year in which the remainder described in clause (i) does not exceed $960,000,000, the minimum allotments under subclauses (I) and (II) shall be calculated by the methodology specified in section 132(b)(1)(B)(iv)(IV) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2862(b)(1)(B)(iv)(IV)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014).

(v) Definitions

For the purpose of the formula specified in this subparagraph:

(I) Adult

The term "adult" means an individual who is not less than age 22 and not more than age 72.

(II) Allotment percentage

The term "allotment percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the remainder described in clause (i) that is received through an allotment made under this subparagraph for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2014, means the percentage of the amount allotted to States under section 132(b)(1)(B) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2862(b)(1)(B)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014) that is received under such section by the State involved for fiscal year 2014.

(III) Area of substantial unemployment

The term "area of substantial unemployment" means any area that is of sufficient size and scope to sustain a program of workforce investment activities carried out under this part and that has an average rate of unemployment of at least 6.5 percent for the most recent 12 months, as determined by the Secretary. For purposes of this subclause, determinations of areas of substantial unemployment shall be made once each fiscal year.

(IV) Disadvantaged adult

Subject to subclause (V), the term "disadvantaged adult" means an adult who received an income, or is a member of a family that received a total family income, that, in relation to family size, does not exceed the higher of—

(aa) the poverty line; or

(bb) 70 percent of the lower living standard income level.

(V) Disadvantaged adult special rule

The Secretary shall, as appropriate and to the extent practicable, exclude college students and members of the Armed Forces from the determination of the number of disadvantaged adults.

(VI) Excess number

The term "excess number" means, used with respect to the excess number of unemployed individuals within a State, the higher of—

(aa) the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in the State; or

(bb) the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in areas of substantial unemployment in such State.

(VII) Low-income level

The term "low-income level" means $7,000 with respect to income in 1969, and for any later year means that amount that bears the same relationship to $7,000 as the Consumer Price Index for that year bears to the Consumer Price Index for 1969, rounded to the nearest $1,000.

(2) Dislocated worker employment and training activities

(A) Reservation for outlying areas

(i) In general

From the amount made available under subsection (a)(2)(A) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve not more than ¼ of 1 percent of the amount appropriated under section 3181(c) of this title for the fiscal year to provide assistance to the outlying areas.

(ii) Applicability of additional requirements

From the amount reserved under clause (i), the Secretary shall provide assistance to the outlying areas for dislocated worker employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities in accordance with the requirements of section 3162(b)(1)(B) of this title.

(B) States

(i) In general

The Secretary shall allot the amount referred to in subsection (a)(2)(B) for a fiscal year to the States pursuant to clause (ii) for dislocated worker employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities.

(ii) Formula

Subject to clause (iii), of the amount—

(I) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of unemployed individuals in each State, compared to the total number of unemployed individuals in all States;

(II) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative excess number of unemployed individuals in each State, compared to the total excess number of unemployed individuals in all States; and

(III) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of individuals in each State who have been unemployed for 15 weeks or more, compared to the total number of individuals in all States who have been unemployed for 15 weeks or more.

(iii) Minimum and maximum percentages and minimum allotments

In making allotments under this subparagraph, for fiscal year 2016 and each subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall ensure the following:

(I) Minimum percentage and allotment

The Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment for a fiscal year that is less than an amount based on 90 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(II) Maximum percentage

Subject to subclause (I), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment percentage for a fiscal year that is more than 130 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(iv) Definitions

For the purpose of the formula specified in this subparagraph:

(I) Allotment percentage

The term "allotment percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the amount described in clause (i) that is received through an allotment made under this subparagraph for the fiscal year.

(II) Excess number

The term "excess number" means, used with respect to the excess number of unemployed individuals within a State, the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in the State.

(c) Reallotment

(1) In general

The Secretary shall, in accordance with this subsection, reallot to eligible States amounts that are made available to States from allotments made under this section or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities (referred to individually in this subsection as a "State allotment") and that are available for reallotment.

(2) Amount

The amount available for reallotment for a program year for programs funded under subsection (b)(1)(B) (relating to adult employment and training) or for programs funded under subsection (b)(2)(B) (relating to dislocated worker employment and training) is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the State allotments for adult employment and training activities or dislocated worker employment and training activities, respectively, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this paragraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allotments for the prior program year.

(3) Reallotment

In making reallotments to eligible States of amounts available pursuant to paragraph (2) for a program year, the Secretary shall allot to each eligible State an amount based on the relative amount of the State allotment under paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B), respectively, of subsection (b) for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the State allotments under paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B), respectively, of subsection (b) for all eligible States for such program year.

(4) Eligibility

For purposes of this subsection, an eligible State means—

(A) with respect to funds allotted through a State allotment for adult employment and training activities, a State that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallotment under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made; and

(B) with respect to funds allotted through a State allotment for dislocated worker employment and training activities, a State that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallotment under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made.

(5) Procedures

The Governor shall prescribe uniform procedures for the obligation of funds by local areas within the State in order to avoid the requirement that funds be made available for reallotment under this subsection. The Governor shall further prescribe equitable procedures for making funds available from the State and local areas in the event that a State is required to make funds available for reallotment under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §132, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(d), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iv)(I), (2)(B)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 114–18 inserted "less than" after "fiscal year that is".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3173. Within State allocations

(a) Reservations for State activities

(1) Statewide workforce investment activities

The Governor shall make the reservation required under section 3163(a) of this title.

(2) Statewide rapid response activities

The Governor shall reserve not more than 25 percent of the total amount allotted to the State under section 3172(b)(2)(B) of this title for a fiscal year for statewide rapid response activities described in section 3174(a)(2)(A) of this title.

(b) Within State allocation

(1) Methods

The Governor, acting in accordance with the State plan, and after consulting with chief elected officials and local boards in the local areas, shall allocate—

(A) the funds that are allotted to the State for adult employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities under section 3172(b)(1)(B) of this title and are not reserved under subsection (a)(1), in accordance with paragraph (2) or (3); and

(B) the funds that are allotted to the State for dislocated worker employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities under section 3172(b)(2)(B) of this title and are not reserved under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Formula allocations

(A) Adult employment and training activities

(i) Allocation

In allocating the funds described in paragraph (1)(A) to local areas, a State may allocate—

(I) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in section 3172(b)(1)(B)(ii)(I) of this title;

(II) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in section 3172(b)(1)(B)(ii)(II) of this title; and

(III) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in clauses (ii)(III) and (iii) of section 3172(b)(1)(B) of this title.

(ii) Minimum percentage

The local area shall not receive an allocation percentage for a fiscal year that is less than 90 percent of the average allocation percentage of the local area for the 2 preceding fiscal years. Amounts necessary for increasing such allocations to local areas to comply with the preceding sentence shall be obtained by ratably reducing the allocations to be made to other local areas under this subparagraph.

(iii) Definition

In this subparagraph, the term "allocation percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the funds referred to in clause (i), received through an allocation made under this subparagraph, for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2013 or 2014, means a percentage of the amount allocated to local areas under paragraphs (2)(A) and (3) of section 133(b) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2863(b)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), received through an allocation made under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of that section for fiscal year 2013 or 2014, respectively.

(B) Dislocated worker employment and training activities

(i) Allocation

In allocating the funds described in paragraph (1)(B) to local areas, a State shall allocate the funds based on an allocation formula prescribed by the Governor of the State. Such formula may be amended by the Governor not more than once for each program year. Such formula shall utilize the most appropriate information available to the Governor to distribute amounts to address the State's worker readjustment assistance needs.

(ii) Information

The information described in clause (i) shall include insured unemployment data, unemployment concentrations, plant closing and mass layoff data, declining industries data, farmer-rancher economic hardship data, and long-term unemployment data.

(iii) Minimum percentage

The local area shall not receive an allocation percentage for fiscal year 2016 or a subsequent fiscal year that is less than 90 percent of the average allocation percentage of the local area for the 2 preceding fiscal years. Amounts necessary for increasing such allocations to local areas to comply with the preceding sentence shall be obtained by ratably reducing the allocations to be made to other local areas under this subparagraph.

(iv) Definition

In this subparagraph, the term "allocation percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the funds referred to in clause (i), received through an allocation made under this subparagraph for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2014, means a percentage of the amount allocated to local areas under section 133(b)(2)(B) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2863(b)(2)(B)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), received through an allocation made under that section for fiscal year 2014.

(C) Application

For purposes of carrying out subparagraph (A)—

(i) references in section 3172(b) of this title to a State shall be deemed to be references to a local area;

(ii) references in section 3172(b) of this title to all States shall be deemed to be references to all local areas in the State involved; and

(iii) except as described in clause (i), references in section 3172(b)(1) of this title to the term "excess number" shall be considered to be references to the term as defined in section 3172(b)(1) of this title.

(3) Adult employment and training discretionary allocations

In lieu of making the allocation described in paragraph (2)(A), in allocating the funds described in paragraph (1)(A) to local areas, a State may distribute—

(A) a portion equal to not less than 70 percent of the funds in accordance with paragraph (2)(A); and

(B) the remaining portion of the funds on the basis of a formula that—

(i) incorporates additional factors (other than the factors described in paragraph (2)(A)) relating to—

(I) excess poverty in urban, rural, and suburban local areas; and

(II) excess unemployment above the State average in urban, rural, and suburban local areas; and


(ii) was developed by the State board and approved by the Secretary as part of the State plan.

(4) Transfer authority

A local board may transfer, if such a transfer is approved by the Governor, up to and including 100 percent of the funds allocated to the local area under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), and up to and including 100 percent of the funds allocated to the local area under paragraph (2)(B), for a fiscal year between—

(A) adult employment and training activities; and

(B) dislocated worker employment and training activities.

(5) Allocation

(A) In general

The Governor shall allocate the funds described in paragraph (1) to local areas under paragraphs (2) and (3) for the purpose of providing a single system of employment and training activities for adults and dislocated workers in accordance with subsections (c) and (d) of section 3174 of this title.

(B) Additional requirements

(i) Adults

Funds allocated under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) shall be used by a local area to contribute to the costs of the one-stop delivery system described in section 3151(e) of this title as determined under section 3151(h) of this title and to pay for employment and training activities provided to adults in the local area, consistent with section 3174 of this title.

(ii) Dislocated workers

Funds allocated under paragraph (2)(B) shall be used by a local area to contribute to the costs of the one-stop delivery system described in section 3151(e) of this title as determined under section 3151(h) of this title and to pay for employment and training activities provided to dislocated workers in the local area, consistent with section 3174 of this title.

(c) Reallocation among local areas

(1) In general

The Governor may, in accordance with this subsection and after consultation with the State board, reallocate to eligible local areas within the State amounts that are made available to local areas from allocations made under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for adult employment and training activities, or under subsection (b)(2)(B) or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for dislocated worker employment and training activities (referred to individually in this subsection as a "local allocation") and that are available for reallocation.

(2) Amount

The amount available for reallocation for a program year—

(A) for adult employment and training activities is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the local allocation under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) for such activities, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this subparagraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allocation for the prior program year; and

(B) for dislocated worker employment and training activities is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the local allocation under subsection (b)(2)(B) for such activities, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this subparagraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allocation for the prior program year.

(3) Reallocation

In making reallocations to eligible local areas of amounts available pursuant to paragraph (2) for a program year, the Governor shall allocate to each eligible local area within the State—

(A) with respect to such available amounts that were allocated under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b), an amount based on the relative amount of the local allocation under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b), as appropriate, for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the local allocations under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b), as appropriate, for all eligible local areas in the State for such program year; and

(B) with respect to such available amounts that were allocated under subsection (b)(2)(B), an amount based on the relative amount of the local allocation under subsection (b)(2)(B) for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the local allocations under subsection (b)(2)(B) for all eligible local areas in the State for such program year.

(4) Eligibility

For purposes of this subsection, an eligible local area means—

(A) with respect to funds allocated through a local allocation for adult employment and training activities, a local area that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallocation under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made; and

(B) with respect to funds allocated through a local allocation for dislocated worker employment and training activities, a local area that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallocation under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §133, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1516.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3174. Use of funds for employment and training activities

(a) Statewide employment and training activities

(1) In general

Funds reserved by a Governor—

(A) as described in section 3173(a)(2) of this title shall be used to carry out the statewide rapid response activities described in paragraph (2)(A); and

(B) as described in sections 3163(a) and 3173(a)(1) of this title

(i) shall be used to carry out the statewide employment and training activities described in paragraph (2)(B); and

(ii) may be used to carry out any of the statewide employment and training activities described in paragraph (3),


regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1) of this title or under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 3172(b) of this title.

(2) Required statewide employment and training activities

(A) Statewide rapid response activities

(i) In general

A State shall carry out statewide rapid response activities using funds reserved by the Governor for the State under section 3173(a)(2) of this title, which activities shall include—

(I) provision of rapid response activities, carried out in local areas by the State or by an entity designated by the State, working in conjunction with the local boards and the chief elected officials for the local areas; and

(II) provision of additional assistance to local areas that experience disasters, mass layoffs, or plant closings, or other events that precipitate substantial increases in the number of unemployed individuals, carried out in local areas by the State, working in conjunction with the local boards and the chief elected officials for the local areas.

(ii) Use of unobligated funds

Funds reserved by a Governor under section 3173(a)(2) of this title, and section 2863(a)(2) of this title (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), to carry out this subparagraph that remain unobligated after the first program year for which such funds were allotted may be used by the Governor to carry out statewide activities authorized under subparagraph (B) or paragraph (3)(A), in addition to activities under this subparagraph.

(B) Statewide employment and training activities

Funds reserved by a Governor under sections 3163(a)(1) and 3173(a)(1) of this title and not used under paragraph (1)(A) (regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the States under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title or paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title) shall be used for statewide employment and training activities, including—

(i) providing assistance to—

(I) State entities and agencies, local areas, and one-stop partners in carrying out the activities described in the State plan, including the coordination and alignment of data systems used to carry out the requirements of this Act;

(II) local areas for carrying out the regional planning and service delivery efforts required under section 3121(c) of this title;

(III) local areas by providing information on and support for the effective development, convening, and implementation of industry or sector partnerships; and

(IV) local areas, one-stop operators, one-stop partners, and eligible providers, including the development and training of staff, which may include the development and training of staff to provide opportunities for individuals with barriers to employment to enter in-demand industry sectors or occupations and nontraditional occupations, the development of exemplary program activities, and the provision of technical assistance to local areas that fail to meet local performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title;


(ii) providing assistance to local areas as described in section 3121(b)(7) of this title;

(iii) operating a fiscal and management accountability information system in accordance with section 3141(i) of this title;

(iv) carrying out monitoring and oversight of activities carried out under this subpart and subpart 2;

(v) disseminating—

(I) the State list of eligible providers of training services, including eligible providers of nontraditional training services and eligible providers of apprenticeship programs described in section 3152(a)(2)(B) of this title;

(II) information identifying eligible providers of on-the-job training, customized training, incumbent worker training, internships, paid or unpaid work experience opportunities, or transitional jobs;

(III) information on effective outreach to, partnerships with, and services for, business;

(IV) information on effective service delivery strategies to serve workers and job seekers;

(V) performance information and information on the cost of attendance (including tuition and fees) for participants in applicable programs, as described in subsections (d) and (h) of section 3152 of this title; and

(VI) information on physical and programmatic accessibility, in accordance with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), for individuals with disabilities; and


(vi) conducting evaluations under section 3141(e) of this title of activities authorized under this subpart and subpart 2 in coordination with evaluations carried out by the Secretary under section 3224(a) of this title.

(3) Allowable statewide employment and training activities

(A) In general

Funds reserved by a Governor under sections 3163(a)(1) and 3173(a)(1) of this title and not used under paragraph (1)(A) or (2)(B) (regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title or paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title) may be used to carry out additional statewide employment and training activities, which may include—

(i) implementing innovative programs and strategies designed to meet the needs of all employers (including small employers) in the State, which programs and strategies may include incumbent worker training programs, customized training, sectoral and industry cluster strategies and implementation of industry or sector partnerships, career pathway programs, microenterprise and entrepreneurial training and support programs, utilization of effective business intermediaries, layoff aversion strategies, activities to improve linkages between the one-stop delivery system in the State and all employers (including small employers) in the State, and other business services and strategies that better engage employers in workforce investment activities and make the workforce development system more relevant to the needs of State and local businesses, consistent with the objectives of this subchapter;

(ii) developing strategies for effectively serving individuals with barriers to employment and for coordinating programs and services among one-stop partners;

(iii) the development or identification of education and training programs that respond to real-time labor market analysis, that utilize direct assessment and prior learning assessment to measure and provide credit for prior knowledge, skills, competencies, and experiences, that evaluate such skills and competencies for adaptability, that ensure credits are portable and stackable for more skilled employment, and that accelerate course or credential completion;

(iv) implementing programs to increase the number of individuals training for and placed in nontraditional employment;

(v) carrying out activities to facilitate remote access to services, including training services described in subsection (c)(3), provided through a one-stop delivery system, including facilitating access through the use of technology;

(vi) supporting the provision of career services described in subsection (c)(2) in the one-stop delivery systems in the State;

(vii) coordinating activities with the child welfare system to facilitate provision of services for children and youth who are eligible for assistance under section 477 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 677);

(viii) activities—

(I) to improve coordination of workforce investment activities with economic development activities;

(II) to improve coordination of employment and training activities with—

(aa) child support services, and assistance provided by State and local agencies carrying out part D of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651 et seq.);

(bb) cooperative extension programs carried out by the Department of Agriculture;

(cc) programs carried out in local areas for individuals with disabilities, including programs carried out by State agencies relating to intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities, activities carried out by Statewide Independent Living Councils established under section 705 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 796d), programs funded under part B of chapter 1 of title VII of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796e et seq.), and activities carried out by centers for independent living, as defined in section 702 of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796a);

(dd) adult education and literacy activities, including those provided by public libraries;

(ee) activities in the corrections system that assist ex-offenders in reentering the workforce; and

(ff) financial literacy activities including those described in section 3164(b)(2)(D) of this title; and


(III) consisting of development and dissemination of workforce and labor market information;


(ix) conducting research and demonstration projects related to meeting the employment and education needs of adult and dislocated workers;

(x) implementing promising services for workers and businesses, which may include providing support for education, training, skill upgrading, and statewide networking for employees to become workplace learning advisors and maintain proficiency in carrying out the activities associated with such advising;

(xi) providing incentive grants to local areas for performance by the local areas on local performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title;

(xii) adopting, calculating, or commissioning for approval an economic self-sufficiency standard for the State that specifies the income needs of families, by family size, the number and ages of children in the family, and substate geographical considerations;

(xiii) developing and disseminating common intake procedures and related items, including registration processes, materials, or software; and

(xiv) providing technical assistance to local areas that are implementing pay-for-performance contract strategies, which technical assistance may include providing assistance with data collection, meeting data entry requirements, identifying levels of performance, and conducting evaluations of such strategies.

(B) Limitation

(i) In general

Of the funds allotted to a State under sections 3162(b) and 3172(b) of this title and reserved as described in sections 3163(a) and 3173(a)(1) of this title for a fiscal year—

(I) not more than 5 percent of the amount allotted under section 3162(b)(1) of this title;

(II) not more than 5 percent of the amount allotted under section 3172(b)(1) of this title; and

(III) not more than 5 percent of the amount allotted under section 3172(b)(2) of this title,


 may be used by the State for the administration of statewide youth workforce investment activities carried out under section 3164 of this title and statewide employment and training activities carried out under this section.

(ii) Use of funds

Funds made available for administrative costs under clause (i) may be used for the administrative cost of any of the statewide youth workforce investment activities or statewide employment and training activities, regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1) of this title or paragraph (1) or (2) of section 3172(b) of this title.

(b) Local employment and training activities

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to a local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title

(1) shall be used to carry out employment and training activities described in subsection (c) for adults or dislocated workers, respectively; and

(2) may be used to carry out employment and training activities described in subsection (d) for adults or dislocated workers, respectively.

(c) Required local employment and training activities

(1) In general

(A) Allocated funds

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, shall be used—

(i) to establish a one-stop delivery system described in section 3151(e) of this title;

(ii) to provide the career services described in paragraph (2) to adults and dislocated workers, respectively, through the one-stop delivery system in accordance with such paragraph;

(iii) to provide training services described in paragraph (3) to adults and dislocated workers, respectively, described in such paragraph;

(iv) to establish and develop relationships and networks with large and small employers and their intermediaries; and

(v) to develop, convene, or implement industry or sector partnerships.

(B) Other funds

Consistent with subsections (h) and (i) of section 3151 of this title, a portion of the funds made available under Federal law authorizing the programs and activities described in section 3151(b)(1)(B) of this title, including the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.), shall be used as described in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A), to the extent not inconsistent with the Federal law involved.

(2) Career services

(A) Services provided

Funds described in paragraph (1) shall be used to provide career services, which shall be available to individuals who are adults or dislocated workers through the one-stop delivery system and shall, at a minimum, include—

(i) determinations of whether the individuals are eligible to receive assistance under this part;

(ii) outreach, intake (which may include worker profiling), and orientation to the information and other services available through the one-stop delivery system;

(iii) initial assessment of skill levels (including literacy, numeracy, and English language proficiency), aptitudes, abilities (including skills gaps), and supportive service needs;

(iv) labor exchange services, including—

(I) job search and placement assistance and, in appropriate cases, career counseling, including—

(aa) provision of information on in-demand industry sectors and occupations; and

(bb) provision of information on nontraditional employment; and


(II) appropriate recruitment and other business services on behalf of employers, including small employers, in the local area, which services may include services described in this subsection, such as providing information and referral to specialized business services not traditionally offered through the one-stop delivery system;


(v) provision of referrals to and coordination of activities with other programs and services, including programs and services within the one-stop delivery system and, in appropriate cases, other workforce development programs;

(vi) provision of workforce and labor market employment statistics information, including the provision of accurate information relating to local, regional, and national labor market areas, including—

(I) job vacancy listings in such labor market areas;

(II) information on job skills necessary to obtain the jobs described in subclause (I); and

(III) information relating to local occupations in demand and the earnings, skill requirements, and opportunities for advancement for such occupations; and


(vii) provision of performance information and program cost information on eligible providers of training services as described in section 3152 of this title, provided by program, and eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities described in section 3153 of this title, providers of adult education described in subchapter II, providers of career and technical education activities at the postsecondary level, and career and technical education activities available to out-of-school youth, under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.), and providers of vocational rehabilitation services described in title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.);

(viii) provision of information, in formats that are usable by and understandable to one-stop center customers, regarding how the local area is performing on the local performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title and any additional performance information with respect to the one-stop delivery system in the local area;

(ix)(I) provision of information, in formats that are usable by and understandable to one-stop center customers, relating to the availability of supportive services or assistance, including child care, child support, medical or child health assistance under title XIX or XXI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq. and 1397aa et seq.), benefits under the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), assistance through the earned income tax credit under section 32 of title 26, and assistance under a State program for temporary assistance for needy families funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and other supportive services and transportation provided through funds made available under such part, available in the local area; and

(II) referral to the services or assistance described in subclause (I), as appropriate;

(x) provision of information and assistance regarding filing claims for unemployment compensation;

(xi) assistance in establishing eligibility for programs of financial aid assistance for training and education programs that are not funded under this Act;

(xii) services, if determined to be appropriate in order for an individual to obtain or retain employment, that consist of—

(I) comprehensive and specialized assessments of the skill levels and service needs of adults and dislocated workers, which may include—

(aa) diagnostic testing and use of other assessment tools; and

(bb) in-depth interviewing and evaluation to identify employment barriers and appropriate employment goals;


(II) development of an individual employment plan, to identify the employment goals, appropriate achievement objectives, and appropriate combination of services for the participant to achieve the employment goals, including providing information on eligible providers of training services pursuant to paragraph (3)(F)(ii), and career pathways to attain career objectives;

(III) group counseling;

(IV) individual counseling;

(V) career planning;

(VI) short-term prevocational services, including development of learning skills, communication skills, interviewing skills, punctuality, personal maintenance skills, and professional conduct, to prepare individuals for unsubsidized employment or training;

(VII) internships and work experiences that are linked to careers;

(VIII) workforce preparation activities;

(IX) financial literacy services, such as the activities described in section 3164(b)(2)(D) of this title;

(X) out-of-area job search assistance and relocation assistance; or

(XI) English language acquisition and integrated education and training programs; and


(xiii) followup services, including counseling regarding the workplace, for participants in workforce investment activities authorized under this part who are placed in unsubsidized employment, for not less than 12 months after the first day of the employment, as appropriate.

(B) Use of previous assessments

A one-stop operator or one-stop partner shall not be required to conduct a new interview, evaluation, or assessment of a participant under subparagraph (A)(xii) if the one-stop operator or one-stop partner determines that it is appropriate to use a recent interview, evaluation, or assessment of the participant conducted pursuant to another education or training program.

(C) Delivery of services

The career services described in subparagraph (A) shall be provided through the one-stop delivery system—

(i) directly through one-stop operators identified pursuant to section 3151(d) of this title; or

(ii) through contracts with service providers, which may include contracts with public, private for-profit, and private nonprofit service providers, approved by the local board.

(3) Training services

(A) In general

(i) Eligibility

Except as provided in clause (ii), funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, shall be used to provide training services to adults and dislocated workers, respectively—

(I) who, after an interview, evaluation, or assessment, and career planning, have been determined by a one-stop operator or one-stop partner, as appropriate, to—

(aa) be unlikely or unable to obtain or retain employment, that leads to economic self-sufficiency or wages comparable to or higher than wages from previous employment, through the career services described in paragraph (2)(A)(xii);

(bb) be in need of training services to obtain or retain employment that leads to economic self-sufficiency or wages comparable to or higher than wages from previous employment; and

(cc) have the skills and qualifications to successfully participate in the selected program of training services;


(II) who select programs of training services that are directly linked to the employment opportunities in the local area or the planning region, or in another area to which the adults or dislocated workers are willing to commute or relocate;

(III) who meet the requirements of subparagraph (B); and

(IV) who are determined to be eligible in accordance with the priority system in effect under subparagraph (E).

(ii) Use of previous assessments

A one-stop operator or one-stop partner shall not be required to conduct a new interview, evaluation, or assessment of a participant under clause (i) if the one-stop operator or one-stop partner determines that it is appropriate to use a recent interview, evaluation, or assessment of the participant conducted pursuant to another education or training program.

(iii) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed to mean an individual is required to receive career services prior to receiving training services.

(B) Qualification

(i) Requirement

Notwithstanding section 479B of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087uu) and except as provided in clause (ii), provision of such training services shall be limited to individuals who—

(I) are unable to obtain other grant assistance for such services, including Federal Pell Grants established under subpart 1 of part A of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070a et seq.); or

(II) require assistance beyond the assistance made available under other grant assistance programs, including Federal Pell Grants.

(ii) Reimbursements

Training services may be provided under this paragraph to an individual who otherwise meets the requirements of this paragraph while an application for a Federal Pell Grant is pending, except that if such individual is subsequently awarded a Federal Pell Grant, appropriate reimbursement shall be made to the local area from such Federal Pell Grant.

(iii) Consideration

In determining whether an individual requires assistance under clause (i)(II), a one-stop operator (or one-stop partner, where appropriate) may take into consideration the full cost of participating in training services, including the costs of dependent care and transportation, and other appropriate costs.

(C) Provider qualification

Training services shall be provided through providers identified in accordance with section 3152 of this title.

(D) Training services

Training services may include—

(i) occupational skills training, including training for nontraditional employment;

(ii) on-the-job training;

(iii) incumbent worker training in accordance with subsection (d)(4);

(iv) programs that combine workplace training with related instruction, which may include cooperative education programs;

(v) training programs operated by the private sector;

(vi) skill upgrading and retraining;

(vii) entrepreneurial training;

(viii) transitional jobs in accordance with subsection (d)(5);

(ix) job readiness training provided in combination with services described in any of clauses (i) through (viii);

(x) adult education and literacy activities, including activities of English language acquisition and integrated education and training programs, provided concurrently or in combination with services described in any of clauses (i) through (vii); and

(xi) customized training conducted with a commitment by an employer or group of employers to employ an individual upon successful completion of the training.

(E) Priority

With respect to funds allocated to a local area for adult employment and training activities under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of section 3173(b) of this title, priority shall be given to recipients of public assistance, other low-income individuals, and individuals who are basic skills deficient for receipt of career services described in paragraph (2)(A)(xii) and training services. The appropriate local board and the Governor shall direct the one-stop operators in the local area with regard to making determinations related to such priority.

(F) Consumer choice requirements

(i) In general

Training services provided under this paragraph shall be provided in a manner that maximizes consumer choice in the selection of an eligible provider of such services.

(ii) Eligible providers

Each local board, through one-stop centers, shall make available the list of eligible providers of training services described in section 3152(d) of this title, and accompanying information, in accordance with section 3152(d) of this title.

(iii) Individual training accounts

An individual who seeks training services and who is eligible pursuant to subparagraph (A), may, in consultation with a career planner, select an eligible provider of training services from the list of providers described in clause (ii). Upon such selection, the one-stop operator involved shall, to the extent practicable, refer such individual to the eligible provider of training services, and arrange for payment for such services through an individual training account.

(iv) Coordination

Each local board may, through one-stop centers, coordinate funding for individual training accounts with funding from other Federal, State, local, or private job training programs or sources to assist the individual in obtaining training services.

(v) Additional information

Priority consideration shall, consistent with clause (i), be given to programs that lead to recognized postsecondary credentials that are aligned with in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the local area involved.

(G) Use of individual training accounts

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), training services provided under this paragraph shall be provided through the use of individual training accounts in accordance with this paragraph, and shall be provided to eligible individuals through the one-stop delivery system.

(ii) Training contracts

Training services authorized under this paragraph may be provided pursuant to a contract for services in lieu of an individual training account if—

(I) the requirements of subparagraph (F) are met;

(II) such services are on-the-job training, customized training, incumbent worker training, or transitional employment;

(III) the local board determines there are an insufficient number of eligible providers of training services in the local area involved (such as in a rural area) to accomplish the purposes of a system of individual training accounts;

(IV) the local board determines that there is a training services program of demonstrated effectiveness offered in the local area by a community-based organization or another private organization to serve individuals with barriers to employment;

(V) the local board determines that—

(aa) it would be most appropriate to award a contract to an institution of higher education or other eligible provider of training services in order to facilitate the training of multiple individuals in in-demand industry sectors or occupations; and

(bb) such contract does not limit customer choice; or


(VI) the contract is a pay-for-performance contract.

(iii) Linkage to occupations in demand

Training services provided under this paragraph shall be directly linked to an in-demand industry sector or occupation in the local area or the planning region, or in another area to which an adult or dislocated worker receiving such services is willing to relocate, except that a local board may approve training services for occupations determined by the local board to be in sectors of the economy that have a high potential for sustained demand or growth in the local area.

(iv) Rule of construction

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to preclude the combined use of individual training accounts and contracts in the provision of training services, including arrangements that allow individuals receiving individual training accounts to obtain training services that are contracted for under clause (ii).

(H) Reimbursement for on-the-job training

(i) Reimbursement level

For purposes of the provision of on-the-job training under this paragraph, the Governor or local board involved may increase the amount of the reimbursement described in section 3102(44) of this title to an amount of up to 75 percent of the wage rate of a participant for a program carried out under subpart 2 or this subpart, if, respectively—

(I) the Governor approves the increase with respect to a program carried out with funds reserved by the State under that subpart, taking into account the factors described in clause (ii); or

(II) the local board approves the increase with respect to a program carried out with funds allocated to a local area under such subpart, taking into account those factors.

(ii) Factors

For purposes of clause (i), the Governor or local board, respectively, shall take into account factors consisting of—

(I) the characteristics of the participants;

(II) the size of the employer;

(III) the quality of employer-provided training and advancement opportunities; and

(IV) such other factors as the Governor or local board, respectively, may determine to be appropriate, which may include the number of employees participating in the training, wage and benefit levels of those employees (at present and anticipated upon completion of the training), and relation of the training to the competitiveness of a participant.

(d) Permissible local employment and training activities

(1) In general

(A) Activities

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide, through the one-stop delivery system involved (and through collaboration with the local board, for the purpose of the activities described in clauses (vii) and (ix))—

(i) customized screening and referral of qualified participants in training services described in subsection (c)(3) to employers;

(ii) customized employment-related services to employers, employer associations, or other such organizations on a fee-for-service basis;

(iii) implementation of a pay-for-performance contract strategy for training services, for which the local board may reserve and use not more than 10 percent of the total funds allocated to the local area under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 3173(b) of this title;

(iv) customer support to enable individuals with barriers to employment (including individuals with disabilities) and veterans, to navigate among multiple services and activities for such populations;

(v) technical assistance for one-stop operators, one-stop partners, and eligible providers of training services, regarding the provision of services to individuals with disabilities in local areas, including the development and training of staff, the provision of outreach, intake, assessments, and service delivery, the coordination of services across providers and programs, and the development of performance accountability measures;

(vi) employment and training activities provided in coordination with—

(I) child support enforcement activities of the State and local agencies carrying out part D of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651 et seq.);

(II) child support services, and assistance, provided by State and local agencies carrying out part D of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651 et seq.);

(III) cooperative extension programs carried out by the Department of Agriculture; and

(IV) activities to facilitate remote access to services provided through a one-stop delivery system, including facilitating access through the use of technology;


(vii) activities—

(I) to improve coordination between workforce investment activities and economic development activities carried out within the local area involved, and to promote entrepreneurial skills training and microenterprise services;

(II) to improve services and linkages between the local workforce investment system (including the local one-stop delivery system) and employers, including small employers, in the local area, through services described in this section; and

(III) to strengthen linkages between the one-stop delivery system and unemployment insurance programs;


(viii) training programs for displaced homemakers and for individuals training for nontraditional occupations, in conjunction with programs operated in the local area;

(ix) activities to provide business services and strategies that meet the workforce investment needs of area employers, as determined by the local board, consistent with the local plan under section 3123 of this title, which services—

(I) may be provided through effective business intermediaries working in conjunction with the local board, and may also be provided on a fee-for-service basis or through the leveraging of economic development, philanthropic, and other public and private resources in a manner determined appropriate by the local board; and

(II) may include—

(aa) developing and implementing industry sector strategies (including strategies involving industry partnerships, regional skills alliances, industry skill panels, and sectoral skills partnerships);

(bb) developing and delivering innovative workforce investment services and strategies for area employers, which may include career pathways, skills upgrading, skill standard development and certification for recognized postsecondary credential or other employer use, apprenticeship, and other effective initiatives for meeting the workforce investment needs of area employers and workers;

(cc) assistance to area employers in managing reductions in force in coordination with rapid response activities provided under subsection (a)(2)(A) and with strategies for the aversion of layoffs, which strategies may include early identification of firms at risk of layoffs, use of feasibility studies to assess the needs of and options for at-risk firms, and the delivery of employment and training activities to address risk factors; and

(dd) the marketing of business services offered under this subchapter, to appropriate area employers, including small and mid-sized employers;


(x) activities to adjust the economic self-sufficiency standards referred to in subsection (a)(3)(A)(xii) for local factors, or activities to adopt, calculate, or commission for approval, economic self-sufficiency standards for the local areas that specify the income needs of families, by family size, the number and ages of children in the family, and substate geographical considerations;

(xi) improved coordination between employment and training activities and programs carried out in the local area for individuals with disabilities, including programs carried out by State agencies relating to intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities, activities carried out by Statewide Independent Living Councils established under section 705 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 796d), programs funded under part B of chapter 1 of title VII of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796e et seq.), and activities carried out by centers for independent living, as defined in section 702 of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796a); and

(xii) implementation of promising services to workers and businesses, which may include support for education, training, skill upgrading, and statewide networking for employees to become workplace learning advisors and maintain proficiency in carrying out the activities associated with such advising.

(B) Work support activities for low-wage workers

(i) In general

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide, through the one-stop delivery system involved, work support activities designed to assist low-wage workers in retaining and enhancing employment. The one-stop partners of the system shall coordinate the appropriate programs and resources of the partners with the activities and resources provided under this subparagraph.

(ii) Activities

The work support activities described in clause (i) may include the provision of activities described in this section through the one-stop delivery system in a manner that enhances the opportunities of such workers to participate in the activities, such as the provision of activities described in this section during nontraditional hours and the provision of onsite child care while such activities are being provided.

(2) Supportive services

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide supportive services to adults and dislocated workers, respectively—

(A) who are participating in programs with activities authorized in paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (c); and

(B) who are unable to obtain such supportive services through other programs providing such services.

(3) Needs-related payments

(A) In general

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide needs-related payments to adults and dislocated workers, respectively, who are unemployed and do not qualify for (or have ceased to qualify for) unemployment compensation for the purpose of enabling such individuals to participate in programs of training services under subsection (c)(3).

(B) Additional eligibility requirements

In addition to the requirements contained in subparagraph (A), a dislocated worker who has ceased to qualify for unemployment compensation may be eligible to receive needs-related payments under this paragraph only if such worker was enrolled in the training services—

(i) by the end of the 13th week after the most recent layoff that resulted in a determination of the worker's eligibility for employment and training activities for dislocated workers under this part; or

(ii) if later, by the end of the 8th week after the worker is informed that a short-term layoff will exceed 6 months.

(C) Level of payments

The level of a needs-related payment made to a dislocated worker under this paragraph shall not exceed the greater of—

(i) the applicable level of unemployment compensation; or

(ii) if such worker did not qualify for unemployment compensation, an amount equal to the poverty line, for an equivalent period, which amount shall be adjusted to reflect changes in total family income.

(4) Incumbent worker training programs

(A) In general

(i) Standard reservation of funds

The local board may reserve and use not more than 20 percent of the funds allocated to the local area involved under section 3173(b) of this title to pay for the Federal share of the cost of providing training through a training program for incumbent workers, carried out in accordance with this paragraph.

(ii) Determination of eligibility

For the purpose of determining the eligibility of an employer to receive funding under clause (i), the local board shall take into account factors consisting of—

(I) the characteristics of the participants in the program;

(II) the relationship of the training to the competitiveness of a participant and the employer; and

(III) such other factors as the local board may determine to be appropriate, which may include the number of employees participating in the training, the wage and benefit levels of those employees (at present and anticipated upon completion of the training), and the existence of other training and advancement opportunities provided by the employer.

(iii) Statewide impact

The Governor or State board involved may make recommendations to the local board for providing incumbent worker training that has statewide impact.

(B) Training activities

The training program for incumbent workers carried out under this paragraph shall be carried out by the local board in conjunction with the employers or groups of employers of such workers (which may include employers in partnership with other entities for the purposes of delivering training) for the purpose of assisting such workers in obtaining the skills necessary to retain employment or avert layoffs.

(C) Employer payment of non-Federal share

Employers participating in the program carried out under this paragraph shall be required to pay for the non-Federal share of the cost of providing the training to incumbent workers of the employers.

(D) Non-Federal share

(i) Factors

Subject to clause (ii), the local board shall establish the non-Federal share of such cost (taking into consideration such other factors as the number of employees participating in the training, the wage and benefit levels of the employees (at the beginning and anticipated upon completion of the training), the relationship of the training to the competitiveness of the employer and employees, and the availability of other employer-provided training and advancement opportunities.1

(ii) Limits

The non-Federal share shall not be less than—

(I) 10 percent of the cost, for employers with not more than 50 employees;

(II) 25 percent of the cost, for employers with more than 50 employees but not more than 100 employees; and

(III) 50 percent of the cost, for employers with more than 100 employees.

(iii) Calculation of employer share

The non-Federal share provided by an employer participating in the program may include the amount of the wages paid by the employer to a worker while the worker is attending a training program under this paragraph. The employer may provide the share in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated.

(5) Transitional jobs

The local board may use not more than 10 percent of the funds allocated to the local area involved under section 3173(b) of this title to provide transitional jobs under subsection (c)(3) that—

(A) are time-limited work experiences that are subsidized and are in the public, private, or nonprofit sectors for individuals with barriers to employment who are chronically unemployed or have an inconsistent work history;

(B) are combined with comprehensive employment and supportive services; and

(C) are designed to assist the individuals described in subparagraph (A) to establish a work history, demonstrate success in the workplace, and develop the skills that lead to entry into and retention in unsubsidized employment.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §134, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1520; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(e)(3), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 214; Pub. L. 115–224, title III, §303, July 31, 2018, 132 Stat. 1623.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(B)(i)(I) and (c)(2)(A)(xi), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(v)(VI), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(A)(viii)(II)(aa), (c)(2)(A)(ix)(I), and (d)(1)(A)(vi)(I), (II), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Titles XIX and XXI of the Act are classified generally to subchapters XIX (§1396 et seq.) and XXI (§1397aa et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Parts A and D of title IV of the Act are classified generally to parts A (§601 et seq.) and D (§651 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(A)(viii)(II)(cc), (c)(2)(A)(vii), and (d)(1)(A)(xi), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part B of chapter 1 of title VII of the Act is classified generally to subpart 2 (§796e et seq.) of part A of subchapter VII of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in (c)(1)(B), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A)(vii), is Pub. L. 88–210, Dec. 18, 1963, 77 Stat. 403, as amended generally by Pub. L. 109–270, §1(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 683, which is classified generally to chapter 44 (§2301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2301 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ix)(I), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(B)(i)(I), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219. Subpart 1 of part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to subpart 1 (§1070a et seq.) of part A of subchapter IV of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(vii). Pub. L. 115–224 substituted "out-of-school youth" for "school dropouts".

2015—Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 114–18 substituted "section 3121(b)(7)" for "section 3121(b)(6)".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–224 effective July 1, 2019, see section 4 of Pub. L. 115–224, set out as a note under section 2301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

1 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the period.