[USC02] 42 USC Ch. 149: NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY AND PROGRAMS
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42 USC Ch. 149: NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY AND PROGRAMS
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 149—NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY AND PROGRAMS

Sec.
15801.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Part A—Federal Programs

15811.
Voluntary commitments to reduce industrial energy intensity.
15812.
Advanced building efficiency testbed.
15813.
Enhancing energy efficiency in management of Federal lands.

        

Part B—Energy Assistance and State Programs

15821.
Energy efficient appliance rebate programs.
15822.
Energy efficient public buildings.
15823.
Low income community energy efficiency pilot program.
15824.
State Technologies Advancement Collaborative.

        

Part C—Energy Efficient Products

15831.
Public energy education program.
15832.
Energy efficiency public information initiative.
15833.
Energy efficiency pilot program.
15834.
Report on failure to comply with deadlines for new or revised energy conservation standards.

        

Part D—Public Housing

15841.
Energy-efficient appliances.
15842.
Energy strategy for HUD.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—RENEWABLE ENERGY

Part A—General Provisions

15851.
Assessment of renewable energy resources.
15852.
Federal purchase requirement.
15853.
Rebate program.
15854.
Sugar Cane Ethanol Program.
15855.
Grants to improve the commercial value of forest biomass for electric energy, useful heat, transportation fuels, and other commercial purposes.

        

Part B—Geothermal Energy

15871.
Coordination of geothermal leasing and permitting on Federal lands.
15872.
Assessment of geothermal energy potential.
15873.
Deposit and use of geothermal lease revenues for 5 fiscal years.
15874.
Intermountain West Geothermal Consortium.

        

Part C—Hydroelectric

15881.
Hydroelectric production incentives.
15882.
Hydroelectric efficiency improvement.

        

Part D—Insular Energy

15891.
Projects enhancing insular energy independence.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—OIL AND GAS

Part A—Production Incentives

15901.
Definition of Secretary.
15902.
Program on oil and gas royalties in-kind.
15903.
Marginal property production incentives.
15904.
Incentives for natural gas production from deep wells in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
15905.
Royalty relief for deep water production.
15906.
North Slope Science Initiative.
15907.
Orphaned, abandoned, or idled wells on Federal land.
15908.
Preservation of geological and geophysical data.
15909.
Gas hydrate production incentive.
15910.
Enhanced oil and natural gas production through carbon dioxide injection.
15911.
Denali Commission.
15912.
Comprehensive inventory of OCS oil and natural gas resources.

        

Part B—Access to Federal Lands

15921.
Management of Federal oil and gas leasing programs.
15922.
Consultation regarding oil and gas leasing on public land.
15923.
Methodology.
15924.
Project to improve Federal permit coordination.
15925.
Fair market value determinations for linear rights-of-way across public lands and national forests.
15926.
Energy right-of-way corridors on Federal land.
15927.
Oil shale, tar sands, and other strategic unconventional fuels.
15928.
Consultation regarding energy rights-of-way on public land.

        

Part C—Miscellaneous

15941.
Great Lakes oil and gas drilling ban.
15942.
NEPA review.

        

Part D—Refinery Revitalization

15951.
Findings and definitions.
15952.
Federal-State regulatory coordination and assistance.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—COAL

Part A—Clean Coal Power Initiative

15961.
Authorization of appropriations.
15962.
Project criteria.
15963.
Report.
15964.
Clean coal centers of excellence.
15965.
Time limit for award; extension.

        

Part B—Clean Power Projects

15971.
Integrated coal/renewable energy system.
15972.
Loan to place Alaska clean coal technology facility in service.
15973.
Western integrated coal gasification demonstration project.
15974.
Coal gasification.
15975.
Petroleum coke gasification.
15976.
Electron scrubbing demonstration.
15977.
Department of Energy transportation fuels from Illinois basin coal.

        

Part C—Federal Coal Leases

15991.
Inventory requirement.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—INDIAN ENERGY

16001.
Energy efficiency in federally assisted housing.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—NUCLEAR MATTERS

Part A—General Nuclear Matters

16011.
Demonstration hydrogen production at existing nuclear power plants.
16012.
Prohibition on assumption by United States Government of liability for certain foreign incidents.
16013.
Authorization of appropriations.
16014.
Standby support for certain nuclear plant delays.

        

Part B—Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

16021.
Project establishment.
16022.
Project management.
16023.
Project organization.
16024.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
16025.
Project timelines and authorization of appropriations.

        

Part C—Nuclear Security

16041.
Nuclear facility and materials security.
16042.
Department of Homeland Security consultation.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—VEHICLES AND FUELS

Part A—Existing Programs

16051.
Joint flexible fuel/hybrid vehicle commercialization initiative.

        

Part B—Hybrid Vehicles, Advanced Vehicles, and Fuel Cell Buses

subpart 1—hybrid vehicles

16061.
Hybrid vehicles.
16062.
Domestic manufacturing conversion grant program.

        

subpart 2—advanced vehicles

16071.
Pilot program.
16072.
Reports to Congress.
16073.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

subpart 3—fuel cell buses

16081.
Fuel cell transit bus demonstration.

        

Part C—Clean School Buses

16091.
Clean school bus program.
16091a.
Clean school bus program.
16092.
Diesel truck retrofit and fleet modernization program.
16093.
Fuel cell school buses.

        

Part D—Miscellaneous

16101.
Railroad efficiency.
16102.
Diesel fueled vehicles.
16103.
Conserve by Bicycling Program.
16104.
Reduction of engine idling.
16105.
Biodiesel engine testing program.
16106.
Ultra-efficient engine technology for aircraft.

        

Part E—Federal and State Procurement

16121.
Definitions.
16122.
Federal and State procurement of fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy systems.
16123.
Federal procurement of stationary, portable, and micro fuel cells.

        

Part F—Diesel Emissions Reduction

16131.
Definitions.
16132.
National grant, rebate, and loan programs.
16133.
State grant, rebate, and loan programs.
16134.
Evaluation and report.
16135.
Outreach and incentives.
16136.
Effect of part.
16137.
Authorization of appropriations.
16138.
EPA authority to accept diesel emissions reduction Supplemental Environmental Projects.
16139.
Settlement agreement provisions.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—HYDROGEN

16151.
Purposes.
16152.
Definitions.
16153.
Plan.
16154.
Programs.
16155.
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Task Force.
16156.
Technical Advisory Committee.
16157.
Demonstration.
16158.
Codes and standards.
16159.
Disclosure.
16160.
Reports.
16161.
Solar and wind technologies.
16162.
Technology transfer.
16163.
Miscellaneous provisions.
16164.
Cost sharing.
16165.
Savings clause.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

16181.
Goals.
16182.
Definitions.

        

Part A—Energy Efficiency

16191.
Energy efficiency.
16192.
Next Generation Lighting Initiative.
16193.
National Building Performance Initiative.
16194.
Building standards.
16195.
Secondary electric vehicle battery use program.
16196.
Energy Efficiency Science Initiative.
16197.
Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Centers.

        

Part B—Distributed Energy and Electric Energy Systems

16211.
Distributed energy and electric energy systems.
16212.
High power density industry program.
16213.
Micro-cogeneration energy technology.
16214.
Distributed energy technology demonstration programs.
16215.
Electric transmission and distribution programs.

        

Part C—Renewable Energy

16231.
Renewable energy.
16232.
Bioenergy program.
16233.
Low-cost renewable hydrogen and infrastructure for vehicle propulsion.
16234.
Concentrating solar power research program.
16235.
Renewable energy in public buildings.

        

Part D—Agricultural Biomass Research and Development Programs

16251.
Production incentives for cellulosic biofuels.
16252.
Education.
16253.
Small business bioproduct marketing and certification grants.
16254.
Regional bioeconomy development grants.
16255.
Preprocessing and harvesting demonstration grants.
16256.
Education and outreach.

        

Part E—Nuclear Energy

16271.
Nuclear energy.
16272.
Nuclear energy research programs.
16273.
Advanced fuel cycle initiative.
16274.
University nuclear science and engineering support.
16274a.
Integrated University Program.
16275.
Department of Energy civilian nuclear infrastructure and facilities.
16276.
Security of nuclear facilities.
16277.
High-performance computation and supportive research.
16278.
Enabling nuclear energy innovation.
16279.
Budget plan.
16280.
Advanced Nuclear Energy Licensing Cost-Share Grant Program.

        

Part F—Fossil Energy

16291.
Fossil energy.
16291a.
Property interests.
16292.
Coal and related technologies program.
16293.
Carbon capture and sequestration research, development, and demonstration program.
16294.
Research and development for coal mining technologies.
16295.
Oil and gas research programs.
16296.
Low-volume oil and gas reservoir research program.
16297.
Complex Well Technology Testing Facility.

        

Part G—Science

16311.
Science.
16312.
Fusion energy sciences program.
16313.
Solar Fuels Research Initiative.
16314.
Hydrogen.
16315.
Electricity Storage Research Initiative.
16316.
Advanced scientific computing research and development program.
16317.
Systems biology program.
16318.
Fission and fusion energy materials research program.
16319.
Energy and water supplies.
16320.
Spallation Neutron Source.
16321.
Facility for Rare Isotope Beams.
16322.
Office of Scientific and Technical Information.
16323.
Science and engineering education pilot program.
16324.
Energy research fellowships.
16325.
Science and Technology Scholarship Program.

        

Part H—International Cooperation

16341.
Western Hemisphere energy cooperation.
16342.
International energy training.

        

Part I—Research Administration and Operations

16351.
Availability of funds.
16352.
Cost sharing.
16353.
Merit review of proposals.
16354.
External technical review of departmental programs.
16355.
National Laboratory designation.
16356.
Report on equal employment opportunity practices.
16357.
Strategy for facilities and infrastructure.
16358.
Strategic research portfolio analysis and coordination plan.
16359.
Competitive award of management contracts.
16360.
Western Michigan demonstration project.
16361.
Arctic Engineering Research Center.
16362.
Barrow Geophysical Research Facility.

        

Part J—Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources

16371 to 16378. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER X—DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT

16391.
Improved technology transfer of energy technologies.
16392.
Technology Infrastructure Program.
16393.
Small business advocacy and assistance.
16394.
Outreach.
16395.
Relationship to other laws.
16396.
Prizes for achievement in grand challenges of science and technology.

        

SUBCHAPTER XI—PERSONNEL AND TRAINING

16411.
Workforce trends and traineeship grants.
16412.
Training guidelines for nonnuclear electric energy industry personnel.
16413.
National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies.
16414.
National Power Plant Operations Technology and Educational Center.

        

SUBCHAPTER XII—ELECTRICITY

Part A—Transmission Infrastructure Modernization

16421.
Third-party finance.
16421a.
Western Area Power Administration borrowing authority.
16422.
Advanced transmission technologies.
16423.
Advanced Power System Technology Incentive Program.

        

Part B—Transmission Operation Improvements

16431.
Federal utility participation in transmission organizations.
16432.
Study on the benefits of economic dispatch.

        

Part C—Transmission Rate Reform

16441.
Funding new interconnection and transmission upgrades.

        

Part D—Repeal of Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935

16451.
Definitions.
16452.
Federal access to books and records.
16453.
State access to books and records.
16454.
Exemption authority.
16455.
Affiliate transactions.
16456.
Applicability.
16457.
Effect on other regulations.
16458.
Enforcement.
16459.
Savings provisions.
16460.
Implementation.
16461.
Transfer of resources.
16462.
Service allocation.
16463.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part E—Market Transparency, Enforcement, and Consumer Protection

16471.
Consumer privacy and unfair trade practices.

        

Part F—Definitions

16481.
Commission defined.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIII—MISCELLANEOUS

16491.
Energy production incentives.
16492.
Regulation of certain oil used in transformers.
16493.
National Priority Project Designation.
16494.
Oxygen-fuel.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIV—ETHANOL AND MOTOR FUELS

16501.
Commercial byproducts from municipal solid waste and cellulosic biomass loan guarantee program.
16502.
Advanced Biofuel Technologies Program.
16503.
Sugar ethanol loan guarantee program.

        

SUBCHAPTER XV—INCENTIVES FOR INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

16511.
Definitions.
16512.
Terms and conditions.
16513.
Eligible projects.
16514.
Authorization of appropriations.
16515.
Limitation on commitments to guarantee loans.
16516.
Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVI—STUDIES

16521.
Report on energy integration with Latin America.
16522.
Low-volume gas reservoir study.
16523.
Alaska natural gas pipeline.
16524.
Study on the benefits of economic dispatch.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVII—PROTECTING AMERICA'S COMPETITIVE EDGE THROUGH ENERGY

16531.
Definitions.
16532.
Nuclear science talent expansion program for institutions of higher education.
16533.
Hydrocarbon systems science talent expansion program for institutions of higher education.
16534.
Department of Energy early career awards for science, engineering, and mathematics researchers.
16535.
Discovery science and engineering innovation institutes.
16536.
Protecting America's Competitive Edge (PACE) graduate fellowship program.
16537.
Distinguished scientist program.
16538.
Advanced Research Projects Agency—Energy.

        

§15801. Definitions

Except as otherwise provided, in this Act:

(1) Department

The term "Department" means the Department of Energy.

(2) Institution of higher education

(A) In general

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001(a) of title 20.

(B) Inclusion

The term "institution of higher education" includes an organization that—

(i) is organized, and at all times thereafter operated, exclusively for the benefit of, to perform the functions of, or to carry out the functions of one or more organizations referred to in subparagraph (A); and

(ii) is operated, supervised, or controlled by or in connection with one or more of those organizations.

(3) National Laboratory

The term "National Laboratory" means any of the following laboratories owned by the Department:

(A) Ames Laboratory.

(B) Argonne National Laboratory.

(C) Brookhaven National Laboratory.

(D) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

(E) Idaho National Laboratory.

(F) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

(G) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

(H) Los Alamos National Laboratory.

(I) National Energy Technology Laboratory.

(J) National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

(K) Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

(L) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

(M) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

(N) Sandia National Laboratories.

(O) Savannah River National Laboratory.

(P) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

(Q) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

(4) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(5) Small business concern

The term "small business concern" has the meaning given the term in section 632 of title 15.

(Pub. L. 109–58, §2, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 604.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.

Short Title of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–248, §1, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3154, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 16278 to 16280 of this title and amending sections 16021, 16271 to 16274, and 16275 to 16277 of this title] may be cited as the 'Nuclear Energy Innovation Capabilities Act of 2017'."

Short Title of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–364, §1, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4056, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 16131 to 16134 and 16137 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 16131 of this title] may be cited as the 'Diesel Emissions Reduction Act of 2010'."

Short Title of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–69, title V, §5001, Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 600, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter XVII of this chapter and sections 7381g to 7381r of this title, amending sections 7381a, 7381d, 7381e, and 16311 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 7381g of this title] may be cited as the 'Protecting America's Competitive Edge Through Energy Act' or the 'PACE–Energy Act'."

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–375, §1, Dec. 1, 2006, 120 Stat. 2656, provided that: "This Act [amending section 15855 of this title] may be cited as the 'Sierra National Forest Land Exchange Act of 2006'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 109–58, §1(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Energy Policy Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §431, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 760, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle D (§§431–438) of title IV of Pub. L. 109–58, enacting part C (§15991) of subchapter IV of this chapter, amending sections 201, 202a, 203, and 207 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 201 of Title 30] may be cited as the 'Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–58, title V, §501, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 763, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter V of this chapter, section 7144e of this title, and chapter 37 (§3501 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians, amending section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 4132 of Title 25, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3501 of Title 25] may be cited as the 'Indian Tribal Energy Development and Self-Determination Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §801, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 844, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter VIII of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §901, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter IX of this chapter, amending sections 8101 and 8102 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 8102 of Title 7 and section 2001 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, amending provisions set out as notes under section 8101 of Title 7, and section 1902 of Title 30] may be cited as the 'Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Commercial Application Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–58, title XII, §1201, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 941, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter XII of this chapter and sections 824j–1 and 824o to 824w of Title 16, Conservation, amending sections 796, 824, 824a–3, 824b, 824e, 824j, 824m, 825e, 825f, 825l to 825o, 825o–1, 2621, 2622, 2625, 2634, and 2642 of Title 16, repealing chapter 2C (§79 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and sections 824n and 825q of Title 16, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 16451 of this title and sections 824b, 824o, 824q, and 2642 of Title 16] may be cited as the 'Electricity Modernization Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–58, title XII, §1261, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 972, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle F (§§1261–1277) of title XII of Pub.L. 109–58, enacting part D (§16451 et seq.) of subchapter XII of this chapter, amending sections 824 and 824m of Title 16, Conservation, repealing chapter 2C (§79 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 825q of Title 16, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 16451 of this title] may be cited as the 'Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005'."

SUBCHAPTER I—ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Part A—Federal Programs

§15811. Voluntary commitments to reduce industrial energy intensity

(a) Definition of energy intensity

In this section, the term "energy intensity" means the primary energy consumed for each unit of physical output in an industrial process.

(b) Voluntary agreements

The Secretary may enter into voluntary agreements with one or more persons in industrial sectors that consume significant quantities of primary energy for each unit of physical output to reduce the energy intensity of the production activities of the persons.

(c) Goal

Voluntary agreements under this section shall have as a goal the reduction of energy intensity by not less than 2.5 percent each year during the period of calendar years 2007 through 2016.

(d) Recognition

The Secretary, in cooperation with other appropriate Federal agencies, shall develop mechanisms to recognize and publicize the achievements of participants in voluntary agreements under this section.

(e) Technical assistance

A person that enters into an agreement under this section and continues to make a good faith effort to achieve the energy efficiency goals specified in the agreement shall be eligible to receive from the Secretary a grant or technical assistance, as appropriate, to assist in the achievement of those goals.

(f) Report

Not later than each of June 30, 2012, and June 30, 2017, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that—

(1) evaluates the success of the voluntary agreements under this section; and

(2) provides independent verification of a sample of the energy savings estimates provided by participating firms.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §106, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 611.)

§15812. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed

(a) Establishment

The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of General Services, shall establish an Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed program for the development, testing, and demonstration of advanced engineering systems, components, and materials to enable innovations in building technologies. The program shall evaluate efficiency concepts for government and industry buildings, and demonstrate the ability of next generation buildings to support individual and organizational productivity and health (including by improving indoor air quality) as well as flexibility and technological change to improve environmental sustainability. Such program shall complement and not duplicate existing national programs.

(b) Participants

The program established under subsection (a) shall be led by a university with the ability to combine the expertise from numerous academic fields including, at a minimum, intelligent workplaces and advanced building systems and engineering, electrical and computer engineering, computer science, architecture, urban design, and environmental and mechanical engineering. Such university shall partner with other universities and entities who have established programs and the capability of advancing innovative building efficiency technologies.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $6,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2008, to remain available until expended. For any fiscal year in which funds are expended under this section, the Secretary shall provide one-third of the total amount to the lead university described in subsection (b), and provide the remaining two-thirds to the other participants referred to in subsection (b) on an equal basis.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §107, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 612.)

§15813. Enhancing energy efficiency in management of Federal lands

(a) Sense of the Congress

It is the sense of the Congress that Federal agencies should enhance the use of energy efficient technologies in the management of natural resources.

(b) Energy efficient buildings

To the extent practicable, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Agriculture shall seek to incorporate energy efficient technologies in public and administrative buildings associated with management of the National Park System, National Wildlife Refuge System, National Forest System, National Marine Sanctuaries System, and other public lands and resources managed by the Secretaries.

(c) Energy efficient vehicles

To the extent practicable, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Agriculture shall seek to use energy efficient motor vehicles, including vehicles equipped with biodiesel or hybrid engine technologies, in the management of the National Park System, National Wildlife Refuge System, National Forest System, National Marine Sanctuaries System, and other public lands and resources managed by the Secretaries.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §111, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 615.)

Part B—Energy Assistance and State Programs

§15821. Energy efficient appliance rebate programs

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Eligible State

The term "eligible State" means a State that meets the requirements of subsection (b).

(2) Energy Star program

The term "Energy Star program" means the program established by section 6294a of this title.

(3) Residential Energy Star product

The term "residential Energy Star product" means a product for a residence that is rated for energy efficiency under the Energy Star program.

(4) State energy office

The term "State energy office" means the State agency responsible for developing State energy conservation plans under section 6322 of this title.

(5) State program

The term "State program" means a State energy efficient appliance rebate program described in subsection (b)(1).

(b) Eligible States

A State shall be eligible to receive an allocation under subsection (c) if the State—

(1) establishes (or has established) a State energy efficient appliance rebate program to provide rebates to residential consumers for the purchase of residential Energy Star products, or products with improved energy efficiency in cold climates, to replace used appliances of the same type;

(2) submits an application for the allocation at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the Secretary may require; and

(3) provides assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that the State will use the allocation to supplement, but not supplant, funds made available to carry out the State program.

(c) Amount of allocations

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), for each fiscal year, the Secretary shall allocate to the State energy office of each eligible State to carry out subsection (d) an amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying the amount made available under subsection (f) for the fiscal year by the ratio that the population of the State in the most recent calendar year for which data are available bears to the total population of all eligible States in that calendar year.

(2) Minimum allocations

For each fiscal year, the amounts allocated under this subsection shall be adjusted proportionately so that no eligible State is allocated a sum that is less than an amount determined by the Secretary.

(d) Use of allocated funds

The allocation to a State energy office under subsection (c) may be used to pay up to 50 percent of the cost of establishing and carrying out a State program.

(e) Issuance of rebates

Rebates may be provided to residential consumers that meet the requirements of the State program. The amount of a rebate shall be determined by the State energy office, taking into consideration—

(1) the amount of the allocation to the State energy office under subsection (c);

(2) the amount of any Federal or State tax incentive available for the purchase of the residential Energy Star product or product with improved energy efficiency in a cold climate; and

(3) the difference between the cost of the residential Energy Star product or product with improved energy efficiency in a cold climate and the cost of an appliance that is not a residential Energy Star product or product with improved energy efficiency in a cold climate, but is of the same type as, and is the nearest capacity, performance, and other relevant characteristics (as determined by the State energy office) to, the residential Energy Star product or product with improved energy efficiency in a cold climate.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $50,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §124, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 110–140, title III, §315(b), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1572.)

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–140, §315(b)(1), inserted ", or products with improved energy efficiency in cold climates," after "residential Energy Star products".

Subsec. (e)(2), (3). Pub. L. 110–140, §315(b)(2), inserted "or product with improved energy efficiency in a cold climate" after "residential Energy Star product" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§15822. Energy efficient public buildings

(a) Grants

The Secretary may make grants to the State agency responsible for developing State energy conservation plans under section 6322 of this title, or, if no such agency exists, a State agency designated by the Governor of the State, to assist units of local government in the State in improving the energy efficiency of public buildings and facilities—

(1) through construction of new energy efficient public buildings that use at least 30 percent less energy than a comparable public building constructed in compliance with standards prescribed in the most recent version of the International Energy Conservation Code, or a similar State code intended to achieve substantially equivalent efficiency levels; or

(2) through renovation of existing public buildings to achieve reductions in energy use of at least 30 percent as compared to the baseline energy use in such buildings prior to renovation, assuming a 3-year, weather-normalized average for calculating such baseline.

(b) Administration

State energy offices receiving grants under this section shall—

(1) maintain such records and evidence of compliance as the Secretary may require; and

(2) develop and distribute information and materials and conduct programs to provide technical services and assistance to encourage planning, financing, and design of energy efficient public buildings by units of local government.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

For the purposes of this section, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010. Not more than 10 percent of appropriated funds shall be used for administration.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §125, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 618.)

§15823. Low income community energy efficiency pilot program

(a) Grants

The Secretary is authorized to make grants to units of local government, private, non-profit community development organizations, and Indian tribe economic development entities to improve energy efficiency; identify and develop alternative, renewable, and distributed energy supplies; and increase energy conservation in low income rural and urban communities.

(b) Purpose of grants

The Secretary may make grants on a competitive basis for—

(1) investments that develop alternative, renewable, and distributed energy supplies;

(2) energy efficiency projects and energy conservation programs;

(3) studies and other activities that improve energy efficiency in low income rural and urban communities;

(4) planning and development assistance for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings and facilities; and

(5) technical and financial assistance to local government and private entities on developing new renewable and distributed sources of power or combined heat and power generation.

(c) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "Indian tribe" means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaskan Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

For the purposes of this section there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2008.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §126, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 618.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

§15824. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

(a) In general

The Secretary, in cooperation with the States, shall establish a cooperative program for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies in which there is a common Federal and State energy efficiency, renewable energy, and fossil energy interest, to be known as the "State Technologies Advancement Collaborative" (referred to in this section as the "Collaborative").

(b) Duties

The Collaborative shall—

(1) leverage Federal and State funding through cost-shared activity;

(2) reduce redundancies in Federal and State funding; and

(3) create multistate projects to be awarded through a competitive process.

(c) Administration

The Collaborative shall be administered through an agreement between the Department and appropriate State-based organizations.

(d) Funding sources

Funding for the Collaborative may be provided from—

(1) amounts specifically appropriated for the Collaborative; or

(2) amounts that may be allocated from other appropriations without changing the purpose for which the amounts are appropriated.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to carry out this section such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §127, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 619.)

Part C—Energy Efficient Products

§15831. Public energy education program

(a) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall convene an organizational conference for the purpose of establishing an ongoing, self-sustaining national public energy education program.

(b) Participants

The Secretary shall invite to participate in the conference individuals and entities representing all aspects of energy production and distribution, including—

(1) industrial firms;

(2) professional societies;

(3) educational organizations;

(4) trade associations; and

(5) governmental agencies.

(c) Purpose, scope, and structure

(1) Purpose

The purpose of the conference shall be to establish an ongoing, self-sustaining national public energy education program to examine and recognize interrelationships between energy sources in all forms, including—

(A) conservation and energy efficiency;

(B) the role of energy use in the economy; and

(C) the impact of energy use on the environment.

(2) Scope and structure

Taking into consideration the purpose described in paragraph (1), the participants in the conference invited under subsection (b) shall design the scope and structure of the program described in subsection (a).

(d) Technical assistance

The Secretary shall provide technical assistance and other guidance necessary to carry out the program described in subsection (a).

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §133, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 622.)

§15832. Energy efficiency public information initiative

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a comprehensive national program, including advertising and media awareness, to inform consumers about—

(1) the need to reduce energy consumption during the 4-year period beginning on August 8, 2005;

(2) the benefits to consumers of reducing consumption of electricity, natural gas, and petroleum, particularly during peak use periods;

(3) the importance of low energy costs to economic growth and preserving manufacturing jobs in the United States; and

(4) practical, cost-effective measures that consumers can take to reduce consumption of electricity, natural gas, and gasoline, including—

(A) maintaining and repairing heating and cooling ducts and equipment;

(B) weatherizing homes and buildings;

(C) purchasing energy efficient products; and

(D) proper tire maintenance.

(b) Cooperation

The program carried out under subsection (a) shall—

(1) include collaborative efforts with State and local government officials and the private sector; and

(2) incorporate, to the maximum extent practicable, successful State and local public education programs.

(c) Report

Not later than July 1, 2009, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report describing the effectiveness of the program under this section.

(d) Termination of authority

The program carried out under this section shall terminate on December 31, 2010.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $90,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §134, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 623.)

§15833. Energy efficiency pilot program

(a) In general

The Secretary shall establish a pilot program under which the Secretary provides financial assistance to at least 3, but not more than 7, States to carry out pilot projects in the States for—

(1) planning and adopting statewide programs that encourage, for each year in which the pilot project is carried out—

(A) energy efficiency; and

(B) reduction of consumption of electricity or natural gas in the State by at least 0.75 percent, as compared to a baseline determined by the Secretary for the period preceding the implementation of the program; or


(2) for any State that has adopted a statewide program as of August 8, 2005, activities that reduce energy consumption in the State by expanding and improving the program.

(b) Verification

A State that receives financial assistance under subsection (a)(1) shall submit to the Secretary independent verification of any energy savings achieved through the statewide program.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §140, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 647.)

§15834. Report on failure to comply with deadlines for new or revised energy conservation standards

(a) Initial report

The Secretary shall submit a report to Congress regarding each new or revised energy conservation or water use standard which the Secretary has failed to issue in conformance with the deadlines established in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act [42 U.S.C. 6201 et seq.]. Such report shall state the reasons why the Secretary has failed to comply with the deadline for issuances of the new or revised standard and set forth the Secretary's plan for expeditiously prescribing such new or revised standard. The Secretary's initial report shall be submitted not later than 6 months following August 8, 2005, and subsequent reports shall be submitted whenever the Secretary determines that additional deadlines for issuance of new or revised standards have been missed.

(b) Implementation report

Every 6 months following the submission of a report under subsection (a) until the adoption of a new or revised standard described in such report, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress an implementation report describing the Secretary's progress in implementing the Secretary's plan or the issuance of the new or revised standard.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §141, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 648.)

References in Text

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 94–163, Dec. 22, 1975, 89 Stat. 871, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 77 (§6201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6201 of this title and Tables.

Part D—Public Housing

§15841. Energy-efficient appliances

In purchasing appliances, a public housing agency shall purchase energy-efficient appliances that are Energy Star products or FEMP-designated products, as such terms are defined in section 8259b of this title, unless the purchase of energy-efficient appliances is not cost-effective to the agency.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §152, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 649.)

§15842. Energy strategy for HUD

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall develop and implement an integrated strategy to reduce utility expenses through cost-effective energy conservation and efficiency measures and energy efficient design and construction of public and assisted housing. The energy strategy shall include the development of energy reduction goals and incentives for public housing agencies. The Secretary shall submit a report to Congress, not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, on the energy strategy and the actions taken by the Department of Housing and Urban Development to monitor the energy usage of public housing agencies and shall submit an update every 2 years thereafter on progress in implementing the strategy.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title I, §154, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 650.)

SUBCHAPTER II—RENEWABLE ENERGY

Part A—General Provisions

§15851. Assessment of renewable energy resources

(a) Resource assessment

Not later than 6 months after August 8, 2005, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall review the available assessments of renewable energy resources within the United States, including solar, wind, biomass, ocean (including tidal, wave, current, and thermal), geothermal, and hydroelectric energy resources, and undertake new assessments as necessary, taking into account changes in market conditions, available technologies, and other relevant factors.

(b) Contents of reports

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall publish a report based on the assessment under subsection (a). The report shall contain—

(1) a detailed inventory describing the available amount and characteristics of the renewable energy resources; and

(2) such other information as the Secretary believes would be useful in developing such renewable energy resources, including descriptions of surrounding terrain, population and load centers, nearby energy infrastructure, location of energy and water resources, and available estimates of the costs needed to develop each resource, together with an identification of any barriers to providing adequate transmission for remote sources of renewable energy resources to current and emerging markets, recommendations for removing or addressing such barriers, and ways to provide access to the grid that do not unfairly disadvantage renewable or other energy producers.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

For the purposes of this section, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §201, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 650.)

§15852. Federal purchase requirement

(a) Requirement

The President, acting through the Secretary, shall seek to ensure that, to the extent economically feasible and technically practicable, of the total amount of electric energy the Federal Government consumes during any fiscal year, the following amounts shall be renewable energy:

(1) Not less than 3 percent in fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(2) Not less than 5 percent in fiscal years 2010 through 2012.

(3) Not less than 7.5 percent in fiscal year 2013 and each fiscal year thereafter.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Biomass

The term "biomass" means any lignin waste material that is segregated from other waste materials and is determined to be nonhazardous by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any solid, nonhazardous, cellulosic material that is derived from—

(A) any of the following forest-related resources: mill residues, precommercial thinnings, slash, and brush, or nonmerchantable material;

(B) solid wood waste materials, including waste pallets, crates, dunnage, manufacturing and construction wood wastes (other than pressure-treated, chemically-treated, or painted wood wastes), and landscape or right-of-way tree trimmings, but not including municipal solid waste (garbage), gas derived from the biodegradation of solid waste, or paper that is commonly recycled;

(C) agriculture wastes, including orchard tree crops, vineyard, grain, legumes, sugar, and other crop by-products or residues, and livestock waste nutrients; or

(D) a plant that is grown exclusively as a fuel for the production of electricity.

(2) Renewable energy

The term "renewable energy" means electric energy generated from solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean (including tidal, wave, current, and thermal), geothermal, municipal solid waste, or new hydroelectric generation capacity achieved from increased efficiency or additions of new capacity at an existing hydroelectric project.

(c) Calculation

For purposes of determining compliance with the requirement of this section, the amount of renewable energy shall be doubled if—

(1) the renewable energy is produced and used on-site at a Federal facility;

(2) the renewable energy is produced on Federal lands and used at a Federal facility; or

(3) the renewable energy is produced on Indian land as defined in title XXVI of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (25 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) and used at a Federal facility.

(d) Report

Not later than April 15, 2007, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary shall provide a report to Congress on the progress of the Federal Government in meeting the goals established by this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §203, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 652.)

References in Text

The Energy Policy Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is Pub. L. 102–486, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2776, as amended. Title XXVI of the Act is classified generally to chapter 37 (§3501 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13201 of this title and Tables.

Federal Leadership on Energy Management

Memorandum of President of the United States, Dec. 5, 2013, 78 F.R. 75209, which set a renewable energy target and building performance and energy management requirements for Federal agencies, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13693, §16(b), Mar. 19, 2015, 80 F.R. 15880, set out in a note under section 4321 of this title.

§15853. Rebate program

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a program providing rebates for consumers for expenditures made for the installation of a renewable energy system in connection with a dwelling unit or small business.

(2) Amount of rebate

Rebates provided under the program established under paragraph (1) shall be in an amount not to exceed the lesser of—

(A) 25 percent of the expenditures described in paragraph (1) made by the consumer; or

(B) $3,000.

(3) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "renewable energy system" has the meaning given that term in section 6865(c)(6)(A) of this title.

(4) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this section, to remain available until expended—

(A) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(B) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(C) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(D) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and

(E) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §206(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 655.)

§15854. Sugar Cane Ethanol Program

(a) Definition of program

In this section, the term "program" means the Sugar Cane Ethanol Program established by subsection (b).

(b) Establishment

There is established within the Environmental Protection Agency a program to be known as the "Sugar Cane Ethanol Program".

(c) Project

(1) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations under subsection (d), in carrying out the program, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall establish a project that is—

(A) carried out in multiple States—

(i) in each of which is produced cane sugar that is eligible for loans under section 7272 of title 7, or a similar subsequent authority; and

(ii) at the option of each such State, that have an incentive program that requires the use of ethanol in the State; and


(B) designed to study the production of ethanol from cane sugar, sugarcane, and sugarcane byproducts.

(2) Requirements

A project described in paragraph (1) shall—

(A) be limited to sugar producers and the production of ethanol in the States of Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and Hawaii, divided equally among the States, to demonstrate that the process may be applicable to cane sugar, sugarcane, and sugarcane byproducts;

(B) include information on the ways in which the scale of production may be replicated once the sugar cane industry has located sites for, and constructed, ethanol production facilities; and

(C) not last more than 3 years.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $36,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §208, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 656.)

§15855. Grants to improve the commercial value of forest biomass for electric energy, useful heat, transportation fuels, and other commercial purposes

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Biomass

The term "biomass" means nonmerchantable materials or precommercial thinnings that are byproducts of preventive treatments, such as trees, wood, brush, thinnings, chips, and slash, that are removed—

(A) to reduce hazardous fuels;

(B) to reduce or contain disease or insect infestation; or

(C) to restore forest health.

(2) Indian tribe

The term "Indian tribe" has the meaning given the term in section 5304(e) of title 25.

(3) Nonmerchantable

For purposes of subsection (b), the term "nonmerchantable" means that portion of the byproducts of preventive treatments that would not otherwise be used for higher value products.

(4) Person

The term "person" includes—

(A) an individual;

(B) a community (as determined by the Secretary concerned);

(C) an Indian tribe;

(D) a small business or a corporation that is incorporated in the United States; and

(E) a nonprofit organization.

(5) Preferred community

The term "preferred community" means—

(A) any Indian tribe;

(B) any town, township, municipality, or other similar unit of local government (as determined by the Secretary concerned) that—

(i) has a population of not more than 50,000 individuals; and

(ii) the Secretary concerned, in the sole discretion of the Secretary concerned, determines contains or is located near Federal or Indian land, the condition of which is at significant risk of catastrophic wildfire, disease, or insect infestation or which suffers from disease or insect infestation; or


(C) any county that—

(i) is not contained within a metropolitan statistical area; and

(ii) the Secretary concerned, in the sole discretion of the Secretary concerned, determines contains or is located near Federal or Indian land, the condition of which is at significant risk of catastrophic wildfire, disease, or insect infestation or which suffers from disease or insect infestation.

(6) Secretary concerned

The term "Secretary concerned" means the Secretary of Agriculture or the Secretary of the Interior.

(b) Biomass commercial use grant program

(1) In general

The Secretary concerned may make grants to any person in a preferred community that owns or operates a facility that uses biomass as a raw material to produce electric energy, sensible heat, or transportation fuels to offset the costs incurred to purchase biomass for use by such facility.

(2) Grant amounts

A grant under this subsection may not exceed $20 per green ton of biomass delivered.

(3) Monitoring of grant recipient activities

As a condition of a grant under this subsection, the grant recipient shall keep such records as the Secretary concerned may require to fully and correctly disclose the use of the grant funds and all transactions involved in the purchase of biomass. Upon notice by a representative of the Secretary concerned, the grant recipient shall afford the representative reasonable access to the facility that purchases or uses biomass and an opportunity to examine the inventory and records of the facility.

(c) Improved biomass use grant program

(1) In general

The Secretary concerned may make grants to persons to offset the cost of projects to develop or research opportunities to improve the use of, or add value to, biomass. In making such grants, the Secretary concerned shall give preference to persons in preferred communities.

(2) Selection

The Secretary concerned shall select a grant recipient under paragraph (1) after giving consideration to—

(A) the anticipated public benefits of the project, including the potential to develop thermal or electric energy resources or affordable energy;

(B) opportunities for the creation or expansion of small businesses and micro-businesses;

(C) the potential for new job creation;

(D) the potential for the project to improve efficiency or develop cleaner technologies for biomass utilization; and

(E) the potential for the project to reduce the hazardous fuels from the areas in greatest need of treatment.

(3) Grant amount

A grant under this subsection may not exceed $500,000.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2006 and $35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2016 to carry out this section.

(e) Report

Not later than October 1, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, and the Committee on Resources, the Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, a report describing the results of the grant programs authorized by this section. The report shall include the following:

(1) An identification of the size, type, and use of biomass by persons that receive grants under this section.

(2) The distance between the land from which the biomass was removed and the facility that used the biomass.

(3) The economic impacts, particularly new job creation, resulting from the grants to and operation of the eligible operations.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §210, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 658; Pub. L. 109–375, §6, Dec. 1, 2006, 120 Stat. 2658.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–375 substituted "$50,000,000 for fiscal year 2006 and $35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2016" for "$50,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2016".

Change of Name

Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Part B—Geothermal Energy

§15871. Coordination of geothermal leasing and permitting on Federal lands

(a) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture shall enter into and submit to Congress a memorandum of understanding in accordance with this section, the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (as amended by this Act) [30 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.], and other applicable laws, regarding coordination of leasing and permitting for geothermal development of public lands and National Forest System lands under their respective jurisdictions.

(b) Lease and permit applications

The memorandum of understanding shall—

(1) establish an administrative procedure for processing geothermal lease applications, including lines of authority, steps in application processing, and time limits for application procession;

(2) establish a 5-year program for geothermal leasing of lands in the National Forest System, and a process for updating that program every 5 years; and

(3) establish a program for reducing the backlog of geothermal lease application pending on January 1, 2005, by 90 percent within the 5-year period beginning on August 8, 2005, including, as necessary, by issuing leases, rejecting lease applications for failure to comply with the provisions of the regulations under which they were filed, or determining that an original applicant (or the applicant's assigns, heirs, or estate) is no longer interested in pursuing the lease application.

(c) Data retrieval system

The memorandum of understanding shall establish a joint data retrieval system that is capable of tracking lease and permit applications and providing to the applicant information as to their status within the Departments of the Interior and Agriculture, including an estimate of the time required for administrative action.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §225, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 665.)

References in Text

The Geothermal Steam Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 91–581, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1566, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§1001 et seq.) of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 30 and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

§15872. Assessment of geothermal energy potential

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, and thereafter as the availability of data and developments in technology warrants, the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the United States Geological Survey and in cooperation with the States, shall—

(1) update the Assessment of Geothermal Resources made during 1978; and

(2) submit to Congress the updated assessment.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §226, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 665.)

§15873. Deposit and use of geothermal lease revenues for 5 fiscal years

(a) Deposit of geothermal resources leases

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, amounts received by the United States in the first 5 fiscal years beginning after August 8, 2005, as rentals, royalties, and other payments required under leases under the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 [30 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.], excluding funds required to be paid to State and county governments, shall be deposited into a separate account in the Treasury.

(b) Use of deposits

Amounts deposited under subsection (a) shall be available to the Secretary of the Interior for expenditure, without further appropriation and without fiscal year limitation, to implement the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 [30 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.] and this Act.

(c) Transfer of funds

For the purposes of coordination and processing of geothermal leases and geothermal use authorizations on Federal land the Secretary of the Interior may authorize the expenditure or transfer of such funds as are necessary to the Forest Service.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §234, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 671.)

References in Text

The Geothermal Steam Act of 1970, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is Pub. L. 91–581, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1566, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§1001 et seq.) of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 30 and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

§15874. Intermountain West Geothermal Consortium

(a) Participation authorized

The Secretary, acting through the Idaho National Laboratory, may participate in a consortium described in subsection (b) to address science and science policy issues surrounding the expanded discovery and use of geothermal energy, including from geothermal resources on public lands.

(b) Members

The consortium referred to in subsection (a) shall—

(1) be known as the "Intermountain West Geothermal Consortium";

(2) be a regional consortium of institutions and government agencies that focuses on building collaborative efforts among the universities in the State of Idaho, other regional universities, State agencies, and the Idaho National Laboratory;

(3) include Boise State University, the University of Idaho (including the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute), the Oregon Institute of Technology, the Desert Research Institute with the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah;

(4) be hosted and managed by Boise State University; and

(5) have a director appointed by Boise State University, and associate directors appointed by each participating institution.

(c) Financial assistance

The Secretary, acting through the Idaho National Laboratory and subject to the availability of appropriations, will provide financial assistance to Boise State University for expenditure under contracts with members of the consortium to carry out the activities of the consortium.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §237, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 673.)

Part C—Hydroelectric

§15881. Hydroelectric production incentives

(a) Incentive payments

For electric energy generated and sold by a qualified hydroelectric facility during the incentive period, the Secretary shall make, subject to the availability of appropriations, incentive payments to the owner or operator of such facility. The amount of such payment made to any such owner or operator shall be as determined under subsection (e) of this section. Payments under this section may only be made upon receipt by the Secretary of an incentive payment application which establishes that the applicant is eligible to receive such payment and which satisfies such other requirements as the Secretary deems necessary. Such application shall be in such form, and shall be submitted at such time, as the Secretary shall establish.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Qualified hydroelectric facility

The term "qualified hydroelectric facility" means a turbine or other generating device owned or solely operated by a non-Federal entity which generates hydroelectric energy for sale and which is added to an existing dam or conduit.

(2) Existing dam or conduit

The term "existing dam or conduit" means any dam or conduit the construction of which was completed before August 8, 2005, and which does not require any construction or enlargement of impoundment or diversion structures (other than repair or reconstruction) in connection with the installation of a turbine or other generating device.

(3) Conduit

The term "conduit" has the same meaning as when used in section 823a(a)(2) of title 16.


The terms defined in this subsection shall apply without regard to the hydroelectric kilowatt capacity of the facility concerned, without regard to whether the facility uses a dam owned by a governmental or nongovernmental entity, and without regard to whether the facility begins operation on or after August 8, 2005.

(c) Eligibility window

Payments may be made under this section only for electric energy generated from a qualified hydroelectric facility which begins operation during the period of 10 fiscal years beginning with the first full fiscal year occurring after August 8, 2005.

(d) Incentive period

A qualified hydroelectric facility may receive payments under this section for a period of 10 fiscal years (referred to in this section as the "incentive period"). Such period shall begin with the fiscal year in which electric energy generated from the facility is first eligible for such payments.

(e) Amount of payment

(1) In general

Payments made by the Secretary under this section to the owner or operator of a qualified hydroelectric facility shall be based on the number of kilowatt hours of hydroelectric energy generated by the facility during the incentive period. For any such facility, the amount of such payment shall be 1.8 cents per kilowatt hour (adjusted as provided in paragraph (2)), subject to the availability of appropriations under subsection (g), except that no facility may receive more than $750,000 in 1 calendar year.

(2) Adjustments

The amount of the payment made to any person under this section as provided in paragraph (1) shall be adjusted for inflation for each fiscal year beginning after calendar year 2005 in the same manner as provided in the provisions of section 29(d)(2)(B) 1 of title 26, except that in applying such provisions the calendar year 2005 shall be substituted for calendar year 1979.

(f) Sunset

No payment may be made under this section to any qualified hydroelectric facility after the expiration of the period of 20 fiscal years beginning with the first full fiscal year occurring after August 8, 2005, and no payment may be made under this section to any such facility after a payment has been made with respect to such facility for a period of 10 fiscal years.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the purposes of this section $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §242, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 677.)

References in Text

Section 29 of title 26, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), was renumbered section 45K of title 26 by Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1322(a)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1011.

1 See References in Text note below.

§15882. Hydroelectric efficiency improvement

(a) Incentive payments

The Secretary shall make incentive payments to the owners or operators of hydroelectric facilities at existing dams to be used to make capital improvements in the facilities that are directly related to improving the efficiency of such facilities by at least 3 percent.

(b) Limitations

Incentive payments under this section shall not exceed 10 percent of the costs of the capital improvement concerned and not more than 1 payment may be made with respect to improvements at a single facility. No payment in excess of $750,000 may be made with respect to improvements at a single facility.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section not more than $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §243, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 678.)

Part D—Insular Energy

§15891. Projects enhancing insular energy independence

(a) Project feasibility studies

(1) In general

On a request described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall conduct a feasibility study of a project to implement a strategy or project identified in the plans submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1492 of title 48 as having the potential to—

(A) significantly reduce the dependence of an insular area on imported fossil fuels; or

(B) provide needed distributed generation to an insular area.

(2) Request

The Secretary shall conduct a feasibility study under paragraph (1) on—

(A) the request of an electric utility located in an insular area that commits to fund at least 10 percent of the cost of the study; and

(B) if the electric utility is located in the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Republic of Palau, written support for that request by the President or the Ambassador of the affected freely associated state.

(3) Consultation

The Secretary shall consult with regional utility organizations in—

(A) conducting feasibility studies under paragraph (1); and

(B) determining the feasibility of potential projects.

(4) Feasibility

For the purpose of a feasibility study under paragraph (1), a project shall be determined to be feasible if the project would significantly reduce the dependence of an insular area on imported fossil fuels, or provide needed distributed generation to an insular area, at a reasonable cost.

(b) Implementation

(1) In general

On a determination by the Secretary (in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior) that a project is feasible under subsection (a) and a commitment by an electric utility to operate and maintain the project, the Secretary may provide such technical and financial assistance as the Secretary determines is appropriate for the implementation of the project.

(2) Regional utility organizations

In providing assistance under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall consider providing the assistance through regional utility organizations.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary—

(A) $500,000 for each fiscal year for project feasibility studies under subsection (a); and

(B) $4,000,000 for each fiscal year for project implementation under subsection (b).

(2) Limitation of funds received by insular areas

No insular area may receive, during any 3-year period, more than 20 percent of the total funds made available during that 3-year period under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1) unless the Secretary determines that providing funding in excess of that percentage best advances existing opportunities to meet the objectives of this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title II, §252, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 682.)

SUBCHAPTER III—OIL AND GAS

Part A—Production Incentives

§15901. Definition of Secretary

In this part, the term "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Interior.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §341, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 697.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle E (§§341–357) of title III of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 697, which enacted this part, amended sections 6504, 6506a, 6507, and 6508 of this title, sections 184 and 226 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and section 1337 of Title 43, Public Lands, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 226 of Title 30. For complete classification of subtitle E to the Code, see Tables.

§15902. Program on oil and gas royalties in-kind

(a) Applicability of section

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, this section applies to all royalty in-kind accepted by the Secretary on or after August 8, 2005, under any Federal oil or gas lease or permit under—

(1) section 192 of title 30;

(2) section 1353 of title 43; or

(3) any other Federal law governing leasing of Federal land for oil and gas development.

(b) Terms and conditions

All royalty accruing to the United States shall, on the demand of the Secretary, be paid in-kind. If the Secretary makes such a demand, the following provisions apply to the payment:

(1) Satisfaction of royalty obligation

Delivery by, or on behalf of, the lessee of the royalty amount and quality due under the lease satisfies royalty obligation of the lessee for the amount delivered, except that transportation and processing reimbursements paid to, or deductions claimed by, the lessee shall be subject to review and audit.

(2) Marketable condition

(A) Definition of marketable condition

In this paragraph, the term "in marketable condition" means sufficiently free from impurities and otherwise in a condition that the royalty production will be accepted by a purchaser under a sales contract typical of the field or area in which the royalty production was produced.

(B) Requirement

Royalty production shall be placed in marketable condition by the lessee at no cost to the United States.

(3) Disposition by the Secretary

The Secretary may—

(A) sell or otherwise dispose of any royalty production taken in-kind (other than oil or gas transferred under section 1353(a)(3) of title 43 1 for not less than the market price; and

(B) transport or process (or both) any royalty production taken in-kind.

(4) Retention by the Secretary

The Secretary may, notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, retain and use a portion of the revenues from the sale of oil and gas taken in-kind that otherwise would be deposited to miscellaneous receipts, without regard to fiscal year limitation, or may use oil or gas received as royalty taken in-kind (referred to in this paragraph as "royalty production") to pay the cost of—

(A) transporting the royalty production;

(B) processing the royalty production;

(C) disposing of the royalty production; or

(D) any combination of transporting, processing, and disposing of the royalty production.

(5) Limitation

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the Secretary may not use revenues from the sale of oil and gas taken in-kind to pay for personnel, travel, or other administrative costs of the Federal Government.

(B) Exception

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Secretary may use a portion of the revenues from royalty in-kind sales, without fiscal year limitation, to pay salaries and other administrative costs directly related to the royalty in-kind program.

(c) Reimbursement of cost

If the lessee, pursuant to an agreement with the United States or as provided in the lease, processes the royalty gas or delivers the royalty oil or gas at a point not on or adjacent to the lease area, the Secretary shall—

(1) reimburse the lessee for the reasonable costs of transportation (not including gathering) from the lease to the point of delivery or for processing costs; or

(2) allow the lessee to deduct the transportation or processing costs in reporting and paying royalties in-value for other Federal oil and gas leases.

(d) Benefit to the United States required

The Secretary may receive oil or gas royalties in-kind only if the Secretary determines that receiving royalties in-kind provides benefits to the United States that are greater than or equal to the benefits that are likely to have been received had royalties been taken in-value.

(e) Deduction of expenses

(1) In general

Before making payments under section 191 of title 30 or section 1337(g) of title 43 of revenues derived from the sale of royalty production taken in-kind from a lease, the Secretary shall deduct amounts paid or deducted under subsections (b)(4) and (c) and deposit the amount of the deductions in the miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

(2) Accounting for deductions

When the Secretary allows the lessee to deduct transportation or processing costs under subsection (c), the Secretary may not reduce any payments to recipients of revenues derived from any other Federal oil and gas lease as a consequence of that deduction.

(f) Consultation with States

The Secretary—

(1) shall consult with a State before conducting a royalty in-kind program under this part within the State;

(2) may delegate management of any portion of the Federal royalty in-kind program to the State except as otherwise prohibited by Federal law; and

(3) shall consult annually with any State from which Federal oil or gas royalty is being taken in-kind to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that the royalty in-kind program provides revenues to the State greater than or equal to the revenues likely to have been received had royalties been taken in-value.

(g) Small refineries

(1) Preference

If the Secretary finds that sufficient supplies of crude oil are not available in the open market to refineries that do not have their own source of supply for crude oil, the Secretary may grant preference to those refineries in the sale of any royalty oil accruing or reserved to the United States under Federal oil and gas leases issued under any mineral leasing law, for processing or use in those refineries at private sale at not less than the market price.

(2) Proration among refineries in production area

In disposing of oil under this subsection, the Secretary may, at the discretion of the Secretary, prorate the oil among refineries described in paragraph (1) in the area in which the oil is produced.

(h) Disposition to Federal agencies

(1) Onshore royalty

Any royalty oil or gas taken by the Secretary in-kind from onshore oil and gas leases may be sold at not less than the market price to any Federal agency.

(2) Offshore royalty

Any royalty oil or gas taken in-kind from a Federal oil or gas lease on the outer Continental Shelf may be disposed of only under section 1353 of title 43.

(i) Federal low-income energy assistance programs

(1) Preference

In disposing of royalty oil or gas taken in-kind under this section, the Secretary may grant a preference to any person, including any Federal or State agency, for the purpose of providing additional resources to any Federal low-income energy assistance program.

(2) Report

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall submit a report to Congress—

(A) assessing the effectiveness of granting preferences specified in paragraph (1); and

(B) providing a specific recommendation on the continuation of authority to grant preferences.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §342, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 697; Pub. L. 113–188, title XI, §1101, Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2023.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle E (§§341–357) of title III of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 697, which enacted this part, amended sections 6504, 6506a, 6507, and 6508 of this title, sections 184 and 226 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and section 1337 of Title 43, Public Lands, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 226 of Title 30. For complete classification of subtitle E to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2014—Subsecs. (e) to (j). Pub. L. 113–188 redesignated subsecs. (f) to (j) as (e) to (i), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (e) which required various reports on oil and gas royalties in-kind.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.

§15903. Marginal property production incentives

(a) Definition of marginal property

Until such time as the Secretary issues regulations under subsection (e) that prescribe a different definition, in this section, the term "marginal property" means an onshore unit, communitization agreement, or lease not within a unit or communitization agreement, that produces on average the combined equivalent of less than 15 barrels of oil per well per day or 90,000,000 British thermal units of gas per well per day calculated based on the average over the 3 most recent production months, including only wells that produce on more than half of the days during those 3 production months.

(b) Conditions for reduction of royalty rate

Until such time as the Secretary issues regulations under subsection (e) that prescribe different standards or requirements, the Secretary shall reduce the royalty rate on—

(1) oil production from marginal properties as prescribed in subsection (c) if the spot price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, is, on average, less than $15 per barrel (adjusted in accordance with the Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers, United States city average, as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for 90 consecutive trading days; and

(2) gas production from marginal properties as prescribed in subsection (c) if the spot price of natural gas delivered at Henry Hub, Louisiana, is, on average, less than $2.00 per million British thermal units (adjusted in accordance with the Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers, United States city average, as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for 90 consecutive trading days.

(c) Reduced royalty rate

(1) In general

When a marginal property meets the conditions specified in subsection (b), the royalty rate shall be the lesser of—

(A) 5 percent; or

(B) the applicable rate under any other statutory or regulatory royalty relief provision that applies to the affected production.

(2) Period of effectiveness

The reduced royalty rate under this subsection shall be effective beginning on the first day of the production month following the date on which the applicable condition specified in subsection (b) is met.

(d) Termination of reduced royalty rate

A royalty rate prescribed in subsection (c)(1) shall terminate—

(1) with respect to oil production from a marginal property, on the first day of the production month following the date on which—

(A) the spot price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, on average, exceeds $15 per barrel (adjusted in accordance with the Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers, United States city average, as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for 90 consecutive trading days; or

(B) the property no longer qualifies as a marginal property; and


(2) with respect to gas production from a marginal property, on the first day of the production month following the date on which—

(A) the spot price of natural gas delivered at Henry Hub, Louisiana, on average, exceeds $2.00 per million British thermal units (adjusted in accordance with the Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers, United States city average, as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for 90 consecutive trading days; or

(B) the property no longer qualifies as a marginal property.

(e) Regulations prescribing different relief

(1) Discretionary regulations

The Secretary may by regulation prescribe different parameters, standards, and requirements for, and a different degree or extent of, royalty relief for marginal properties in lieu of those prescribed in subsections (a) through (d).

(2) Mandatory regulations

Unless a determination is made under paragraph (3), not later than 18 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall by regulation—

(A) prescribe standards and requirements for, and the extent of royalty relief for, marginal properties for oil and gas leases on the outer Continental Shelf; and

(B) define what constitutes a marginal property on the outer Continental Shelf for purposes of this section.

(3) Report

To the extent the Secretary determines that it is not practicable to issue the regulations referred to in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall provide a report to Congress explaining such determination by not later than 18 months after August 8, 2005.

(4) Considerations

In issuing regulations under this subsection, the Secretary may consider—

(A) oil and gas prices and market trends;

(B) production costs;

(C) abandonment costs;

(D) Federal and State tax provisions and the effects of those provisions on production economics;

(E) other royalty relief programs;

(F) regional differences in average wellhead prices;

(G) national energy security issues; and

(H) other relevant matters, as determined by the Secretary.

(f) Savings provision

Nothing in this section prevents a lessee from receiving royalty relief or a royalty reduction pursuant to any other law (including a regulation) that provides more relief than the amounts provided by this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §343, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 700.)

§15904. Incentives for natural gas production from deep wells in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico

(a) Royalty incentive regulations for ultra deep gas wells

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, in addition to any other regulations that may provide royalty incentives for natural gas produced from deep wells on oil and gas leases issued pursuant to the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.), the Secretary shall issue regulations granting royalty relief suspension volumes of not less than 35 billion cubic feet with respect to the production of natural gas from ultra deep wells on leases issued in shallow waters less than 400 meters deep located in the Gulf of Mexico wholly west of 87 degrees, 30 minutes west longitude. Regulations issued under this subsection shall be retroactive to the date that the notice of proposed rulemaking is published in the Federal Register.

(2) Suspension volumes

The Secretary may grant suspension volumes of not less than 35 billion cubic feet in any case in which—

(A) the ultra deep well is a sidetrack; or

(B) the lease has previously produced from wells with a perforated interval the top of which is at least 15,000 feet true vertical depth below the datum at mean sea level.

(3) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Ultra deep well

The term "ultra deep well" means a well drilled with a perforated interval, the top of which is at least 20,000 true vertical depth below the datum at mean sea level.

(B) Sidetrack

(i) In general

The term "sidetrack" means a well resulting from drilling an additional hole to a new objective bottom-hole location by leaving a previously drilled hole.

(ii) Inclusion

The term "sidetrack" includes—

(I) drilling a well from a platform slot reclaimed from a previously drilled well;

(II) re-entering and deepening a previously drilled well; and

(III) a bypass from a sidetrack, including drilling around material blocking a hole or drilling to straighten a crooked hole.

(b) Royalty incentive regulations for deep gas wells

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, in addition to any other regulations that may provide royalty incentives for natural gas produced from deep wells on oil and gas leases issued pursuant to the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.), the Secretary shall issue regulations granting royalty relief suspension volumes with respect to production of natural gas from deep wells on leases issued in waters more than 200 meters but less than 400 meters deep located in the Gulf of Mexico wholly west of 87 degrees, 30 minutes west longitude. The suspension volumes for deep wells within 200 to 400 meters of water depth shall be calculated using the same methodology used to calculate the suspension volumes for deep wells in the shallower waters of the Gulf of Mexico, and in no case shall the suspension volumes for deep wells within 200 to 400 meters of water depth be lower than those for deep wells in shallower waters. Regulations issued under this subsection shall be retroactive to the date that the notice of proposed rulemaking is published in the Federal Register.

(c) Limitations

The Secretary may place limitations on the royalty relief granted under this section based on market price. The royalty relief granted under this section shall not apply to a lease for which deep water royalty relief is available.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §344, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 702.)

References in Text

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1301 of Title 43 and Tables.

§15905. Royalty relief for deep water production

(a) In general

Subject to subsections (b) and (c), for each tract located in water depths of greater than 400 meters in the Western and Central Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (including the portion of the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico encompassing whole lease blocks lying west of 87 degrees, 30 minutes West longitude), any oil or gas lease sale under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.) occurring during the 5-year period beginning on August 8, 2005, shall use the bidding system authorized under section 8(a)(1)(H) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1337(a)(1)(H)).

(b) Suspension of royalties

The suspension of royalties under subsection (a) shall be established at a volume of not less than—

(1) 5,000,000 barrels of oil equivalent for each lease in water depths of 400 to 800 meters;

(2) 9,000,000 barrels of oil equivalent for each lease in water depths of 800 to 1,600 meters;

(3) 12,000,000 barrels of oil equivalent for each lease in water depths of 1,600 to 2,000 meters; and

(4) 16,000,000 barrels of oil equivalent for each lease in water depths greater than 2,000 meters.

(c) Limitation

The Secretary may place limitations on royalty relief granted under this section based on market price.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §345, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 703.)

References in Text

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1301 of Title 43 and Tables.

§15906. North Slope Science Initiative

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

The Secretary of the Interior shall establish a long-term initiative to be known as the "North Slope Science Initiative" (referred to in this section as the "Initiative").

(2) Purpose

The purpose of the Initiative shall be to implement efforts to coordinate collection of scientific data that will provide a better understanding of the terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems of the North Slope of Alaska.

(b) Objectives

To ensure that the Initiative is conducted through a comprehensive science strategy and implementation plan, the Initiative shall, at a minimum—

(1) identify and prioritize information needs for inventory, monitoring, and research activities to address the individual and cumulative effects of past, ongoing, and anticipated development activities and environmental change on the North Slope;

(2) develop an understanding of information needs for regulatory and land management agencies, local governments, and the public;

(3) focus on prioritization of pressing natural resource management and ecosystem information needs, coordination, and cooperation among agencies and organizations;

(4) coordinate ongoing and future inventory, monitoring, and research activities to minimize duplication of effort, share financial resources and expertise, and assure the collection of quality information;

(5) identify priority needs not addressed by agency science programs in effect on August 8, 2005, and develop a funding strategy to meet those needs;

(6) provide a consistent approach to high caliber science, including inventory, monitoring, and research;

(7) maintain and improve public and agency access to—

(A) accumulated and ongoing research; and

(B) contemporary and traditional local knowledge; and


(8) ensure through appropriate peer review that the science conducted by participating agencies and organizations is of the highest technical quality.

(c) Membership

(1) In general

To ensure comprehensive collection of scientific data, in carrying out the Initiative, the Secretary shall consult and coordinate with Federal, State, and local agencies that have responsibilities for land and resource management across the North Slope.

(2) Cooperative agreements

The Secretary shall enter into cooperative agreements with the State of Alaska, the North Slope Borough, the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, and other Federal agencies as appropriate to coordinate efforts, share resources, and fund projects under this section.

(d) Science technical advisory panel

(1) In general

The Initiative shall include a panel to provide advice on proposed inventory, monitoring, and research functions.

(2) Membership

The panel described in paragraph (1) shall consist of a representative group of not more than 15 scientists and technical experts from diverse professions and interests, including the oil and gas industry, subsistence users, Native Alaskan entities, conservation organizations, wildlife management organizations, and academia, as determined by the Secretary.

(e) Reports

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall publish a report that describes the studies and findings of the Initiative.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §348, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 708.)

§15907. Orphaned, abandoned, or idled wells on Federal land

(a) In general

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall establish a program not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, to remediate, reclaim, and close orphaned, abandoned, or idled oil and gas wells located on land administered by the land management agencies within the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture.

(b) Activities

The program under subsection (a) shall—

(1) include a means of ranking orphaned, abandoned, or idled wells sites for priority in remediation, reclamation, and closure, based on public health and safety, potential environmental harm, and other land use priorities;

(2) provide for identification and recovery of the costs of remediation, reclamation, and closure from persons or other entities currently providing a bond or other financial assurance required under State or Federal law for an oil or gas well that is orphaned, abandoned, or idled; and

(3) provide for recovery from the persons or entities identified under paragraph (2), or their sureties or guarantors, of the costs of remediation, reclamation, and closure of such wells.

(c) Cooperation and consultations

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall—

(1) work cooperatively with the Secretary of Agriculture and the States within which Federal land is located; and

(2) consult with the Secretary of Energy and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission.

(d) Plan

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall submit to Congress a plan for carrying out the program under subsection (a).

(e) Idled well

For the purposes of this section, a well is idled if—

(1) the well has been nonoperational for at least 7 years; and

(2) there is no anticipated beneficial use for the well.

(f) Federal reimbursement for orphaned well reclamation pilot program

(1) Reimbursement for remediating, reclaiming, and closing wells on land subject to a new lease

The Secretary shall carry out a pilot program under which, in issuing a new oil and gas lease on federally owned land on which 1 or more orphaned wells are located, the Secretary—

(A) may require, other than as a condition of the lease, that the lessee remediate, reclaim, and close in accordance with standards established by the Secretary, all orphaned wells on the land leased; and

(B) shall develop a program to reimburse a lessee, through a royalty credit against the Federal share of royalties owed or other means, for the reasonable actual costs of remediating, reclaiming, and closing the orphaned wells pursuant to that requirement.

(2) Reimbursement for reclaiming orphaned wells on other land

In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary—

(A) may authorize any lessee under an oil and gas lease on federally owned land to reclaim in accordance with the Secretary's standards—

(i) an orphaned well on unleased federally owned land; or

(ii) an orphaned well located on an existing lease on federally owned land for the reclamation of which the lessee is not legally responsible; and


(B) shall develop a program to provide reimbursement of 100 percent of the reasonable actual costs of remediating, reclaiming, and closing the orphaned well, through credits against the Federal share of royalties or other means.

(3) Regulations

The Secretary may issue such regulations as are appropriate to carry out this subsection.

(g) Technical assistance program for non-Federal land

(1) In general

The Secretary of Energy shall establish a program to provide technical and financial assistance to oil and gas producing States to facilitate State efforts over a 10-year period to ensure a practical and economical remedy for environmental problems caused by orphaned or abandoned oil and gas exploration or production well sites on State or private land.

(2) Assistance

The Secretary of Energy shall work with the States, through the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, to assist the States in quantifying and mitigating environmental risks of onshore orphaned or abandoned oil or gas wells on State and private land.

(3) Activities

The program under paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) mechanisms to facilitate identification, if feasible, of the persons currently providing a bond or other form of financial assurance required under State or Federal law for an oil or gas well that is orphaned or abandoned;

(B) criteria for ranking orphaned or abandoned well sites based on factors such as public health and safety, potential environmental harm, and other land use priorities;

(C) information and training programs on best practices for remediation of different types of sites; and

(D) funding of State mitigation efforts on a cost-shared basis.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(2) Use

Of the amounts authorized under paragraph (1), $5,000,000 are authorized for each fiscal year for activities under subsection (f).

(i) Federally drilled wells

Out of any amounts in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2014, $36,000,000 for fiscal year 2015, and $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2019 shall be made available to the Secretary, without further appropriation and to remain available until expended, to remediate, reclaim, and close abandoned oil and gas wells on current or former National Petroleum Reserve land.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §349, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 113–40, §10(b), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 545.)

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 113–40 added subsec. (i).

§15908. Preservation of geological and geophysical data

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program Act of 2005".

(b) Program

The Secretary shall carry out a National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program in accordance with this section—

(1) to archive geologic, geophysical, and engineering data, maps, well logs, and samples;

(2) to provide a national catalog of such archival material; and

(3) to provide technical and financial assistance related to the archival material.

(c) Plan

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a plan for the implementation of the Program.

(d) Data archive system

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish, as a component of the Program, a data archive system to provide for the storage, preservation, and archiving of subsurface, surface, geological, geophysical, and engineering data and samples. The Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory Committee, shall develop guidelines relating to the data archive system, including the types of data and samples to be preserved.

(2) System components

The system shall be comprised of State agencies that elect to be part of the system and agencies within the Department of the Interior that maintain geological and geophysical data and samples that are designated by the Secretary in accordance with this subsection. The Program shall provide for the storage of data and samples through data repositories operated by such agencies.

(3) Limitation of designation

The Secretary may not designate a State agency as a component of the data archive system unless that agency is the agency that acts as the geological survey in the State.

(4) Data from Federal land

The data archive system shall provide for the archiving of relevant subsurface data and samples obtained from Federal land—

(A) in the most appropriate repository designated under paragraph (2), with preference being given to archiving data in the State in which the data were collected; and

(B) consistent with all applicable law and requirements relating to confidentiality and proprietary data.

(e) National catalog

(1) In general

As soon as practicable after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall develop and maintain, as a component of the Program, a national catalog that identifies—

(A) data and samples available in the data archive system established under subsection (d);

(B) the repository for particular material in the system; and

(C) the means of accessing the material.

(2) Availability

The Secretary shall make the national catalog accessible to the public on the site of the Survey on the Internet, consistent with all applicable requirements related to confidentiality and proprietary data.

(f) Advisory Committee

(1) In general

The Advisory Committee shall advise the Secretary on planning and implementation of the Program.

(2) New duties

In addition to its duties under the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992 (43 U.S.C. 31a et seq.), the Advisory Committee shall perform the following duties:

(A) Advise the Secretary on developing guidelines and procedures for providing assistance for facilities under subsection (g)(1).

(B) Review and critique the draft implementation plan prepared by the Secretary under subsection (c).

(C) Identify useful studies of data archived under the Program that will advance understanding of the Nation's energy and mineral resources, geologic hazards, and engineering geology.

(D) Review the progress of the Program in archiving significant data and preventing the loss of such data, and the scientific progress of the studies funded under the Program.

(E) Include in the annual report to the Secretary required under section 5(b)(3) 1 of the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992 (43 U.S.C. 31d(b)(3)) an evaluation of the progress of the Program toward fulfilling the purposes of the Program under subsection (b).

(g) Financial assistance

(1) Archive facilities

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall provide financial assistance to a State agency that is designated under subsection (d)(2) for providing facilities to archive energy material.

(2) Studies

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall provide financial assistance to any State agency designated under subsection (d)(2) for studies and technical assistance activities that enhance understanding, interpretation, and use of materials archived in the data archive system established under subsection (d).

(3) Federal share

The Federal share of the cost of an activity carried out with assistance under this subsection shall be not more than 50 percent of the total cost of the activity.

(4) Private contributions

The Secretary shall apply to the non-Federal share of the cost of an activity carried out with assistance under this subsection the value of private contributions of property and services used for that activity.

(h) Report

The Secretary shall include in each report under section 8 of the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992 (43 U.S.C. 31g)—

(1) a description of the status of the Program;

(2) an evaluation of the progress achieved in developing the Program during the period covered by the report; and

(3) any recommendations for legislative or other action the Secretary considers necessary and appropriate to fulfill the purposes of the Program under subsection (b).

(i) Maintenance of State effort

It is the intent of Congress that the States not use this section as an opportunity to reduce State resources applied to the activities that are the subject of the Program.

(j) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Advisory Committee

The term "Advisory Committee" means the advisory committee established under section 5 of the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992 (43 U.S.C. 31d).

(2) Program

The term "Program" means the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program carried out under this section.

(3) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the United States Geological Survey.

(4) Survey

The term "Survey" means the United States Geological Survey.

(k) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §351, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 711.)

References in Text

The National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), is Pub. L. 102–285, May 18, 1992, 106 Stat. 166, which is classified principally to sections 31a to 31h of Title 43, Public Lands. Par. (3) of section 5(b) of the Act was redesignated par. (4) by Pub. L. 111–11, title XI, §11001(f)(2)(B), Mar. 30, 2009, 123 Stat. 1415, and is now classified to section 31d(b)(4) of Title 43. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 31a of Title 43 and Tables.

1 See References in Text note below.

§15909. Gas hydrate production incentive

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to promote natural gas production from the natural gas hydrate resources on the outer Continental Shelf and Federal lands in Alaska by providing royalty incentives.

(b) Suspension of royalties

(1) In general

The Secretary may grant royalty relief in accordance with this section for natural gas produced from gas hydrate resources under an eligible lease.

(2) Eligible leases

A lease shall be an eligible lease for purposes of this section if—

(A) it is issued under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.), or is an oil and gas lease issued for onshore Federal lands in Alaska;

(B) it is issued prior to January 1, 2016; and

(C) production under the lease of natural gas from gas hydrate resources commences prior to January 1, 2018.

(3) Amount of relief

The Secretary shall conduct a rulemaking and grant royalty relief under this section as a suspension volume if the Secretary determines that such royalty relief would encourage production of natural gas from gas hydrate resources from an eligible lease. The maximum suspension volume shall be 30 billion cubic feet of natural gas per lease. Such relief shall be in addition to any other royalty relief under any other provision applicable to the lease that does not specifically grant a gas hydrate production incentive. Such royalty suspension volume shall be applied to any eligible production occurring on or after the date of publication of the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking.

(4) Limitation

The Secretary may place limitations on royalty relief granted under this section based on market price.

(c) Application

This section shall apply to any eligible lease issued before, on, or after August 8, 2005.

(d) Rulemakings

(1) Requirement

The Secretary shall publish the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking within 180 days after August 8, 2005, and complete the rulemaking implementing this section within 365 days after August 8, 2005.

(2) Gas hydrate resources defined

Such regulations shall define the term "gas hydrate resources" to include both the natural gas content of gas hydrates within the hydrate stability zone and free natural gas trapped by and beneath the hydrate stability zone.

(e) Review

Not later than 365 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, shall carry out a review of, and submit to Congress a report on, further opportunities to enhance production of natural gas from gas hydrate resources on the outer Continental Shelf and on Federal lands in Alaska through the provision of other production incentives or through technical or financial assistance.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §353, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 714.)

References in Text

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1301 of Title 43 and Tables.

§15910. Enhanced oil and natural gas production through carbon dioxide injection

(a) Production incentive

(1) Findings

Congress finds the following:

(A) Approximately two-thirds of the original oil in place in the United States remains unproduced.

(B) Enhanced oil and natural gas production from the sequestering of carbon dioxide and other appropriate gases has the potential to increase oil and natural gas production.

(C) Capturing and productively using carbon dioxide would help reduce the carbon intensity of the economy.

(2) Purpose

The purpose of this section is—

(A) to promote the capturing, transportation, and injection of produced carbon dioxide, natural carbon dioxide, and other appropriate gases or other matter for sequestration into oil and gas fields; and

(B) to promote oil and natural gas production from the outer Continental Shelf and onshore Federal lands under lease by providing royalty incentives to use enhanced recovery techniques using injection of the substances referred to in subparagraph (A).

(b) Suspension of royalties

(1) In general

If the Secretary determines that reduction of the royalty under a Federal oil and gas lease that is an eligible lease is in the public interest and promotes the purposes of this section, the Secretary shall undertake a rulemaking to provide for such reduction for an eligible lease.

(2) Rulemakings

The Secretary shall publish the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking within 180 days after August 8, 2005, and complete the rulemaking implementing this section within 365 days after August 8, 2005.

(3) Eligible leases

A lease shall be an eligible lease for purposes of this section if—

(A) it is a lease for production of oil and gas from the outer Continental Shelf or Federal onshore lands;

(B) the injection of the substances referred to in subsection (a)(2)(A) will be used as an enhanced recovery technique on such lease; and

(C) the Secretary determines that the lease contains oil or gas that would not likely be produced without the royalty reduction provided under this section.

(4) Amount of relief

The rulemaking shall provide for a suspension volume, which shall not exceed 5,000,000 barrels of oil equivalent for each eligible lease. Such suspension volume shall be applied to any production from an eligible lease occurring on or after the date of publication of any advanced notice of proposed rulemaking under this subsection.

(5) Limitation

The Secretary may place limitations on the royalty reduction granted under this section based on market price.

(6) Application

This section shall apply to any eligible lease issued before, on, or after August 8, 2005.

(c) Demonstration program

(1) Establishment

(A) In general

The Secretary of Energy shall establish a competitive grant program to provide grants to producers of oil and gas to carry out projects to inject carbon dioxide for the purpose of enhancing recovery of oil or natural gas while increasing the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

(B) Projects

The demonstration program shall provide for—

(i) not more than 10 projects in the Willistin Basin in North Dakota and Montana; and

(ii) 1 project in the Cook Inlet Basin in Alaska.

(2) Requirements

(A) In general

The Secretary of Energy shall issue requirements relating to applications for grants under paragraph (1).

(B) Rulemaking

The issuance of requirements under subparagraph (A) shall not require a rulemaking.

(C) Minimum requirements

At a minimum, the Secretary shall require under subparagraph (A) that an application for a grant include—

(i) a description of the project proposed in the application;

(ii) an estimate of the production increase and the duration of the production increase from the project, as compared to conventional recovery techniques, including water flooding;

(iii) an estimate of the carbon dioxide sequestered by project, over the life of the project;

(iv) a plan to collect and disseminate data relating to each project to be funded by the grant;

(v) a description of the means by which the project will be sustainable without Federal assistance after the completion of the term of the grant;

(vi) a complete description of the costs of the project, including acquisition, construction, operation, and maintenance costs over the expected life of the project;

(vii) a description of which costs of the project will be supported by Federal assistance under this section; and

(viii) a description of any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts in the field and the efficacy of water flood recovery techniques used.

(3) Partners

An applicant for a grant under paragraph (1) may carry out a project under a pilot program in partnership with 1 or more other public or private entities.

(4) Selection criteria

In evaluating applications under this subsection, the Secretary of Energy shall—

(A) consider the previous experience with similar projects of each applicant; and

(B) give priority consideration to applications that—

(i) are most likely to maximize production of oil and gas in a cost-effective manner;

(ii) sequester significant quantities of carbon dioxide from anthropogenic sources;

(iii) demonstrate the greatest commitment on the part of the applicant to ensure funding for the proposed project and the greatest likelihood that the project will be maintained or expanded after Federal assistance under this section is completed; and

(iv) minimize any adverse environmental effects from the project.

(5) Demonstration program requirements

(A) Maximum amount

The Secretary of Energy shall not provide more than $3,000,000 in Federal assistance under this subsection to any applicant.

(B) Cost sharing

The Secretary of Energy shall require cost-sharing under this subsection in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(C) Period of grants

(i) In general

A project funded by a grant under this subsection shall begin construction not later than 2 years after the date of provision of the grant, but in any case not later than December 31, 2010.

(ii) Term

The Secretary shall not provide grant funds to any applicant under this subsection for a period of more than 5 years.

(6) Transfer of information and knowledge

The Secretary of Energy shall establish mechanisms to ensure that the information and knowledge gained by participants in the program under this subsection are transferred among other participants and interested persons, including other applicants that submitted applications for a grant under this subsection.

(7) Schedule

(A) Publication

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary of Energy shall publish in the Federal Register, and elsewhere, as appropriate, a request for applications to carry out projects under this subsection.

(B) Date for applications

An application for a grant under this subsection shall be submitted not later than 180 days after the date of publication of the request under subparagraph (A).

(C) Selection

After the date by which applications for grants are required to be submitted under subparagraph (B), the Secretary of Energy, in a timely manner, shall select, after peer review and based on the criteria under paragraph (4), those projects to be awarded a grant under this subsection.

(d) Records and inventory

The Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Bureau of Land Management, shall maintain records on, and an inventory of, the quantity of carbon dioxide stored within Federal mineral leaseholds.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §354, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 715; Pub. L. 110–140, title VII, §713, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1715.)

Amendments

2007—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 110–140 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§15911. Denali Commission

(a) Definition of Commission

In this section, the term "Commission" means the Denali Commission established by the Denali Commission Act of 1998 (42 U.S.C. 3121 note; Public Law 105–277).

(b) Energy programs

The Commission shall use amounts made available under subsection (d) to carry out energy programs, including—

(1) energy generation and development, including—

(A) fuel cells, hydroelectric, solar, wind, wave, and tidal energy; and

(B) alternative energy sources;


(2) the construction of energy transmission, including interties;

(3) the replacement and cleanup of fuel tanks;

(4) the construction of fuel transportation networks and related facilities;

(5) power cost equalization programs; and

(6) projects using coal as a fuel, including coal gasification projects.

(c) Open meetings

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), a meeting of the Commission shall be open to the public if—

(A) the Commission members take action on behalf of the Commission; or

(B) the deliberations of the Commission determine, or result in the joint conduct or disposition of, official Commission business.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any portion of a Commission meeting for which the Commission, in public session, votes to close the meeting for the reasons described in paragraph (2), (4), (5), or (6) of subsection (c) of section 552b of title 5.

(3) Public notice

(A) In general

At least 1 week before a meeting of the Commission, the Commission shall make a public announcement of the meeting that describes—

(i) the time, place, and subject matter of the meeting;

(ii) whether the meeting is to be open or closed to the public; and

(iii) the name and telephone number of an appropriate person to respond to requests for information about the meeting.

(B) Additional notice

The Commission shall make a public announcement of any change to the information made available under subparagraph (A) at the earliest practicable time.

(4) Minutes

The Commission shall keep, and make available to the public, a transcript, electronic recording, or minutes from each Commission meeting, except for portions of the meeting closed under paragraph (2).

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Commission not more than $55,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2015 to carry out subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §356, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 719.)

References in Text

The Denali Commission Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (a), is title III of Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–637, which is set out as a note under section 3121 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

§15912. Comprehensive inventory of OCS oil and natural gas resources

(a) In general

The Secretary shall conduct an inventory and analysis of oil and natural gas resources beneath all of the waters of the United States Outer Continental Shelf ("OCS"). The inventory and analysis shall—

(1) use available data on oil and gas resources in areas offshore of Mexico and Canada that will provide information on trends of oil and gas accumulation in areas of the OCS;

(2) use any available technology, except drilling, but including 3–D seismic technology to obtain accurate resource estimates;

(3) analyze how resource estimates in OCS areas have changed over time in regards to gathering geological and geophysical data, initial exploration, or full field development, including areas such as the deepwater and subsalt areas in the Gulf of Mexico;

(4) estimate the effect that understated oil and gas resource inventories have on domestic energy investments; and

(5) identify and explain how legislative, regulatory, and administrative programs or processes restrict or impede the development of identified resources and the extent that they affect domestic supply, such as moratoria, lease terms and conditions, operational stipulations and requirements, approval delays by the Federal Government and coastal States, and local zoning restrictions for onshore processing facilities and pipeline landings.

(b) Reports

The Secretary shall submit a report to Congress on the inventory of estimates and the analysis of restrictions or impediments, together with any recommendations, within 6 months of August 8, 2005. The report shall be publicly available and updated at least every 5 years.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §357, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 720.)

Part B—Access to Federal Lands

§15921. Management of Federal oil and gas leasing programs

(a) Timely action on leases and permits

(1) Secretary of the Interior

To ensure timely action on oil and gas leases and applications for permits to drill on land otherwise available for leasing, the Secretary of the Interior (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall—

(A) ensure expeditious compliance with section 4332(2)(C) of this title and any other applicable environmental and cultural resources laws;

(B) improve consultation and coordination with the States and the public; and

(C) improve the collection, storage, and retrieval of information relating to the oil and gas leasing activities.

(2) Secretary of Agriculture

To ensure timely action on oil and gas lease applications for permits to drill on land otherwise available for leasing, the Secretary of Agriculture shall—

(A) ensure expeditious compliance with all applicable environmental and cultural resources laws; and

(B) improve the collection, storage, and retrieval of information relating to the oil and gas leasing activities.

(b) Best management practices

(1) In general

Not later than 18 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall develop and implement best management practices to—

(A) improve the administration of the onshore oil and gas leasing program under the Mineral Leasing Act (30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.); and

(B) ensure timely action on oil and gas leases and applications for permits to drill on land otherwise available for leasing.

(2) Considerations

In developing the best management practices under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall consider any recommendations from the review under section 361.1

(3) Regulations

Not later than 180 days after the development of the best management practices under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall publish, for public comment, proposed regulations that set forth specific timeframes for processing leases and applications in accordance with the best management practices, including deadlines for—

(A) approving or disapproving—

(i) resource management plans and related documents;

(ii) lease applications;

(iii) applications for permits to drill; and

(iv) surface use plans; and


(B) related administrative appeals.

(c) Improved enforcement

The Secretary and the Secretary of Agriculture shall improve inspection and enforcement of oil and gas activities, including enforcement of terms and conditions in permits to drill on land under the jurisdiction of the Secretary and the Secretary of Agriculture, respectively.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

In addition to amounts made available to carry out activities relating to oil and gas leasing on public land administered by the Secretary and National Forest System land administered by the Secretary of Agriculture, there are authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010—

(1) to the Secretary, acting through the Director of the Bureau of Land Management—

(A) $40,000,000 to carry out subsections (a)(1) and (b); and

(B) $20,000,000 to carry out subsection (c);


(2) to the Secretary, acting through the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, $5,000,000 to carry out subsection (a)(1); and

(3) to the Secretary of Agriculture, acting through the Chief of the Forest Service, $5,000,000 to carry out subsections (a)(2) and (c).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §362, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 721.)

References in Text

The Mineral Leasing Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), is act Feb. 25, 1920, ch. 85, 41 Stat. 437, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 3A (§181 et seq.) of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 181 of Title 30 and Tables.

Section 361, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is section 361 of Pub. L. 109–58, title III, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 720, which is not classified to the Code.

1 See References in Text note below.

§15922. Consultation regarding oil and gas leasing on public land

(a) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture shall enter into a memorandum of understanding regarding oil and gas leasing on—

(1) public land under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior; and

(2) National Forest System land under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture.

(b) Contents

The memorandum of understanding shall include provisions that—

(1) establish administrative procedures and lines of authority that ensure timely processing of—

(A) oil and gas lease applications;

(B) surface use plans of operation, including steps for processing surface use plans; and

(C) applications for permits to drill consistent with applicable timelines;


(2) eliminate duplication of effort by providing for coordination of planning and environmental compliance efforts;

(3) ensure that lease stipulations are—

(A) applied consistently;

(B) coordinated between agencies; and

(C) only as restrictive as necessary to protect the resource for which the stipulations are applied;


(4) establish a joint data retrieval system that is capable of—

(A) tracking applications and formal requests made in accordance with procedures of the Federal onshore oil and gas leasing program; and

(B) providing information regarding the status of the applications and requests within the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture; and


(5) establish a joint geographic information system mapping system for use in—

(A) tracking surface resource values to aid in resource management; and

(B) processing surface use plans of operation and applications for permits to drill.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §363, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 722.)

§15923. Methodology

The Secretary of the Interior shall use the same assessment methodology across all geological provinces, areas, and regions in preparing and issuing national geological assessments to ensure accurate comparisons of geological resources.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §364(b), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 723.)

§15924. Project to improve Federal permit coordination

(a) Establishment

The Secretary of the Interior (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall establish a Federal Permit Streamlining Project (referred to in this section as the "Project").

(b) Memorandum of understanding

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall enter into a memorandum of understanding for purposes of this section with—

(A) the Secretary of Agriculture;

(B) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; and

(C) the Chief of Engineers.

(2) State participation

The Secretary may request that the Governors of the States in which Project offices are located be signatories to the memorandum of understanding.

(c) Designation of qualified staff

(1) In general

Not later than 30 days after the date of the signing of the memorandum of understanding under subsection (b), all Federal signatory parties shall, if appropriate, assign to each of the field offices identified in subsection (d) an employee who has expertise in the regulatory issues relating to the office in which the employee is employed, including, as applicable, particular expertise in—

(A) the consultations and the preparation of biological opinions under section 1536 of title 16;

(B) permits under section 1344 of title 33;

(C) regulatory matters under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.);

(D) planning under the National Forest Management Act of 1976 (16 U.S.C. 472a et seq.); and

(E) the preparation of analyses under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(2) Duties

Each employee assigned under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) not later than 90 days after the date of assignment, report to the Bureau of Land Management Field Managers in the office to which the employee is assigned;

(B) be responsible for all issues relating to the jurisdiction of the home office or agency of the employee; and

(C) participate as part of the team of personnel working on proposed energy projects, planning, and environmental analyses.

(d) Project offices

The following Bureau of Land Management Offices shall serve as the Project offices:

(1) Rawlins Field Office, Wyoming.

(2) High Plains District Office, Wyoming.

(3) Montana/Dakotas State Office, Montana.

(4) Farmington Field Office, New Mexico.

(5) Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico.

(6) Grand Junction/Glenwood Springs Field Office, Colorado.

(7) Vernal Field Office, Utah.

(8) Any other State, district, or field office of the Bureau of Land Management determined by the Secretary.

(e) Report to Congress

Not later than February 1 of the first fiscal year beginning after the date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 and each February 1 thereafter, the Secretary shall report to the Chairman and ranking minority Member of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives, which shall include—

(1) the allocation of funds to each Project office for the previous fiscal year; and

(2) the accomplishments of each Project office relating to the coordination and processing of oil and gas use authorizations during that fiscal year.

(f) Additional personnel

The Secretary shall assign to each field office identified in subsection (d) any additional personnel that are necessary to ensure the effective implementation of—

(1) the Project; and

(2) other programs administered by the field offices, including inspection and enforcement relating to energy development on Federal land, in accordance with the multiple use mandate of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

(g) Omitted

(h) Transfer of funds

For the purposes of coordination and processing of oil and gas use authorizations on Federal land under the administration of the Project offices identified in subsection (d), the Secretary may authorize the expenditure or transfer of such funds as are necessary to—

(1) the United States Fish and Wildlife Service;

(2) the Bureau of Indian Affairs;

(3) the Forest Service;

(4) the Environmental Protection Agency;

(5) the Corps of Engineers; and

(6) the States in which Project offices are located.

(i) Savings provision

Nothing in this section affects—

(1) the operation of any Federal or State law; or

(2) any delegation of authority made by the head of a Federal agency whose employees are participating in the Project.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §365, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 723; Pub. L. 113–69, §1, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1207; Pub. L. 113–291, div. B, title XXX, §3021(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3759.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(C), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

The National Forest Management Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(D), is Pub. L. 94–588, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2949, as amended, which enacted sections 472a, 521b, 1600, and 1611 to 1614 of Title 16, Conservation, amended sections 500, 515, 516, 518, 576b, and 1601 to 1610 of Title 16, repealed sections 476, 513, and 514 of Title 16, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 476, 513, 528, 594–2, and 1600 of Title 16. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 1600 of Title 16 and Tables.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(E), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

The date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015, referred to in subsec. (e), probably means the date of enactment of the Carl Levin and Howard P. "Buck" McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015, Pub. L. 113–291, which was approved Dec. 19, 2014.

The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), is Pub. L. 94–579, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2743, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 43 and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 365 of Pub. L. 109–58. Subsec. (g) of section 365 of Pub. L. 109–58 amended section 191 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining.

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(1), struck out "Pilot" before "Project" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(2), substituted "Project" for "Pilot Project" in two places.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(3), substituted "the States in which Project offices are located" for "Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(4)(A), struck out "Pilot" before "Project" in heading.

Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(2), substituted "Project" for "Pilot Project" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(4)(B), added par. (8).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(5), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which required the Secretary to submit to Congress a report about the Pilot Project not later than 3 years after Aug. 8, 2005.

Subsecs. (e)(1), (2), (f)(1), (h). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(2), substituted "Project" for "Pilot Project".

Subsec. (h)(6). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(6), added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "the States of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(7), (8), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i) and struck out former subsec. (i). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "During the period in which the Project is authorized, the Secretary shall not implement a rulemaking that would enable an increase in fees to recover additional costs related to processing drilling-related permit applications and use authorizations."

Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(2), substituted "Project" for "Pilot Project".

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 113–291, §3021(a)(2), substituted "Project" for "Pilot Project".

2013—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–69 added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The following Bureau of Land Management Field Offices shall serve as the Pilot Project offices:

"(1) Rawlins, Wyoming.

"(2) Buffalo, Wyoming.

"(3) Miles City, Montana.

"(4) Farmington, New Mexico.

"(5) Carlsbad, New Mexico.

"(6) Grand Junction/Glenwood Springs, Colorado.

"(7) Vernal, Utah."

§15925. Fair market value determinations for linear rights-of-way across public lands and national forests

(a) Update of fee schedule

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005—

(1) the Secretary of the Interior shall update section 2806.20 of title 43, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on August 8, 2005, to revise the per acre rental fee zone value schedule by State, county, and type of linear right-of-way use to reflect current values of land in each zone; and

(2) the Secretary of Agriculture shall make the same revision for linear rights-of-way granted, issued, or renewed under title V of the Federal Lands Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1761 et seq.) on National Forest System land.

(b) Fair market value rental determination for linear rights-of-way

The fair market value rent of a linear right-of-way across public lands or National Forest System lands issued under section 504 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1764) or section 185 of title 30 shall be determined in accordance with subpart 2806 of title 43, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on August 8, 2005 (including the annual or periodic updates specified in the regulations), and as updated in accordance with subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §367, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 726.)

References in Text

The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 94–579, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2743, as amended. Title V of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§1761 et seq.) of chapter 35 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 43 and Tables.

§15926. Energy right-of-way corridors on Federal land

(a) Western States

Not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, and the Secretary of the Interior (in this section referred to collectively as "the Secretaries"), in consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, States, tribal or local units of governments as appropriate, affected utility industries, and other interested persons, shall consult with each other and shall—

(1) designate, under their respective authorities, corridors for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities on Federal land in the eleven contiguous Western States (as defined in section 1702(o) of title 431

(2) perform any environmental reviews that may be required to complete the designation of such corridors; and

(3) incorporate the designated corridors into the relevant agency land use and resource management plans or equivalent plans.

(b) Other States

Not later than 4 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretaries, in consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, affected utility industries, and other interested persons, shall jointly—

(1) identify corridors for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities on Federal land in States other than those described in subsection (a); and

(2) schedule prompt action to identify, designate, and incorporate the corridors into the applicable land use plans.

(c) Ongoing responsibilities

The Secretaries, in consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, affected utility industries, and other interested parties, shall establish procedures under their respective authorities that—

(1) ensure that additional corridors for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities on Federal land are promptly identified and designated as necessary; and

(2) expedite applications to construct or modify oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities within such corridors, taking into account prior analyses and environmental reviews undertaken during the designation of such corridors.

(d) Considerations

In carrying out this section, the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to—

(1) improve reliability;

(2) relieve congestion; and

(3) enhance the capability of the national grid to deliver electricity.

(e) Specifications of corridor

A corridor designated under this section shall, at a minimum, specify the centerline, width, and compatible uses of the corridor.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §368, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 727.)

Transforming Our Nation's Electric Grid Through Improved Siting, Permitting, and Review

Memorandum of President of the United States, June 7, 2013, 78 F.R. 35539, provided:

Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies

Our Nation's electric transmission grid is the backbone of our economy, a key factor in future economic growth, and a critical component of our energy security. Countries that harness the power of clean, renewable energy will be best positioned to thrive in the global economy while protecting the environment and increasing prosperity. In order to ensure the growth of America's clean energy economy and improve energy security, we must modernize and expand our electric transmission grid. Modernizing our grid will improve energy reliability and resiliency, allowing us to minimize power outages and manage cyber-security threats. By diversifying power sources and reducing congestion, a modernized grid will also create cost savings for consumers and spur economic growth.

Modernizing our Nation's electric transmission grid requires improvements in how transmission lines are sited, permitted, and reviewed. As part of our efforts to improve the performance of Federal siting, permitting, and review processes for infrastructure development, my Administration created a Rapid Response Team for Transmission (RRTT), a collaborative effort involving nine different executive departments and agencies (agencies), which is working to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of transmission siting, permitting, and review, increase interagency coordination and transparency, and increase the predictability of the siting, permitting, and review processes. In furtherance of Executive Order 13604 of March 22, 2012 (Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects), this memorandum builds upon the work of the RRTT to improve the Federal siting, permitting, and review processes for transmission projects. Because a single project may cross multiple governmental jurisdictions over hundreds of miles, robust collaboration among Federal, State, local, and tribal governments must be a critical component of this effort.

An important avenue to improve these processes is the designation of energy right-of-way corridors (energy corridors) on Federal lands. Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (the "Act") (42 U.S.C. 15926), requires the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, and the Interior (Secretaries) to undertake a continued effort to identify and designate such energy corridors. Energy corridors include areas on Federal lands that are most suitable for siting transmission projects because the chosen areas minimize regulatory conflicts and impacts on environmental and cultural resources, and also address concerns of local communities. Designated energy corridors provide an opportunity to co-locate projects and share environmental and cultural resource impact data to reduce overall impacts on environmental and cultural resources and reduce the need for land use plan amendments in support of the authorization of transmission rights-of-way. The designation of energy corridors can help expedite the siting, permitting, and review processes for projects within such corridors, as well as improve the predictability and transparency of these processes. Pursuant to the Act, in 2009, the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture each designated energy corridors for the 11 contiguous Western States, as defined in section 368 of the Act. Energy corridors have not yet been designated in States other than those identified as Western States. It is important that agencies build on their existing efforts in a coordinated manner.

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby direct the following:

Section 1. Principles for Establishing Energy Corridors. (a) In carrying out the requirements of this memorandum regarding energy corridors, the Secretaries shall:

(i) collaborate with Member Agencies of the Steering Committee on Federal Infrastructure Permitting and Review Process Improvement (Steering Committee), established by Executive Order 13604, which shall provide prompt and adequate information to ensure that additional corridor designations and revisions are consistent with the statutory responsibilities and activities of the Member Agencies and enable timely actions by the Secretaries;

(ii) focus on facilitating renewable energy resources and improving grid resiliency and comply with the requirements in section 368 of the Act, by ensuring that energy corridors address the need for upgraded and new electric transmission and distribution facilities to improve reliability, relieve congestion, and enhance the capability of the national grid to deliver electricity;

(iii) use integrated project planning and consult with other Federal agencies, State, local, and tribal governments, non-governmental organizations, and the public early in the process of designating the energy corridors, so as to avoid resource conflicts to the extent practicable and make strategic decisions to balance policy priorities;

(iv) collaborate with State, local, and tribal governments to ensure, to the extent practicable, that energy corridors can connect effectively between Federal lands;

(v) minimize the proliferation of dispersed and duplicative rights-of-way crossing Federal lands while acting consistent with subsection (a)(ii) of this section;

(vi) design energy corridors to minimize impacts on environmental and cultural resources to the extent practicable, including impacts that may occur outside the boundaries of Federal lands, and minimize impacts on the Nation's aviation system and the mission of the Armed Forces; and

(vii) develop interagency mitigation plans, where appropriate, for environmental and cultural resources potentially impacted by projects sited in the energy corridors to provide project developers predictability on how to seek first to avoid, then attempt to minimize any negative effects from, and lastly to mitigate such impacts, where otherwise unavoidable. Mitigation plans shall:

(A) be developed at the landscape or watershed scale with interagency collaboration, be based on conservation and resource management plans and regional environmental and cultural resource analyses, and identify priority areas for compensatory mitigation where appropriate;

(B) be developed in consultation with other Federal agencies, State, local, and tribal governments, non-governmental organizations, and the public;

(C) include clear and measurable mitigation goals, apply adaptive management methods, and use performance measures to evaluate outcomes and ensure accountability and the long-term effectiveness of mitigation activities;

(D) include useful mechanisms, such as mitigation banks and in lieu fee programs, where appropriate for achieving statutory and regulatory goals; and

(E) be considered in the energy corridor designation process.

(b) The Secretary of Energy shall assess and synthesize current research related to the requirements set forth in subsection (a)(ii) of this section, such as transmission planning authority studies, congestion studies, and renewable energy assessments. Based on that analysis, the Secretary of Energy shall provide to the Steering Committee a Transmission Corridor Assessment Report (Report) that provides recommendations on how to best achieve the requirements set forth in subsection (a)(ii) of this section. Where research is available, the Report shall include an assessment of whether investment in co-locating with or upgrading existing transmission facilities, distributed generation, improved energy efficiency, or demand response may play a role in meeting these requirements. In preparing the Report, the Secretary of Energy shall consult with Federal, State, local, and tribal governments, affected industries, environmental and community representatives, transmission planning authorities, and other interested parties. The Report shall be provided in two parts. The first part, which shall provide recommendations with respect to the Western States, shall be provided by December 1, 2013, and the second part, which shall provide recommendations with respect to States other than the Western States, shall be provided by April 1, 2014.

Sec. 2. Energy Corridors for the Western States. (a) The Secretaries shall strongly encourage the use of designated energy corridors on Federal land in the Western States where the energy corridors are consistent with the requirements in this memorandum and other applicable requirements, unless it can be demonstrated that a project cannot be constructed within a designated corridor due to resource constraints on Federal lands. Additionally, the Secretaries, pursuant to section 368 of the Act, shall continue to evaluate designated energy corridors to determine the necessity for revisions, deletions, or additions to those energy corridors. Also, the Secretaries, coordinated by the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture, shall:

(i) by July 12, 2013, provide to the Steering Committee a plan for producing the Western corridor study and regional corridor assessments (as specified in subsection (a)(ii) and (a)(iii) of this section), which shall include descriptions of timelines and milestones, existing resources to be utilized, plans for collaborating with Member Agencies, and plans for consulting with other Federal agencies, State, local, and tribal governments, affected industries, environmental and community representatives, and other interested parties;

(ii) within 12 months of completion of the plan pursuant to subsection (a)(i) of this section, provide to the Steering Committee a Western corridor study, which shall assess the utility of the existing designated energy corridors;

(iii) provide to the Steering Committee regional corridor assessments, which shall examine the need for additions, deletions, and revisions to the existing energy corridors for the Western States by region. The regional corridor assessments shall evaluate energy corridors based on the requirements set forth in subsection (a) of section 1, the Report issued pursuant to subsection (b) of section 1, and the Western corridor study. The regional corridor assessments shall be completed promptly, depending on resource availability, with at least the first assessment completed within 12 months of completion of the plan pursuant to subsection (a)(i) of this section;

(iv) by November 12, 2014, provide to the Steering Committee and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) an implementation plan for achieving the requirements set forth in subsections (a)(v) and (a)(vi) of this section based on the regional corridor assessments. The implementation plan shall include timelines and milestones that prioritize coordinated agency actions and a detailed budget;

(v) promptly after the completion of the regional corridor assessments and prioritized based on the availability of resources, undertake coordinated land use planning and environmental and cultural resource review processes to consider additions, deletions, or revisions to the current Western energy corridors, consistent with the requirements set forth in subsection (a) of section 1, the Report required issued pursuant to subsection (b) of section 1, and the Western corridor study; and

(vi) as appropriate, after completing the required environmental and cultural resource analyses, promptly incorporate the designated Western corridor additions, deletions, or revisions and any mitigation plans developed pursuant to subsection (a)(vii) of section 1 into relevant agency land use and resource management plans or equivalent plans prioritized based on the availability of resources.

(b) The Member Agencies, where authorized, shall complete any required land use planning, internal policy, and interagency agreements to formalize the designation of energy corridors implemented pursuant to subsection (a)(vi) of this section. The Secretaries and Member Agencies shall also develop and implement a process for expediting applications for applicants whose projects are sited primarily within the designated energy corridors in the Western States, and who have committed to implement the necessary mitigation activities, including those required by the interagency mitigation plans required by subsection (a)(vii) of section 1.

Sec. 3. Energy Corridors for the Non-Western States. The Secretaries, in collaboration with the Member Agencies, shall continue to analyze where energy corridors on Federal land in States other than those identified as Western States may be necessary to address the recommendations in the Report issued pursuant to subsection (b) of section 1 and the requirements set forth in subsection (a) of section 1, and to expedite the siting, permitting, and review of electric transmission projects on Federal lands in those States. By September 1, 2014, the Secretaries shall provide the Steering Committee with updated recommendations regarding designating energy corridors in those States.

Sec. 4. Improved Transmission Siting, Permitting, and Review Processes. (a) Member Agencies shall develop an integrated, interagency pre-application process for significant onshore electric transmission projects requiring Federal approval. The process shall be designed to: promote predictability in the Federal siting, permitting, and review processes; encourage early engagement, coordination, and collaboration of Federal, State, local, and tribal governments, non-governmental organizations, and the public; increase the use of integrated project planning early in the siting, permitting, and review processes; facilitate early identification of issues that could diminish the likelihood that projects will ultimately be permitted; promote early planning for integrated and strategic mitigation plans; expedite siting, permitting, and review processes through a mutual understanding of the needs of all affected Federal agencies and State, local, and tribal governments; and improve environmental and cultural outcomes.

By September 30, 2013, Member Agencies shall provide to the Chief Performance Officer (CPO) and the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality a plan, including timelines and milestones, for implementing this process.

(b) In implementing Executive Order 13604, Member Agencies shall:

(i) improve siting, permitting, and review processes for all electric transmission projects, both onshore and offshore, requiring Federal approval. Such improvements shall include: increasing efficiency and interagency coordination; increasing accountability; ensuring an efficient decision-making process within each agency; to the extent possible, unifying and harmonizing processes among agencies; improving consistency and transparency within each agency and among all agencies; improving environmental and cultural outcomes; providing mechanisms for early and frequent public and local community outreach; and enabling innovative mechanisms for mitigation and mitigation at the landscape or watershed scale; and

(ii) facilitate coordination, integration, and harmonization of the siting, permitting, and review processes of Federal, State, local, and tribal governments for transmission projects to reduce the overall regulatory burden while improving environmental and cultural outcomes.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. (a) The Secretaries and the Member Agencies shall coordinate the activities required by this memorandum with the Steering Committee and shall report to the Steering Committee their progress on meeting the milestones identified pursuant to this memorandum, consistent with the plans developed pursuant to sections 2 and 4 of this memorandum. The CPO shall report on the implementation of this memorandum in the report to the President submitted pursuant to section 2(e) of Executive Order 13604.

(b) In carrying out their responsibilities under this memorandum, Member Agencies shall consult relevant independent agencies, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

(c) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(d) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with Executive Order 13175 of November 6, 2000 (Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments) and my memorandum of November 5, 2009 (Tribal Consultation).

(e) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of OMB relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(f) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(g) The Director of OMB is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

1 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should follow "title 43".

§15927. Oil shale, tar sands, and other strategic unconventional fuels

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005".

(b) Declaration of policy

Congress declares that it is the policy of the United States that—

(1) United States oil shale, tar sands, and other unconventional fuels are strategically important domestic resources that should be developed to reduce the growing dependence of the United States on politically and economically unstable sources of foreign oil imports;

(2) the development of oil shale, tar sands, and other strategic unconventional fuels, for research and commercial development, should be conducted in an environmentally sound manner, using practices that minimize impacts; and

(3) development of those strategic unconventional fuels should occur, with an emphasis on sustainability, to benefit the United States while taking into account affected States and communities.

(c) Leasing program for research and development of oil shale and tar sands

In accordance with section 241 of title 30 and any other applicable law, except as provided in this section, not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, from land otherwise available for leasing, the Secretary of the Interior (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall make available for leasing such land as the Secretary considers to be necessary to conduct research and development activities with respect to technologies for the recovery of liquid fuels from oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands. Prospective public lands within each of the States of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming shall be made available for such research and development leasing.

(d) Programmatic environmental impact statement and commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands

(1) Programmatic environmental impact statement

Not later than 18 months after August 8, 2005, in accordance with section 4332(2)(C) of this title, the Secretary shall complete a programmatic environmental impact statement for a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands within each of the States of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

(2) Final regulation

Not later than 6 months after the completion of the programmatic environmental impact statement under this subsection, the Secretary shall publish a final regulation establishing such program.

(e) Commencement of commercial leasing of oil shale and tar sands

Not later than 180 days after publication of the final regulation required by subsection (d), the Secretary shall consult with the Governors of States with significant oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, representatives of local governments in such States, interested Indian tribes, and other interested persons, to determine the level of support and interest in the States in the development of tar sands and oil shale resources. If the Secretary finds sufficient support and interest exists in a State, the Secretary may conduct a lease sale in that State under the commercial leasing program regulations. Evidence of interest in a lease sale under this subsection shall include, but not be limited to, appropriate areas nominated for leasing by potential lessees and other interested parties.

(f) Diligent development requirements

The Secretary shall, by regulation, designate work requirements and milestones to ensure the diligent development of the lease.

(g) Initial report by the Secretary of the Interior

Within 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary of the Interior shall report to the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate on—

(1) the interim actions necessary to—

(A) develop the program, complete the programmatic environmental impact statement, and promulgate the final regulation as required by subsection (d); and

(B) conduct the first lease sales under the program as required by subsection (e); and


(2) a schedule to complete such actions within the time limits mandated by this section.

(h) Task Force

(1) Establishment

The Secretary of Energy, in cooperation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Defense, shall establish a task force to develop a program to coordinate and accelerate the commercial development of strategic unconventional fuels, including but not limited to oil shale and tar sands resources within the United States, in an integrated manner.

(2) Composition

The Task Force shall be composed of—

(A) the Secretary of Energy (or the designee of the Secretary);

(B) the Secretary of the Interior (or the designee of the Secretary of the Interior);

(C) the Secretary of Defense (or the designee of the Secretary of Defense);

(D) the Governors of affected States; and

(E) representatives of local governments in affected areas.

(3) Recommendations

The Task Force shall make such recommendations regarding promoting the development of the strategic unconventional fuels resources within the United States as it may deem appropriate.

(4) Partnerships

The Task Force shall make recommendations with respect to initiating a partnership with the Province of Alberta, Canada, for purposes of sharing information relating to the development and production of oil from tar sands, and similar partnerships with other nations that contain significant oil shale resources.

(5) Reports

(A) Initial report

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Task Force shall submit to the President and Congress a report that describes the analysis and recommendations of the Task Force.

(B) Subsequent reports

The Secretary shall provide an annual report describing the progress in developing the strategic unconventional fuels resources within the United States for each of the 5 years following submission of the report provided for in subparagraph (A).

(i) Office of Petroleum Reserves

(1) In general

The Office of Petroleum Reserves of the Department of Energy shall—

(A) coordinate the creation and implementation of a commercial strategic fuel development program for the United States;

(B) evaluate the strategic importance of unconventional sources of strategic fuels to the security of the United States;

(C) promote and coordinate Federal Government actions that facilitate the development of strategic fuels in order to effectively address the energy supply needs of the United States;

(D) identify, assess, and recommend appropriate actions of the Federal Government required to assist in the development and manufacturing of strategic fuels; and

(E) coordinate and facilitate appropriate relationships between private industry and the Federal Government to promote sufficient and timely private investment to commercialize strategic fuels for domestic and military use.

(2) Consultation and coordination

The Office of Petroleum Reserves shall work closely with the Task Force and coordinate its staff support.

(j) Omitted

(k) Interagency coordination and expeditious review of permitting process

(1) Department of the Interior as lead agency

Upon written request of a prospective applicant for Federal authorization to develop a proposed oil shale or tar sands project, the Department of the Interior shall act as the lead Federal agency for the purposes of coordinating all applicable Federal authorizations and environmental reviews. To the maximum extent practicable under applicable Federal law, the Secretary shall coordinate this Federal authorization and review process with any Indian tribes and State and local agencies responsible for conducting any separate permitting and environmental reviews.

(2) Implementing regulations

Not later than 6 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall issue any regulations necessary to implement this subsection.

(l) Cost-shared demonstration technologies

(1) Identification

The Secretary of Energy shall identify technologies for the development of oil shale and tar sands that—

(A) are ready for demonstration at a commercially-representative scale; and

(B) have a high probability of leading to commercial production.

(2) Assistance

For each technology identified under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Energy may provide—

(A) technical assistance;

(B) assistance in meeting environmental and regulatory requirements; and

(C) cost-sharing assistance.

(m) National oil shale and tar sands assessment

(1) Assessment

(A) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a national assessment of oil shale and tar sands resources for the purposes of evaluating and mapping oil shale and tar sands deposits, in the geographic areas described in subparagraph (B). In conducting such an assessment, the Secretary shall make use of the extensive geological assessment work for oil shale and tar sands already conducted by the United States Geological Survey.

(B) Geographic areas

The geographic areas referred to in subparagraph (A), listed in the order in which the Secretary shall assign priority, are—

(i) the Green River Region of the States of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming;

(ii) the Devonian oil shales and other hydrocarbon-bearing rocks having the nomenclature of "shale" located east of the Mississippi River; and

(iii) any remaining area in the central and western United States (including the State of Alaska) that contains oil shale and tar sands, as determined by the Secretary.

(2) Use of State surveys and universities

In carrying out the assessment under paragraph (1), the Secretary may request assistance from any State-administered geological survey or university.

(n) Land exchanges

(1) In general

To facilitate the recovery of oil shale and tar sands, especially in areas where Federal, State, and private lands are intermingled, the Secretary shall consider the use of land exchanges where appropriate and feasible to consolidate land ownership and mineral interests into manageable areas.

(2) Identification and priority of public lands

The Secretary shall identify public lands containing deposits of oil shale or tar sands within the Green River, Piceance Creek, Uintah, and Washakie geologic basins, and shall give priority to implementing land exchanges within those basins. The Secretary shall consider the geology of the respective basin in determining the optimum size of the lands to be consolidated.

(3) Compliance with section 1716 of title 43

A land exchange undertaken in furtherance of this subsection shall be implemented in accordance with section 1716 of title 43.

(o) Royalty rates for leases

The Secretary shall establish royalties, fees, rentals, bonus, or other payments for leases under this section that shall—

(1) encourage development of the oil shale and tar sands resource; and

(2) ensure a fair return to the United States.

(p) Heavy oil technical and economic assessment

The Secretary of Energy shall update the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. Such an update should include all of North America and cover all unconventional oil, including heavy oil, tar sands (oil sands), and oil shale.

(q) Omitted

(r) State water rights

Nothing in this section preempts or affects any State water law or interstate compact relating to water.

(s) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §369, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 728; Pub. L. 113–188, title VI, §601(b), Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2019.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 369 of Pub. L. 109–58. Subsecs. (j) and (q) of section 369 of Pub. L. 109–58 enacted section 2398a of Title 10, Armed Forces, and amended the table of sections for chapter 141 of Title 10 and sections 226 and 241 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 113–188 struck out par. (3). Text read as follows: "Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that describes the activities of the Office of Petroleum Reserves carried out under this subsection."

Change of Name

Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

§15928. Consultation regarding energy rights-of-way on public land

(a) Memorandum of understanding

(1) In general

Not later than 6 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Defense with respect to lands under their respective jurisdictions, shall enter into a memorandum of understanding to coordinate all applicable Federal authorizations and environmental reviews relating to a proposed or existing utility facility. To the maximum extent practicable under applicable law, the Secretary of Energy shall, to ensure timely review and permit decisions, coordinate such authorizations and reviews with any Indian tribes, multi-State entities, and State agencies that are responsible for conducting any separate permitting and environmental reviews of the affected utility facility.

(2) Contents

The memorandum of understanding shall include provisions that—

(A) establish—

(i) a unified right-of-way application form; and

(ii) an administrative procedure for processing right-of-way applications, including lines of authority, steps in application processing, and timeframes for application processing;


(B) provide for coordination of planning relating to the granting of the rights-of-way;

(C) provide for an agreement among the affected Federal agencies to prepare a single environmental review document to be used as the basis for all Federal authorization decisions; and

(D) provide for coordination of use of right-of-way stipulations to achieve consistency.

(b) Natural gas pipelines

(1) In general

With respect to permitting activities for interstate natural gas pipelines, the May 2002 document entitled "Interagency Agreement On Early Coordination Of Required Environmental And Historic Preservation Reviews Conducted In Conjunction With The Issuance Of Authorizations To Construct And Operate Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines Certificated By The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission" shall constitute compliance with subsection (a).

(2) Report

(A) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, and every 2 years thereafter, agencies that are signatories to the document referred to in paragraph (1) shall transmit to Congress a report on how the agencies under the jurisdiction of the Secretaries are incorporating and implementing the provisions of the document referred to in paragraph (1).

(B) Contents

The report shall address—

(i) efforts to implement the provisions of the document referred to in paragraph (1);

(ii) whether the efforts have had a streamlining effect;

(iii) further improvements to the permitting process of the agency; and

(iv) recommendations for inclusion of State and tribal governments in a coordinated permitting process.

(c) Definition of utility facility

In this section, the term "utility facility" means any privately, publicly, or cooperatively owned line, facility, or system—

(1) for the transportation of—

(A) oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid fuel, or gaseous fuel;

(B) any refined product produced from oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid fuel, or gaseous fuel; or

(C) products in support of the production of material referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B);


(2) for storage and terminal facilities in connection with the production of material referred to in paragraph (1); or

(3) for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric energy.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §372, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 734.)

Part C—Miscellaneous

§15941. Great Lakes oil and gas drilling ban

No Federal or State permit or lease shall be issued for new oil and gas slant, directional, or offshore drilling in or under one or more of the Great Lakes.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §386, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 744.)

§15942. NEPA review

(a) NEPA review

Action by the Secretary of the Interior in managing the public lands, or the Secretary of Agriculture in managing National Forest System Lands, with respect to any of the activities described in subsection (b) shall be subject to a rebuttable presumption that the use of a categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] (NEPA) would apply if the activity is conducted pursuant to the Mineral Leasing Act [30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.] for the purpose of exploration or development of oil or gas.

(b) Activities described

The activities referred to in subsection (a) are the following:

(1) Individual surface disturbances of less than 5 acres so long as the total surface disturbance on the lease is not greater than 150 acres and site-specific analysis in a document prepared pursuant to NEPA has been previously completed.

(2) Drilling an oil or gas well at a location or well pad site at which drilling has occurred previously within 5 years prior to the date of spudding the well.

(3) Drilling an oil or gas well within a developed field for which an approved land use plan or any environmental document prepared pursuant to NEPA analyzed such drilling as a reasonably foreseeable activity, so long as such plan or document was approved within 5 years prior to the date of spudding the well.

(4) Placement of a pipeline in an approved right-of-way corridor, so long as the corridor was approved within 5 years prior to the date of placement of the pipeline.

(5) Maintenance of a minor activity, other than any construction or major renovation or a building or facility.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §390, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 747.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

The Mineral Leasing Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Feb. 25, 1920, ch. 85, 41 Stat. 437, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 3A (§181 et seq.) of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 181 of Title 30 and Tables.

Part D—Refinery Revitalization

§15951. Findings and definitions

(a) Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) it serves the national interest to increase petroleum refining capacity for gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, and petrochemical feedstocks wherever located within the United States, to bring more supply to the markets for the use of the American people;

(2) United States demand for refined petroleum products currently exceeds the country's petroleum refining capacity to produce such products;

(3) this excess demand has been met with increased imports;

(4) due to lack of capacity, refined petroleum product imports are expected to grow from 7.9 percent to 10.7 percent of total refined product by 2025;

(5) refiners are still subject to significant environmental and other regulations and face several new requirements under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) over the next decade; and

(6) better coordination of Federal and State regulatory reviews may help facilitate siting and construction of new refineries to meet the demand in the United States for refined products.

(b) Definitions

In this part:

(1) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(2) State

The term "State" means—

(A) a State;

(B) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and

(C) any other territory or possession of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §391, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 748.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(5), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

§15952. Federal-State regulatory coordination and assistance

(a) In general

At the request of the Governor of a State, the Administrator may enter into a refinery permitting cooperative agreement with the State, under which each party to the agreement identifies steps, including timelines, that it will take to streamline the consideration of Federal and State environmental permits for a new refinery.

(b) Authority under agreement

The Administrator shall be authorized to—

(1) accept from a refiner a consolidated application for all permits required from the Environmental Protection Agency, to the extent consistent with other applicable law;

(2) enter into memoranda of agreement with other Federal agencies to coordinate consideration of refinery applications and permits among Federal agencies; and

(3) enter into memoranda of agreement with a State, under which Federal and State review of refinery permit applications will be coordinated and concurrently considered, to the extent practicable.

(c) State assistance

The Administrator is authorized to provide financial assistance to State governments to facilitate the hiring of additional personnel with expertise in fields relevant to consideration of refinery permits.

(d) Other assistance

The Administrator is authorized to provide technical, legal, or other assistance to State governments to facilitate their review of applications to build new refineries.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §392, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 749.)

SUBCHAPTER IV—COAL

Part A—Clean Coal Power Initiative

§15961. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Clean coal power initiative

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the activities authorized by this part $200,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2014, to remain available until expended.

(b) Report

The Secretary shall submit to Congress the report required by this subsection not later than March 31, 2007. The report shall include, with respect to subsection (a), a plan containing—

(1) a detailed assessment of whether the aggregate funding levels provided under subsection (a) are the appropriate funding levels for that program;

(2) a detailed description of how proposals will be solicited and evaluated, including a list of all activities expected to be undertaken;

(3) a detailed list of technical milestones for each coal and related technology that will be pursued; and

(4) a detailed description of how the program will avoid problems enumerated in Government Accountability Office reports on the Clean Coal Technology Program, including problems that have resulted in unspent funds and projects that failed either financially or scientifically.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §401, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 749.)

§15962. Project criteria

(a) In general

To be eligible to receive assistance under this part, a project shall advance efficiency, environmental performance, and cost competitiveness well beyond the level of technologies that are in commercial service or have been demonstrated on a scale that the Secretary determines is sufficient to demonstrate that commercial service is viable as of August 8, 2005.

(b) Technical criteria for clean coal power initiative

(1) Gasification projects

(A) In general

In allocating the funds made available under section 15961(a) of this title, the Secretary shall ensure that at least 70 percent of the funds are used only to fund projects on coal-based gasification technologies, including—

(i) gasification combined cycle;

(ii) gasification fuel cells and turbine combined cycle;

(iii) gasification coproduction;

(iv) hybrid gasification and combustion; and

(v) other advanced coal based technologies capable of producing a concentrated stream of carbon dioxide.

(B) Technical milestones

(i) Periodic determination

(I) In general

The Secretary shall periodically set technical milestones specifying the emission and thermal efficiency levels that coal gasification projects under this part shall be designed, and reasonably expected, to achieve.

(II) Prescriptive milestones

The technical milestones shall become more prescriptive during the period of the clean coal power initiative.

(ii) 2020 goals

The Secretary shall establish the periodic milestones so as to achieve by the year 2020 coal gasification projects able—

(I)(aa) to remove at least 99 percent of sulfur dioxide; or

(bb) to emit not more than 0.04 pound SO2 per million Btu, based on a 30-day average;

(II) to emit not more than .05 lbs of NOx per million Btu;

(III) to achieve at least 95 percent reductions in mercury emissions; and

(IV) to achieve a thermal efficiency of at least—

(aa) 50 percent for coal of more than 9,000 Btu;

(bb) 48 percent for coal of 7,000 to 9,000 Btu; and

(cc) 46 percent for coal of less than 7,000 Btu.

(2) Other projects

(A) Allocation of funds

The Secretary shall ensure that up to 30 percent of the funds made available under section 15961(a) of this title are used to fund projects other than those described in paragraph (1).

(B) Technical milestones

(i) Periodic determination

(I) In general

The Secretary shall periodically establish technical milestones specifying the emission and thermal efficiency levels that projects funded under this paragraph shall be designed, and reasonably expected, to achieve.

(II) Prescriptive milestones

The technical milestones shall become more prescriptive during the period of the clean coal power initiative.

(ii) 2020 goals

The Secretary shall set the periodic milestones so as to achieve by the year 2020 projects able—

(I) to remove at least 97 percent of sulfur dioxide;

(II) to emit no more than .08 lbs of NOx per million Btu;

(III) to achieve at least 90 percent reductions in mercury emissions; and

(IV) to achieve a thermal efficiency of at least—

(aa) 43 percent for coal of more than 9,000 Btu;

(bb) 41 percent for coal of 7,000 to 9,000 Btu; and

(cc) 39 percent for coal of less than 7,000 Btu.

(3) Consultation

Before setting the technical milestones under paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(B), the Secretary shall consult with—

(A) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; and

(B) interested entities, including—

(i) coal producers;

(ii) industries using coal;

(iii) organizations that promote coal or advanced coal technologies;

(iv) environmental organizations;

(v) organizations representing workers; and

(vi) organizations representing consumers.

(4) Existing units

In the case of projects at units in existence on August 8, 2005, in lieu of the thermal efficiency requirements described in paragraphs (1)(B)(ii)(IV) and (2)(B)(ii)(IV), the milestones shall be designed to achieve an overall thermal design efficiency improvement, compared to the efficiency of the unit as operated, of not less than—

(A) 7 percent for coal of more than 9,000 Btu;

(B) 6 percent for coal of 7,000 to 9,000 Btu; or

(C) 4 percent for coal of less than 7,000 Btu.

(5) Administration

(A) Elevation of site

In evaluating project proposals to achieve thermal efficiency levels established under paragraphs (1)(B)(i) and (2)(B)(i) and in determining progress towards thermal efficiency milestones under paragraphs (1)(B)(ii)(IV), (2)(B)(ii)(IV), and (4), the Secretary shall take into account and make adjustments for the elevation of the site at which a project is proposed to be constructed.

(B) Applicability of milestones

In applying the thermal efficiency milestones under paragraphs (1)(B)(ii)(IV), (2)(B)(ii)(IV), and (4) to projects that separate and capture at least 50 percent of the potential emissions of carbon dioxide by a facility, the energy used for separation and capture of carbon dioxide shall not be counted in calculating the thermal efficiency.

(C) Permitted uses

In carrying out this section, the Secretary may give priority to projects that include, as part of the project—

(i) the separation or capture of carbon dioxide; or

(ii) the reduction of the demand for natural gas if deployed.

(c) Financial criteria

The Secretary shall not provide financial assistance under this part for a project unless the recipient documents to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(1) the recipient is financially responsible;

(2) the recipient will provide sufficient information to the Secretary to enable the Secretary to ensure that the funds are spent efficiently and effectively; and

(3) a market exists for the technology being demonstrated or applied, as evidenced by statements of interest in writing from potential purchasers of the technology.

(d) Financial assistance

The Secretary shall provide financial assistance to projects that, as determined by the Secretary—

(1) meet the requirements of subsections (a), (b), and (c); and

(2) are likely—

(A) to achieve overall cost reductions in the use of coal to generate useful forms of energy or chemical feedstocks;

(B) to improve the competitiveness of coal among various forms of energy in order to maintain a diversity of fuel choices in the United States to meet electricity generation requirements; and

(C) to demonstrate methods and equipment that are applicable to 25 percent of the electricity generating facilities, using various types of coal, that use coal as the primary feedstock as of August 8, 2005.

(e) Cost-sharing

In carrying out this part, the Secretary shall require cost sharing in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(f) Scheduled completion of selected projects

(1) In general

In selecting a project for financial assistance under this section, the Secretary shall establish a reasonable period of time during which the owner or operator of the project shall complete the construction or demonstration phase of the project, as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(2) Condition of financial assistance

The Secretary shall require as a condition of receipt of any financial assistance under this part that the recipient of the assistance enter into an agreement with the Secretary not to request an extension of the time period established for the project by the Secretary under paragraph (1).

(3) Extension of time period

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary may extend the time period established under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, that the owner or operator of the project cannot complete the construction or demonstration phase of the project within the time period due to circumstances beyond the control of the owner or operator.

(B) Limitation

The Secretary shall not extend a time period under subparagraph (A) by more than 4 years.

(g) Fee title

The Secretary may vest fee title or other property interests acquired under cost-share clean coal power initiative agreements under this part in any entity, including the United States.

(h) Data protection

For a period not exceeding 5 years after completion of the operations phase of a cooperative agreement, the Secretary may provide appropriate protections (including exemptions from subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5) against the dissemination of information that—

(1) results from demonstration activities carried out under the clean coal power initiative program; and

(2) would be a trade secret or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential if the information had been obtained from and first produced by a non-Federal party participating in a clean coal power initiative project.

(i) Applicability

No technology, or level of emission reduction, solely by reason of the use of the technology, or the achievement of the emission reduction, by 1 or more facilities receiving assistance under this Act, shall be considered to be—

(1) adequately demonstrated for purposes of section 7411 of this title;

(2) achievable for purposes of section 7479 of this title; or

(3) achievable in practice for purposes of section 7501 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §402, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 750; Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §653, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1695.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 110–140 added subcl. (I) and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: "to remove at least 99 percent of sulfur dioxide;".

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§15963. Report

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, and once every 2 years thereafter through 2014, the Secretary, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, shall submit to Congress a report describing—

(1) the technical milestones set forth in section 15962 of this title and how those milestones ensure progress toward meeting the requirements of subsections (b)(1)(B) and (b)(2) of section 15962 of this title; and

(2) the status of projects funded under this part.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §403, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 753.)

§15964. Clean coal centers of excellence

(a) In general

As part of the clean coal power initiative, the Secretary shall award competitive, merit-based grants to institutions of higher education for the establishment of centers of excellence for energy systems of the future.

(b) Basis for grants

The Secretary shall award grants under this section to institutions of higher education that show the greatest potential for advancing new clean coal technologies.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §404, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 753.)

§15965. Time limit for award; extension

If a Clean Coal Power Initiative project selected after March 11, 2009, for negotiation under this or any other Act in any fiscal year, is not awarded within 2 years from the date the application was selected, negotiations shall cease and the Federal funds committed to the application shall be retained by the Department for future coal-related research, development and demonstration projects, except that the time limit may be extended at the Secretary's discretion for matters outside the control of the applicant, or if the Secretary determines that extension of the time limit is in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 111–8, div. C, title III, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 616.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2009, and also as part of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Part B—Clean Power Projects

§15971. Integrated coal/renewable energy system

(a) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary may provide loan guarantees for a project to produce energy from coal of less than 7,000 Btu/lb. using appropriate advanced integrated gasification combined cycle technology, including repowering of existing facilities, that—

(1) is combined with wind and other renewable sources;

(2) minimizes and offers the potential to sequester carbon dioxide emissions; and

(3) provides a ready source of hydrogen for near-site fuel cell demonstrations.

(b) Requirements

The facility—

(1) may be built in stages;

(2) shall have a combined output of at least 200 megawatts at successively more competitive rates; and

(3) shall be located in the Upper Great Plains.

(c) Technical criteria

Technical criteria described in section 15962(b) of this title shall apply to the facility.

(d) Investment tax credits

(1) In general

The loan guarantees provided under this section do not preclude the facility from receiving an allocation for investment tax credits under section 48A of title 26.

(2) Other funding

Use of the investment tax credit described in paragraph (1) does not prohibit the use of other clean coal program funding.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §411, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 754.)

§15972. Loan to place Alaska clean coal technology facility in service

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Borrower

The term "borrower" means the owner of the clean coal technology plant.

(2) Clean coal technology plant

The term "clean coal technology plant" means the plant located near Healy, Alaska, constructed under Department cooperative agreement number DE–FC–22–91PC90544.

(3) Cost of a direct loan

The term "cost of a direct loan" has the meaning given the term in section 661a(5)(B) of title 2.

(b) Authorization

Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary shall use amounts made available under subsection (e) to provide the cost of a direct loan to the borrower for purposes of placing the clean coal technology plant into reliable operation for the generation of electricity.

(c) Requirements

(1) Maximum loan amount

The amount of the direct loan provided under subsection (b) shall not exceed $80,000,000.

(2) Determinations by Secretary

Before providing the direct loan to the borrower under subsection (b), the Secretary shall determine that—

(A) the plan of the borrower for placing the clean coal technology plant in reliable operation has a reasonable prospect of success;

(B) the amount of the loan (when combined with amounts available to the borrower from other sources) will be sufficient to carry out the project; and

(C) there is a reasonable prospect that the borrower will repay the principal and interest on the loan.

(3) Interest; term

The direct loan provided under subsection (b) shall bear interest at a rate and for a term that the Secretary determines appropriate, after consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into account the needs and capacities of the borrower and the prevailing rate of interest for similar loans made by public and private lenders.

(4) Additional terms and conditions

The Secretary may require any other terms and conditions that the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(d) Use of payments

The Secretary shall retain any payments of principal and interest on the direct loan provided under subsection (b) to support energy research and development activities, to remain available until expended, subject to any other conditions in an applicable appropriations Act.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to provide the cost of a direct loan under subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §412, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 754.)

§15973. Western integrated coal gasification demonstration project

(a) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall carry out a project to demonstrate production of energy from coal mined in the western United States using integrated gasification combined cycle technology (referred to in this section as the "demonstration project").

(b) Components

The demonstration project—

(1) may include repowering of existing facilities;

(2) shall be designed to demonstrate the ability to use coal with an energy content of not more than 9,000 Btu/lb.; and

(3) shall be capable of removing and sequestering carbon dioxide emissions.

(c) All types of western coals

Notwithstanding the foregoing, and to the extent economically feasible, the demonstration project shall also be designed to demonstrate the ability to use a variety of types of coal (including subbituminous and bituminous coal with an energy content of up to 13,000 Btu/lb.) mined in the western United States.

(d) Location

The demonstration project shall be located in a western State at an altitude of greater than 4,000 feet above sea level.

(e) Cost sharing

The Federal share of the cost of the demonstration project shall be determined in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(f) Loan guarantees

Notwithstanding subchapter XIII, the demonstration project shall not be eligible for Federal loan guarantees.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §413, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 755.)

References in Text

Subchapter XIII, referred to in subsec. (f), was in the original "title XIV", meaning title XIV of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1061, which enacted subchapter XIII of this chapter and section 13557 of this title. For complete classification of title XIV to the Code, see Tables.

§15974. Coal gasification

The Secretary is authorized to provide loan guarantees for a project to produce energy from a plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology of at least 400 megawatts in capacity that produces power at competitive rates in deregulated energy generation markets and that does not receive any subsidy (direct or indirect) from ratepayers.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §414, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 755.)

§15975. Petroleum coke gasification

The Secretary is authorized to provide loan guarantees for at least 5 petroleum coke gasification projects.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §415, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 756.)

§15976. Electron scrubbing demonstration

The Secretary shall use $5,000,000 from amounts appropriated to initiate, through the Chicago Operations Office, a project to demonstrate the viability of high-energy electron scrubbing technology on commercial-scale electrical generation using high-sulfur coal.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §416, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 756.)

§15977. Department of Energy transportation fuels from Illinois basin coal

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program to evaluate the commercial and technical viability of advanced technologies for the production of Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, manufactured from Illinois basin coal, including the capital modification of existing facilities and the construction of testing facilities under subsection (b).

(b) Facilities

For the purpose of evaluating the commercial and technical viability of different processes for producing Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, from Illinois basin coal, the Secretary shall support the use and capital modification of existing facilities and the construction of new facilities at—

(1) Southern Illinois University Coal Research Center;

(2) University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research; and

(3) Energy Center at Purdue University.

(c) Gasification products test center

In conjunction with the activities described in subsections (a) and (b), the Secretary shall construct a test center to evaluate and confirm liquid and gas products from syngas catalysis in order that the system has an output of at least 500 gallons of Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuel per day in a 24-hour operation.

(d) Milestones

(1) Selection of processes

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall select processes for evaluating the commercial and technical viability of different processes of producing Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, from Illinois basin coal.

(2) Agreements

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall offer to enter into agreements—

(A) to carry out the activities described in this section, at the facilities described in subsection (b); and

(B) for the capital modifications or construction of the facilities at the locations described in subsection (b).

(3) Evaluations

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall begin, at the facilities described in subsection (b), evaluation of the technical and commercial viability of different processes of producing Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, from Illinois basin coal.

(4) Construction of facilities

(A) In general

The Secretary shall construct the facilities described in subsection (b) at the lowest cost practicable.

(B) Grants or agreements

The Secretary may make grants or enter into agreements or contracts with the institutions of higher education described in subsection (b).

(e) Cost sharing

The cost of making grants under this section shall be shared in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $85,000,000 for the period of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §417, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 756.)

Part C—Federal Coal Leases

§15991. Inventory requirement

(a) Review of assessments

(1) In general

The Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary, shall review coal assessments and other available data to identify—

(A) Federal lands with coal resources that are available for development;

(B) the extent and nature of any restrictions on the development of coal resources on Federal lands identified under paragraph (1); and

(C) with respect to areas of such lands for which sufficient data exists, resources of compliant coal and supercompliant coal.

(2) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the term "compliant coal" means coal that contains not less than 1.0 and not more than 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu; and

(B) the term "supercompliant coal" means coal that contains less than 1.0 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu.

(b) Completion and updating of the inventory

The Secretary—

(1) shall complete the inventory under subsection (a) by not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005; and

(2) shall update the inventory as the availability of data and developments in technology warrant.

(c) Report

The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and make publicly available—

(1) a report containing the inventory under this section, by not later than 2 years after the effective date of this section; and

(2) each update of such inventory.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §437, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 762.)

References in Text

The effective date of this section, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this section.

Change of Name

Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Short Title

For short title of subtitle D of title IV of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this part, as the "Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 2005", see section 431 of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as a note under section 15801 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—INDIAN ENERGY

§16001. Energy efficiency in federally assisted housing

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall promote energy conservation in housing that is located on Indian land and assisted with Federal resources through—

(1) the use of energy-efficient technologies and innovations (including the procurement of energy-efficient refrigerators and other appliances);

(2) the promotion of shared savings contracts; and

(3) the use and implementation of such other similar technologies and innovations as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development considers to be appropriate.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title V, §506(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 779.)

Short Title

For short title of title V of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this subchapter, as the "Indian Tribal Energy Development and Self-Determination Act of 2005", see section 501 of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as a note under section 15801 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VI—NUCLEAR MATTERS

Part A—General Nuclear Matters

§16011. Demonstration hydrogen production at existing nuclear power plants

(a) Demonstration projects

The Secretary shall provide for the establishment of 2 projects in geographic areas that are regionally and climatically diverse to demonstrate the commercial production of hydrogen at existing nuclear power plants.

(b) Economic analysis

Prior to making an award under subsection (a), the Secretary shall determine whether the use of existing nuclear power plants is a cost-effective means of producing hydrogen.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for the purposes of carrying out this section not more than $100,000,000.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §634, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 790.)

§16012. Prohibition on assumption by United States Government of liability for certain foreign incidents

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no officer of the United States or of any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government may enter into any contract or other arrangement, or into any amendment or modification of a contract or other arrangement, the purpose or effect of which would be to directly or indirectly impose liability on the United States Government, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, or to otherwise directly or indirectly require an indemnity by the United States Government, for nuclear incidents occurring in connection with the design, construction, or operation of a production facility or utilization facility in any country whose government has been identified by the Secretary of State as engaged in state sponsorship of terrorist activities (specifically including any country the government of which, as of September 11, 2001, had been determined by the Secretary of State under section 2371(a) of title 22, section 4605(j)(1) 1 of title 50, or section 2780(d) of title 22 to have repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism). This section shall not apply to nuclear incidents occurring as a result of missions, carried out under the direction of the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary of State, that are necessary to safely secure, store, transport, or remove nuclear materials for nuclear safety or nonproliferation purposes.

(b) Definitions

The terms used in this section shall have the same meaning as those terms have under section 2014 of this title, unless otherwise expressly provided in this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §635, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 790.)

References in Text

Section 4605(j)(1) of title 50, referred to in subsec. (a), was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232.

1 See References in Text note below.

§16013. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this subtitle and the amendments made by this subtitle.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §636, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 791.)

References in Text

This subtitle, referred to in text, is subtitle B (§§621–639) of title VI of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 782, which enacted this part and sections 2015b, 2210c, and 5853 of this title, amended sections 2133, 2135, 2158, 2160d, 2201, 2210a, 2214, 2297h–8, and 5851 of this title, repealed section 2213 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 2158 and 2214 of this title. For complete classification of this subtitle to the Code, see Tables.

§16014. Standby support for certain nuclear plant delays

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Advanced nuclear facility

The term "advanced nuclear facility" means any nuclear facility the reactor design for which is approved after December 31, 1993, by the Commission (and such design or a substantially similar design of comparable capacity was not approved on or before that date).

(2) Combined license

The term "combined license" means a combined construction and operating license for an advanced nuclear facility issued by the Commission.

(3) Commission

The term "Commission" means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(4) Sponsor

The term "sponsor" means a person who has applied for or been granted a combined license.

(b) Contract authority

(1) In general

The Secretary may enter into contracts under this section with sponsors of an advanced nuclear facility that cover a total of 6 reactors, with the 6 reactors consisting of not more than 3 different reactor designs, in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Requirement for contracts

(A) Definition of loan cost

In this paragraph, the term "loan cost" has the meaning given the term "cost of a loan guarantee" under section 661a(5)(C) of title 2.

(B) Establishment of accounts

There is established in the Department 2 separate accounts, which shall be known as the—

(i) "Standby Support Program Account"; and

(ii) "Standby Support Grant Account".

(C) Requirement

The Secretary shall not enter into a contract under this section unless the Secretary deposits—

(i) in the Standby Support Program Account established under subparagraph (B), funds appropriated to the Secretary in advance of the contract or a combination of appropriated funds and loan guarantee fees that are in an amount sufficient to cover the loan costs described in subsection (d)(5)(A); and

(ii) in the Standby Support Grant Account established under subparagraph (B), funds appropriated to the Secretary in advance of the contract, paid to the Secretary by the sponsor of the advanced nuclear facility, or a combination of appropriations and payments that are in an amount sufficient 1 cover the costs described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of subsection (d)(5).

(c) Covered delays

(1) Inclusions

Under each contract authorized by this section, the Secretary shall pay the costs specified in subsection (d), using funds appropriated or collected for the covered costs, if full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility is delayed by—

(A) the failure of the Commission to comply with schedules for review and approval of inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria established under the combined license or the conduct of preoperational hearings by the Commission for the advanced nuclear facility; or

(B) litigation that delays the commencement of full-power operations of the advanced nuclear facility.

(2) Exclusions

The Secretary may not enter into any contract under this section that would obligate the Secretary to pay any costs resulting from—

(A) the failure of the sponsor to take any action required by law or regulation;

(B) events within the control of the sponsor; or

(C) normal business risks.

(d) Covered costs

(1) In general

Subject to paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), the costs that shall be paid by the Secretary pursuant to a contract entered into under this section are the costs that result from a delay covered by the contract.

(2) Initial 2 reactors

In the case of the first 2 reactors that receive combined licenses and on which construction is commenced, the Secretary shall pay—

(A) 100 percent of the covered costs of delay; but

(B) not more than $500,000,000 per contract.

(3) Subsequent 4 reactors

In the case of the next 4 reactors that receive a combined license and on which construction is commenced, the Secretary shall pay—

(A) 50 percent of the covered costs of delay that occur after the initial 180-day period of covered delay; but

(B) not more than $250,000,000 per contract.

(4) Conditions on payment of certain covered costs

(A) In general

The obligation of the Secretary to pay the covered costs described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (5) is subject to the Secretary receiving from appropriations or payments from other non-Federal sources amounts sufficient to pay the covered costs.

(B) Non-Federal sources

The Secretary may receive and accept payments from any non-Federal source, which shall be made available without further appropriation for the payment of the covered costs.

(5) Types of covered costs

Subject to paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), the contract entered into under this section for an advanced nuclear facility shall include as covered costs those costs that result from a delay during construction and in gaining approval for fuel loading and full-power operation, including—

(A) principal or interest on any debt obligation of an advanced nuclear facility owned by a non-Federal entity; and

(B) the incremental difference between—

(i) the fair market price of power purchased to meet the contractual supply agreements that would have been met by the advanced nuclear facility but for the delay; and

(ii) the contractual price of power from the advanced nuclear facility subject to the delay.

(e) Requirements

Any contract between a sponsor and the Secretary covering an advanced nuclear facility under this section shall require the sponsor to use due diligence to shorten, and to end, the delay covered by the contract.

(f) Reports

For each advanced nuclear facility that is covered by a contract under this section, the Commission shall submit to Congress and the Secretary quarterly reports summarizing the status of licensing actions associated with the advanced nuclear facility.

(g) Regulations

(1) In general

Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the Secretary shall issue such regulations as are necessary to carry out this section.

(2) Interim final rulemaking

Not later than 270 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall issue for public comment an interim final rule regulating contracts authorized by this section.

(3) Notice of final rulemaking

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall issue a notice of final rulemaking regulating the contracts.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §638, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 791.)

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by "to".

Part B—Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

§16021. Project establishment

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a project to be known as the "Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project" (referred to in this part as the "Project").

(b) Content

The Project shall consist of the research, development, design, construction, and operation of a prototype plant, including a nuclear reactor that—

(1) is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative under section 16272(c) of this title; and

(2) shall be used—

(A) to generate electricity;

(B) to produce hydrogen; or

(C) both to generate electricity and to produce hydrogen.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §641, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 794; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(b)(2), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3155.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–248 substituted "section 16272(c)" for "section 16272(d)", which had been an editorial translation of a reference in original text to section 942(d) of Pub. L. 109–58.

§16022. Project management

(a) Departmental management

(1) In general

The Project shall be managed in the Department by the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology.

(2) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems program

The Secretary may combine the Project with the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative.

(3) Existing DOE project management expertise

The Secretary may utilize capabilities for review of construction projects for advanced scientific facilities within the Office of Science to track the progress of the Project.

(b) Laboratory management

(1) Lead Laboratory

The Idaho National Laboratory shall be the lead National Laboratory for the Project and shall collaborate with other National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, other research institutes, industrial researchers, and international researchers to carry out the Project.

(2) Industrial partnerships

(A) In general

The Idaho National Laboratory shall organize a consortium of appropriate industrial partners that will carry out cost-shared research, development, design, and construction activities, and operate research facilities, on behalf of the Project.

(B) Cost-sharing

Activities of industrial partners funded by the Project shall be cost-shared in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(C) Preference

Preference in determining the final structure of the consortium or any partnerships under this part shall be given to a structure (including designating as a lead industrial partner an entity incorporated in the United States) that retains United States technological leadership in the Project while maximizing cost sharing opportunities and minimizing Federal funding responsibilities.

(3) Prototype plant siting

The prototype nuclear reactor and associated plant shall be sited at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho.

(4) Reactor test capabilities

The Project shall use, if appropriate, reactor test capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory.

(5) Other Laboratory capabilities

The Project may use, if appropriate, facilities at other National Laboratories.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §642, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 795.)

§16023. Project organization

(a) Major project elements

The Project shall consist of the following major program elements:

(1) High-temperature hydrogen production technology development and validation.

(2) Energy conversion technology development and validation.

(3) Nuclear fuel development, characterization, and qualification.

(4) Materials selection, development, testing, and qualification.

(5) Reactor and balance-of-plant design, engineering, safety analysis, and qualification.

(b) Project phases

The Project shall be conducted in the following phases:

(1) First project phase

A first project phase shall be conducted to—

(A) select and validate the appropriate technology under subsection (a)(1);

(B) carry out enabling research, development, and demonstration activities on technologies and components under paragraphs (2) through (4) of subsection (a);

(C) determine whether it is appropriate to combine electricity generation and hydrogen production in a single prototype nuclear reactor and plant; and

(D) carry out initial design activities for a prototype nuclear reactor and plant, including development of design methods and safety analytical methods and studies under subsection (a)(5).

(2) Second project phase

A second project phase shall be conducted to—

(A) continue appropriate activities under paragraphs (1) through (5) of subsection (a);

(B) develop, through a competitive process, a final design for the prototype nuclear reactor and plant;

(C) apply for licenses to construct and operate the prototype nuclear reactor from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and

(D) construct and start up operations of the prototype nuclear reactor and its associated hydrogen or electricity production facilities.

(c) Project requirements

(1) In general

The Secretary shall ensure that the Project is structured so as to maximize the technical interchange and transfer of technologies and ideas into the Project from other sources of relevant expertise, including—

(A) the nuclear power industry, including nuclear powerplant construction firms, particularly with respect to issues associated with plant design, construction, and operational and safety issues;

(B) the chemical processing industry, particularly with respect to issues relating to—

(i) the use of process energy for production of hydrogen; and

(ii) the integration of technologies developed by the Project into chemical processing environments; and


(C) international efforts in areas related to the Project, particularly with respect to hydrogen production technologies.

(2) International collaboration

(A) In general

The Secretary shall seek international cooperation, participation, and financial contributions for the Project.

(B) Assistance from international partners

The Secretary, through the Idaho National Laboratory, may contract for assistance from specialists or facilities from member countries of the Generation IV International Forum, the Russian Federation, or other international partners if the specialists or facilities provide access to cost-effective and relevant skills or test capabilities.

(C) Partner nations

The Project may involve demonstration of selected project objectives in a partner country.

(D) Generation IV International Forum

The Secretary shall ensure that international activities of the Project are coordinated with the Generation IV International Forum.

(3) Review by Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee

(A) In general

The Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee of the Department (referred to in this paragraph as the "NERAC") shall—

(i) review all program plans for the Project and all progress under the Project on an ongoing basis; and

(ii) ensure that important scientific, technical, safety, and program management issues receive attention in the Project and by the Secretary.

(B) Additional expertise

The NERAC shall supplement the expertise of the NERAC or appoint subpanels to incorporate into the review by the NERAC the relevant sources of expertise described under paragraph (1).

(C) Initial review

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the NERAC shall—

(i) review existing program plans for the Project in light of the recommendations of the document entitled "Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant," dated June 30, 2004; and

(ii) address any recommendations of the document not incorporated in program plans for the Project.

(D) First project phase review

On a determination by the Secretary that the appropriate activities under the first project phase under subsection (b)(1) are nearly complete, the Secretary shall request the NERAC to conduct a comprehensive review of the Project and to report to the Secretary the recommendation of the NERAC concerning whether the Project is ready to proceed to the second project phase under subsection (b)(2).

(E) Transmittal of reports to Congress

Not later than 60 days after receiving any report from the NERAC related to the Project, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives a copy of the report, along with any additional views of the Secretary that the Secretary may consider appropriate.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §643, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 795.)

§16024. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

(a) In general

In accordance with section 5842 of this title, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall have licensing and regulatory authority for any reactor authorized under this part.

(b) Licensing strategy

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary and the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall jointly submit to the appropriate committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives a licensing strategy for the prototype nuclear reactor, including—

(1) a description of ways in which current licensing requirements relating to light-water reactors need to be adapted for the types of prototype nuclear reactor being considered by the Project;

(2) a description of analytical tools that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will have to develop to independently verify designs and performance characteristics of components, equipment, systems, or structures associated with the prototype nuclear reactor;

(3) other research or development activities that may be required on the part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to review a license application for the prototype nuclear reactor; and

(4) an estimate of the budgetary requirements associated with the licensing strategy.

(c) Ongoing interaction

The Secretary shall seek the active participation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission throughout the duration of the Project to—

(1) avoid design decisions that will compromise adequate safety margins in the design of the reactor or impair the accessibility of nuclear safety-related components of the prototype reactor for inspection and maintenance;

(2) develop tools to facilitate inspection and maintenance needed for safety purposes; and

(3) develop risk-based criteria for any future commercial development of a similar reactor architectures.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §644, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 797.)

§16025. Project timelines and authorization of appropriations

(a) Target date to complete the first project phase

Not later than September 30, 2011, the Secretary shall—

(1) select the technology to be used by the Project for high-temperature hydrogen production and the initial design parameters for the prototype nuclear plant; or

(2) submit to Congress a report establishing an alternative date for making the selection.

(b) Design competition for second project phase

(1) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Idaho National Laboratory, shall fund not more than 4 teams for not more than 2 years to develop detailed proposals for competitive evaluation and selection of a single proposal for a final design of the prototype nuclear reactor.

(2) Systems integration

The Secretary may structure Project activities in the second project phase to use the lead industrial partner of the competitively selected design under paragraph (1) in a systems integration role for final design and construction of the Project.

(c) Target date to complete project construction

Not later than September 30, 2021, the Secretary shall—

(1) complete construction and begin operations of the prototype nuclear reactor and associated energy or hydrogen facilities; or

(2) submit to Congress a report establishing an alternative date for completion.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for research and construction activities under this part (including for transfer to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for activities under section 16024 of this title as appropriate)—

(1) $1,250,000,000 for the period of fiscal years 2006 through 2015; and

(2) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2016 through 2021.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §645, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 798.)

Part C—Nuclear Security

§16041. Nuclear facility and materials security

(a) In general

(1), (2) Omitted

(3) Federal security coordinators

(A) Regional offices

Not later than 18 months after August 8, 2005, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (referred to in this section as the "Commission") shall assign a Federal security coordinator, under the employment of the Commission, to each region of the Commission.

(B) Responsibilities

The Federal security coordinator shall be responsible for—

(i) communicating with the Commission and other Federal, State, and local authorities concerning threats, including threats against such classes of facilities as the Commission determines to be appropriate;

(ii) monitoring such classes of facilities as the Commission determines to be appropriate to ensure that they maintain security consistent with the security plan in accordance with the appropriate threat level; and

(iii) assisting in the coordination of security measures among the private security forces at such classes of facilities as the Commission determines to be appropriate and Federal, State, and local authorities, as appropriate.

(b) Backup power for certain emergency notification systems

For any licensed nuclear power plants located where there is a permanent population, as determined by the 2000 decennial census, in excess of 15,000,000 within a 50-mile radius of the power plant, not later than 18 months after August 8, 2005, the Commission shall require that backup power to be available for the emergency notification system of the power plant, including the emergency siren warning system, if the alternating current supply within the 10-mile emergency planning zone of the power plant is lost.

(c), (d) Omitted

(e) Final regulations; waivers

(1) to (3) Omitted

(4) Final regulations

(A) Regulations

(i) In general

Not later than 18 months after August 8, 2005, the Commission, after consultation with States and other stakeholders, shall issue final regulations establishing such requirements as the Commission determines to be necessary to carry out this section and the amendments made by this section.

(ii) Inclusions

The regulations shall include a definition of the term "discrete source" for purposes of paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 2014(e) of this title.

(B) Cooperation

In promulgating regulations under paragraph (1),1 the Commission shall, to the maximum extent practicable—

(i) cooperate with States; and

(ii) use model State standards in existence on August 8, 2005.

(C) Transition plan

(i) Definition of byproduct material

In this paragraph, the term "byproduct material" has the meaning given the term in paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 2014(e) of this title.

(ii) Preparation and publication

To facilitate an orderly transition of regulatory authority with respect to byproduct material, the Commission, in issuing regulations under subparagraph (A), shall prepare and publish a transition plan for—

(I) States that have not, before the date on which the plan is published, entered into an agreement with the Commission under section 2021(b) of this title; and

(II) States that have entered into an agreement with the Commission under that section before the date on which the plan is published.

(iii) Inclusions

The transition plan under clause (ii) shall include—

(I) a description of the conditions under which a State may exercise authority over byproduct material; and

(II) a statement of the Commission that any agreement covering byproduct material, as defined in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 2014(e) of this title, entered into between the Commission and a State under section 2021(b) of this title before the date of publication of the transition plan shall be considered to include byproduct material, as defined in paragraph (3) or (4) of section 2014(e) of this title, if the Governor of the State certifies to the Commission on the date of publication of the transition plan that—

(aa) the State has a program for licensing byproduct material, as defined in paragraph (3) or (4) of section 2014(e) of this title, that is adequate to protect the public health and safety, as determined by the Commission; and

(bb) the State intends to continue to implement the regulatory responsibility of the State with respect to the byproduct material.

(D) Availability of radiopharmaceuticals

In promulgating regulations under subparagraph (A), the Commission shall consider the impact on the availability of radiopharmaceuticals to—

(i) physicians; and

(ii) patients the medical treatment of which relies on radiopharmaceuticals.

(5) Waivers

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the Commission may grant a waiver to any entity of any requirement under this section or an amendment made by this section with respect to a matter relating to byproduct material (as defined in paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 2014(e) of this title) if the Commission determines that the waiver is in accordance with the protection of the public health and safety and the promotion of the common defense and security.

(B) Exceptions

(i) In general

The Commission may not grant a waiver under subparagraph (A) with respect to—

(I) any requirement under the amendments made by subsection (c)(1);

(II) a matter relating to an importation into, or exportation from, the United States for a period ending after the date that is 1 year after August 8, 2005; or

(III) any other matter for a period ending after the date that is 4 years after August 8, 2005.

(ii) Waivers to States

The Commission shall terminate any waiver granted to a State under subparagraph (A) if the Commission determines that—

(I) the State has entered into an agreement with the Commission under section 2021(b) of this title;

(II) the agreement described in subclause (I) covers byproduct material (as described in paragraph (3) or (4) of section 2014(e) of this title); and

(III) the program of the State for licensing such byproduct material is adequate to protect the public health and safety.

(C) Publication

The Commission shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of any waiver granted under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §651, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 799.)

References in Text

For references to "the amendments made by this section", "an amendment made by this section", and "the amendments made by subsection (c)(1)", appearing in subsecs. (e)(4)(A)(i), (e)(5)(A), and (e)(5)(B)(i)(I), respectively, see Codification note below.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 651 of Pub. L. 109–58. Subsec. (a)(1), (2) of section 651 of Pub. L. 109–58 enacted sections 2210d and 2210e of this title, subsec. (c)(1) of section 651 of Pub. L. 109–58 amended section 2051 of this title, subsecs. (c)(2) to (5) and (d) of section 651 of Pub. L. 109–58 enacted sections 2210f to 2210h and 2015c of this title, and subsec. (e)(1) to (3) of section 651 of Pub. L. 109–58 amended sections 2014, 2021, 2021b, and 2111 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "subparagraph (A),".

§16042. Department of Homeland Security consultation

Before issuing a license for a utilization facility, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall consult with the Department of Homeland Security concerning the potential vulnerabilities of the location of the proposed facility to terrorist attack.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §657, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 814.)

SUBCHAPTER VII—VEHICLES AND FUELS

Part A—Existing Programs

§16051. Joint flexible fuel/hybrid vehicle commercialization initiative

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a for-profit corporation;

(B) a nonprofit corporation; or

(C) an institution of higher education.

(2) Program

The term "program" means a program established under subsection (b).

(b) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a program to improve technologies for the commercialization of—

(1) a combination hybrid/flexible fuel vehicle; or

(2) a plug-in hybrid/flexible fuel vehicle.

(c) Grants

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall provide grants that give preference to proposals that—

(1) achieve the greatest reduction in miles per gallon of petroleum fuel consumption;

(2) achieve not less than 250 miles per gallon of petroleum fuel consumption; and

(3) have the greatest potential of commercialization to the general public within 5 years.

(d) Verification

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register procedures to verify—

(1) the hybrid/flexible fuel vehicle technologies to be demonstrated; and

(2) that grants are administered in accordance with this section.

(e) Report

Not later than 260 days after August 8, 2005, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that—

(1) identifies the grant recipients;

(2) describes the technologies to be funded under the program;

(3) assesses the feasibility of the technologies described in paragraph (2) in meeting the goals described in subsection (c);

(4) identifies applications submitted for the program that were not funded; and

(5) makes recommendations for Federal legislation to achieve commercialization of the technology demonstrated.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, to remain available until expended—

(1) $3,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $7,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(3) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(4) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §706, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 817.)

Part B—Hybrid Vehicles, Advanced Vehicles, and Fuel Cell Buses

subpart 1—hybrid vehicles

§16061. Hybrid vehicles

The Secretary shall accelerate efforts directed toward the improvement of batteries and other rechargeable energy storage systems, power electronics, hybrid systems integration, and other technologies for use in hybrid vehicles.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §711, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 818.)

§16062. Domestic manufacturing conversion grant program

(a) Program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program to encourage domestic production and sales of efficient hybrid and advanced diesel vehicles and components of those vehicles.

(2) Inclusions

The program shall include grants and loan guarantees under section 16513 of this title to automobile manufacturers and suppliers and hybrid component manufacturers to encourage domestic production of efficient hybrid, plug-in electric hybrid, plug-in electric drive, and advanced diesel vehicles.

(3) Priority

Priority shall be given to the refurbishment or retooling of manufacturing facilities that have recently ceased operation or will cease operation in the near future.

(b) Coordination with State and local programs

The Secretary may coordinate implementation of this section with State and local programs designed to accomplish similar goals, including the retention and retraining of skilled workers from the manufacturing facilities, including by establishing matching grant arrangements.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §712, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 110–140, title I, §§132, 134(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1511, 1513.)

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–140, §132, amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to program to encourage domestic production and sales of efficient hybrid and advanced diesel vehicles and authorization of appropriations.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–140, §134(a), inserted "and loan guarantees under section 16513 of this title" after "grants".

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

subpart 2—advanced vehicles

§16071. Pilot program

(a) Establishment

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall establish a competitive grant pilot program (referred to in this subpart as the "pilot program"), to be administered through the Clean Cities Program of the Department, to provide not more than 30 geographically dispersed project grants to State governments, local governments, or metropolitan transportation authorities to carry out a project or projects for the purposes described in subsection (b).

(b) Grant purposes

A grant under this section may be used for the following purposes:

(1) The acquisition of alternative fueled vehicles or fuel cell vehicles, including—

(A) passenger vehicles (including neighborhood electric vehicles); and

(B) motorized 2-wheel bicycles or other vehicles for use by law enforcement personnel or other State or local government or metropolitan transportation authority employees.


(2) The acquisition of alternative fueled vehicles, hybrid vehicles, or fuel cell vehicles, including—

(A) buses used for public transportation or transportation to and from schools;

(B) delivery vehicles for goods or services; and

(C) ground support vehicles at public airports (including vehicles to carry baggage or push or pull airplanes toward or away from terminal gates).


(3) The acquisition of ultra-low sulfur diesel vehicles.

(4) Installation or acquisition of infrastructure necessary to directly support an alternative fueled vehicle, fuel cell vehicle, or hybrid vehicle project funded by the grant, including fueling and other support equipment.

(5) Operation and maintenance of vehicles, infrastructure, and equipment acquired as part of a project funded by the grant.

(c) Applications

(1) Requirements

(A) In general

The Secretary shall issue requirements for applying for grants under the pilot program.

(B) Minimum requirements

At a minimum, the Secretary shall require that an application for a grant—

(i) be submitted by the head of a State or local government or a metropolitan transportation authority, or any combination thereof, and a registered participant in the Clean Cities Program of the Department; and

(ii) include—

(I) a description of the project proposed in the application, including how the project meets the requirements of this subpart;

(II) an estimate of the ridership or degree of use of the project;

(III) an estimate of the air pollution emissions reduced and fossil fuel displaced as a result of the project, and a plan to collect and disseminate environmental data, related to the project to be funded under the grant, over the life of the project;

(IV) a description of how the project will be sustainable without Federal assistance after the completion of the term of the grant;

(V) a complete description of the costs of the project, including acquisition, construction, operation, and maintenance costs over the expected life of the project;

(VI) a description of which costs of the project will be supported by Federal assistance under this subpart; and

(VII) documentation to the satisfaction of the Secretary that diesel fuel containing sulfur at not more than 15 parts per million is available for carrying out the project, and a commitment by the applicant to use such fuel in carrying out the project.

(2) Partners

An applicant under paragraph (1) may carry out a project under the pilot program in partnership with public and private entities.

(d) Selection criteria

In evaluating applications under the pilot program, the Secretary shall—

(1) consider each applicant's previous experience with similar projects; and

(2) give priority consideration to applications that—

(A) are most likely to maximize protection of the environment;

(B) demonstrate the greatest commitment on the part of the applicant to ensure funding for the proposed project and the greatest likelihood that the project will be maintained or expanded after Federal assistance under this subpart is completed; and

(C) exceed the minimum requirements of subsection (c)(1)(B)(ii).

(e) Pilot project requirements

(1) Maximum amount

The Secretary shall not provide more than $15,000,000 in Federal assistance under the pilot program to any applicant.

(2) Cost sharing

The Secretary shall not provide more than 50 percent of the cost, incurred during the period of the grant, of any project under the pilot program.

(3) Maximum period of grants

The Secretary shall not fund any applicant under the pilot program for more than 5 years.

(4) Deployment and distribution

The Secretary shall seek to the maximum extent practicable to ensure a broad geographic distribution of project sites.

(5) Transfer of information and knowledge

The Secretary shall establish mechanisms to ensure that the information and knowledge gained by participants in the pilot program are transferred among the pilot program participants and to other interested parties, including other applicants that submitted applications.

(f) Schedule

(1) Publication

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register, Commerce Business Daily, and elsewhere as appropriate, a request for applications to undertake projects under the pilot program. Applications shall be due not later than 180 days after the date of publication of the notice.

(2) Selection

Not later than 180 days after the date by which applications for grants are due, the Secretary shall select by competitive, peer reviewed proposal, all applications for projects to be awarded a grant under the pilot program.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of carrying out the pilot program, the Secretary shall issue regulations defining any term, as the Secretary determines to be necessary.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §721, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 818.)

§16072. Reports to Congress

(a) Initial report

Not later than 60 days after the date on which grants are awarded under this subpart, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report containing—

(1) an identification of the grant recipients and a description of the projects to be funded;

(2) an identification of other applicants that submitted applications for the pilot program; and

(3) a description of the mechanisms used by the Secretary to ensure that the information and knowledge gained by participants in the pilot program are transferred among the pilot program participants and to other interested parties, including other applicants that submitted applications.

(b) Evaluation

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, and annually thereafter until the pilot program ends, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report containing an evaluation of the effectiveness of the pilot program, including—

(1) an assessment of the benefits to the environment derived from the projects included in the pilot program; and

(2) an estimate of the potential benefits to the environment to be derived from widespread application of alternative fueled vehicles and ultra-low sulfur diesel vehicles.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §722, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 820.)

§16073. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this subpart $200,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §723, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 821.)

subpart 3—fuel cell buses

§16081. Fuel cell transit bus demonstration

(a) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall establish a transit bus demonstration program to make competitive, merit-based awards for 5-year projects to demonstrate not more than 25 fuel cell transit buses (and necessary infrastructure) in 5 geographically dispersed localities.

(b) Preference

In selecting projects under this section, the Secretary shall give preference to projects that are most likely to mitigate congestion and improve air quality.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §731, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 821.)

Part C—Clean School Buses

§16091. Clean school bus program 1

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(2) Alternative fuel

The term "alternative fuel" means—

(A) liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, or propane;

(B) methanol or ethanol at no less than 85 percent by volume; or

(C) biodiesel conforming with standards published by the American Society for Testing and Materials as of August 8, 2005.

(3) Clean school bus

The term "clean school bus" means a school bus with a gross vehicle weight of greater than 14,000 pounds that—

(A) is powered by a heavy duty engine; and

(B) is operated solely on an alternative fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.

(4) Eligible recipient

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the term "eligible recipient" means—

(i) 1 or more local or State governmental entities responsible for—

(I) providing school bus service to 1 or more public school systems; or

(II) the purchase of school buses;


(ii) 1 or more contracting entities that provide school bus service to 1 or more public school systems; or

(iii) a nonprofit school transportation association.

(B) Special requirements

In the case of eligible recipients identified under clauses (ii) and (iii),2 the Administrator shall establish timely and appropriate requirements for notice and may establish timely and appropriate requirements for approval by the public school systems that would be served by buses purchased or retrofit using grant funds made available under this section.

(5) Retrofit technology

The term "retrofit technology" means a particulate filter or other emissions control equipment that is verified or certified by the Administrator or the California Air Resources Board as an effective emission reduction technology when installed on an existing school bus.

(6) Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

The term "ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel" means diesel fuel that contains sulfur at not more than 15 parts per million.

(b) Program for retrofit or replacement of certain existing school buses with clean school buses

(1) Establishment

(A) In general

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary and other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, shall establish a program for awarding grants on a competitive basis to eligible recipients for the replacement, or retrofit (including repowering, aftertreatment, and remanufactured engines) of, certain existing school buses.

(B) Balancing

In awarding grants under this section, the Administrator shall, to the maximum extent practicable, achieve an appropriate balance between awarding grants—

(i) to replace school buses; and

(ii) to install retrofit technologies.

(2) Priority of grant applications

(A) Replacement

In the case of grant applications to replace school buses, the Administrator shall give priority to applicants that propose to replace school buses manufactured before model year 1977.

(B) Retrofitting

In the case of grant applications to retrofit school buses, the Administrator shall give priority to applicants that propose to retrofit school buses manufactured in or after model year 1991.

(3) Use of school bus fleet

(A) In general

All school buses acquired or retrofitted with funds provided under this section shall be operated as part of the school bus fleet for which the grant was made for not less than 5 years.

(B) Maintenance, operation, and fueling

New school buses and retrofit technology shall be maintained, operated, and fueled according to manufacturer recommendations or State requirements.

(4) Retrofit grants

The Administrator may award grants for up to 100 percent of the retrofit technologies and installation costs.

(5) Replacement grants

(A) Eligibility for 50 percent grants

The Administrator may award grants for replacement of school buses in the amount of up to one-half of the acquisition costs (including fueling infrastructure) for—

(i) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2005 or 2006 that emit not more than—

(I) 1.8 grams per brake horsepower-hour of non-methane hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen; and

(II) .01 grams per brake horsepower-hour of particulate matter; or


(ii) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2007, 2008, or 2009 that satisfy regulatory requirements established by the Administrator for emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter to be applicable for school buses manufactured in model year 2010.

(B) Eligibility for 25 percent grants

The Administrator may award grants for replacement of school buses in the amount of up to one-fourth of the acquisition costs (including fueling infrastructure) for—

(i) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2005 or 2006 that emit not more than—

(I) 2.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour of non-methane hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen; and

(II) .01 grams per brake horsepower-hour of particulate matter; or


(ii) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2007 or thereafter that satisfy regulatory requirements established by the Administrator for emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter from school buses manufactured in that model year.

(6) Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

(A) 3 In general

In the case of a grant recipient receiving a grant for the acquisition of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2005 or 2006, the grant recipient shall provide, to the satisfaction of the Administrator—

(i) documentation that diesel fuel containing sulfur at not more than 15 parts per million is available for carrying out the purposes of the grant; and

(ii) a commitment by the applicant to use that fuel in carrying out the purposes of the grant.

(7) Deployment and distribution

The Administrator shall, to the maximum extent practicable—

(A) achieve nationwide deployment of clean school buses through the program under this section; and

(B) ensure a broad geographic distribution of grant awards, with no State receiving more than 10 percent of the grant funding made available under this section during a fiscal year.

(8) Annual report

(A) 3 In general

Not later than January 31 of each year, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report that—

(i) evaluates the implementation of this section; and

(ii) describes—

(I) the total number of grant applications received;

(II) the number and types of alternative fuel school buses, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel school buses, and retrofitted buses requested in grant applications;

(III) grants awarded and the criteria used to select the grant recipients;

(IV) certified engine emission levels of all buses purchased or retrofitted under this section;

(V) an evaluation of the in-use emission level of buses purchased or retrofitted under this section; and

(VI) any other information the Administrator considers appropriate.

(c) Education

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall develop an education outreach program to promote and explain the grant program.

(2) Coordination with stakeholders

The outreach program shall be designed and conducted in conjunction with national school bus transportation associations and other stakeholders.

(3) Components

The outreach program shall—

(A) inform potential grant recipients on the process of applying for grants;

(B) describe the available technologies and the benefits of the technologies;

(C) explain the benefits of participating in the grant program; and

(D) include, as appropriate, information from the annual report required under subsection (b)(8).

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator to carry out this section, to remain available until expended—

(1) $55,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 and 2007; and

(2) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2008, 2009, and 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §741, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 821.)

1 This section is substantially identical to section 16091a of this title.

2 So in original. Probably means clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A).

3 So in original. No subpar. (B) was enacted.

§16091a. Clean school bus program 1

(a) Definitions

In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(2) Alternative fuel

The term "alternative fuel" means—

(A) liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, or propane;

(B) methanol or ethanol at no less than 85 percent by volume; or

(C) biodiesel conforming with standards published by the American Society for Testing and Materials as of August 10, 2005.

(3) Clean school bus

The term "clean school bus" means a school bus with a gross vehicle weight of greater than 14,000 pounds that—

(A) is powered by a heavy duty engine; and

(B) is operated solely on an alternative fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.

(4) Eligible recipient

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the term "eligible recipient" means—

(i) one or more local or State governmental entities responsible for providing school bus service to one or more public school systems or the purchase of school buses;

(ii) one or more contracting entities that provide school bus service to one or more public school systems; or

(iii) a nonprofit school transportation association.

(B) Special requirements

In the case of eligible recipients identified under clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall establish timely and appropriate requirements for notice and may establish timely and appropriate requirements for approval by the public school systems that would be served by buses purchased or retrofit using grant funds made available under this section.

(5) Retrofit technology

The term "retrofit technology" means a particulate filter or other emissions control equipment that is verified or certified by the Administrator or the California Air Resources Board as an effective emission reduction technology when installed on an existing school bus.

(6) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(7) Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

The term "ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel" means diesel fuel that contains sulfur at not more than 15 parts per million.

(b) Program for retrofit or replacement of certain existing school buses with clean school buses

(1) Establishment

(A) In general

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary and other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, shall establish a program for awarding grants on a competitive basis to eligible recipients for the replacement of, retrofit (including repowering, aftertreatment, and remanufactured engines) of, or purchase of alternative fuels for, certain existing school buses. The awarding of grants for the purchase of alternative fuels should be consistent with the historic funding levels of the program for such purchase.

(B) Balancing

In awarding grants under this section, the Administrator shall achieve, to the maximum extent practicable, achieve 2 an appropriate balance between awarding grants—

(i) to replace school buses;

(ii) to install retrofit technologies; and

(iii) to purchase and use alternative fuel.

(2) Priority of grant applications

(A) Replacement

In the case of grant applications to replace school buses, the Administrator shall give priority to applicants that propose to replace school buses manufactured before model year 1977.

(B) Retrofitting

In the case of grant applications to retrofit school buses, the Administrator shall give priority to applicants that propose to retrofit school buses manufactured in or after model year 1991.

(3) Use of school bus fleet

(A) In general

All school buses acquired or retrofitted with funds provided under this section shall be operated as part of the school bus fleet for which the grant was made for not less than 5 years.

(B) Maintenance, operation, and fueling

New school buses and retrofit technology shall be maintained, operated, and fueled according to manufacturer recommendations or State requirements.

(4) Retrofit grants

The Administrator may award grants under this section for up to 100 percent of the retrofit technologies and installation costs.

(5) Replacement grants

(A) Eligibility for 50 percent grants

The Administrator may award grants under this section for replacement of school buses in the amount of up to one-half of the acquisition costs (including fueling infrastructure) for—

(i) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2005 or 2006 that emit not more than—

(I) 1.8 grams per brake horsepower-hour of non-methane hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen; and

(II) .01 grams per brake horsepower-hour of particulate matter; or


(ii) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2007, 2008, or 2009 that satisfy regulatory requirements established by the Administrator for emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter to be applicable for school buses manufactured in model year 2010.

(B) Eligibility for 25 percent grants

The Administrator may award grants under this section for replacement of school buses in the amount of up to one-fourth of the acquisition costs (including fueling infrastructure) for—

(i) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2005 or 2006 that emit not more than—

(I) 2.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour of non-methane hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen; and

(II) .01 grams per brake horsepower-hour of particulate matter; or


(ii) clean school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2007 or thereafter that satisfy regulatory requirements established by the Administrator for emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter from school buses manufactured in that model year.

(6) Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

(A) 3 In general

In the case of a grant recipient receiving a grant for the acquisition of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel school buses with engines manufactured in model year 2005 or 2006, the grant recipient shall provide, to the satisfaction of the Administrator—

(i) documentation that diesel fuel containing sulfur at not more than 15 parts per million is available for carrying out the purposes of the grant; and

(ii) a commitment by the applicant to use that fuel in carrying out the purposes of the grant.

(7) Deployment and distribution

The Administrator, to the maximum extent practicable, shall—

(A) achieve nationwide deployment of clean school buses through the program under this section; and

(B) ensure a broad geographic distribution of grant awards, with no State receiving more than 10 percent of the grant funding made available under this section during a fiscal year.

(8) Annual report

(A) 3 In general

Not later than January 31 of each year, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report that—

(i) evaluates the implementation of this section; and

(ii) describes—

(I) the total number of grant applications received;

(II) the number and types of alternative fuel school buses, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel school buses, and retrofitted buses requested in grant applications;

(III) grants awarded and the criteria used to select the grant recipients;

(IV) certified engine emission levels of all buses purchased or retrofitted under this section;

(V) an evaluation of the in-use emission level of buses purchased or retrofitted under this section; and

(VI) any other information the Administrator considers appropriate.

(c) Education

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 10, 2005, the Administrator shall develop an education outreach program to promote and explain the grant program.

(2) Coordination with stakeholders

The outreach program shall be designed and conducted in conjunction with national school bus transportation associations and other stakeholders.

(3) Components

The outreach program shall—

(A) inform potential grant recipients on the process of applying for grants;

(B) describe the available technologies and the benefits of the technologies;

(C) explain the benefits of participating in the grant program; and

(D) include, as appropriate, information from the annual report required under subsection (b)(8).

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator to carry out this section, to remain available until expended—

(1) $55,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 and 2007; and

(2) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2008, 2009, and 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–59, title VI, §6015, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1884.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users or the SAFETEA–LU, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

1 This section is substantially identical to section 16091 of this title.

2 So in original. The word "achieve" probably should not appear.

3 So in original. No subpar. (B) was enacted.

§16092. Diesel truck retrofit and fleet modernization program

(a) Establishment

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary, shall establish a program for awarding grants on a competitive basis to public agencies and entities for fleet modernization programs including installation of retrofit technologies for diesel trucks.

(b) Eligible recipients

A grant shall be awarded under this section only to a State or local government or an agency or instrumentality of a State or local government or of two or more State or local governments who will allocate funds, with preference to ports and other major hauling operations.

(c) Awards

(1) In general

The Administrator shall seek, to the maximum extent practicable, to ensure a broad geographic distribution of grants under this section.

(2) Preferences

In making awards of grants under this section, the Administrator shall give preference to proposals that—

(A) will achieve the greatest reductions in emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and/or particulate matter per proposal or per truck; or

(B) involve the use of Environmental Protection Agency or California Air Resources Board verified emissions control retrofit technology on diesel trucks that operate solely on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel after September 2006.

(d) Conditions of grant

A grant shall be provided under this section on the conditions that—

(1) trucks which are replacing scrapped trucks and on which retrofit emissions-control technology are to be demonstrated—

(A) will operate on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel where such fuel is reasonably available or required for sale by State or local law or regulation;

(B) were manufactured in model year 1998 and before; and

(C) will be used for the transportation of cargo goods especially in port areas or used in goods movement and major hauling operations;


(2) grant funds will be used for the purchase of emission control retrofit technology, including State taxes and contract fees; and

(3) grant recipients will provide at least 50 percent of the total cost of the retrofit, including the purchase of emission control retrofit technology and all necessary labor for installation of the retrofit, from any source other than this section.

(e) Verification

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register procedures to—

(1) make grants pursuant to this section;

(2) verify that trucks powered by ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel on which retrofit emissions-control technology are to be demonstrated will operate on diesel fuel containing not more than 15 parts per million of sulfur after September 2006; and

(3) verify that grants are administered in accordance with this section.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator to carry out this section, to remain available until expended the following sums:

(1) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2006.

(2) $35,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.

(3) $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.

(4) Such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2009 and 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §742, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 824.)

§16093. Fuel cell school buses

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a program for entering into cooperative agreements—

(1) with private sector fuel cell bus developers for the development of fuel cell-powered school buses; and

(2) subsequently, with not less than 2 units of local government using natural gas-powered school buses and such private sector fuel cell bus developers to demonstrate the use of fuel cell-powered school buses.

(b) Cost sharing

The non-Federal contribution for activities funded under this section shall be not less than—

(1) 20 percent for fuel infrastructure development activities; and

(2) 50 percent for demonstration activities and for development activities not described in paragraph (1).

(c) Reports to Congress

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report that—

(1) evaluates the process of converting natural gas infrastructure to accommodate fuel cell-powered school buses; and

(2) assesses the results of the development and demonstration program under this section.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $25,000,000 for the period of fiscal years 2006 through 2009.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §743, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 826.)

Part D—Miscellaneous

§16101. Railroad efficiency

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall (in cooperation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency) establish a cost-shared, public-private research partnership involving the Federal Government, railroad carriers, locomotive manufacturers and equipment suppliers, and the Association of American Railroads, to develop and demonstrate railroad locomotive technologies that increase fuel economy, reduce emissions, and lower costs of operation.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section—

(1) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; and

(3) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §751, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 826.)

Advanced Technology Locomotive Grant Pilot Program

Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1111, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1757, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall establish and carry out a pilot program for making grants to railroad carriers (as defined in section 20102 of title 49, United States Code) and State and local governments—

"(1) for assistance in purchasing hybrid or other energy-efficient locomotives, including hybrid switch and generator-set locomotives; and

"(2) to demonstrate the extent to which such locomotives increase fuel economy, reduce emissions, and lower costs of operation.

"(b) Limitation.—Notwithstanding subsection (a), no grant under this section may be used to fund the costs of emissions reductions that are mandated under Federal law.

"(c) Grant Criteria.—In selecting applicants for grants under this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider—

"(1) the level of energy efficiency that would be achieved by the proposed project;

"(2) the extent to which the proposed project would assist in commercial deployment of hybrid or other energy-efficient locomotive technologies;

"(3) the extent to which the proposed project complements other private or governmental partnership efforts to improve air quality or fuel efficiency in a particular area; and

"(4) the extent to which the applicant demonstrates innovative strategies and a financial commitment to increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions of its railroad operations.

"(d) Competitive Grant Selection Process.—

"(1) Applications.—A railroad carrier or State or local government seeking a grant under this section shall submit for approval by the Secretary of Transportation an application for the grant containing such information as the Secretary of Transportation may require.

"(2) Competitive selection.—The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a national solicitation for applications for grants under this section and shall select grantees on a competitive basis.

"(e) Federal Share.—The Federal share of the cost of a project under this section shall not exceed 80 percent of the project cost.

"(f) Report.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2007], the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the pilot program carried out under this section.

"(g) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011 to carry out this section. Such funds shall remain available until expended."

§16102. Diesel fueled vehicles

(a) Definition of tier 2 emission standards

In this section, the term "tier 2 emission standards" means the motor vehicle emission standards that apply to passenger cars, light trucks, and larger passenger vehicles manufactured after the 2003 model year, as issued on February 10, 2000, by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under sections 7521 and 7545 of this title.

(b) Diesel combustion and after-treatment technologies

The Secretary shall accelerate efforts to improve diesel combustion and after-treatment technologies for use in diesel fueled motor vehicles.

(c) Goals

The Secretary shall carry out subsection (b) with a view toward achieving the following goals:

(1) Developing and demonstrating diesel technologies that, not later than 2010, meet the following standards:

(A) Tier 2 emission standards.

(B) The heavy-duty emissions standards of 2007 that are applicable to heavy-duty vehicles under regulations issued by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency as of August 8, 2005.


(2) Developing the next generation of low-emission, high efficiency diesel engine technologies, including homogeneous charge compression ignition technology.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §754, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 828.)

§16103. Conserve by Bicycling Program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Program

The term "program" means the Conserve by Bicycling Program established by subsection (b).

(2) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation.

(b) Establishment

There is established within the Department of Transportation a program to be known as the "Conserve by Bicycling Program".

(c) Projects

(1) In general

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall establish not more than 10 pilot projects that are—

(A) dispersed geographically throughout the United States; and

(B) designed to conserve energy resources by encouraging the use of bicycles in place of motor vehicles.

(2) Requirements

A pilot project described in paragraph (1) shall—

(A) use education and marketing to convert motor vehicle trips to bicycle trips;

(B) document project results and energy savings (in estimated units of energy conserved);

(C) facilitate partnerships among interested parties in at least 2 of the fields of—

(i) transportation;

(ii) law enforcement;

(iii) education;

(iv) public health;

(v) environment; and

(vi) energy;


(D) maximize bicycle facility investments;

(E) demonstrate methods that may be used in other regions of the United States; and

(F) facilitate the continuation of ongoing programs that are sustained by local resources.

(3) Cost sharing

At least 20 percent of the cost of each pilot project described in paragraph (1) shall be provided from non-Federal sources.

(d) Energy and bicycling research study

(1) In general

Not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall enter into a contract with the National Academy of Sciences for, and the National Academy of Sciences shall conduct and submit to Congress a report on, a study on the feasibility of converting motor vehicle trips to bicycle trips.

(2) Components

The study shall—

(A) document the results or progress of the pilot projects under subsection (c);

(B) determine the type and duration of motor vehicle trips that people in the United States may feasibly make by bicycle, taking into consideration factors such as—

(i) weather;

(ii) land use and traffic patterns;

(iii) the carrying capacity of bicycles; and

(iv) bicycle infrastructure;


(C) determine any energy savings that would result from the conversion of motor vehicle trips to bicycle trips;

(D) include a cost-benefit analysis of bicycle infrastructure investments; and

(E) include a description of any factors that would encourage more motor vehicle trips to be replaced with bicycle trips.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $6,200,000, to remain available until expended, of which—

(1) $5,150,000 shall be used to carry out pilot projects described in subsection (c);

(2) $300,000 shall be used by the Secretary to coordinate, publicize, and disseminate the results of the program; and

(3) $750,000 shall be used to carry out subsection (d).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §755, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 828.)

§16104. Reduction of engine idling

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(2) Advanced truck stop electrification system

The term "advanced truck stop electrification system" means a stationary system that delivers heat, air conditioning, electricity, or communications, and is capable of providing verifiable and auditable evidence of use of those services, to a heavy-duty vehicle and any occupants of the heavy-duty vehicle with or without relying on components mounted onboard the heavy-duty vehicle for delivery of those services.

(3) Auxiliary power unit

The term "auxiliary power unit" means an integrated system that—

(A) provides heat, air conditioning, engine warming, or electricity to components on a heavy-duty vehicle; and

(B) is certified by the Administrator under part 89 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation), as meeting applicable emission standards.

(4) Heavy-duty vehicle

The term "heavy-duty vehicle" means a vehicle that—

(A) has a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 8,500 pounds; and

(B) is powered by a diesel engine.

(5) Idle reduction technology

The term "idle reduction technology" means an advanced truck stop electrification system, auxiliary power unit, or other technology that—

(A) is used to reduce long-duration idling; and

(B) allows for the main drive engine or auxiliary refrigeration engine to be shut down.

(6) Energy conservation technology

the 1 term "energy conservation technology" means any device, system of devices, or equipment that improves the fuel economy.

(7) Long-duration idling

(A) In general

The term "long-duration idling" means the operation of a main drive engine or auxiliary refrigeration engine, for a period greater than 15 consecutive minutes, at a time at which the main drive engine is not engaged in gear.

(B) Exclusions

The term "long-duration idling" does not include the operation of a main drive engine or auxiliary refrigeration engine during a routine stoppage associated with traffic movement or congestion.

(b) Idle reduction technology benefits, programs, and studies

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall—

(A)(i) commence a review of the mobile source air emission models of the Environmental Protection Agency used under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) to determine whether the models accurately reflect the emissions resulting from long-duration idling of heavy-duty vehicles and other vehicles and engines; and

(ii) update those models as the Administrator determines to be appropriate; and

(B)(i) commence a review of the emission reductions achieved by the use of idle reduction technology; and

(ii) complete such revisions of the regulations and guidance of the Environmental Protection Agency as the Administrator determines to be appropriate.

(2) Deadline for completion

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall—

(A) complete the reviews under subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(i) of paragraph (1); and

(B) prepare and make publicly available one or more reports on the results of the reviews.

(3) Discretionary inclusions

The reviews under subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(i) of paragraph (1) and the reports under paragraph (2)(B) may address the potential fuel savings resulting from use of idle reduction technology.

(4) Idle reduction and energy conservation deployment program

(A) Establishment

(i) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation shall, through the Environmental Protection Agency's SmartWay Transport Partnership, establish a program to support deployment of idle reduction and energy conservation technologies.

(ii) Priority

The Administrator shall give priority to the deployment of idle reduction and energy conservation technologies based on the costs and beneficial effects on air quality and ability to lessen the emission of criteria air pollutants.

(B) Funding

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator to carry out subparagraph (A) for the purpose of reducing extended idling from heavy-duty vehicles $19,500,000 for fiscal year 2006, $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, and $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.

(ii) Locomotives

There are authorized to be appropriated to the administrator to carry out subparagraph (A) for the purpose of reducing extended idling from locomotives $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2006, $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, and $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.

(iii) Cost sharing

Subject to clause (iv), the Administrator shall require at least 50 percent of the costs directly and specifically related to any project under this section to be provided from non-Federal sources.

(iv) Necessary and appropriate reductions

The Administrator may reduce the non-Federal requirement under clause (iii) if the Administrator determines that the reduction is necessary and appropriate to meet the objectives of this section.

(5) Idling location study

(A) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall commence a study to analyze all locations at which heavy-duty vehicles stop for long-duration idling, including—

(i) truck stops;

(ii) rest areas;

(iii) border crossings;

(iv) ports;

(v) transfer facilities; and

(vi) private terminals.

(B) Deadline for completion

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall—

(i) complete the study under subparagraph (A); and

(ii) prepare and make publicly available one or more reports of the results of the study.

(c) Omitted

(d) Report

Not later than 60 days after the date on which funds are initially awarded under this section, and on an annual basis thereafter, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report containing—

(1) an identification of the grant recipients, a description of the projects to be funded and the amount of funding provided; and

(2) an identification of all other applicants that submitted applications under the program.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §756, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 829.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 756 of Pub. L. 109–58. Subsec. (c) of section 756 of Pub. L. 109–58 amended section 127 of Title 23, Highways.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§16105. Biodiesel engine testing program

(a) In general

Not later that 1 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall initiate a partnership with diesel engine, diesel fuel injection system, and diesel vehicle manufacturers and diesel and biodiesel fuel providers, to include biodiesel testing in advanced diesel engine and fuel system technology.

(b) Scope

The program shall provide for testing to determine the impact of biodiesel from different sources on current and future emission control technologies, with emphasis on—

(1) the impact of biodiesel on emissions warranty, in-use liability, and antitampering provisions;

(2) the impact of long-term use of biodiesel on engine operations;

(3) the options for optimizing these technologies for both emissions and performance when switching between biodiesel and diesel fuel; and

(4) the impact of using biodiesel in these fueling systems and engines when used as a blend with 2006 Environmental Protection Agency-mandated diesel fuel containing a maximum of 15-parts-per-million sulfur content.

(c) Report

Not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall provide an interim report to Congress on the findings of the program, including a comprehensive analysis of impacts from biodiesel on engine operation for both existing and expected future diesel technologies, and recommendations for ensuring optimal emissions reductions and engine performance with biodiesel.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010 to carry out this section.

(e) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "biodiesel" means a diesel fuel substitute produced from nonpetroleum renewable resources that meets the registration requirements for fuels and fuel additives established by the Environmental Protection Agency under section 7545 of this title and that meets the American Society for Testing and Materials D6751–02a Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for Distillate Fuels.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §757, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 832.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "than".

§16106. Ultra-efficient engine technology for aircraft

(a) Ultra-efficient engine technology partnership

The Secretary shall enter into a cooperative agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the development of ultra-efficient engine technology for aircraft.

(b) Performance objective

The Secretary shall establish the following performance objectives for the program set forth in subsection (a):

(1) A fuel efficiency increase of at least 10 percent.

(2) A reduction in the impact of landing and takeoff nitrogen oxides emissions on local air quality of 70 percent.

(3) Exploring advanced concepts, alternate propulsion, and power configurations, including hybrid fuel cell powered systems.

(4) Exploring the use of alternate fuel in conventional or nonconventional turbine-based systems.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this section $50,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §758, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 833.)

Part E—Federal and State Procurement

§16121. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Fuel cell

The term "fuel cell" means a device that directly converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant into electricity by electrochemical processes occurring at separate electrodes in the device.

(2) Light-duty or heavy-duty vehicle fleet

The term "light-duty or heavy-duty vehicle fleet" does not include any vehicle designed or procured for combat or combat-related missions.

(3) Stationary; portable

The terms "stationary" and "portable", when used in reference to a fuel cell, include—

(A) continuous electric power; and

(B) backup electric power.

(4) Task Force

The term "Task Force" means the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Task Force established under section 16155 of this title.

(5) Technical Advisory Committee

The term "Technical Advisory Committee" means the independent Technical Advisory Committee selected under section 16156 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §781, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 835.)

§16122. Federal and State procurement of fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy systems

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to stimulate acceptance by the market of fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy systems;

(2) to support development of technologies relating to fuel cell vehicles, public refueling stations, and hydrogen energy systems; and

(3) to require the Federal government, 1 which is the largest single user of energy in the United States, to adopt those technologies as soon as practicable after the technologies are developed, in conjunction with private industry partners.

(b) Federal leases and purchases

(1) Requirement

(A) In general

Not later than January 1, 2010, the head of any Federal agency that uses a light-duty or heavy-duty vehicle fleet shall lease or purchase fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy systems to meet any applicable energy savings goal described in subsection (c).

(B) Learning demonstration vehicles

The Secretary may lease or purchase appropriate vehicles developed under subsections (a)(10) and (b)(1)(A) of section 16157 of this title to meet the requirement in subparagraph (A).

(2) Costs of leases and purchases

(A) In general

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Task Force and the Technical Advisory Committee, shall pay to Federal agencies (or share the cost under interagency agreements) the difference in cost between—

(i) the cost to the agencies of leasing or purchasing fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy systems under paragraph (1); and

(ii) the cost to the agencies of a feasible alternative to leasing or purchasing fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy systems, as determined by the Secretary.

(B) Competitive costs and management structures

In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary, in consultation with the agency, may use the General Services Administration or any commercial vendor to ensure—

(i) a cost-effective purchase of a fuel cell vehicle or hydrogen energy system; or

(ii) a cost-effective management structure of the lease of a fuel cell vehicle or hydrogen energy system.

(3) Exception

(A) In general

If the Secretary determines that the head of an agency described in paragraph (1) cannot find an appropriately efficient and reliable fuel cell vehicle or hydrogen energy system in accordance with paragraph (1), that agency shall be excepted from compliance with paragraph (1).

(B) Consideration

In making a determination under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider—

(i) the needs of the agency; and

(ii) an evaluation performed by—

(I) the Task Force; or

(II) the Technical Advisory Committee.

(c) Energy savings goals

(1) In general

(A) Regulations

Not later than December 31, 2006, the Secretary shall—

(i) in cooperation with the Task Force, promulgate regulations for the period of 2008 through 2010 that extend and augment energy savings goals for each Federal agency, in accordance with any Executive order issued after March 2000; and

(ii) promulgate regulations to expand the minimum Federal fleet requirement and credit allowances for fuel cell vehicle systems under section 13212 of this title.

(B) Review, evaluation, and new regulations

Not later than December 31, 2010, the Secretary shall—

(i) review the regulations promulgated under subparagraph (A);

(ii) evaluate any progress made toward achieving energy savings by Federal agencies; and

(iii) promulgate new regulations for the period of 2011 through 2015 to achieve additional energy savings by Federal agencies relating to technical and cost-performance standards.

(2) Offsetting energy savings goals

An agency that leases or purchases a fuel cell vehicle or hydrogen energy system in accordance with subsection (b)(1) may use that lease or purchase to count toward an energy savings goal of the agency.

(d) Cooperative program with State agencies

(1) In general

The Secretary may establish a cooperative program with State agencies managing motor vehicle fleets to encourage purchase of fuel cell vehicles by the agencies.

(2) Incentives

In carrying out the cooperative program, the Secretary may offer incentive payments to a State agency to assist with the cost of planning, differential purchases, and administration.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(1) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(2) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(3) $65,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(4) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §782, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 835.)

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§16123. Federal procurement of stationary, portable, and micro fuel cells

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to stimulate acceptance by the market of stationary, portable, and micro fuel cells; and

(2) to support development of technologies relating to stationary, portable, and micro fuel cells.

(b) Federal leases and purchases

(1) In general

Not later than January 1, 2006, the head of any Federal agency that uses electrical power from stationary, portable, or microportable devices shall lease or purchase a stationary, portable, or micro fuel cell to meet any applicable energy savings goal described in subsection (c).

(2) Costs of leases and purchases

(A) In general

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Task Force and the Technical Advisory Committee, shall pay the cost to Federal agencies (or share the cost under interagency agreements) of leasing or purchasing stationary, portable, and micro fuel cells under paragraph (1).

(B) Competitive costs and management structures

In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary, in consultation with the agency, may use the General Services Administration or any commercial vendor to ensure—

(i) a cost-effective purchase of a stationary, portable, or micro fuel cell; or

(ii) a cost-effective management structure of the lease of a stationary, portable, or micro fuel cell.

(3) Exception

(A) In general

If the Secretary determines that the head of an agency described in paragraph (1) cannot find an appropriately efficient and reliable stationary, portable, or micro fuel cell in accordance with paragraph (1), that agency shall be excepted from compliance with paragraph (1).

(B) Consideration

In making a determination under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider—

(i) the needs of the agency; and

(ii) an evaluation performed by—

(I) the Task Force; or

(II) the Technical Advisory Committee of the Task Force.

(c) Energy savings goals

An agency that leases or purchases a stationary, portable, or micro fuel cell in accordance with subsection (b)(1) may use that lease or purchase to count toward an energy savings goal described in section 16157 of this title that is applicable to the agency.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(1) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(3) $75,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(4) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(5) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(6) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §783, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 837.)

Part F—Diesel Emissions Reduction

§16131. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(2) Certified engine configuration

The term "certified engine configuration" means a new, rebuilt, or remanufactured engine configuration—

(A) that has been certified or verified by—

(i) the Administrator; or

(ii) the California Air Resources Board;


(B) that meets or is rebuilt or remanufactured to a more stringent set of engine emission standards, as determined by the Administrator; and

(C) in the case of a certified engine configuration involving the replacement of an existing engine or vehicle, an engine configuration that replaced an engine that was—

(i) removed from the vehicle; and

(ii) returned to the supplier for remanufacturing to a more stringent set of engine emissions standards or for scrappage.

(3) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a regional, State, local, or tribal agency or port authority with jurisdiction over transportation or air quality;

(B) a nonprofit organization or institution that—

(i) represents or provides pollution reduction or educational services to persons or organizations that own or operate diesel fleets; or

(ii) has, as its principal purpose, the promotion of transportation or air quality; and


(C) any private individual or entity that—

(i) is the owner of record of a diesel vehicle or fleet operated pursuant to a contract, license, or lease with a Federal department or agency or an entity described in subparagraph (A); and

(ii) meets such timely and appropriate requirements as the Administrator may establish for vehicle use and for notice to and approval by the Federal department or agency or entity described in subparagraph (A) with respect to which the owner has entered into a contract, license, or lease as described in clause (i).

(4) Emerging technology

The term "emerging technology" means a technology that is not currently, or has not been previously, certified or verified by the Administrator or the California Air Resources Board but for which an approvable application and test plan has been submitted for verification to the Administrator or the California Air Resources Board.

(5) Fleet

The term "fleet" means one or more diesel vehicles or mobile or stationary diesel engines.

(6) Heavy-duty truck

The term "heavy-duty truck" has the meaning given the term "heavy duty vehicle" in section 7521 of this title.

(7) Medium-duty truck

The term "medium-duty truck" has such meaning as shall be determined by the Administrator, by regulation.

(8) State

The term "State" means the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(9) Verified technology

The term "verified technology" means a pollution control technology, including a retrofit technology or auxiliary power unit, that has been verified by—

(A) the Administrator; or

(B) the California Air Resources Board.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §791, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 838; Pub. L. 110–255, §3(a), June 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2423; Pub. L. 111–364, §2(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4056.)

Amendments

2011—Par. (3)(C). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Par. (4). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(a)(2), inserted "currently, or has not been previously," after "that is not".

Par. (8). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(a)(6), added par. (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(a)(5), struck out ", advanced truckstop electrification system," after "retrofit technology" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 111–364, §2(a)(4), redesignated par. (8) as (9). Former par. (9) struck out.

Pub. L. 111–364, §2(a)(3), struck out par. (9) which defined "State" to include the District of Columbia.

2008—Par. (9). Pub. L. 110–255 added par. (9).

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–364, §4, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4061, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by section 2 [amending this section and sections 16132 to 16134 and 16137 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2011.

"(b) Exception.—The amendments made by subsections (a)(4) and (6) and (c)(4) of section 2 [amending this section and section 16133 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011]."

§16132. National grant, rebate, and loan programs

(a) In general

The Administrator shall use 70 percent of the funds made available to carry out this part for each fiscal year to provide grants, rebates, or low-cost revolving loans, as determined by the Administrator, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities, including through contracts entered into under subsection (e) of this section, to achieve significant reductions in diesel emissions in terms of—

(1) pollution produced; and

(2) diesel emissions exposure, particularly from fleets operating in areas designated by the Administrator as poor air quality areas.

(b) Distribution

(1) In general

The Administrator shall distribute funds made available for a fiscal year under this part in accordance with this section.

(2) Engine configurations and technologies

(A) Certified engine configurations and verified technologies

The Administrator shall provide not less than 95 percent of funds available for a fiscal year under this section to eligible entities for projects using—

(i) a certified engine configuration; or

(ii) a verified technology.

(B) Emerging technologies

(i) In general

The Administrator shall provide not more than 5 percent of funds available for a fiscal year under this section to eligible entities for the development and commercialization of emerging technologies.

(ii) Application and test plan

To receive funds under clause (i), a manufacturer, in consultation with an eligible entity, shall submit for verification to the Administrator or the California Air Resources Board a test plan for the emerging technology, together with a verification application.

(c) Applications

(1) Expedited process

(A) In general

The Administrator shall develop a simplified application process for all applicants under this section to expedite the provision of funds.

(B) Requirements

In developing the expedited process under subparagraph (A), the Administrator—

(i) shall take into consideration the special circumstances affecting small fleet owners; and

(ii) to avoid duplicative procedures, may require applicants to include in an application under this section the results of a competitive bidding process for equipment and installation.

(2) Eligibility

(A) Grants

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an eligible entity shall submit to the Administrator an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Administrator may require.

(B) Rebates and low-cost loans

To be eligible to receive a rebate or a low-cost loan under this section, an eligible entity shall submit an application in accordance with such guidance as the Administrator may establish—

(i) to the Administrator; or

(ii) to an entity that has entered into a contract under subsection (e).

(3) Inclusions

An application under this subsection shall include—

(A) a description of the air quality of the area served by the eligible entity;

(B) the quantity of air pollution produced by the diesel fleets in the area served by the eligible entity;

(C) a description of the project proposed by the eligible entity, including—

(i) any certified engine configuration, verified technology, or emerging technology to be used or funded by the eligible entity; and

(ii) the means by which the project will achieve a significant reduction in diesel emissions;


(D) an evaluation (using methodology approved by the Administrator or the National Academy of Sciences) of the quantifiable and unquantifiable benefits of the emissions reductions of the proposed project;

(E) an estimate of the cost of the proposed project;

(F) a description of the age and expected lifetime control of the equipment used or funded by the eligible entity;

(G) in the case of an application relating to nonroad engines or vehicles, a description of the diesel fuel available in the areas to be served by the eligible entity, including the sulfur content of the fuel; and

(H) provisions for the monitoring and verification of the project.

(4) Priority

In providing a grant, rebate, or loan under this section, the Administrator shall give highest priority to proposed projects that, as determined by the Administrator—

(A) maximize public health benefits;

(B) are the most cost-effective;

(C) serve areas—

(i) with the highest population density;

(ii) that are poor air quality areas, including areas identified by the Administrator as—

(I) in nonattainment or maintenance of national ambient air quality standards for a criteria pollutant;

(II) Federal Class I areas; or

(III) areas with toxic air pollutant concerns;


(iii) that receive a disproportionate quantity of air pollution from diesel fleets, including truckstops, ports, rail yards, terminals, construction sites, schools, and distribution centers; or

(iv) that use a community-based multistakeholder collaborative process to reduce toxic emissions;


(D) include a certified engine configuration, verified technology, or emerging technology that has a long expected useful life;

(E) will maximize the useful life of any certified engine configuration, verified technology, or emerging technology used or funded by the eligible entity; and

(F) conserve diesel fuel.

(d) Use of funds

(1) In general

An eligible entity may use a grant, rebate, or loan provided under this section to fund the costs of—

(A) a retrofit technology (including any incremental costs of a repowered or new diesel engine) that significantly reduces emissions through development and implementation of a certified engine configuration, verified technology, or emerging technology for—

(i) a bus;

(ii) a medium-duty truck or a heavy-duty truck;

(iii) a marine engine;

(iv) a locomotive; or

(v) a nonroad engine or vehicle used in—

(I) construction;

(II) handling of cargo (including at a port or airport);

(III) agriculture;

(IV) mining; or

(V) energy production; or


(B) programs or projects to reduce long-duration idling using verified technology involving a vehicle or equipment described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Regulatory programs

(A) In general

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), no grant, rebate, or loan provided, or contract entered into, under this section shall be used to fund the costs of emissions reductions that are mandated under any Federal law, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to a mandate in a State implementation plan approved by the Administrator under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.].

(B) Mandated

For purposes of subparagraph (A), voluntary or elective emission reduction measures shall not be considered "mandated", regardless of whether the reductions are included in the State implementation plan of a State.

(e) Contract programs

(1) Authority

In addition to the use of contracting authority otherwise available to the Administrator, the Administrator may enter into contracts with eligible contractors described in paragraph (2) for the administration of programs for providing rebates or loans, subject to the requirements of this part.

(2) Eligible contractors

The Administrator may enter into a contract under this subsection with a for-profit or nonprofit entity that has the capacity—

(A) to sell diesel vehicles or equipment to, or to arrange financing for, individuals or entities that own a diesel vehicle or fleet; or

(B) to upgrade diesel vehicles or equipment with verified or Environmental Protection Agency-certified engines or technologies, or to arrange financing for such upgrades.

(f) Public notification

Not later than 60 days after the date of the award of a grant, rebate, or loan, the Administrator shall publish on the website of the Environmental Protection Agency—

(1) for rebates and loans provided to the owner of a diesel vehicle or fleet, the total number and dollar amount of rebates or loans provided, as well as a breakdown of the technologies funded through the rebates or loans; and

(2) for other rebates and loans, and for grants, a description of each application for which the grant, rebate, or loan is provided.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §792, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4056.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(A), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2011Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(1), inserted ", rebate," after "grant" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(2)(A), substituted "to provide grants, rebates, or low-cost revolving loans, as determined by the Administrator, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities, including through contracts entered into under subsection (e) of this section," for "to provide grants and low-cost revolving loans, as determined by the Administrator, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(2)(B), struck out "tons of" before "pollution produced".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(3)(A), (B), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Administrator shall provide not less than 50 percent of funds available for a fiscal year under this section to eligible entities for the benefit of public fleets."

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(3)(C)(i), substituted "95" for "90" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(3)(C)(ii), substituted "5 percent" for "10 percent".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(3)(C)(iii), substituted "a verification application" for "the application under subsection (c)".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(3)(B), redesignated par. (3) as (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(4)(A), (B), added pars. (1) and (2), redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, text of par. (1) read as follows: "To receive a grant or loan under this section, an eligible entity shall submit to the Administrator an application at a time, in a manner, and including such information as the Administrator may require."

Subsec. (c)(3)(G). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(4)(C), inserted "in the case of an application relating to nonroad engines or vehicles," before "a description of the diesel".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(4)(D)(i), inserted ", rebate," after "grant" and "highest" before "priority" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(4)(D)(ii), substituted "diesel fleets" for "a diesel fleets" and inserted "construction sites, schools," after "terminals,".

Subsec. (c)(4)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(4)(D)(iii)–(v), inserted "and" at end of subpar. (E), substituted a period for "; and" in subpar. (F), and struck out subpar. (G) which read as follows: "use diesel fuel with a sulfur content of less than or equal to 15 parts per million, as the Administrator determines to be appropriate."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(5)(A), inserted ", rebate," after "grant" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(5)(B), substituted "grant, rebate, or loan provided, or contract entered into," for "grant or loan provided" and "any Federal law, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to a mandate in a State implementation plan approved by the Administrator under the Clean Air Act" for "Federal, State or local law".

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(b)(6), added subsecs. (e) and (f).

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–364 effective Oct. 1, 2011, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–364, set out as a note under section 16131 of this title.

§16133. State grant, rebate, and loan programs

(a) In general

Subject to the availability of adequate appropriations, the Administrator shall use 30 percent of the funds made available for a fiscal year under this part to support grant, rebate, and loan programs administered by States that are designed to achieve significant reductions in diesel emissions.

(b) Applications

The Administrator shall—

(1) provide to States guidance for use in applying for grant, rebate, or loan funds under this section, including information regarding—

(A) the process and forms for applications;

(B) permissible uses of funds received; and

(C) the cost-effectiveness of various emission reduction technologies eligible to be carried out using funds provided under this section; and


(2) establish, for applications described in paragraph (1)—

(A) an annual deadline for submission of the applications;

(B) a process by which the Administrator shall approve or disapprove each application; and

(C) a streamlined process by which a State may renew an application described in paragraph (1) for subsequent fiscal years.

(c) Allocation of funds

(1) In general

For each fiscal year, the Administrator shall allocate among States for which applications are approved by the Administrator under subsection (b)(2)(B) funds made available to carry out this section for the fiscal year.

(2) Allocation

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), using not more than 20 percent of the funds made available to carry out this part for a fiscal year, the Administrator shall provide to each State qualified for an allocation for the fiscal year an allocation equal to 1/53 of the funds made available for that fiscal year for distribution to States under this paragraph.

(B) Certain territories

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall collectively receive an allocation equal to 1/53 of the funds made available for that fiscal year for distribution to States under this subsection, divided equally among those 4 States.

(ii) Exception

If any State described in clause (i) does not qualify for an allocation under this paragraph, the share of funds otherwise allocated for that State under clause (i) shall be reallocated pursuant to subparagraph (C).

(C) Reallocation

If any State does not qualify for an allocation under this paragraph, the share of funds otherwise allocated for that State under this paragraph shall be reallocated to each remaining qualified State in an amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying—

(i) the proportion that the population of the State bears to the population of all States described in paragraph (1); by

(ii) the amount otherwise allocatable to the nonqualifying State under this paragraph.

(3) State matching incentive

(A) In general

If a State agrees to match the allocation provided to the State under paragraph (2) for a fiscal year, the Administrator shall provide to the State for the fiscal year an additional amount equal to 50 percent of the allocation of the State under paragraph (2).

(B) Requirements

A State—

(i) may not use funds received under this part to pay a matching share required under this subsection; and

(ii) shall not be required to provide a matching share for any additional amount received under subparagraph (A).

(4) Unclaimed funds

Any funds that are not claimed by a State for a fiscal year under this subsection shall be used to carry out section 16132 of this title.

(d) Administration

(1) In general

Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3) and, to the extent practicable, the priority areas listed in section 16132(c)(3) of this title, a State shall use any funds provided under this section to develop and implement such grant, rebate, and low-cost revolving loan programs in the State as are appropriate to meet State needs and goals relating to the reduction of diesel emissions.

(2) Apportionment of funds

The chief executive of a State that receives funding under this section may determine the portion of funds to be provided as grants, rebates, or loans.

(3) Use of funds

A grant, rebate, or loan provided under this section shall be used for a project relating to—

(A) a certified engine configuration; or

(B) a verified technology.

(4) Priority

In providing grants, rebates, and loans under this section, a State shall use the priorities in section 16132(c)(4) of this title.

(5) Public notification

Not later than 60 days after the date of the award of a grant, rebate, or loan by a State, the State shall publish on the Web site of the State—

(A) for rebates, grants, and loans provided to the owner of a diesel vehicle or fleet, the total number and dollar amount of rebates, grants, or loans provided, as well as a breakdown of the technologies funded through the rebates, grants, or loans; and

(B) for other rebates, grants, and loans, a description of each application for which the grant, rebate, or loan is provided.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §793, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 110–255, §3(b), June 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2424; Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4059.)

Amendments

2011Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(1), inserted ", rebate," after "grant" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(2), inserted ", rebate," after "grant".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(3), inserted ", rebate," after "grant" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(4), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) related to allocation of funds.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(5)(A), inserted ", rebate," after "grant".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(5)(B), inserted ", rebates," after "grants".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(5)(C), substituted "grant, rebate, or loan provided under this section shall be used" for "grant or loan provided under this section may be used" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4), (5). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(c)(5)(D), added pars. (4) and (5).

2008—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–255, §3(b)(2), substituted "51" for "50" and "1.96 percent" for "2 percent".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–255, §3(b)(2), substituted "51" for "50" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 110–255, §3(b)(2), which directed substitution of "1.96 percent" for "2 percent", was executed by making the substitution for "2-percent", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 110–255, §3(b)(1), substituted "chief executive" for "Governor".

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–364 effective Oct. 1, 2011, except that amendment by section 2(c)(4) of Pub. L. 111–364 effective Jan. 4, 2011, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–364, set out as a note under section 16131 of this title.

§16134. Evaluation and report

(a) In general

Not later than 1 year after the date on which funds are made available under this part, and biennially thereafter, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report evaluating the implementation of the programs under this part.

(b) Inclusions

The report shall include a description of—

(1) the total number of grant applications received;

(2) each grant, rebate, or loan made under this part, including the amount of the grant, rebate, or loan;

(3) each project for which a grant, rebate, or loan is provided under this part, including the criteria used to select the grant, rebate, or loan recipients;

(4) the actual and estimated air quality and diesel fuel conservation benefits, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefits of the grant, rebate, and loan programs under this part;

(5) the problems encountered by projects for which a grant, rebate, or loan is provided under this part;

(6) any other information the Administrator considers to be appropriate; and

(7) in the last report sent to Congress before January 1, 2016, an analysis of the need to continue the program, including an assessment of the size of the vehicle and engine fleet that could provide benefits from being retrofit under this program and a description of the number and types of applications that were not granted in the preceding year.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §794, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 843; Pub. L. 111–364, §2(d), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4060.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(d)(1), inserted ", rebate," after "grant" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 111–364, §2(d)(2)–(4), added par. (7).

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–364 effective Oct. 1, 2011, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–364, set out as a note under section 16131 of this title.

§16135. Outreach and incentives

(a) Definition of eligible technology

In this section, the term "eligible technology" means—

(1) a verified technology; or

(2) an emerging technology.

(b) Technology transfer program

(1) In general

The Administrator shall establish a program under which the Administrator—

(A) informs stakeholders of the benefits of eligible technologies; and

(B) develops nonfinancial incentives to promote the use of eligible technologies.

(2) Eligible stakeholders

Eligible stakeholders under this section include—

(A) equipment owners and operators;

(B) emission and pollution control technology manufacturers;

(C) engine and equipment manufacturers;

(D) State and local officials responsible for air quality management;

(E) community organizations; and

(F) public health, educational, and environmental organizations.

(c) State implementation plans

The Administrator shall develop appropriate guidance to provide credit to a State for emission reductions in the State created by the use of eligible technologies through a State implementation plan under section 7410 of this title.

(d) International markets

The Administrator, in coordination with the Department of Commerce and industry stakeholders, shall inform foreign countries with air quality problems of the potential of technology developed or used in the United States to provide emission reductions in those countries.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §795, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 843.)

§16136. Effect of part

Nothing in this part affects any authority under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) in existence on the day before August 8, 2005.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §796, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 844.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in text, is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

§16137. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2016, to remain available until expended.

(b) Management and oversight

The Administrator may use not more than 1 percent of the amounts made available under subsection (a) for each fiscal year for management and oversight purposes.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, §797, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 844; Pub. L. 111–364, §2(e), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4060.)

Amendments

2011Pub. L. 111–364 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $200,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011, to remain available until expended."

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–364 effective Oct. 1, 2011, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–364, set out as a note under section 16131 of this title.

§16138. EPA authority to accept diesel emissions reduction Supplemental Environmental Projects

The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter, the "Agency") may accept (notwithstanding sections 3302 and 1301 of title 31) diesel emissions reduction Supplemental Environmental Projects if the projects, as part of a settlement of any alleged violations of environmental law—

(1) protect human health or the environment;

(2) are related to the underlying alleged violations;

(3) do not constitute activities that the defendant would otherwise be legally required to perform; and

(4) do not provide funds for the staff of the Agency or for contractors to carry out the Agency's internal operations.

(Pub. L. 110–255, §1, June 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2423.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

§16139. Settlement agreement provisions

In any settlement agreement regarding alleged violations of environmental law in which a defendant agrees to perform a diesel emissions reduction Supplemental Environmental Project, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall require the defendant to include in the settlement documents a certification under penalty of law that the defendant would have agreed to perform a comparably valued, alternative project other than a diesel emissions reduction Supplemental Environmental Project if the Administrator were precluded by law from accepting a diesel emission reduction Supplemental Environmental Project. A failure by the Administrator to include this language in such a settlement agreement shall not create a cause of action against the United States under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] or any other law or create a basis for overturning a settlement agreement entered into by the United States.

(Pub. L. 110–255, §2, June 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2423.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in text, is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER VIII—HYDROGEN

§16151. Purposes

The purposes of this subchapter are—

(1) to enable and promote comprehensive development, demonstration, and commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in partnership with industry;

(2) to make critical public investments in building strong links to private industry, institutions of higher education, National Laboratories, and research institutions to expand innovation and industrial growth;

(3) to build a mature hydrogen economy that creates fuel diversity in the massive transportation sector of the United States;

(4) to sharply decrease the dependency of the United States on imported oil, eliminate most emissions from the transportation sector, and greatly enhance our energy security; and

(5) to create, strengthen, and protect a sustainable national energy economy.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §802, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 844.)

Short Title

For short title of title VIII of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this subchapter, as the "Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005", see section 801 of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as a note under section 15801 of this title.

§16152. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Fuel cell

The term "fuel cell" means a device that directly converts the chemical energy of a fuel, which is supplied from an external source, and an oxidant into electricity by electrochemical processes occurring at separate electrodes in the device.

(2) Heavy-duty vehicle

The term "heavy-duty vehicle" means a motor vehicle that—

(A) is rated at more than 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight;

(B) has a curb weight of more than 6,000 pounds; or

(C) has a basic vehicle frontal area in excess of 45 square feet.

(3) Infrastructure

The term "infrastructure" means the equipment, systems, or facilities used to produce, distribute, deliver, or store hydrogen (except for onboard storage).

(4) Light-duty vehicle

The term "light-duty vehicle" means a motor vehicle that is rated at 8,500 or less pounds gross vehicle weight.

(5) Stationary; portable

The terms "stationary" and "portable", when used in reference to a fuel cell, include—

(A) continuous electric power; and

(B) backup electric power.

(6) Task Force

The term "Task Force" means the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Task Force established under section 16155 of this title.

(7) Technical Advisory Committee

The term "Technical Advisory Committee" means the independent Technical Advisory Committee established under section 16156 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §803, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 844.)

§16153. Plan

Not later than 6 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a coordinated plan for the programs described in this subchapter and any other programs of the Department that are directly related to fuel cells or hydrogen. The plan shall describe, at a minimum—

(1) the agenda for the next 5 years for the programs authorized under this subchapter, including the agenda for each activity enumerated in section 16154(e) of this title;

(2) the types of entities that will carry out the activities under this subchapter and what role each entity is expected to play;

(3) the milestones that will be used to evaluate the programs for the next 5 years;

(4) the most significant technical and nontechnical hurdles that stand in the way of achieving the goals described in section 16154 of this title, and how the programs will address those hurdles; and

(5) the policy assumptions that are implicit in the plan, including any assumptions that would affect the sources of hydrogen or the marketability of hydrogen-related products.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §804, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 845.)

§16154. Programs

(a) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with other Federal agencies and the private sector, shall conduct a research and development program on technologies relating to the production, purification, distribution, storage, and use of hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and related infrastructure.

(b) Goal

The goal of the program shall be to demonstrate and commercialize the use of hydrogen for transportation (in light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles), utility, industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

(c) Focus

In carrying out activities under this section, the Secretary shall focus on factors that are common to the development of hydrogen infrastructure and the supply of vehicle and electric power for critical consumer and commercial applications, and that achieve continuous technical evolution and cost reduction, particularly for hydrogen production, the supply of hydrogen, storage of hydrogen, and end uses of hydrogen that—

(1) steadily increase production, distribution, and end use efficiency and reduce life-cycle emissions;

(2) resolve critical problems relating to catalysts, membranes, storage, lightweight materials, electronic controls, manufacturability, and other problems that emerge from the program;

(3) enhance sources of renewable fuels and biofuels for hydrogen production; and

(4) enable widespread use of distributed electricity generation and storage.

(d) Public education and research

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall support enhanced public education and research conducted at institutions of higher education in fundamental sciences, application design, and systems concepts (including education and research relating to materials, subsystems, manufacturability, maintenance, and safety) relating to hydrogen and fuel cells.

(e) Activities

The Secretary, in partnership with the private sector, shall conduct programs to address—

(1) production of hydrogen from diverse energy sources, including—

(A) fossil fuels, which may include carbon capture and sequestration;

(B) hydrogen-carrier fuels (including ethanol and methanol);

(C) renewable energy resources, including biomass; and

(D) nuclear energy;


(2) use of hydrogen for commercial, industrial, and residential electric power generation;

(3) safe delivery of hydrogen or hydrogen-carrier fuels, including—

(A) transmission by pipeline and other distribution methods; and

(B) convenient and economic refueling of vehicles either at central refueling stations or through distributed onsite generation;


(4) advanced vehicle technologies, including—

(A) engine and emission control systems;

(B) energy storage, electric propulsion, and hybrid systems;

(C) automotive materials; and

(D) other advanced vehicle technologies;


(5) storage of hydrogen or hydrogen-carrier fuels, including development of materials for safe and economic storage in gaseous, liquid, or solid form at refueling facilities and onboard vehicles;

(6) development of safe, durable, affordable, and efficient fuel cells, including fuel-flexible fuel cell power systems, improved manufacturing processes, high-temperature membranes, cost-effective fuel processing for natural gas, fuel cell stack and system reliability, low temperature operation, and cold start capability; and

(7) the ability of domestic automobile manufacturers to manufacture commercially available competitive hybrid vehicle technologies in the United States.

(f) Program goals

(1) Vehicles

For vehicles, the goals of the program are—

(A) to enable a commitment by automakers no later than year 2015 to offer safe, affordable, and technically viable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the mass consumer market; and

(B) to enable production, delivery, and acceptance by consumers of model year 2020 hydrogen fuel cell and other hydrogen-powered vehicles that will have, when compared to light duty vehicles in model year 2005—

(i) fuel economy that is substantially higher;

(ii) substantially lower emissions of air pollutants; and

(iii) equivalent or improved vehicle fuel system crash integrity and occupant protection.

(2) Hydrogen energy and energy infrastructure

For hydrogen energy and energy infrastructure, the goals of the program are to enable a commitment not later than 2015 that will lead to infrastructure by 2020 that will provide—

(A) safe and convenient refueling;

(B) improved overall efficiency;

(C) widespread availability of hydrogen from domestic energy sources through—

(i) production, with consideration of emissions levels;

(ii) delivery, including transmission by pipeline and other distribution methods for hydrogen; and

(iii) storage, including storage in surface transportation vehicles;


(D) hydrogen for fuel cells, internal combustion engines, and other energy conversion devices for portable, stationary, micro, critical needs facilities, and transportation applications; and

(E) other technologies consistent with the Department's plan.

(3) Fuel cells

The goals for fuel cells and their portable, stationary, and transportation applications are to enable—

(A) safe, economical, and environmentally sound hydrogen fuel cells;

(B) fuel cells for light duty and other vehicles; and

(C) other technologies consistent with the Department's plan.

(g) Funding

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out the programs under this section using a competitive, merit-based review process and consistent with the generally applicable Federal laws and regulations governing awards of financial assistance, contracts, or other agreements.

(2) Research centers

Activities under this section may be carried out by funding nationally recognized university-based or Federal laboratory research centers.

(h) Hydrogen supply

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out projects and activities relating to hydrogen production, storage, distribution and dispensing, transport, education and coordination, and technology transfer under this section—

(1) $160,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(3) $220,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(4) $230,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(5) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(6) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2020.

(i) Fuel cell technologies

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out projects and activities relating to fuel cell technologies under this section—

(1) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $160,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(3) $170,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(4) $180,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(5) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(6) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2020.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §805, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 845.)

§16155. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Task Force

(a) Establishment

Not later than 120 days after August 8, 2005, the President shall establish an interagency task force chaired by the Secretary with representatives from each of the following:

(1) The Office of Science and Technology Policy within the Executive Office of the President.

(2) The Department of Transportation.

(3) The Department of Defense.

(4) The Department of Commerce (including the National Institute of Standards and Technology).

(5) The Department of State.

(6) The Environmental Protection Agency.

(7) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

(8) Other Federal agencies as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(b) Duties

(1) Planning

The Task Force shall work toward—

(A) a safe, economical, and environmentally sound fuel infrastructure for hydrogen and hydrogen-carrier fuels, including an infrastructure that supports buses and other fleet transportation;

(B) fuel cells in government and other applications, including portable, stationary, and transportation applications;

(C) distributed power generation, including the generation of combined heat, power, and clean fuels including hydrogen;

(D) uniform hydrogen codes, standards, and safety protocols; and

(E) vehicle hydrogen fuel system integrity safety performance.

(2) Activities

The Task Force may organize workshops and conferences, may issue publications, and may create databases to carry out its duties. The Task Force shall—

(A) foster the exchange of generic, nonproprietary information and technology among industry, academia, and government;

(B) develop and maintain an inventory and assessment of hydrogen, fuel cells, and other advanced technologies, including the commercial capability of each technology for the economic and environmentally safe production, distribution, delivery, storage, and use of hydrogen;

(C) integrate technical and other information made available as a result of the programs and activities under this subchapter;

(D) promote the marketplace introduction of infrastructure for hydrogen fuel vehicles; and

(E) conduct an education program to provide hydrogen and fuel cell information to potential end-users.

(c) Agency cooperation

The heads of all agencies, including those whose agencies are not represented on the Task Force, shall cooperate with and furnish information to the Task Force, the Technical Advisory Committee, and the Department.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §806, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 848.)

§16156. Technical Advisory Committee

(a) Establishment

The Hydrogen Technical and Fuel Cell Advisory Committee is established to advise the Secretary on the programs and activities under this subchapter.

(b) Membership

(1) Members

The Technical Advisory Committee shall be comprised of not fewer than 12 nor more than 25 members. The members shall be appointed by the Secretary to represent domestic industry, academia, professional societies, government agencies, Federal laboratories, previous advisory panels, and financial, environmental, and other appropriate organizations based on the Department's assessment of the technical and other qualifications of Technical Advisory Committee members and the needs of the Technical Advisory Committee.

(2) Terms

The term of a member of the Technical Advisory Committee shall not be more than 3 years. The Secretary may appoint members of the Technical Advisory Committee in a manner that allows the terms of the members serving at any time to expire at spaced intervals so as to ensure continuity in the functioning of the Technical Advisory Committee. A member of the Technical Advisory Committee whose term is expiring may be reappointed.

(3) Chairperson

The Technical Advisory Committee shall have a chairperson, who shall be elected by the members from among their number.

(c) Review

The Technical Advisory Committee shall review and make recommendations to the Secretary on—

(1) the implementation of programs and activities under this subchapter;

(2) the safety, economical, and environmental consequences of technologies for the production, distribution, delivery, storage, or use of hydrogen energy and fuel cells; and

(3) the plan under section 16153 of this title.

(d) Response

(1) Consideration of recommendations

The Secretary shall consider, but need not adopt, any recommendations of the Technical Advisory Committee under subsection (c).

(2) Biennial report

The Secretary shall transmit a biennial report to Congress describing any recommendations made by the Technical Advisory Committee since the previous report. The report shall include a description of how the Secretary has implemented or plans to implement the recommendations, or an explanation of the reasons that a recommendation will not be implemented. The report shall be transmitted along with the President's budget proposal.

(e) Support

The Secretary shall provide resources necessary in the judgment of the Secretary for the Technical Advisory Committee to carry out its responsibilities under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §807, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 849.)

§16157. Demonstration

(a) In general

In carrying out the programs under this section, the Secretary shall fund a limited number of demonstration projects, consistent with this subchapter and a determination of the maturity, cost-effectiveness, and environmental impacts of technologies supporting each project. In selecting projects under this subsection, the Secretary shall, to the extent practicable and in the public interest, select projects that—

(1) involve using hydrogen and related products at existing facilities or installations, such as existing office buildings, military bases, vehicle fleet centers, transit bus authorities, or units of the National Park System;

(2) depend on reliable power from hydrogen to carry out essential activities;

(3) lead to the replication of hydrogen technologies and draw such technologies into the marketplace;

(4) include vehicle, portable, and stationary demonstrations of fuel cell and hydrogen-based energy technologies;

(5) address the interdependency of demand for hydrogen fuel cell applications and hydrogen fuel infrastructure;

(6) raise awareness of hydrogen technology among the public;

(7) facilitate identification of an optimum technology among competing alternatives;

(8) address distributed generation using renewable sources;

(9) carry out demonstrations of evolving hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in national parks, remote island areas, and on Indian tribal land, as selected by the Secretary;

(10) carry out a program to demonstrate developmental hydrogen and fuel cell systems for mobile, portable, and stationary uses, using improved versions of the learning demonstrations program concept of the Department including demonstrations involving—

(A) light-duty vehicles;

(B) heavy-duty vehicles;

(C) fleet vehicles;

(D) specialty industrial and farm vehicles; and

(E) commercial and residential portable, continuous, and backup electric power generation;


(11) in accordance with any code or standards developed in a region, fund prototype, pilot fleet, and infrastructure regional hydrogen supply corridors along the interstate highway system in varied climates across the United States; and

(12) fund demonstration programs that explore the use of hydrogen blends, hybrid hydrogen, and hydrogen reformed from renewable agricultural fuels, including the use of hydrogen in hybrid electric, heavier duty, and advanced internal combustion-powered vehicles.


The Secretary shall give preference to projects which address multiple elements contained in paragraphs (1) through (12).

(b) System demonstrations

(1) 1 In general

As a component of the demonstration program under this section, the Secretary shall provide grants, on a cost share basis as appropriate, to eligible entities (as determined by the Secretary) for use in—

(A) devising system design concepts that provide for the use of advanced composite vehicles in programs under section 16122 of this title that—

(i) have as a primary goal the reduction of drive energy requirements;

(ii) after 2010, add another research and development phase, as defined in subsection (c), including the vehicle and infrastructure partnerships developed under the learning demonstrations program concept of the Department; and

(iii) are managed through an enhanced FreedomCAR program within the Department that encourages involvement in cost-shared projects by manufacturers and governments; and


(B) designing a local distributed energy system that—

(i) incorporates renewable hydrogen production, off-grid electricity production, and fleet applications in industrial or commercial service;

(ii) integrates energy or applications described in clause (i), such as stationary, portable, micro, and mobile fuel cells, into a high-density commercial or residential building complex or agricultural community; and

(iii) is managed in cooperation with industry, State, tribal, and local governments, agricultural organizations, and nonprofit generators and distributors of electricity.

(c) Identification of new program requirements

In carrying out the demonstrations under subsection (a), the Secretary, in consultation with the Task Force and the Technical Advisory Committee, shall—

(1) after 2008 for stationary and portable applications, and after 2010 for vehicles, identify new requirements that refine technological concepts, planning, and applications; and

(2) during the second phase of the learning demonstrations under subsection (b)(1)(A)(ii), redesign subsequent program work to incorporate those requirements.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(1) $185,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(3) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(4) $300,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(5) $375,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(6) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2020.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §808, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 850.)

1 So in original. No par. (2) has been enacted.

§16158. Codes and standards

(a) In general

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Task Force, shall provide grants to, or offer to enter into contracts with, such professional organizations, public service organizations, and government agencies as the Secretary determines appropriate to support timely and extensive development of safety codes and standards relating to fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen energy systems, and stationary, portable, and micro fuel cells.

(b) Educational efforts

The Secretary shall support educational efforts by organizations and agencies described in subsection (a) to share information, including information relating to best practices, among those organizations and agencies.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(1) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $7,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(3) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(4) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(5) $9,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(6) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2020.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §809, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 851.)

§16159. Disclosure

Section 13293 of this title shall apply to any project carried out through a grant, cooperative agreement, or contract under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §810, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 852.)

§16160. Reports

(a) Secretary

Subject to subsection (c), not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, and triennially thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report describing—

(1) activities carried out by the Department under this subchapter,1 for hydrogen and fuel cell technology;

(2) measures the Secretary has taken during the preceding 3 years to support the transition of primary industry (or a related industry) to a fully commercialized hydrogen economy;

(3) any change made to the strategy relating to hydrogen and fuel cell technology to reflect the results of a learning demonstrations;

(4) progress, including progress in infrastructure, made toward achieving the goal of producing and deploying not less than—

(A) 100,000 hydrogen-fueled vehicles in the United States by 2010; and

(B) 2,500,000 hydrogen-fueled vehicles in the United States by 2020;


(5) progress made toward achieving the goal of supplying hydrogen at a sufficient number of fueling stations in the United States by 2010 including by integrating—

(A) hydrogen activities; and

(B) associated targets and timetables for the development of hydrogen technologies;


(6) any problem relating to the design, execution, or funding of a program under this subchapter;

(7) progress made toward and goals achieved in carrying out this subchapter and updates to the developmental roadmap, including the results of the reviews conducted by the National Academy of Sciences under subsection (b) for the fiscal years covered by the report; and

(8) any updates to strategic plans that are necessary to meet the goals described in paragraph (4).

(b) External review

The Secretary shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences under which the Academy will review the programs under sections 16154 and 16157 of this title every fourth year following August 8, 2005. The Academy's review shall include the program priorities and technical milestones, and evaluate the progress toward achieving them. The first review shall be completed not later than 5 years after August 8, 2005. Not later than 45 days after receiving the review, the Secretary shall transmit the review to Congress along with a plan to implement the review's recommendations or an explanation for the reasons that a recommendation will not be implemented.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2020.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §811, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 852.)

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§16161. Solar and wind technologies

(a) Solar energy technologies

The Secretary shall—

(1) prepare a detailed roadmap for carrying out the provisions in this subchapter related to solar energy technologies and for implementing the recommendations related to solar energy technologies that are included in the report transmitted under subsection (e);

(2) provide for the establishment of 5 projects in geographic areas that are regionally and climatically diverse to demonstrate the production of hydrogen at solar energy facilities, including one demonstration project at a National Laboratory or institution of higher education;

(3) establish a program—

(A) to develop optimized concentrating solar power devices that may be used for the production of both electricity and hydrogen; and

(B) to evaluate the use of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production at the temperatures attainable with concentrating solar power devices;


(4) coordinate with activities sponsored by the Department's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology on high-temperature materials, thermochemical cycles, and economic issues related to solar energy;

(5) provide for the construction and operation of new concentrating solar power devices or solar power cogeneration facilities that produce hydrogen either concurrently with, or independently of, the production of electricity;

(6) support existing facilities and programs of study related to concentrating solar power devices; and

(7) establish a program—

(A) to develop methods that use electricity from photovoltaic devices for the onsite production of hydrogen, such that no intermediate transmission or distribution infrastructure is required or used and future demand growth may be accommodated;

(B) to evaluate the economics of small-scale electrolysis for hydrogen production; and

(C) to study the potential of modular photovoltaic devices for the development of a hydrogen infrastructure, the security implications of a hydrogen infrastructure, and the benefits potentially derived from a hydrogen infrastructure.

(b) Wind energy technologies

The Secretary shall—

(1) prepare a detailed roadmap for carrying out the provisions in this subchapter related to wind energy technologies and for implementing the recommendations related to wind energy technologies that are included in the report transmitted under subsection (e); and

(2) provide for the establishment of 5 projects in geographic areas that are regionally and climatically diverse to demonstrate the production of hydrogen at existing wind energy facilities, including one demonstration project at a National Laboratory or institution of higher education.

(c) Program support

The Secretary shall support programs at institutions of higher education for the development of solar energy technologies and wind energy technologies for the production of hydrogen. The programs supported under this subsection shall—

(1) enhance fellowship and faculty assistance programs;

(2) provide support for fundamental research;

(3) encourage collaborative research among industry, National Laboratories, and institutions of higher education;

(4) support communication and outreach; and

(5) to the greatest extent possible—

(A) be located in geographic areas that are regionally and climatically diverse; and

(B) be located at part B institutions, minority institutions, and institutions of higher education located in States participating in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research of the Department.

(d) Institutions of higher education and National Laboratory interactions

In conjunction with the programs supported under this section, the Secretary shall develop sabbatical, fellowship, and visiting scientist programs to encourage National Laboratories and institutions of higher education to share and exchange personnel.

(e) Report

The Secretary shall transmit to the Congress not later than 120 days after August 8, 2005, a report containing detailed summaries of the roadmaps prepared under subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1), descriptions of the Secretary's progress in establishing the projects and other programs required under this section, and recommendations for promoting the availability of advanced solar and wind energy technologies for the production of hydrogen.

(f) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "concentrating solar power devices" means devices that concentrate the power of the sun by reflection or refraction to improve the efficiency of a photovoltaic or thermal generation process;

(2) the term "minority institution" has the meaning given to that term in section 1067k of title 20;

(3) the term "part B institution" has the meaning given to that term in section 1061 of title 20; and

(4) the term "photovoltaic devices" means devices that convert light directly into electricity through a solid-state, semiconductor process.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary for carrying out the activities under this section for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2020.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §812, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 853.)

§16162. Technology transfer

In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall carry out programs that—

(1) provide for the transfer of critical hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to the private sector;

(2) accelerate wider application of those technologies in the global market;

(3) foster the exchange of generic, nonproprietary information; and

(4) assess technical and commercial viability of technologies relating to the production, distribution, storage, and use of hydrogen energy and fuel cells.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §813, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 855.)

§16163. Miscellaneous provisions

(a) Representation

The Secretary may represent the United States interests with respect to activities and programs under this subchapter, in coordination with the Department of Transportation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and other relevant Federal agencies, before governments and nongovernmental organizations including—

(1) other Federal, State, regional, and local governments and their representatives;

(2) industry and its representatives, including members of the energy and transportation industries; and

(3) in consultation with the Department of State, foreign governments and their representatives including international organizations.

(b) Regulatory authority

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to alter the regulatory authority of the Department.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §814, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 855.)

§16164. Cost sharing

The costs of carrying out projects and activities under this subchapter shall be shared in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §815, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 855.)

§16165. Savings clause

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to affect the authority of the Secretary of Transportation that may exist prior to August 8, 2005, with respect to—

(1) research into, and regulation of, hydrogen-powered vehicles fuel systems integrity, standards, and safety under subtitle VI of title 49;

(2) regulation of hazardous materials transportation under chapter 51 of title 49;

(3) regulation of pipeline safety under chapter 601 of title 49;

(4) encouragement and promotion of research, development, and deployment activities relating to advanced vehicle technologies under section 5506 1 of title 49;

(5) regulation of motor vehicle safety under chapter 301 of title 49;

(6) automobile fuel economy under chapter 329 of title 49; or

(7) representation of the interests of the United States with respect to the activities and programs under the authority of title 49.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title VIII, §816, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 855.)

References in Text

Section 5506 of title 49, referred to in par. (4), was repealed by Pub. L. 112–141, div. E, title II, §52010(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 887.

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER IX—RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

§16181. Goals

(a) In general

In order to achieve the purposes of this subchapter, the Secretary shall conduct a balanced set of programs of energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application with the general goals of—

(1) increasing the efficiency of all energy intensive sectors through conservation and improved technologies;

(2) promoting diversity of energy supply;

(3) decreasing the dependence of the United States on foreign energy supplies;

(4) improving the energy security of the United States; and

(5) decreasing the environmental impact of energy-related activities.

(b) Goals

The Secretary shall publish measurable cost and performance-based goals, comparable over time, with each annual budget submission in at least the following areas:

(1) Energy efficiency for buildings, energy-consuming industries, and vehicles.

(2) Electric energy generation (including distributed generation), transmission, and storage.

(3) Renewable energy technologies, including wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, geothermal energy, hydrogen-fueled systems, biomass-based systems, biofuels, and hydropower.

(4) Fossil energy, including power generation, onshore and offshore oil and gas resource recovery, and transportation fuels.

(5) Nuclear energy, including programs for existing and advanced reactors, and education of future specialists.

(c) Public comment

The Secretary shall provide mechanisms for input on the annually published goals from industry, institutions of higher education, and other public sources.

(d) Effect of goals

Nothing in subsection (a) or the annually published goals creates any new authority for any Federal agency, or may be used by any Federal agency, to support the establishment of regulatory standards or regulatory requirements.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §902, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 8101 and 8102 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacted provisions set out as notes under section 15801 of this title, section 8102 of Title 7, and section 2001 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and amended provisions set out as notes under section 8101 of Title 7 and section 1902 of Title 30. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

Short Title

For short title of title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this subchapter, as the "Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Commercial Application Act of 2005", see section 431 of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as a note under section 15801 of this title.

§16182. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Departmental mission

The term "departmental mission" means any of the functions vested in the Secretary by the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.) or other law.

(2) Hispanic-serving institution

The term "Hispanic-serving institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1101a(a) of title 20.

(3) Nonmilitary energy laboratory

The term "nonmilitary energy laboratory" means a National Laboratory other than a National Laboratory listed in subparagraph (G), (H), or (N) of section 15801(3) of this title.

(4) Part B institution

The term "part B institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1061 of title 20.

(5) Single-purpose research facility

The term "single-purpose research facility" means—

(A) any of the primarily single-purpose entities owned by the Department; or

(B) any other organization of the Department designated by the Secretary.

(6) University

The term "university" has the meaning given the term "institution of higher education" in section 1001 of title 20.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §903, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 8101 and 8102 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacted provisions set out as notes under section 15801 of this title, section 8102 of Title 7, and section 2001 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and amended provisions set out as notes under section 8101 of Title 7 and section 1902 of Title 30. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

The Department of Energy Organization Act, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 95–91, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 84 (§7101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7101 of this title and Tables.

Part A—Energy Efficiency

§16191. Energy efficiency

(a) In general

(1) Objectives

The Secretary shall conduct programs of energy efficiency research, development, demonstration, and commercial application, including activities described in this part. Such programs shall take into consideration the following objectives:

(A) Increasing the energy efficiency of vehicles, buildings, and industrial processes.

(B) Reducing the demand of the United States for energy, especially energy from foreign sources.

(C) Reducing the cost of energy and making the economy more efficient and competitive.

(D) Improving the energy security of the United States.

(E) Reducing the environmental impact of energy-related activities.

(2) Programs

Programs under this part shall include research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of—

(A) advanced, cost-effective technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of vehicles, including—

(i) hybrid and electric propulsion systems;

(ii) plug-in hybrid systems;

(iii) advanced combustion engines;

(iv) weight and drag reduction technologies;

(v) whole-vehicle design optimization; and

(vi) advanced drive trains;


(B) cost-effective technologies, for new construction and retrofit, to improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of buildings, using a whole-buildings approach, including onsite renewable energy generation;

(C) advanced technologies to improve the energy efficiency, environmental performance, and process efficiency of energy-intensive and waste-intensive industries;

(D) advanced control devices to improve the energy efficiency of electric motors, including those used in industrial processes, heating, ventilation, and cooling; and

(E) technologies to improve the energy efficiency of appliances and mechanical systems for buildings in cold climates, including combined heat and power units and increased use of renewable resources, including fuel.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out energy efficiency and conservation research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities, including activities authorized under this part—

(1) $783,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(2) $865,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(3) $952,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(c) Allocations

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), the following sums are authorized:

(1) For activities under section 16192 of this title, $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(2) For activities under section 16195 of this title, $7,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(3) For activities under subsection (a)(2)(A)—

(A) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $270,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) $310,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.


(4) For activities under subsection (a)(2)(D), $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008.

(d) Extended authorization

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out section 16192 of this title $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2010 through 2013.

(e) Limitations

None of the funds authorized to be appropriated under this section may be used for—

(1) the issuance or implementation of energy efficiency regulations;

(2) the weatherization program established under part A of title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (42 U.S.C. 6861 et seq.);

(3) a State energy conservation plan established under part D of title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6321 et seq.); or

(4) a Federal energy management measure carried out under part 3 of title V of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §911, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 857; Pub. L. 110–140, title III, §315(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1571.)

References in Text

The Energy Conservation and Production Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is Pub. L. 94–385, Aug. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1125, as amended. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§6861 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 81 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6801 of this title and Tables.

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is Pub. L. 94–163, Dec. 22, 1975, 89 Stat. 871, as amended. Part D of title III of the Act is classified generally to part B (§6321 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 77 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6201 of this title and Tables.

The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(4), is Pub. L. 95–619, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3206, as amended. Part 3 of title V of the Act is classified generally to part B (§8251 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 91 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8201 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 110–140 added subpar. (E).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§16192. Next Generation Lighting Initiative

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Advanced solid-state lighting

The term "advanced solid-state lighting" means a semiconducting device package and delivery system that produces white light using externally applied voltage.

(2) Industry Alliance

The term "Industry Alliance" means an entity selected by the Secretary under subsection (d).

(3) Initiative

The term "Initiative" means the Next Generation Lighting Initiative carried out under this section.

(4) Research

The term "research" includes research on the technologies, materials, and manufacturing processes required for white light emitting diodes.

(5) White light emitting diode

The term "white light emitting diode" means a semiconducting package, using either organic or inorganic materials, that produces white light using externally applied voltage.

(b) Initiative

The Secretary shall carry out a Next Generation Lighting Initiative in accordance with this section to support research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities related to advanced solid-state lighting technologies based on white light emitting diodes.

(c) Objectives

The objectives of the Initiative shall be to develop advanced solid-state organic and inorganic lighting technologies based on white light emitting diodes that, compared to incandescent and fluorescent lighting technologies, are longer lasting, are more energy-efficient and cost-competitive, and have less environmental impact.

(d) Industry Alliance

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall competitively select an Industry Alliance to represent participants who are private, for-profit firms, open to large and small businesses, that, as a group, are broadly representative of United States solid-state lighting research, development, infrastructure, and manufacturing expertise as a whole.

(e) Research

(1) Grants

The Secretary shall carry out the research activities of the Initiative through competitively awarded grants to—

(A) researchers, including Industry Alliance participants;

(B) small businesses;

(C) National Laboratories; and

(D) institutions of higher education.

(2) Industry alliance

The Secretary shall annually solicit from the Industry Alliance—

(A) comments to identify solid-state lighting technology needs;

(B) an assessment of the progress of the research activities of the Initiative; and

(C) assistance in annually updating solid-state lighting technology roadmaps.

(3) Availability to public

The information and roadmaps under paragraph (2) shall be available to the public.

(f) Development, demonstration, and commercial application

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a development, demonstration, and commercial application program for the Initiative through competitively selected awards.

(2) Preference

In making the awards, the Secretary may give preference to participants in the Industry Alliance.

(g) Cost sharing

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall require cost sharing in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(h) Intellectual property

The Secretary may require (in accordance with section 202(a)(ii) of title 35, section 2182 of this title, and section 5908 of this title) that for any new invention developed under subsection (e)—

(1) that the Industry Alliance participants who are active participants in research, development, and demonstration activities related to the advanced solid-state lighting technologies that are covered by this section shall be granted the first option to negotiate with the invention owner, at least in the field of solid-state lighting, nonexclusive licenses and royalties on terms that are reasonable under the circumstances;

(2)(A) that, for 1 year after a United States patent is issued for the invention, the patent holder shall not negotiate any license or royalty with any entity that is not a participant in the Industry Alliance described in paragraph (1); and

(B) that, during the year described in subparagraph (A), the patent holder shall negotiate nonexclusive licenses and royalties in good faith with any interested participant in the Industry Alliance described in paragraph (1); and

(3) such other terms as the Secretary determines are required to promote accelerated commercialization of inventions made under the Initiative.

(i) National Academy review

The Secretary shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct periodic reviews of the Initiative.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §912, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 858.)

§16193. National Building Performance Initiative

(a) Interagency group

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall establish an interagency group to develop, in coordination with the advisory committee established under subsection (e), a National Building Performance Initiative (referred to in this section as the "Initiative").

(2) Cochairs

The interagency group shall be co-chaired by appropriate officials of the Department and the Department of Commerce, who shall jointly arrange for the provision of necessary administrative support to the group.

(b) Integration of efforts

The Initiative shall integrate Federal, State, and voluntary private sector efforts to reduce the costs of construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of commercial, industrial, institutional, and residential buildings.

(c) Plan

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the interagency group shall submit to Congress a plan for carrying out the appropriate Federal role in the Initiative.

(2) Inclusions

The plan shall include—

(A) research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of energy technology systems and materials for new construction and retrofit relating to the building envelope and building system components;

(B) research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of energy technology and infrastructure enabling the energy efficient, automated operation of buildings and building equipment; and

(C) the collection, analysis, and dissemination of research results and other pertinent information on enhancing building performance to industry, government entities, and the public.

(d) Department of Energy role

Within the Federal portion of the Initiative, the Department shall be the lead agency for all aspects of building performance related to use and conservation of energy.

(e) Advisory committee

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall establish an advisory committee to—

(1) analyze and provide recommendations on potential private sector roles and participation in the Initiative; and

(2) review and provide recommendations on the plan described in subsection (c).

(f) Administration

Nothing in this section provides any Federal agency with new authority to regulate building performance.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §913, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 860.)

§16194. Building standards

(a) Definition of high performance building

In this section, the term "high performance building" means a building that integrates and optimizes all major high-performance building attributes, including energy efficiency, durability, life-cycle performance, and occupant productivity.

(b) Assessment

Not later than 120 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the National Institute of Building Sciences to—

(1) conduct an assessment (in cooperation with industry, standards development organizations, and other entities, as appropriate) of whether the current voluntary consensus standards and rating systems for high performance buildings are consistent with the current technological state of the art, including relevant results from the research, development and demonstration activities of the Department;

(2) determine if additional research is required, based on the findings of the assessment; and

(3) recommend steps for the Secretary to accelerate the development of voluntary consensus-based standards for high performance buildings that are based on the findings of the assessment.

(c) Grant and technical assistance program

Consistent with subsection (b) and section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note), the Secretary shall establish a grant and technical assistance program to support the development of voluntary consensus-based standards for high performance buildings.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §914, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 861.)

References in Text

Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, referred to in subsec. (c), is section 12(d) of Pub. L. 104–113, as amended, which is set out as a note under section 272 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

§16195. Secondary electric vehicle battery use program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Battery

The term "battery" means an energy storage device that previously has been used to provide motive power in a vehicle powered in whole or in part by electricity.

(2) Associated equipment

The term "associated equipment" means equipment located where the batteries will be used that is necessary to enable the use of the energy stored in the batteries.

(b) Program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish and conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of energy technology for the secondary use of batteries, if the Secretary finds that there are sufficient numbers of batteries to support the program.

(2) Administration

The program shall be—

(A) designed to demonstrate the use of batteries in secondary applications, including utility and commercial power storage and power quality;

(B) structured to evaluate the performance, including useful service life and costs, of such batteries in field operations, and the necessary supporting infrastructure, including reuse and disposal of batteries; and

(C) coordinated with ongoing secondary battery use programs at the National Laboratories and in industry.

(c) Solicitation

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall solicit proposals to demonstrate the secondary use of batteries and associated equipment and supporting infrastructure in geographic locations throughout the United States.

(2) Additional solicitations

The Secretary may make additional solicitations for proposals if the Secretary determines that the solicitations are necessary to carry out this section.

(d) Selection of proposals

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after the closing date established by the Secretary for receipt of proposals under subsection (c), the Secretary shall select up to five proposals that may receive financial assistance under this section once the Department receives appropriated funds to carry out this section.

(2) Factors

In selecting proposals, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the diversity of battery type;

(B) geographic and climatic diversity; and

(C) life-cycle environmental effects of the approaches.

(3) Limitation

No one project selected under this section shall receive more than 25 percent of the funds made available to carry out the program under this section.

(4) Non-Federal involvement

In selecting proposals, the Secretary shall consider the extent of involvement of State or local government and other persons in each demonstration project to optimize use of Federal resources.

(5) Other criteria

In selecting proposals, the Secretary may consider such other criteria as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(e) Conditions

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall require that—

(1) relevant information be provided to—

(A) the Department;

(B) the users of the batteries;

(C) the proposers of a project under this section; and

(D) the battery manufacturers; and


(2) the costs of carrying out projects and activities under this section are shared in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §915, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 861.)

§16196. Energy Efficiency Science Initiative

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish an Energy Efficiency Science Initiative to be managed by the Assistant Secretary in the Department with responsibility for energy conservation under section 7133(a)(9) of this title, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Science, for grants to be competitively awarded and subject to peer review for research relating to energy efficiency.

(b) Report

The Secretary shall submit to Congress, along with the annual budget request of the President submitted to Congress, a report on the activities of the Energy Efficiency Science Initiative, including a description of the process used to award the funds and an explanation of how the research relates to energy efficiency.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §916, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 862.)

§16197. Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Centers

(a) Grants

Not later than 18 months after May 8, 2008, the Secretary shall make grants to nonprofit institutions, State and local governments, cooperative extension services, or institutions of higher education (or consortia thereof), to establish a geographically dispersed network of Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Centers, to be located in areas the Secretary determines have the greatest need of the services of such Centers. In making awards under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) give priority to applicants already operating or partnered with an outreach program capable of transferring knowledge and information about advanced energy efficiency methods and technologies;

(2) ensure that, to the extent practicable, the program enables the transfer of knowledge and information—

(A) about a variety of technologies; and

(B) in a variety of geographic areas;


(3) give preference to applicants that would significantly expand on or fill a gap in existing programs in a geographical region; and

(4) consider the special needs and opportunities for increased energy efficiency for manufactured and site-built housing, including construction, renovation, and retrofit.

(b) Activities

Each Center shall operate a program to encourage demonstration and commercial application of advanced energy methods and technologies through education and outreach to building and industrial professionals, and to other individuals and organizations with an interest in efficient energy use. Funds awarded under this section may be used for the following activities:

(1) Developing and distributing informational materials on technologies that could use energy more efficiently.

(2) Carrying out demonstrations of advanced energy methods and technologies.

(3) Developing and conducting seminars, workshops, long-distance learning sessions, and other activities to aid in the dissemination of knowledge and information on technologies that could use energy more efficiently.

(4) Providing or coordinating onsite energy evaluations, including instruction on the commissioning of building heating and cooling systems, for a wide range of energy end-users.

(5) Examining the energy efficiency needs of energy end-users to develop recommended research projects for the Department.

(6) Hiring experts in energy efficient technologies to carry out activities described in paragraphs (1) through (5).

(c) Application

A person seeking a grant under this section shall submit to the Secretary an application in such form and containing such information as the Secretary may require. The Secretary may award a grant under this section to an entity already in existence if the entity is otherwise eligible under this section. The application shall include, at a minimum—

(1) a description of the applicant's outreach program, and the geographic region it would serve, and of why the program would be capable of transferring knowledge and information about advanced energy technologies that increase efficiency of energy use;

(2) a description of the activities the applicant would carry out, of the technologies that would be transferred, and of any other organizations that will help facilitate a regional approach to carrying out those activities;

(3) a description of how the proposed activities would be appropriate to the specific energy needs of the geographic region to be served;

(4) an estimate of the number and types of energy end-users expected to be reached through such activities; and

(5) a description of how the applicant will assess the success of the program.

(d) Selection criteria

The Secretary shall award grants under this section on the basis of the following criteria, at a minimum:

(1) The ability of the applicant to carry out the proposed activities.

(2) The extent to which the applicant will coordinate the activities of the Center with other entities as appropriate, such as State and local governments, utilities, institutions of higher education, and National Laboratories.

(3) The appropriateness of the applicant's outreach program for carrying out the program described in this section.

(4) The likelihood that proposed activities could be expanded or used as a model for other areas.

(e) Cost-sharing

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall require cost-sharing in accordance with the requirements of section 16352 of this title for commercial application activities.

(f) Duration

(1) Initial grant period

A grant awarded under this section shall be for a period of 5 years.

(2) Initial evaluation

Each grantee under this section shall be evaluated during its third year of operation under procedures established by the Secretary to determine if the grantee is accomplishing the purposes of this section described in subsection (a). The Secretary shall terminate any grant that does not receive a positive evaluation. If an evaluation is positive, the Secretary may extend the grant for 3 additional years beyond the original term of the grant.

(3) Additional extension

If a grantee receives an extension under paragraph (2), the grantee shall be evaluated again during the second year of the extension. The Secretary shall terminate any grant that does not receive a positive evaluation. If an evaluation is positive, the Secretary may extend the grant for a final additional period of 3 additional years beyond the original extension.

(4) Limitation

No grantee may receive more than 11 years of support under this section without reapplying for support and competing against all other applicants seeking a grant at that time.

(g) Prohibition

None of the funds awarded under this section may be used for the construction of facilities.

(h) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Advanced energy methods and technologies

The term "advanced energy methods and technologies" means all methods and technologies that promote energy efficiency and conservation, including distributed generation technologies, and life-cycle analysis of energy use.

(2) Center

The term "Center" means an Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Center established pursuant to this section.

(3) Distributed generation

The term "distributed generation" means an electric power generation technology, including photovoltaic, small wind, and micro-combined heat and power, that serves electric consumers at or near the site of production.

(4) Cooperative Extension

The term "Cooperative Extension" means the extension services established at the land-grant colleges and universities under the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914 [7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.].

(5) Land-grant colleges and universities

The term "land-grant colleges and universities" means—

(A) 1862 Institutions (as defined in section 7601 of title 7);

(B) 1890 Institutions (as defined in section 7601 of title 7); and

(C) 1994 Institutions (as defined in section 7601 of title 7).

(i) Authorization of appropriations

In addition to amounts otherwise authorized to be appropriated in section 16191 of this title, there are authorized to be appropriated for the program under this section such sums as may be appropriated.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §917, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 863; Pub. L. 110–229, title VI, §601, May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 850.)

References in Text

The Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914, referred to in subsec. (h)(4), is act May 8, 1914, ch. 79, 38 Stat. 372, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§341 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 341 of Title 7 and Tables.

Codification

May 8, 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "the date of enactment of the National Forests, Parks, Public Land, and Reclamation Projects Authorization Act of 2008" and was translated as meaning the date of enactment of the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–229, which amended this section generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. The National Forests, Parks, Public Land, and Reclamation Projects Authorization Act of 2008, was S. 2616, 110th Congress, introduced in the Senate on Feb. 8, 2008, with action thereon indefinitely postponed. The provisions of section 601 of that bill generally amended section 917 of Pub. L. 109–58 (this section) and was a predecessor version of section 601 of Pub. L. 109–229.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–229 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to grants for the establishment of a network of Advanced Energy Efficiency Technology Transfer Centers.

Part B—Distributed Energy and Electric Energy Systems

§16211. Distributed energy and electric energy systems

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out programs of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on distributed energy resources and systems reliability and efficiency, to improve the reliability and efficiency of distributed energy resources and systems, integrating advanced energy technologies with grid connectivity, including activities described in this part. The programs shall address advanced energy technologies and systems and advanced grid reliability technologies.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

(1) Distributed energy and electric energy systems activities

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out distributed energy and electric energy systems activities, including activities authorized under this part—

(A) $240,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $255,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) $273,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(2) Power delivery research initiative

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the Power Delivery Research Initiative under subsection 1 16215(e) of this title such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(c) Micro-cogeneration energy technology

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008 shall be available to carry out activities under section 16213 of this title.

(d) High-voltage transmission lines

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2007 shall be available to carry out activities under section 16215(g) of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §921, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 864.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§16212. High power density industry program

(a) In general

The Secretary shall establish a comprehensive research, development, demonstration, and commercial application to improve the energy efficiency of high power density facilities, including data centers, server farms, and telecommunications facilities.

(b) Technologies

The program shall consider technologies that provide significant improvement in thermal controls, metering, load management, peak load reduction, or the efficient cooling of electronics.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §922, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 864.)

§16213. Micro-cogeneration energy technology

(a) In general

The Secretary shall make competitive, merit-based grants to consortia for the development of micro-cogeneration energy technology.

(b) Uses

The consortia shall explore—

(1) the use of small-scale combined heat and power in residential heating appliances;

(2) the use of excess power to operate other appliances within the residence; and

(3) the supply of excess generated power to the power grid.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §923, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 865.)

§16214. Distributed energy technology demonstration programs

(a) Coordinating consortia program

The Secretary may provide financial assistance to coordinating consortia of interdisciplinary participants for demonstrations designed to accelerate the use of distributed energy technologies (such as fuel cells, microturbines, reciprocating engines, thermally activated technologies, and combined heat and power systems) in high-energy intensive commercial applications.

(b) Small-scale portable power program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall—

(A) establish a research, development, and demonstration program to develop working models of small scale portable power devices; and

(B) to the fullest extent practicable, identify and utilize the resources of universities that have shown expertise with respect to advanced portable power devices for either civilian or military use.

(2) Organization

The universities identified and utilized under paragraph (1)(B) are authorized to establish an organization to promote small scale portable power devices.

(3) Definition

For purposes of this subsection, the term "small scale portable power device" means a field-deployable portable mechanical or electromechanical device that can be used for applications such as communications, computation, mobility enhancement, weapons systems, optical devices, cooling, sensors, medical devices, and active biological agent detection systems.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §924, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 865.)

§16215. Electric transmission and distribution programs

(a) Program

The Secretary shall establish a comprehensive research, development, and demonstration program to ensure the reliability, efficiency, and environmental integrity of electrical transmission and distribution systems, which shall include—

(1) advanced energy delivery technologies, energy storage technologies, materials, and systems, giving priority to new transmission technologies, including composite conductor materials and other technologies that enhance reliability, operational flexibility, or power-carrying capability;

(2) advanced grid reliability and efficiency technology development;

(3) technologies contributing to significant load reductions;

(4) advanced metering, load management, and control technologies;

(5) technologies to enhance existing grid components;

(6) the development and use of high-temperature superconductors to—

(A) enhance the reliability, operational flexibility, or power-carrying capability of electric transmission or distribution systems; or

(B) increase the efficiency of electric energy generation, transmission, distribution, or storage systems;


(7) integration of power systems, including systems to deliver high-quality electric power, electric power reliability, and combined heat and power;

(8) supply of electricity to the power grid by small scale, distributed and residential-based power generators;

(9) the development and use of advanced grid design, operation, and planning tools;

(10) any other infrastructure technologies, as appropriate; and

(11) technology transfer and education.

(b) Program plan

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, shall prepare and submit to Congress a 5-year program plan to guide activities under this section.

(2) Consultation

In preparing the program plan, the Secretary shall consult with—

(A) utilities;

(B) energy service providers;

(C) manufacturers;

(D) institutions of higher education;

(E) other appropriate State and local agencies;

(F) environmental organizations;

(G) professional and technical societies; and

(H) any other persons the Secretary considers appropriate.

(c) Implementation

The Secretary shall consider implementing the program under this section using a consortium of participants from industry, institutions of higher education, and National Laboratories.

(d) Report

Not later than 2 years after the submission of the plan under subsection (b), the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report—

(1) describing the progress made under this section; and

(2) identifying any additional resources needed to continue the development and commercial application of transmission and distribution of infrastructure technologies.

(e) Power delivery research initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a research, development, and demonstration initiative specifically focused on power delivery using components incorporating high temperature superconductivity.

(2) Goals

The goals of the Initiative shall be—

(A) to establish world-class facilities to develop high temperature superconductivity power applications in partnership with manufacturers and utilities;

(B) to provide technical leadership for establishing reliability for high temperature superconductivity power applications, including suitable modeling and analysis;

(C) to facilitate the commercial transition toward direct current power transmission, storage, and use for high power systems using high temperature superconductivity; and

(D) to facilitate the integration of very low impedance high temperature superconducting wires and cables in existing electric networks to improve system performance, power flow control, and reliability.

(3) Inclusions

The Initiative shall include—

(A) feasibility analysis, planning, research, and design to construct demonstrations of superconducting links in high power, direct current, and controllable alternating current transmission systems;

(B) public-private partnerships to demonstrate deployment of high temperature superconducting cable into testbeds simulating a realistic transmission grid and under varying transmission conditions, including actual grid insertions; and

(C) testbeds developed in cooperation with National Laboratories, industries, and institutions of higher education to—

(i) demonstrate those technologies;

(ii) prepare the technologies for commercial introduction; and

(iii) address cost or performance roadblocks to successful commercial use.

(f) Transmission and distribution grid planning and operations initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a research, development, and demonstration initiative specifically focused on tools needed to plan, operate, and expand the transmission and distribution grids in the presence of competitive market mechanisms for energy, load demand, customer response, and ancillary services.

(2) Goals

The goals of the Initiative shall be—

(A)(i) to develop and use a geographically distributed center, consisting of institutions of higher education, and National Laboratories, with expertise and facilities to develop the underlying theory and software for power system application; and

(ii) to ensure commercial development in partnership with software vendors and utilities;

(B) to provide technical leadership in engineering and economic analysis for the reliability and efficiency of power systems planning and operations in the presence of competitive markets for electricity;

(C) to model, simulate, and experiment with new market mechanisms and operating practices to understand and optimize those new methods before actual use; and

(D) to provide technical support and technology transfer to electric utilities and other participants in the domestic electric industry and marketplace.

(g) High-voltage transmission lines

As part of the program described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall award a grant to a university research program to design and test, in consultation with the Tennessee Valley Authority, state-of-the-art optimization techniques for power flow through existing high voltage transmission lines.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §925, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 865.)

Part C—Renewable Energy

§16231. Renewable energy

(a) In general

(1) Objectives

The Secretary shall conduct programs of renewable energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application, including activities described in this part. Such programs shall take into consideration the following objectives:

(A) Increasing the conversion efficiency of all forms of renewable energy through improved technologies.

(B) Decreasing the cost of renewable energy generation and delivery.

(C) Promoting the diversity of the energy supply.

(D) Decreasing the dependence of the United States on foreign energy supplies.

(E) Improving United States energy security.

(F) Decreasing the environmental impact of energy-related activities.

(G) Increasing the export of renewable generation equipment from the United States.

(2) Programs

(A) Solar energy

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for solar energy, including—

(i) photovoltaics;

(ii) solar hot water and solar space heating;

(iii) concentrating solar power;

(iv) lighting systems that integrate sunlight and electrical lighting in complement to each other in common lighting fixtures for the purpose of improving energy efficiency;

(v) manufacturability of low cost, high quality solar systems; and

(vi) development of products that can be easily integrated into new and existing buildings.

(B) Wind energy

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for wind energy, including—

(i) low speed wind energy;

(ii) offshore wind energy;

(iii) testing and verification (including construction and operation of a research and testing facility capable of testing wind turbines); and

(iv) distributed wind energy generation.

(C) Geothermal

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for geothermal energy. The program shall focus on developing improved technologies for reducing the costs of geothermal energy installations, including technologies for—

(i) improving detection of geothermal resources;

(ii) decreasing drilling costs;

(iii) decreasing maintenance costs through improved materials;

(iv) increasing the potential for other revenue sources, such as mineral production; and

(v) increasing the understanding of reservoir life cycle and management.

(D) Hydropower

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for cost competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity, adding to the diversity of the energy supply of the United States, including:

(i) Fish-friendly large turbines.

(ii) Advanced technologies to enhance environmental performance and yield greater energy efficiencies.

(E) Miscellaneous projects

The Secretary shall conduct research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs for—

(i) ocean energy, including wave energy;

(ii) the combined use of renewable energy technologies with one another and with other energy technologies, including the combined use of wind power and coal gasification technologies;

(iii) renewable energy technologies for cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity; and

(iv) kinetic hydro turbines.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out renewable energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities, including activities authorized under this part—

(1) $632,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(2) $743,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(3) $852,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and

(4) $963,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.

(c) Bioenergy

From the amounts authorized under subsection (b), there are authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 16232 of this title

(1) $213,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, of which $100,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title;

(2) $377,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which $125,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title;

(3) $398,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which $150,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title; and

(4) $419,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, of which $150,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title.

(d) Solar power

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), there is authorized to be appropriated to carry out activities under subsection (a)(2)(A)—

(1) $140,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, of which $40,000,000 shall be for activities under section 16235 of this title;

(2) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which $50,000,000 shall be for activities under section 16235 of this title; and

(3) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which $50,000,000 shall be for activities under section 16235 of this title.

(e) Administration

Of the funds authorized under subsection (c), not less than $5,000,000 for each fiscal year shall be made available for grants to—

(1) part B institutions;

(2) Tribal Colleges or Universities (as defined in section 1059c(b) of title 20); and

(3) Hispanic-serving institutions.

(f) Rural demonstration projects

In carrying out this section, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall demonstrate the use of renewable energy technologies to assist in delivering electricity to rural and remote locations including —

(1) advanced wind power technology, including combined use with coal gasification;

(2) biomass; and

(3) geothermal energy systems.

(g) Analysis and evaluation

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct analysis and evaluation in support of the renewable energy programs under this part. These activities shall be used to guide budget and program decisions, and shall include—

(A) economic and technical analysis of renewable energy potential, including resource assessment;

(B) analysis of past program performance, both in terms of technical advances and in market introduction of renewable energy; and

(C) any other analysis or evaluation that the Secretary considers appropriate.

(2) Funding

The Secretary may designate up to 1 percent of the funds appropriated for carrying out this part for analysis and evaluation activities under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §931, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 868; Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §231, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1536.)

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–140, §231(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 110–140, §231(2), in par. (2), substituted "$377,000,000" for "$251,000,000", in par. (3), substituted "$398,000,000" for "$274,000,000", and added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§16232. Bioenergy program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Biomass

The term "biomass" means—

(A) any organic material grown for the purpose of being converted to energy;

(B) any organic byproduct of agriculture (including wastes from food production and processing) that can be converted into energy; or

(C) any waste material that can be converted to energy, is segregated from other waste materials, and is derived from—

(i) any of the following forest-related resources: mill residues, precommercial thinnings, slash, brush, or otherwise nonmerchantable material; or

(ii) wood waste materials, including waste pallets, crates, dunnage, manufacturing and construction wood wastes (other than pressure-treated, chemically-treated, or painted wood wastes), and landscape or right-of-way tree trimmings, but not including municipal solid waste, gas derived from the biodegradation of municipal solid waste, or paper that is commonly recycled.

(2) Lignocellulosic feedstock

The term "lignocellulosic feedstock" means any portion of a plant or coproduct from conversion, including crops, trees, forest residues, and agricultural residues not specifically grown for food, including from barley grain, grapeseed, rice bran, rice hulls, rice straw, soybean matter, and sugarcane bagasse.

(b) Program

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for bioenergy, including—

(1) biopower energy systems;

(2) biofuels;

(3) bioproducts;

(4) integrated biorefineries that may produce biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts;

(5) cross-cutting research and development in feedstocks; and

(6) economic analysis.

(c) Biofuels and bioproducts

The goals of the biofuels and bioproducts programs shall be to develop, in partnership with industry and institutions of higher education—

(1) advanced biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies capable of making fuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks that are price-competitive with gasoline or diesel in either internal combustion engines or fuel cell-powered vehicles;

(2) advanced biotechnology processes capable of making biofuels and bioproducts with emphasis on development of biorefinery technologies using enzyme-based processing systems;

(3) advanced biotechnology processes capable of increasing energy production from lignocellulosic feedstocks, with emphasis on reducing the dependence of industry on fossil fuels in manufacturing facilities; and

(4) other advanced processes that will enable the development of cost-effective bioproducts, including biofuels.

(d) Integrated biorefinery demonstration projects

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program to demonstrate the commercial application of integrated biorefineries. The Secretary shall ensure geographical distribution of biorefinery demonstrations under this subsection. The Secretary shall not provide more than $100,000,000 under this subsection for any single biorefinery demonstration. In making awards under this subsection, the Secretary shall encourage—

(A) the demonstration of a wide variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks;

(B) the commercial application of biomass technologies for a variety of uses, including—

(i) liquid transportation fuels;

(ii) high-value biobased chemicals;

(iii) substitutes for petroleum-based feedstocks and products; and

(iv) energy in the form of electricity or useful heat; and


(C) the demonstration of the collection and treatment of a variety of biomass feedstocks.

(2) Proposals

Not later than 6 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall solicit proposals for demonstration of advanced biorefineries. The Secretary shall select only proposals that—

(A) demonstrate that the project will be able to operate profitably without direct Federal subsidy after initial construction costs are paid; and

(B) enable the biorefinery to be easily replicated.

(e) University biodiesel program

The Secretary shall establish a demonstration program to determine the feasibility of the operation of diesel electric power generators, using biodiesel fuels with ratings as high as B100, at electric generation facilities owned by institutions of higher education. The program shall examine—

(1) heat rates of diesel fuels with large quantities of cellulosic content;

(2) the reliability of operation of various fuel blends;

(3) performance in cold or freezing weather;

(4) stability of fuel after extended storage; and

(5) other criteria, as determined by the Secretary.

(g) 1 Biorefinery energy efficiency

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption in the operation of biorefinery facilities.

(h) Retrofit technologies for the development of ethanol from cellulosic materials

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on technologies and processes to enable biorefineries that exclusively use corn grain or corn starch as a feedstock to produce ethanol to be retrofitted to accept a range of biomass, including lignocellulosic feedstocks.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §932, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 870; Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §224, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1533.)

Amendments

2007—Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 110–140 added subsecs. (g) and (h).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original. No subsec. (f) has been enacted.

§16233. Low-cost renewable hydrogen and infrastructure for vehicle propulsion

The Secretary shall—

(1) establish a research, development, and demonstration program to determine the feasibility of using hydrogen propulsion in light-weight vehicles and the integration of the associated hydrogen production infrastructure using off-the-shelf components; and

(2) identify universities and institutions that—

(A) have expertise in researching and testing vehicles fueled by hydrogen, methane, and other fuels;

(B) have expertise in integrating off-the-shelf components to minimize cost; and

(C) within 2 years can test a vehicle based on an existing commercially available platform with a curb weight of not less than 2,000 pounds before modifications, that—

(i) operates solely on hydrogen;

(ii) qualifies as a light-duty passenger vehicle; and

(iii) uses hydrogen produced from water using only solar energy.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §933, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 872.)

§16234. Concentrating solar power research program

(a) In general

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research and development to evaluate the potential for concentrating solar power for hydrogen production, including cogeneration approaches for both hydrogen and electricity.

(b) Administration

The program shall take advantage of existing facilities to the extent practicable and shall include—

(1) development of optimized technologies that are common to both electricity and hydrogen production;

(2) evaluation of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production at the temperatures attainable with concentrating solar power;

(3) evaluation of materials issues for the thermochemical cycles described in paragraph (2);

(4) cogeneration of solar thermal electric power and photo-synthetic-based hydrogen production;

(5) system architectures and economics studies; and

(6) coordination with activities under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project established under part B of subchapter VI on high temperature materials, thermochemical cycles, and economic issues.

(c) Assessment

In carrying out the program under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) assess conflicting guidance on the economic potential of concentrating solar power for electricity production received from the National Research Council in the report entitled "Renewable Power Pathways: A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Renewable Energy Programs" and dated 2000 and subsequent reviews of that report funded by the Department; and

(2) provide an assessment of the potential impact of technology used to concentrate solar power for electricity before, or concurrent with, submission of the budget for fiscal year 2008.

(d) Report

Not later than 5 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall provide to Congress a report on the economic and technical potential for electricity or hydrogen production, with or without cogeneration, with concentrating solar power, including the economic and technical feasibility of potential construction of a pilot demonstration facility suitable for commercial production of electricity or hydrogen from concentrating solar power.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §934, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 872.)

§16235. Renewable energy in public buildings

(a) Demonstration and technology transfer program

The Secretary shall establish a program for the demonstration of innovative technologies for solar and other renewable energy sources in buildings owned or operated by a State or local government, and for the dissemination of information resulting from such demonstration to interested parties.

(b) Limit on Federal funding

Notwithstanding section 16352 of this title, the Secretary shall provide under this section no more than 40 percent of the incremental costs of the solar or other renewable energy source project funded.

(c) Requirements

As part of the application for awards under this section, the Secretary shall require all applicants—

(1) to demonstrate a continuing commitment to the use of solar and other renewable energy sources in buildings they own or operate; and

(2) to state how they expect any award to further their transition to the significant use of renewable energy.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §935, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 873.)

Part D—Agricultural Biomass Research and Development Programs

§16251. Production incentives for cellulosic biofuels

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to—

(1) accelerate deployment and commercialization of biofuels;

(2) deliver the first 1,000,000,000 gallons in annual cellulosic biofuels production by 2015;

(3) ensure biofuels produced after 2015 are cost competitive with gasoline and diesel; and

(4) ensure that small feedstock producers and rural small businesses are full participants in the development of the cellulosic biofuels industry.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Cellulosic biofuels

The term "cellulosic biofuels" means any fuel that is produced from cellulosic feedstocks.

(2) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means a producer of fuel from cellulosic biofuels the production facility of which—

(A) is located in the United States;

(B) meets all applicable Federal and State permitting requirements; and

(C) meets any financial criteria established by the Secretary.

(c) Program

(1) Establishment

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Defense, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall establish an incentive program for the production of cellulosic biofuels.

(2) Basis of incentives

Under the program, the Secretary shall award production incentives on a per gallon basis of cellulosic biofuels from eligible entities, through—

(A) set payments per gallon of cellulosic biofuels produced in an amount determined by the Secretary, until initiation of the first reverse auction; and

(B) reverse auction thereafter.

(3) First reverse auction

The first reverse auction shall be held on the earlier of—

(A) not later than 1 year after the first year of annual production in the United States of 100,000,000 gallons of cellulosic biofuels, as determined by the Secretary; or

(B) not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005.

(4) Reverse auction procedure

(A) In general

On initiation of the first reverse auction, and each year thereafter until the earlier of the first year of annual production in the United States of 1,000,000,000 gallons of cellulosic biofuels, as determined by the Secretary, or 10 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall conduct a reverse auction at which—

(i) the Secretary shall solicit bids from eligible entities;

(ii) eligible entities shall submit—

(I) a desired level of production incentive on a per gallon basis; and

(II) an estimated annual production amount in gallons; and


(iii) the Secretary shall issue awards for the production amount submitted, beginning with the eligible entity submitting the bid for the lowest level of production incentive on a per gallon basis and meeting such other criteria as are established by the Secretary, until the amount of funds available for the reverse auction is committed.

(B) Amount of incentive received

An eligible entity selected by the Secretary through a reverse auction shall receive the amount of performance incentive requested in the auction for each gallon produced and sold by the entity during the first 6 years of operation.

(C) Commencement of production of cellulosic biofuels

As a condition of the receipt of an award under this section, an eligible entity shall enter into an agreement with the Secretary under which the eligible entity agrees to begin production of cellulosic biofuels not later than 3 years after the date of the reverse auction in which the eligible entity participates.

(d) Limitations

Awards under this section shall be limited to—

(1) a per gallon amount determined by the Secretary during the first 4 years of the program;

(2) a declining per gallon cap over the remaining lifetime of the program, to be established by the Secretary so that cellulosic biofuels produced after the first year of annual cellulosic biofuels production in the United States in excess of 1,000,000,000 gallons are cost competitive with gasoline and diesel;

(3) not more than 25 percent of the funds committed within each reverse auction to any 1 project;

(4) not more than $100,000,000 in any 1 year; and

(5) not more than $1,000,000,000 over the lifetime of the program.

(e) Priority

In selecting a project under the program, the Secretary shall give priority to projects that—

(1) demonstrate outstanding potential for local and regional economic development;

(2) include agricultural producers or cooperatives of agricultural producers as equity partners in the ventures; and

(3) have a strategic agreement in place to fairly reward feedstock suppliers.

(f) Authorizations of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $250,000,000.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §942, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 878.)

§16252. Education

(1) In general

The Architect of the Capitol shall establish in the Capitol Complex a program of public education regarding use by the Architect of the Capitol of biobased products.

(2) Purposes

The purposes of the program shall be—

(A) to establish the Capitol Complex as a showcase for the existence and benefits of biobased products; and

(B) to provide access to further information on biobased products to occupants and visitors.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §943(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 881.)

§16253. Small business bioproduct marketing and certification grants

(a) In general

Using amounts made available under subsection (g), the Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall make available on a competitive basis grants to eligible entities described in subsection (b) for the biobased product marketing and certification purposes described in subsection (c).

(b) Eligible entities

(1) In general

An entity eligible for a grant under this section is any manufacturer of biobased products that—

(A) proposes to use the grant for the biobased product marketing and certification purposes described in subsection (c); and

(B) has not previously received a grant under this section.

(2) Preference

In making grants under this section, the Secretary shall provide a preference to an eligible entity that has fewer than 50 employees.

(c) Biobased product marketing and certification grant purposes

A grant made under this section shall be used—

(1) to provide working capital for marketing of biobased products; and

(2) to provide for the certification of biobased products to—

(A) qualify for the label described in section 8102(b) of title 7; or

(B) meet other biobased standards determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(d) Matching funds

(1) In general

Grant recipients shall provide matching non-Federal funds equal to the amount of the grant received.

(2) Expenditure

Matching funds shall be expended in advance of grant funding, so that for every dollar of grant that is advanced, an equal amount of matching funds shall have been funded prior to submitting the request for reimbursement.

(e) Amount

A grant made under this section shall not exceed $100,000.

(f) Administration

The Secretary shall establish such administrative requirements for grants under this section, including requirements for applications for the grants, as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(g) Authorizations of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to make grants under this section—

(1) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and

(2) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §944, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 881; Pub. L. 113–79, title IX, §9002(b), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 928.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–79 substituted "section 8102(b)" for "section 8102(h)(1)".

§16254. Regional bioeconomy development grants

(a) In general

Using amounts made available under subsection (g), the Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall make available on a competitive basis grants to eligible entities described in subsection (b) for the purposes described in subsection (c).

(b) Eligible entities

An entity eligible for a grant under this section is any regional bioeconomy development association, agricultural or energy trade association, or Land Grant institution that—

(1) proposes to use the grant for the purposes described in subsection (c); and

(2) has not previously received a grant under this section.

(c) Regional bioeconomy development association grant purposes

A grant made under this section shall be used to support and promote the growth and development of the bioeconomy within the region served by the eligible entity, through coordination, education, outreach, and other endeavors by the eligible entity.

(d) Matching funds

(1) In general

Grant recipients shall provide matching non-Federal funds equal to the amount of the grant received.

(2) Expenditure

Matching funds shall be expended in advance of grant funding, so that for every dollar of grant that is advanced, an equal amount of matching funds shall have been funded prior to submitting the request for reimbursement.

(e) Administration

The Secretary shall establish such administrative requirements for grants under this section, including requirements for applications for the grants, as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(f) Amount

A grant made under this section shall not exceed $500,000.

(g) Authorizations of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to make grants under this section—

(1) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and

(2) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §945, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 882.)

§16255. Preprocessing and harvesting demonstration grants

(a) In general

The Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall make grants available on a competitive basis to enterprises owned by agricultural producers, for the purposes of demonstrating cost-effective, cellulosic biomass innovations in—

(1) preprocessing of feedstocks, including cleaning, separating and sorting, mixing or blending, and chemical or biochemical treatments, to add value and lower the cost of feedstock processing at a biorefinery; or

(2) 1-pass or other efficient, multiple crop harvesting techniques.

(b) Limitations on grants

(1) Number of grants

Not more than 5 demonstration projects per fiscal year shall be funded under this section.

(2) Non-Federal cost share

The non-Federal cost share of a project under this section shall be not less than 20 percent, as determined by the Secretary.