[USC02] 38 USC PART II, CHAPTER 11, SUBCHAPTER VI: GENERAL COMPENSATION PROVISIONS
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38 USC PART II, CHAPTER 11, SUBCHAPTER VI: GENERAL COMPENSATION PROVISIONS
From Title 38—VETERANS' BENEFITSPART II—GENERAL BENEFITSCHAPTER 11—COMPENSATION FOR SERVICE-CONNECTED DISABILITY OR DEATH

SUBCHAPTER VI—GENERAL COMPENSATION PROVISIONS

§1151. Benefits for persons disabled by treatment or vocational rehabilitation

(a) Compensation under this chapter and dependency and indemnity compensation under chapter 13 of this title shall be awarded for a qualifying additional disability or a qualifying death of a veteran in the same manner as if such additional disability or death were service-connected. For purposes of this section, a disability or death is a qualifying additional disability or qualifying death if the disability or death was not the result of the veteran's willful misconduct and—

(1) the disability or death was caused by hospital care, medical or surgical treatment, or examination furnished the veteran under any law administered by the Secretary, either by a Department employee or in a Department facility as defined in section 1701(3)(A) of this title, and the proximate cause of the disability or death was—

(A) carelessness, negligence, lack of proper skill, error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on the part of the Department in furnishing the hospital care, medical or surgical treatment, or examination; or

(B) an event not reasonably foreseeable; or


(2) the disability or death was proximately caused (A) by the provision of training and rehabilitation services by the Secretary (including by a service-provider used by the Secretary for such purpose under section 3115 of this title) as part of an approved rehabilitation program under chapter 31 of this title, or (B) by participation in a program (known as a "compensated work therapy program") under section 1718 of this title.


(b)(1) Where an individual is, on or after December 1, 1962, awarded a judgment against the United States in a civil action brought pursuant to section 1346(b) of title 28 or, on or after December 1, 1962, enters into a settlement or compromise under section 2672 or 2677 of title 28 by reason of a disability or death treated pursuant to this section as if it were service-connected, then (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2)) no benefits shall be paid to such individual for any month beginning after the date such judgment, settlement, or compromise on account of such disability or death becomes final until the aggregate amount of benefits which would be paid but for this subsection equals the total amount included in such judgment, settlement, or compromise.

(2) In the case of a judgment, settlement, or compromise covered by paragraph (1) that becomes final on or after the date of the enactment of this paragraph and that includes an amount that is specifically designated for a purpose for which benefits are provided under chapter 21 or 39 of this title (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the "offset amount"), if such judgment, settlement, or compromise becomes final before the date of the award of benefits under chapter 21 or 39 for the purpose for which the offset amount was specifically designated—

(A) the amount of such award shall be reduced by the offset amount; and

(B) if the offset amount is greater than the amount of such award, the excess amount received pursuant to the judgment, settlement or compromise, shall be offset against benefits otherwise payable under this chapter.


(c) A qualifying additional disability under this section shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a service-connected disability for purposes of the following provisions of this title:

(1) Chapter 21, relating to specially adapted housing.

(2) Chapter 39, relating to automobiles and adaptive equipment.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1124, §351; Pub. L. 87–825, §3, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 950; Pub. L. 91–24, §3, June 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 94–433, title IV, §404(19), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1379; Pub. L. 98–223, title II, §213(1), Mar. 2, 1984, 98 Stat. 46; renumbered §1151 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(a)(1), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 403, 406; Pub. L. 104–204, title IV, §422(a), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2926; Pub. L. 106–419, title III, §303, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1853; Pub. L. 108–454, title III, §304(a),(c), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3611.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–454, which was approved Dec. 10, 2004.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–454, §304(c), designated existing provision as par. (1), inserted "(except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2))" after "service-connected, then", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–454, §304(a), added subsec. (c).

2000—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–419 inserted "(A)" after "proximately caused" and added cl. (B).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–204, §422(a)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former first sentence of section which read as follows: "Where any veteran shall have suffered an injury, or an aggravation of an injury, as the result of hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment, or the pursuit of a course of vocational rehabilitation under chapter 31 of this title, awarded under any of the laws administered by the Secretary, or as a result of having submitted to an examination under any such law, and not the result of such veteran's own willful misconduct, and such injury or aggravation results in additional disability to or the death of such veteran, disability or death compensation under this chapter and dependency and indemnity compensation under chapter 13 of this title shall be awarded in the same manner as if such disability, aggravation, or death were service-connected."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–204, §422(a)(2), designated second sentence of section as subsec. (b), struck out ", aggravation," after "disability" in two places, and substituted "this subsection equals the total amount" for "this sentence equals the total amount".

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 351 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(a)(1), substituted "administered by the Secretary" for "administered by the Veterans' Administration".

1984Pub. L. 98–223 substituted "title 28" for "title 28, United States Code," in two places.

1976Pub. L. 94–433 struck out "him" before "under any of the laws" and substituted "such veteran's" for "his" in first sentence.

1969Pub. L. 91–24 substituted ", on or after December 1, 1962," for "hereafter" wherever appearing.

1962Pub. L. 87–825 provided that where an individual is awarded a judgment under section 1346(b) of title 28, enters a settlement or compromise under section 2672 or 2677 of such title by reason of a disability, aggravation, or death treated pursuant to this section as if service-connected, then no benefits shall be paid such individual for any month beginning after such judgment, settlement or compromise becomes final until the aggregate amount of benefits equals the total amount included in such judgment, settlement, or compromise, and struck out provisions which required that no benefits were to be awarded unless application was made therefor within two years after an injury or aggravation was suffered, or a death occurred.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–454, title III, §304(b), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3611, provided that: "Subsection (c) of section 1151 of title 38, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to eligibility for benefits and services provided by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 10, 2004]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–204, title IV, §422(b), (c), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2927, provided that:

"(b)(1) The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1996.

"(2) Section 1151 of title 38, United States Code (as amended by subsection (a)), shall govern all administrative and judicial determinations of eligibility for benefits under such section that are made with respect to claims filed on or after the effective date set forth in paragraph (1) [Oct. 1, 1996], including those based on original applications and applications seeking to reopen, revise, reconsider, or otherwise readjudicate on any basis claims for benefits under such section 1151 or any provision of law that is a predecessor of such section.

"(c) Nothwithstanding [sic] subsection (b)(1), section 421(d) [set out as a note under section 1801 of this title], or any other provision of this Act [see Tables for classification], section 421 [enacting sections 1801 to 1806 of this title, amending section 5312 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1801 of this title] and this section [amending this section] shall not take effect until October 1, 1997, unless legislation other than this Act is enacted to provide for an earlier effective date."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–433 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–433, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–825 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 15, 1962, see section 7 of Pub. L. 87–825, set out as a note under section 110 of this title.

§1152. Persons heretofore having a compensable status

The death and disability benefits of this chapter shall, notwithstanding the service requirements thereof, be granted to persons heretofore recognized by law as having a compensable status, including persons whose claims are based on war or peacetime service rendered before April 21, 1898.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1124, §352; renumbered §1152, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 352 of this title as this section.

§1153. Aggravation

A preexisting injury or disease will be considered to have been aggravated by active military, naval, or air service, where there is an increase in disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due to the natural progress of the disease.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1124, §353; renumbered §1153, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 353 of this title as this section.

§1154. Consideration to be accorded time, place, and circumstances of service

(a) The Secretary shall include in the regulations pertaining to service-connection of disabilities (1) additional provisions in effect requiring that in each case where a veteran is seeking service-connection for any disability due consideration shall be given to the places, types, and circumstances of such veteran's service as shown by such veteran's service record, the official history of each organization in which such veteran served, such veteran's medical records, and all pertinent medical and lay evidence, and (2) the provisions required by section 5 of the Veterans' Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act (Public Law 98–542; 98 Stat. 2727).

(b) In the case of any veteran who engaged in combat with the enemy in active service with a military, naval, or air organization of the United States during a period of war, campaign, or expedition, the Secretary shall accept as sufficient proof of service-connection of any disease or injury alleged to have been incurred in or aggravated by such service satisfactory lay or other evidence of service incurrence or aggravation of such injury or disease, if consistent with the circumstances, conditions, or hardships of such service, notwithstanding the fact that there is no official record of such incurrence or aggravation in such service, and, to that end, shall resolve every reasonable doubt in favor of the veteran. Service-connection of such injury or disease may be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence to the contrary. The reasons for granting or denying service-connection in each case shall be recorded in full.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1124, §354; Pub. L. 94–433, title IV, §404(20), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1379; Pub. L. 98–542, §4, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2727; Pub. L. 102–54, §14(b)(1), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 282; renumbered §1154 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406.)

References in Text

Section 5 of the Veterans' Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is set out below.

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 354 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–54, §14(b)(1)(A), inserted a comma after "place" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator".

Pub. L. 102–54, §14(b)(1)(B), inserted before period at end "(Public Law 98–542; 98 Stat. 2727)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–542 designated existing provisions as cl. (1) and added cl. (2).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–433 substituted "such veteran's" for "his" in three places and "such veteran" for "he".

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–433 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–433, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program of Department of Defense

Pub. L. 108–183, title VI, §601, Dec. 16, 2003, 117 Stat. 2667, provided that:

"(a) Review of Mission, Procedures, and Administration.—(1) The Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary of Defense shall jointly conduct a review of the mission, procedures, and administration of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program of the Department of Defense.

"(2) In conducting the review under paragraph (1), the Secretaries shall—

"(A) determine whether any additional actions are required to ensure that the quality assurance and quality control mechanisms of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program are adequate and sufficient for purposes of the program; and

"(B) determine the actions that are required to ensure that the mechanisms of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program for communication and interaction with veterans are adequate and sufficient for purposes of the program, including mechanisms to permit veterans to review the assumptions utilized in their dose reconstructions.

"(3) Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 2003], the Secretaries shall jointly submit to Congress a report on the review under paragraph (1). The report shall set forth—

"(A) the results of the review;

"(B) a plan for any actions determined to be required under paragraph (2); and

"(C) such other recommendations for the improvement of the mission, procedures, and administration of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program as the Secretaries jointly consider appropriate.

"(b) On-Going Review and Oversight.—The Secretaries shall jointly take appropriate actions to ensure the on-going independent review and oversight of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program, including the establishment of the advisory board required by subsection (c).

"(c) Advisory Board.—(1) In taking actions under subsection (b), the Secretaries shall jointly appoint an advisory board to provide review and oversight of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program.

"(2) The advisory board under paragraph (1) shall be composed of the following:

"(A) At least one expert in historical dose reconstruction of the type conducted under the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program.

"(B) At least one expert in radiation health matters.

"(C) At least one expert in risk communications matters.

"(D) A representative of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

"(E) A representative of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

"(F) At least three veterans, including at least one veteran who is a member of an atomic veterans group.

"(3) The advisory board under paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) conduct periodic, random audits of dose reconstructions under the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program and of decisions by the Department of Veterans Affairs on claims for service connection of radiogenic diseases;

"(B) assist the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency in communicating to veterans information on the mission, procedures, and evidentiary requirements of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program; and

"(C) carry out such other activities with respect to the review and oversight of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program as the Secretaries shall jointly specify.

"(4) The advisory board under paragraph (1) may make such recommendations on modifications in the mission or procedures of the Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program as the advisory board considers appropriate as a result of the audits conducted under paragraph (3)(A)."

Review of Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency

Pub. L. 106–419, title III, §305, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1853, provided that:

"(a) Review by National Academy of Sciences.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the Secretary of Defense shall enter into a contract with the National Academy of Sciences to carry out periodic reviews of the program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency of the Department of Defense known as the 'dose reconstruction program'.

"(b) Review Activities.—The periodic reviews of the dose reconstruction program under the contract under subsection (a) shall consist of the periodic selection of random samples of doses reconstructed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency in order to determine—

"(1) whether or not the reconstruction of the sampled doses is accurate;

"(2) whether or not the reconstructed dosage number is accurately reported;

"(3) whether or not the assumptions made regarding radiation exposure based upon the sampled doses are credible; and

"(4) whether or not the data from nuclear tests used by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency as part of the reconstruction of the sampled doses is accurate.

"(c) Duration of Review.—The periodic reviews under the contract under subsection (a) shall occur over a period of 24 months.

"(d) Report.—(1) Not later than 60 days after the conclusion of the period referred to in subsection (c), the National Academy of Sciences shall submit to Congress a report on its activities under the contract under this section.

"(2) The report shall include the following:

"(A) A detailed description of the activities of the National Academy of Sciences under the contract.

"(B) Any recommendations that the National Academy of Sciences considers appropriate regarding a permanent system of review of the dose reconstruction program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency."

Ionizing Radiation Registry

Pub. L. 99–576, title II, §232, Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3264, as amended by Pub. L. 102–83, §§5(c)(2), 6(h), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, 408, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Registry.—The Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall establish and maintain a special record to be known as the 'Ionizing Radiation Registry' (hereinafter in this section referred to as the 'Registry').

"(b) Content of Registry.—Except as provided in subsection (c), the Registry shall include the following information:

"(1) A list containing the name of each veteran who was exposed to ionizing radiation under the conditions described in section 1710(e)(1)(B) of title 38, United States Code, and who—

"(A) applies for hospital or nursing home care from the Department of Veterans Affairs under chapter 17 of such title;

"(B) files a claim for compensation under chapter 11 of such title on the basis of a disability which may be associated with the exposure to ionizing radiation; or

"(C) dies and is survived by a spouse, child, or parent who files a claim for dependency and indemnity compensation under chapter 13 of such title on the basis of the exposure of such veteran to ionizing radiation.

"(2) Medical data relating to each veteran listed in the Registry, including—

"(A) the veteran's medical history, latest health status recorded by the Department of Veterans Affairs, physical examinations, and clinical findings; and

"(B) a statement describing birth defects, if any, in the natural children of the veteran.

"(3) Data on claims for the compensation referred to in paragraph (1), including decisions and determinations of the Department of Veterans Affairs relating to such claims.

"(4) An estimate of the dose of radiation to which each veteran listed in the Registry was exposed under the conditions described in section 1710(e)(1)(B) of such title.

"(c) Veterans Submitting Claims Before Date of Enactment.—If in the case of a veteran described in subsection (b)(1) the application or claim referred to in such subsection was submitted or filed before October 28, 1986, the Secretary shall include in the Registry, to the extent feasible, such veteran's name and the data and information described in subsection (b) relating to the veteran.

"(d) Consolidation of Existing Information.—(1) For the purpose of establishing and maintaining the Registry, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall compile and consolidate—

"(A) relevant information maintained by the Veterans Benefits Administration and the Veterans Health Administration of the Department of Veterans Affairs;

"(B) relevant information maintained by the Defense Nuclear Agency of the Department of Defense; and

"(C) any relevant information maintained by any other element of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the Department of Defense.

"(2) With respect to a veteran whose name is included in the Registry and for whom the information in the Registry is not complete, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall include information described in paragraph (1) with respect to that veteran (A) to the extent that such information is reasonably available in records of the Department of Veterans Affairs or Department of Defense, or (B) if such information is submitted by the veteran after October 28, 1986.

"(e) Department of Defense Information.—The Secretary of Defense shall furnish to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs such information maintained by the Department of Defense as the Secretary of Veterans Affairs considers necessary to establish and maintain the Registry.

"(f) Definition.—For the purpose of this section, the term 'veteran' has the meaning given that term in section 101(2) of title 38, United States Code, and includes a person who died in the active military, naval, or air service.

"(g) Effective Date.—The Registry shall be established not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1986]."

Veterans' Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards; Congressional Findings and Statement of Purpose

Pub. L. 98–542, §1–3, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2725, 2727, as amended by Pub. L. 102–4, §10(a), (b), Feb. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 19, provided that:

"short title

"Section 1. This Act [amending this section, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1116 of this title] may be cited as the 'Veterans' Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act'.

"findings

"Sec. 2. The Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) Veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam era and veterans who participated in atmospheric nuclear tests or the American occupation of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, Japan, are deeply concerned about possible long-term health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin or to ionizing radiation.

"(2) There is scientific and medical uncertainty regarding such long-term adverse health effects.

"(3) In section 102 of Public Law 97–22 [see Tables for classification], the Congress responded to that uncertainty by authorizing priority medical care at Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] facilities for any disability of a veteran who may have been so exposed (even though there is insufficient medical evidence linking such disability with such exposure) unless the disability is found to have resulted from a cause other than the exposure.

"(4) The Congress has further responded to that medical and scientific uncertainty by requiring, in section 307 of Public Law 96–151 [set out as a note under section 1116 of this title] and section 601 of Public Law 98–160 [set out below], the conduct of thorough epidemiological studies of the health effects experienced by veterans in connection with exposure both to herbicides containing dioxin and (if not determined to be scientifically infeasible) to radiation, and by requiring in Public Law 97–414 [see Tables for classification], the development of radioepidemiological tables setting forth the probabilities of causation between various cancers and exposure to radiation.

"(5) There is some evidence that most types of leukemia, malignancies of the thyroid, female breast, lung, bone, liver, and skin, and polycythemia vera are associated with exposure to certain levels of ionizing radiation.

"(6) As of the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1984], there are sixty-six federally sponsored research projects being conducted relating to herbicides containing dioxin, at a cost to the Federal Government in excess of $130,000,000 and, as of 1981, federally sponsored research projects relating to ionizing radiation were costing the Federal Government more than $115,000,000.

"(7) The initial results of one project—an epidemiological study, conducted by the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, of the health status of the 'Ranch Hand' veterans who carried out the loading and aerial spraying of herbicides containing dioxin in Vietnam and in the process came into direct skin contact with such herbicides in their most concentrated liquid form—were released on February 24, 1984, and contained the conclusion 'that there is insufficient evidence to support a cause and effect relationship between herbicide exposure and adverse health in the Ranch Hand group at this time'.

"(8) The 'film badges' which were originally issued to members of the Armed Forces in connection with the atmospheric nuclear test program have previously constituted a primary source of dose information for veterans (and survivors of veterans) filing claims for Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] disability compensation or dependency and indemnity compensation in connection with exposure to radiation.

"(9) These film badges often provide an incomplete measure of radiation exposure, since they were not capable of recording inhaled, ingested, or neutron doses (although the Defense Nuclear Agency currently has the capability to reconstruct individual estimates of such doses), were not issued to most of the participants in nuclear tests, often provided questionable readings because they were shielded during the detonation, and were worn for only limited periods during and after each nuclear detonation.

"(10) Standards governing the reporting of dose estimates in connection with radiation-related claims for Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] disability compensation vary among the several branches of the Armed Forces, and no uniform minimum standards exist.

"(11) The Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] has not promulgated permanent regulations setting forth specific guidelines, standards, and criteria for the adjudication of claims for Veterans' Administration disability compensation based on exposure to herbicides containing dioxin or to ionizing radiation.

"(12) Such claims (especially those involving health effects with long latency periods) present adjudicatory issues which are significantly different from issues generally presented in claims based upon the usual types of injuries incurred in military service.

"(13) It has always been the policy of the Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] and is the policy of the United States, with respect to individual claims for service connection of diseases and disabilities, that when, after consideration of all evidence and material of record, there is an approximate balance of positive and negative evidence regarding the merits of an issue material to the determination of a claim, the benefit of the doubt in resolving each such issue shall be given to the claimant.

"purpose

"Sec. 3. The purpose of this Act is to ensure that Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] disability compensation is provided to veterans who were exposed to ionizing radiation in connection with atmospheric nuclear tests or in connection with the American occupation of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, Japan, for all disabilities arising after that service that are connected, based on sound scientific and medical evidence, to such service (and that Veterans' Administration dependency and indemnity compensation is provided to survivors of those veterans for all deaths resulting from such disabilities)."

[Amendment by Pub. L. 102–4 to sections 2 and 3 of Pub. L. 98–542, set out above, effective at the end of the six-month period beginning on Feb. 6, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 10(e) of Pub. L. 102–4, set out below under sections 5 to 7 of Pub. L. 98–542.]

Requirement for and Content of Regulations; Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards; Nuclear Radiation Matters Involving Other Agencies

Pub. L. 98–542, §5–7, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2727–2730, as amended by Pub. L. 100–321, §2(c), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 486; Pub. L. 102–4, §10(c), (d), Feb. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 19, 20; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, provided that:

"requirement for and content of regulations

"Sec. 5. (a) In carrying out the responsibilities of the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] under section 1154(a)(2) [formerly 354(a)(2)] of title 38, United States Code, and in order to promote consistency in claims processing and decisions, the Administrator shall prescribe regulations to—

"(1) establish guidelines and (where appropriate) standards and criteria for the resolution of claims for benefits under laws administered by the Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] where the criteria for eligibility for a benefit include a requirement that a death or disability be service connected and the claim of service connection is based on a veteran's exposure during service in connection with such veteran's participation in atmospheric nuclear tests or with the American occupation of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, Japan, prior to July 1, 1946, to ionizing radiation from the detonation of a nuclear device; and

"(2) ensure that, with respect to those claims, the policy of the United States described in section 2(13) [set out above] is carried out.

"(b)(1)(A) The guidelines required to be established in regulations prescribed under this section shall include guidelines governing the evaluation of the findings of scientific studies relating to the possible increased risk of adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Those guidelines shall require that, in the evaluation of those studies, the Administrator [now Secretary] shall take into account whether the results are statistically significant, are capable of replication, and withstand peer review.

"(B) The evaluations described in subparagraph (A) shall be made by the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] after receiving the advice of the Scientific Council of the Veterans' Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards (established under section 6). Those evaluations shall be published in the notice section of the Federal Register.

"(C) The standards and criteria required to be established in regulations prescribed under this section shall include provisions governing the use in the adjudication of individual claims of the Administrator's [now Secretary's] evaluations made under subparagraph (B).

"(2)(A)(i) In prescribing regulations under this section, the Administrator [now Secretary] (after receiving the advice of the Advisory Committee and of the Scientific Council of the Veterans' Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards regarding the diseases described in subparagraph (B)) shall make determinations, based on sound medical and scientific evidence, with respect to each disease described in subparagraph (B) as to whether service connection shall, subject to division (ii) of this subparagraph, be granted in the adjudication of individual cases. In making determinations regarding such diseases, the Administrator shall give due regard to the need to maintain the policy of the United States with respect to the resolution of contested issues as set forth in section 2(13) [set out above]. The Administrator shall set forth in such regulations such determinations, with any specification (relating to exposure or other relevant matter) of limitations on the circumstances under which service connection shall be granted, and shall implement such determinations in accordance with such regulations.

"(ii) If the Administrator [now Secretary] makes a determination, pursuant to this subparagraph, that service connection shall be granted in the case of a disease described in subparagraph (B), the Administrator shall specify in such regulations that, in the adjudication of individual cases, service connection shall not be granted where there is sufficient affirmative evidence to the contrary or evidence to establish that an intercurrent injury or disease which is a recognized cause of the described disease has been suffered between the date of separation from service and the onset of such disease or that the disability is due to the veteran's own willful misconduct.

"(iii) With regard to each disease described in subparagraph (B), the Administrator [now Secretary] shall include in the regulations prescribed under this section provisions specifying the factors to be considered in adjudicating issues relating to whether or not service connection should be granted in individual cases and the circumstances governing the granting of service connection for such disease.

"(B) The diseases referred to in subparagraph (A) are those specified in section 2(5) [set out above] and any other disease with respect to which the Administrator [now Secretary] finds (after receiving and considering the advice of the Scientific Council established under section 6(d)(2)) that there is sound scientific or medical evidence indicating a connection to exposure to ionizing radiation, in the case of a veteran who was exposed to ionizing radiation in connection with such veteran's participation in an atmospheric nuclear test or with the American occupation of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, Japan, before July 1, 1946.

"(3) The regulations prescribed under this section shall include—

"(A) specification of the maximum period of time after exposure to such ionizing radiation for the development of those diseases; and

"(B) a requirement that a claimant filing a claim based upon a veteran's exposure to ionizing radiation from the detonation of a nuclear device may not be required to produce evidence substantiating the veteran's exposure during active military, naval, or air service if the information in the veteran's service records and other records of the Department of Defense is not inconsistent with the claim that the veteran was present where and when the claimed exposure occurred.

"(c)(1) The Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] shall develop the regulations required by this section (and any amendment to those regulations) through a public review and comment process in accordance with the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code. That process may include consideration by the Administrator of the recommendations of the Veterans' Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards and the Scientific Council thereof (established under section 6) with respect to the proposed regulations, and that process shall include consideration by the Administrator of the recommendations of the Committee and the Council with respect to the final regulations and proposed and final amendments to such regulations. The period for public review and comment shall be completed not later than ninety days after the proposed regulations or proposed amendments are published in the Federal Register.

"(2)(A) Not later than one hundred and eighty days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1984], the Administrator [now Secretary] shall develop and publish in the Federal Register a proposed version of the regulations required to be prescribed by this section.

"(B) Not later than three hundred days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1984], the Administrator [now Secretary] shall publish in the Federal Register the final regulations (together with explanations of the bases for the guidelines, standards, and criteria contained therein) required to be prescribed by this section.

"advisory committee on environmental hazards

"Sec. 6. (a) The advisory committee referred to in subsections (b) and (c) of section 5, to be known as the Veterans' Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards (hereinafter in this section referred to as the 'Committee') shall consist of nine members appointed by the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] after requesting and considering recommendations from veteran organizations, including—

"(1) six individuals (of whom none may be members of the Armed Forces on active duty or employees of the Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] or the Department of Defense and not more than three may be employees of other Federal departments or agencies), appointed, after requesting and considering the recommendations of the heads of Federal entities with particular expertise in biomedical and environmental science, including—

"(A) three individuals who are recognized medical or scientific authorities in fields pertinent to understanding the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation; and

"(B) three individuals who are recognized medical or scientific authorities in fields, such as epidemiology and other scientific disciplines, pertinent to determining and assessing the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in exposed populations; and

"(2) three individuals from the general public, including at least one disabled veteran, having a demonstrated interest in and experience relating to veterans' concerns regarding exposure to ionizing radiation.

"(b) The Committee shall include, as ex officio, nonvoting members, the Chief Medical Director and the Chief Benefits Director of the Veterans' Administration [now Under Secretary for Health and Under Secretary for Benefits of the Department of Veterans Affairs], or their designees.

"(c) The Committee shall submit to the Administrator [now Secretary] any recommendations it considers appropriate for administrative or legislative action.

"(d)(1) The six members of the Committee described in subsection (a)(1) shall, in addition to serving as members of the Committee, constitute a Scientific Council of the Committee (hereinafter in this section referred to as the 'Council').

"(2) The Council shall have responsibility for evaluating scientific studies relating to possible adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation.

"(3) The Council shall make findings and evaluations regarding pertinent scientific studies and shall submit to the Committee, the Administrator [now Secretary], and the Committees on Veterans' Affairs of the Senate and House of Representatives directly periodic reports on such findings and evaluations.

"(e) The Administrator [now Secretary] shall designate one of the members to chair the Committee and another member to chair the Council.

"(f) The Administrator [now Secretary] shall determine the terms of service and pay and allowances of members of the Committee, except that a term of service of any member may not exceed three years. The Administrator may reappoint any member for additional terms of service.

"(g) The Administrator [now Secretary] shall provide administrative support services and fiscal support for the Committee.

"nuclear radiation matters involving other agencies

"Sec. 7. (a) In connection with the duties of the Director of the Defense Nuclear Agency, as Department of Defense Executive Agent for the Nuclear Test Personnel Review Program, relating to the preparation of radiation dose estimates with regard to claims for Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] disability compensation and dependency and indemnity compensation under chapters 11 and 13, respectively, of title 38, United States Code

"(1) the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe guidelines (and any amendment to those guidelines) through a public review and comment process in accordance with the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code

"(A) specifying the minimum standards governing the preparation of radiation dose estimates in connection with claims for such compensation,

"(B) making such standards uniformly applicable to the several branches of the Armed Forces, and

"(C) requiring that each such estimate furnished to the Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] and to any veteran or survivor include information regarding all material aspects of the radiation environment to which the veteran was exposed and which form the basis of the claim, including inhaled, ingested, and neutron doses; and

"(2) the Secretary of Health and Human Services, through the Director of the National Institutes of Health, shall—

"(A) conduct a review of the reliability and accuracy of scientific and technical devices and techniques (such as 'whole body counters') which may be useful in determining previous radiation exposure;

"(B) submit to the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] and the Committees on Veterans' Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Senate, not later than July 1, 1985, a report regarding the results of such review, including information concerning the availability of such devices and techniques, the categories of exposed individuals as to whom use of such devices and techniques may be appropriate, and the reliability and accuracy of dose estimates which may be derived from such devices and techniques; and

"(C) enter into an interagency agreement with the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] for the purpose of assisting the Administrator in identifying agencies or other entities capable of furnishing services involving the use of such devices and techniques.

"(b) The Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs], in resolving material differences between a radiation dose estimate, from a credible source, submitted by a veteran or survivor and a radiation dose estimate prepared and transmitted by the Director of the Defense Nuclear Agency, shall provide for the preparation of a radiation dose estimate by an independent expert, who shall be selected by the Director of the National Institutes of Health and who shall not be affiliated with the Defense Nuclear Agency, and the Administrator shall provide for the consideration of such independent estimate in connection with the adjudication of the claim for Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] compensation."

[Pub. L. 102–4, §10(e), Feb. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 20, as amended by Pub. L. 102–86, title V, §503(b)(2), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 425, provided that:

["(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending sections 2 and 3 of Pub. L. 98–542, set out above, and sections 5 and 6 of Pub. L. 98–542, set out above] shall take effect at the end of the two-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of the Veterans' Benefits Programs Improvement Act of 1991 [Aug. 14, 1991].

["(2)(A) If the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines before the end of such period that the Environmental Hazards Advisory Committee established under section 6 of Public Law 98–542 (38 U.S.C. 354 note) [set out above] has completed its responsibilities under that section and the directives of the Secretary pursuant to the Nehmer case court order, the amendments made by this section shall take effect as of the date of such determination.

["(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'Nehmer case court order' means the court order dated May 2, 1989, in the case of Nehmer v. Department of Veterans Affairs, in the United States district court for the northern district of California (civil action docket number C–86–6160 TEH).

["(3) If the Secretary makes a determination under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall promptly publish in the Federal Register a notice that such determination has been made and that such amendments have thereby taken effect as of the date of such determination."]

Identification of Activities Involving Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Before January 1, 1970

Section 10 of Pub. L. 98–542, as added by Pub. L. 102–578, §3, Oct. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 4774, provided that:

"(a) In General.—(1) In order to determine whether activities (other than the tests or occupation activities referred to in section 5(a)(1)(B) [probably means section 5(a)(1), set out above]) resulted in the exposure of veterans to ionizing radiation during the service of such veterans that occurred before January 1, 1970, and whether adverse health effects have been observed or may have resulted from such exposure in a significant number of such veterans, the Advisory Committee established under section 6 [set out above] shall—

"(A) review all available scientific studies and other relevant information relating to the exposure of such veterans to ionizing radiation during such service;

"(B) identify any activity during which significant numbers of veterans received exposure; and

"(C) on the basis of such review, submit to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs a report containing the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on the feasibility and appropriateness for the purpose of the determination under this paragraph of any additional investigation with respect to any activity of such veterans during such service.

"(2) Upon the request of the Advisory Committee, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs (after seeking such assistance from the Secretary of Defense as is necessary and appropriate) shall make available to the Advisory Committee records and other information relating to the service referred to in paragraph (1) that may assist the Advisory Committee in carrying out the review and recommendation referred to in that paragraph.

"(3) The Advisory Committee shall submit to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs the report referred to in paragraph (1)(C) not later than August 1, 1993.

"(b) Investigation Plan and Report.—(1) Upon receipt of the report referred to in subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1), the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall—

"(A) identify which of the activities referred to in that subparagraph, if any, that the Secretary intends to investigate more fully for the purpose of making the determination referred to in that subsection; and

"(B) prepare a plan (including a deadline for the plan) to carry out that investigation and make that determination.

"(2) Not later than December 1, 1993, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Veterans' Affairs of the Senate and House of Representatives a report containing—

"(A) a list of the activities identified by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) and the basis of such identification;

"(B) a copy of the report of the Advisory Committee referred to in subsection (a)(1)(C); and

"(C) the plan referred to in paragraph (1)(B)."

Interim Benefits for Disability or Death in Certain Cases

Section 9 of Pub. L. 98–542 provided for payment of interim monthly disability benefits to veterans who had served in Vietnam during Vietnam era and who had diseases chloracne and porphyria cutanea tarda which manifested themselves within one year after date of veteran's most recent departure from Vietnam, but with no such interim benefits to be paid after Sept. 30, 1986.

Radiation Exposure Study and Guide

Pub. L. 98–160, title VI, Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1006, as amended by Pub. L. 98–542, §8(b), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2732, provided for the conduct of an epidemiological study of long-term adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation from detonation of nuclear devices in connection with tests of such devices or in connection with occupation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, between Sept. 11, 1945, and July 1, 1946, and provided for reports to Congress on studies made together with recommendations as to necessary legislation.

§1155. Authority for schedule for rating disabilities

The Secretary shall adopt and apply a schedule of ratings of reductions in earning capacity from specific injuries or combination of injuries. The ratings shall be based, as far as practicable, upon the average impairments of earning capacity resulting from such injuries in civil occupations. The schedule shall be constructed so as to provide ten grades of disability and no more, upon which payments of compensation shall be based, namely, 10 percent, 20 percent, 30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent, 60 percent, 70 percent, 80 percent, 90 percent, and total, 100 percent. The Secretary shall from time to time readjust this schedule of ratings in accordance with experience. However, in no event shall such a readjustment in the rating schedule cause a veteran's disability rating in effect on the effective date of the readjustment to be reduced unless an improvement in the veteran's disability is shown to have occurred.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1125, §355; Pub. L. 98–223, title I, §101(c), Mar. 2, 1984, 98 Stat. 38; renumbered §1155 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406; Pub. L. 102–86, title I, §103(a), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 414.)

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–86 amended this section as in effect before the redesignations made by Pub. L. 102–83, §5, by inserting at end "However, in no event shall such a readjustment in the rating schedule cause a veteran's disability rating in effect on the effective date of the readjustment to be reduced unless an improvement in the veteran's disability is shown to have occurred."

Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 355 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator" in two places.

1984Pub. L. 98–223 substituted "percent" for "per centum" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–86, title I, §103(b), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 415, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with regard to changes in rating schedules that take effect after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 1991]."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–223 effective Apr. 1, 1984, see section 107 of Pub. L. 98–223, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

§1156. Temporary disability ratings

(a) Assignment of Temporary Ratings.—(1) For the purpose of providing disability compensation under this chapter to veterans, the Secretary shall assign a temporary disability rating to a veteran as follows:

(A) To a veteran who—

(i) was discharged or released from active duty not more than 365 days before the date such veteran submits a claim for disability compensation under this chapter;

(ii) has one or more disabilities for which a rating of total is not immediately assignable—

(I) under the regular provisions of the schedule of ratings; or

(II) on the basis of individual unemployability; and


(iii) has one or more—

(I) severe disabilities that result in substantially gainful employment not being feasible or advisable; or

(II) healed, unhealed, or incompletely healed wounds or injuries that make material impairment of employability likely.


(B) To a veteran who, as a result of a highly stressful in-service event, has a mental disorder that is severe enough to bring about the veteran's discharge or release from active duty.

(C) To a veteran who has a service-connected disability that requires hospital treatment or observation in a Department of Veterans Affairs or approved hospital for a period in excess of 21 days.

(D) To a veteran who has a service-connected disability that has required convalescent care or treatment at hospital discharge (regular discharge or release to non-bed care) or outpatient release that meets the requirements of regulations prescribed by the Secretary.


(2) With respect to a veteran described in paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary may assign a temporary disability rating to such veteran regardless of whether such veteran has obtained a medical examination or a medical opinion concerning such veteran's disability.

(3) With respect to a veteran described in paragraph (1)(B), the Secretary shall schedule a medical examination for such veteran not later than six months after the separation or discharge of such veteran from active duty.

(b) Termination of Temporary Disability Ratings.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a temporary disability rating assigned to a veteran under this section shall remain in effect as follows:

(A) For a veteran who is assigned a temporary disability rating under subsection (a)(1)(A), until the later of the date that is—

(i) 12 months after the date of discharge or release from active duty; or

(ii) provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.


(B) For a veteran who is assigned a temporary disability rating under subsection (a)(1)(B), until the date on which a rating decision is issued to such veteran following the medical examination scheduled under subsection (a)(3).

(C) For a veteran who is assigned a temporary disability rating under subsection (a)(1)(C), until the later of the date that is—

(i) the last day of the month in which the veteran is discharged from the hospital as described in such subsection (a)(1)(C); or

(ii) provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.


(D) For a veteran who is assigned a temporary disability rating under subsection (a)(1)(D), until the date that is provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.


(2) The Secretary may extend a temporary disability rating assigned to a veteran under subsection (a) beyond the applicable termination date under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that such an extension is appropriate.

(c) Regulations.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to carry out the provisions of this section.

(d) Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude the Secretary from providing a temporary disability rating under an authority other than this section.

(Added Pub. L. 110–389, title II, §211(a), Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4149.)

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 301 to 363 of this chapter as sections 1101 to 1163 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 356 of this chapter, Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1125, which provided for a minimum rating for veterans with arrested tuberculosis, was repealed by Pub. L. 90–493, §4, Aug. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 809, but repeal not applicable in case of veteran who on Aug. 19, 1968, was receiving or entitled to receive compensation for tuberculosis which in the judgment of the Administrator had reached a condition of complete arrest.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 110–389, title II, §211(b), Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4151, provided that: "Section 1156(a)(1) of title 38, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to a veteran who is discharged or released from active duty (as defined in section 101 of title 38, United States Code) on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 2008]."

§1157. Combination of certain ratings

The Secretary shall provide for the combination of ratings and pay compensation at the rates prescribed in subchapter II of this chapter to those veterans who served during a period of war and during any other time, who have suffered disability in line of duty in each period of service.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1125, §357; renumbered §1157 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406.)

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 357 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator".

§1158. Disappearance

Where a veteran receiving compensation under this chapter disappears, the Secretary may pay the compensation otherwise payable to the veteran to such veteran's spouse, children, and parents. Payments made to such spouse, child, or parent under the preceding sentence shall not exceed the amounts payable to each if the veteran had died from service-connected disability.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1125, §358; Pub. L. 86–212, Sept. 1, 1959, 73 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 94–433, title IV, §404(21), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1379; renumbered §1158 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406.)

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 358 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator".

1976Pub. L. 94–433 struck out ", in his discretion," after "Administrator" and substituted "such veteran's spouse" for "his wife" and "such spouse" for "a wife".

1959Pub. L. 86–212 substituted "a veteran" for "an incompetent veteran".

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–433 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–433, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§1159. Protection of service connection

Service connection for any disability or death granted under this title which has been in force for ten or more years shall not be severed on or after January 1, 1962, except upon a showing that the original grant of service connection was based on fraud or it is clearly shown from military records that the person concerned did not have the requisite service or character of discharge. The mentioned period shall be computed from the date determined by the Secretary as the date on which the status commenced for rating purposes.

(Added Pub. L. 86–501, §1, June 10, 1960, 74 Stat. 195, §359; amended Pub. L. 87–825, §6, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 950; renumbered §1159 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406.)

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 359 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator".

1962Pub. L. 87–825 provided for computation of the period from the date the administrator determines as the date the status commenced for rating purposes.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–825 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 15, 1962, see section 7 of Pub. L. 87–825, set out as a note under section 110 of this title.

§1160. Special consideration for certain cases of loss of paired organs or extremities

(a) Where a veteran has suffered—

(1) impairment of vision in one eye as a result of service-connected disability and impairment of vision in the other eye as a result of non-service-connected disability not the result of the veteran's own willful misconduct and—

(A) the impairment of vision in each eye is rated at a visual acuity of 20/200 or less; or

(B) the peripheral field of vision for each eye is 20 degrees or less;


(2) the loss or loss of use of one kidney as a result of service-connected disability and involvement of the other kidney as a result of non-service-connected disability not the result of the veteran's own willful misconduct;

(3) deafness compensable to a degree of 10 percent or more in one ear as a result of service-connected disability and deafness in the other ear as the result of non-service-connected disability not the result of the veteran's own willful misconduct;

(4) the loss or loss of use of one hand or one foot as a result of service-connected disability and the loss or loss of use of the other hand or foot as a result of non-service-connected disability not the result of the veteran's own willful misconduct; or

(5) permanent service-connected disability of one lung, rated 50 percent or more disabling, in combination with a non-service-connected disability of the other lung that is not the result of the veteran's own willful misconduct,


the Secretary shall assign and pay to the veteran the applicable rate of compensation under this chapter as if the combination of disabilities were the result of service-connected disability.

(b) If a veteran described in subsection (a) of this section receives any money or property of value pursuant to an award in a judicial proceeding based upon, or a settlement or compromise of, any cause of action for damages for the non-service-connected disability described in such subsection, the increase in the rate of compensation otherwise payable under this section shall not be paid for any month following a month in which any such money or property is received until such time as the total of the amount of such increase that would otherwise have been payable equals the total of the amount of any such money received and the fair market value of any such property received.

(Added Pub. L. 87–610, §1, Aug. 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 406, §360; amended Pub. L. 89–311, §3(a), (b), Oct. 31, 1965, 79 Stat. 1155; Pub. L. 94–433, title IV, §404(22), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1379; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(3), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 99–576, title I, §109(a)(1), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3253; renumbered §1160 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406; Pub. L. 107–330, title I, §103, Dec. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 2821; Pub. L. 110–157, title I, §102, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 1831.)

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–157 substituted "impairment of vision" for "blindness" in two places and "misconduct and—" for "misconduct;" and added subpars. (A) and (B).

2002—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–330 substituted "deafness compensable to a degree of 10 percent or more in one ear" for "total deafness in one ear" and "deafness in the other ear" for "total deafness in the other ear".

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 360 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator" in concluding provisions.

1986Pub. L. 99–576 amended section generally, substituting "loss of paired organs or extremities" for "blindness or bilateral kidney involvement or bilateral deafness" in section catchline. Prior to amendment, text of section read as follows: "Where any veteran (1) has suffered blindness in one eye as a result of service-connected disability and has suffered blindness in the other eye as a result of non-service-connected disability not the result of such veteran's own willful misconduct, or (2) has suffered the loss or loss of use of one kidney as a result of service-connected disability, and has suffered severe involvement of the other kidney such as to cause total disability, as a result of non-service-connected disability not the result of such veteran's own willful misconduct, or (3) has suffered total deafness in one ear as a result of service-connected disability and has suffered total deafness in the other ear as the result of non-service-connected disability not the result of such veteran's own willful misconduct, the Administrator shall assign and pay to the veteran concerned the applicable rate of compensation under this chapter as if such veteran's blindness in both eyes or such bilateral kidney involvement were the result of service-connected disability."

1983Pub. L. 98–160 substituted "(1) has suffered" for "has suffered (1)".

1976Pub. L. 94–433 substituted "such veteran's" for "his" wherever appearing.

1965Pub. L. 89–311 added cl. (3) referring to total deafness in one ear as a result of service-connected disability and total deafness in the other ear as the result of non-service-connected disability not the result of his own willful misconduct, inserted reference to total deafness in both ears and, in section catchline, inserted reference to bilateral deafness.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–576, title I, §109(c), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3253, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 314 [now 1114] of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1986].

"(2) In the case of an award of compensation for a disability described in clause (1), (2), (3), or (5) of subsection (a) of section 360 [now 1160] of title 38, United States Code, as amended by subsection (a) of this section, subsection (b) of such section shall apply only to awards of compensation made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–433 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–433, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–311 effective first day of second calendar month following Oct. 31, 1965, see section 9 of Pub. L. 89–311, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

§1161. Payment of disability compensation in disability severance cases

The deduction of disability severance pay from disability compensation, to the extent required by section 1212(d) of title 10, shall be made at a monthly rate not in excess of the rate of compensation to which the former member would be entitled based on the degree of such former member's disability as determined on the initial Department rating.

(Added Pub. L. 91–241, May 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 203, §361; amended Pub. L. 94–433, title IV, §404(23), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1379; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(4), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; renumbered §1161 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(a)(3), (4), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404, 406; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XVI, §1646(c), as added Pub. L. 110–389, title I, §103(a)(2), Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4148.)

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §1646(c), as added by Pub. L. 110–389, §103(a)(2), substituted "to the extent required by section 1212(d) of title 10" for "as required by section 1212(c) of title 10".

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 361 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(a)(3), (4), substituted "Department" for "Veterans' Administration".

1983Pub. L. 98–160 struck out "United States Code," after "title 10,".

1976Pub. L. 94–433 substituted "such former member's" for "his".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–389, title I, §103(b), Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4148, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [adding section 1646(c) to Pub. L. 110–181 and provisions set out as a note under section 1212 of Title 10, Armed Forces] shall take effect on January 28, 2008 (the date of the enactment of the Wounded Warrior Act [title XVI of Pub. L. 110–181]), as if included in that Act, to which they relate."

Amendment by section 1646(c) of Pub. L. 110–181 effective Jan. 28, 2008, and applicable with respect to members of the Armed Forces separated from the Armed Forces under chapter 61 of title 10, United States Code, on or after that date, see section 1646(d) of Pub. L. 110–181, set out as a note under section 1212 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–433 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–433, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§1162. Clothing allowance

The Secretary under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, shall pay a clothing allowance of $716 per year to each veteran who—

(1) because of a service-connected disability, wears or uses a prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including a wheelchair) which the Secretary determines tends to wear out or tear the clothing of the veteran; or

(2) uses medication which (A) a physician has prescribed for a skin condition which is due to a service-connected disability, and (B) the Secretary determines causes irreparable damage to the veteran's outergarments.

(Added Pub. L. 92–328, title I, §103(a), June 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 394, §362; amended Pub. L. 94–71, title I, §103, Aug. 5, 1975, 89 Stat. 396; Pub. L. 94–433, title III, §301, title IV, §404(24), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1377, 1379; Pub. L. 95–117, title III, §301, Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1065; Pub. L. 95–479, title I, §103, Oct. 18, 1978, 92 Stat. 1562; Pub. L. 96–128, title I, §103, Nov. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 96–385, title I, §103, Oct. 7, 1980, 94 Stat. 1529; Pub. L. 97–66, title I, §103, Oct. 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 1027; Pub. L. 97–253, title IV, §405(d), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 804; Pub. L. 97–306, title I, §§103, 107, Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1430, 1431; Pub. L. 98–223, title I, §103, Mar. 2, 1984, 98 Stat. 38; Pub. L. 98–543, title I, §103, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2736; Pub. L. 99–238, title I, §103, Jan. 13, 1986, 99 Stat. 1766; Pub. L. 99–576, title I, §103, Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3251; Pub. L. 100–227, title I, §103, Dec. 31, 1987, 101 Stat. 1553; Pub. L. 100–687, div. B, title XI, §1103, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4124; Pub. L. 101–237, title I, §§103, 112, Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2063, 2065; Pub. L. 102–3, §4, Feb. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 8; renumbered §1162, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–152, §4, Nov. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 986; Pub. L. 103–78, §3, Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 103–140, §4, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1486; Pub. L. 105–98, §4, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2156; Pub. L. 106–118, §4, Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1602; Pub. L. 107–94, §4, Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 901; Pub. L. 107–330, title III, §309(c), Dec. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 2830; Pub. L. 108–454, title III, §307(c), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3613; Pub. L. 109–111, §2(c), Nov. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2363; Pub. L. 109–444, §9(c), Dec. 21, 2006, 120 Stat. 3315; Pub. L. 109–461, title X, §§1005(c), 1006(b), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3467, 3468; Pub. L. 110–324, §3(c), Sept. 24, 2008, 122 Stat. 3551; Pub. L. 111–37, §3(c), June 30, 2009, 123 Stat. 1929.)

Amendments

2009Pub. L. 111–37 substituted "$716" for "$677" in introductory provisions.

2008Pub. L. 110–324 substituted "$677" for "$662" in introductory provisions.

2006Pub. L. 109–461, §1006(b), provided that as of the enactment of Pub. L. 109–461, the amendments made by Pub. L. 109–444 were deemed for all purposes not to have taken effect and that Pub. L. 109–444 ceased to be in effect. See Amendment notes below and section 1006(b) of Pub. L. 109–461, set out as a Coordination of Provisions With Pub. L. 109–444 note under section 101 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–461, §1005(c), substituted "$662" for "$641".

Pub. L. 109–444, which substituted "$662" for "$641", was terminated by Pub. L. 109–461, §1006(b). See Amendment notes above.

2005Pub. L. 109–111 substituted "$641" for "$600".

2004Pub. L. 108–454 substituted "$600" for "$588".

2002Pub. L. 107–330 substituted "$588" for "$580".

2001Pub. L. 107–94 substituted "$580" for "$546".

1999Pub. L. 106–118 substituted "$546" for "$528".

1997Pub. L. 105–98 substituted "$528" for "$478".

1993Pub. L. 103–140 substituted "$478" for "$466".

Pub. L. 103–78 substituted "$466" for "$452".

1991Pub. L. 102–152 substituted "$452" for "$436".

Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 362 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 102–3 substituted "$436" for "$414".

1989Pub. L. 101–237, §112, substituted "Secretary under" for "Administrator under" and "Secretary shall" for "Administrator shall", and substituted "who—" and pars. (1) and (2) for "who because of disability which is compensable under the provisions of this chapter, wears or uses prosthetic or orthopedic appliance or appliances (including a wheelchair) which the Administrator determines tends to wear out or tear the clothing of such a veteran."

Pub. L. 101–237, §103, substituted "$414" for "$395".

1988Pub. L. 100–687 substituted "$395" for "$380".

1987Pub. L. 100–227 substituted "$380" for "$365".

1986Pub. L. 99–576 substituted "$365" for "$360".

Pub. L. 99–238 substituted "$360" for "$349".

1984Pub. L. 98–543 substituted "$349" for "$338".

Pub. L. 98–223 substituted "$338" for "$327".

1982Pub. L. 97–306, §§103, 107, 108, substituted "$327" for "$305" and repealed amendment made by Pub. L. 97–253, §405(d), eff. Oct. 1, 1982.

Pub. L. 97–253, §405(d), (h), eff. Jan. 1, 1983, substituted "$304" for "$305" after "clothing allowance of".

1981Pub. L. 97–66 substituted "$305" for "$274".

1980Pub. L. 96–385 substituted "$274" for "$240".

1979Pub. L. 96–128 substituted "$240" for "$218".

1978Pub. L. 95–479 substituted "$218" for "$203".

1977Pub. L. 95–117 substituted "$203" for "$190".

1976Pub. L. 94–433, §§301, 404(24), substituted "$190" for "$175" and "the Administrator shall prescribe" for "he shall prescribe".

1975Pub. L. 94–71 substituted "$175" for "$150".

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–37 effective Dec. 1, 2008, see section 3(g) of Pub. L. 111–37, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–324 effective Dec. 1, 2007, see section 3(f) of Pub. L. 110–324, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–111 effective Dec. 1, 2005, see section 2(f) of Pub. L. 109–111, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–94 effective Dec. 1, 2001, see section 7 of Pub. L. 107–94, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–118 effective Dec. 1, 1999, see section 7 of Pub. L. 106–118, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–98 effective Dec. 1, 1997, see section 7 of Pub. L. 105–98, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–140 effective Dec. 1, 1993, see section 7 of Pub. L. 103–140, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–152 effective Dec. 1, 1991, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–152, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–3 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–3, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 103 of Pub. L. 101–237 effective Dec. 1, 1989, see section 106 of Pub. L. 101–237, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–687 effective Dec. 1, 1988, see section 1106 of Pub. L. 100–687, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–227 effective Dec. 1, 1987, see section 107 of Pub. L. 100–227, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–576 effective Dec. 1, 1986, but not effective unless benefit amounts payable under section 401 et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, are increased effective Dec. 1, 1986, as a result of a determination under section 415(i) of Title 42, see section 107 of Pub. L. 99–576, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–238 effective Dec. 1, 1985, see section 107 of Pub. L. 99–238, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–543 effective Dec. 1, 1984, see section 107 of Pub. L. 98–543, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–223 effective Apr. 1, 1984, see section 107 of Pub. L. 98–223, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–306 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 108 of Pub. L. 97–306, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–66 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 97–66, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–385 applicable only to payments for months beginning after Sept. 30, 1980, see section 601(a) of Pub. L. 96–385, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–128 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 601(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–128, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–479 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 401(a) of Pub. L. 95–479, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–117 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–117, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–433 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–433, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–71 effective Aug. 1, 1975, see section 301 of Pub. L. 94–71, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective first day of second calendar month which begins after June 30, 1972, see section 301(a) of Pub. L. 92–328, set out as an Effective Date of 1972 Amendment note under section 1114 of this title.

Repeal

Section 405(d) of Pub. L. 97–253, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–306, §§107, 108, Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1431, 1432, eff. Oct. 1, 1982.

Disability Compensation and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Rate Increases

For increases in rates and limitations on Department of Veterans Affairs disability compensation and dependency and indemnity compensation, see notes set out under section 1114 of this title.

§1163. Trial work periods and vocational rehabilitation for certain veterans with total disability ratings

(a)(1) The disability rating of a qualified veteran who begins to engage in a substantially gainful occupation after January 31, 1985, may not be reduced on the basis of the veteran having secured and followed a substantially gainful occupation unless the veteran maintains such an occupation for a period of 12 consecutive months.

(2) For purposes of this section, the term "qualified veteran" means a veteran who has a service-connected disability, or service-connected disabilities, not rated as total but who has been awarded a rating of total disability by reason of inability to secure or follow a substantially gainful occupation as a result of such disability or disabilities.

(b) The Secretary shall make counseling services described in section 3104(a)(2) of this title and placement and postplacement services described in section 3104(a)(5) of this title available to each qualified veteran (whether or not the veteran is participating in a vocational rehabilitation program under chapter 31 of this title).

(c)(1) In the case of each award after January 31, 1985, of a rating of total disability described in subsection (a)(2) of this section to a veteran, the Secretary shall provide to the veteran, at the time that notice of the award is provided to the veteran, a statement providing—

(A) notice of the provisions of this section;

(B) information explaining the purposes and availability of and eligibility for, and the procedures for pursuing, a vocational rehabilitation program under chapter 31 of this title; and

(C) a summary description of the scope of services and assistance available under that chapter.


(2) After providing the notice required under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall offer the veteran the opportunity for an evaluation under section 3106(a) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–543, title I, §111(a)(1), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2738, §363; amended Pub. L. 100–687, div. B, title XIII, §1301, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4127; renumbered §1163 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§4(b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406; Pub. L. 102–291, §2(a), May 20, 1992, 106 Stat. 178; Pub. L. 102–568, title IV, §401(a)–(d)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4336.)

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–568, §401(d)(1), substituted "Trial work periods and vocational rehabilitation for certain veterans with total disability ratings" for "Temporary program for trial work periods and vocational rehabilitation for certain veterans with total disability ratings" as section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §401(a)(1), substituted "after January 31, 1985," for "during the program period".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–568, §401(a)(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "For purposes of this section:

"(A) The term 'qualified veteran' means a veteran who has a service-connected disability, or service-connected disabilities, not rated as total but who has been awarded a rating of total disability by reason of inability to secure or follow a substantially gainful occupation as a result of such disability or disabilities.

"(B) The term 'program period' means the period beginning on February 1, 1985, and ending on December 31, 1992."

Pub. L. 102–291 substituted "December 31, 1992" for "January 31, 1992" in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–568, §401(b), substituted "The Secretary" for "During the program period, the Secretary".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §401(c), substituted "after January 31, 1985, of a rating of total disability described in subsection (a)(2)" for "during the program period of a rating of total disability described in subsection (a)(2)(A)".

1991Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 363 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted "3104(a)(2)" for "1504(a)(2)" and "3104(a)(5)" for "1504(a)(5)".

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted "3106(a)" for "1506(a)" in par. (2).

Pub. L. 102–83, §4(b)(1), (2)(E), substituted "Secretary" for "Administrator" in pars. (1) and (2).

1988—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–687, §1301(a), substituted "1992" for "1989".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–687, §1301(b)(2), (3), substituted "(1) In" for "(1)(A) Except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, in", redesignated cls. (i), (ii), and (iii) as subpars. (A), (B), and (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which required that, after providing notice, Administrator arrange promptly for evaluation to determine whether achievement of vocational goal by veteran is feasible.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–687, §1301(b)(1), (3)(B), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which related to failure of veteran to participate in evaluation, and reduction of disability rating.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–687, §1301(b)(1), struck out par. (3) which related to individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation after completion of evaluation, and failure to pursue program of vocational rehabilitation described in such plan.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–687, §1301(b)(1), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "This subsection does not apply with respect to a veteran as to whom the Administrator determines that an evaluation of vocational rehabilitation potential or achievement of a vocational goal is not reasonably feasible."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–291, §2(d), May 20, 1992, 106 Stat. 178, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) through (c) [amending this section and sections 1524 and 1525 of this title] shall take effect as of January 31, 1992."

Ratification of Actions of Secretary of Veterans Affairs During Lapsed Period

Pub. L. 102–291, §2(e), May 20, 1992, 106 Stat. 178, provided that: "The following actions of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs during the period beginning on February 1, 1992, and ending on the date of the enactment of this Act [May 20, 1992] are hereby ratified with respect to that period:

"(1) A failure to reduce the disability rating of a veteran who began to engage in a substantially gainful occupation during that period.

"(2) The provision of a vocational training program (including related evaluations and other related services) to a veteran under section 1524 of title 38, United States Code, and the making of related determinations under that section.

"(3) The provision of health care and services to a veteran pursuant to section 1525 of title 38, United States Code."

Information; Temporary Program; Administrator

Pub. L. 98–543, title I, §111(b), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2739, directed Administrator of Veterans' Affairs to provide, not later than Apr. 1, 1985, to certain veterans with service-connected disabilities, a statement containing information explaining subsec. (b) of this section, information explaining purposes and availability of and eligibility for, and procedures for pursuing, a vocational rehabilitation program under chapter 31 of this title, and a summary description of scope of services and assistance available under chapter 31.

Report to Congressional Committees; Trial Program

Pub. L. 98–543, title I, §111(c), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2739, as amended by Pub. L. 99–576, title VII, §703(a)(2), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3303, directed Administrator of Veterans' Affairs to submit, not later than Apr. 15, 1988, to Committees on Veterans' Affairs of Senate and House of Representatives a report on results of implementation of this section during the three-year period beginning on Feb. 1, 1985.