[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 134, SUBCHAPTER III: AVAILABILITY AND USE OF REPLACEMENT FUELS, ALTERNATIVE FUELS, AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED PRIVATE VEHICLES
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42 USC CHAPTER 134, SUBCHAPTER III: AVAILABILITY AND USE OF REPLACEMENT FUELS, ALTERNATIVE FUELS, AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED PRIVATE VEHICLES
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 134—ENERGY POLICY

SUBCHAPTER III—AVAILABILITY AND USE OF REPLACEMENT FUELS, ALTERNATIVE FUELS, AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED PRIVATE VEHICLES

§13251. Mandate for alternative fuel providers

(a) In general

(1) The Secretary shall, before January 1, 1994, issue regulations requiring that of the new light duty motor vehicles acquired by a covered person described in paragraph (2), the following percentages shall be alternative fueled vehicles for the following model years:

(A) 30 percent for model year 1996.

(B) 50 percent for model year 1997.

(C) 70 percent for model year 1998.

(D) 90 percent for model year 1999 and thereafter.


(2) For purposes of this section, a person referred to in paragraph (1) is—

(A) a covered person whose principal business is producing, storing, refining, processing, transporting, distributing, importing, or selling at wholesale or retail any alternative fuel other than electricity;

(B) a non-Federal covered person whose principal business is generating, transmitting, importing, or selling at wholesale or retail electricity; or

(C) a covered person—

(i) who produces, imports, or produces and imports in combination, an average of 50,000 barrels per day or more of petroleum; and

(ii) a substantial portion of whose business is producing alternative fuels.


(3)(A) In the case of a covered person described in paragraph (2) with more than one affiliate, division, or other business unit, only an affiliate, division, or business unit which is substantially engaged in the alternative fuels business (as determined by the Secretary by rule) shall be subject to this subsection.

(B) No covered person or affiliate, division, or other business unit of such person whose principal business is—

(i) transforming alternative fuels into a product that is not an alternative fuel; or

(ii) consuming alternative fuels as a feedstock or fuel in the manufacture of a product that is not an alternative fuel,


shall be subject to this subsection.

(4) The vehicles purchased pursuant to this section shall be operated solely on alternative fuels except when operating in an area where the appropriate alternative fuel is unavailable.

(5) Regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall provide for the prompt exemption by the Secretary, through a simple and reasonable process, from the requirements of paragraph (1) of any covered person, in whole or in part, if such person demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(A) alternative fueled vehicles that meet the normal requirements and practices of the principal business of that person are not reasonably available for acquisition; or

(B) alternative fuels that meet the normal requirements and practices of the principal business of that person are not available in the area in which the vehicles are to be operated.

(b) Revisions and extensions

With respect to model years 1997 and thereafter, the Secretary may—

(1) revise the percentage requirements under subsection (a)(1) downward, except that under no circumstances shall the percentage requirement for a model year be less than 20 percent; and

(2) extend the time under subsection (a)(1) for up to 2 model years.

(c) Option for electric utilities

The Secretary shall, within 1 year after October 24, 1992, issue regulations requiring that, in the case of a covered person whose principal business is generating, transmitting, importing, or selling at wholesale or retail electricity, the requirements of subsection (a)(1) shall not apply until after December 31, 1997, with respect to electric motor vehicles. Any covered person described in this subsection which plans to acquire electric motor vehicles to comply with the requirements of this section shall so notify the Secretary before January 1, 1996.

(d) Report to Congress

The Secretary shall, before January 1, 1998, submit a report to the Congress providing detailed information on actions taken to carry out this section, and the progress made and problems encountered thereunder.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §501, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2887.)

§13252. Replacement fuel supply and demand program

(a) Establishment of program

The Secretary shall establish a program to promote the development and use in light duty motor vehicles of domestic replacement fuels. Such program shall promote the replacement of petroleum motor fuels with replacement fuels to the maximum extent practicable. Such program shall, to the extent practicable, ensure the availability of those replacement fuels that will have the greatest impact in reducing oil imports, improving the health of our Nation's economy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

(b) Development plan and production goals

Under the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary, before October 1, 1993, in consultation with the Administrator, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the heads of other appropriate agencies, shall review appropriate information and—

(1) estimate the domestic and nondomestic production capacity for replacement fuels and alternative fueled vehicles needed to implement this section;

(2) determine the technical and economic feasibility of achieving the goals of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace, on an energy equivalent basis—

(A) at least 10 percent by the year 2000; and

(B) at least 30 percent by the year 2010,


of the projected consumption of motor fuel in the United States for each such year, with at least one half of such replacement fuels being domestic fuels;

(3) determine the most suitable means and methods of developing and encouraging the production, distribution, and use of replacement fuels and alternative fueled vehicles in a manner that would meet the program goals described in subsection (a);

(4) identify ways to encourage the development of reliable replacement fuels and alternative fueled vehicle industries in the United States, and the technical, economic, and institutional barriers to such development; and

(5) determine the greenhouse gas emission implications of increasing the use of replacement fuels, including an estimate of the maximum feasible reduction in such emissions from the use of replacement fuels.


The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the results of actions taken under this subsection, and provide for an opportunity for public comment.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §502, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2888.)

§13253. Replacement fuel demand estimates and supply information

(a) Estimates

Not later than October 1, 1993, and annually thereafter, the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, the Secretary of Transportation, and other appropriate State and Federal officials, shall estimate for the following calendar year—

(1) the number of each type of alternative fueled vehicle likely to be in use in the United States;

(2) the probable geographic distribution of such vehicles;

(3) the amount and distribution of each type of replacement fuel; and

(4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use.

(b) Information

Beginning on October 1, 1994, the Secretary shall annually require—

(1) fuel suppliers to report to the Secretary on the amount of each type of replacement fuel that such supplier—

(A) has supplied in the previous calendar year; and

(B) plans to supply for the following calendar year;


(2) suppliers of alternative fueled vehicles to report to the Secretary on the number of each type of alternative fueled vehicle that such supplier—

(A) has made available in the previous calendar year; and

(B) plans to make available for the following calendar year; and


(3) such fuel suppliers to provide the Secretary information necessary to determine the greenhouse gas emissions from the replacement fuels used, taking into account the entire fuel cycle.

(c) Protection of information

Information provided to the Secretary under subsection (b) shall be subject to applicable provisions of law protecting the confidentiality of trade secrets and business and financial information, including section 1905 of title 18.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §503, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2889.)

§13254. Modification of goals; additional rulemaking authority

(a) Examination of goals

Within 3 years after October 24, 1992, and periodically thereafter, the Secretary shall examine the goals established under section 13252(b)(2) of this title, in the context of the program goals stated under section 13252(a) of this title, to determine if the goals under section 13252(b)(2) of this title, including the applicable percentage requirements and dates, should be modified under this section. The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the results of each examination under this subsection and provide an opportunity for public comment.

(b) Modification of goals

If, after analysis of information obtained in connection with carrying out subsection (a) or section 13252 of this title, or other information, and taking into account the determination of technical and economic feasibility made under section 13252(b)(2) of this title, the Secretary determines that goals described in section 13252(b)(2) of this title, including the percentage requirements or dates, are not achievable, the Secretary, in consultation with appropriate Federal agencies, shall, by rule, establish goals that are achievable, for purposes of this subchapter. The modification of goals under this section may include changing the target dates specified in section 13252(b)(2) of this title.

(c) Additional rulemaking authority

If the Secretary determines that the achievement of goals described in section 13252(b)(2) of this title would result in a significant and correctable failure to meet the program goals described in section 13252(a) of this title, the Secretary shall issue such additional regulations as are necessary to remedy such failure. The Secretary shall have no authority under this Act to mandate the production of alternative fueled vehicles or to specify, as applicable, the models, lines, or types of, or marketing or pricing practices, policies, or strategies for, vehicles subject to this Act. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to give the Secretary authority to mandate marketing or pricing practices, policies, or strategies for alternative fuels or to mandate the production or delivery of such fuels.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §504, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2890.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 102–486, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2776, known as the Energy Policy Act of 1992. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13201 of this title and Tables.

§13255. Voluntary supply commitments

The Secretary shall, by January 1, 1994, and thereafter, undertake to obtain voluntary commitments in geographically diverse regions of the United States—

(1) from fuel suppliers to make available to the public replacement fuels, including providing for the construction or availability of related fuel delivery systems;

(2) from owners of 10 or more motor vehicles to acquire and use alternative fueled vehicles and alternative fuels; and

(3) from suppliers of alternative fueled vehicles to make available to the public alternative fueled vehicles and to ensure the availability of necessary related services,


in sufficient volume to achieve the goals described in section 13252(b)(2) of this title or as modified under section 13254 of this title, and in order to meet any fleet requirement program established by rule under this subchapter. The Secretary shall periodically report to the Congress on the results of efforts under this section. All voluntary commitments obtained pursuant to this section shall be available to the public, except to the extent provided in applicable provisions of law protecting the confidentiality of trade secrets and business and financial information, including section 1905 of title 18.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §505, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2890.)

§13256. Technical and policy analysis

(a) Requirement

Not later than March 1, 1995, and March 1, 1997, the Secretary shall prepare and transmit to the President and the Congress a technical and policy analysis under this section. The Secretary shall utilize the analytical capability and authorities of the Energy Information Administration and such other offices of the Department of Energy as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(b) Purposes

The technical and policy analysis prepared under this section shall be based on the best available data and information obtainable by the Secretary under section 13253 of this title, or otherwise, and on experience under this subchapter and other provisions of law in the development and use of replacement fuels and alternative fueled vehicles, and shall evaluate—

(1) progress made in achieving the goals described in section 13252(b)(2) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title;

(2) the actual and potential role of replacement fuels and alternative fueled vehicles in significantly reducing United States reliance on imported oil to the extent of the goals referred to in paragraph (1); and

(3) the actual and potential availability of various domestic replacement fuels and dedicated vehicles and dual fueled vehicles.

(c) Publication

The Secretary shall publish a proposed version of each analysis under this section in the Federal Register for public comment before transmittal to the President and the Congress. Public comment received in response to such publication shall be preserved for use in rulemaking proceedings under section 13257 of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §506, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2891.)

§13257. Fleet requirement program

(a) Fleet program purchase goals

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the following percentages of new light duty motor vehicles acquired in each model year for a fleet, other than a Federal fleet, State fleet, or fleet owned, operated, leased, or otherwise controlled by a covered person subject to section 13251 of this title, shall be alternative fueled vehicles:

(A) 20 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model years 1999, 2000, and 2001;

(B) 30 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2002;

(C) 40 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2003;

(D) 50 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2004;

(E) 60 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2005; and

(F) 70 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2006 and thereafter.


(2) The Secretary may not establish percentage requirements higher than those described in paragraph (1). The Secretary may, if appropriate, and pursuant to a rule under subsection (b), establish a lesser percentage requirement for any model year. The Secretary may, by rule, establish a date later than 1998 (or model year 1999) for initiating the fleet requirements under paragraph (1).

(3) The Secretary shall publish an advance notice of proposed rulemaking for the purpose of—

(A) evaluating the progress toward achieving the goals of replacement fuel use described in section 13252(b)(2) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title;

(B) identifying the problems associated with achieving those goals;

(C) assessing the adequacy and practicability of those goals; and

(D) considering all actions needed to achieve those goals.


The Secretary shall provide for at least 3 regional hearings on the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, with respect to which official transcripts shall be maintained. The comment period in connection with such advance notice of proposed rulemaking shall be completed within 7 months after publication of the advance notice.

(4) After the completion of such advance notice of proposed rulemaking, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a proposed rule for the rule required under subsection (b), and shall provide for a public comment period, with hearings, of not less than 90 days.

(b) Early rulemaking

(1) Not earlier than 1 year after October 24, 1992, and after carrying out the requirements of subsection (a), the Secretary shall initiate a rulemaking to determine whether a fleet requirement program to begin in calendar year 1998 (when model year 1999 begins), or such other later date as he may select pursuant to subsection (a), is necessary under this section. Such rule, consistent with subsection (a)(1), shall establish the annual applicable model year percentage. No rule under this subsection may be promulgated after December 15, 1996, and be enforceable. A fleet requirement program shall be considered necessary and a rule therefor shall be promulgated if the Secretary finds that—

(A) the goal of replacement fuel use described in section 13252(b)(2)(B) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title, is not expected to be actually achieved by 2010, or such other date as is established under section 13254 of this title, by voluntary means or pursuant to this subchapter or any other law without such a fleet requirement program, taking into consideration the status of the achievement of the interim goal described in section 13252(b)(2)(A) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title;

(B) such goal is practicable and actually achievable within periods specified in section 13252(b)(2) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title, through implementation of such a fleet requirement program in combination with voluntary means and the application of other programs relevant to achieving such goals; and

(C) by 1998 (when model year 1999 begins) or the date specified by the Secretary in such rule for initiating a fleet requirement program—

(i) there exists sufficient evidence to ensure that the fuel and the needed infrastructure, including the supply and deliverability systems, will be installed and located at convenient places in the fleet areas subject to the rule and will be fully operational when the rule is effective to offer a reliable and timely supply of the applicable alternative fuel at reasonable costs (as compared to conventional fuels) to meet the fleet requirement program, as demonstrated through use of the provisions of section 13255(1) of this title regarding voluntary commitments or other adequate, reliable, and convincing forms of agreements, arrangements, or representations that such fuels and infrastructure are in existence or will exist when the rule is effective and will be expanded as the percentages increase annually;

(ii) there will be a sufficient number of new alternative fueled vehicles from original equipment manufacturers that comply with all applicable requirements of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] and chapter 301 of title 49;

(iii) such new vehicles will meet the applicable non-Federal and non-State fleet performance requirements of such fleets (including range, passenger or cargo-carrying capacity, reliability, refueling capability, vehicle mix, and economical operation and maintenance); and

(iv) establishment of a fleet requirement program by rule under this subsection will not result in unfair competitive advantages or disadvantages, or result in undue economic hardship, to the affected fleets.


(2) The Secretary shall not promulgate a rule under this subsection if he is unable to make affirmative findings in the case of each of the subparagraphs under paragraph (1), and each of the clauses under subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1).

(3) If the Secretary does not determine that such program is necessary under this subsection, the provisions of subsection (e) shall apply to the consideration in the future of any fleet requirement program. The record of this rulemaking, including the Secretary's findings, shall be incorporated into a rulemaking under that subsection. If the Secretary determines under this subsection that such program is necessary, the Secretary shall not initiate the later rulemaking under subsection (e).

(c) Advance notice of proposed rulemaking

Not later than April 1, 1998, the Secretary shall publish an advance notice of proposed rulemaking for the purpose of—

(1) evaluating the progress toward achieving the goals of replacement fuel use described in section 13252(b)(2) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title;

(2) identifying the problems associated with achieving those goals;

(3) assessing the adequacy and practicability of those goals; and

(4) considering all actions needed to achieve those goals.


The Secretary shall provide for at least 3 regional hearings on the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, with respect to which official transcripts shall be maintained. The comment period in connection with such advance notice of proposed rulemaking shall be completed within 7 months after publication of the advance notice.

(d) Proposed rule

Before May 1, 1999, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a proposed rule for the rule required under subsection (g), and shall provide for a public comment period, with hearings, of not less than 90 days.

(e) Determination

(1) Not later than January 1, 2000, the Secretary shall, through the rule required under subsection (g), determine whether a fleet requirement program is necessary under this section. Such a program shall be considered necessary and a rule therefor shall be promulgated if the Secretary finds that—

(A) the goal of replacement fuel use described in section 13252(b)(2)(B) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title, is not expected to be actually achieved by 2010, or such other date as is established under section 13254 of this title, by voluntary means or pursuant to this subchapter or any other law without such a fleet requirement program, taking into consideration the status of the achievement of the interim goal described in section 13252(b)(2)(A) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title; and

(B) such goal is practicable and actually achievable within periods specified in section 13252(b)(2) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title, through implementation of such a fleet requirement program in combination with voluntary means and the application of other programs relevant to achieving such goals.


(2) The rule under subsection (b) or (g) shall also modify the goal described in section 13252(b)(2)(B) of this title and establish a revised goal pursuant to section 13254 of this title if the Secretary determines, based on the proceeding required under subsection (a) or (c), that the goal in effect at the time of that proceeding is inadequate or impracticable, and not expected to be achievable. Such goal as modified and established shall be applicable in making the findings described in paragraph (1). If the Secretary modifies the goal under this paragraph, he may also modify the percentages stated in subsection (a)(1) or (g)(1) and the minimum percentage stated in subsection (a)(2) or (g)(2) shall be not less than 10 percent.

(f) Explanation of determination that fleet requirement program is not necessary

If the Secretary determines, based on findings under subsection (b) or (e), that a fleet requirement program under this section is not necessary, the Secretary shall—

(1) by December 15, 1996, with respect to a rulemaking under subsection (b); and

(2) by January 1, 2000, with respect to a rulemaking under subsection (e),


publish such determination in the Federal Register as a final agency action, including an explanation of the findings on which such determination is made and the basis for the determination.

(g) Fleet requirement program

(1) If the Secretary determines under subsection (e) that a fleet requirement program is necessary, the Secretary shall, by January 1, 2000, by rule require that, except as provided in paragraph (2), of the total number of new light duty motor vehicles acquired for a fleet, other than a Federal fleet, State fleet, or fleet owned, operated, leased, or otherwise controlled by a covered person under section 13251 of this title

(A) 20 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2002;

(B) 40 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2003;

(C) 60 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2004; and

(D) 70 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2005 and thereafter,


shall be alternative fueled vehicles.

(2) The Secretary may not establish percentage requirements higher than those described in paragraph (1). The Secretary may, if appropriate, and pursuant to a rule under subsection (g), establish a lesser percentage requirement for any model year. The Secretary may, by rule, establish a date later than 2002 (when model year 2003 begins) for initiating the fleet requirements under paragraph (1).

(3) Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed as requiring any fleet to acquire alternative fueled vehicles or alternative fuels that do not meet the normal business requirements and practices and needs of that fleet.

(4) A vehicle operating only on gasoline that complies with applicable requirements of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] shall not be considered an alternative fueled vehicle under subsection (b) or this subsection, except that the Secretary, as part of the rule under subsection (b) or this subsection, may determine that such vehicle should be treated as an alternative fueled vehicle for purposes of this section, for fleets subject to part C of title II of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7581 et seq.], taking into consideration the impact on energy security and the goals stated in section 13252(a) of this title.

(h) Extension of deadlines

The Secretary may, by notice published in the Federal Register, extend the deadlines established under subsections (e), (f)(2), and (g) for an additional 90 days if the Secretary is unable to meet such deadlines. Such extension shall not be reviewable.

(i) Exemptions

(1) A rule issued under subsection (b), (g), or (o) shall provide for the prompt exemption by the Secretary, through a simple and reasonable process, of any fleet from the requirements of subsection (b), (g), or (o), in whole or in part, if it is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(A) alternative fueled vehicles that meet the normal requirements and practices of the principal business of the fleet owner are not reasonably available for acquisition;

(B) alternative fuels that meet the normal requirements and practices of the principal business of the fleet owner are not available in the area in which the vehicles are to be operated; or

(C) in the case of State and local government entities, the application of such requirements would pose an unreasonable financial hardship.


(2) In the case of private fleets, if the motor vehicles, when under normal operations, are garaged at personal residences at night, such motor vehicles shall be exempt from the requirements of subsections (b) and (g).

(j) Conversions

Nothing in this subchapter or the amendments made by this subchapter shall require a fleet owner to acquire conversion vehicles.

(k) Inclusion of law enforcement vehicles and urban buses

(1) If the Secretary determines, by rule, that the inclusion of fleets of law enforcement motor vehicles in the fleet requirement program established under subsection (g) would contribute to achieving the goal described in section 13252(b)(2)(B) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title, and the Secretary finds that such inclusion would not hinder the use of the motor vehicles for law enforcement purposes, the Secretary may include such fleets in such program. The Secretary may only initiate one rulemaking under this paragraph.

(2) If the Secretary determines, by rule, that the inclusion of new urban buses, as defined by the Administrator under title II of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7521 et seq.], in a fleet requirement program established under subsection (g) would contribute to achieving the goal described in section 13252(b)(2)(B) of this title, as modified under section 13254 of this title, the Secretary may include such urban buses in such program, if the Secretary finds that such application will be consistent with energy security goals and the needs and objectives of encouraging and facilitating the greater use of such urban buses by the public, taking into consideration the impact of such application on public transit entities. The Secretary may only initiate one rulemaking under this paragraph.

(3) Rulemakings under paragraph (1) or (2) shall be separate from a rulemaking under subsection (g), but may not occur unless a rulemaking is carried out under subsection (g).

(l) Consideration of factors

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall take into consideration energy security, costs, safety, lead time requirements, vehicle miles traveled annually, effect on greenhouse gases, technological feasibility, energy requirements, economic impacts, including impacts on workers and the impact on consumers (including users of the alternative fuel for purposes such as for residences, agriculture, process use, and non-fuel purposes) and fleets, the availability of alternative fuels and alternative fueled vehicles, and other relevant factors.

(m) Consultation and participation of other Federal agencies

In carrying out this section and section 13256 of this title, the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Transportation, the Administrator, and other appropriate Federal agencies. The Secretary shall provide for the participation of the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator in the development and issuance of the rule under this section, including the public process concerning such rule.

(n) Petitions

As part of the rule promulgated either pursuant to subsection (b) or (g) of this section, the Secretary shall establish procedures for any fleet owner or operator or motor vehicle manufacturer to request that the Secretary modify or suspend a fleet requirement program established under either subsection nationally, by region, or in an applicable fleet area because, as demonstrated by the petitioner, the infrastructure or fuel supply or distribution system for an applicable alternative fuel is inadequate to meet the needs of a fleet. In the event that the Secretary determines that a modification or suspension of the fleet requirement program on a regional basis would detract from the nationwide character of any fleet requirement program established by rule or would sufficiently diminish the economies of scale for the production of alternative fueled vehicles or alternative fuels and thereafter the practicability and effectiveness of such program, the Secretary may only modify or suspend the program nationally. The procedures shall include provisions for notice and public hearings. The Secretary shall deny or grant the petition within 180 days after filing.

(o) Mandatory State fleet programs

(1) Pursuant to a rule promulgated by the Secretary, beginning in calendar year 1995 (when model year 1996 begins), the following percentages of new light duty motor vehicles acquired annually for State government fleets, including agencies thereof, but not municipal fleets, shall be alternative fueled vehicles:

(A) 10 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 1996;

(B) 15 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 1997;

(C) 25 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 1998;

(D) 50 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 1999;

(E) 75 percent of the motor vehicles acquired in model year 2000 and thereafter.


(2)(A) The Secretary shall within 18 months after October 24, 1992, promulgate a rule providing that a State may submit a plan within 12 months after such promulgation containing a light duty alternative fueled vehicle plan for State fleets to meet the annual percentages established under paragraph (1) for the acquisition of light duty motor vehicles. The plan shall provide for the voluntary conversion or acquisition or combination thereof, beyond any acquisition required by this subchapter, of such motor vehicles by State, local, or private fleets, in numbers greater than or equal to the number of State alternative fueled vehicles required pursuant to paragraph (1).

(B) The plan, if approved by the Secretary, would be in lieu of the State meeting such annual percentages solely through purchases of new State-owned vehicles. All conversions or acquisitions or combinations thereof of any alternative fueled vehicles under the plan must be voluntary and must conform with the requirements of section 247 of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7587] and must comply with applicable safety requirements. The Secretary of Transportation shall within 3 years after enactment promulgate rules setting forth safety standards in accordance with chapter 301 of title 49 applicable to all conversions.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §507, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2891.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(C)(ii), (g)(4), and (k)(2), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. Title II of the Act, known as the National Emission Standards Act, is classified generally to subchapter II (§7521 et seq.) of chapter 85 of this title. Part C of title II of the Act is classified generally to part C (§7581 et seq.) of chapter 85 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(A), (e)(1)(A), (g)(3), (j), and (o)(2)(A), was in the original "this title" meaning title V of Pub. L. 102–486, Oct. 24, 1992, 102 Stat. 2887, which is classified generally to this subchapter.

Codification

In subsecs. (b)(1)(C)(ii) and (o)(2)(B), "chapter 301 of title 49" substituted for "the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 [15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.]" on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

§13258. Credits

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Fuel cell electric vehicle

The term "fuel cell electric vehicle" means an on-road or non-road vehicle that uses a fuel cell (as defined in section 16152 of this title).

(2) Hybrid electric vehicle

The term "hybrid electric vehicle" means a new qualified hybrid motor vehicle (as defined in section 30B(d)(3) of title 26).

(3) Medium- or heavy-duty electric vehicle

The term "medium- or heavy-duty electric vehicle" means an electric, hybrid electric, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of more than 8,501 pounds.

(4) Neighborhood electric vehicle

The term "neighborhood electric vehicle" means a 4-wheeled on-road or nonroad vehicle that—

(A) has a top attainable speed in 1 mile of more than 20 mph and not more than 25 mph on a paved level surface; and

(B) is propelled by an electric motor and on-board, rechargeable energy storage system that is rechargeable using an off-board source of electricity.

(5) Plug-in electric drive vehicle

The term "plug-in electric drive vehicle" means a vehicle that—

(A) draws motive power from a battery with a capacity of at least 4 kilowatt-hours;

(B) can be recharged from an external source of electricity for motive power; and

(C) is a light-, medium-, or heavy duty motor vehicle or nonroad vehicle (as those terms are defined in section 7550 of this title).

(b) In general

(1) Allocation

The Secretary shall allocate a credit to a fleet or covered person that is required to acquire an alternative fueled vehicle under this subchapter, if that fleet or person acquires an alternative fueled vehicle in excess of the number that fleet or person is required to acquire under this subchapter or acquires an alternative fueled vehicle before the date that fleet or person is required to acquire an alternative fueled vehicle under such subchapter.

(2) Electric vehicles

Not later than January 31, 2009, the Secretary shall—

(A) allocate credit in an amount to be determined by the Secretary for—

(i) acquisition of—

(I) a hybrid electric vehicle;

(II) a plug-in electric drive vehicle;

(III) a fuel cell electric vehicle;

(IV) a neighborhood electric vehicle; or

(V) a medium- or heavy-duty electric vehicle; and


(ii) investment in qualified alternative fuel infrastructure or nonroad equipment, as determined by the Secretary; and


(B) allocate more than 1, but not to exceed 5, credits for investment in an emerging technology relating to any vehicle described in subparagraph (A) to encourage—

(i) a reduction in petroleum demand;

(ii) technological advancement; and

(iii) a reduction in vehicle emissions.

(c) Allocation

In allocating credits under subsection (b), the Secretary shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle the fleet or covered person acquires that exceeds the number of alternative fueled vehicles that fleet or person is required to acquire under this subchapter or that is acquired before the date that fleet or person is required to acquire an alternative fueled vehicle under such subchapter. In the event that a vehicle is acquired before the date otherwise required, the Secretary shall allocate one credit per vehicle for each year the vehicle is acquired before the required date. The credit shall be allocated for the same type vehicle as the excess vehicle or earlier acquired vehicle.

(d) Use of credits

At the request of a fleet or covered person allocated a credit under this section, the Secretary shall treat the credit as the acquisition of one alternative fueled vehicle of the type for which the credit is allocated in the year designated by that fleet or person when determining whether that fleet or person has complied with this subchapter in the year designated. A credit may be counted toward compliance for only one year.

(e) Transferability

A fleet or covered person allocated a credit under this section or to whom a credit is transferred under this section, may transfer freely the credit to another fleet or person who is required to comply with this subchapter. At the request of the fleet or person to whom a credit is transferred, the Secretary shall treat the transferred credit as the acquisition of one alternative fueled vehicle of the type for which the credit is allocated in the year designated by the fleet or person to whom the credit is transferred when determining whether that fleet or person has complied with this subchapter in the year designated. A transferred credit may be counted toward compliance for only one year. In the case of the alternative fuel provider program under section 13251 of this title, a transferred credit may be counted toward compliance only if the requirement of section 13251(a)(4) of this title is met.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2013.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §508, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2897; Pub. L. 110–140, title I, §133, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1511.)

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–140, §133(2), added subsec. (a). Former subsec. (a) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–140, §133(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (a) as (b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, and added par. (2). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–140, §133(1), (4), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c) and substituted "subsection (b)" for "subsection (a)". Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 110–140, §133(1), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–140, §133(5), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§13259. Secretary's recommendations to Congress

(a) Recommendations to require availability or acquisition

If the Secretary determines, under section 13257(f) of this title, that a fleet requirement program under section 13257 of this title is not necessary, the Secretary shall so notify the Congress. If the Secretary so notifies the Congress, the Secretary shall, within 2 years after such notification and by rule, prepare and submit to the Congress recommendations for requirements or incentives for—

(1) fuel suppliers to make available to the public replacement fuels, including providing for the construction or availability of related fuel delivery systems;

(2) suppliers of alternative fueled vehicles to make available to the public alternative fueled vehicles and to ensure the availability of necessary related services; and

(3) motor vehicle drivers to use replacement fuels,


to the extent necessary to achieve such goals of replacement fuel use and to ensure that the availability of alternative fuels and of alternative fueled vehicles are consistent with each other.

(b) Fair and equitable application

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall recommend the imposition of requirements proportionately on all appropriate fuel suppliers and purchasers of motor fuels and suppliers and purchasers of motor vehicles in a fair and equitable manner.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §509, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2898.)

§13260. Effect on other laws

(a) In general

Nothing in this Act or the amendments made by this Act shall be construed to alter, affect, or modify the provisions of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], or regulations issued thereunder.

(b) Compliance by alternative fueled vehicles

Alternative fueled vehicles, whether dedicated vehicles or dual fueled vehicles, and the alternative fuels for operating such vehicles, shall comply with requirements of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] applicable to such vehicles and fuels.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §510, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2898.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 102–486, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2776, known as the Energy Policy Act of 1992. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13201 of this title and Tables.

The Clean Air Act, referred to in text, is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

§13261. Prohibited acts

It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any provision of section 13251, 13253(b), 13257, or 13263a of this title, or any regulation issued under such sections.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §511, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2899; Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §703(b), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 816.)

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–58 substituted "13257, or 13263a" for "or 13257".

§13262. Enforcement

(a) Violation

Whoever violates section 13261 of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.

(b) Willful violation

Whoever willfully violates section 13261 of this title shall be fined not more than $10,000 for each violation.

(c) Knowing and willful violation following prior violation and penalty

Any person who knowingly and willfully violates section 13261 of this title after having been subjected to a civil penalty for a prior violation of section 13261 of this title shall be fined not more than $50,000.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §512, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2899.)

§13263. Powers of Secretary

For the purpose of carrying out subchapter I, subchapter II, this subchapter, and subchapter IV, the Secretary, or the duly designated agent of the Secretary, may hold such hearings, take such testimony, sit and act at such times and places, administer such oaths, and require, by subpena, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, correspondence, memorandums, contracts, agreements, or other records as the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to do under section 32910(a)(1) of title 49.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §513, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2899.)

References in Text

Subchapter I, referred to in text, was in the original "title III" meaning title III of Pub. L. 102–486, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2866, which enacted subchapter I of this chapter, amended section 6374 of this title, and repealed provisions set out as a note under section 6374 of this title.

Subchapter II, referred to in text, was in the original "title IV" meaning title IV of Pub. L. 102–486, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2875, which enacted subchapter II of this chapter, amended sections 6374a to 6374c of this title and sections 717, 717a, 2001, 2002, 2006, and 2013 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 79b and 717 of Title 15, and repealed provisions set out as a note under section 717c of Title 15.

Codification

In text, "section 32910(a)(1) of title 49" substituted for "section 505(b)(1) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C. 2005(b)(1))" on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

§13263a. Alternative compliance

(a) Application for waiver

Any covered person subject to section 13251 of this title and any State subject to section 13257(o) of this title may petition the Secretary for a waiver of the applicable requirements of section 13251 or 13257(o) of this title.

(b) Grant of waiver

The Secretary shall grant a waiver of the requirements of section 13251 or 13257(o) of this title on a showing that the fleet owned, operated, leased, or otherwise controlled by the State or covered person—

(1) will achieve a reduction in the annual consumption of petroleum fuels by the fleet equal to—

(A) the reduction in consumption of petroleum that would result from 100 percent cumulative compliance with the fuel use requirements of section 13251 of this title; or

(B) in the case of an entity covered under section 13257(o) of this title, a reduction equal to the annual consumption by the State entity of alternative fuels if all of the cumulative alternative fuel vehicles of the State entity given credit under section 13258 of this title were to use alternative fuel 100 percent of the time; and


(2) is in compliance with all applicable vehicle emission standards established by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.).

(c) Reporting requirement

Not later than December 31 of a model year, any State or covered person granted a waiver under this section for the preceding model year shall submit to the Secretary an annual report that—

(1) certifies the quantity of the petroleum motor fuel reduction of the State or covered person during the preceding model year; and

(2) projects the baseline quantity of the petroleum motor fuel reduction of the State or covered person during the following model year.

(d) Revocation of waiver

If a State or covered person that receives a waiver under this section fails to comply with this section, the Secretary—

(1) shall revoke the waiver; and

(2) may impose on the State or covered person a penalty under section 13262 of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §514, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §703(a)(2), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 815.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 514 of Pub. L. 102–486 was renumbered 515 and is classified to section 13264 of this title.

§13264. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this subchapter $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1993 through 1997, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1998 through 2000.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title V, §515, formerly §514, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2899; renumbered §515, Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §703(a)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 815.)