[USC02] 42 USC Ch. 68: DISASTER RELIEF
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42 USC Ch. 68: DISASTER RELIEF
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 68—DISASTER RELIEF

SUBCHAPTER I—FINDINGS, DECLARATIONS, AND DEFINITIONS

Sec.
5121.
Congressional findings and declarations.
5122.
Definitions.
5123.
References.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION ASSISTANCE

5131.
Federal and State disaster preparedness programs.
5132.
Disaster warnings.
5133.
Predisaster hazard mitigation.
5134.
Interagency task force.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—MAJOR DISASTER AND EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION

5141.
Waiver of administrative conditions.
5142.
Repealed.
5143.
Coordinating officers.
5144.
Emergency support and response teams.
5145, 5146. Repealed.
5147.
Reimbursement of Federal agencies.
5148.
Nonliability of Federal Government.
5149.
Performance of services.
5150.
Use of local firms and individuals.
5151.
Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance.
5152.
Use and coordination of relief organizations.
5153.
Priority to certain applications for public facility and public housing assistance.
5154.
Insurance.
5154a.
Prohibited flood disaster assistance.
5155.
Duplication of benefits.
5156.
Standards and reviews.
5157.
Penalties.
5158.
Availability of materials.
5159.
Protection of environment.
5160.
Recovery of assistance.
5161.
Audits and investigations.
5161a.
Audit of contracts.
5162.
Advance of non-Federal share.
5163.
Limitation on use of sliding scales.
5164.
Rules and regulations.
5165.
Mitigation planning.
5165a.
Minimum standards for public and private structures.
5165b.
Management costs.
5165c.
Public notice, comment, and consultation requirements.
5165d.
Designation of Small State and Rural Advocate.
5165e.
Integrated plan for administrative cost reduction.
5165f.
National Urban Search and Rescue Response System.
5165g.
National veterinary emergency teams.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—MAJOR DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

5170.
Procedure for declaration.
5170a.
General Federal assistance.
5170b.
Essential assistance.
5170c.
Hazard mitigation.
5171.
Federal facilities.
5172.
Repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities.
5173.
Debris removal.
5174.
Federal assistance to individuals and households.
5174a.
Flexibility.
5174b.
Critical document fee waiver.
5175, 5176. Repealed.
5177.
Unemployment assistance.
5177a.
Emergency grants to assist low-income migrant and seasonal farmworkers.
5178.
Repealed.
5179.
Benefits and distribution.
5180.
Food commodities.
5181.
Relocation assistance.
5182.
Legal services.
5183.
Crisis counseling assistance and training.
5184.
Community disaster loans.
5185.
Emergency communications.
5186.
Emergency public transportation.
5187.
Fire management assistance.
5188.
Timber sale contracts.
5189.
Simplified procedure.
5189a.
Appeals of assistance decisions.
5189b.
Date of eligibility; expenses incurred before date of disaster.
5189c.
Transportation assistance to individuals and households.
5189d.
Case management services.
5189e.
Essential service providers.
5189f.
Public assistance program alternative procedures.
5189g.
Unified Federal review.
5189h.
Agency accountability.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV–A—EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

5191.
Procedure for declaration.
5192.
Federal emergency assistance.
5193.
Amount of assistance.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV–B—EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

5195.
Declaration of policy.
5195a.
Definitions.
5195b.
Administration of subchapter.
5195c.
Critical infrastructures protection.

        

Part A—Powers and Duties

5196.
Detailed functions of administration.
5196a.
Mutual aid pacts between States and neighboring countries.
5196b.
Contributions for personnel and administrative expenses.
5196c.
Grants for construction of emergency operations centers.
5196d.
Use of funds to prepare for and respond to hazards.
5196e.
Radiological Emergency Preparedness Fund.
5196f.
Disaster related information services.
5196g.
Guidance and training by FEMA on coordination of emergency response plans.

        

Part B—General Provisions

5197.
Administrative authority.
5197a.
Security regulations.
5197b.
Use of existing facilities.
5197c.
Annual report to Congress.
5197d.
Applicability of subchapter.
5197e.
Authorization of appropriations and transfers of funds.
5197f.
Relation to Atomic Energy Act of 1954.
5197g.
Federal Bureau of Investigation.
5197h.
Minority emergency preparedness demonstration program.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCELLANEOUS

5201.
Rules and regulations.
5202.
Repealed.
5203.
Excess disaster assistance payments as budgetary emergency requirements.
5204.
Insular areas disaster survival and recovery; definitions.
5204a.
Authorization of appropriations for insular areas.
5204b.
Technical assistance for insular areas.
5204c.
Hazard mitigation for insular areas.
5205.
Disaster grant closeout procedures.
5205a.
Certain recoupment prohibited.
5206.
Buy American.
5207.
Firearms policies.
5208.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—FINDINGS, DECLARATIONS, AND DEFINITIONS

§5121. Congressional findings and declarations

(a) The Congress hereby finds and declares that—

(1) because disasters often cause loss of life, human suffering, loss of income, and property loss and damage; and

(2) because disasters often disrupt the normal functioning of governments and communities, and adversely affect individuals and families with great severity;


special measures, designed to assist the efforts of the affected States in expediting the rendering of aid, assistance, and emergency services, and the reconstruction and rehabilitation of devastated areas, are necessary.

(b) It is the intent of the Congress, by this chapter, to provide an orderly and continuing means of assistance by the Federal Government to State and local governments in carrying out their responsibilities to alleviate the suffering and damage which result from such disasters by—

(1) revising and broadening the scope of existing disaster relief programs;

(2) encouraging the development of comprehensive disaster preparedness and assistance plans, programs, capabilities, and organizations by the States and by local governments;

(3) achieving greater coordination and responsiveness of disaster preparedness and relief programs;

(4) encouraging individuals, States, and local governments to protect themselves by obtaining insurance coverage to supplement or replace governmental assistance;

(5) encouraging hazard mitigation measures to reduce losses from disasters, including development of land use and construction regulations; and

(6) providing Federal assistance programs for both public and private losses sustained in disasters 1

(Pub. L. 93–288, title I, §101, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §103(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4689.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 100–707 struck out par. (7) expressing Congressional intent to provide disaster assistance through a long-range economic recovery program for major disaster areas.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1202, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3438, provided that:

"(a) Applicability for Stafford Act.—Except as otherwise expressly provided, the amendments in this division [see section 1201 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a Short Title of 2018 Amendment note below] to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) apply to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after August 1, 2017, under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act.

"(b) Division Applicability.—Except as otherwise expressly provided, the authorities provided under this division [div. D (§§1201–1246) of Pub. L. 115–254] apply to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act on or after January 1, 2016."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 93–288, title VI, §605, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 164, provided that Pub. L. 93–288 was effective Apr. 1, 1974, with the exception of section 5178 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §108(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4708.

Short Title of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1201, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3438, provided that: "This division [div. D (§§1201–1246) of Pub. L. 115–254, enacting sections 5161a, 5165g, 5174a, 5174b, 5189h, 5196g, and 5205a of this title, and section 748a of Title 6, Domestic Security, amending sections 3149, 5122, 5133, 5149, 5152, 5155, 5165, 5165b, 5170a to 5170c, 5172, 5174, 5187, 5189a, 5189f, 5205 of this title, and sections 761 and 762 of Title 6, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 5122, 5133, 5155, 5170, 5170c, 5172, 5174, 5187, 5189g, 5205 of this title, and section 721 of Title 6, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 5172 of this title] may be cited as the 'Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018'."

Short Title of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–87, §1, Nov. 21, 2017, 131 Stat. 1277, provided that: "This Act [enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'FEMA Accountability, Modernization and Transparency Act of 2017'."

Short Title of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–326, §1, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1968, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 5165f of this title, amending section 8101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 4303 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under section 3791 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Urban Search and Rescue Response System Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–132, §1, Feb. 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 293, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 5165e of this title and provisions set out as notes under section 5165e of this title] may be cited as the 'Directing Dollars to Disaster Relief Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–111, §1, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2240, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 5122 and 5172 of this title] may be cited as the 'Emergency Information Improvement Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1101(a), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 39, provided that: "This division [enacting sections 5123, 5189f, and 5189g of this title, amending sections 5122, 5170, 5170b, 5170c, 5174, 5189, 5189e, and 5191 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 5122, 5170, 5170c, and 5189a of this title] may be cited as the 'Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013'."

Short Title of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–351, §1, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3863, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 5133, 5134, 5144, 5165d, 5170c, 5172, 5195a, 5195b, 5196 to 5196b, 5196f, 5197 to 5197c, and 5197h of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 5133 of this title] may be cited as the 'Predisaster Hazard Mitigation Act of 2010'."

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–308, §1, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1725, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 5170b, 5196, and 5196b of this title] may be cited as the 'Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act of 2006'."

Pub. L. 109–218, §1, Apr. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 333, provided that: "This Act [amending section 5150 of this title] may be cited as the 'Local Community Recovery Act of 2006'."

Short Title of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–139, §1, Dec. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2649, provided that: "This Act [amending section 5133 of this title and provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Predisaster Mitigation Program Reauthorization Act of 2005'."

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–390, §1(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1552, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 5133, 5134, 5165 to 5165c, 5205, and 5206 of this title, amending sections 3796b, 5122, 5154, 5170c, 5172, 5174, 5184, 5187, and 5192 of this title, repealing sections 5176 and 5178 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 3796b, 5133, 5165b, 5172, 5174, and 5187 of this title] may be cited as the 'Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000'."

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–181, §1, Dec. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 2054, provided that: "This Act [amending section 5170c of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4601 and 5170c of this title] may be cited as the 'Hazard Mitigation and Relocation Assistance Act of 1993'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §101(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4689, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 5141, 5153 to 5157, 5159 to 5164, 5170 to 5170c, 5172, 5174, 5178, 5189 to 5189b, and 5191 to 5193 of this title, amending this section, sections 1382a, 3030, 3231, 3232, 3539, 4003, 4013, 5122, 5131, 5143, 5144, 5147 to 5152, 5158, 5171, 5173, 5176, 5177, 5179 to 5188, 5201, 7704, and 9601 of this title, sections 1421, 1427, 1427a, 1961, 1964, and 2014 of Title 7, Agriculture, sections 1706c, 1709, and 1715l of Title 12, Banks and Banking, section 636 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, sections 1536 and 3505 of Title 16, Conservation, sections 241–1 and 646 of Title 20, Education, section 125 of Title 23, Highways, sections 165, 5064, and 5708 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 701n of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and section 1820 [now 3720] of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, repealing sections 5142, 5145, 5146, 5175, and 5202 of this title and former sections 5141, 5153 to 5157, 5172, 5174, 5178, and 5189 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 3231, 5122, and 5201 of this title, amending provisions set out as a note under this section and section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this section and former section 5178 of this title] may be cited as 'The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988'."

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–568, §1, Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3334, provided: "That this Act [amending section 5202 of this title] may be cited as the 'Disaster Relief Act Amendments of 1980'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 93–288, §1, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended by Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §102(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4689; Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §301, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1572, provided: "That this Act [enacting this section, sections 3231 to 3236, 5122, 5131, 5132, 5141 to 5158, 5171 to 5189, 5201, and 5202 of this title, and section 1264 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, amending sections 1706c, 1709, 1715l of Title 12, Banks and Banking, sections 241–1, 646, 758 of Title 20, Education, sections 165, 5064, 5708 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 1820 [now 3720] of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, section 461 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, repealing sections 4401, 4402, 4411 to 4413, 4414 to 4420, 4431 to 4436, 4457 to 4462, 4481 to 4485 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 4401 and 5178 of this title, and section 1264 of former Title 31, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions] may be cited as the 'Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act'."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of the President under the Disaster Relief Acts of 1970 and 1974, with certain exceptions, were delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security, see sections 4–201 and 4–203 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239, as amended, set out as a note under section 5195 of this title.

References to Disaster Relief Act of 1974

Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §102(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4689, provided that: "Whenever any reference is made in any law (other than this Act [see Tables for classification]), regulation, document, rule, record, or other paper of the United States to a section or provision of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 [former short title of Pub. L. 93–288], such reference shall be deemed to be a reference to such section or provision of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [Pub. L. 93–288, see Short Title note above]."

References to Disaster Relief Act of 1970

Pub. L. 93–288, title VII, §702(m), formerly title VI, §602(m), May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 164, as renumbered by Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIV, §3411(a)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3100, provided that: "Whenever reference is made in any provision of law (other than this Act [see Short Title note set out above]), regulation, rule, record, or documents of the United States to provisions of the Disaster Relief Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1744), repealed by this Act such reference shall be deemed to be a reference to the appropriate provision of this Act."

Requirements for Grant Systems Modernization

Pub. L. 115–87, §2, Nov. 21, 2017, 131 Stat. 1277, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall ensure the ongoing modernization of the grant systems for the administration of assistance under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) includes the following:

"(1) An online interface, including online assistance, for applicants to complete application forms, submit materials, and access the status of applications.

"(2) Mechanisms to eliminate duplication of benefits.

"(3) If appropriate, enable the sharing of information among agencies and with State, local, and tribal governments, to eliminate the need to file multiple applications and speed disaster recovery.

"(4) Any additional tools the Administrator determines will improve the implementation of this section.

"(b) Implementation.—To the extent practicable, the Administrator shall deliver the system capabilities described in subsection (a) in increments or iterations as working components for applicant use."

Report on State Management of Small Disasters Initiative

Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §208, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1571, provided that: "Not later than 3 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], the President shall submit to Congress a report describing the results of the State Management of Small Disasters Initiative, including—

"(1) identification of any administrative or financial benefits of the initiative; and

"(2) recommendations concerning the conditions, if any, under which States should be allowed the option to administer parts of the assistance program under section 406 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5172)."

Study Regarding Cost Reduction

Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §209, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1571, as amended by Pub. L. 109–139, §3, Dec. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2649, provided that: "Not later than September 30, 2007, the Director of the Congressional Budget Office shall complete a study estimating the reduction in Federal disaster assistance that has resulted and is likely to result from the enactment of this Act [see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note above]."

Study of Participation by Indian Tribes in Emergency Management

Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §308, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1575, required the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to conduct a study of participation by Indian tribes in emergency management and submit a report no later than 1 year after Oct. 30, 2000.

National Drought Policy

Pub. L. 105–199, July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 641, as amended by Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §753, Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1170, known as the "National Drought Policy Act of 1998", established the National Drought Policy Commission to study and submit a report on national drought policy and terminated the Commission 90 days after the submission of the report.

Recommendations Concerning Improvement of Relationships Among Disaster Management Officials

Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §110, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4710, provided that not later than 1 year after Nov. 23, 1988, the President was to recommend to the Congress proposals to improve the operational and fiscal relationships that exist among Federal, State, and local major disaster and emergency management officials, including provisions which would decrease the amount of time for processing requests for major disaster and emergency declarations and providing Federal assistance for major disasters and emergencies, provide for more effective utilization of State and local resources in relief efforts, and improve the timeliness of reimbursement.

Declared Disasters and Emergencies Not Affected

Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §112, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4711, provided that: "This title [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note above] shall not affect the administration of any assistance for a major disaster or emergency declared by the President before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1988]."

Executive Order No. 11749

Ex. Ord. No. 11749, Dec. 10, 1973, 38 F.R. 34177, which related to consolidation of functions assigned to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239, set out as a note under section 5195 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 11795. Delegation of Presidential Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 11795, July 11, 1974, 39 F.R. 25939, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11910, Apr. 13, 1976, 41 F.R. 15681; Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239; Ex. Ord. No. 12673, Mar. 23, 1989, 54 F.R. 12571, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–288; 88 Stat. 143) [see References to Disaster Relief Act of 1974 note above], section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

[Sections 1 and 2. Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12148, §5–111, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239.]

Sec. 3. The Secretary of Agriculture is designated and empowered to exercise, without the approval, ratification, or other action of the President, all of the authority vested in the President by section 412 of the act [section 5179 of this title] concerning food coupons and distribution.

[Sec. 4. Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12148, §5–111, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239.]

[References to a "coupon" provided under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 considered to refer to a "benefit" under that Act, see section 4115(d) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 2012 of Title 7, Agriculture.]

Seismic Safety of Federal and Federally Assisted or Regulated New Building Construction

For provisions relating to seismic safety requirements for new construction or total replacement of a building under this chapter after a presidentially declared major disaster or emergency, see Ex. Ord. No. 13717, Feb. 2, 2016, 81 F.R. 6407, set out as a note under section 7704 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§5122. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) Emergency.—"Emergency" means any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, Federal assistance is needed to supplement State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States.

(2) Major disaster.—"Major disaster" means any natural catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, winddriven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion, in any part of the United States, which in the determination of the President causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under this chapter to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby.

(3) "United States" means the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(4) "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(5) "Governor" means the chief executive of any State.

(6) Indian tribal government.—The term "Indian tribal government" means the governing body of any Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community that the Secretary of the Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe under the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994 (25 U.S.C. 479a et seq.).1

(7) Individual with a disability.—The term "individual with a disability" means an individual with a disability as defined in section 12102(2) of this title.

(8) Local government.—The term "local government" means—

(A) a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority, school district, special district, intrastate district, council of governments (regardless of whether the council of governments is incorporated as a nonprofit corporation under State law), regional or interstate government entity, or agency or instrumentality of a local government;

(B) an Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization, or Alaska Native village or organization, that is not an Indian tribal government as defined in paragraph (6); and

(C) a rural community, unincorporated town or village, or other public entity, for which an application for assistance is made by a State or political subdivision of a State.


(9) "Federal agency" means any department, independent establishment, Government corporation, or other agency of the executive branch of the Federal Government, including the United States Postal Service, but shall not include the American National Red Cross.

(10) Public facility.—"Public facility" means the following facilities owned by a State or local government:

(A) Any flood control, navigation, irrigation, reclamation, public power, sewage treatment and collection, water supply and distribution, watershed development, or airport facility.

(B) Any non-Federal-aid street, road, or highway.

(C) Any other public building, structure, or system, including those used for educational, recreational, or cultural purposes.

(D) Any park.


(11) Private nonprofit facility.—

(A) In general.—The term "private nonprofit facility" means private nonprofit educational (without regard to the religious character of the facility), center-based childcare, utility, irrigation, emergency, medical, rehabilitational, and temporary or permanent custodial care facilities (including those for the aged and disabled) and facilities on Indian reservations, as defined by the President.

(B) Additional facilities.—In addition to the facilities described in subparagraph (A), the term "private nonprofit facility" includes any private nonprofit facility that provides essential social services to the general public (including museums, zoos, performing arts facilities, community arts centers, community centers, libraries, homeless shelters, senior citizen centers, rehabilitation facilities, shelter workshops, food banks, broadcasting facilities, houses of worship, and facilities that provide health and safety services of a governmental nature), as defined by the President. No house of worship may be excluded from this definition because leadership or membership in the organization operating the house of worship is limited to persons who share a religious faith or practice.


(12) Chief executive.—The term "Chief Executive" means the person who is the Chief, Chairman, Governor, President, or similar executive official of an Indian tribal government.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title I, §102, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 144; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §103(b)–(d), (f), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4689, 4690; Pub. L. 102–247, title II, §205, Feb. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 38; Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §302, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §688, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1448; Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1110(c), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 114–111, §2(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2240; Pub. L. 115–123, div. B, title VI, §20604(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 85; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §§1214, 1238(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3449, 3466.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in introductory provisions and par. (2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994, referred to in par. (6), is title I of Pub. L. 103–454, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4791, which was classified principally to section 479a et seq. of Title 25, Indians, prior to editorial reclassification as section 5130 et seq. of Title 25. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5101 of Title 25 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Par. (11). Pub. L. 115–123 amended subpar. (B) generally by substituting a second subpar. (A) and a subpar. (B) for former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "In addition to the facilities described in subparagraph (A), the term 'private nonprofit facility' includes any private nonprofit facility that provides essential services of a governmental nature to the general public (including museums, zoos, performing arts facilities, community arts centers, libraries, homeless shelters, senior citizen centers, rehabilitation facilities, shelter workshops, broadcasting facilities, and facilities that provide health and safety services of a governmental nature), as defined by the President."

Par. (11)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1238(b)(2), struck out first subpar. (A) which read as follows: "The term 'private nonprofit facility' means private nonprofit educational, utility, irrigation, emergency, medical, rehabilitational, and temporary or permanent custodial care facilities (including those for the aged and disabled) and facilities on Indian reservations, as defined by the President."

Pub. L. 115–254, §1238(b)(1), inserted "center-based childcare," after "facility)," in second subpar. (A) as added by Pub. L. 115–123.

Par. (11)(B). Pub. L. 115–254, §1214, inserted "food banks," after "shelter workshops,".

2015—Par. (11)(B). Pub. L. 114–111 inserted "broadcasting facilities," after "workshops,".

2013—Par. (6). Pub. L. 113–2, §1110(c)(3), added par. (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Par. (7). Pub. L. 113–2, §1110(c)(2), redesignated par. (6) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (8).

Par. (7)(B). Pub. L. 113–2, §1110(c)(1), substituted ", that is not an Indian tribal government as defined in paragraph (6); and" for "; and".

Pars. (8) to (11). Pub. L. 113–2, §1110(c)(2), redesignated pars. (7) to (10) as (8) to (11), respectively.

Par. (12). Pub. L. 113–2, §1110(c)(4), added par. (12).

2006—Pars. (6) to (8). Pub. L. 109–295, §688(2), added par. (6) and redesignated former pars. (6) and (7) as (7) and (8), respectively. Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 109–295, §688(2), redesignated par. (8) as (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (10).

Pub. L. 109–295, §688(1), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: " 'Private nonprofit facility' means private nonprofit educational, utility, irrigation, emergency, medical, rehabilitational, and temporary or permanent custodial care facilities (including those for the aged and disabled), other private nonprofit facilities which provide essential services of a governmental nature to the general public, and facilities on Indian reservations as defined by the President."

Par. (10). Pub. L. 109–295, §688(2), redesignated par. (9) as (10).

2000—Par. (3). Pub. L. 106–390, §302(1), substituted "and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands" for "the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 106–390, §302(1), substituted "and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands" for "the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

Par. (6). Pub. L. 106–390, §302(2), added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: " 'Local government' means (A) any county, city, village, town, district, or other political subdivision of any State, any Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization, or Alaska Native village or organization, and (B) includes any rural community or unincorporated town or village or any other public entity for which an application for assistance is made by a State or political subdivision thereof."

Par. (9). Pub. L. 106–390, §302(3), inserted "irrigation," after "utility,".

1992—Pars. (3), (4). Pub. L. 102–247 inserted "the Northern Mariana Islands," after "American Samoa,".

1988—Par. (1). Pub. L. 100–707, §103(b), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: " 'Emergency' means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, fire, explosion, or other catastrophe in any part of the United States which requires Federal emergency assistance to supplement State and local efforts to save lives and protect property, public health and safety or to avert or lessen the threat of a disaster."

Par. (2). Pub. L. 100–707, §103(c), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: " 'Major disaster' means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, fire, explosion, or other catastrophe in any part of the United States which, in the determination of the President, causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under this chapter, above and beyond emergency services by the Federal Government, to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby."

Pars. (3), (4). Pub. L. 100–707, §103(d), struck out "the Canal Zone," after "American Samoa,".

Pars. (8), (9). Pub. L. 100–707, §103(f), added pars. (8) and (9).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1238(c), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3466, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to any major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 401 or 501, respectively, of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170, 5191) on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–123, div. B, title VI, §20604(c), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 86, provided that: "This section [amending this section and section 5172 of this title] and the amendments made by this section shall apply—

"(1) to the provision of assistance in response to a major disaster or emergency declared on or after August 23, 2017; or

"(2) with respect to—

"(A) any application for assistance that, as of the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 9, 2018], is pending before Federal Emergency Management Agency; and

"(B) any application for assistance that has been denied, where a challenge to that denial is not yet finally resolved as of the date of enactment of this Act."

Regulations

Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1110(e), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 49, provided that:

"(1) Issuance.—The President shall issue regulations to carry out the amendments made by this section [enacting section 5123 of this title and amending this section and sections 5170 and 5191 of this title].

"(2) Factors.—In issuing the regulations, the President shall consider the unique conditions that affect the general welfare of Indian tribal governments."

Local Government

Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §103(e), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4690, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The term 'local government' is deemed to have the same meaning in the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [Pub. L. 93–288, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title], as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note set out under section 5121 of this title], as that term had on October 1, 1988, under section 102(6) of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 [par. (6) of this section] and regulations implementing the Disaster Relief Act of 1974.

"(2) Termination of effectiveness.—Paragraph (1) shall not be effective on and after the 90th day after the President transmits to the Committee on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate a report which includes an interpretation of the term 'local government' for purposes of the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended by this Act."

[Functions of President under section 103(e)(2) of Pub. L. 100–707 delegated to Administrator of Federal Emergency Management Agency by section 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 12673, Mar. 23, 1989, 54 F.R. 12571, set out as a note under section 5195 of this title.]

Definitions

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1203, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3438, provided that: "In this division [see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 5121 of this title]:

"(1) Administrator.—The term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

"(2) Agency.—The term 'Agency' means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

"(3) State.—The term 'State' has the meaning given that term in section 102 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5122)."

1 See References in Text note below.

§5123. References

Except as otherwise specifically provided, any reference in this chapter to "State and local", "State or local", "State, and local", "State, or local", or "State, local" (including plurals) with respect to governments or officials and any reference to a "local government" in sections 5172(d)(3) and 5184 of this title is deemed to refer also to Indian tribal governments and officials, as appropriate.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1110(d), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 49.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER II—DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION ASSISTANCE

§5131. Federal and State disaster preparedness programs

(a) Utilization of services of other agencies

The President is authorized to establish a program of disaster preparedness that utilizes services of all appropriate agencies and includes—

(1) preparation of disaster preparedness plans for mitigation, warning, emergency operations, rehabilitation, and recovery;

(2) training and exercises;

(3) postdisaster critiques and evaluations;

(4) annual review of programs;

(5) coordination of Federal, State, and local preparedness programs;

(6) application of science and technology;

(7) research.

(b) Technical assistance for the development of plans and programs

The President shall provide technical assistance to the States in developing comprehensive plans and practicable programs for preparation against disasters, including hazard reduction, avoidance, and mitigation; for assistance to individuals, businesses, and State and local governments following such disasters; and for recovery of damaged or destroyed public and private facilities.

(c) Grants to States for development of plans and programs

Upon application by a State, the President is authorized to make grants, not to exceed in the aggregate to such State $250,000, for the development of plans, programs, and capabilities for disaster preparedness and prevention. Such grants shall be applied for within one year from May 22, 1974. Any State desiring financial assistance under this section shall designate or create an agency to plan and administer such a disaster preparedness program, and shall, through such agency, submit a State plan to the President, which shall—

(1) set forth a comprehensive and detailed State program for preparation against and assistance following, emergencies and major disasters, including provisions for assistance to individuals, businesses, and local governments; and

(2) include provisions for appointment and training of appropriate staffs, formulation of necessary regulations and procedures and conduct of required exercises.

(d) Grants for improvement, maintenance, and updating of State plans

The President is authorized to make grants not to exceed 50 per centum of the cost of improving, maintaining and updating State disaster assistance plans, including evaluations of natural hazards and development of the programs and actions required to mitigate such hazards; except that no such grant shall exceed $50,000 per annum to any State.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title II, §201, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 145; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §104, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4690.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–707, §104(b)(1), struck out "(including the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency)" after "agencies".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–707, §104(a), (b)(2), inserted "including evaluations of natural hazards and development of the programs and actions required to mitigate such hazards;" after "plans," and substituted "$50,000" for "$25,000".

§5132. Disaster warnings

(a) Readiness of Federal agencies to issue warnings to State and local officials

The President shall insure that all appropriate Federal agencies are prepared to issue warnings of disasters to State and local officials.

(b) Technical assistance to State and local governments for effective warnings

The President shall direct appropriate Federal agencies to provide technical assistance to State and local governments to insure that timely and effective disaster warning is provided.

(c) Warnings to governmental authorities and public endangered by disaster

The President is authorized to utilize or to make available to Federal, State, and local agencies the facilities of the civil defense communications system established and maintained pursuant to section 5196(c) of this title or any other Federal communications system for the purpose of providing warning to governmental authorities and the civilian population in areas endangered by disasters.

(d) Agreements with commercial communications systems for use of facilities

The President is authorized to enter into agreements with the officers or agents of any private or commercial communications systems who volunteer the use of their systems on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis for the purpose of providing warning to governmental authorities and the civilian population endangered by disasters.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title II, §202, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 145; Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIV, §3412(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3111.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "section 5196(c) of this title" for "section 2281(c) of title 50, Appendix,".

§5133. Predisaster hazard mitigation

(a) Definition of small impoverished community

In this section, the term "small impoverished community" means a community of 3,000 or fewer individuals that is economically disadvantaged, as determined by the State in which the community is located and based on criteria established by the President.

(b) Establishment of program

The President may establish a program to provide technical and financial assistance to States and local governments to assist in the implementation of predisaster hazard mitigation measures that are cost-effective and are designed to reduce injuries, loss of life, and damage and destruction of property, including damage to critical services and facilities under the jurisdiction of the States or local governments.

(c) Approval by President

If the President determines that a State or local government has identified natural disaster hazards in areas under its jurisdiction and has demonstrated the ability to form effective public-private natural disaster hazard mitigation partnerships, the President, using amounts in the National Public Infrastructure Predisaster Mitigation Fund established under subsection (i) (referred to in this section as the "Fund"), may provide technical and financial assistance to the State or local government to be used in accordance with subsection (e).

(d) State recommendations

(1) In general

(A) Recommendations

The Governor of each State may recommend to the President not fewer than five local governments to receive assistance under this section.

(B) Deadline for submission

The recommendations under subparagraph (A) shall be submitted to the President not later than October 1, 2001, and each October 1st thereafter or such later date in the year as the President may establish.

(C) Criteria

In making recommendations under subparagraph (A), a Governor shall consider the criteria specified in subsection (g).

(2) Use

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in providing assistance to local governments under this section, the President shall select from local governments recommended by the Governors under this subsection.

(B) Extraordinary circumstances

In providing assistance to local governments under this section, the President may select a local government that has not been recommended by a Governor under this subsection if the President determines that extraordinary circumstances justify the selection and that making the selection will further the purpose of this section.

(3) Effect of failure to nominate

If a Governor of a State fails to submit recommendations under this subsection in a timely manner, the President may select, subject to the criteria specified in subsection (g), any local governments of the State to receive assistance under this section.

(e) Uses of technical and financial assistance

(1) In general

Technical and financial assistance provided under this section—

(A) shall be used by States and local governments principally to implement predisaster hazard mitigation measures that are cost-effective and are described in proposals approved by the President under this section; and

(B) may be used—

(i) to support effective public-private natural disaster hazard mitigation partnerships;

(ii) to improve the assessment of a community's vulnerability to natural hazards;

(iii) to establish hazard mitigation priorities, and an appropriate hazard mitigation plan, for a community; or

(iv) to establish and carry out enforcement activities and implement the latest published editions of relevant consensus-based codes, specifications, and standards that incorporate the latest hazard-resistant designs and establish minimum acceptable criteria for the design, construction, and maintenance of residential structures and facilities that may be eligible for assistance under this chapter for the purpose of protecting the health, safety, and general welfare of the buildings' users against disasters.

(2) Dissemination

A State or local government may use not more than 10 percent of the financial assistance received by the State or local government under this section for a fiscal year to fund activities to disseminate information regarding cost-effective mitigation technologies.

(f) Allocation of funds

(1) In general

The President shall award financial assistance under this section on a competitive basis for mitigation activities that are cost effective and in accordance with the criteria in subsection (g).

(2) Minimum and maximum amounts

In providing financial assistance under this section, the President shall ensure that the amount of financial assistance made available to a State (including amounts made available to local governments of the State) for a fiscal year—

(A) is not less than the lesser of—

(i) $575,000; or

(ii) the amount that is equal to 1 percent of the total funds appropriated to carry out this section for the fiscal year; and


(B) does not exceed the amount that is equal to 15 percent of the total funds appropriated to carry out this section for the fiscal year.

(3) Redistribution of unobligated amounts

The President may—

(A) withdraw amounts of financial assistance made available to a State (including amounts made available to local governments of a State) under this subsection that remain unobligated by the end of the third fiscal year after the fiscal year for which the amounts were allocated; and

(B) in the fiscal year following a fiscal year in which amounts were withdrawn under subparagraph (A), add the amounts to any other amounts available to be awarded on a competitive basis pursuant to paragraph (1).

(g) Criteria for assistance awards

In determining whether to provide technical and financial assistance to a State or local government under this section, the President shall provide financial assistance only in States that have received a major disaster declaration in the previous 7 years, or to any Indian tribal government located partially or entirely within the boundaries of such States, and take into account—

(1) the extent and nature of the hazards to be mitigated;

(2) the degree of commitment of the State or local government to reduce damages from future natural disasters;

(3) the degree of commitment by the State or local government to support ongoing non-Federal support for the hazard mitigation measures to be carried out using the technical and financial assistance;

(4) the extent to which the hazard mitigation measures to be carried out using the technical and financial assistance contribute to the mitigation goals and priorities established by the State;

(5) the extent to which the technical and financial assistance is consistent with other assistance provided under this chapter;

(6) the extent to which prioritized, cost-effective mitigation activities that produce meaningful and definable outcomes are clearly identified;

(7) if the State or local government has submitted a mitigation plan under section 5165 of this title, the extent to which the activities identified under paragraph (6) are consistent with the mitigation plan;

(8) the opportunity to fund activities that maximize net benefits to society;

(9) the extent to which assistance will fund mitigation activities in small impoverished communities;

(10) the extent to which the State, local, Indian tribal, or territorial government has facilitated the adoption and enforcement of the latest published editions of relevant consensus-based codes, specifications, and standards, including amendments made by State, local, Indian tribal, or territorial governments during the adoption process that incorporate the latest hazard-resistant designs and establish criteria for the design, construction, and maintenance of residential structures and facilities that may be eligible for assistance under this chapter for the purpose of protecting the health, safety, and general welfare of the buildings' users against disasters;

(11) the extent to which the assistance will fund activities that increase the level of resiliency; and

(12) such other criteria as the President establishes in consultation with State and local governments.

(h) Federal share

(1) In general

Financial assistance provided under this section may contribute up to 75 percent of the total cost of mitigation activities approved by the President.

(2) Small impoverished communities

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the President may contribute up to 90 percent of the total cost of a mitigation activity carried out in a small impoverished community.

(i) National public infrastructure predisaster mitigation assistance

(1) In general

The President may set aside from the Disaster Relief Fund, with respect to each major disaster, an amount equal to 6 percent of the estimated aggregate amount of the grants to be made pursuant to sections 5170b, 5172, 5173, 5174, 5177, 5183, and 5189f of this title for the major disaster in order to provide technical and financial assistance under this section and such set aside shall be deemed to be related to activities carried out pursuant to major disasters under this chapter.

(2) Estimated aggregate amount

Not later than 180 days after each major disaster declaration pursuant to this chapter, the estimated aggregate amount of grants for purposes of paragraph (1) shall be determined by the President and such estimated amount need not be reduced, increased, or changed due to variations in estimates.

(3) No reduction in amounts

The amount set aside pursuant to paragraph (1) shall not reduce the amounts otherwise made available for sections 5170b, 5170c, 5172, 5173, 5174, 5177, 5183, and 5189f of this title under this chapter.

(j) Multihazard advisory maps

(1) Definition of multihazard advisory map

In this subsection, the term "multihazard advisory map" means a map on which hazard data concerning each type of natural disaster is identified simultaneously for the purpose of showing areas of hazard overlap.

(2) Development of maps

In consultation with States, local governments, and appropriate Federal agencies, the President shall develop multihazard advisory maps for areas, in not fewer than five States, that are subject to commonly recurring natural hazards (including flooding, hurricanes and severe winds, and seismic events).

(3) Use of technology

In developing multihazard advisory maps under this subsection, the President shall use, to the maximum extent practicable, the most cost-effective and efficient technology available.

(4) Use of maps

(A) Advisory nature

The multihazard advisory maps shall be considered to be advisory and shall not require the development of any new policy by, or impose any new policy on, any government or private entity.

(B) Availability of maps

The multihazard advisory maps shall be made available to the appropriate State and local governments for the purposes of—

(i) informing the general public about the risks of natural hazards in the areas described in paragraph (2);

(ii) supporting the activities described in subsection (e); and

(iii) other public uses.

(k) Report on Federal and State administration

Not later than 18 months after October 30, 2000, the President, in consultation with State and local governments, shall submit to Congress a report evaluating efforts to implement this section and recommending a process for transferring greater authority and responsibility for administering the assistance program established under this section to capable States.

(l) Prohibition on earmarks

(1) Definition

In this subsection, the term "congressionally directed spending" means a statutory provision or report language included primarily at the request of a Senator or a Member, Delegate or Resident Commissioner of the House of Representatives providing, authorizing, or recommending a specific amount of discretionary budget authority, credit authority, or other spending authority for a contract, loan, loan guarantee, grant, loan authority, or other expenditure with or to an entity, or targeted to a specific State, locality, or Congressional district, other than through a statutory or administrative formula-driven or competitive award process.

(2) Prohibition

None of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available to carry out this section may be used for congressionally directed spending.

(3) Certification to Congress

The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall submit to Congress a certification regarding whether all financial assistance under this section was awarded in accordance with this section.

(m) Latest Published Editions

For purposes of subsections (e)(1)(B)(iv) and (g)(10), the term "latest published editions" means, with respect to relevant consensus-based codes, specifications, and standards, the 2 most recently published editions.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title I, §102(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1553; amended Pub. L. 108–199, div. H, §135, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 108–447, div. J, title I, §105, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3343; Pub. L. 109–139, §2, Dec. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2649; Pub. L. 110–329, div. D, title V, §553, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3690; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §543, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2176; Pub. L. 111–351, §§3(a), (b), 4, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3864; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1234(a), (d), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3461, 3463.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1234(d), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3463, provided that, effective 5 years after Oct. 5, 2018, this section is amended by striking subsection (m). See 2018 Amendment note below.

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (e)(1)(B)(iv), (g)(5), (10), and (i), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(1), inserted "Public Infrastructure" after "National".

Subsec. (e)(1)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(2), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(3)(A), inserted "for mitigation activities that are cost effective" after "competitive basis".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(3)(B), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(4)(A), in introductory provisions, inserted "provide financial assistance only in States that have received a major disaster declaration in the previous 7 years, or to any Indian tribal government located partially or entirely within the boundaries of such States, and" after "the President shall".

Subsec. (g)(10) to (12). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(4)(B)–(D), added pars. (10) and (11) and redesignated former par. (10) as (12).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(5), added subsec. (i) and struck out former subsec. (i) which related to National Predisaster Mitigation Fund.

Subsecs. (j) to (l). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(6), (7), redesignated subsecs. (k), (l), and (n) as (j), (k), and (l), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (j) which related to limitation on total amount of financial assistance.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(d), struck out subsec. (m) which defined the term "latest published editions" for subsecs. (e)(1)(B)(iv) and (g)(10).

Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(6), (8), added subsec. (m) and struck out former subsec. (m) which related to authorization of appropriations.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 115–254, §1234(a)(7), redesignated subsec. (n) as (l).

2011—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–351, §3(a), amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (f) related to a different allocation of funds.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 111–351, §3(b), amended subsec. (m) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (m) related to the termination of this section on Sept. 30, 2010.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 111–351, §4, added subsec. (n).

2009—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 111–83 substituted "September 30, 2010" for "September 30, 2009".

2008—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 110–329 substituted "September 30, 2009" for "September 30, 2008".

2005—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 109–139 substituted "September 30, 2008" for "December 31, 2005".

2004—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 108–447 substituted "2005" for "2004".

Pub. L. 108–199 substituted "2004" for "2003".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1234(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3462, provided that: "The amendments made to section 203 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5133) by paragraphs (3) and (5) of subsection (a) shall apply to funds appropriated on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018]."

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1234(d), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3463, provided that the amendment made by section 1234(d) is effective on the date that is 5 years after Oct. 5, 2018.

Findings

Pub. L. 111–351, §2, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3863, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) The predisaster hazard mitigation program has been successful and cost-effective. Funding from the predisaster hazard mitigation program has successfully reduced loss of life, personal injuries, damage to and destruction of property, and disruption of communities from disasters.

"(2) The predisaster hazard mitigation program has saved Federal taxpayers from spending significant sums on disaster recovery and relief that would have been otherwise incurred had communities not successfully applied mitigation techniques.

"(3) A 2007 Congressional Budget Office report found that the predisaster hazard mitigation program reduced losses by roughly $3 (measured in 2007 dollars) for each dollar invested in mitigation efforts funded under the predisaster hazard mitigation program. Moreover, the Congressional Budget Office found that projects funded under the predisaster hazard mitigation program could lower the need for post-disaster assistance from the Federal Government so that the predisaster hazard mitigation investment by the Federal Government would actually save taxpayer funds.

"(4) A 2005 report by the Multihazard Mitigation Council showed substantial benefits and cost savings from the hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency generally. Looking at a range of hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the study found that, on average, $1 invested by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in hazard mitigation provided the Nation with roughly $4 in benefits. Moreover, the report projected that the mitigation grants awarded between 1993 and 2003 would save more than 220 lives and prevent nearly 4,700 injuries over approximately 50 years.

"(5) Given the substantial savings generated from the predisaster hazard mitigation program in the years following the provision of assistance under the program, increasing funds appropriated for the program would be a wise investment."

Findings and Purpose

Pub. L. 106–390, title I, §101, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1552, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—

"(1) natural disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding, and wildfires, pose great danger to human life and to property throughout the United States;

"(2) greater emphasis needs to be placed on—

"(A) identifying and assessing the risks to States and local governments (including Indian tribes) from natural disasters;

"(B) implementing adequate measures to reduce losses from natural disasters; and

"(C) ensuring that the critical services and facilities of communities will continue to function after a natural disaster;

"(3) expenditures for postdisaster assistance are increasing without commensurate reductions in the likelihood of future losses from natural disasters;

"(4) in the expenditure of Federal funds under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), high priority should be given to mitigation of hazards at the local level; and

"(5) with a unified effort of economic incentives, awareness and education, technical assistance, and demonstrated Federal support, States and local governments (including Indian tribes) will be able to—

"(A) form effective community-based partnerships for hazard mitigation purposes;

"(B) implement effective hazard mitigation measures that reduce the potential damage from natural disasters;

"(C) ensure continued functionality of critical services;

"(D) leverage additional non-Federal resources in meeting natural disaster resistance goals; and

"(E) make commitments to long-term hazard mitigation efforts to be applied to new and existing structures.

"(b) Purpose.—The purpose of this title [enacting this section and sections 5134, 5165 and 5165a of this title, amending section 5170c of this title, and repealing section 5176 of this title] is to establish a national disaster hazard mitigation program—

"(1) to reduce the loss of life and property, human suffering, economic disruption, and disaster assistance costs resulting from natural disasters; and

"(2) to provide a source of predisaster hazard mitigation funding that will assist States and local governments (including Indian tribes) in implementing effective hazard mitigation measures that are designed to ensure the continued functionality of critical services and facilities after a natural disaster."

§5134. Interagency task force

(a) In general

The President shall establish a Federal interagency task force for the purpose of coordinating the implementation of predisaster hazard mitigation programs administered by the Federal Government.

(b) Chairperson

The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall serve as the chairperson of the task force.

(c) Membership

The membership of the task force shall include representatives of—

(1) relevant Federal agencies;

(2) State and local government organizations (including Indian tribes); and

(3) the American Red Cross.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title I, §103, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1557; amended Pub. L. 111–351, §3(c)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3864.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–351 substituted "Administrator" for "Director".

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

SUBCHAPTER III—MAJOR DISASTER AND EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION

§5141. Waiver of administrative conditions

Any Federal agency charged with the administration of a Federal assistance program may, if so requested by the applicant State or local authorities, modify or waive, for a major disaster, such administrative conditions for assistance as would otherwise prevent the giving of assistance under such programs if the inability to meet such conditions is a result of the major disaster.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §301, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(a)(2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5141, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §301, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 146, set out procedure for determination of existence of emergency or major disaster, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §105(a)(2).

§5142. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(a)(2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691

Section, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §302, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 146, related to Federal assistance and its coordination with State and local disaster assistance.

§5143. Coordinating officers

(a) Appointment of Federal coordinating officer

Immediately upon his declaration of a major disaster or emergency, the President shall appoint a Federal coordinating officer to operate in the affected area.

(b) Functions of Federal coordinating officer

In order to effectuate the purposes of this chapter, the Federal coordinating officer, within the affected area, shall—

(1) make an initial appraisal of the types of relief most urgently needed;

(2) establish such field offices as he deems necessary and as are authorized by the President;

(3) coordinate the administration of relief, including activities of the State and local governments, the American National Red Cross, the Salvation Army, the Mennonite Disaster Service, and other relief or disaster assistance organizations, which agree to operate under his advice or direction, except that nothing contained in this chapter shall limit or in any way affect the responsibilities of the American National Red Cross under chapter 3001 of title 36; and

(4) take such other action, consistent with authority delegated to him by the President, and consistent with the provisions of this chapter, as he may deem necessary to assist local citizens and public officials in promptly obtaining assistance to which they are entitled.

(c) State coordinating officer

When the President determines assistance under this chapter is necessary, he shall request that the Governor of the affected State designate a State coordinating officer for the purpose of coordinating State and local disaster assistance efforts with those of the Federal Government.

(d) Single Federal coordinating officer for multistate area

Where the area affected by a major disaster or emergency includes parts of more than 1 State, the President, at the discretion of the President, may appoint a single Federal coordinating officer for the entire affected area, and may appoint such deputy Federal coordinating officers to assist the Federal coordinating officer as the President determines appropriate.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §302, formerly §303, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 147; renumbered §302 and amended Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §687, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1448.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (b)(3), "chapter 3001 of title 36" substituted for "the Act of January 5, 1905, as amended (33 Stat. 599)" on authority of Pub. L. 105–225, §5(b), Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1499, the first section of which enacted Title 36, Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 302 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5142 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–295 added subsec. (d).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–707 inserted "or emergency" after "major disaster".

§5144. Emergency support and response teams

(a) Emergency support teams

The President shall form emergency support teams of Federal personnel to be deployed in an area affected by a major disaster or emergency. Such emergency support teams shall assist the Federal coordinating officer in carrying out his responsibilities pursuant to this chapter. Upon request of the President, the head of any Federal agency is directed to detail to temporary duty with the emergency support teams on either a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, as is determined necessary by the President, such personnel within the administrative jurisdiction of the head of the Federal agency as the President may need or believe to be useful for carrying out the functions of the emergency support teams, each such detail to be without loss of seniority, pay, or other employee status.

(b) Emergency response teams

(1) Establishment

In carrying out subsection (a), the President, acting through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, shall establish—

(A) at a minimum 3 national response teams; and

(B) sufficient regional response teams, including Regional Office strike teams under section 317 of title 6; and

(C) other response teams as may be necessary to meet the incident management responsibilities of the Federal Government.

(2) Target capability level

The Administrator shall ensure that specific target capability levels, as defined pursuant to the guidelines established under section 746(a) of title 6, are established for Federal emergency response teams.

(3) Personnel

The President, acting through the Administrator, shall ensure that the Federal emergency response teams consist of adequate numbers of properly planned, organized, equipped, trained, and exercised personnel to achieve the established target capability levels. Each emergency response team shall work in coordination with State and local officials and onsite personnel associated with a particular incident.

(4) Readiness reporting

The Administrator shall evaluate team readiness on a regular basis and report team readiness levels in the report required under section 752(a) of title 6.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §303, formerly §304, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 148; renumbered §303, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(c), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691; amended Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §633, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1421; Pub. L. 111–351, §3(c)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3864.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 303 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 302 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5143 of this title.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–351 substituted "Administrator" for "Director" wherever appearing.

2006Pub. L. 109–295 substituted "Emergency support and response teams" for "Emergency support teams" in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted subsec. heading, and added subsec. (b).

§§5145, 5146. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(d), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691

Section 5145, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §305, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 148, related to authority of President to provide assistance in an emergency.

Section 5146, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §306, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 148, related to cooperation of Federal agencies in rendering disaster assistance.

§5147. Reimbursement of Federal agencies

Federal agencies may be reimbursed for expenditures under this chapter from funds appropriated for the purposes of this chapter. Any funds received by Federal agencies as reimbursement for services or supplies furnished under the authority of this chapter shall be deposited to the credit of the appropriation or appropriations currently available for such services or supplies.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §304, formerly §307, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 149; renumbered §304, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(d), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 304 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 303 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5144 of this title.

§5148. Nonliability of Federal Government

The Federal Government shall not be liable for any claim based upon the exercise or performance of or the failure to exercise or perform a discretionary function or duty on the part of a Federal agency or an employee of the Federal Government in carrying out the provisions of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §305, formerly §308, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 149; renumbered §305, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(d), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 305 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5145 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5149. Performance of services

(a) Utilization of services or facilities of State and local governments

In carrying out the purposes of this chapter, any Federal agency is authorized to accept and utilize the services or facilities of any State or local government, or of any agency, office, or employee thereof, with the consent of such government.

(b) Appointment of temporary personnel, experts, and consultants; acquisition, rental, or hire of equipment, services, materials and supplies

In performing any services under this chapter, any Federal agency is authorized—

(1) to appoint and fix the compensation of such temporary personnel as may be necessary, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in competitive service;

(2) to employ experts and consultants in accordance with the provisions of section 3109 of such title, without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates; and

(3) to incur obligations on behalf of the United States by contract or otherwise for the acquisition, rental, or hire of equipment, services, materials, and supplies for shipping, drayage, travel, and communications, and for the supervision and administration of such activities. Such obligations, including obligations arising out of the temporary employment of additional personnel, may be incurred by an agency in such amount as may be made available to it by the President.

(c) Appointment of temporary personnel in the Federal Emergency Management Agency

The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency is authorized to appoint temporary personnel, after serving continuously for 3 years, to positions in the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the same manner that competitive service employees with competitive status are considered for transfer, reassignment, or promotion to such positions. An individual appointed under this subsection shall become a career-conditional employee, unless the employee has already completed the service requirements for career tenure.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §306, formerly §309, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 149; renumbered §306, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(d), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691; amended Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1222, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3454.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 306 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5146 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–254 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

§5150. Use of local firms and individuals

(a) Contracts or agreements with private entities

(1) In general

In the expenditure of Federal funds for debris clearance, distribution of supplies, reconstruction, and other major disaster or emergency assistance activities which may be carried out by contract or agreement with private organizations, firms, or individuals, preference shall be given, to the extent feasible and practicable, to those organizations, firms, and individuals residing or doing business primarily in the area affected by such major disaster or emergency.

(2) Construction

This subsection shall not be considered to restrict the use of Department of Defense resources under this chapter in the provision of assistance in a major disaster.

(3) Specific geographic area

In carrying out this section, a contract or agreement may be set aside for award based on a specific geographic area.

(b) Implementation

(1) Contracts not to entities in area

Any expenditure of Federal funds for debris clearance, distribution of supplies, reconstruction, and other major disaster or emergency assistance activities which may be carried out by contract or agreement with private organizations, firms, or individuals, not awarded to an organization, firm, or individual residing or doing business primarily in the area affected by such major disaster shall be justified in writing in the contract file.

(2) Transition

Following the declaration of an emergency or major disaster, an agency performing response, relief, and reconstruction activities shall transition work performed under contracts in effect on the date on which the President declares the emergency or major disaster to organizations, firms, and individuals residing or doing business primarily in any area affected by the major disaster or emergency, unless the head of such agency determines that it is not feasible or practicable to do so.

(3) Formulation of requirements

The head of a Federal agency, as feasible and practicable, shall formulate appropriate requirements to facilitate compliance with this section.

(c) Prior contracts

Nothing in this section shall be construed to require any Federal agency to breach or renegotiate any contract in effect before the occurrence of a major disaster or emergency.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §307, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §694, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1459; amended Pub. L. 109–347, title VI, §611, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1943.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5150, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §307, formerly §310, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 150; renumbered §307 and amended Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(e), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691; Pub. L. 109–218, §2, Apr. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 333, provided for the use of local firms and individuals for major disaster or emergency assistance activities, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §694, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1459.

A prior section 307 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 304 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5147 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–347 added par. (3).

§5151. Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance

(a) Regulations for equitable and impartial relief operations

The President shall issue, and may alter and amend, such regulations as may be necessary for the guidance of personnel carrying out Federal assistance functions at the site of a major disaster or emergency. Such regulations shall include provisions for insuring that the distribution of supplies, the processing of applications, and other relief and assistance activities shall be accomplished in an equitable and impartial manner, without discrimination on the grounds of race, color, religion, nationality, sex, age, disability, English proficiency, or economic status.

(b) Compliance with regulations as prerequisite to participation by other bodies in relief operations

As a condition of participation in the distribution of assistance or supplies under this chapter or of receiving assistance under this chapter, governmental bodies and other organizations shall be required to comply with regulations relating to nondiscrimination promulgated by the President, and such other regulations applicable to activities within an area affected by a major disaster or emergency as he deems necessary for the effective coordination of relief efforts.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §308, formerly §311, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 150; renumbered §308 and amended Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(f), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §689a, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1449.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 308 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 305 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5148 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–295 inserted "disability, English proficiency," after "age,".

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–707 substituted "this chapter" for "section 5172 or 5174 of this title" after "assistance under".

§5152. Use and coordination of relief organizations

(a) In providing relief and assistance under this chapter, the President may utilize, with their consent, the personnel and facilities of the American National Red Cross, the Salvation Army, the Mennonite Disaster Service, long-term recovery groups, domestic hunger relief, and other relief, or disaster assistance organizations, in the distribution of medicine, food, supplies, or other items, and in the restoration, rehabilitation, or reconstruction of community services housing and essential facilities, whenever the President finds that such utilization is necessary.

(b) The President is authorized to enter into agreements with the American National Red Cross, the Salvation Army, the Mennonite Disaster Service, long-term recovery groups, domestic hunger relief, and other relief, or disaster assistance organizations under which the disaster relief activities of such organizations may be coordinated by the Federal coordinating officer whenever such organizations are engaged in providing relief during and after a major disaster or emergency. Any such agreement shall include provisions assuring that use of Federal facilities, supplies, and services will be in compliance with regulations prohibiting duplication of benefits and guaranteeing nondiscrimination promulgated by the President under this chapter, and such other regulation as the President may require.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §309, formerly §312, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 150; renumbered §309, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(f), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691; amended Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1227, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3458.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 309 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 306 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5149 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 115–254 substituted "long-term recovery groups, domestic hunger relief, and other relief, or" for "and other relief or".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

§5153. Priority to certain applications for public facility and public housing assistance

(a) Priority

In the processing of applications for assistance, priority and immediate consideration shall be given by the head of the appropriate Federal agency, during such period as the President shall prescribe, to applications from public bodies situated in areas affected by major disasters under the following Acts:

(1) The United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] for the provision of low-income housing.

(2) Sections 3502 to 3505 of title 40 for assistance in public works planning.

(3) The Community Development Block Grant Program under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.].

(4) Section 1926 of title 7.

(5) The Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 [42 U.S.C. 3121 et seq.].

(6) Subtitle IV of title 40.

(7) The Federal Water Pollution Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.].

(b) Obligation of certain discretionary funds

In the obligation of discretionary funds or funds which are not allocated among the States or political subdivisions of a State, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Secretary of Commerce shall give priority to applications for projects for major disaster areas.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §310, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(g), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4691.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§1437 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), is Pub. L. 93–383, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 633, as amended. Title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 is classified principally to chapter 69 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

The Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a)(5), is Pub. L. 89–136, Aug. 26, 1965, 79 Stat. 552, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 38 (§3121 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3121 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(7), is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–500, §2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§1251 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1251 of Title 33 and Tables.

Codification

"Sections 3502 to 3505 of title 40" substituted for "Section 702 of the Housing Act of 1954" in subsec. (a)(2) and "Subtitle IV of title 40" substituted for "The Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965" in subsec. (a)(6) on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5153, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §313, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 150, related to same subject matter as present section but with references to different acts and provisions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §105(g).

A prior section 310 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 307 by Pub. L. 100–707 and was classified to section 5150 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–295.

§5154. Insurance

(a) Applicants for replacement of damaged facilities

(1) Compliance with certain regulations

An applicant for assistance under section 5172 of this title (relating to repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities), section 5189 of this title (relating to simplified procedure) or section 3149(c)(2) of this title shall comply with regulations prescribed by the President to assure that, with respect to any property to be replaced, restored, repaired, or constructed with such assistance, such types and extent of insurance will be obtained and maintained as may be reasonably available, adequate, and necessary, to protect against future loss to such property.

(2) Determination

In making a determination with respect to availability, adequacy, and necessity under paragraph (1), the President shall not require greater types and extent of insurance than are certified to him as reasonable by the appropriate State insurance commissioner responsible for regulation of such insurance.

(b) Maintenance of insurance

No applicant for assistance under section 5172 of this title (relating to repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities), section 5189 of this title (relating to simplified procedure), or section 3149(c)(2) of this title may receive such assistance for any property or part thereof for which the applicant has previously received assistance under this chapter unless all insurance required pursuant to this section has been obtained and maintained with respect to such property. The requirements of this subsection may not be waived under section 5141 of this title.

(c) State acting as self-insurer

A State may elect to act as a self-insurer with respect to any or all of the facilities owned by the State. Such an election, if declared in writing at the time of acceptance of assistance under section 5172 or 5189 of this title or section 3149(c)(2) of this title or subsequently and accompanied by a plan for self-insurance which is satisfactory to the President, shall be deemed compliance with subsection (a). No such self-insurer may receive assistance under section 5172 or 5189 of this title for any property or part thereof for which it has previously received assistance under this chapter, to the extent that insurance for such property or part thereof would have been reasonably available.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §311, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(h), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4692; amended Pub. L. 103–325, title V, §521, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2257; Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §201, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1559.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5154, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §314, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 151, consisted of similar provisions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §105(h).

A prior section 311 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 308 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5151 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b), (c). Pub. L. 106–390 substituted "section 3149(c)(2) of this title" for "section 3233 of this title".

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–325 inserted at end "The requirements of this subsection may not be waived under section 5141 of this title."

§5154a. Prohibited flood disaster assistance

(a) General prohibition

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no Federal disaster relief assistance made available in a flood disaster area may be used to make a payment (including any loan assistance payment) to a person for repair, replacement, or restoration for damage to any personal, residential, or commercial property if that person at any time has received flood disaster assistance that was conditional on the person first having obtained flood insurance under applicable Federal law and subsequently having failed to obtain and maintain flood insurance as required under applicable Federal law on such property.

(b) Transfer of property

(1) Duty to notify

In the event of the transfer of any property described in paragraph (3), the transferor shall, not later than the date on which such transfer occurs, notify the transferee in writing of the requirements to—

(A) obtain flood insurance in accordance with applicable Federal law with respect to such property, if the property is not so insured as of the date on which the property is transferred; and

(B) maintain flood insurance in accordance with applicable Federal law with respect to such property.


Such written notification shall be contained in documents evidencing the transfer of ownership of the property.

(2) Failure to notify

If a transferor described in paragraph (1) fails to make a notification in accordance with such paragraph and, subsequent to the transfer of the property—

(A) the transferee fails to obtain or maintain flood insurance in accordance with applicable Federal law with respect to the property,

(B) the property is damaged by a flood disaster, and

(C) Federal disaster relief assistance is provided for the repair, replacement, or restoration of the property as a result of such damage,


the transferor shall be required to reimburse the Federal Government in an amount equal to the amount of the Federal disaster relief assistance provided with respect to the property.

(3) Property described

For purposes of paragraph (1), a property is described in this paragraph if it is personal, commercial, or residential property for which Federal disaster relief assistance made available in a flood disaster area has been provided, prior to the date on which the property is transferred, for repair, replacement, or restoration of the property, if such assistance was conditioned upon obtaining flood insurance in accordance with applicable Federal law with respect to such property.

(c) Omitted

(d) "Flood disaster area" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "flood disaster area" means an area with respect to which—

(1) the Secretary of Agriculture finds, or has found, to have been substantially affected by a natural disaster in the United States pursuant to section 1961(a) of title 7; or

(2) the President declares, or has declared, the existence of a major disaster or emergency pursuant to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), as a result of flood conditions existing in or affecting that area.

(e) Effective date

This section and the amendments made by this section shall apply to disasters declared after September 23, 1994.

(Pub. L. 103–325, title V, §582, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2286.)

References in Text

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The amendments made by this section, referred to in subsec. (e), means the amendments made by section 582(c) of Pub. L. 103–325, which amended section 4012a of this title. See Codification note below.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 582 of Pub. L. 103–325. Subsec. (c) of section 582 of Pub. L. 103–325 amended section 4012a of this title.

Section was enacted as part of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994 and as part of the Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

§5155. Duplication of benefits

(a) General prohibition

The President, in consultation with the head of each Federal agency administering any program providing financial assistance to persons, business concerns, or other entities suffering losses as a result of a major disaster or emergency, shall assure that no such person, business concern, or other entity will receive such assistance with respect to any part of such loss as to which he has received financial assistance under any other program or from insurance or any other source.

(b) Special rules

(1) Limitation

This section shall not prohibit the provision of Federal assistance to a person who is or may be entitled to receive benefits for the same purposes from another source if such person has not received such other benefits by the time of application for Federal assistance and if such person agrees to repay all duplicative assistance to the agency providing the Federal assistance.

(2) Procedures

The President shall establish such procedures as the President considers necessary to ensure uniformity in preventing duplication of benefits.

(3) Effect of partial benefits

Receipt of partial benefits for a major disaster or emergency shall not preclude provision of additional Federal assistance for any part of a loss or need for which benefits have not been provided.

(4) Waiver of general prohibition

(A) In general

The President may waive the general prohibition provided in subsection (a) upon request of a Governor on behalf of the State or on behalf of a person, business concern, or any other entity suffering losses as a result of a major disaster or emergency, if the President finds such waiver is in the public interest and will not result in waste, fraud, or abuse. In making this decision, the President may consider the following:

(i) The recommendations of the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency made in consultation with the Federal agency or agencies administering the duplicative program.

(ii) If a waiver is granted, the assistance to be funded is cost effective.

(iii) Equity and good conscience.

(iv) Other matters of public policy considered appropriate by the President.

(B) Grant or denial of waiver

A request under subparagraph (A) shall be granted or denied not later than 45 days after submission of such request.

(C) Prohibition on determination that loan is a duplication

Notwithstanding subsection (c), in carrying out subparagraph (A), the President may not determine that a loan is a duplication of assistance, provided that all Federal assistance is used toward a loss suffered as a result of the major disaster or emergency.

(c) Recovery of duplicative benefits

A person receiving Federal assistance for a major disaster or emergency shall be liable to the United States to the extent that such assistance duplicates benefits available to the person for the same purpose from another source. The agency which provided the duplicative assistance shall collect such duplicative assistance from the recipient in accordance with chapter 37 of title 31, relating to debt collection, when the head of such agency considers it to be in the best interest of the Federal Government.

(d) Assistance not income

Federal major disaster and emergency assistance provided to individuals and families under this chapter, and comparable disaster assistance provided by States, local governments, and disaster assistance organizations, shall not be considered as income or a resource when determining eligibility for or benefit levels under federally funded income assistance or resource-tested benefit programs.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §312, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(i), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4693; amended Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1210(a)(1), (4), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3442, 3443.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1210(a)(4), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3443, provided that, effective 5 years after Oct. 5, 2018, this section is amended by striking subsection (b)(4). See 2018 Amendment note below.

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5155, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §315, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 152, consisted of similar provisions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §105(i).

A prior section 312 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 309 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5152 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 115–254, §1210(a)(4), struck out par. (4) which provided for a presidential waiver of the general prohibition in subsec. (a).

Pub. L. 115–254, §1210(a)(1), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1210(a)(3), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3443, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to any major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 401 or 501, respectively, of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170, 5191) between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2021."

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1210(a)(4), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3443, provided that the amendment made by section 1210(a)(4) is effective on the date that is 5 years after Oct. 5, 2018.

Limitation

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1210(a)(2), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3443, provided that: "This subsection [amending this section], including the amendment made by paragraph (1), shall not be construed to apply to section 406 or 408 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5172, 5174)."

§5156. Standards and reviews

The President shall establish comprehensive standards which shall be used to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of Federal major disaster and emergency assistance programs administered under this chapter. The President shall conduct annual reviews of the activities of Federal agencies and State and local governments in major disaster and emergency preparedness and in providing major disaster and emergency assistance in order to assure maximum coordination and effectiveness of such programs and consistency in policies for reimbursement of States under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §313, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(j), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4694.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5156, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §316, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 152, related to reviews and reports by President, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §105(j).

A prior section 313 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5153 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5157. Penalties

(a) Misuse of funds

Any person who knowingly misapplies the proceeds of a loan or other cash benefit obtained under this chapter shall be fined an amount equal to one and one-half times the misapplied amount of the proceeds or cash benefit.

(b) Civil enforcement

Whenever it appears that any person has violated or is about to violate any provision of this chapter, including any civil penalty imposed under this chapter, the Attorney General may bring a civil action for such relief as may be appropriate. Such action may be brought in an appropriate United States district court.

(c) Referral to Attorney General

The President shall expeditiously refer to the Attorney General for appropriate action any evidence developed in the performance of functions under this chapter that may warrant consideration for criminal prosecution.

(d) Civil penalty

Any individual who knowingly violates any order or regulation issued under this chapter shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §314, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(k), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4694.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5157, Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §317, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 152, related to criminal and civil penalties, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §105(k).

A prior section 314 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5154 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5158. Availability of materials

The President is authorized, at the request of the Governor of an affected State, to provide for a survey of construction materials needed in the area affected by a major disaster on an emergency basis for housing repairs, replacement housing, public facilities repairs and replacement, farming operations, and business enterprises and to take appropriate action to assure the availability and fair distribution of needed materials, including, where possible, the allocation of such materials for a period of not more than one hundred and eighty days after such major disaster. Any allocation program shall be implemented by the President to the extent possible, by working with and through those companies which traditionally supply construction materials in the affected area. For the purposes of this section "construction materials" shall include building materials and materials required for repairing housing, replacement housing, public facilities repairs and replacement, and for normal farm and business operations.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §315, formerly §318, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 152; renumbered §315, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(l), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4694.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 315 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5155 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5159. Protection of environment

An action which is taken or assistance which is provided pursuant to section 5170a, 5170b, 5172, 5173, or 5192 of this title, including such assistance provided pursuant to the procedures provided for in section 5189 of this title, which has the effect of restoring a facility substantially to its condition prior to the disaster or emergency, shall not be deemed a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 852) [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.]. Nothing in this section shall alter or affect the applicability of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 to other Federal actions taken under this chapter or under any other provisions of law.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §316, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(m)(1), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4694.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 316 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5156 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5160. Recovery of assistance

(a) Party liable

Any person who intentionally causes a condition for which Federal assistance is provided under this chapter or under any other Federal law as a result of a declaration of a major disaster or emergency under this chapter shall be liable to the United States for the reasonable costs incurred by the United States in responding to such disaster or emergency to the extent that such costs are attributable to the intentional act or omission of such person which caused such condition. Such action for reasonable costs shall be brought in an appropriate United States district court.

(b) Rendering of care

A person shall not be liable under this section for costs incurred by the United States as a result of actions taken or omitted by such person in the course of rendering care or assistance in response to a major disaster or emergency.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §317, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(m)(1), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4695.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 317 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5157 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5161. Audits and investigations

(a) In general

Subject to the provisions of chapter 75 of title 31, relating to requirements for single audits, the President shall conduct audits and investigations as necessary to assure compliance with this chapter, and in connection therewith may question such persons as may be necessary to carry out such audits and investigations.

(b) Access to records

For purposes of audits and investigations under this section, the President and Comptroller General may inspect any books, documents, papers, and records of any person relating to any activity undertaken or funded under this chapter.

(c) State and local audits

The President may require audits by State and local governments in connection with assistance under this chapter when necessary to assure compliance with this chapter or related regulations.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §318, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(m)(1), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4695.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 318 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 315 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5158 of this title.

§5161a. Audit of contracts

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall not reimburse a State or local government, an Indian tribal government (as defined in section 5122 of this title), or the owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility (as defined in section 5122 of this title) for any activities made pursuant to a contract entered into after August 1, 2017, that prohibits the Administrator or the Comptroller General of the United States from auditing or otherwise reviewing all aspects relating to the contract.

(Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1225, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3458.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018 and as part of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254, which enacted this section, applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President under Pub. L. 93–288 on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202(b) of Pub. L. 115–254, set out in an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note under section 5121 of this title.

Definitions

For definitions of "Administrator" and "State" as used in this section, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.

§5162. Advance of non-Federal share

(a) In general

The President may lend or advance to an eligible applicant or a State the portion of assistance for which the State is responsible under the cost-sharing provisions of this chapter in any case in which—

(1) the State is unable to assume its financial responsibility under such cost-sharing provisions—

(A) with respect to concurrent, multiple major disasters in a jurisdiction, or

(B) after incurring extraordinary costs as a result of a particular disaster; and


(2) the damages caused by such disasters or disaster are so overwhelming and severe that it is not possible for the applicant or the State to assume immediately their financial responsibility under this chapter.

(b) Terms of loans and advances

(1) In general

Any loan or advance under this section shall be repaid to the United States.

(2) Interest

Loans and advances under this section shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the current market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States with remaining periods to maturity comparable to the reimbursement period of the loan or advance.

(c) Regulations

The President shall issue regulations describing the terms and conditions under which any loan or advance authorized by this section may be made.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §319, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(m)(1), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4695.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

§5163. Limitation on use of sliding scales

No geographic area shall be precluded from receiving assistance under this chapter solely by virtue of an arithmetic formula or sliding scale based on income or population.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §320, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(m)(1), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4696.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

§5164. Rules and regulations

The President may prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper to carry out the provisions of this chapter, and may exercise, either directly or through such Federal agency as the President may designate, any power or authority conferred to the President by this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §321, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(m)(1), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4696.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

§5165. Mitigation planning

(a) Requirement of mitigation plan

As a condition of receipt of an increased Federal share for hazard mitigation measures under subsection (e), a State, local, or tribal government shall develop and submit for approval to the President a mitigation plan that outlines processes for identifying the natural hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities of the area under the jurisdiction of the government.

(b) Local and tribal plans

Each mitigation plan developed by a local or tribal government shall—

(1) describe actions to mitigate hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities identified under the plan; and

(2) establish a strategy to implement those actions.

(c) State plans

The State process of development of a mitigation plan under this section shall—

(1) identify the natural hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities of areas in the State;

(2) support development of local mitigation plans;

(3) provide for technical assistance to local and tribal governments for mitigation planning; and

(4) identify and prioritize mitigation actions that the State will support, as resources become available.

(d) Funding

(1) In general

Federal contributions under section 5170c of this title may be used to fund the development and updating of mitigation plans under this section.

(2) Maximum Federal contribution

With respect to any mitigation plan, a State, local, or tribal government may use an amount of Federal contributions under section 5170c of this title not to exceed 7 percent of the amount of such contributions available to the government as of a date determined by the government.

(e) Increased Federal share for hazard mitigation measures

(1) In general

If, at the time of the declaration of a major disaster or event under section 5187 of this title, a State has in effect an approved mitigation plan under this section, the President may increase to 20 percent, with respect to the major disaster or event under section 5187 of this title, the maximum percentage specified in the last sentence of section 5170c(a) of this title.

(2) Factors for consideration

In determining whether to increase the maximum percentage under paragraph (1), the President shall consider whether the State has established—

(A) eligibility criteria for property acquisition and other types of mitigation measures;

(B) requirements for cost effectiveness that are related to the eligibility criteria;

(C) a system of priorities that is related to the eligibility criteria; and

(D) a process by which an assessment of the effectiveness of a mitigation action may be carried out after the mitigation action is complete.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §322, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title I, §104(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1558; amended Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1204(b)(2), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3439.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–254 inserted "or event under section 5187 of this title" after "major disaster" in two places.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

§5165a. Minimum standards for public and private structures

(a) In general

As a condition of receipt of a disaster loan or grant under this chapter—

(1) the recipient shall carry out any repair or construction to be financed with the loan or grant in accordance with applicable standards of safety, decency, and sanitation and in conformity with applicable codes, specifications, and standards; and

(2) the President may require safe land use and construction practices, after adequate consultation with appropriate State and local government officials.

(b) Evidence of compliance

A recipient of a disaster loan or grant under this chapter shall provide such evidence of compliance with this section as the President may require by regulation.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §323, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title I, §104(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1559.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

§5165b. Management costs

(a) Definition of management cost

In this section, the term "management cost" includes any indirect cost, any direct administrative cost, and any other administrative expense associated with a specific project under a major disaster, emergency, or disaster preparedness or mitigation activity or measure.

(b) Establishment of management cost rates

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (including any administrative rule or guidance), the President shall by regulation implement management cost rates, for grantees and subgrantees, that shall be used to determine contributions under this chapter for management costs.

(2) Specific management costs

The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall provide the following percentage rates, in addition to the eligible project costs, to cover direct and indirect costs of administering the following programs:

(A) Hazard mitigation

A grantee under section 5170c of this title may be reimbursed not more than 15 percent of the total amount of the grant award under such section of which not more than 10 percent may be used by the grantee and 5 percent by the subgrantee for such costs.

(B) Public assistance

A grantee under sections 5170b, 5172, 5173, and 5192 of this title may be reimbursed not more than 12 percent of the total award amount under such sections, of which not more than 7 percent may be used by the grantee and 5 percent by the subgrantee for such costs.

(c) Review

The President shall review the management cost rates established under subsection (b) not later than 3 years after the date of establishment of the rates and periodically thereafter.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §324, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §202(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1560; amended Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1215, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3449.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–254, §1215(1), substituted "any direct administrative cost, and any other administrative expense associated with" for "any administrative expense, and any other expense not directly chargeable to".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–254, §1215(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, substituted "implement" for "establish", and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §202(b), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1560, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), subsections (a) and (b) of section 324 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5165b(a), (b)] (as added by subsection (a)) shall apply to major disasters declared under that Act [42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.] on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000].

"(2) Interim authority.—Until the date on which the President establishes the management cost rates under section 324 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (as added by subsection (a)), section 406(f) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5172(f)) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act) shall be used to establish management cost rates."

§5165c. Public notice, comment, and consultation requirements

(a) Public notice and comment concerning new or modified policies

(1) In general

The President shall provide for public notice and opportunity for comment before adopting any new or modified policy that—

(A) governs implementation of the public assistance program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency under this chapter; and

(B) could result in a significant reduction of assistance under the program.

(2) Application

Any policy adopted under paragraph (1) shall apply only to a major disaster or emergency declared on or after the date on which the policy is adopted.

(b) Consultation concerning interim policies

(1) In general

Before adopting any interim policy under the public assistance program to address specific conditions that relate to a major disaster or emergency that has been declared under this chapter, the President, to the maximum extent practicable, shall solicit the views and recommendations of grantees and subgrantees with respect to the major disaster or emergency concerning the potential interim policy, if the interim policy is likely—

(A) to result in a significant reduction of assistance to applicants for the assistance with respect to the major disaster or emergency; or

(B) to change the terms of a written agreement to which the Federal Government is a party concerning the declaration of the major disaster or emergency.

(2) No legal right of action

Nothing in this subsection confers a legal right of action on any party.

(c) Public access

The President shall promote public access to policies governing the implementation of the public assistance program.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §325, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §203, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1560.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A) and (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§5165d. Designation of Small State and Rural Advocate

(a) In general

The President shall designate in the Federal Emergency Management Agency a Small State and Rural Advocate.

(b) Responsibilities

The Small State and Rural Advocate shall be an advocate for the fair treatment of small States and rural communities in the provision of assistance under this chapter.

(c) Duties

The Small State and Rural Advocate shall—

(1) participate in the disaster declaration process under section 5170 of this title and the emergency declaration process under section 5191 of this title, to ensure that the needs of rural communities are being addressed;

(2) assist small population States in the preparation of requests for major disaster or emergency declarations; and

(3) conduct such other activities as the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency considers appropriate.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §326, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §689g(a), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1453; amended Pub. L. 111–351, §3(c)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3864.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 111–351 substituted "Administrator" for "Director".

Construction

Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §689g(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1453, provided that: "Nothing in this section [enacting this section] or the amendments made by this section shall be construed to authorize major disaster or emergency assistance that is not authorized as of the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 2006]."

§5165e. Integrated plan for administrative cost reduction

(a) In general

Not later than 365 days after February 29, 2016, the Administrator shall—

(1) develop and implement an integrated plan to control and reduce administrative costs for major disasters, which shall include—

(A) steps the Agency will take to reduce administrative costs;

(B) milestones needed for accomplishing the reduction of administrative costs;

(C) strategic goals for the average annual percentage of administrative costs of major disasters for each fiscal year;

(D) the assignment of clear roles and responsibilities, including the designation of officials responsible for monitoring and measuring performance; and

(E) a timetable for implementation;


(2) compare the costs and benefits of tracking the administrative cost data for major disasters by the public assistance, individual assistance, hazard mitigation, and mission assignment programs, and if feasible, track this information; and

(3) clarify Agency guidance and minimum documentation requirements for a direct administrative cost claimed by a grantee or subgrantee of a public assistance grant program.

(b) Congressional update

Not later than 90 days after February 29, 2016, the Administrator shall brief the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the plan required to be developed under subsection (a)(1).

(c) Updates

If the Administrator modifies the plan or the timetable under subsection (a), the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report notifying Congress of the modification, which shall include the details of the modification.

(Pub. L. 114–132, §3, Feb. 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 294.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Directing Dollars to Disaster Relief Act of 2015, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Reporting Requirement

Pub. L. 114–132, §4, Feb. 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 294, provided that:

"(a) Annual Report.—Not later than November 30 of each year for 7 years beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 29, 2016], the Administrator shall submit to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the development and implementation of the integrated plan required under section 3 [42 U.S.C. 5165e] for the previous fiscal year.

"(b) Report Updates.—

"(1) Three year update.—Not later than 3 years after the date on which the Administrator submits a report under subsection (a), the Administrator shall submit an updated report for the previous 3-fiscal-year period.

"(2) Five year update.—Not later than 5 years after the date on which the Administrator submits a report under subsection (a), the Administrator shall submit an updated report for the previous 5-fiscal-year period.

"(c) Contents of Reports.—Each report required under subsections (a) and (b) shall contain, at a minimum—

"(1) the total amount spent on administrative costs for the fiscal year period for which the report is being submitted;

"(2) the average annual percentage of administrative costs for the fiscal year period for which the report is being submitted;

"(3) an assessment of the effectiveness of the plan developed under section 3(a)(1) [42 U.S.C. 5165e(a)(1)];

"(4) an analysis of—

"(A) whether the Agency is achieving the strategic goals established under section 3(a)(1)(C) [42 U.S.C. 5165e(a)(1)(C)]; and

"(B) in the case of the Agency not achieving such strategic goals, what is preventing the Agency from doing so;

"(5) any actions the Agency has identified as useful in improving upon and reaching the goals for administrative costs established under section 3(a)(1)(C); and

"(6) any data described in section 3(a)(2) [42 U.S.C. 5165e(a)(2)], if the Agency determines it is feasible to track such data.

"(d) Public Availability.—Not later than 30 days after the date on which the Administrator submits a report to Congress under this section, the Administrator shall make the report publicly available on the website of the Agency."

Definitions

Pub. L. 114–132, §2, Feb. 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 293, provided that: "In this Act [see Short Title of 2016 Amendment note set out under section 5121 of this title]—

"(1) the term 'administrative cost'—

"(A) means a cost incurred by the Agency in support of the delivery of disaster assistance for a major disaster; and

"(B) does not include a cost incurred by a grantee or subgrantee;

"(2) the term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of the Agency;

"(3) the term 'Agency' means the Federal Emergency Management Agency;

"(4) the term 'direct administrative cost' means a cost incurred by a grantee or subgrantee of a program authorized by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) that can be identified separately and assigned to a specific project;

"(5) the term 'hazard mitigation program' means the hazard mitigation grant program authorized under section 404 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170c);

"(6) the term 'individual assistance program' means the individual assistance grant program authorized under sections 408, 410, 415, 416, 426, and 502(a) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5174, 5177, 5182, 5183, 5189d, and 5192(a));

"(7) the term 'major disaster' means a major disaster declared by the President under section 401 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170);

"(8) the term 'mission assignment' has the meaning given the term in section 641 of the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (6 U.S.C. 741); and

"(9) the term 'public assistance program' means the public assistance grant program authorized under sections 403(a)(3), 406, 418, 419, 428, and 502(a) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170b(a)(3), 5172, 5185, 5186, 5189f, and 5192(a))."

§5165f. National Urban Search and Rescue Response System

(a) Definitions

In this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(2) Agency

The term "Agency" means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(3) Hazard

The term "hazard" has the meaning given the term in section 5195a of this title.

(4) Nonemployee System member

The term "nonemployee System member" means a System member not employed by a sponsoring agency or participating agency.

(5) Participating agency

The term "participating agency" means a State or local government, nonprofit organization, or private organization that has executed an agreement with a sponsoring agency to participate in the System.

(6) Sponsoring agency

The term "sponsoring agency" means a State or local government that is the sponsor of a task force designated by the Administrator to participate in the System.

(7) System

The term "System" means the National Urban Search and Rescue Response System to be administered under this section.

(8) System member

The term "System member" means an individual who is not a full-time employee of the Federal Government and who serves on a task force or on a System management or other technical team.

(9) Task force

The term "task force" means an urban search and rescue team designated by the Administrator to participate in the System.

(b) General authority

Subject to the requirements of this section, the Administrator shall continue to administer the emergency response system known as the National Urban Search and Rescue Response System.

(c) Functions

In administering the System, the Administrator shall provide for a national network of standardized search and rescue resources to assist States and local governments in responding to hazards.

(d) Task forces

(1) Designation

The Administrator shall designate task forces to participate in the System. The Administration shall determine the criteria for such participation.

(2) Sponsoring agencies

Each task force shall have a sponsoring agency. The Administrator shall enter into an agreement with the sponsoring agency with respect to the participation of each task force in the System.

(3) Composition

(A) Participating agencies

A task force may include, at the discretion of the sponsoring agency, one or more participating agencies. The sponsoring agency shall enter into an agreement with each participating agency with respect to the participation of the participating agency on the task force.

(B) Other individuals

A task force may also include, at the discretion of the sponsoring agency, other individuals not otherwise associated with the sponsoring agency or a participating agency. The sponsoring agency of a task force may enter into a separate agreement with each such individual with respect to the participation of the individual on the task force.

(e) Management and technical teams

The Administrator shall maintain such management teams and other technical teams as the Administrator determines are necessary to administer the System.

(f) Appointment of System members into Federal service

(1) In general

The Administrator may appoint a System member into Federal service for a period of service to provide for the participation of the System member in exercises, preincident staging, major disaster and emergency response activities, and training events sponsored or sanctioned by the Administrator.

(2) Nonapplicability of certain civil service laws

The Administrator may make appointments under paragraph (1) without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service.

(3) Relationship to other authorities

The authority of the Administrator to make appointments under this subsection shall not affect any other authority of the Administrator under this chapter.

(4) Limitation

A System member who is appointed into Federal service under paragraph (1) shall not be considered an employee of the United States for purposes other than those specifically set forth in this section.

(g) Compensation

(1) Pay of System members

Subject to such terms and conditions as the Administrator may impose by regulation, the Administrator shall make payments to the sponsoring agency of a task force—

(A) to reimburse each employer of a System member on the task force for compensation paid by the employer to the System member for any period during which the System member is appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1); and

(B) to make payments directly to a nonemployee System member on the task force for any period during which the nonemployee System member is appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1).

(2) Reimbursement for employees filling positions of System members

(A) In general

Subject to such terms and conditions as the Administrator may impose by regulation, the Administrator shall make payments to the sponsoring agency of a task force to be used to reimburse each employer of a System member on the task force for compensation paid by the employer to an employee filling a position normally filled by the System member for any period during which the System member is appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1).

(B) Limitation

Costs incurred by an employer shall be eligible for reimbursement under subparagraph (A) only to the extent that the costs are in excess of the costs that would have been incurred by the employer had the System member not been appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1).

(3) Method of payment

A System member shall not be entitled to pay directly from the Agency for a period during which the System member is appointed into Federal Service under subsection (f)(1).

(h) Personal injury, illness, disability, or death

(1) In general

A System member who is appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1) and who suffers personal injury, illness, disability, or death as a result of a personal injury sustained while acting in the scope of such appointment, shall, for the purposes of subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5, be treated as though the member were an employee (as defined by section 8101 of that title) who had sustained the injury in the performance of duty.

(2) Election of benefits

(A) In general

A System member (or, in the case of the death of the System member, the System member's dependent) who is entitled under paragraph (1) to receive benefits under subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5 by reason of personal injury, illness, disability, or death, and to receive benefits from a State or local government by reason of the same personal injury, illness, disability or death shall elect to—

(i) receive benefits under such subchapter; or

(ii) receive benefits from the State or local government.

(B) Deadline

A System member or dependent shall make an election of benefits under subparagraph (A) not later than 1 year after the date of the personal injury, illness, disability, or death that is the reason for the benefits, or until such later date as the Secretary of Labor may allow for reasonable cause shown.

(C) Effect of election

An election of benefits made under this paragraph is irrevocable unless otherwise provided by law.

(3) Reimbursement for State or local benefits

Subject to such terms and conditions as the Administrator may impose by regulation, if a System member or dependent elects to receive benefits from a State or local government under paragraph (2)(A), the Administrator shall reimburse the State or local government for the value of the benefits.

(4) Public safety officer claims

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to bar any claim by, or with respect to, any System member who is a public safety officer, as defined in section 1204 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10284], for any benefits authorized under part L of title I of that Act (42 U.S.C. 3796 et seq.).1

(i) Liability

A System member appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1), while acting within the scope of the appointment, shall be considered to be an employee of the Federal Government under section 1346(b) of title 28 and chapter 171 of that title, relating to tort claims procedure.

(j) Employment and reemployment rights

With respect to a System member who is not a regular full-time employee of a sponsoring agency or participating agency, the following terms and conditions apply:

(1) Service

Service as a System member shall be considered to be "service in the uniformed services" for purposes of chapter 43 of title 38 relating to employment and reemployment rights of individuals who have performed service in the uniformed services (regardless of whether the individual receives compensation for such participation). All rights and obligations of such persons and procedures for assistance, enforcement, and investigation shall be as provided for in such chapter.

(2) Preclusion

Preclusion of giving notice of service by necessity of appointment under this section shall be considered to be preclusion by "military necessity" for purposes of section 4312(b) of title 38 pertaining to giving notice of absence from a position of employment. A determination of such necessity shall be made by the Administrator and shall not be subject to judicial review.

(k) Licenses and permits

If a System member holds a valid license, certificate, or other permit issued by any State or other governmental jurisdiction evidencing the member's qualifications in any professional, mechanical, or other skill or type of assistance required by the System, the System member is deemed to be performing a Federal activity when rendering aid involving such skill or assistance during a period of appointment into Federal service under subsection (f)(1).

(l) Preparedness cooperative agreements

Subject to the availability of appropriations for such purpose, the Administrator shall enter into an annual preparedness cooperative agreement with each sponsoring agency. Amounts made available to a sponsoring agency under such a preparedness cooperative agreement shall be for the following purposes:

(1) Training and exercises, including training and exercises with other Federal, State, and local government response entities.

(2) Acquisition and maintenance of equipment, including interoperable communications and personal protective equipment.

(3) Medical monitoring required for responder safety and health in anticipation of and following a major disaster, emergency, or other hazard, as determined by the Administrator.

(m) Response cooperative agreements

The Administrator shall enter into a response cooperative agreement with each sponsoring agency, as appropriate, under which the Administrator agrees to reimburse the sponsoring agency for costs incurred by the sponsoring agency in responding to a major disaster or emergency.

(n) Obligations

The Administrator may incur all necessary obligations consistent with this section in order to ensure the effectiveness of the System.

(o) Equipment maintenance and replacement

Not later than 180 days after December 16, 2016, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees (as defined in section 101 of title 6) a report on the development of a plan, including implementation steps and timeframes, to finance, maintain, and replace System equipment.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title III, §327, as added Pub. L. 114–326, §2(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1968.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (h)(4), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197. Part L of title I of the Act was classified generally to part A (§3796 et seq.) of subchapter XII of chapter 46 of this title, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as subchapter XI (§10281 et seq.) of chapter 101 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of Title 34 and Tables.

1 See References in Text note below.

§5165g. National veterinary emergency teams

(a) In general

The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency may establish one or more national veterinary emergency teams at accredited colleges of veterinary medicine.

(b) Responsibilities

A national veterinary emergency team shall—

(1) deploy with a team of the National Urban Search and Rescue Response System to assist with—

(A) veterinary care of canine search teams;

(B) locating and treating companion animals, service animals, livestock, and other animals; and

(C) surveillance and treatment of zoonotic diseases;

(2) recruit, train, and certify veterinary professionals, including veterinary students, in accordance with an established set of plans and standard operating guidelines to carry out the duties associated with planning for and responding to major disasters and emergencies as described in paragraph (1);

(3) assist State governments, Indian tribal governments, local governments, and nonprofit organizations in developing emergency management and evacuation plans that account for the care and rescue of animals and in improving local readiness for providing veterinary medical response during an emergency or major disaster; and

(4) coordinate with the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Agriculture, State, local, and Indian tribal governments (including departments of animal and human health), veterinary and health care professionals, and volunteers.

(Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1218, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3452.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018 and as part of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254, which enacted this section, applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President under Pub. L. 93–288 on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202(b) of Pub. L. 115–254, set out in an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note under section 5121 of this title.

Definitions

For definition of "State" as used in this section, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—MAJOR DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

§5170. Procedure for declaration

(a) In general

All requests for a declaration by the President that a major disaster exists shall be made by the Governor of the affected State. Such a request shall be based on a finding that the disaster is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the State and the affected local governments and that Federal assistance is necessary. As part of such request, and as a prerequisite to major disaster assistance under this chapter, the Governor shall take appropriate response action under State law and direct execution of the State's emergency plan. The Governor shall furnish information on the nature and amount of State and local resources which have been or will be committed to alleviating the results of the disaster, and shall certify that, for the current disaster, State and local government obligations and expenditures (of which State commitments must be a significant proportion) will comply with all applicable cost-sharing requirements of this chapter. Based on the request of a Governor under this section, the President may declare under this chapter that a major disaster or emergency exists.

(b) Indian tribal government requests

(1) In general

The Chief Executive of an affected Indian tribal government may submit a request for a declaration by the President that a major disaster exists consistent with the requirements of subsection (a).

(2) References

In implementing assistance authorized by the President under this chapter in response to a request of the Chief Executive of an affected Indian tribal government for a major disaster declaration, any reference in this subchapter or subchapter III (except sections 5153 and 5165d of this title) to a State or the Governor of a State is deemed to refer to an affected Indian tribal government or the Chief Executive of an affected Indian tribal government, as appropriate.

(3) Savings provision

Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit an Indian tribal government from receiving assistance under this subchapter through a declaration made by the President at the request of a State under subsection (a) if the President does not make a declaration under this subsection for the same incident.

(c) Cost share adjustments for Indian tribal governments

(1) In general

In providing assistance to an Indian tribal government under this subchapter, the President may waive or adjust any payment of a non-Federal contribution with respect to the assistance if—

(A) the President has the authority to waive or adjust the payment under another provision of this subchapter; and

(B) the President determines that the waiver or adjustment is necessary and appropriate.

(2) Criteria for making determinations

The President shall establish criteria for making determinations under paragraph (1)(B).

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §401, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(a)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4696; amended Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1110(a), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 47.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 401 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 405 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5171 of this title.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–2 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Local Impact

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1232, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3460, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In making recommendations to the President regarding a major disaster declaration, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall give greater consideration to severe local impact or recent multiple disasters. Further, the Administrator shall make corresponding adjustments to the [Federal Emergency Management] Agency's policies and regulations regarding such consideration. Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator shall report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate on the changes made to regulations and policies and the number of declarations that have been declared based on the new criteria.

"(b) Effective Date.—This section shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018]."

Cost of Assistance Estimates

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1239, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3466, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Federal Emergency Management Agency] shall review the factors considered when evaluating a request for a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), specifically the estimated cost of the assistance, and provide a report and briefing to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

"(b) Rulemaking.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall review and initiate a rulemaking to update the factors considered when evaluating a Governor's request for a major disaster declaration, including reviewing how the [Federal Emergency Management] Agency estimates the cost of major disaster assistance, and consider other impacts on the capacity of a jurisdiction to respond to disasters. In determining the capacity of a jurisdiction to respond to disasters, and prior to the issuance of such a rule, the Administrator shall engage in meaningful consultation with relevant representatives of State, regional, local, and Indian tribal government stakeholders."

[For definition of "State" as used in section 1239 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.]

Individual Assistance Factors

Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1109, Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 47, provided that: "In order to provide more objective criteria for evaluating the need for assistance to individuals, to clarify the threshold for eligibility and to speed a declaration of a major disaster or emergency under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this division [Jan. 29, 2013], the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, in cooperation with representatives of State, tribal, and local emergency management agencies, shall review, update, and revise through rulemaking the factors considered under section 206.48 of title 44, Code of Federal Regulations (including section 206.48(b)(2) of such title relating to trauma and the specific conditions or losses that contribute to trauma), to measure the severity, magnitude, and impact of a disaster."

§5170a. General Federal assistance

In any major disaster, the President may—

(1) direct any Federal agency, with or without reimbursement, to utilize its authorities and the resources granted to it under Federal law (including personnel, equipment, supplies, facilities, and managerial, technical, and advisory services) in support of State and local assistance response or recovery efforts, including precautionary evacuations;

(2) coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance) provided by Federal agencies, private organizations, and State and local governments, including precautionary evacuations and recovery;

(3) provide technical and advisory assistance to affected State and local governments for—

(A) the performance of essential community services;

(B) issuance of warnings of risks and hazards;

(C) public health and safety information, including dissemination of such information;

(D) provision of health and safety measures;

(E) management, control, and reduction of immediate threats to public health and safety; and

(F) recovery activities, including disaster impact assessments and planning;


(4) assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and other consumable supplies, and emergency assistance;

(5) provide assistance to State and local governments for building code and floodplain management ordinance administration and enforcement, including inspections for substantial damage compliance; and

(6) provide accelerated Federal assistance and Federal support where necessary to save lives, prevent human suffering, or mitigate severe damage, which may be provided in the absence of a specific request and in which case the President—

(A) shall, to the fullest extent practicable, promptly notify and coordinate with officials in a State in which such assistance or support is provided; and

(B) shall not, in notifying and coordinating with a State under subparagraph (A), delay or impede the rapid deployment, use, and distribution of critical resources to victims of a major disaster.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §402, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(a)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4696; amended Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §681(a), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1444; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1206(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3440.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 402 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5172 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

Amendments

2018—Pars. (5), (6). Pub. L. 115–254 added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

2006—Par. (1). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(a)(1), substituted "response or recovery efforts, including precautionary evacuations" for "efforts".

Par. (2). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(a)(2), substituted ", including precautionary evacuations and recovery;" for semicolon at end.

Par. (3)(F). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(a)(3), added subpar. (F).

Par. (5). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(a)(4), (5), added par. (5).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

§5170b. Essential assistance

(a) In general

Federal agencies may on the direction of the President, provide assistance essential to meeting immediate threats to life and property resulting from a major disaster, as follows:

(1) Federal resources, generally

Utilizing, lending, or donating to State and local governments Federal equipment, supplies, facilities, personnel, and other resources, other than the extension of credit, for use or distribution by such governments in accordance with the purposes of this chapter.

(2) Medicine, food, and other consumables

Distributing or rendering through State and local governments, the American National Red Cross, the Salvation Army, the Mennonite Disaster Service, and other relief and disaster assistance organizations medicine durable medical equipment,,1 food, and other consumable supplies, and other services and assistance to disaster victims.

(3) Work and services to save lives and protect property

Performing on public or private lands or waters any work or services essential to saving lives and protecting and preserving property or public health and safety, including—

(A) debris removal;

(B) search and rescue, emergency medical care, emergency mass care, emergency shelter, and provision of food, water, medicine durable medical equipment,,1 and other essential needs, including movement of supplies or persons;

(C) clearance of roads and construction of temporary bridges necessary to the performance of emergency tasks and essential community services;

(D) provision of temporary facilities for schools and other essential community services;

(E) demolition of unsafe structures which endanger the public;

(F) warning of further risks and hazards;

(G) dissemination of public information and assistance regarding health and safety measures;

(H) provision of technical advice to State and local governments on disaster management and control;

(I) reduction of immediate threats to life, property, and public health and safety; and

(J) provision of rescue, care, shelter, and essential needs—

(i) to individuals with household pets and service animals; and

(ii) to such pets and animals.

(4) Contributions

Making contributions to State or local governments or owners or operators of private nonprofit facilities for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this subsection.

(b) Federal share

The Federal share of assistance under this section shall be not less than 75 percent of the eligible cost of such assistance.

(c) Utilization of DOD resources

(1) General rule

During the immediate aftermath of an incident which may ultimately qualify for assistance under this subchapter or subchapter IV-A of this chapter, the Governor of the State in which such incident occurred may request the President to direct the Secretary of Defense to utilize the resources of the Department of Defense for the purpose of performing on public and private lands any emergency work which is made necessary by such incident and which is essential for the preservation of life and property. If the President determines that such work is essential for the preservation of life and property, the President shall grant such request to the extent the President determines practicable. Such emergency work may only be carried out for a period not to exceed 10 days.

(2) Rules applicable to debris removal

Any removal of debris and wreckage carried out under this subsection shall be subject to section 5173(b) of this title, relating to unconditional authorization and indemnification for debris removal.

(3) Expenditures out of disaster relief funds

The cost of any assistance provided pursuant to this subsection shall be reimbursed out of funds made available to carry out this chapter.

(4) Federal share

The Federal share of assistance under this subsection shall be not less than 75 percent.

(5) Guidelines

Not later than 180 days after November 23, 1988, the President shall issue guidelines for carrying out this subsection. Such guidelines shall consider any likely effect assistance under this subsection will have on the availability of other forms of assistance under this chapter.

(6) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(A) Department of Defense

The term "Department of Defense" has the meaning the term "department" has under section 101 of title 10.

(B) Emergency work

The term "emergency work" includes clearance and removal of debris and wreckage and temporary restoration of essential public facilities and services.

(d) Salaries and benefits

(1) In general

If the President declares a major disaster or emergency for an area within the jurisdiction of a State, tribal, or local government, the President may reimburse the State, tribal, or local government for costs relating to—

(A) basic pay and benefits for permanent employees of the State, tribal, or local government conducting emergency protective measures under this section, if—

(i) the work is not typically performed by the employees; and

(ii) the type of work may otherwise be carried out by contract or agreement with private organizations, firms, or individuals.; 2 or


(B) overtime and hazardous duty compensation for permanent employees of the State, tribal, or local government conducting emergency protective measures under this section.

(2) Overtime

The guidelines for reimbursement for costs under paragraph (1) shall ensure that no State, tribal, or local government is denied reimbursement for overtime payments that are required pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.).

(3) No effect on mutual aid pacts

Nothing in this subsection shall affect the ability of the President to reimburse labor force expenses provided pursuant to an authorized mutual aid pact.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §403, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(a)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4697; amended Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §689(b), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1449; Pub. L. 109–308, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1726; Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1108(b), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 47; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1217(d), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3452.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (c)(1), (3), (5), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 676, 52 Stat. 1060, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§201 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 201 of Title 29 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 403 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 407 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5173 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(3)(J). Pub. L. 115–254 struck out subpar. (J) added by Pub. L. 109–308, which was identical to subpar. (J) added by Pub. L. 109–295. See 2006 Amendment note below.

2013—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–2 added subsec. (d).

2006—Subsec. (a)(2), (3)(B). Pub. L. 109–295, §689(b)(1), (2)(A), inserted "durable medical equipment," after "medicine".

Subsec. (a)(3)(J). Pub. L. 109–295, §689(b)(2)(B)–(D), and Pub. L. 109–308 amended par. (3) by adding identical subpars. (J).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

1 So in original. The extra comma probably should follow "medicine".

2 So in original.

§5170c. Hazard mitigation

(a) In general

The President may contribute up to 75 percent of the cost of hazard mitigation measures which the President has determined are cost effective and which substantially reduce the risk of, or increase resilience to, future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering in any area affected by a major disaster, or any area affected by a fire for which assistance was provided under section 5187 of this title. Such measures shall be identified following the evaluation of natural hazards under section 5165 of this title and shall be subject to approval by the President. Subject to section 5165 of this title, the total of contributions under this section for a major disaster or event under section 5187 of this title shall not exceed 15 percent for amounts not more than $2,000,000,000, 10 percent for amounts of more than $2,000,000,000 and not more than $10,000,000,000, and 7.5 percent on amounts of more than $10,000,000,000 and not more than $35,333,000,000 of the estimated aggregate amount of grants to be made (less any associated administrative costs) under this chapter with respect to the major disaster or event under section 5187 of this title.

(b) Property acquisition and relocation assistance

(1) General authority

In providing hazard mitigation assistance under this section in connection with flooding, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency may provide property acquisition and relocation assistance for projects that meet the requirements of paragraph (2).

(2) Terms and conditions

An acquisition or relocation project shall be eligible to receive assistance pursuant to paragraph (1) only if—

(A) the applicant for the assistance is otherwise eligible to receive assistance under the hazard mitigation grant program established under subsection (a); and

(B) on or after December 3, 1993, the applicant for the assistance enters into an agreement with the Administrator that provides assurances that—

(i) any property acquired, accepted, or from which a structure will be removed pursuant to the project will be dedicated and maintained in perpetuity for a use that is compatible with open space, recreational, or wetlands management practices;

(ii) no new structure will be erected on property acquired, accepted or from which a structure was removed under the acquisition or relocation program other than—

(I) a public facility that is open on all sides and functionally related to a designated open space;

(II) a rest room; or

(III) a structure that the Administrator approves in writing before the commencement of the construction of the structure; and


(iii) after receipt of the assistance, with respect to any property acquired, accepted or from which a structure was removed under the acquisition or relocation program—

(I) no subsequent application for additional disaster assistance for any purpose will be made by the recipient to any Federal entity; and

(II) no assistance referred to in subclause (I) will be provided to the applicant by any Federal source.

(3) Statutory construction

Nothing in this subsection is intended to alter or otherwise affect an agreement for an acquisition or relocation project carried out pursuant to this section that was in effect on the day before December 3, 1993.

(c) Program administration by States

(1) In general

A State desiring to administer the hazard mitigation grant program established by this section with respect to hazard mitigation assistance in the State may submit to the President an application for the delegation of the authority to administer the program.

(2) Criteria

The President, in consultation and coordination with States and local governments, shall establish criteria for the approval of applications submitted under paragraph (1). Until such time as the Administrator promulgates regulations to implement this paragraph, the Administrator may waive notice and comment rulemaking, if the Administrator determines doing so is necessary to expeditiously implement this section, and may carry out this section as a pilot program. The criteria shall include, at a minimum—

(A) the demonstrated ability of the State to manage the grant program under this section;

(B) there being in effect an approved mitigation plan under section 5165 of this title; and

(C) a demonstrated commitment to mitigation activities.

(3) Approval

The President shall approve an application submitted under paragraph (1) that meets the criteria established under paragraph (2).

(4) Withdrawal of approval

If, after approving an application of a State submitted under paragraph (1), the President determines that the State is not administering the hazard mitigation grant program established by this section in a manner satisfactory to the President, the President shall withdraw the approval.

(5) Audits

The President shall provide for periodic audits of the hazard mitigation grant programs administered by States under this subsection.

(d) Streamlined procedures

(1) In general

For the purpose of providing assistance under this section, the President shall ensure that—

(A) adequate resources are devoted to ensure that applicable environmental reviews under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] and historic preservation reviews under the National Historic Preservation Act 1 are completed on an expeditious basis; and

(B) the shortest existing applicable process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] and the National Historic Preservation Act 1 is utilized.

(2) Authority for other expedited procedures

The President may utilize expedited procedures in addition to those required under paragraph (1) for the purpose of providing assistance under this section, such as procedures under the Prototype Programmatic Agreement of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, for the consideration of multiple structures as a group and for an analysis of the cost-effectiveness and fulfillment of cost-share requirements for proposed hazard mitigation measures.

(e) Advance assistance

The President may provide not more than 25 percent of the amount of the estimated cost of hazard mitigation measures to a State grantee eligible for a grant under this section before eligible costs are incurred.

(f) Use of assistance

Recipients of hazard mitigation assistance provided under this section and section 5133 of this title may use the assistance to conduct activities to help reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering in any area affected by a wildfire or windstorm, such as—

(1) reseeding ground cover with quick-growing or native species;

(2) mulching with straw or chipped wood;

(3) constructing straw, rock, or log dams in small tributaries to prevent flooding;

(4) placing logs and other erosion barriers to catch sediment on hill slopes;

(5) installing debris traps to modify road and trail drainage mechanisms;

(6) modifying or removing culverts to allow drainage to flow freely;

(7) adding drainage dips and constructing emergency spillways to keep roads and bridges from washing out during floods;

(8) planting grass to prevent the spread of noxious weeds;

(9) installing warning signs;

(10) establishing defensible space measures;

(11) reducing hazardous fuels;

(12) mitigating windstorm damage, including replacing or installing electrical transmission or distribution utility pole structures with poles that are resilient to extreme wind and combined ice and wind loadings for the basic wind speeds and ice conditions associated with the relevant location;

(13) removing standing burned trees; and

(14) replacing water systems that have been burned and have caused contamination.

(g) Use of assistance for earthquake hazards

Recipients of hazard mitigation assistance provided under this section and section 5133 of this title may use the assistance to conduct activities to help reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering in any area affected by earthquake hazards, including—

(1) improvements to regional seismic networks in support of building a capability for earthquake early warning;

(2) improvements to geodetic networks in support of building a capability for earthquake early warning; and

(3) improvements to seismometers, Global Positioning System receivers, and associated infrastructure in support of building a capability for earthquake early warning.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §404, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(a)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4698; amended Pub. L. 103–181, §§2(a), 3, Dec. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 2054; Pub. L. 106–390, title I, §104(c)(1), title II, §204, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1559, 1561; Pub. L. 108–7, div. K, title IV, §417, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 525; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §684, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1447; Pub. L. 111–351, §3(c)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3864; Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1104(a), (b), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §§1204(b)(1), 1205, 1233, 1235(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3439, 3460, 3463.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

The National Historic Preservation Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is Pub. L. 89–665, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 915, which was classified generally to subchapter II (§470 et seq.) of chapter 1A of Title 16, Conservation. The Act, except for section 1, was repealed and restated in division A (§300101 et seq.) of subtitle III of Title 54, National Park Service and Related Programs, by Pub. L. 113–287, §§3, 7, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3094, 3272. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables. For disposition of former sections of Title 16, see Disposition Table preceding section 100101 of Title 54.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 404 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5174 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–254, §1204(b)(1), inserted ", or any area affected by a fire for which assistance was provided under section 5187 of this title" after "affected by a major disaster" in first sentence as inserted by section 1235(a) of Pub. L. 115–254, and inserted "or event under section 5187 of this title" after "major disaster" in two places in third sentence.

Pub. L. 115–254, §1235(a), substituted "The President may contribute up to 75 percent of the cost of hazard mitigation measures which the President has determined are cost effective and which substantially reduce the risk of, or increase resilience to, future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering in any area affected by a major disaster." for "The President may contribute up to 75 percent of the cost of hazard mitigation measures which the President has determined are cost-effective and which substantially reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering in any area affected by a major disaster.".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–254, §1205, added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–254, §1233, added subsec. (g).

2013—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 113–2, §1104(b), inserted "Until such time as the Administrator promulgates regulations to implement this paragraph, the Administrator may waive notice and comment rulemaking, if the Administrator determines doing so is necessary to expeditiously implement this section, and may carry out this section as a pilot program." after "applications submitted under paragraph (1)." in introductory provisions.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 113–2, §1104(a), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

2011—Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 111–351 substituted "Administrator" for "Director" wherever appearing.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–295, in last sentence, substituted "15 percent for amounts not more than $2,000,000,000, 10 percent for amounts of more than $2,000,000,000 and not more than $10,000,000,000, and 7.5 percent on amounts of more than $10,000,000,000 and not more than $35,333,000,000" for "7.5 percent".

2003—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–7 substituted "7.5 percent" for "15 percent".

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–390, §104(c)(1), substituted "section 5165" for "section 5176" in second sentence and "Subject to section 5165 of this title, the total" for "The total" in third sentence.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–390, §204, added subsec. (c).

1993Pub. L. 103–181 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted "75 percent" for "50 percent" in first sentence, substituted "15 percent of the estimated aggregate amount of grants to be made (less any associated administrative costs) under this chapter with respect to the major disaster" for "10 percent of the estimated aggregate amounts of grants to be made under section 5172 of this title with respect to such major disaster" in last sentence, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1104(c), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 43, provided that: "The authority under the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to—

"(1) any major disaster or emergency declared under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) on or after the date of enactment of this division [Jan. 29, 2013]; and

"(2) a major disaster or emergency declared under that Act before the date of enactment of this division for which the period for processing requests for assistance has not ended as of the date of enactment of this division."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–181, §2(b), Dec. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 2054, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any major disaster declared by the President pursuant to The [the] Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) on or after June 10, 1993."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Funding of a Federally Authorized Water Resources Development Project

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1210(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3444, provided that:

"(1) Eligible activities.—Notwithstanding section 312 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5155) and its implementing regulations, assistance provided pursuant to section 404 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 5170c] may be used to fund activities authorized for construction within the scope of a federally authorized water resources development project of the Army Corps of Engineers if such activities are also eligible activities under such section.

"(2) Federal funding.—All Federal funding provided under section 404 pursuant to this section shall be applied toward the Federal share of such project.

"(3) Non-federal match.—All non-Federal matching funds required under section 404 pursuant to this section shall be applied toward the non-Federal share of such project.

"(4) Total federal share.—Funding provided under section 404 pursuant to this section may not exceed the total Federal share for such project.

"(5) No effect.—Nothing in this section shall—

"(A) affect the cost-share requirement of a hazard mitigation measure under section 404;

"(B) affect the eligibility criteria for a hazard mitigation measure under section 404;

"(C) affect the cost share requirements of a federally authorized water resources development project; and

"(D) affect the responsibilities of a non-Federal interest with respect to the project, including those related to the provision of lands, easements, rights-of-way, dredge material disposal areas, and necessary relocations.

"(6) Limitation.—If a federally authorized water resources development project of the Army Corps of Engineers is constructed with funding provided under section 404 pursuant to this subsection, no further Federal funding shall be provided for construction of such project."

Guidance on Hazard Mitigation Assistance

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1231, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3459, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Federal Emergency Management Agency] shall issue guidance regarding the acquisition of property for open space as a mitigation measure under section 404 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170c) that includes—

"(1) a process by which the State hazard mitigation officer appointed for such an acquisition shall, not later than 60 days after the applicant for assistance enters into an agreement with the Administrator regarding the acquisition, provide written notification to each affected unit of local government for such acquisition that includes—

"(A) the location of the acquisition;

"(B) the State-local assistance agreement for the hazard mitigation grant program;

"(C) a description of the acquisition; and

"(D) a copy of the deed restriction; and

"(2) recommendations for entering into and implementing a memorandum of understanding between units of local government and covered entities that includes provisions to allow an affected unit of local government notified under paragraph (1) to—

"(A) use and maintain the open space created by such a project, consistent with section 404 [42 U.S.C. 5170c] (including related regulations, standards, and guidance) and consistent with all adjoining property, subject to the notification of the adjoining property, so long as the cost of the maintenance is borne by the local government; and

"(B) maintain the open space pursuant to standards exceeding any local government standards defined in the agreement with the Administrator described under paragraph (1).

"(b) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Affected unit of local government.—The term 'affected unit of local government' means any entity covered by the definition of local government in section 102 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5122), that has jurisdiction over the property subject to the acquisition described in subsection (a).

"(2) Covered entity.—The term 'covered entity' means—

"(A) the grantee or subgrantee receiving assistance for an open space project described in subsection (a);

"(B) the State in which such project is located; and

"(C) the applicable Regional Administrator of the Agency."

[For definition of "State" as used in section 1231 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a Definitions note under section 5122 of this title.]

1 See References in Text note below.

§5171. Federal facilities

(a) Repair, reconstruction, restoration, or replacement of United States facilities

The President may authorize any Federal agency to repair, reconstruct, restore, or replace any facility owned by the United States and under the jurisdiction of such agency which is damaged or destroyed by any major disaster if he determines that such repair, reconstruction, restoration, or replacement is of such importance and urgency that it cannot reasonably be deferred pending the enactment of specific authorizing legislation or the making of an appropriation for such purposes, or the obtaining of congressional committee approval.

(b) Availability of funds appropriated to agency for repair, reconstruction, restoration, or replacement of agency facilities

In order to carry out the provisions of this section, such repair, reconstruction, restoration, or replacement may be begun notwithstanding a lack or an insufficiency of funds appropriated for such purpose, where such lack or insufficiency can be remedied by the transfer, in accordance with law, of funds appropriated to that agency for another purpose.

(c) Steps for mitigation of hazards

In implementing this section, Federal agencies shall evaluate the natural hazards to which these facilities are exposed and shall take appropriate action to mitigate such hazards, including safe land-use and construction practices, in accordance with standards prescribed by the President.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §405, formerly §401, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 153; renumbered §405, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(a)(2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4696.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 405 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5175 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5172. Repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities

(a) Contributions

(1) In general

The President may make contributions—

(A) to a State or local government for the repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement of a public facility damaged or destroyed by a major disaster and for associated expenses incurred by the government; and

(B) subject to paragraph (3), to a person that owns or operates a private nonprofit facility damaged or destroyed by a major disaster for the repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement of the facility and for associated expenses incurred by the person.

(2) Associated expenses

For the purposes of this section, associated expenses shall include—

(A) the costs of mobilizing and employing the National Guard for performance of eligible work;

(B) the costs of using prison labor to perform eligible work, including wages actually paid, transportation to a worksite, and extraordinary costs of guards, food, and lodging;

(C) base and overtime wages for the employees and extra hires of a State, local government, or person described in paragraph (1) that perform eligible work, plus fringe benefits on such wages to the extent that such benefits were being paid before the major disaster; and

(D) base and overtime wages for extra hires to facilitate the implementation and enforcement of adopted building codes for a period of not more than 180 days after the major disaster is declared.

(3) Conditions for assistance to private nonprofit facilities

(A) In general

The President may make contributions to a private nonprofit facility under paragraph (1)(B) only if—

(i) the facility provides critical services (as defined by the President) in the event of a major disaster; or

(ii) the owner or operator of the facility—

(I) has applied for a disaster loan under section 636(b) of title 15; and

(II)(aa) has been determined to be ineligible for such a loan; or

(bb) has obtained such a loan in the maximum amount for which the Small Business Administration determines the facility is eligible.

(B) Definition of critical services

In this paragraph, the term "critical services" includes power, water (including water provided by an irrigation organization or facility), sewer, wastewater treatment, communications (including broadcast and telecommunications), education, and emergency medical care.

(C) Religious facilities

A church, synagogue, mosque, temple, or other house of worship, educational facility, or any other private nonprofit facility, shall be eligible for contributions under paragraph (1)(B), without regard to the religious character of the facility or the primary religious use of the facility. No house of worship, educational facility, or any other private nonprofit facility may be excluded from receiving contributions under paragraph (1)(B) because leadership or membership in the organization operating the house of worship is limited to persons who share a religious faith or practice.

(4) Notification to Congress

Before making any contribution under this section in an amount greater than $20,000,000, the President shall notify—

(A) the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate;

(B) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives;

(C) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

(D) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(b) Federal share

(1) Minimum Federal share

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Federal share of assistance under this section shall be not less than 75 percent of the eligible cost of repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement carried out under this section.

(2) Reduced Federal share

The President shall promulgate regulations to reduce the Federal share of assistance under this section to not less than 25 percent in the case of the repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement of any eligible public facility or private nonprofit facility following an event associated with a major disaster—

(A) that has been damaged, on more than one occasion within the preceding 10-year period, by the same type of event; and

(B) the owner of which has failed to implement appropriate mitigation measures to address the hazard that caused the damage to the facility.

(3) Increased Federal share

(A) Incentive measures

The President may provide incentives to a State or Tribal government to invest in measures that increase readiness for, and resilience from, a major disaster by recognizing such investments through a sliding scale that increases the minimum Federal share to 85 percent. Such measures may include—

(i) the adoption of a mitigation plan approved under section 5165 of this title;

(ii) investments in disaster relief, insurance, and emergency management programs;

(iii) encouraging the adoption and enforcement of the latest published editions of relevant consensus-based codes, specifications, and standards that incorporate the latest hazard-resistant designs and establish minimum acceptable criteria for the design, construction, and maintenance of residential structures and facilities that may be eligible for assistance under this chapter for the purpose of protecting the health, safety, and general welfare of the buildings' users against disasters;

(iv) facilitating participation in the community rating system; and

(v) funding mitigation projects or granting tax incentives for projects that reduce risk.

(B) Comprehensive guidance

Not later than 1 year after February 9, 2018, the President, acting through the Administrator, shall issue comprehensive guidance to State and Tribal governments regarding the measures and investments, weighted appropriately based on actuarial assessments of eligible actions, that will be recognized for the purpose of increasing the Federal share under this section. Guidance shall ensure that the agency's review of eligible measures and investments does not unduly delay determining the appropriate Federal cost share.

(C) Report

One year after the issuance of the guidance required by subparagraph (B), the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report regarding the analysis of the Federal cost shares paid under this section.

(D) Savings clause

Nothing in this paragraph prevents the President from increasing the Federal cost share above 85 percent.

(c) Large in-lieu contributions

(1) For public facilities

(A) In general

In any case in which a State or local government determines that the public welfare would not best be served by repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing any public facility owned or controlled by the State or local government, the State or local government may elect to receive, in lieu of a contribution under subsection (a)(1)(A), a contribution in an amount equal to the Federal share of the Federal estimate of the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing the facility and of management expenses.

(B) Use of funds

Funds contributed to a State or local government under this paragraph may be used—

(i) to repair, restore, or expand other selected public facilities;

(ii) to construct new facilities; or

(iii) to fund hazard mitigation measures that the State or local government determines to be necessary to meet a need for governmental services and functions in the area affected by the major disaster.

(C) Limitations

Funds made available to a State or local government under this paragraph may not be used for—

(i) any public facility located in a regulatory floodway (as defined in section 59.1 of title 44, Code of Federal Regulations (or a successor regulation)); or

(ii) any uninsured public facility located in a special flood hazard area identified by the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.).

(2) For private nonprofit facilities

(A) In general

In any case in which a person that owns or operates a private nonprofit facility determines that the public welfare would not best be served by repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing the facility, the person may elect to receive, in lieu of a contribution under subsection (a)(1)(B), a contribution in an amount equal to the Federal share of the Federal estimate of the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing the facility and of management expenses.

(B) Use of funds

Funds contributed to a person under this paragraph may be used—

(i) to repair, restore, or expand other selected private nonprofit facilities owned or operated by the person;

(ii) to construct new private nonprofit facilities to be owned or operated by the person; or

(iii) to fund hazard mitigation measures that the person determines to be necessary to meet a need for the person's services and functions in the area affected by the major disaster.

(C) Limitations

Funds made available to a person under this paragraph may not be used for—

(i) any private nonprofit facility located in a regulatory floodway (as defined in section 59.1 of title 44, Code of Federal Regulations (or a successor regulation)); or

(ii) any uninsured private nonprofit facility located in a special flood hazard area identified by the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.).

(d) Flood insurance

(1) Reduction of Federal assistance

If a public facility or private nonprofit facility located in a special flood hazard area identified for more than 1 year by the Administrator pursuant to the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.) is damaged or destroyed, after the 180th day following November 23, 1988, by flooding in a major disaster and such facility is not covered on the date of such flooding by flood insurance, the Federal assistance which would otherwise be available under this section with respect to repair, restoration, reconstruction, and replacement of such facility and associated expenses shall be reduced in accordance with paragraph (2). This section shall not apply to more than one building of a multi-structure educational, law enforcement, correctional, fire, or medical campus, for any major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 5170 or 5191, respectively, of this title on or after January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2018.

(2) Amount of reduction

The amount of a reduction in Federal assistance under this section with respect to a facility shall be the lesser of—

(A) the value of such facility on the date of the flood damage or destruction, or

(B) the maximum amount of insurance proceeds which would have been payable with respect to such facility if such facility had been covered by flood insurance under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 on such date.

(3) Exception

Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to a private nonprofit facility which is not covered by flood insurance solely because of the local government's failure to participate in the flood insurance program established by the National Flood Insurance Act.

(4) Dissemination of information

The President shall disseminate information regarding the reduction in Federal assistance provided for by this subsection to State and local governments and the owners and operators of private nonprofit facilities who may be affected by such a reduction.

(e) Eligible cost

(1) Determination

(A) In general

For the purposes of this section, for disasters declared on or after August 1, 2017, or a disaster in which a cost estimate has not yet been finalized for a project, or for any project for which the finalized cost estimate is on appeal, the President shall estimate the eligible cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing a public facility or private nonprofit facility—

(i) on the basis of the design of the facility as the facility existed immediately before the major disaster;

(ii) in conformity with the latest published editions of relevant consensus-based codes, specifications, and standards that incorporate the latest hazard-resistant designs and establish minimum acceptable criteria for the design, construction, and maintenance of residential structures and facilities that may be eligible for assistance under this chapter for the purposes of protecting the health, safety, and general welfare of a facility's users against disasters (including floodplain management and hazard mitigation criteria required by the President or under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)); and

(iii) in a manner that allows the facility to meet the definition of resilient developed pursuant to this subsection.

(B) Cost estimation procedures

(i) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the President shall use the cost estimation procedures established under paragraph (3) to determine the eligible cost under this subsection.

(ii) Applicability

The procedures specified in this paragraph and paragraph (2) shall apply only to projects the eligible cost of which is equal to or greater than the amount specified in section 5189 of this title.

(C) Contributions

Contributions for the eligible cost made under this section may be provided on an actual cost basis or on cost-estimation procedures.

(2) Modification of eligible cost

(A) Actual cost greater than ceiling percentage of estimated cost

In any case in which the actual cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing a facility under this section is greater than the ceiling percentage established under paragraph (3) of the cost estimated under paragraph (1), the President may determine that the eligible cost includes a portion of the actual cost of the repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement that exceeds the cost estimated under paragraph (1).

(B) Actual cost less than estimated cost

(i) Greater than or equal to floor percentage of estimated cost

In any case in which the actual cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing a facility under this section is less than 100 percent of the cost estimated under paragraph (1), but is greater than or equal to the floor percentage established under paragraph (3) of the cost estimated under paragraph (1), the State or local government or person receiving funds under this section shall use the excess funds to carry out cost-effective activities that reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, or suffering from a major disaster.

(ii) Less than floor percentage of estimated cost

In any case in which the actual cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing a facility under this section is less than the floor percentage established under paragraph (3) of the cost estimated under paragraph (1), the State or local government or person receiving assistance under this section shall reimburse the President in the amount of the difference.

(C) No effect on appeals process

Nothing in this paragraph affects any right of appeal under section 5189a of this title.

(3) Expert panel

(A) Establishment

Not later than 18 months after October 30, 2000, the President, acting through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, shall establish an expert panel, which shall include representatives from the construction industry and State and local government.

(B) Duties

The expert panel shall develop recommendations concerning—

(i) procedures for estimating the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing a facility consistent with industry practices; and

(ii) the ceiling and floor percentages referred to in paragraph (2).

(C) Regulations

Taking into account the recommendations of the expert panel under subparagraph (B), the President shall promulgate regulations that establish—

(i) cost estimation procedures described in subparagraph (B)(i); and

(ii) the ceiling and floor percentages referred to in paragraph (2).

(D) Review by President

Not later than 2 years after the date of promulgation of regulations under subparagraph (C) and periodically thereafter, the President shall review the cost estimation procedures and the ceiling and floor percentages established under this paragraph.

(E) Report to Congress

Not later than 1 year after the date of promulgation of regulations under subparagraph (C), 3 years after that date, and at the end of each 2-year period thereafter, the expert panel shall submit to Congress a report on the appropriateness of the cost estimation procedures.

(4) Special rule

In any case in which the facility being repaired, restored, reconstructed, or replaced under this section was under construction on the date of the major disaster, the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing the facility shall include, for the purposes of this section, only those costs that, under the contract for the construction, are the owner's responsibility and not the contractor's responsibility.

(5) New rules

(A) In general

Not later than 18 months after October 5, 2018, the President, acting through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and in consultation with the heads of relevant Federal departments and agencies, shall issue a final rulemaking that defines the terms "resilient" and "resiliency" for purposes of this subsection.

(B) Interim guidance

Not later than 60 days after October 5, 2018, the Administrator shall issue interim guidance to implement this subsection. Such interim guidance shall expire 18 months after October 5, 2018, or upon issuance of final regulations pursuant to subparagraph (A), whichever occurs first.

(C) Guidance

Not later than 90 days after the date on which the Administrator issues the final rulemaking under this paragraph, the Administrator shall issue any necessary guidance related to the rulemaking.

(D) Report

Not later than 2 years after October 5, 2018, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report summarizing the regulations and guidance issued pursuant to this paragraph.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §406, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4699; amended Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §205(a)–(d)(1), (e), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1562–1564, 1566; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §689h, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1453; Pub. L. 109–347, title VI, §609, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 111–351, §3(c)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3864; Pub. L. 114–111, §2(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2240; Pub. L. 115–123, div. B, title VI, §§20604(b), 20606, Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 86; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §§1206(b), 1207(a), (b), 1235(b)–(d), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3440, 3463, 3464.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3)(A)(iii) and (e)(1)(A)(ii), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, referred to in subsecs. (c)(1)(C)(ii), (2)(C)(ii) and (d)(1), (2)(B), is title XIII of Pub. L. 90–448, Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 572, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 50 (§4001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4001 of this title and Tables.

The National Flood Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), probably means the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968. See above.

The Coastal Barrier Resources Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(A)(ii), is Pub. L. 97–348, Oct. 18, 1982, 96 Stat. 1653, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 55 (§3501 et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3501 of Title 16 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5172, Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §402, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 153, related to repair and restoration of damaged facilities, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §106(b).

A prior section 406 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 409 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5176 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–254, §1206(b), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 115–123, §20604(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–123, §20606, added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1207(a)(1), struck out "90 percent of" before "the Federal share".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1207(a)(2), struck out "75 percent of" before "the Federal share".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, §1207(b), inserted at end "This section shall not apply to more than one building of a multi-structure educational, law enforcement, correctional, fire, or medical campus, for any major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 5170 or 5191, respectively, of this title on or after January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2018."

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1235(b)(1), inserted "for disasters declared on or after August 1, 2017, or a disaster in which a cost estimate has not yet been finalized for a project, or for any project for which the finalized cost estimate is on appeal," after "section," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 115–254, §1235(b)(2), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 115–254, §1235(b)(3), substituted "the latest published editions of relevant consensus-based codes, specifications, and standards that incorporate the latest hazard-resistant designs and establish minimum acceptable criteria for the design, construction, and maintenance of residential structures and facilities that may be eligible for assistance under this chapter for the purposes of protecting the health, safety, and general welfare of a facility's users against disasters" for "codes, specifications, and standards" and "(16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)); and" for "(16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)) applicable at the time at which the disaster occurred."

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 115–254, §1235(b)(4), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–254, §1235(c), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 115–254, §1235(d), added par. (5).

2015—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 114–111 substituted "communications (including broadcast and telecommunications)," for "communications,".

2011—Subsecs. (c)(1)(C)(ii), (2)(C)(ii), (d)(1), (e)(3)(A). Pub. L. 111–351 substituted "Administrator" for "Director".

2006—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109–295 inserted "education," after "communications,".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–347, §609(1), substituted "90" for "75".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 109–347, §609(2), (3), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, text of subpar. (B) read as follows: "In any case in which a State or local government determines that the public welfare would not best be served by repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing any public facility owned or controlled by the State or local government because soil instability in the disaster area makes repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement infeasible, the State or local government may elect to receive, in lieu of a contribution under subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section, a contribution in an amount equal to 90 percent of the Federal share of the Federal estimate of the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing the facility and of management expenses."

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–390, §205(a), added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows: "The President may make contributions—

"(1) to a State or local government for the repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement of a public facility which is damaged or destroyed by a major disaster and for associated expenses incurred by such government; and

"(2) to a person who owns or operates a private nonprofit facility damaged or destroyed by a major disaster for the repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement of such facility and for associated expenses incurred by such person."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–390, §205(b), added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b). Text read as follows: "The Federal share of assistance under this section shall be not less than—

"(1) 75 percent of the net eligible cost of repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement carried out under this section;

"(2) 100 percent of associated expenses described in subsections (f)(1) and (f)(2) of this section; and

"(3) 75 percent of associated expenses described in subsections (f)(3), (f)(4), and (f)(5) of this section."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–390, §205(c), added subsec. (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c) which provided that, upon a determination that the public welfare would not be best served by repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing either a public facility or a private nonprofit facility, an election could be made to receive, in lieu of a contribution under subsec. (a), a contribution of not to exceed 90 percent of the Federal share of the Federal estimate of the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing the facility and of associated expenses, with the restriction that such funds not be used for any State or local government cost-sharing contribution required under this chapter.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–390, §205(d)(1), added subsec. (e) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (e). Text read as follows:

"(1) General rule.—For purposes of this section, the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing a public facility or private nonprofit facility on the basis of the design of such facility as it existed immediately prior to the major disaster and in conformity with current applicable codes, specifications, and standards (including floodplain management and hazard mitigation criteria required by the President or by the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)) shall, at a minimum, be treated as the net eligible cost of such repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement.

"(2) Special rule.—In any case in which the facility being repaired, restored, reconstructed, or replaced under this section was under construction on the date of the major disaster, the cost of repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing such facility shall include, for purposes of this section, only those costs which, under the contract for such construction, are the owner's responsibility and not the contractor's responsibility."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–390, §205(e), struck out subsec. (f) which set out various associated expenses, including necessary and extraordinary costs, and costs of using the National Guard and prison labor.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Amendment by section 20604(b) of Pub. L. 115–123 applicable to provision of assistance in response to major disaster or emergency declared on or after Aug. 23, 2017, or, with respect to any application for assistance that, as of Feb. 9, 2018, is pending before Federal Emergency Management Agency, and any application for assistance that has been denied, where a challenge to that denial is not yet finally resolved as of Feb. 9, 2018, see section 20604(c) of Pub. L. 115–123, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §205(d)(2), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1566, as amended by Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1235(e), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3464, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] takes effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000] and applies to funds appropriated after the date of the enactment of this Act, except that paragraph (1)(B) of section 406(e) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [subsec. (e)(1) of this section] (as amended by paragraph (1)) takes effect on the date on which the cost estimation procedures established under paragraph (3) of that section take effect."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Guidance on Inundated and Submerged Roads

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1228, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3459, provided that: "The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, in coordination with the Administrator of the Federal Highway Administration, shall develop and issue guidance for State, local, and Indian tribal governments regarding repair, restoration, and replacement of inundated and submerged roads damaged or destroyed by a major disaster, and for associated expenses incurred by the Government, with respect to roads eligible for assistance under section 406 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5172)."

[For definition of "State"as used in section 1228 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.]

Guidance and Recommendations

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1230, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3459, provided that:

"(a) Guidance.—The Administrator [of the Federal Emergency Management Agency] shall provide guidance to a common interest community that provides essential services of a governmental nature on actions that a common interest community may take in order to be eligible to receive reimbursement from a grantee that receives funds from the [Federal Emergency Management] Agency for certain activities performed after an event that results in a major disaster declared by the President under section 401 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170).

"(b) Recommendations.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator shall provide to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a legislative proposal on how to provide eligibility for disaster assistance with respect to common areas of condominiums and housing cooperatives.

"(c) Effective Date.—This section shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act."

Post-Disaster Building Safety Assessment

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1241, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3466, provided that:

"(a) Building Safety Assessment Team.—

"(1) In general.—The Administrator [of the Federal Emergency Management Agency] shall coordinate with State and local governments and organizations representing design professionals, such as architects and engineers, to develop guidance, including best practices, for post-disaster assessment of buildings by licensed architects and engineers to ensure the design professionals properly analyze the structural integrity and livability of buildings and structures.

"(2) Publication.—The Administrator shall publish the guidance required to be developed under paragraph (1) not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018].

"(b) National Incident Management System.—The Administrator shall revise or issue guidance as required to the National Incident Management System Resource Management component to ensure the functions of post-disaster building safety assessment, such as those functions performed by design professionals are accurately resource typed within the National Incident Management System.

"(c) Effective Date.—This section shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act."

[For definition of "State"as used in section 1241 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.]

Review of Assistance for Damaged Underground Water Infrastructure

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1245, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3468, provided that:

"(a) Definition of Public Assistance Grant Program.—The term 'public assistance grant program' means the public assistance grant program authorized under sections 403, 406, 407, 428, and 502(a) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170b, 5172, 5173, [5189f,] 5192(a)).

"(b) Review and Briefing.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Federal Emergency Management Agency] shall—

"(1) conduct a review of the assessment and eligibility process under the public assistance grant program with respect to assistance provided for damaged underground water infrastructure as a result of a major disaster declared under section 401 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 5170), including wildfires, and shall include the extent to which local technical memoranda, prepared by a local unit of government in consultation with the relevant State or Federal agencies, identified damaged underground water infrastructure that should be eligible for the public assistance grant program; and

"(2) provide to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a briefing on the review conducted under paragraph (1).

"(c) Report and Recommendations.—The Administrator shall—

"(1) not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, issue a report on the review conducted under subsection (b)(1); and

"(2) not later than 180 days after the date on which the Administrator issues the report required under paragraph (1), initiate a rulemaking, if appropriate, to address any recommendations contained in the report."

[For definition of "State"as used in section 1245 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.]

§5173. Debris removal

(a) Presidential authority

The President, whenever he determines it to be in the public interest, is authorized—

(1) through the use of Federal departments, agencies, and instrumentalities, to clear debris and wreckage resulting from a major disaster from publicly and privately owned lands and waters; and

(2) to make grants to any State or local government or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility for the purpose of removing debris or wreckage resulting from a major disaster from publicly or privately owned lands and waters.

(b) Authorization by State or local government; indemnification agreement

No authority under this section shall be exercised unless the affected State or local government shall first arrange an unconditional authorization for removal of such debris or wreckage from public and private property, and, in the case of removal of debris or wreckage from private property, shall first agree to indemnify the Federal Government against any claim arising from such removal.

(c) Rules relating to large lots

The President shall issue rules which provide for recognition of differences existing among urban, suburban, and rural lands in implementation of this section so as to facilitate adequate removal of debris and wreckage from large lots.

(d) Federal share

The Federal share of assistance under this section shall be not less than 75 percent of the eligible cost of debris and wreckage removal carried out under this section.

(e) Expedited payments

(1) Grant assistance

In making a grant under subsection (a)(2), the President shall provide not less than 50 percent of the President's initial estimate of the Federal share of assistance as an initial payment in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Date of payment

Not later than 60 days after the date of the estimate described in paragraph (1) and not later than 90 days after the date on which the State or local government or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility applies for assistance under this section, an initial payment described in paragraph (1) shall be paid.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §407, formerly §403, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 154; renumbered §407 and amended Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(c), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4701; Pub. L. 109–347, title VI, §610, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1942.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 407 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 410 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5177 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–347 added subsec. (e).

1988—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–707, §106(c)(2), inserted "or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility" after "local government".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–707, §106(c)(3), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

§5174. Federal assistance to individuals and households

(a) In general

(1) Provision of assistance

In accordance with this section, the President, in consultation with the Governor of a State, may provide financial assistance, and, if necessary, direct services, to individuals and households in the State who, as a direct result of a major disaster, have necessary expenses and serious needs in cases in which the individuals and households are unable to meet such expenses or needs through other means.

(2) Relationship to other assistance

Under paragraph (1), an individual or household shall not be denied assistance under paragraph (1), (3), or (4) of subsection (c) solely on the basis that the individual or household has not applied for or received any loan or other financial assistance from the Small Business Administration or any other Federal agency.

(b) Housing assistance

(1) Eligibility

The President may provide financial or other assistance under this section to individuals and households to respond to the disaster-related housing needs of individuals and households who are displaced from their predisaster primary residences or whose predisaster primary residences are rendered uninhabitable, or with respect to individuals with disabilities, rendered inaccessible or uninhabitable, as a result of damage caused by a major disaster.

(2) Determination of appropriate types of assistance

(A) In general

The President shall determine appropriate types of housing assistance to be provided under this section to individuals and households described in subsection (a)(1) based on considerations of cost effectiveness, convenience to the individuals and households, and such other factors as the President may consider appropriate.

(B) Multiple types of assistance

One or more types of housing assistance may be made available under this section, based on the suitability and availability of the types of assistance, to meet the needs of individuals and households in the particular disaster situation.

(c) Types of housing assistance

(1) Temporary housing

(A) Financial assistance

(i) In general

The President may provide financial assistance to individuals or households to rent alternate housing accommodations, existing rental units, manufactured housing, recreational vehicles, or other readily fabricated dwellings. Such assistance may include the payment of the cost of utilities, excluding telephone service.

(ii) Amount

The amount of assistance under clause (i) shall be based on the fair market rent for the accommodation provided plus the cost of any transportation, utility hookups, security deposits, or unit installation not provided directly by the President.

(B) Direct assistance

(i) In general

The President may provide temporary housing units, acquired by purchase or lease, directly to individuals or households who, because of a lack of available housing resources, would be unable to make use of the assistance provided under subparagraph (A).

(ii) Lease and repair of rental units for temporary housing

(I) In general

The President, to the extent the President determines it would be a cost-effective alternative to other temporary housing options, may—

(aa) enter into lease agreements with owners of multifamily rental property impacted by a major disaster or located in areas covered by a major disaster declaration to house individuals and households eligible for assistance under this section; and

(bb) make repairs or improvements to properties under such lease agreements, to the extent necessary to serve as safe and adequate temporary housing.

(II) Improvements or repairs

Under the terms of any lease agreement for property entered into under this subsection, the value of the improvements or repairs shall be deducted from the value of the lease agreement.

(iii) Period of assistance

The President may not provide direct assistance under clause (i) with respect to a major disaster after the end of the 18-month period beginning on the date of the declaration of the major disaster by the President, except that the President may extend that period if the President determines that due to extraordinary circumstances an extension would be in the public interest.

(iv) Collection of rental charges

After the end of the 18-month period referred to in clause (iii), the President may charge fair market rent for each temporary housing unit provided.

(2) Repairs

(A) In general

The President may provide financial assistance for—

(i) the repair of owner-occupied private residences, utilities, and residential infrastructure (such as a private access route) damaged by a major disaster to a safe and sanitary living or functioning condition; and

(ii) eligible hazard mitigation measures that reduce the likelihood of future damage to such residences, utilities, or infrastructure.

(B) Relationship to other assistance

A recipient of assistance provided under this paragraph shall not be required to show that the assistance can be met through other means, except insurance proceeds.

(3) Replacement

(A) In general

The President may provide financial assistance for the replacement of owner-occupied private residences damaged by a major disaster.

(B) Applicability of flood insurance requirement

With respect to assistance provided under this paragraph, the President may not waive any provision of Federal law requiring the purchase of flood insurance as a condition of the receipt of Federal disaster assistance.

(4) Permanent housing construction

The President may provide financial assistance or direct assistance to individuals or households to construct permanent or semi-permanent housing in insular areas outside the continental United States and in other locations in cases in which—

(A) no alternative housing resources are available; and

(B) the types of temporary housing assistance described in paragraph (1) are unavailable, infeasible, or not cost-effective.

(d) Terms and conditions relating to housing assistance

(1) Sites

(A) In general

Any readily fabricated dwelling provided under this section shall, whenever practicable, be located on a site that—

(i) is complete with utilities;

(ii) meets the physical accessibility requirements for individuals with disabilities; and

(iii) is provided by the State or local government, by the owner of the site, or by the occupant who was displaced by the major disaster.

(B) Sites provided by the President

A readily fabricated dwelling may be located on a site provided by the President if the President determines that such a site would be more economical or accessible.

(2) Disposal of units

(A) Sale to occupants

(i) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a temporary housing unit purchased under this section by the President for the purpose of housing disaster victims may be sold directly to the individual or household who is occupying the unit if the individual or household lacks permanent housing.

(ii) Sale price

A sale of a temporary housing unit under clause (i) shall be at a price that is fair and equitable.

(iii) Deposit of proceeds

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the proceeds of a sale under clause (i) shall be deposited in the appropriate Disaster Relief Fund account.

(iv) Hazard and flood insurance

A sale of a temporary housing unit under clause (i) shall be made on the condition that the individual or household purchasing the housing unit agrees to obtain and maintain hazard and flood insurance on the housing unit.

(v) Use of GSA services

The President may use the services of the General Services Administration to accomplish a sale under clause (i).

(B) Other methods of disposal

If not disposed of under subparagraph (A), a temporary housing unit purchased under this section by the President for the purpose of housing disaster victims—

(i) may be sold to any person; or

(ii) may be sold, transferred, donated, or otherwise made available directly to a State or other governmental entity or to a voluntary organization for the sole purpose of providing temporary housing to disaster victims in major disasters and emergencies if, as a condition of the sale, transfer, or donation, the State, other governmental agency, or voluntary organization agrees—

(I) to comply with the nondiscrimination provisions of section 5151 of this title; and

(II) to obtain and maintain hazard and flood insurance on the housing unit.

(e) Financial assistance to address other needs

(1) Medical, dental, child care, and funeral expenses

The President, in consultation with the Governor of a State, may provide financial assistance under this section to an individual or household in the State who is adversely affected by a major disaster to meet disaster-related medical, dental, child care, and funeral expenses.

(2) Personal property, transportation, and other expenses

The President, in consultation with the Governor of a State, may provide financial assistance under this section to an individual or household described in paragraph (1) to address personal property, transportation, and other necessary expenses or serious needs resulting from the major disaster.

(f) State role

(1) State- or Indian tribal government-administered assistance and other needs assistance

(A) Grant to State

Subject to subsection (g), a Governor may request a grant from the President to provide assistance to individuals and households in the State under subsections (c)(1)(B), (c)(4), and (e) if the President and the State or Indian tribal government comply, as determined by the Administrator, with paragraph (3).

(B) Administrative costs

A State that receives a grant under subparagraph (A) may expend not more than 5 percent of the amount of the grant for the administrative costs of providing assistance to individuals and households in the State under subsections (c)(1)(B), (c)(4), and (e).

(2) Access to records

In providing assistance to individuals and households under this section, the President shall provide for the substantial and ongoing involvement of the States in which the individuals and households are located, including by providing to the States access to the electronic records of individuals and households receiving assistance under this section in order for the States to make available any additional State and local assistance to the individuals and households.

(3) Requirements

(A) Application

A State or Indian tribal government desiring to provide assistance under subsection (c)(1)(B), (c)(4), or (e) shall submit to the President an application for a grant to provide financial assistance under the program.

(B) Criteria

The President, in consultation and coordination with State and Indian tribal governments, shall establish criteria for the approval of applications submitted under subparagraph (A). The criteria shall include, at a minimum—

(i) a requirement that the State or Indian tribal government submit a housing strategy under subparagraph (C);

(ii) the demonstrated ability of the State or Indian tribal government to manage the program under this section;

(iii) there being in effect a plan approved by the President as to how the State or Indian tribal government will comply with applicable Federal laws and regulations and how the State or Indian tribal government will provide assistance under its plan;

(iv) a requirement that the State or Indian tribal government comply with rules and regulations established pursuant to subsection (j); and

(v) a requirement that the President, or the designee of the President, comply with subsection (i).

(C) Requirement of housing strategy

(i) In general

A State or Indian tribal government submitting an application under this paragraph shall have an approved housing strategy, which shall be developed and submitted to the President for approval.

(ii) Requirements

The housing strategy required under clause (i) shall—

(I) outline the approach of the State in working with Federal partners, Indian tribal governments, local communities, nongovernmental organizations, and individual disaster survivors to meet disaster-related sheltering and housing needs; and

(II) include the establishment of an activation plan for a State Disaster Housing Task Force, as outlined in the National Disaster Housing Strategy, to bring together State, tribal, local, Federal, nongovernmental, and private sector expertise to evaluate housing requirements, consider potential solutions, recognize special needs populations, and propose recommendations.

(D) Quality assurance

Before approving an application submitted under this section, the President, or the designee of the President, shall institute adequate policies, procedures, and internal controls to prevent waste, fraud, abuse, and program mismanagement for this program and for programs under subsections (c)(1)(B), (c)(4), and (e). The President shall monitor and conduct quality assurance activities on a State or Indian tribal government's implementation of programs under subsections (c)(1)(B), (c)(4), and (e). If, after approving an application of a State or Indian tribal government submitted under this paragraph, the President determines that the State or Indian tribal government is not administering the program established by this section in a manner satisfactory to the President, the President shall withdraw the approval.

(E) Audits

The Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security shall provide for periodic audits of the programs administered by States and Indian tribal governments under this subsection.

(F) Applicable laws

All Federal laws applicable to the management, administration, or contracting of the programs by the Federal Emergency Management Agency under this section shall be applicable to the management, administration, or contracting by a non-Federal entity under this section.

(G) Report on effectiveness

Not later than 18 months after October 5, 2018, the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security shall submit a report to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the State or Indian tribal government's role to provide assistance under this section. The report shall contain an assessment of the effectiveness of the State or Indian tribal government's role in providing assistance under this section, including—

(i) whether the State or Indian tribal government's role helped to improve the general speed of disaster recovery;

(ii) whether the State or Indian tribal government providing assistance under this section had the capacity to administer this section; and

(iii) recommendations for changes to improve the program if the State or Indian tribal government's role to administer the programs should be continued.

(H) Report on incentives

Not later than 12 months after October 5, 2018, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall submit a report to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on a potential incentive structure for awards made under this section to encourage participation by eligible States and Indian tribal governments. In developing this report, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall consult with State, local, and Indian tribal entities to gain their input on any such incentive structure to encourage participation and shall include this information in the report. This report should address, among other options, potential adjustments to the cost-share requirement and management costs to State and Indian tribal governments.

(I) Prohibition

The President may not condition the provision of Federal assistance under this chapter on a State or Indian tribal government requesting a grant under this section.

(J) Miscellaneous

(i) Notice and comment

The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency may waive notice and comment rulemaking with respect to rules to carry out this section, if the Administrator determines doing so is necessary to expeditiously implement this section, and may carry out this section as a pilot program until such regulations are promulgated.

(ii) Final rule

Not later than 2 years after October 5, 2018, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall issue final regulations to implement this subsection as amended by the Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018.

(iii) Waiver and expiration

The authority under clause (i) and any pilot program implemented pursuant to such clause shall expire 2 years after October 5, 2018, or upon issuance of final regulations pursuant to clause (ii), whichever occurs sooner.

(g) Cost sharing

(1) Federal share

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Federal share of the costs eligible to be paid using assistance provided under this section shall be 100 percent.

(2) Financial assistance to address other needs

In the case of financial assistance provided under subsection (e)—

(A) the Federal share shall be 75 percent; and

(B) the non-Federal share shall be paid from funds made available by the State.

(h) Maximum amount of assistance

(1) In general

No individual or household shall receive financial assistance greater than $25,000 under this section with respect to a single major disaster, excluding financial assistance to rent alternate housing accommodations under subsection (c)(1)(A)(i) and financial assistance to address other needs under subsection (e).

(2) Other needs assistance

The maximum financial assistance any individual or household may receive under subsection (e) shall be equivalent to the amount set forth in paragraph (1) with respect to a single major disaster.

(3) Adjustment of limit

The limit established under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be adjusted annually to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor.

(4) Exclusion of necessary expenses for individuals with disabilities

(A) In general

The maximum amount of assistance established under paragraph (1) shall exclude expenses to repair or replace damaged accessibility-related improvements under paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of subsection (c) for individuals with disabilities.

(B) Other needs assistance

The maximum amount of assistance established under paragraph (2) shall exclude expenses to repair or replace accessibility-related personal property under subsection (e)(2) for individuals with disabilities.

(i) Verification measures

In carrying out this section, the President shall develop a system, including an electronic database, that shall allow the President, or the designee of the President, to—

(1) verify the identity and address of recipients of assistance under this section to provide reasonable assurance that payments are made only to an individual or household that is eligible for such assistance;

(2) minimize the risk of making duplicative payments or payments for fraudulent claims under this section;

(3) collect any duplicate payment on a claim under this section, or reduce the amount of subsequent payments to offset the amount of any such duplicate payment;

(4) provide instructions to recipients of assistance under this section regarding the proper use of any such assistance, regardless of how such assistance is distributed; and

(5) conduct an expedited and simplified review and appeal process for an individual or household whose application for assistance under this section is denied.

(j) Rules and regulations

The President shall prescribe rules and regulations to carry out this section, including criteria, standards, and procedures for determining eligibility for assistance.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §408, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(d), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4702; amended Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §206(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1566; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §§685, 686, 689(c), 689d, 696(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1447–1449, 1452, 1461; Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §§1103, 1108(a), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 42, 47; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §§1211(a), 1212, 1213(a), (b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3445, 3448.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f)(3)(I), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (f)(3)(J)(ii), is div. D of Pub. L. 115–254, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3438. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5174, Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §404, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 154, related to temporary housing assistance, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §106(d).

A prior section 408 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5178 of this title and to a note set out under section 5178 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii)(I)(aa). Pub. L. 115–254, §1213(b), amended item (aa) generally. Prior to amendment, item (aa) read as follows: "enter into lease agreements with owners of multifamily rental property located in areas covered by a major disaster declaration to house individuals and households eligible for assistance under this section; and".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 115–254, §1213(a), amended subcl. (II) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (II) related to improvements or repairs.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, §1211(a)(1)(A), substituted "State- or Indian tribal government-administered assistance and other needs assistance" for "Financial assistance to address other needs" in heading.

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1211(a)(1)(B), struck out "financial" before "assistance" and substituted "subsections (c)(1)(B), (c)(4), and (e) if the President and the State or Indian tribal government comply, as determined by the Administrator, with paragraph (3)" for "subsection (e)".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–254, §1211(a)(1)(C), struck out "financial" before "assistance" and substituted "subsections (c)(1)(B), (c)(4), and (e)" for "subsection (e)".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 115–254, §1211(a)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, §1212(1), inserted ", excluding financial assistance to rent alternate housing accommodations under subsection (c)(1)(A)(i) and financial assistance to address other needs under subsection (e)" after "disaster".

Subsec. (h)(2), (3). Pub. L. 115–254, §1212(2)–(4), added par. (2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and, in par. (3), substituted "paragraphs (1) and (2)" for "paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 115–254, §1212(5), added par. (4).

2013—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 113–2, §1103, added cl. (ii), redesignated former cls. (ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively, and, in cl. (iv), substituted "clause (iii)" for "clause (ii)".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 113–2, §1108(a), inserted "child care," after "dental," in heading and text.

2006—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–295, §689(c)(1), inserted ", or with respect to individuals with disabilities, rendered inaccessible or uninhabitable," after "uninhabitable".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–295, §689d(1), inserted at end "Such assistance may include the payment of the cost of utilities, excluding telephone service."

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 109–295, §689d(2), inserted "security deposits," after "hookups,".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 109–295, §686(1), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: "The amount of assistance provided to a household under this paragraph shall not exceed $5,000, as adjusted annually to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor."

Subsec. (c)(3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 109–295, §686(2), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "The amount of assistance provided to a household under this paragraph shall not exceed $10,000, as adjusted annually to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor."

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 109–295, §685, in introductory provisions, inserted "or semi-permanent" after "permanent" and struck out "remote" before "locations".

Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 109–295, §689(c)(2), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 109–295, §696(c), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

2000–Pub. L. 106–390 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text provided for temporary housing assistance through provision of temporary housing, temporary mortgage and rental payment assistance, expenditures to repair or restore owner-occupied private residential structures made uninhabitable by a major disaster which are capable of being restored quickly, and transfer of temporary housing to occupants or to States, local governments, and voluntary organizations, required notification to applicants for assistance, and set out location factors to be given consideration in the provision of assistance.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §206(d), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1571, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 5192 of this title and repealing section 5178 of this title] take effect 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]."

Reimbursement

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1211(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3447, provided that: "The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) shall reimburse State and local units of government (for requests received within a period of 3 years after the declaration of a major disaster under section 401 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170)) upon determination that a locally implemented housing solution, implemented by State or local units of government—

"(1) costs 50 percent of comparable FEMA solution or whatever the locally implemented solution costs, whichever is lower;

"(2) complies with local housing regulations and ordinances; and

"(3) the housing solution was implemented within 90 days of the disaster."

[For definition of "State" as used in section 1211(b) of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.]

§5174a. Flexibility

(a) Waiver authority

(1) Definition

In this subsection, the term "covered assistance" means assistance provided—

(A) under section 5174 of this title; and

(B) in relation to a major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 5170 or 5191, respectively, of this title on or after October 28, 2012.

(2) Authority

Notwithstanding section 3716(e) of title 31, the Administrator—

(A) subject to subparagraph (B), may waive a debt owed to the United States related to covered assistance provided to an individual or household if—

(i) the covered assistance was distributed based on an error by the Agency;

(ii) there was no fault on behalf of the debtor; and

(iii) the collection of the debt would be against equity and good conscience; and


(B) may not waive a debt under subparagraph (A) if the debt involves fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation by the debtor or any party having an interest in the claim.

(3) Monitoring of covered assistance distributed based on error

(A) In general

The Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security shall monitor the distribution of covered assistance to individuals and households to determine the percentage of such assistance distributed based on an error.

(B) Removal of waiver authority based on excessive error rate

If the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security determines, with respect to any 12-month period, that the amount of covered assistance distributed based on an error by the Agency exceeds 4 percent of the total amount of covered assistance distributed—

(i) the Inspector General shall notify the Administrator and publish the determination in the Federal Register; and

(ii) with respect to any major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 5170 or section 5191, respectively, of this title after the date on which the determination is published under subparagraph (A), the authority of the Administrator to waive debt under paragraph (2) shall no longer be effective.

(b) Recoupment of certain assistance prohibited

(1) In general

Notwithstanding section 3716(e) of title 31, and unless there is evidence of civil or criminal fraud, the Agency may not take any action to recoup covered assistance from the recipient of such assistance if the receipt of such assistance occurred on a date that is more than 3 years before the date on which the Agency first provides to the recipient written notification of an intent to recoup.

(2) Covered assistance defined

In this subsection, the term "covered assistance" means assistance provided—

(A) under section 5174 of this title; and

(B) in relation to a major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 5170 or 5191 of this title, respectively, on or after January 1, 2012.

(c) Statute of limitations

(1) Omitted

(2) Applicability

(A) In general

With respect to disaster or emergency assistance provided to a State or local government on or after January 1, 2004—

(i) no administrative action may be taken to recover a payment of such assistance after October 5, 2018, if the action is prohibited under section 5205(a)(1) of this title, as amended by paragraph (1); and

(ii) any administrative action to recover a payment of such assistance that is pending on such date of enactment shall be terminated if the action is prohibited under section 5205(a)(1) of this title, as amended by paragraph (1).

(B) Limitation

This section, including the amendments made by this section, may not be construed to invalidate or otherwise affect any administration action completed before October 5, 2018.

(Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1216, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3449.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018 and as part of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Section is comprised of section 1216 of Pub. L. 115–254. Subsec. (c)(1) of section 1216 of Pub. L. 115–254 amended section 5205 of this title.

Effective Date

Authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254, which enacted this section, applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President under Pub. L. 93–288 on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202(b) of Pub. L. 115–254, set out in an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note under section 5121 of this title.

Definitions

For definitions of terms used in this section, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.

§5174b. Critical document fee waiver

(1) In general

Notwithstanding section 214 of title 22 or any other provision of law, the President, in consultation with the Governor of a State, may provide a waiver under this subsection to an individual or household described in section 5174(e)(1) of this title for the following document replacement fees:

(A) The passport application fee for individuals who lost their United States passport in a major disaster within the preceding three calendar years.

(B) The file search fee for a United States passport.

(C) The Application for Waiver of Passport and/or Visa form (Form I–193) fee.

(D) The Permanent Resident Card replacement form (Form I–90) filing fee.

(E) The Declaration of Intention form (Form N–300) filing fee.

(F) The Naturalization/Citizenship Document replacement form (Form N–565) filing fee.

(G) The Employment Authorization form (Form I–765) filing fee.

(H) The biometric service fee.

(2) Exemption from form requirement

The authority of the President to waive fees under subparagraphs (C) through (H) of paragraph (1) applies regardless of whether the individual or household qualifies for a Form I–912 Request for Fee Waiver, or any successor thereto.

(3) Exemption from assistance maximum

The assistance limit in section 5174(h) of this title shall not apply to any fee waived under this subsection.

(4) Report

Not later than 365 days after October 5, 2018, the Administrator and the head of any other agency given critical document fee waiver authority under this subsection shall submit a report to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the costs associated with providing critical document fee waivers as described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1238(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3465.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018 and as part of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Section is comprised of subsec. (a) of section 1238 of Pub. L. 115–254. Subsecs. (b) and (c) of section 1238 of Pub. L. 115–254 amended section 5122 of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note under that section.

Effective Date

Authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254, which enacted this section, applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President under Pub. L. 93–288 on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202(b) of Pub. L. 115–254, set out in an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note under section 5121 of this title.

Definitions

For definitions of terms used in this section, see section 1203 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5122 of this title.

Delegation of Functions and Authorities Under Section 1238 of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018

Memorandum of President of the United States, Dec. 21, 2018, 84 F.R. 3957, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of Homeland Security

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby:

(1) delegate to the Secretary of State the functions and authorities vested in the President by sections 1238(a)(1)(A)–(B) of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (Public Law 115–254) [42 U.S.C. 5174b(a)(1)(A)–(B)]; and

(2) delegate to the Secretary of Homeland Security the functions and authorities vested in the President by sections 1238(a)(1)(C)–(H) of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018.

The delegations in this memorandum shall apply to any provisions of any future public law that are the same or substantially the same as the provisions referenced in this memorandum. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security may redelegate within their departments the functions and authorities delegated by this memorandum to the extent authorized by law.

The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.      

§5175. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §105(m)(2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4696

Section, Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §405, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 155, related to protection of environment.

§5176. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–390, title I, §104(c)(2), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1559

Section, Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §409, formerly §406, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 155; renumbered §409, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(e), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4703, related to minimum standards for public and private structures.

A prior section 409 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 412 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5179 of this title.

§5177. Unemployment assistance

(a) Benefit assistance

The President is authorized to provide to any individual unemployed as a result of a major disaster such benefit assistance as he deems appropriate while such individual is unemployed for the weeks of such unemployment with respect to which the individual is not entitled to any other unemployment compensation (as that term is defined in section 85(b) of title 26) or waiting period credit. Such assistance as the President shall provide shall be available to an individual as long as the individual's unemployment caused by the major disaster continues or until the individual is reemployed in a suitable position, but no longer than 26 weeks after the major disaster is declared. Such assistance for a week of unemployment shall not exceed the maximum weekly amount authorized under the unemployment compensation law of the State in which the disaster occurred. The President is directed to provide such assistance through agreements with States which, in his judgment, have an adequate system for administering such assistance through existing State agencies.

(b) Reemployment assistance

(1) State assistance

A State shall provide, without reimbursement from any funds provided under this chapter, reemployment assistance services under any other law administered by the State to individuals receiving benefits under this section.

(2) Federal assistance

The President may provide reemployment assistance services under other laws to individuals who are unemployed as a result of a major disaster and who reside in a State which does not provide such services.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §410, formerly §407, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 156; renumbered §410 and amended Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(e), (f), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4703, 4704.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 410 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 413 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5180 of this title.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–707, §106(f)(1)–(3), inserted "for the weeks of such unemployment with respect to which the individual is not entitled to any other unemployment compensation (as that term is defined in section 85(b) of title 26) or waiting period credit" for "is unemployed" before period at end of first sentence, substituted "26 weeks" for "one year" in second sentence, and substituted "occurred" for "occurred, and the amount of assistance under this section to any such individual for a week of unemployment shall be reduced by any amount of unemployment compensation or of private income protection insurance compensation available to such individual for such week of unemployment" in third sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–707, §106(f)(4), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The President is further authorized for the purposes of this chapter to provide reemployment assistance services under other laws to individuals who are unemployed as a result of a major disaster."

§5177a. Emergency grants to assist low-income migrant and seasonal farmworkers

(a) In general

The Secretary of Agriculture may make grants to public agencies or private organizations with tax exempt status under section 501(c)(3) of title 26, that have experience in providing emergency services to low-income migrant and seasonal farmworkers where the Secretary determines that a local, State or national emergency or disaster has caused low-income migrant or seasonal farmworkers to lose income, to be unable to work, or to stay home or return home in anticipation of work shortages. Emergency services to be provided with assistance received under this section may include such types of assistance as the Secretary of Agriculture determines to be necessary and appropriate.

(b) "Low-income migrant or seasonal farmworker" defined

For the purposes of this section, the term "low-income migrant or seasonal farmworker" means an individual—

(1) who has, during any consecutive 12 month period within the preceding 24 month period, performed farm work for wages;

(2) who has received not less than one-half of such individual's total income, or been employed at least one-half of total work time in farm work; and

(3) whose annual family income within the 12 month period referred to in paragraph (1) does not exceed the higher of the poverty level or 70 percent of the lower living standard income level.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §2281, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3978; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10102, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 488.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–171 struck out ", not to exceed $20,000,000 annually," after "Secretary of Agriculture may make grants".

§5178. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §206(c), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1571

Section, Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §411, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(g), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4704, related to individual and family grant programs.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective 18 months after Oct. 30, 2000, see section 206(d) of Pub. L. 106–390, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendment note under section 5174 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5178, Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §408, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 156, related to individual and family grant programs, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §106(g).

A prior section 411 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 414 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5181 of this title.

§5179. Benefits and distribution

(a) Persons eligible; terms and conditions

Whenever the President determines that, as a result of a major disaster, low-income households are unable to purchase adequate amounts of nutritious food, he is authorized, under such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, to distribute through the Secretary of Agriculture or other appropriate agencies benefit allotments to such households pursuant to the provisions of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 of 1964 1 (P.L. 91–671; 84 Stat. 2048) [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] and to make surplus commodities available pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Duration of assistance; factors considered

The President, through the Secretary of Agriculture or other appropriate agencies, is authorized to continue to make such benefit allotments and surplus commodities available to such households for so long as he determines necessary, taking into consideration such factors as he deems appropriate, including the consequences of the major disaster on the earning power of the households, to which assistance is made available under this section.

(c) Food and Nutrition Act provisions unaffected

Nothing in this section shall be construed as amending or otherwise changing the provisions of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 of 1964 1 [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] except as they relate to the availability of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits in an area affected by a major disaster.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §412, formerly §409, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 157; renumbered §412, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(h), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(C), (E), (2)(DD), 4115(c)(1)(A)(ii), (iv), (B)(v), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097, 1109; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(C), (E), (2)(DD), 4115(c)(1)(A)(ii), (iv), (B)(v), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859, 1870, 1871.)

References in Text

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 412 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 415 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5182 of this title.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–246, §4115(c)(1)(A)(iv), (B)(v), substituted "Benefits" for "Food coupons" in section catchline.

Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(C), (2)(DD), substituted "Food and Nutrition Act of 2008" for "Food Stamp Act" in subsecs. (a) and (c).

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §4115(c)(1)(A)(ii), (B)(v), substituted "benefit" for "coupon".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(E), (2)(DD), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits" for "food stamps".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by sections 4002(b)(1)(C), (E), (2)(DD), and 4115(c)(1)(A)(ii), (iv), (B)(v) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Delegation of Functions

Secretary of Agriculture designated and empowered to exercise, without approval, ratification, or other action of President, all authority vested in President by this section concerning food coupons (benefits) and distribution, see section 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 11795, as amended, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

1 So in original. See 2008 Amendment note below.

§5180. Food commodities

(a) Emergency mass feeding

The President is authorized and directed to assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and conveniently available for emergency mass feeding or distribution in any area of the United States which suffers a major disaster or emergency.

(b) Funds for purchase of food commodities

The Secretary of Agriculture shall utilize funds appropriated under section 612c of title 7, to purchase food commodities necessary to provide adequate supplies for use in any area of the United States in the event of a major disaster or emergency in such area.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §413, formerly §410, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 157; renumbered §413, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(h), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 413 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 416 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5183 of this title.

§5181. Relocation assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person otherwise eligible for any kind of replacement housing payment under the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (P.L. 91–646) [42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.] shall be denied such eligibility as a result of his being unable, because of a major disaster as determined by the President, to meet the occupancy requirements set by such Act.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §414, formerly §411, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 157; renumbered §414, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(h), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705.)

References in Text

The Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 61 (§4601 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 414(a), (b) of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 417(a), (b) by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5184 of this title.

§5182. Legal services

Whenever the President determines that low-income individuals are unable to secure legal services adequate to meet their needs as a consequence of a major disaster, consistent with the goals of the programs authorized by this chapter, the President shall assure that such programs are conducted with the advice and assistance of appropriate Federal agencies and State and local bar associations.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §415, formerly §412, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 157; renumbered §415, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(h), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 415 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 418 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5185 of this title.

§5183. Crisis counseling assistance and training

The President is authorized to provide professional counseling services, including financial assistance to State or local agencies or private mental health organizations to provide such services or training of disaster workers, to victims of major disasters in order to relieve mental health problems caused or aggravated by such major disaster or its aftermath.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §416, formerly §413, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 157; renumbered §416 and amended Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(i), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 416 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 419 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5186 of this title.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–707 struck out "(through the National Institute of Mental Health)" after "authorized".

§5184. Community disaster loans

(a) In general

The President is authorized to make loans to any local government which may suffer a substantial loss of tax and other revenues as a result of a major disaster, and has demonstrated a need for financial assistance in order to perform its governmental functions.

(b) Amount

The amount of any such loan shall be based on need, shall not exceed—

(1) 25 percent of the annual operating budget of that local government for the fiscal year in which the major disaster occurs, and shall not exceed $5,000,000; or

(2) if the loss of tax and other revenues of the local government as a result of the major disaster is at least 75 percent of the annual operating budget of that local government for the fiscal year in which the major disaster occurs, 50 percent of the annual operating budget of that local government for the fiscal year in which the major disaster occurs, and shall not exceed $5,000,000.

(c) Repayment

(1) Cancellation

Repayment of all or any part of such loan to the extent that revenues of the local government during the three full fiscal year period following the major disaster are insufficient to meet the operating budget of the local government, including additional disaster-related expenses of a municipal operation character shall be cancelled.

(2) Condition on continuing eligibility

A local government shall not be eligible for further assistance under this section during any period in which the local government is in arrears with respect to a required repayment of a loan under this section.

(d) Effect on other assistance

Any loans made under this section shall not reduce or otherwise affect any grants or other assistance under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §417, formerly §414(a), (b), May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 158; renumbered §417, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(j), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705; Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §207, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1571; Pub. L. 109–347, title VI, §608, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1942.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Prior to renumbering as section 417, section 414 of Pub. L. 93–288 contained a subsec. (c) which was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1082.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 417 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 420 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5187 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–347 substituted "exceed—

"(1) 25 percent"

for "exceed 25 per centum" and "; or" for period at end and added par. (2).

2000Pub. L. 106–390, §207(1)–(3), designated first sentence of subsec. (a) as subsec. (a) and inserted subsec. heading, designated second sentence of subsec. (a) as subsec. (b) and inserted subsec. heading, and designated third sentence of subsec. (a) as subsec. (c)(1) and inserted subsec. and par. headings. Former subsec. (b) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–390, §207(5), substituted "shall not exceed" for "and shall not exceed" and inserted before period at end ", and shall not exceed $5,000,000".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 106–390, §207(6), added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–390, §207(4), redesignated subsec. (b) as (d) and inserted subsec. heading.

Community Emergency Drought Relief

Pub. L. 95–31, title I, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 169, provided: "That this Act be cited as the 'Community Emergency Drought Relief Act of 1977'.

"Sec. 101. (a) Upon the application of any State, political subdivision of a State, Indian tribe, or public or private nonprofit organization, the Secretary of Commerce is authorized to make grants and loans to applicants in drought impacted areas for projects that implement short-term actions to augment community water supplies where there are severe problems due to water shortages. Such assistance may be for the improvement, expansion, or construction of water supplies, and purchase and transportation of water, which in the opinion of the Secretary of Commerce will make a substantial contribution to the relief of an existing or threatened drought condition in a designated area.

"(b) The Secretary of Commerce may designate any area in the United States as an emergency drought impact area if he or she finds that a major and continuing adverse drought condition exists and is expected to continue, and such condition is causing significant hardships on the affected areas.

"(c) Eligible applicants shall be those States or political subdivisions of States with a population of ten thousand or more, Indian tribes, or public or private nonprofit organizations within areas designated pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

"(d) Projects assisted under this Act shall be only those with respect to which assurances can be given to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce that the work can be completed by April 30, 1978, or within such extended time as the Secretary may approve in exceptional circumstances.

"Sec. 102. Grants hereunder shall be in an amount not to exceed 50 per centum of allowable project costs. Loans shall be for a term not to exceed 40 years at a per annum interest rate of 5 per centum and shall be on such terms and conditions as the Secretary of Commerce shall determine. In determining the amount of a grant assistance for any project, the Secretary of Commerce may take into consideration such factors as are established by regulation and are consistent with the purposes of this Act.

"Sec. 103. In extending assistance under this Act the Secretary shall take into consideration the relative needs of applicant areas for the projects for which assistance is requested, and the appropriateness of the project for relieving the conditions intended to be alleviated by this Act.

"Sec. 104. The Secretary of Commerce shall have such powers and authorities under this Act as are vested in the Secretary by sections 701 and 708 of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965, as amended [sections 3211 and 3218 of this title], with respect to that Act [section 3121 et seq. of this title].

"Sec. 105. The National Environmental Protection Act of 1969, as amended [section 4321 et seq. of this title], shall be implemented to the fullest extent consistent with but subject to the time constraints imposed by this Act, and the Secretary of Commerce when making the final determination regarding an application for assistance hereunder shall give consideration to the environmental consequences determined within that period.

"Sec. 106. (a) There is hereby authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1977, $225,000,000 of which sum $150,000,000 is to be for the loan program herein, including administration thereof, and $75,000,000 of which is to be used for the grant program herein, including administration thereof, and such additional amounts for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978, as may be reasonably needed for administrative expenses in monitoring and closing out the program authorized by the Act. Funds authorized by this Act shall be obligated by December 31, 1977.

"(b) Funds available to the Secretary for this Act shall be available for expenditure for drought impact projects conducted heretofore by eligible applicants during fiscal year 1977 if such projects are found to be compatible with the broad purposes of this Act."

§5185. Emergency communications

The President is authorized during, or in anticipation of, an emergency or major disaster to establish temporary communications systems and to make such communications available to State and local government officials and other persons as he deems appropriate.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §418, formerly §415, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 158; renumbered §418, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(j), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 418 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 421 by Pub. L. 100–707 and is classified to section 5188 of this title.

§5186. Emergency public transportation

The President is authorized to provide temporary public transportation service in an area affected by a major disaster to meet emergency needs and to provide transportation to governmental offices, supply centers, stores, post offices, schools, major employment centers, and such other places as may be necessary in order to enable the community to resume its normal pattern of life as soon as possible.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §419, formerly §416, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 158; renumbered §419, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(j), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 419 of Pub. L. 93–288 was classified to section 5189 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707.

§5187. Fire management assistance

(a) In general

The President is authorized to provide assistance, including grants, equipment, supplies, and personnel, to any State or local government for the mitigation, management, and control of any fire on public or private forest land or grassland that threatens such destruction as would constitute a major disaster.

(b) Coordination with State and tribal departments of forestry

In providing assistance under this section, the President shall coordinate with State and tribal departments of forestry.

(c) Essential assistance

In providing assistance under this section, the President may use the authority provided under section 5170b of this title.

(d) Hazard mitigation assistance

Whether or not a major disaster is declared, the President may provide hazard mitigation assistance in accordance with section 5170c of this title in any area affected by a fire for which assistance was provided under this section.

(e) Rules and regulations

The President shall prescribe such rules and regulations as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §420, formerly §417, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 158; renumbered §420, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(j), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705; Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §303(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1204(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3438.)

Amendments

2018—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 115–254 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

2000Pub. L. 106–390 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The President is authorized to provide assistance, including grants, equipment, supplies, and personnel, to any State for the suppression of any fire on publicly or privately owned forest or grassland which threatens such destruction as would constitute a major disaster."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §303(b), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1573, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] takes effect 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]."

Reporting Requirement

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1204(c), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3439, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018] and annually thereafter, the Administrator [of the Federal Emergency Management Agency] shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report containing a summary of any projects carried out, and any funding provided to those projects, under subsection (d) of section 420 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5187) (as amended by this section)."

§5188. Timber sale contracts

(a) Cost-sharing arrangement

Where an existing timber sale contract between the Secretary of Agriculture or the Secretary of the Interior and a timber purchaser does not provide relief from major physical change not due to negligence of the purchaser prior to approval of construction of any section of specified road or of any other specified development facility and, as a result of a major disaster, a major physical change results in additional construction work in connection with such road or facility by such purchaser with an estimated cost, as determined by the appropriate Secretary, (1) of more than $1,000 for sales under one million board feet, (2) of more than $1 per thousand board feet for sales of one to three million board feet, or (3) of more than $3,000 for sales over three million board feet, such increased construction cost shall be borne by the United States.

(b) Cancellation of authority

If the appropriate Secretary determines that damages are so great that restoration, reconstruction, or construction is not practical under the cost-sharing arrangement authorized by subsection (a) of this section, he may allow cancellation of a contract entered into by his Department notwithstanding contrary provisions therein.

(c) Public notice of sale

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to reduce to seven days the minimum period of advance public notice required by section 476 1 of title 16, in connection with the sale of timber from national forests, whenever the Secretary determines that (1) the sale of such timber will assist in the construction of any area of a State damaged by a major disaster, (2) the sale of such timber will assist in sustaining the economy of such area, or (3) the sale of such timber is necessary to salvage the value of timber damaged in such major disaster or to protect undamaged timber.

(d) State grants for removal of damaged timber; reimbursement of expenses limited to salvage value of removed timber

The President, when he determines it to be in the public interest, is authorized to make grants to any State or local government for the purpose of removing from privately owned lands timber damaged as a result of a major disaster, and such State or local government is authorized upon application, to make payments out of such grants to any person for reimbursement of expenses actually incurred by such person in the removal of damaged timber, not to exceed the amount that such expenses exceed the salvage value of such timber.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §421, formerly §418, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 158; renumbered §421, Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(j), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705.)

References in Text

Section 476 of title 16, referred to in subsec. (c), was repealed by Pub. L. 94–588, §13, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2958.

1 See References in Text note below.

§5189. Simplified procedure

(a) In general

If the Federal estimate of the cost of—

(1) repairing, restoring, reconstructing, or replacing under section 5172 of this title any damaged or destroyed public facility or private nonprofit facility,

(2) emergency assistance under section 5170b or 5192 of this title, or

(3) debris removed under section 5173 of this title,


is less than $35,000 (or, if the Administrator has established a threshold under subsection (b), the amount established under subsection (b)), the President (on application of the State or local government or the owner or operator of the private nonprofit facility) may make the contribution to such State or local government or owner or operator under section 5170b, 5172, 5173, or 5192 of this title, as the case may be, on the basis of such Federal estimate. Such $35,000 amount or, if applicable, the amount established under subsection (b), shall be adjusted annually to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor.

(b) Threshold

(1) Report

Not later than 1 year after January 29, 2013, the President, acting through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (in this section referred to as the "Administrator"), shall—

(A) complete an analysis to determine whether an increase in the threshold for eligibility under subsection (a) is appropriate, which shall include consideration of cost-effectiveness, speed of recovery, capacity of grantees, past performance, and accountability measures; and

(B) submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report regarding the analysis conducted under subparagraph (A).

(2) Amount

After the Administrator submits the report required under paragraph (1), the President shall direct the Administrator to—

(A) immediately establish a threshold for eligibility under this section in an appropriate amount, without regard to chapter 5 of title 5; and

(B) adjust the threshold annually to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor.

(3) Review

Not later than 3 years after the date on which the Administrator establishes a threshold under paragraph (2), and every 3 years thereafter, the President, acting through the Administrator, shall review the threshold for eligibility under this section.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §422, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(k), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705; amended Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1107, Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 46.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5189, Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §419, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 159, related to alternate contributions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–707, §106(k).

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–2, §1107(3), which directed insertion of "or, if applicable, the amount established under subsection (b)," after "$35,000 amount" the second place appearing, was executed by making the insertion after "$35,000 amount" the only place that phrase appeared, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 113–2, §1107(1), (2), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and inserted "(or, if the Administrator has established a threshold under subsection (b), the amount established under subsection (b))" after "less than $35,000" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–2, §1107(4), added subsec. (b).

§5189a. Appeals of assistance decisions

(a) Right of appeal

Any decision regarding eligibility for, from, or amount of assistance under this subchapter may be appealed within 60 days after the date on which the applicant for such assistance is notified of the award or denial of award of such assistance.

(b) Period for decision

A decision regarding an appeal under subsection (a) shall be rendered within 90 days after the date on which the Federal official designated to administer such appeals receives notice of such appeal.

(c) Rules

The President shall issue rules which provide for the fair and impartial consideration of appeals under this section.

(d) Right of arbitration

(1) In general

Notwithstanding this section, an applicant for assistance under this subchapter may request arbitration to dispute the eligibility for assistance or repayment of assistance provided for a dispute of more than $500,000 for any disaster that occurred after January 1, 2016. Such arbitration shall be conducted by the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals and the decision of such Board shall be binding.

(2) Review

The Civilian Board of Contract Appeals shall consider from the applicant all original and additional documentation, testimony, or other such evidence supporting the applicant's position at any time during arbitration.

(3) Rural areas

For an applicant for assistance in a rural area under this subchapter, the assistance amount eligible for arbitration pursuant to this subsection shall be $100,000.

(4) Rural area defined

For the purposes of this subsection, the term "rural area" means an area with a population of less than 200,000 outside an urbanized area.

(5) Eligibility

To participate in arbitration under this subsection, an applicant—

(A) shall submit the dispute to the arbitration process established under the authority granted under section 601 of Public Law 111–5; and

(B) may submit a request for arbitration after the completion of the first appeal under subsection (a) at any time before the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency has issued a final agency determination or 180 days after the Administrator's receipt of the appeal if the Administrator has not provided the applicant with a final determination on the appeal. The applicant's request shall contain documentation from the administrative record for the first appeal and may contain additional documentation supporting the applicant's position.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §423, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(l), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4705; amended Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1219, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3452.)

References in Text

Section 601 of Public Law 111–5, referred to in subsec. (d)(5)(A), is Pub. L. 111–5, div. A, title VI, §601, Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 164, which is not classified to the Code.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–254 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

Dispute Resolution Pilot Program

Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1105, Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 43, as amended by Pub. L. 114–301, §2(c), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1514, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

"(1) Administrator.—The term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

"(2) Eligible assistance.—The term 'eligible assistance' means assistance—

"(A) under section 403, 406, or 407 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170b, 5172, 5173);

"(B) for which the legitimate amount in dispute is not less than $1,000,000, which sum the Administrator shall adjust annually to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor;

"(C) for which the applicant has a non-Federal share; and

"(D) for which the applicant has received a decision on a first appeal.

"(b) Procedures.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this section [Jan. 29, 2013], and in order to facilitate an efficient recovery from major disasters, the Administrator shall establish procedures under which an applicant may request the use of alternative dispute resolution, including arbitration by an independent review panel, to resolve disputes relating to eligible assistance.

"(2) Binding effect.—A decision by an independent review panel under this section shall be binding upon the parties to the dispute.

"(3) Considerations.—The procedures established under this section shall—

"(A) allow a party of a dispute relating to eligible assistance to request an independent review panel for the review;

"(B) require a party requesting an independent review panel as described in subparagraph (A) to agree to forgo rights to any further appeal of the dispute relating to any eligible assistance;

"(C) require that the sponsor of an independent review panel for any alternative dispute resolution under this section be—

"(i) an individual or entity unaffiliated with the dispute (which may include a Federal agency, an administrative law judge, or a reemployed annuitant who was an employee of the Federal Government) selected by the Administrator; and

"(ii) responsible for identifying and maintaining an adequate number of independent experts qualified to review and resolve disputes under this section;

"(D) require an independent review panel to—

"(i) resolve any remaining disputed issue in accordance with all applicable laws, regulations, and Agency interpretations of those laws through its published policies and guidance;

"(ii) consider only evidence contained in the administrative record, as it existed at the time at which the Agency made its initial decision;

"(iii) only set aside a decision of the Agency found to be arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law; and

"(iv) in the case of a finding of material fact adverse to the claimant made on first appeal, only set aside or reverse such finding if the finding is clearly erroneous;

"(E) require an independent review panel to expeditiously issue a written decision for any alternative dispute resolution under this section; and

"(F) direct that if an independent review panel for any alternative dispute resolution under this section determines that the basis upon which a party submits a request for alternative dispute resolution is frivolous, the independent review panel shall direct the party to pay the reasonable costs to the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating to the review by the independent review panel. Any funds received by the Federal Emergency Management Agency under the authority of this section shall be deposited to the credit of the appropriation or appropriations available for the eligible assistance in dispute on the date on which the funds are received.

"(c) Sunset.—A request for review by an independent review panel under this section may not be made after December 31, 2015."

§5189b. Date of eligibility; expenses incurred before date of disaster

Eligibility for Federal assistance under this subchapter shall begin on the date of the occurrence of the event which results in a declaration by the President that a major disaster exists; except that reasonable expenses which are incurred in anticipation of and immediately preceding such event may be eligible for Federal assistance under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §424, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §106(l), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4706.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

§5189c. Transportation assistance to individuals and households

The President may provide transportation assistance to relocate individuals displaced from their predisaster primary residences as a result of an incident declared under this chapter or otherwise transported from their predisaster primary residences under section 5170b(a)(3) or 5192 of this title, to and from alternative locations for short or long-term accommodation or to return an individual or household to their predisaster primary residence or alternative location, as determined necessary by the President.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §425, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §689f, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1452.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Another section 425 of Pub. L. 93–288 was renumbered section 427 and is classified to section 5189e of this title.

§5189d. Case management services

The President may provide case management services, including financial assistance, to State or local government agencies or qualified private organizations to provide such services, to victims of major disasters to identify and address unmet needs.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §426, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §689f, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1453.)

§5189e. Essential service providers

(a) Definition

In this section, the term "essential service provider" means an entity that—

(1)(A) provides

(i) wireline or mobile telephone service, Internet access service, radio or television broadcasting, cable service, or direct broadcast satellite service;

(ii) electrical power;

(iii) natural gas;

(iv) water and sewer services; or

(v) any other essential service, as determined by the President; or


(B) is a tower owner or operator;

(2) is—

(A) a municipal entity;

(B) a nonprofit entity; or

(C) a private, for profit entity; and


(3) is contributing to efforts to respond to an emergency or major disaster.

(b) Authorization for accessibility

Unless exceptional circumstances apply, in an emergency or major disaster, the head of a Federal agency, to the greatest extent practicable, shall not—

(1) deny or impede access to the disaster site to an essential service provider whose access is necessary to restore and repair an essential service; or

(2) impede the restoration or repair of the services described in subsection (a)(1).

(c) Implementation

In implementing this section, the head of a Federal agency shall follow all applicable Federal laws, regulations, and policies.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §427, formerly §425, as added Pub. L. 109–347, title VI, §607, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1941; renumbered §427, Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1102(1), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 39; amended Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title III, §302, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1087.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–141 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (E) as cls. (i) to (v), respectively, of subpar. (A), substituted "wireline or mobile telephone service, Internet access service, radio or television broadcasting, cable service, or direct broadcast satellite service" for "telecommunications service" in cl. (i), and added subpar. (B).

§5189f. Public assistance program alternative procedures

(a) Approval of projects

The President, acting through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, may approve projects under the alternative procedures adopted under this section for any major disaster or emergency declared on or after January 29, 2013. The Administrator may also apply the alternate procedures adopted under this section to a major disaster or emergency declared before enactment of this Act for which construction has not begun as of the date of enactment of this Act.1

(b) Adoption

The Administrator, in coordination with States, tribal and local governments, and owners or operators of private nonprofit facilities, may adopt alternative procedures to administer assistance provided under sections 5170b(a)(3)(A), 5172, 5173, and 5192(a)(5) of this title.

(c) Goals of procedures

The alternative procedures adopted under subsection (a) shall further the goals of—

(1) reducing the costs to the Federal Government of providing such assistance;

(2) increasing flexibility in the administration of such assistance;

(3) expediting the provision of such assistance to a State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility; and

(4) providing financial incentives and disincentives for a State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility for the timely and cost-effective completion of projects with such assistance.

(d) Participation

(1) In general

Participation in the alternative procedures adopted under this section shall be at the election of a State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility consistent with procedures determined by the Administrator.

(2) No conditions

The President may not condition the provision of Federal assistance under this chapter on the election by a State, local, or Indian tribal government, or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility to participate in the alternative procedures adopted under this section.

(e) Minimum procedures

The alternative procedures adopted under this section shall include the following:

(1) For repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities under section 5172 of this title

(A) making grants on the basis of fixed estimates, if the State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of the private nonprofit facility agrees to be responsible for any actual costs that exceed the estimate;

(B) providing an option for a State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility to elect to receive an in-lieu contribution, without reduction, on the basis of estimates of—

(i) the cost of repair, restoration, reconstruction, or replacement of a public facility owned or controlled by the State, tribal or local government or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility; and

(ii) management expenses;


(C) consolidating, to the extent determined appropriate by the Administrator, the facilities of a State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility as a single project based upon the estimates adopted under the procedures;

(D) if the actual costs of a project completed under the procedures are less than the estimated costs thereof, the Administrator may permit a grantee or subgrantee to use all or part of the excess funds for—

(i) cost-effective activities that reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, or suffering from a major disaster; and

(ii) other activities to improve future Public Assistance operations or planning;


(E) in determining eligible costs under section 5172 of this title, the Administrator shall make available, at an applicant's request and where the Administrator or the certified cost estimate prepared by the applicant's professionally licensed engineers has estimated an eligible Federal share for a project of at least $5,000,000, an independent expert panel to validate the estimated eligible cost consistent with applicable regulations and policies implementing this section;

(F) in determining eligible costs under section 5172 of this title, the Administrator shall, at the applicant's request, consider properly conducted and certified cost estimates prepared by professionally licensed engineers (mutually agreed upon by the Administrator and the applicant), to the extent that such estimates comply with applicable regulations, policy, and guidance; and

(G) once certified by a professionally licensed engineer and accepted by the Administrator, the estimates on which grants made pursuant to this section are based shall be presumed to be reasonable and eligible costs, as long as there is no evidence of fraud.


(2) For debris removal under sections 5170b(a)(3)(A), 5173, and 5192(a)(5) of this title

(A) making grants on the basis of fixed estimates to provide financial incentives and disincentives for the timely or cost-effective completion if the State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of the private nonprofit facility agrees to be responsible to pay for any actual costs that exceed the estimate;

(B) using a sliding scale for determining the Federal share for removal of debris and wreckage based on the time it takes to complete debris and wreckage removal;

(C) allowing use of program income from recycled debris without offset to the grant amount;

(D) reimbursing base and overtime wages for employees and extra hires of a State, tribal or local government, or owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility performing or administering debris and wreckage removal;

(E) providing incentives to a State or tribal or local government to have a debris management plan approved by the Administrator and have pre-qualified 1 or more debris and wreckage removal contractors before the date of declaration of the major disaster; and

(F) if the actual costs of projects under subparagraph (A) are less than the estimated costs of the project, the Administrator may permit a grantee or subgrantee to use all or part of the excess funds for—

(i) debris management planning;

(ii) acquisition of debris management equipment for current or future use; and

(iii) other activities to improve future debris removal operations, as determined by the Administrator.

(f) Waiver authority

Until such time as the Administrator promulgates regulations to implement this section, the Administrator may—

(1) waive notice and comment rulemaking, if the Administrator determines the waiver is necessary to expeditiously implement this section; and

(2) carry out the alternative procedures under this section as a pilot program.

(g) Overtime payments

The guidelines for reimbursement for costs under subsection (e)(2)(D) shall ensure that no State or local government is denied reimbursement for overtime payments that are required pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.).

(h) Report

(1) In general

Not earlier than 3 years, and not later than 5 years, after January 29, 2013, the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the alternative procedures for the repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities under section 5172 of this title authorized under this section.

(2) Contents

The report shall contain an assessment of the effectiveness of the alternative procedures, including—

(A) whether the alternative procedures helped to improve the general speed of disaster recovery;

(B) the accuracy of the estimates relied upon;

(C) whether the financial incentives and disincentives were effective;

(D) whether the alternative procedures were cost effective;

(E) whether the independent expert panel described in subsection (e)(1)(E) was effective; and

(F) recommendations for whether the alternative procedures should be continued and any recommendations for changes to the alternative procedures.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §428, as added Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1102(2), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 39; amended Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1207(c), (d), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3440, 3441.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 113–2, which enacted this section and was approved Jan. 29, 2013.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, referred to in subsec. (g), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 676, 52 Stat. 1060, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§201 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 201 of Title 29 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–254, §1207(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e)(1)(G). Pub. L. 115–254, §1207(d), added subpar. (G).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 5121 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§5189g. Unified Federal review

(a) In general

Not later than 18 months after January 29, 2013, and in consultation with the Council on Environmental Quality and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the President shall establish an expedited and unified interagency review process to ensure compliance with environmental and historic requirements under Federal law relating to disaster recovery projects, in order to expedite the recovery process, consistent with applicable law.

(b) Contents

The review process established under this section shall include mechanisms to expeditiously address delays that may occur during the recovery from a major disaster and be updated, as appropriate, consistent with applicable law.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §429, as added Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1106, Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 45.)

Unified Federal Environmental and Historic Preservation Review

Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1220, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3453, provided that:

"(a) Review and Analysis.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Federal Emergency Management Agency] shall review the Unified Federal Environmental and Historic Preservation review process established pursuant to section 429 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5189g), and submit a report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate that includes the following:

"(1) An analysis of whether and how the unified process has expedited the interagency review process to ensure compliance with the environmental and historic requirements under Federal law relating to disaster recovery projects.

"(2) A survey and analysis of categorical exclusions used by other Federal agencies that may be applicable to any activity related to a major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 401 or 501, respectively, of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170, 5191).

"(3) Recommendations on any further actions, including any legislative proposals, needed to expedite and streamline the review process.

"(b) Regulations.—After completing the review, survey, and analyses under subsection (a), but not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, and after providing notice and opportunity for public comment, the Administrator shall issue regulations to implement any regulatory recommendations, including any categorical exclusions identified under subsection (a), to the extent that the categorical exclusions meet the criteria for a categorical exclusion under section 1508.4 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, and section II of DHS Instruction Manual 023–01–001–01."

§5189h. Agency accountability

(a) Public assistance

Not later than 5 days after an award of a public assistance grant is made under section 5172 of this title that is in excess of $1,000,000, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall publish on the website of the Federal Emergency Management Agency the specifics of each such grant award, including—

(1) identifying the Federal Emergency Management Agency Region;

(2) the disaster or emergency declaration number;

(3) the State, county, and applicant name;

(4) if the applicant is a private nonprofit organization;

(5) the damage category code;

(6) the amount of the Federal share obligated; and

(7) the date of the award.

(b) Mission assignments

(1) In general

Not later than 5 days after the issuance of a mission assignment or mission assignment task order, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall publish on the website of the Federal Emergency Management Agency any mission assignment or mission assignment task order to another Federal department or agency regarding a major disaster in excess of $1,000,000, including—

(A) the name of the impacted State or Indian Tribe;

(B) the disaster declaration for such State or Indian Tribe;

(C) the assigned agency;

(D) the assistance requested;

(E) a description of the disaster;

(F) the total cost estimate;

(G) the amount obligated;

(H) the State or Indian tribal government cost share, if applicable;

(I) the authority under which the mission assignment or mission assignment task order was directed; and

(J) if applicable, the date a State or Indian Tribe requested the mission assignment.

(2) Recording changes

Not later than 10 days after the last day of each month until a mission assignment or mission assignment task order described in paragraph (1) is completed and closed out, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall update any changes to the total cost estimate and the amount obligated.

(c) Disaster relief monthly report

Not later than 10 days after the first day of each month, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall publish on the website of the Federal Emergency Management Agency reports, including a specific description of the methodology and the source data used in developing such reports, including—

(1) an estimate of the amounts for the fiscal year covered by the President's most recent budget pursuant to section 1105(a) of title 31 including—

(A) the unobligated balance of funds to be carried over from the prior fiscal year to the budget year;

(B) the unobligated balance of funds to be carried over from the budget year to the budget year plus 1;

(C) the amount of obligations for noncatastrophic events for the budget year;

(D) the amount of obligations for the budget year for catastrophic events delineated by event and by State;

(E) the total amount that has been previously obligated or will be required for catastrophic events delineated by event and by State for all prior years, the current fiscal year, the budget year, and each fiscal year thereafter;

(F) the amount of previously obligated funds that will be recovered for the budget year;

(G) the amount that will be required for obligations for emergencies, as described in section 5122(1) of this title, major disasters, as described in section 5122(2) of this title, fire management assistance grants, as described in section 5187 of this title, surge activities, and disaster readiness and support activities; and

(H) the amount required for activities not covered under section 901(b)(2)(D)(iii) of title 2; and


(2) an estimate or actual amounts, if available, of the following for the current fiscal year, which shall be submitted not later than the fifth day of each month, published by the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency on the website of the Federal Emergency Management Agency not later than the fifth day of each month:

(A) A summary of the amount of appropriations made available by source, the transfers executed, the previously allocated funds recovered, and the commitments, allocations, and obligations made.

(B) A table of disaster relief activity delineated by month, including—

(i) the beginning and ending balances;

(ii) the total obligations to include amounts obligated for fire assistance, emergencies, surge, and disaster support activities;

(iii) the obligations for catastrophic events delineated by event and by State; and

(iv) the amount of previously obligated funds that are recovered.


(C) A summary of allocations, obligations, and expenditures for catastrophic events delineated by event.

(D) The cost of the following categories of spending:

(i) Public assistance.

(ii) Individual assistance.

(iii) Mitigation.

(iv) Administrative.

(v) Operations.

(vi) Any other relevant category (including emergency measures and disaster resources) delineated by disaster.


(E) The date on which funds appropriated will be exhausted.

(d) Contracts

(1) Information

Not later than 10 days after the first day of each month, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall publish on the website of the Federal Emergency Management Agency the specifics of each contract in excess of $1,000,000 that the Federal Emergency Management Agency enters into, including—

(A) the name of the party;

(B) the date the contract was awarded;

(C) the amount and scope of the contract;

(D) if the contract was awarded through a competitive bidding process;

(E) if no competitive bidding process was used, the reason why competitive bidding was not used; and

(F) the authority used to bypass the competitive bidding process.


The information shall be delineated by disaster, if applicable, and specify the damage category code, if applicable.

(2) Report

Not later than 10 days after the last day of the fiscal year, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall provide a report to the appropriate committees of Congress summarizing the following information for the preceding fiscal year:

(A) The number of contracts awarded without competitive bidding.

(B) The reasons why a competitive bidding process was not used.

(C) The total amount of contracts awarded with no competitive bidding.

(D) The damage category codes, if applicable, for contracts awarded without competitive bidding.

(e) Collection of public assistance recipient and subrecipient contracts

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after October 5, 2018, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall initiate and maintain an effort to collect and store information, prior to the project closeout phase on any contract entered into by a public assistance recipient or subrecipient that through the base award, available options, or any subsequent modifications has an estimated value of more than $1,000,000 and is funded through section 5165b, 5170b, 5170c, 5172, 5173, 5189f, or 5192 of this title, including—

(A) the disaster number, project worksheet number, and the category of work associated with each contract;

(B) the name of each party;

(C) the date the contract was awarded;

(D) the amount of the contract;

(E) the scope of the contract;

(F) the period of performance for the contract; and

(G) whether the contract was awarded through a competitive bidding process.

(2) Availability of information collected

The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall make the information collected and stored under paragraph (1) available to the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security, the Government Accountability Office, and appropriate committees of Congress, upon request.

(3) Report

Not later than 365 days after October 5, 2018, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall submit a report to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the efforts of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to collect the information described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 93–288, title IV, §430, as added Pub. L. 115–254, div. D, §1224, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3455.)

Effective Date

Enactment of section by Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Aug. 1, 2017, and authorities provided under div. D of Pub. L. 115–254 applicable to each major disaster and emergency declared by the President on or after Jan. 1, 2016, except as otherwise provided, see section 1202 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note under section 5121 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV–A—EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

§5191. Procedure for declaration

(a) Request and declaration

All requests for a declaration by the President that an emergency exists shall be made by the Governor of the affected State. Such a request shall be based on a finding that the situation is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the State and the affected local governments and that Federal assistance is necessary. As a part of such request, and as a prerequisite to emergency assistance under this chapter, the Governor shall take appropriate action under State law and direct execution of the State's emergency plan. The Governor shall furnish information describing the State and local efforts and resources which have been or will be used to alleviate the emergency, and will define the type and extent of Federal aid required. Based upon such Governor's request, the President may declare that an emergency exists.

(b) Certain emergencies involving Federal primary responsibility

The President may exercise any authority vested in him by section 5192 of this title or section 5193 of this title with respect to an emergency when he determines that an emergency exists for which the primary responsibility for response rests with the United States because the emergency involves a subject area for which, under the Constitution or laws of the United States, the United States exercises exclusive or preeminent responsibility and authority. In determining whether or not such an emergency exists, the President shall consult the Governor of any affected State, if practicable. The President's determination may be made without regard to subsection (a).

(c) Indian tribal government requests

(1) In general

The Chief Executive of an affected Indian tribal government may submit a request for a declaration by the President that an emergency exists consistent with the requirements of subsection (a).

(2) References

In implementing assistance authorized by the President under this subchapter in response to a request of the Chief Executive of an affected Indian tribal government for an emergency declaration, any reference in this subchapter or subchapter III (except sections 5153 and 5165d of this title) to a State or the Governor of a State is deemed to refer to an affected Indian tribal government or the Chief Executive of an affected Indian tribal government, as appropriate.

(3) Savings provision

Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit an Indian tribal government from receiving assistance under this subchapter through a declaration made by the President at the request of a State under subsection (a) if the President does not make a declaration under this subsection for the same incident.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title V, §501, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §107(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4706; amended Pub. L. 113–2, div. B, §1110(b), Jan. 29, 2013, 127 Stat. 48.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 501 of Pub. L. 93–288 enacted subchapter VIII (§3231 et seq.) of chapter 38 of this title.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–2 added subsec. (c).

§5192. Federal emergency assistance

(a) Specified

In any emergency, the President may—

(1) direct any Federal agency, with or without reimbursement, to utilize its authorities and the resources granted to it under Federal law (including personnel, equipment, supplies, facilities, and managerial, technical and advisory services) in support of State and local emergency assistance efforts to save lives, protect property and public health and safety, and lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe, including precautionary evacuations;

(2) coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance) provided by Federal agencies, private organizations, and State and local governments;

(3) provide technical and advisory assistance to affected State and local governments for—

(A) the performance of essential community services;

(B) issuance of warnings of risks or hazards;

(C) public health and safety information, including dissemination of such information;

(D) provision of health and safety measures; and

(E) management, control, and reduction of immediate threats to public health and safety;


(4) provide emergency assistance through Federal agencies;

(5) remove debris in accordance with the terms and conditions of section 5173 of this title;

(6) provide assistance in accordance with section 5174 of this title;

(7) assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and other consumable supplies, and emergency assistance; and

(8) provide accelerated Federal assistance and Federal support where necessary to save lives, prevent human suffering, or mitigate severe damage, which may be provided in the absence of a specific request and in which case the President—

(A) shall, to the fullest extent practicable, promptly notify and coordinate with a State in which such assistance or support is provided; and

(B) shall not, in notifying and coordinating with a State under subparagraph (A), delay or impede the rapid deployment, use, and distribution of critical resources to victims of an emergency.

(b) General

Whenever the Federal assistance provided under subsection (a) with respect to an emergency is inadequate, the President may also provide assistance with respect to efforts to save lives, protect property and public health and safety, and lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe, including precautionary evacuations.

(c) Guidelines

The President shall promulgate and maintain guidelines to assist Governors in requesting the declaration of an emergency in advance of a natural or man-made disaster (including for the purpose of seeking assistance with special needs and other evacuation efforts) under this section by defining the types of assistance available to affected States and the circumstances under which such requests are likely to be approved.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title V, §502, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §107(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4706; amended Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §206(b), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §681(b), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1444.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(b)(1)(A), inserted ", including precautionary evacuations" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(b)(1)(B)–(D), added par. (8).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(b)(2), inserted ", including precautionary evacuations" before period at end.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–295, §681(b)(3), added subsec. (c).

2000—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 106–390 struck out "temporary housing" after "provide".

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–390 effective 18 months after Oct. 30, 2000, see section 206(d) of Pub. L. 106–390, set out as a note under section 5174 of this title.

§5193. Amount of assistance

(a) Federal share

The Federal share for assistance provided under this subchapter shall be equal to not less than 75 percent of the eligible costs.

(b) Limit on amount of assistance

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), total assistance provided under this subchapter for a single emergency shall not exceed $5,000,000.

(2) Additional assistance

The limitation described in paragraph (1) may be exceeded when the President determines that—

(A) continued emergency assistance is immediately required;

(B) there is a continuing and immediate risk to lives, property, public health or safety; and

(C) necessary assistance will not otherwise be provided on a timely basis.

(3) Report

Whenever the limitation described in paragraph (1) is exceeded, the President shall report to the Congress on the nature and extent of emergency assistance requirements and shall propose additional legislation if necessary.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title V, §503, as added Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §107(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4707.)

SUBCHAPTER IV–B—EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

§5195. Declaration of policy

The purpose of this subchapter is to provide a system of emergency preparedness for the protection of life and property in the United States from hazards and to vest responsibility for emergency preparedness jointly in the Federal Government and the States and their political subdivisions. The Congress recognizes that the organizational structure established jointly by the Federal Government and the States and their political subdivisions for emergency preparedness purposes can be effectively utilized to provide relief and assistance to people in areas of the United States struck by a hazard. The Federal Government shall provide necessary direction, coordination, and guidance, and shall provide necessary assistance, as authorized in this subchapter so that a comprehensive emergency preparedness system exists for all hazards.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title VI, §601, as added Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIV, §3411(a)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3100.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 2251 of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §3412(a).

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Multihazard Preparedness and Mitigation

Pub. L. 106–74, title III, Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1086, as amended by Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410, provided in part: "That beginning in fiscal year 2000 and each fiscal year thereafter, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator of FEMA is authorized to provide assistance from funds appropriated under this heading [EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND ASSISTANCE], subject to terms and conditions as the Administrator of FEMA shall establish, to any State for multi-hazard preparedness and mitigation through consolidated emergency management performance grants".

Multihazard Research, Planning, and Mitigation; Functions, Etc., of Federal Emergency Management Agency

Pub. L. 96–472, title III, §§301, 302, Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2260, as amended by Pub. L. 97–80, title III, §301, Nov. 20, 1981, 95 Stat. 1083; Pub. L. 97–464, title II, §201, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2533; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410, provided that:

"Sec. 301. It is recognized that natural and manmade hazards may not be independent of one another in any given disaster, and it is also recognized that emergency personnel are often called upon to meet emergencies outside of their primary field of service. Furthermore, planning for and responding to different hazards have certain common elements. To make maximum use of these commonalities, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (hereinafter referred to as the 'Director') is authorized and directed to:

"(1) initiate, within one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1980], studies with the objective of defining and developing a multihazard research, planning, and implementation process within the Agency;

"(2) develop, within one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1980], in cooperation with State and local governments, prototypical multihazard mitigation projects which can be used to evaluate several approaches to the varying hazard mitigation needs of State and local governments and to assess the applicability of these prototypes to other jurisdictions with similar needs;

"(3) investigate and evaluate, within one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1980], the effectiveness of a range of incentives for hazard reductions that can be applied at the State and local government levels;

"(4) prepare recommendations as to the need for legislation that will limit the legal liability of those third party persons or groups which are called upon to provide technical assistance and advice to public employees, including policemen, firemen, and transportation employees, who are generally the first to respond to a hazardous incident; which recommendations shall be provided to the appropriate committees of Congress within one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1980];

"(5) prepare, within one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1980], a report on the status of the Agency's emergency information and communications systems which will provide recommendations on—

"(A) the advisability of developing a single, unified emergency information and communication system for use by the Agency in carrying out its emergency management activities;

"(B) the potential for using communication and remote sensing satellites as part of the Agency's emergency information and communication system; and

"(C) the type of system to be developed, if needed, including the relationship of the proposed system and its needs to the existing and emerging information and communication systems in other Federal agencies;

"(6) conduct a program of multihazard research, planning, and mitigation in coordination with those studies and evaluations authorized in paragraphs (1) through (5), as well as other hazard research, planning, and mitigation deemed necessary by the Director;

"(7) conduct emergency first response programs so as to better train and prepare emergency personnel to meet emergencies outside of their primary field of service; and

"(8) conduct a program of planning, preparedness, and mitigation related to the multiple direct and indirect hazards resulting from the occurrence of large earthquakes.

"Sec. 302. (a) For the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Director $1,000,000 to carry out paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 301 and such sums as may be necessary to carry out paragraph (6) of such section.

"(b) For the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Director—

"(1) $4,939,000 to carry out section 301, which amount shall include—

"(A) not less than $700,000 to carry out the purposes of paragraphs (1) through (6) of such section;

"(B) such sums as may be necessary, but in any case not less than $939,000, for use by the United States Fire Administration in carrying out paragraph (7) of such section; and

"(C) not less than $3,300,000 to carry out paragraph (8) of such section with respect to those large California earthquakes which were identified by the National Security Council's Ad Hoc Committee on Assessment of Consequences and Preparations for a Major California Earthquake; and

"(2) such further sums as may be necessary for adjustments required by law in salaries, pay, retirement, and employee benefits incurred in the conduct of activities for which funds are authorized by paragraph (1) of this subsection.

"(c) For the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Director—

"(1) $2,774,000 to carry out section 301, which amount shall include—

"(A) not less than $300,000 to carry out the purposes of paragraphs (1) through (6) of such section;

"(B) such sums as may be necessary, but in any case not less than $939,000, for use by the United States Fire Administration in carrying out paragraph (7) of such section; and

"(C) not less than $1,535,000 to carry out paragraph (8) of such section with respect to those large California earthquakes which were identified by the National Security Council's Ad Hoc Committee on Assessment of Consequences and Preparations for a Major California Earthquake and with respect to other high seismic risk areas in the United States; and

"(2) such further sums as may be necessary for adjustments required by law in salaries, pay, retirement, and employee benefits incurred in the conduct of activities for which funds are authorized by paragraph (1) of this subsection."

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 1 OF 1958

Eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799, as amended Pub. L. 85–763, Aug. 26, 1958, 72 Stat. 861; Pub. L. 87–296, §1, Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 630; Pub. L. 87–367, title I, §103(10), Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 788; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(11), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 423; Pub. L. 90–608, ch. IV, §402, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1194; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1973, §3(a), eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 9579, 87 Stat. 1089


Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, April 24, 1958, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, approved June 20, 1949, as amended [see 5 U.S.C. 901 et seq.].

CIVILIAN MOBILIZATION

Section 1. Transfer of Functions to the President

(a) There are hereby transferred to the President of the United States all functions vested by law (including reorganization plan) in the following: The Office of Defense Mobilization, the Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization, the Federal Civil Defense Administration, and the Federal Civil Defense Administrator.

(b) The President may from time to time delegate any of the functions transferred to him by subsection (a) of this section to any officer, agency, or employee of the executive branch of the Government, and may authorized such officer, agency, or employee to redelegate any of such functions delegated to him.

Sec. 2. Office of Emergency Preparedness

[The Office of Emergency Preparedness including the offices of Director and Deputy Director, and all offices of Assistant Director, were abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1973, §3(a)(1), eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 9579, 87 Stat. 1089, set out below.]

Sec. 3. Regional Directors

[All offices of Regional Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness were abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1973, §3(a)(1), eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 9579, 87 Stat. 1089, set out below.]

Sec. 4. Membership on National Security Council

[The functions of the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness as a member of the National Security Council were abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1973, §3(a)(2), eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 9579, 87 Stat. 1089, set out below.]

Sec. 5. Civil Defense Advisory Council

[The Civil Defense Advisory Council, together with its functions, was abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1973, §3(a)(3), eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 9579, 87 Stat. 1089, set out below.]

Sec. 6. Abolitions

The offices of Federal Civil Defense Administrator and Deputy Administrator provided for in section 101 of the Federal Civil Defense Act ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2271) and the offices of the Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization and Deputy Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization provided for in section 1 of Reorganization Plan Numbered 3 of 1953 (67 Stat. 634) are hereby abolished. The Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall make such provisions as may be necessary in order to wind up any outstanding affairs of the offices abolished by this section which are not otherwise provided for in this reorganization plan. [As amended Pub. L. 90–608, ch. IV, §402, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1194.]

Sec. 7. Records, Property, Personnel, and Funds

(a) The records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances, available or to be made available, of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Office of Defense Mobilization and of the Federal Civil Defense Administration shall, upon the taking effect of the provisions of this reorganization plan, become records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances of the Office of Emergency Preparedness.

(b) Records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances, available or to be made available, of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of any agency (including the Office of Emergency Preparedness), relating to functions vested in or delegated or assigned to the Office of Defense Mobilization or the Federal Civil Defense Administration immediately prior to the taking effect of the provisions of this reorganization plan, may be transferred from time to time to any other agency of the Government by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget under authority of this subsection for use, subject to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, as amended, in connection with any of the said functions authorized at time of transfer under this subsection to be performed by the transferee agency.

(c) Such further measures and dispositions as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine to be necessary in connection with the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be carried out in such manner as he shall direct and by such agencies as he shall designate. [As amended Pub. L. 90–608, ch. IV, §402, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1194.]

Sec. 8. Interim Provisions

The President may authorize any person who immediately prior to the effective date of this reorganization plan holds an office abolished by section 6 hereof to hold any office established by section 2 of this reorganization plan until the latter office is filled pursuant to the said section 2 or by recess appointment, as the case may be, but in no event for any period extending more than 120 days after the said effective date.

Sec. 9. Effective Date

The provisions of this reorganization plan shall take effect at the time determined under the provisions of section 6(a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949, as amended, or on July 1, 1958, whichever is later.

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, prepared in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, as amended. The reorganization plan provides new arrangements for the conduct of Federal defense mobilization and civil defense functions.

In formulating Reorganization Plan No. 1, I have had the benefit of several studies made by the executive branch as well as those conducted by the Congress. The reorganization plan will overcome the major difficulties revealed by those studies and mentioned in my 1959 budget message where I made the following statement:

The structure of Federal organization for the planning, coordination, and conduct of our nonmilitary defense programs has been reviewed, and I have concluded that the existing statues assigning responsibilities for the central coordination and direction of these programs are out of date. The rapid technical advances of military science have led to a serious overlap among agencies carrying on these leadership and planning functions. Because the situation will continue to change and because these functions transcend the responsibility of any single department or agency, I have concluded that they should be vested in no one short of the President. I will make recommendations to the Congress on this subject.

The principal effects of the organization plan are—

First, it transfers to the President the functions vested by law in the Federal Civil Defense Administration and those so vested in the Office of Defense Mobilization. The result is to establish a single pattern with respect to the vesting of defense mobilization and civil defense functions. At the present time disparity exists in that civil defense functions are vested in the President only to a limited degree while a major part of the functions administered by the Office of Defense Mobilization are vested by law in the President and delegated by him to that Office. Under the plan, the broad program responsibilities for coordinating and conducting the interrelated defense mobilization and civil defense functions will be vested in the President for appropriate delegation as the rapidly changing character of the nonmilitary preparedness program warrants.

Second, the reorganization plan consolidates the Office of Defense Mobilization and the Federal Civil Defense Administration to form a new Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization in the Executive Office of the President. I have concluded that, in many instances, the interests and activities of the Office of Defense Mobilization and the Federal Civil Defense Administration overlap to such a degree that it is not possible to work out a satisfactory division of those activities and interests between the two agencies. I have also concluded that a single civilian mobilization agency of appropriate stature and authority is needed and that such an agency will ensue from the consolidation and from the granting of suitable authority to that agency for directing and coordinating the preparedness activities of the Federal departments and agencies and for providing unified guidance and assistance to the State and local governments.

Third, the reorganization plan transfers the membership of the Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization on the National Security Council to the Director of the Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization and also transfers the Civil Defense Advisory Council to the Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization.

Initially, the Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization will perform the civil defense and defense mobilization functions now performed by the Office of Defense Mobilization and the Federal Civil Defense Administration. One of its first tasks will be to advise me with respect to the actions to be taken to clarify and expand the roles of the Federal departments and agencies in carrying out nonmilitary defense preparedness functions. After such actions are taken, the direction and coordination of the civil defense and defense mobilization activities assigned to the departments and agencies will comprise a principal remaining responsibility of the Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization.

After investigation, I have found and hereby declare that each reorganization included in Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 2(a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949, as amended.

I have also found and hereby declare that it is necessary to include in the accompanying reorganization plan, by reason of reorganizations made thereby, provisions for the appointment and compensation of new officers specified in sections 2 and 3 of the plan. The rates of compensation fixed for these officers are, respectively those which I have found to prevail in respect of comparable officers in the executive branch of the Government.

The taking effect of the reorganizations included in Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 will immediately reduce the number of Federal agencies by one and, by providing sounder organizational arrangements for the administration of the affected functions, should promote the increased economy and effectiveness of the Federal expenditures concerned. It is, however, impracticable to itemize at this time the reduction of expenditures which it is probable will be brought about by such taking effect.

I urge that the Congress allow the reorganization plan to become effective.

Dwight D. Eisenhower.      

The White House, April 24, 1958.

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 1 OF 1973

Eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 9579, 87 Stat. 1089, as amended May 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–282, title V, §502, 90 Stat. 472


Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, January 26, 1973, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

Section 1. Transfer of Functions to the President

Except as provided in section 3(a)(2) of this reorganization plan, there are hereby transferred to the President of the United States all functions vested by law in the Office of Emergency Preparedness or the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness after the effective date of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958.

Sec. 2. [Repealed. Pub. L. 94–282, title V, §502, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 472. Section transferred to the Director of the National Science Foundation all functions vested by law in the Office of Science and Technology or the Director or Deputy Director of the Office of Science and Technology.]

Sec. 3. Abolitions

(a) The following are hereby abolished:

(1) The Office of Emergency Preparedness including the offices of Director, Deputy Director, and all offices of Assistant Director, and Regional Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness provided for by sections 2 and 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 (5 U.S.C., App.).

(2) The functions of the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness with respect to being a member of the National Security Council.

(3) The Civil Defense Advisory Council, created by section 102(a) of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2272(a)), together with its functions.

(4) The National Aeronautics and Space Council, created by section 201 of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2471), including the office of Executive Secretary of the Council, together with its functions.

(5) The Office of Science and Technology, including the offices of Director and Deputy Director, provided for by sections 1 and 2 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1962 (5 U.S.C., App.).

(b) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such provisions as he shall deem necessary respecting the winding up of any outstanding affairs of the agencies abolished by the provisions of this section.

Sec. 4. Incidental Transfers

(a) So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred by sections 1 and 2 of this reorganization plan as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine shall be transferred at such time or times as he shall direct for use in connection with the functions transferred.

(b) Such further measures and dispositions as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall deem to be necessary in order to effectuate the transfers referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall be carried out in such manner as he shall direct and by such agencies as he shall designate.

Sec. 5. Effective Date

The provisions of this reorganization plan shall take effect as provided by section 906(a) of title 5 of the United States Code, or on July 1, 1973, whichever is later.

MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT

To the Congress of the United States:

On January 5 I announced a three-part program to streamline the executive branch of the Federal Government. By concentrating less responsibility in the President's immediate staff and more in the hands of the departments and agencies, this program should significantly improve the services of the Government. I believe these reforms have become so urgently necessary that I intend, with the cooperation of the Congress, to pursue them with all of the resources of my office during the coming year.

The first part of this program is a renewed drive to achieve passage of my legislative proposals to overhaul the Cabinet departments. Secondly, I have appointed three Cabinet Secretaries as Counsellors to the President with coordinating responsibilities in the broad areas of human resources, natural resources, and community development, and five Assistants to the President with special responsibilities in the areas of domestic affairs, economic affairs, foreign affairs, executive management, and operations of the White House.

The third part of this program is a sharp reduction in the overall size of the Executive Office of the President and a reorientation of that office back to its original mission as a staff for top-level policy formation and monitoring of policy execution in broad functional areas. The Executive Office of the President should no longer be encumbered with the task of managing or administering programs which can be run more effectively by the departments and agencies. I have therefore concluded that a number of specialized operational and program functions should be shifted out of the Executive Office into the line departments and agencies of the Government. Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973, transmitted herewith, would effect such changes with respect to emergency preparedness functions and scientific and technological affairs.

STREAMLINING THE FEDERAL SCIENCE ESTABLISHMENT

When the National Science Foundation was established by an act of the Congress in 1950, its statutory responsibilities included evaluation of the Government's scientific research programs and development of basic science policy. In the late 1950's, however, with the effectiveness of the U.S. science effort under serious scrutiny as a result of sputnik, the post of Science Advisor to the President was established. The White House became increasingly involved in the evaluation and coordination of research and development programs and in science policy matters, and that involvement was institutionalized in 1962 when a reorganization plan established the Office of Science and Technology within the Executive Office of the President, through transfer of authorities formerly vested in the National Science Foundation.

With advice and assistance from OST during the past decade; the scientific and technological capability of the Government has been markedly strengthened. This administration is firmly committed to a sustained, broadbased national effort in science and technology, as I made plain last year in the first special message on the subject ever sent by a President to the Congress. The research and development capability of the various executive departments and agencies, civilian as well as defense, has been upgraded. The National Science Foundation has broadened from its earlier concentration on basic research support to take on a significant role in applied research as well. It has matured in its ability to play a coordinating and evaluative role within the Government and between the public and private sectors.

I have therefore concluded that it is timely and appropriate to transfer to the Director of the National Science Foundation all functions presently vested in the Office of Science and Technology, and to abolish that office. Reorganization Plan No. 1 would effect these changes.

The multi-disciplinary staff resources of the Foundation will provide analytic capabilities for performance of the transferred functions. In addition, the Director of the Foundation will be able to draw on expertise from all of the Federal agencies, as well as from outside the Government, for assistance in carrying out his new responsibilities.

It is also my intention, after the transfer of responsibilities is effected, to ask Dr. H. Guyford Stever, the current Director of the Foundation, to take on the additional post of Science Adviser. In this capacity, he would advise and assist the White House, Office of Management and Budget, Domestic Council, and other entities within the Executive Office of the President on matters where scientific and technological expertise is called for, and would act as the President's representative in selected cooperative programs in international scientific affairs, including chairing such joint bodies as the U.S.—U.S.S.R. Joint Commission on Scientific and Technical Cooperation.

In the case of national security, the Department of Defense has strong capabilities for assessing weapons needs and for undertaking new weapons development, and the President will continue to draw primarily on this source for advice regarding military technology. The President in special situations also may seek independent studies or assessments concerning military technology from within or outside the Federal establishment, using the machinery of the National Security Council for this purpose, as well as the Science Adviser when appropriate.

In one special area of technology—space and aeronautics—a coordinating council has existed within the Executive Office of the President since 1958. This body, the National Aeronautics and Space Council, met a major need during the evolution of our nation's space program. Vice President Agnew has served with distinction as its chairman for the past four years. At my request, beginning in 1969, the Vice President also chaired a special Space Task Group charged with developing strategy alternatives for a balanced U.S. space program in the coming years.

As a result of this work, basic policy issues in the United States space effort have been resolved, and the necessary interagency relationships have been established. I have therefore concluded, with the Vice President's concurrence, that the Council can be discontinued. Needed policy coordination can now be achieved through the resources of the executive departments and agencies, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, augmented by some of the former Council staff. Accordingly, my reorganization plan proposes the abolition of the National Aeronautics and Space Council.

A NEW APPROACH TO EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

The organization within the Executive Office of the President which has been known in recent years as the Office of Emergency Preparedness dates back, through its numerous predecessor agencies, more than 20 years. It has performed valuable functions in developing plans for emergency preparedness, in administering Federal disaster relief, and in overseeing and assisting the agencies in this area.

OEP's work as a coordinating and supervisory authority in this field has in fact been so effective—particularly under the leadership of General George A. Lincoln, its director for the past four years, who retired earlier this month after an exceptional military and public service career—that the line departments and agencies which in the past have shared in the performance of the various preparedness functions now possess the capability to assume full responsibility for those functions. In the interest of efficiency and economy, we can now further streamline the Executive Office of the President by formally relocating those responsibilities and closing the Office of Emergency Preparedness.

I propose to accomplish this reform in two steps. First, Reorganization Plan No. 1 would transfer to the President all functions previously vested by law in the Office or its Director, except the Director's role as a member of the National Security Council, which would be abolished; and it would abolish the Office of Emergency Preparedness.

The functions to be transferred to the President from OEP are largely incidental to emergency authorities already vested in him. They include functions under the Disaster Relief Act of 1970 [42 U.S.C. 4401 et seq.]; the function of determining whether a major disaster has occurred within the meaning of (1) Section 7 of the Act of September 30, 1950, as amended, 20 U.S.C. 241–1, or (2) Section 762(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as added by Section 161(a) of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law 92–318, 86 Stat. 288 at 299 (relating to the furnishing by the Commissioner of Education of disaster relief assistance for educational purposes) [20 U.S.C. 1132d–1]; and functions under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1862), with respect to the conduct of investigations to determine the effects on national security of the importation of certain articles.

The Civil Defense Advisory Council within OEP would also be abolished by this plan, as changes in domestic and international conditions since its establishment in 1950 have now obviated the need for a standing council of this type. Should advice of the kind the Council has provided be required again in the future, State and local officials and experts in the field can be consulted on an ad hoc basis.

Second, as soon as the plan became effective, I would delegate OEP's former functions as follows:

All OEP responsibilities having to do with preparedness for and relief of civil emergencies and disasters would be transferred to the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This would provide greater field capabilities for coordination of Federal disaster assistance with that provided by States and local communities, and would be in keeping with the objective of creating a broad, new Department of Community Development.

OEP's responsibilities for measures to ensure the continuity of civil government operations in the event of major military attack would be reassigned to the General Services Administration, as would responsibility for resource mobilization including the management of national security stockpiles, with policy guidance in both cases to be provided by the National Security Council, and with economic considerations relating to changes in stockpile levels to be coordinated by the Council on Economic Policy.

Investigations of imports which might threaten the national security—assigned to OEP by Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1862]—would be reassigned to the Treasury Department, whose other trade studies give it a readymade capability in this field; the National Security Council would maintain its supervisory role over strategic imports.

Those disaster relief authorities which have been reserved to the President in the past, such as the authority to declare major disasters, will continue to be exercised by him under these new arrangements. In emergency situations calling for rapid interagency coordination, the Federal response will be coordinated by the Executive Office of the President under the general supervision of the Assistant to the President in charge of executive management.

The Oil Policy Committee will continue to function as in the past, unaffected by this reorganization, except that I will designate the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury as chairman in place of the Director of OEP. The committee will operate under the general supervision of the Assistant to the President in charge of economic affairs.

DECLARATIONS

After investigation, I have found that each action included in the accompanying plan is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in Section 901(a) of title 5 of the United States Code. In particular, the plan is responsive to the intention of the Congress as expressed in Section 901(a)(1), "to promote better execution of the laws, more effective management of the executive branch and of its agencies and functions, and expeditious administration of the public business;" and in Section 901(a)(3), "to increase the efficiency of the operations of the Government to the fullest extent practicable;" and in Section 901(a)(5), "to reduce the number of agencies by consolidating those having similar functions under a single head, and to abolish such agencies or functions as may not be necessary for the efficient conduct of the Government."

While it is not practicable to specify all of the expenditure reductions and other economies which will result from the actions proposed, personnel and budget savings from abolition of the National Aeronautics and Space Council and the Office of Science and Technology alone will exceed $2 million annually, and additional savings should result from a reduction of Executive Pay Schedule positions now associated with other transferred and delegated functions.

The plan has as its one logically consistent subject matter the streamlining of the Executive Office of the President and the disposition of major responsibilities currently conducted in the Executive Office of the President, which can better be performed elsewhere or abolished.

The functions which would be abolished by this plan, and the statutory authorities for each, are:

(1) the functions of the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness with respect to being a member of the National Security Council (Sec. 101, National Security Act of 1947, as amended, 50 U.S.C. 402 [now 50 U.S.C. 3021]; and Sec. 4, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958);

(2) the functions of the Civil Defense Advisory Council (Sec. 102(a) Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950; [former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2272(a)); and

(3) the functions of the National Aeronautics and Space Council (Sec. 201, National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958; 42 U.S.C. 2471).

The proposed reorganization is a necessary part of the restructuring of the Executive Office of the President. It would provide through the Director of the National Science Foundation a strong focus for Federal efforts to encourage the development and application of science and technology to meet national needs. It would mean better preparedness for and swifter response to civil emergencies, and more reliable precautions against threats to the national security. The leaner and less diffuse Presidential staff structure which would result would enhance the President's ability to do his job and would advance the interests of the Congress as well.

I am confident that this reorganization plan would significantly increase the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the Federal Government. I urge the Congress to allow it to become effective.

Richard Nixon.      

The White House, January 26, 1973.

Executive Order No. 10186

Ex. Ord. No. 10186, Dec. 1, 1950, 15 F.R. 8557, established the Federal Civil Defense Administration in the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President, provided for the appointment of an Administrator and a Deputy Administrator, and delineated the purposes, functions, and authority of the Administration and the Administrator.

Executive Order No. 10222

Ex. Ord. No. 10222, Mar. 8, 1951, 16 F.R. 2247, which transferred to Federal Civil Defense Administration functions of Health Resources Office of National Security Resources Board, was revoked by section 904(a)(2) of Ex. Ord. No. 12919, June 3, 1994, 59 F.R. 29533, formerly set out as a note under section 2153 of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense.

Executive Order No. 10346

Ex. Ord. No. 10346, Apr. 17, 1952, 17 F.R. 3477, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10438, Mar. 13, 1953, 18 F.R. 1491; Ex. Ord. No. 10773, July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 5061; Ex. Ord. No. 10782, Sept. 6, 1958, 23 F.R. 6971; Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683, which related to the preparation by Federal agencies of civil defense emergency plans, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 10529

Ex. Ord. No. 10529, Apr. 22, 1954, 19 F.R. 2397, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10773, July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 5061; Ex. Ord. No. 10782, Sept. 6, 1958, 23 F.R. 6971; Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683, which related to Federal employee participation in State and local civil defense programs, was revoked by section 5–104 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43243, set out below.

Executive Order No. 10611

Ex. Ord. No. 10611, May 11, 1955, 20 F.R. 3245, which related to establishment of the Civil Defense Coordinating Board, was revoked by section 7(7) of Ex. Ord. No. 10773.

Executive Order No. 10773

Ex. Ord. No. 10773, July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 5061, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10782, Sept. 6, 1958, 23 F.R. 6971, which related to the delegation and transfer of functions to the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683, see below.

Executive Order No. 10902

Ex. Ord. No. 10902, Jan. 9, 1961, 26 F.R. 217, which related to the issuance of emergency preparedness orders, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683, see below.

Executive Order No. 10952

Ex. Ord. No. 10952, July 20, 1961, 26 F.R. 6577, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683, which related to the assignment of civil defense responsibilities, was revoked by section 5–108 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43243, set out below.

Executive Order No. 10958

Ex. Ord. No. 10958, Aug. 14, 1961, 26 F.R. 7571, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683, which provided for the delegation of functions respecting stockpiles of medical supplies and equipment and food, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11794, July 11, 1974, 39 F.R. 25937.

Executive Order No. 10997

Ex. Ord. No. 10997, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1522, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of the Interior, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 10998

Ex. Ord. No. 10998, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1524, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of Agriculture, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 10999

Ex. Ord. No. 10999, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1527, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of Commerce, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11000

Ex. Ord. No. 11000, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1532, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of Labor, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11001

Ex. Ord. No. 11001, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1534, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11002

Ex. Ord. No. 11002, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1539, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Postmaster General, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11003

Ex. Ord. No. 11003, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1540, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Administrator of Federal Aviation Agency, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11004

Ex. Ord. No. 11004, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1542, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Housing and Home Finance Administrator, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11005

Ex. Ord. No. 11005, Feb. 16, 1962, 27 F.R. 1544, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Interstate Commerce Commission, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11051

Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11075, Jan. 15, 1963, 28 F.R. 473; Ex. Ord. No. 11556, Sept. 4, 1970, 35 F.R. 14193; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, June 27, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175; Ex. Ord. No. 12046, Mar. 27, 1978, 43 F.R. 13349, which related to responsibility of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, was revoked by section 5–109 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43243, set out below.

Executive Order No. 11087

Ex. Ord. No. 11087, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1835, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of State, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11088

Ex. Ord. No. 11088, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1837, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of the Treasury, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11089

Ex. Ord. No. 11089, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1839, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Atomic Energy Commission, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11090

Ex. Ord. No. 11090, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1841, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Civil Aeronautics Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11091

Ex. Ord. No. 11091, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1843, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Civil Service Commission, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11092

Ex. Ord. No. 11092, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1847, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Federal Communications Commission, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11093

Ex. Ord. No. 11093, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1851, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Administrator of General Services, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11094

Ex. Ord. No. 11094, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1855, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System, Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Farm Credit Administration, Export-Import Bank of Washington, Board of Directors of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Securities and Exchange Commission, Administrator of Small Business Administration, and Administrator of Veterans Affairs, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11095

Ex. Ord. No. 11095, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1859, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Board of Directors of Tennessee Valley Authority, Railroad Retirement Board, Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federal Power Commission, and Director of National Science Foundation, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, see below.

Executive Order No. 11426

Ex. Ord. No. 11426, Aug. 31, 1968, 33 F.R. 12615, which provided for Federal-State liaison and cooperation, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11455, Feb. 14, 1969, 34 F.R. 2299.

Executive Order No. 11490

Ex. Ord. No. 11490, Oct. 28, 1969, 34 F.R. 17567, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11522, Apr. 6, 1970, 35 F.R. 5659; Ex. Ord. No. 11556, Sept. 4, 1970, 35 F.R. 14193; Ex. Ord. No. 11746, Nov. 7, 1973, 38 F.R. 30991; Ex. Ord. No. 11921, June 11, 1976, 41 F.R. 24294; Ex. Ord. No. 11953, Jan. 7, 1977, 42 F.R. 2492; Ex. Ord. No. 12038, Feb. 3, 1978, 43 F.R. 4957; Ex. Ord. No. 12046, Mar. 27, 1978, 43 F.R. 13349; Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055; Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, which related to assignment of emergency preparedness functions to Federal agencies and departments, was revoked by section 2901 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out below.

Executive Order No. 11522

Ex. Ord. No. 11522, Apr. 6, 1970, 35 F.R. 5659, which related to the assignment of emergency preparedness functions to the United States Information Agency, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11921, June 11, 1976, 41 F.R. 24294.

Executive Order No. 11725

Ex. Ord. No. 11725, June 27, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11749, Dec. 10, 1973, 38 F.R. 34177; Ex. Ord. No. 12046, Mar. 27, 1978, 43 F.R. 13349, which related to transfer of certain functions of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, was revoked by section 5–112 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43243, set out below.

Executive Order No. 11746

Ex. Ord. No. 11746, Nov. 7, 1973, 38 F.R. 30991, which related to the assignment of emergency preparedness functions to the Department of the Treasury, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11921, June 11, 1976, 41 F.R. 24294.

Ex. Ord. No. 12148. Federal Emergency Management

Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12155, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53071; Ex. Ord. No. 12156, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53073; Ex. Ord. No. 12381, Sept. 8, 1982, 47 F.R. 39795; Ex. Ord. No. 12673, Mar. 23, 1989, 54 F.R. 12571; Ex. Ord. No. 12919, §904(a)(8), June 3, 1994, 59 F.R. 29533; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §52, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10628, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2251 et seq.), the Disaster Relief Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. Chapter 58 note), the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 143; 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (42 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), Section 4 of Public Law 92–385 (86 Stat. 556), Section 43 of the Act of August 10, 1956, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2285) [now 6 U.S.C. 765], the National Security Act of 1947, as amended [see Tables for classification], the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2061 et seq.) [now 50 U.S.C. 4501 et seq.], Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 [set out above], Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 [set out above], the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.), Section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c) [31 U.S.C. 1531], and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and in order to transfer emergency functions to the Department of Homeland Security, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Transfers or Reassignments

1–1. Transfer or Reassignment of Existing Functions.

1–101. All functions vested in the President that have been delegated or assigned to the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, Department of Defense, are transferred or reassigned to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

1–102. All functions vested in the President that have been delegated or assigned to the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, are transferred or reassigned to the Secretary of Homeland Security, including any of those functions redelegated or reassigned to the Department of Commerce with respect to assistance to communities in the development of readiness plans for severe weather-related emergencies.

1–103. All functions vested in the President that have been delegated or assigned to the Federal Preparedness Agency, General Services Administration, are transferred or reassigned to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

1–104. All functions vested in the President by the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (42 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), including those functions performed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy, are delegated, transferred, or reassigned to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

1–2. Transfer or Reassignment of Resources.

1–201. The records, property, personnel and positions, and unexpended balances of appropriations, available or to be made available, which relate to the functions transferred, reassigned, or redelegated by this Order are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

1–202. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such determinations, issue such orders, and take all actions necessary or appropriate to effectuate the transfers or reassignments provided by this Order, including the transfer of funds, records, property, and personnel.

Sec. 2. Management of Emergency Planning and Assistance

2–1. General.

2–101. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish Federal policies for, and coordinate, all civil defense and civil emergency planning, management, mitigation, and assistance functions of Executive agencies.

2–102. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall periodically review and evaluate the civil defense and civil emergency functions of the Executive agencies. In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of those functions, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall recommend to the President alternative methods of providing Federal planning, management, mitigation, and assistance.

2–103. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall be responsible for the coordination of efforts to promote dam safety, for the coordination of natural and nuclear disaster warning systems, and for the coordination of preparedness and planning to reduce the consequences of major terrorist incidents.

2–104. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall represent the President in working with State and local governments and private sector to stimulate vigorous participation in civil emergency preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery programs.

2–105. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide an annual report to the President for subsequent transmittal to the Congress on the functions of the Department of Homeland Security. The report shall assess the current overall state of effectiveness of Federal civil defense and civil emergency functions, organizations, resources, and systems and recommend measures to be taken to improve planning, management, assistance, and relief by all levels of government, the private sector, and volunteer organizations.

2–2. Implementation.

2–201. In executing the functions under this Order, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall develop policies which provide that all civil defense and civil emergency functions, resources, and systems of Executive agencies are:

(a) founded on the use of existing organizations, resources, and systems to the maximum extent practicable;

(b) integrated effectively with organizations, resources, and programs of State and local governments, the private sector and volunteer organizations; and

(c) developed, tested and utilized to prepare for, mitigate, respond to and recover from the effects on the population of all forms of emergencies.

2–202. Assignments of civil emergency functions shall, whenever possible, be based on extensions (under emergency conditions) of the regular missions of the Executive agencies.

2–203. For purposes of this Order, "civil emergency" means any accidental, natural, man-caused, or wartime emergency or threat thereof, which causes or may cause substantial injury or harm to the population or substantial damage to or loss of property.

2–204. In order that civil defense planning continues to be fully compatible with the Nation's overall strategic policy, and in order to maintain an effective link between strategic nuclear planning and nuclear attack preparedness planning, the development of civil defense policies and programs by the Secretary of Homeland Security shall be subject to oversight by the Secretary of Defense and the National Security Council.

2–205. To the extent authorized by law and within available resources, the Secretary of Defense shall provide the Secretary of Homeland Security with support for civil defense programs in the areas of program development and administration, technical support, research, communications, transportation, intelligence, and emergency operations.

2–206. All Executive agencies shall cooperate with and assist the Secretary of Homeland Security in the performance of his functions.

2–3. Transition Provisions.

2–301. The functions which have been transferred, reassigned, or redelegated by Section 1 of this Order are recodified and revised as set forth in this Order at Section 4, and as provided by the amendments made at Section 5 to the provisions of other Orders.

2–302. Notwithstanding the revocations, revisions, codifications, and amendments made by this Order, the Secretary of Homeland Security may continue to perform the functions transferred to him by Section 1 of this Order, except where they may otherwise be inconsistent with the provisions of this Order.

Sec. 3. Federal Emergency Management Council

[Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12919, §904(a)(8), June 3, 1994, 59 F.R. 29533.]

Sec. 4. Delegations

4–1. Delegation of Functions Transferred to the President.

4–101. [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12155, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53071.]

4–102. The functions vested in the Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization by Sections 103 and 303 of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended by Sections 8 and 50 of the Act of September 3, 1954 (Public Law 779; 68 Stat. 1228 and 1244) (50 U.S.C. 404 and 405) [now 50 U.S.C. 3042 and 3073], were transferred to the President by Section 1(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) [now set out above], and they are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–103. (a) The functions vested in the Federal Civil Defense Administration or its Administrator by the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2251 et seq.), were transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, and they are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

(b) Excluded from the delegation in subsection (a) is the function under Section 205(a)(4) of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2286(a)(4)), relating to the establishment and maintenance of personnel standards on the merit basis that was delegated to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management by Section 1(b) of Executive Order No. 11589, as amended (Section 2–101(b) of Executive Order No. 12107) [5 U.S.C. 3376 note].

4–104. The Secretary of Homeland Security is authorized to redelegate, in accord with the provisions of Section 1(b) of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) [now set out above], any of the functions delegated by Sections 4–101, 4–102, and 4–103 of this Order.

4–105. The functions vested in the Administrator of the Federal Civil Defense Administration by Section 43 of the Act of August 10, 1956 (70A Stat. 636) [former 50 U.S.C. App. 2285], were transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) [now set out above], were subsequently revested in the Director of the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization by Section 512 of Public Law 86–500 (50 U.S.C. App. 2285) [the office was changed to Office of Emergency Planning by Public Law 87–296 (75 Stat. 630) and then to the Office of Emergency Preparedness by Section 402 of Public Law 90–608 (82 Stat. 1194)], were again transferred to the President by Section 1 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) [now set out above], and they are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–106. The functions vested in the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness by Section 16 of the Act of September 23, 1950, as amended (20 U.S.C. 646), and by Section 7 of the Act of September 30, 1950, as amended (20 U.S.C. 241–1), were transferred to the President by Section 1 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) [now set out above], and they are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–107. That function vested in the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness by Section 762(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as added by Section 161(a) of the Education Amendments of 1972, and as further amended (20 U.S.C. 1132d–1(a)), to the extent transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) [now set out above], is hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–2. Delegation of Functions Vested in the President.

4–201. The functions vested in the President by the Disaster Relief Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. Chapter 58 note), are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–202. The functions (related to grants for damages resulting from hurricane and tropical storm Agnes) vested in the President by Section 4 of Public Law 92–335 (86 Stat. 556) are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

Section [sic] 4–203. The functions vested in the President by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), except those functions vested in the President by Section 401 (relating to the declaration of major disasters and emergencies) [42 U.S.C. 5170], Section 501 (relating to the declaration of emergencies) [42 U.S.C. 5191], Section 405 (relating to the repair, reconstruction, restoration, or replacement of Federal facilities) [42 U.S.C. 5171], and Section 412 (relating to food coupons [benefits] and distribution) [42 U.S.C. 5179], are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–204. The functions vested in the President by the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.) are delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–205. Effective July 30, 1979, the functions vested in the President by Section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 714b(h)), are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–206. Effective July 30, 1979, the functions vested in the President by Section 204(f) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (40 U.S.C. 485(f)) [now 40 U.S.C. 574(d)], are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

4–207. The functions vested in the President by Section 502 of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2302), are delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

Sec. 5. Other Executive Orders

5–1. Revocations.

5–101. Executive Order No. 10242, as amended, entitled "Prescribing Regulations Governing the Exercise by the Federal Civil Defense Administrator of Certain Administrative Authority Granted by the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950", is revoked.

5–102. Sections 1 and 2 of Executive Order No. 10296, as amended, entitled "Providing for the Performance of Certain Defense Housing and Community Facilities and Service Functions", are revoked.

5–103. Executive Order No. 10494, as amended, relating to the disposition of remaining functions, is revoked.

5–104. Executive Order No. 10529, as amended, relating to federal employee participation in State and local civil defense programs, is revoked.

5–105. Section 3 of Executive Order No. 10601, as amended, which concerns the Commodity Set Aside, is revoked.

5–106. Executive Order No. 10634, as amended, relating to loans for facilities destroyed or damaged by a major disaster, is revoked.

5–107. Section 4(d)(2) of Executive Order No. 10900, as amended, which concerns foreign currencies made available to make purchases for the supplemental stockpile, is revoked.

5–108. Executive Order No. 10952, as amended, entitled "Assigning Civil Defense Responsibilities to the Secretary of Defense and Others", is revoked.

5–109. Executive Order No. 11051, as amended, relating to responsibilities of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, is revoked.

5–110. Executive Order No. 11415, as amended, relating to the Health Resources Advisory Committee, is revoked.

5–111. Executive Order No. 11795, as amended, entitled "Delegating Disaster Relief Functions Pursuant to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974", is revoked, except for Section 3 thereof.

5–112. Executive Order No. 11725, as amended, entitled "Transfer of Certain Functions of the Office of Emergency Preparedness", is revoked.

5–113. Executive Order No. 11749, as amended, entitled "Consolidating Disaster Relief Functions Assigned to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" is revoked.

5–2. Amendments.

5–201. Executive Order No. 10421, as amended, relating to physical security of defense facilities [formerly set out under 50 U.S.C. 404, which was reclassified and renumbered as 50 U.S.C. 3042] is further amended by (a) substituting the "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" for "Director of the Office of Emergency Planning" in Sections 1(a), 1(c), and 6(b); and, (b) substituting "Federal Emergency Management Agency" for "Office of Emergency Planning" in Sections 6(b) and 7(b).

5–202. Executive Order No. 10480, as amended [former 50 U.S.C. App. 2153 note], is further amended by (a) substituting "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" for "Director of the Office of Emergency Planning" in Sections 101(a), 101(b), 201(a), 201(b), 301, 304, 307, 308, 310(b), 311(b), 312, 313, 401(b), 401(e), and 605; and, (b) substituting "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" for "Administrator of General Services" in Sections 305, 501, and 610.

5–203. Section 3(d) of Executive Order No. 10582, as amended [41 U.S.C. 8303 note], which relates to determinations under the Buy American Act is amended by deleting "Director of the Office of Emergency Planning" and substituting therefor "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency".

5–204. Paragraph 21 of Executive Order No. 10789, as amended [50 U.S.C. 1431 note], is further amended by adding "The Federal Emergency Management Agency" after "Government Printing Office".

5–205. Executive Order No. 11179, as amended, concerning the National Defense Executive Reserve [former 50 U.S.C. App. 2153 note], is further amended by deleting "Director of the Office of Emergency Planning" in Section 2 and substituting therefor "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency".

5–206. Section 7 of Executive Order No. 11912, as amended, concerning energy policy and conservation [42 U.S.C. 6201 note], is further amended by deleting "Administrator of General Services" and substituting therefor "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency".

5–207. Section 2(d) of Executive Order No. 11988 entitled "Floodplain Management" [42 U.S.C. 4321 note] is amended by deleting "Federal Insurance Administration" and substituting therefor "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency".

5–208. Section 5–3 of Executive Order No. 12046 of March 29, 1978 [47 U.S.C. 305 note], is amended by deleting "General Services Administration" and substituting therefor "Federal Emergency Management Agency" and by deleting "Administrator of General Services" and substituting therefor "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency".

5–209. Section 1–201 of [former] Executive Order No. 12065 is amended by adding "The Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" after "The Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration" and by deleting "Director, Federal Preparedness Agency and to the" from the parentheses after "The Administrator of General Services".

5–210. Section 1–102 of Executive Order No. 12075 of August 16, 1978 [42 U.S.C. 1450 note], is amended by adding in alphabetical order "(p) Federal Emergency Management Agency".

5–211. Section 1–102 of Executive Order No. 12083 of September 27, 1978 [42 U.S.C. 7101 note] is amended by adding in alphabetical order "(z) the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency".

5–212. Section 9.11(b) of Civil Service Rule IX (5 CFR Part 9) [former 5 U.S.C. 3301 note] is amended by deleting "the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency and".

5–213. [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12381, Sept. 8, 1982, 47 F.R. 39795.]

5–214. Executive Order No. 11490, as amended [see note above] is further amended as follows:

(a) Delete the last sentence of Section 102(a) and substitute therefor the following: "The activities undertaken by the departments and agencies pursuant to this Order, except as provided in Section 3003, shall be in accordance with guidance provided by, and subject to, evaluation by the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.".

(b) Delete Section 103 entitled "Presidential Assistance" and substitute the following new Section 103: "Sec. 103 General Coordination. The Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) shall determine national preparedness goals and policies for the performance of functions under this Order and coordinate the performance of such functions with the total national preparedness programs.".

(c) Delete the portion of the first sentence of Section 401 prior to the colon and insert the following: "The Secretary of Defense shall perform the following emergency preparedness functions".

(d) Delete "Director of the Federal Preparedness Agency (GSA)" or "the Federal Preparedness Agency (GSA)" and substitute therefor "Director, FEMA", in Sections 401(3), 401(4), 401(5), 401(9), 401(10), 401(14), 401(15), 401(16), 401(19), 401(21), 401(22), 501(8), 601(2), 904(2), 1102(2), 1204(2), 1401(a), 1701, 1702, 2003, 2004, 2801(5), 3001, 3002(2), 3004, 3005, 3006, 3008, 3010, and 3013.

(e) The number assigned to this Order shall be substituted for "11051 of September 27, 1962" in Section 3001, and for "11051" in Sections 1802, 2002(3), 3002 and 3008(1).

(f) The number assigned to this Order shall be substituted for "10952" in Sections 1103, 1104, 1205, and 3002.

(g) Delete "Department of Defense" in Sections 502, 601(1), 804, 905, 1103, 1104, 1106(4), 1205, 2002(8), the first sentence of Section 3002, and Sections 3008(1) and 3010 and substitute therefor "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.".

Sec. 6.

This Order is effective July 15, 1979.

[Section 1–106 of Ex. Ord. No. 12155, which enacted sections 4–205 and 4–206 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, was revoked by Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247.]

[Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §52, which directed amendment of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, set out above, by substituting "the Secretary of Homeland Security" for "the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" wherever appearing, was executed by substituting "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" wherever appearing, including after "The" in section 2–101, and for "Director" in sections 2–102 to 2–105, 2–201, 2–206, and 2–302.]

Executive Order No. 12472

Ex. Ord. No. 12472, Apr. 3, 1984, 49 F.R. 13471, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §46, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10627; Ex. Ord. No. 13407, §5(a), June 26, 2006, 71 F.R. 36976, which related to assignment of national security and emergency preparedness telecommunications functions, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13618, §7(b), July 6, 2012, 77 F.R. 40783, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12656. Assignment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities

Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13074, Feb. 9, 1998, 63 F.R. 7277; Ex. Ord. No. 13228, §9, Oct. 8, 2001, 66 F.R. 51816; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §42, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10626; Ex. Ord. No. 13603, §803(a), Mar. 16, 2012, 77 F.R. 16660, provided:

WHEREAS our national security is dependent upon our ability to assure continuity of government, at every level, in any national security emergency situation that might confront the Nation; and

WHEREAS effective national preparedness planning to meet such an emergency, including a massive nuclear attack, is essential to our national survival; and

WHEREAS effective national preparedness planning requires the identification of functions that would have to be performed during such an emergency, the assignment of responsibility for developing plans for performing these functions, and the assignment of responsibility for developing the capability to implement those plans; and

WHEREAS the Congress has directed the development of such national security emergency preparedness plans and has provided funds for the accomplishment thereof;

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, and pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 (72 Stat. 1799) [set out above], the National Security Act of 1947, as amended [50 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.], the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended [see 50 U.S.C. 4501], and the Federal Civil Defense Act, as amended, it is hereby ordered that the responsibilities of the Federal departments and agencies in national security emergencies shall be as follows:

PART 1—Preamble

Section 101. National Security Emergency Preparedness Policy.

(a) The policy of the United States is to have sufficient capabilities at all levels of government to meet essential defense and civilian needs during any national security emergency. A national security emergency is any occurrence, including natural disaster, military attack, technological emergency, or other emergency, that seriously degrades or seriously threatens the national security of the United States. Policy for national security emergency preparedness shall be established by the President. Pursuant to the President's direction, the National Security Council shall be responsible for developing and administering such policy, except that the Homeland Security Council shall be responsible for administering such policy with respect to terrorist threats and attacks within the United States. All national security emergency preparedness activities shall be consistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States and with preservation of the constitutional government of the United States.

(b) Effective national security emergency preparedness planning requires: identification of functions that would have to be performed during such an emergency; development of plans for performing these functions; and development of the capability to execute those plans.

Sec. 102. Purpose.

(a) The purpose of this Order is to assign national security emergency preparedness responsibilities to Federal departments and agencies. These assignments are based, whenever possible, on extensions of the regular missions of the departments and agencies.

(b) This Order does not constitute authority to implement the plans prepared pursuant to this Order. Plans so developed may be executed only in the event that authority for such execution is authorized by law.

Sec. 103. Scope.

(a) This Order addresses national security emergency preparedness functions and activities. As used in this Order, preparedness functions and activities include, as appropriate, policies, plans, procedures, and readiness measures that enhance the ability of the United States Government to mobilize for, respond to, and recover from a national security emergency.

(b) This Order does not apply to those natural disasters, technological emergencies, or other emergencies, the alleviation of which is normally the responsibility of individuals, the private sector, volunteer organizations, State and local governments, and Federal departments and agencies unless such situations also constitute a national security emergency.

(c) This Order does not require the provision of information concerning, or evaluation of, military policies, plans, programs, or states of military readiness.

(d) This Order does not apply to national security emergency preparedness telecommunications functions and responsibilities that are otherwise assigned by Executive Order 12472 [formerly set out above].

Sec. 104. Management of National Security Emergency Preparedness.

(a) The National Security Council is the principal forum for consideration of national security emergency preparedness policy, except that the Homeland Security Council is the principal forum for consideration of policy relating to terrorist threats and attacks within the United States.

(b) The National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council shall arrange for Executive branch liaison with, and assistance to, the Congress and the Federal judiciary on national security-emergency preparedness matters.

(c) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall serve as an advisor to the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council on issues of national security emergency preparedness, including mobilization preparedness, civil defense, continuity of government, technological disasters, and other issues, as appropriate. Pursuant to such procedures for the organization and management of the National Security Council and Homeland Security Council processes as the President may establish, the Secretary of Homeland Security also shall assist in the implementation of and management of those processes as the President may establish. The Secretary of Homeland Security also shall assist in the implementation of national security emergency preparedness policy by coordinating with the other Federal departments and agencies and with State and local governments, and by providing periodic reports to the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council on implementation of national security emergency preparedness policy.

(d) National security emergency preparedness functions that are shared by more than one agency shall be coordinated by the head of the Federal department or agency having primary responsibility and shall be supported by the heads of other departments and agencies having related responsibilities.

(e) There shall be a national security emergency exercise program that shall be supported by the heads of all appropriate Federal departments and agencies.

(f) Plans and procedures will be designed and developed to provide maximum flexibility to the President for his implementation of emergency actions.

Sec. 105. Interagency Coordination.

(a) All appropriate Cabinet members and agency heads shall be consulted regarding national security emergency preparedness programs and policy issues. Each department and agency shall support interagency coordination to improve preparedness and response to a national security emergency and shall develop and maintain decentralized capabilities wherever feasible and appropriate.

(b) Each Federal department and agency shall work within the framework established by, and cooperate with those organizations assigned responsibility in, Executive Order No. 12472 [formerly set out above], to ensure adequate national security emergency preparedness telecommunications in support of the functions and activities addressed by this Order.

PART 2—General Provisions

Sec. 201. General. The head of each Federal department and agency, as appropriate, shall:

(1) Be prepared to respond adequately to all national security emergencies, including those that are international in scope, and those that may occur within any region of the Nation;

(2) Consider national security emergency preparedness factors in the conduct of his or her regular functions, particularly those functions essential in time of emergency. Emergency plans and programs, and an appropriate state of readiness, including organizational infrastructure, shall be developed as an integral part of the continuing activities of each Federal department and agency;

(3) Appoint a senior policy official as Emergency Coordinator, responsible for developing and maintaining a multi-year, national security emergency preparedness plan for the department or agency to include objectives, programs, and budgetary requirements;

(4) Design preparedness measures to permit a rapid and effective transition from routine to emergency operations, and to make effective use of the period following initial indication of a probable national security emergency. This will include:

(a) Development of a system of emergency actions that defines alternatives, processes, and issues to be considered during various stages of national security emergencies;

(b) Identification of actions that could be taken in the early stages of a national security emergency or pending national security emergency to mitigate the impact of or reduce significantly the lead times associated with full emergency action implementation;

(5) Base national security emergency preparedness measures on the use of existing authorities, organizations, resources, and systems to the maximum extent practicable;

(6) Identify areas where additional legal authorities may be needed to assist management and, consistent with applicable Executive orders, take appropriate measures toward acquiring those authorities;

(7) Make policy recommendations to the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council regarding national security emergency preparedness activities and functions of the Federal Government;

(8) Coordinate with State and local government agencies and other organizations, including private sector organizations, when appropriate. Federal plans should include appropriate involvement of and reliance upon private sector organizations in the response to national security emergencies;

(9) Assist State, local, and private sector entities in developing plans for mitigating the effects of national security emergencies and for providing services that are essential to a national response;

(10) Cooperate, to the extent appropriate, in compiling, evaluating, and exchanging relevant data related to all aspects of national security emergency preparedness;

(11) Develop programs regarding congressional relations and public information that could be used during national security emergencies;

(12) Ensure a capability to provide, during a national security emergency, information concerning Acts of Congress, presidential proclamations, Executive orders, regulations, and notices of other actions to the Archivist of the United States, for publication in the Federal Register, or to each agency designated to maintain the Federal Register in an emergency;

(13) Develop and conduct training and education programs that incorporate emergency preparedness and civil defense information necessary to ensure an effective national response;

(14) Ensure that plans consider the consequences for essential services provided by State and local governments, and by the private sector, if the flow of Federal funds is disrupted;

(15) Consult and coordinate with the Secretary of Homeland Security to ensure that those activities and plans are consistent with current Presidential guidelines and policies.

Sec. 202. Continuity of Government. The head of each Federal department and agency shall ensure the continuity of essential functions in any national security emergency by providing for: succession to office and emergency delegation of authority in accordance with applicable law; safekeeping of essential resources, facilities, and records; and establishment of emergency operating capabilities.

Sec. 203. Resource Management. The head of each Federal department and agency, as appropriate within assigned areas of responsibility, shall:

(1) Develop plans and programs to mobilize personnel (including reservist programs), equipment, facilities, and other resources;

(2) Assess essential emergency requirements and plan for the possible use of alternative resources to meet essential demands during and following national security emergencies;

(3) Prepare plans and procedures to share between and among the responsible agencies resources such as energy, equipment, food, land, materials, minerals, services, supplies, transportation, water, and workforce needed to carry out assigned responsibilities and other essential functions, and cooperate with other agencies in developing programs to ensure availability of such resources in a national security emergency;

(4) Develop plans to set priorities and allocate resources among civilian and military claimants;

(5) identify occupations and skills for which there may be a critical need in the event of a national security emergency.

Sec. 204. Protection of Essential Resources and Facilities. The head of each Federal department and agency, within assigned areas of responsibility, shall:

(1) Identify facilities and resources, both government and private, essential to the national defense and national welfare, and assess their vulnerabilities and develop strategies, plans, and programs to provide for the security of such facilities and resources, and to avoid or minimize disruptions of essential services during any national security emergency;

(2) Participate in interagency activities to assess the relative importance of various facilities and resources to essential military and civilian needs and to integrate preparedness and response strategies and procedures;

(3) Maintain a capability to assess promptly the effect of attack and other disruptions during national security emergencies.

Sec. 205. Federal Benefit, Insurance, and Loan Programs. The head of each Federal department and agency that administers a loan, insurance, or benefit program that relies upon the Federal Government payment system shall coordinate with the Secretary of the Treasury in developing plans for the continuation or restoration, to the extent feasible, of such programs in national security emergencies.

Sec. 206. Research. The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the heads of Federal departments and agencies having significant research and development programs shall advise the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council of scientific and technological developments that should be considered in national security emergency preparedness planning.

Sec. 207. Redelegation. The head of each Federal department and agency is hereby authorized, to the extent otherwise permitted by law, to redelegate the functions assigned by this Order, and to authorize successive redelegations to organizations, officers, or employees within that department or agency.

Sec. 208. Transfer of Functions. Recommendations for interagency transfer of any emergency preparedness function assigned under this Order or for assignment of any new emergency preparedness function shall be coordinated with all affected Federal departments and agencies before submission to the National Security Council or the Homeland Security Council.

Sec. 209. Retention of Existing Authority. Nothing in this Order shall be deemed to derogate from assignments of functions to any Federal department or agency or officer thereof made by law.

PART 3—Department of Agriculture

Sec. 301. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Agriculture shall:

(1) Develop plans to provide for the continuation of agriculture production, food processing, storage, and distribution through the wholesale level in national security emergencies, and to provide for the domestic distribution of seed, feed, fertilizer, and farm equipment to agricultural producers;

(2) Develop plans to provide food and agricultural products to meet international responsibilities in national security emergencies;

(3) Develop plans and procedures for administration and use of Commodity Credit Corporation inventories of food and fiber resources in national security emergencies;

(4) Develop plans for the use of resources under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture and, in cooperation with the Secretaries of Commerce, Defense, and the Interior, the Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the heads of other government entities, plan for the national security emergency management, production, and processing of forest products;

(5) Develop, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, plans and programs for water to be used in agricultural production and food processing in national security emergencies;

(6) In cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, develop plans for a national program relating to the prevention and control of fires in rural areas of the United States caused by the effects of enemy attack or other national security emergencies;

(7) Develop plans to help provide the Nation's farmers with production resources, including national security emergency financing capabilities;

(8) Develop plans, in consonance with those of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of the Interior, and the Environmental Protection Agency, for national security emergency agricultural health services and forestry, including:

(a) Diagnosis and control or eradication of diseases, pests, or hazardous agents (biological, chemical, or radiological) against animals, crops, timber, or products thereof;

(b) Protection, treatment, and handling of livestock and poultry, or products thereof, that have been exposed to or affected by hazardous agents;

(c) Use and handling of crops, agricultural commodities, timber, and agricultural lands that have been exposed to or affected by hazardous agents; and

(d) Assuring the safety and wholesomeness, and minimizing losses from hazards, of animals and animal products and agricultural commodities and products subject to continuous inspection by the Department of Agriculture or owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation or by the Department of Agriculture;

(9) In consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, represent the United States in agriculture-related international civil emergency preparedness planning and related activities.

Sec. 302. Support Responsibility. The Secretary of Agriculture shall assist the Secretary of Defense in formulating and carrying out plans for stockpiling strategic and critical agricultural materials.

PART 4—Department of Commerce

Sec. 401. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Commerce shall:

(1) Develop control systems for priorities, allocation, production, and distribution of materials and other resources that will be available to support both national defense and essential civilian programs in a national security emergency;

(2) In cooperation with the Secretary of Defense and other departments and agencies, identify those industrial products and facilities that are essential to mobilization readiness, national defense, or post-attack survival and recovery;

[(3), (4) Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13603, §803(a), Mar. 16, 2012, 77 F.R. 16660.]

(5) In cooperation with the Secretary of the Treasury, develop plans for providing emergency assistance to the private sector through direct or participation loans for the financing of production facilities and equipment;

(6) In cooperation with the Secretaries of State, Defense, Transportation, and the Treasury, prepare plans to regulate and control exports and imports in national security emergencies;

(7) Provide for the collection and reporting of census information on human and economic resources, and maintain a capability to conduct emergency surveys to provide information on the status of these resources as required for national security purposes;

(8) Develop overall plans and programs to ensure that the fishing industry continues to produce and process essential protein in national security emergencies;

(9) Develop plans to provide meteorological, hydrologic, marine weather, geodetic, hydrographic, climatic, seismic, and oceanographic data and services to Federal, State, and local agencies, as appropriate;

(10) In coordination with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, represent the United States in industry-related international (NATO and allied) civil emergency preparedness planning and related activities.

Sec. 402. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of Commerce shall:

(1) Assist the Secretary of Defense in formulating and carrying out plans for stockpiling strategic and critical materials;

(2) Support the Secretary of Agriculture in planning for the national security management, production, and processing of forest and fishery products;

(3) Assist, in consultation with the Secretaries of State and Defense, the Secretary of the Treasury in the formulation and execution of economic measures affecting other nations.

PART 5—Department of Defense

Sec. 501. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Defense shall:

(1) Ensure military preparedness and readiness to respond to national security emergencies;

(2) In coordination with the Secretary of Commerce, develop, with industry, government, and the private sector, reliable capabilities for the rapid increase of defense production to include industrial resources required for that production;

(3) Develop and maintain, in cooperation with the heads of other departments and agencies, national security emergency plans, programs, and mechanisms to ensure effective mutual support between and among the military, civil government, and the private sector;

(4) Develop and maintain damage assessment capabilities and assist the Secretary of Homeland Security and the heads of other departments and agencies in developing and maintaining capabilities to assess attack damage and to estimate the effects of potential attack on the Nation;

(5) Arrange, through agreements with the heads of other Federal departments and agencies, for the transfer of certain Federal resources to the jurisdiction and/or operational control of the Department of Defense in national security emergencies;

(6) Acting through the Secretary of the Army, develop, with the concurrence of the heads of all affected departments and agencies, overall plans for the management, control, and allocation of all usable waters from all sources within the jurisdiction of the United States. This includes:

(a) Coordination of national security emergency water resource planning at the national, regional, State, and local levels;

(b) Development of plans to assure emergency provision of water from public works projects under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Army to public water supply utilities and critical defense production facilities during national security emergencies;

(c) Development of plans to assure emergency operation of waterways and harbors; and

(d) Development of plans to assure the provision of potable water;

(7) In consultation with the Secretaries of State and Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and others, as required, develop plans and capabilities for identifying, analyzing, mitigating, and responding to hazards related to nuclear weapons, materials, and devices; and maintain liaison, as appropriate, with the Secretary of Energy and the Members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to ensure the continuity of nuclear weapons production and the appropriate allocation of scarce resources, including the recapture of special nuclear materials from Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees when appropriate;

(8) Coordinate with the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration [sic] and the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, to prepare for the use, maintenance, and development of technologically advanced aerospace and aeronautical-related systems, equipment, and methodologies applicable to national security emergencies;

(9) Develop, in coordination with the Secretaries of Labor and Homeland Security, the Directors of the Selective Service System, the Office of Personnel Management, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, plans and systems to ensure that the Nation's human resources are available to meet essential military and civilian needs in national security emergencies;

(10) Develop national security emergency operational procedures, and coordinate with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development with respect to residential property, for the control, acquisition, leasing, assignment and priority of occupancy of real property within the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense;

(11) Review the priorities and allocations systems developed by other departments and agencies to ensure that they meet Department of Defense needs in a national security emergency; and develop and maintain the Department of Defense programs necessary for effective utilization of all priorities and allocations systems;

(12) Develop, in coordination with the Attorney General of the United States, specific procedures by which military assistance to civilian law enforcement authorities may be requested, considered, and provided;

(13) In cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce and other departments and agencies, identify those industrial products and facilities that are essential to mobilization readiness, national defense, or post-attack survival and recovery;

(14) In cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce and other Federal departments and agencies, analyze potential effects of national security emergencies on actual production capability, taking into account the entire production complex, including shortages of resources, and develop preparedness measures to strengthen capabilities for production increases in national security emergencies;

(15) With the assistance of the heads of other Federal departments and agencies, provide management direction for the stockpiling of strategic and critical materials, conduct storage, maintenance, and quality assurance operations for the stockpile of strategic and critical materials, and formulate plans, programs, and reports relating to the stockpiling of strategic and critical materials.[;]

(16) Subject to the direction of the President, and pursuant to procedures to be developed jointly by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State, be responsible for the deployment and use of military forces for the protection of United States citizens and nationals and, in connection therewith, designated other persons or categories of persons, in support of their evacuation from threatened areas overseas.

Sec. 502. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of Defense shall:

(1) Advise and assist the heads of other Federal departments and agencies in the development of plans and programs to support national mobilization. This includes providing, as appropriate:

(a) Military requirements, prioritized and time-phased to the extent possible, for selected end-items and supporting services, materials, and components;

(b) Recommendations for use of financial incentives and other methods to improve defense production as provided by law; and

(c) Recommendations for export and import policies;

(2) Advise and assist the Secretary of State and the heads of other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate, in planning for the protection, evacuation, and repatriation of United States citizens in threatened areas overseas;

(3) Support the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the heads of other agencies, as appropriate, in the development of plans to restore community facilities;

(4) Support the Secretary of Energy in international liaison activities pertaining to nuclear materials facilities;

(5) In consultation with the Secretaries of State and Commerce, assist the Secretary of the Treasury in the formulation and execution of economic measures that affect other nations;

(6) Support the Secretary of State and the heads of other Federal departments and agencies as appropriate in the formulation and implementation of foreign policy, and the negotiation of contingency and post-emergency plans, intergovernmental agreements, and arrangements with allies and friendly nations, which affect national security;

(7) Coordinate with the Secretary of Homeland Security the development of plans for mutual civil-military support during national security emergencies;

(8) Develop plans to support the Secretary of Labor in providing education and training to overcome shortages of critical skills.

PART 6—Department of Education

Sec. 601. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Education shall:

(1) Assist school systems in developing their plans to provide for the earliest possible resumption of activities following national security emergencies;

(2) Develop plans to provide assistance, including efforts to meet shortages of critical educational personnel, to local educational agencies;

(3) Develop plans, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, for dissemination of emergency preparedness instructional material through educational institutions and the media during national security emergencies.

Sec. 602. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of Education shall:

(1) Develop plans to support the Secretary of Labor in providing education and training to overcome shortages of critical skills;

(2) Support the Secretary of Health and Human Services in the development of human services educational and training materials, including self-help program materials for use by human service organizations and professional schools.

PART 7—Department of Energy

Sec. 701. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Energy shall:

(1) Conduct national security emergency preparedness planning, including capabilities development, and administer operational programs for all energy resources, including:

(a) Providing information, in cooperation with Federal, State, and energy industry officials, on energy supply and demand conditions and on the requirements for and the availability of materials and services critical to energy supply systems;

(b) In coordination with appropriate departments and agencies and in consultations with the energy industry, develop implementation plans and operational systems for priorities and allocation of all energy resource requirements for national defense and essential civilian needs to assure national security emergency preparedness;

(c) Developing, in consultation with the Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority, plans necessary for the integration of its power system into the national supply system;

(2) Identify energy facilities essential to the mobilization, deployment, and sustainment of resources to support the national security and national welfare, and develop energy supply and demand strategies to ensure continued provision of minimum essential services in national security emergencies;

(3) In coordination with the Secretary of Defense, ensure continuity of nuclear weapons production consistent with national security requirements;

(4) Assure the security of nuclear materials, nuclear weapons, or devices in the custody of the Department of Energy, as well as the security of all other Department of Energy programs and facilities;

(5) In consultation with the Secretaries of State and Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security, conduct appropriate international liaison activities pertaining to matters within the jurisdiction of the Department of Energy;

(6) In consultation with the Secretaries of State, Defense, and Homeland Security, the Members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others, as required, develop plans and capabilities for identification, analysis, damage assessment, and mitigation of hazards from nuclear weapons, materials, and devices;

(7) Coordinate with the Secretary of Transportation in the planning and management of transportation resources involved in the bulk movement of energy;

(8) At the request of or with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, recapture special nuclear materials from Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees where necessary to assure the use, preservation, or safeguarding of such material for the common defense and security;

(9) Develop national security emergency operational procedures for the control, utilization, acquisition, leasing, assignment, and priority of occupancy of real property within the jurisdiction of the Department of Energy;

(10) Manage all emergency planning and response activities pertaining to Department of Energy nuclear facilities.

Sec. 702. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of Energy shall:

(1) Provide advice and assistance, in coordination with appropriate agencies, to Federal, State, and local officials and private sector organizations to assess the radiological impact associated with national security emergencies;

(2) Coordinate with the Secretaries of Defense and the Interior regarding the operation of hydroelectric projects to assure maximum energy output;

(3) Support the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the heads of other agencies, as appropriate, in the development of plans to restore community facilities;

(4) Coordinate with the Secretary of Agriculture regarding the emergency preparedness of the rural electric supply systems throughout the Nation and the assignment of emergency preparedness responsibilities to the Rural Electrification Administration.

PART 8—Department of Health and Human Services

Sec. 801. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall:

(1) Develop national plans and programs to mobilize the health industry and health resources for the provision of health, mental health, and medical services in national security emergencies;

(2) Promote the development of State and local plans and programs for provision of health, mental health, and medical services in national security emergencies;

(3) Develop national plans to set priorities and allocate health, mental health, and medical services' resources among civilian and military claimants;

(4) Develop health and medical survival information programs and a nationwide program to train health and mental health professionals and paraprofessionals in special knowledge and skills that would be useful in national security emergencies;

(5) Develop programs to reduce or eliminate adverse health and mental health effects produced by hazardous agents (biological, chemical, or radiological), and, in coordination with appropriate Federal agencies, develop programs to minimize property and environmental damage associated with national security emergencies;

(6) Develop guidelines that will assure reasonable and prudent standards of purity and/or safety in the manufacture and distribution of food, drugs, biological products, medical devices, food additives, and radiological products in national security emergencies;

(7) Develop national plans for assisting State and local governments in rehabilitation of persons injured or disabled during national security emergencies;

(8) Develop plans and procedures to assist State and local governments in the provision of emergency human services, including lodging, feeding, clothing, registration and inquiry, social services, family reunification and mortuary services and interment;

(9) Develop, in coordination with the Secretary of Education, human services educational and training materials for use by human service organizations and professional schools; and develop and distribute, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, civil defense information relative to emergency human services;

(10) Develop plans and procedures, in coordination with the heads of Federal departments and agencies, for assistance to United States citizens or others evacuated from overseas areas.

Sec. 802. Support Responsibility. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall support the Secretary of Agriculture in the development of plans related to national security emergency agricultural health services.

PART 9—Department of Housing and Urban Development

Sec. 901. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall:

(1) Develop plans for provision and management of housing in national security emergencies, including:

(a) Providing temporary housing using Federal financing and other arrangements;

(b) Providing for radiation protection by encouraging voluntary construction of shelters and voluntary use of cost-efficient design and construction techniques to maximize population protection;

(2) Develop plans, in cooperation with the heads of other Federal departments and agencies and State and local governments, to restore community facilities, including electrical power, potable water, and sewage disposal facilities, damaged in national security emergencies.

PART 10—Department of the Interior

Sec. 1001. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of the Interior shall:

(1) Develop programs and encourage the exploration, development, and mining of strategic and critical and other nonfuel minerals for national security emergency purposes;

(2) Provide guidance to mining industries in the development of plans and programs to ensure continuity of production during national security emergencies;

(3) Develop and implement plans for the management, control, allocation, and use of public land under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior in national security emergencies and coordinate land emergency planning at the Federal, State, and local levels.

Sec. 1002. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of the Interior shall:

(1) Assist the Secretary of Defense in formulating and carrying out plans for stockpiling strategic and critical minerals;

(2) Cooperate with the Secretary of Commerce in the identification and evaluation of facilities essential for national security emergencies;

(3) Support the Secretary of Agriculture in planning for the national security management, production, and processing of forest products.

PART 11—Department of Justice

Sec. 1101. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Attorney General of the United States shall:

(1) Provide legal advice to the President and the heads of Federal departments and agencies and their successors regarding national security emergency powers, plans, and authorities;

(2) Coordinate Federal Government domestic law enforcement activities related to national security emergency preparedness, including Federal law enforcement liaison with, and assistance to, State and local governments;

(3) Coordinate contingency planning for national security emergency law enforcement activities that are beyond the capabilities of State and local agencies;

(4) Develop national security emergency plans for regulation of immigration, regulation of nationals of enemy countries, and plans to implement laws for the control of persons entering or leaving the United States;

(5) Develop plans and procedures for the custody and protection of prisoners and the use of Federal penal and correctional institutions and resources during national security emergencies;

(6) Provide information and assistance to the Federal Judicial branch and the Federal Legislative branch concerning law enforcement, continuity of government, and the exercise of legal authority during national security emergencies;

(7) Develop intergovernmental and interagency law enforcement plans and counterterrorism programs to interdict and respond to terrorism incidents in the United States that may result in a national security emergency or that occur during such an emergency;

(8) Develop intergovernmental and interagency law enforcement plans to respond to civil disturbances that may result in a national security emergency or that occur during such an emergency.

Sec. 1102. Support Responsibilities. The Attorney General of the United States shall:

(1) Assist the heads of Federal departments and agencies, State and local governments, and the private sector in the development of plans to physically protect essential resources and facilities;

(2) Support the Secretaries of State and the Treasury in plans for the protection of international organizations and foreign diplomatic, consular, and other official personnel, property, and other assets within the jurisdiction of the United States;

(3) Support the Secretary of the Treasury in developing plans to control the movement of property entering and leaving the United States;

(4) Support the heads of other Federal departments and agencies and State and local governments in developing programs and plans for identifying fatalities and reuniting families in national security emergencies;

(5) Support the intelligence community in the planning of its counterintelligence and counterterrorism programs.

PART 12—Department of Labor

Sec. 1201. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Labor shall:

(1) Develop plans and issue guidance to ensure effective use of civilian workforce resources during national security emergencies. Such plans shall include, but not necessarily be limited to:

(a) Priorities and allocations, recruitment, referral, training, employment stabilization including appeals procedures, use assessment, and determination of critical skill categories; and

(b) Programs for increasing the availability of critical workforce skills and occupations;

(2) In consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, develop plans and procedures for wage, salary, and benefit costs stabilization during national security emergencies;

(3) Develop plans and procedures for protecting and providing incentives for the civilian labor force during national security emergencies;

(4) In consultation with other appropriate government agencies and private entities, develop plans and procedures for effective labor-management relations during national security emergencies.

Sec. 1202. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of Labor shall:

(1) Support planning by the Secretary of Defense and the private sector for the provision of human resources to critical defense industries during national security emergencies;

(2) Support planning by the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Selective Service for the institution of conscription in national security emergencies.

PART 13—Department of State

Sec. 1301. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of State shall:

(1) Provide overall foreign policy coordination in the formulation and execution of continuity of government and other national security emergency preparedness activities that affect foreign relations;

(2) Prepare to carry out Department of State responsibilities in the conduct of the foreign relations of the United States during national security emergencies, under the direction of the President and in consultation with the heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, including, but not limited to:

(a) Formulation and implementation of foreign policy and negotiation regarding contingency and post-emergency plans, intergovernmental agreements, and arrangements with United States' allies;

(b) Formulation, negotiation, and execution of policy affecting the relationships of the United States with neutral states;

(c) Formulation and execution of political strategy toward hostile or enemy states;

(d) Conduct of mutual assistance activities;

(e) Provision of foreign assistance, including continuous supervision and general direction of authorized economic and military assistance programs;

(f) Protection or evacuation of United States citizens and nationals abroad and safeguarding their property abroad, in consultation with the Secretaries of Defense and Health and Human Services;

(g) Protection of international organizations and foreign diplomatic, consular, and other official personnel and property, or other assets, in the United States, in coordination with the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury;

(h) Formulation of policies and provisions for assistance to displaced persons and refugees abroad;

(i) Maintenance of diplomatic and consular representation abroad; and

(j) Reporting of and advising on conditions overseas that bear upon national security emergencies.

Sec. 1302. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of State shall:

(1) Assist appropriate agencies in developing planning assumptions concerning accessibility of foreign sources of supply;

(2) Support the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation, as appropriate, with the Secretaries of Commerce and Defense, in the formulation and execution of economic measures with respect to other nations;

(3) Support the Secretary of Energy in international liaison activities pertaining to nuclear materials facilities;

(4) Support the Secretary of Homeland Security in the coordination and integration of United States policy regarding the formulation and implementation of civil emergency resources and preparedness planning;

(5) Assist the Attorney General of the United States in the formulation of national security emergency plans for the control of persons entering or leaving the United States.

PART 14—Department of Transportation

Sec. 1401. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Transportation shall:

(1) Develop plans to promulgate and manage overall national policies, programs, procedures, and systems to meet essential civil and military transportation needs in national security emergencies;

(2) Be prepared to provide direction to all modes of civil transportation in national security emergencies, including air, surface, water, pipelines, and public storage and warehousing, to the extent such responsibility is vested in the Secretary of Transportation. This direction may include:

(a) Implementation of priorities for all transportation resource requirements for service, equipment, facilities, and systems;

(b) Allocation of transportation resource capacity; and

(c) Emergency management and control of civil transportation resources and systems, including privately owned automobiles, urban mass transit, intermodal transportation systems, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation and the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation;

(3) Develop plans to provide for the smooth transition of the Coast Guard as a service to the Department of the Navy during national security emergencies. These plans shall be compatible with the Department of Defense planning systems, especially in the areas of port security and military readiness;

(4) In coordination with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, represent the United States in transportation-related international (including NATO and allied) civil emergency preparedness planning and related activities;

(5) Coordinate with State and local highway agencies in the management of all Federal, State, city, local, and other highways, roads, streets, bridges, tunnels, and publicly owned highway maintenance equipment to assure efficient and safe use of road space during national security emergencies;

(6) Develop plans and procedures in consultation with appropriate agency officials for maritime and port safety, law enforcement, and security over, upon, and under the high seas and waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to assure operational readiness for national security emergency functions;

(7) Develop plans for the emergency operation of U.S. ports and facilities, use of shipping resources (U.S. and others), provision of government war risks insurance, and emergency construction of merchant ships for military and civil use;

(8) Develop plans for emergency management and control of the National Airspace System, including provision of war risk insurance and for transfer of the Federal Aviation Administration, in the event of war, to the Department of Defense;

(9) Coordinate the Interstate Commerce Commission's development of plans and preparedness programs for the reduction of vulnerability, maintenance, restoration, and operation of privately owned railroads, motor carriers, inland waterway transportation systems, and public storage facilities and services in national security emergencies.

Sec. 1402. Support Responsibility. The Secretary of Transportation shall coordinate with the Secretary of Energy in the planning and management of transportation resources involved in the bulk movement of energy materials.

PART 15—Department of the Treasury

Sec. 1501. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of the Treasury shall:

(1) Develop plans to maintain stable economic conditions and a market economy during national security emergencies; emphasize measures to minimize inflation and disruptions; and, minimize reliance on direct controls of the monetary, credit, and financial systems. These plans will include provisions for:

(a) Increasing capabilities to minimize economic dislocations by carrying out appropriate fiscal, monetary, and regulatory policies and reducing susceptibility to manipulated economic pressures;

(b) Providing the Federal Government with efficient and equitable financing sources and payment mechanisms;

(c) Providing fiscal authorities with adequate legal authority to meet resource requirements;

(d) Developing, in consultation with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and in cooperation with the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, the National Credit Union Administration Board, the Farm Credit Administration Board and other financial institutions, plans for the continued or resumed operation and liquidity of banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and farm credit institutions, measures for the reestablishment of evidence of assets or liabilities, and provisions for currency withdrawals and deposit insurance;

(2) Provide for the protection of United States financial resources including currency and coin production and redemption facilities, Federal check disbursement facilities, and precious monetary metals;

(3) Provide for the preservation of, and facilitate emergency operations of, public and private financial institution systems, and provide for their restoration during or after national security emergencies;

(4) Provide, in coordination with the Secretary of State, for participation in bilateral and multilateral financial arrangements with foreign governments;

(5) Maintain the Federal Government accounting and financial reporting system in national security emergencies;

(6) Develop plans to protect the President, the Vice President, other officers in the order of presidential succession, and other persons designated by the President;

(7) Develop plans for restoration of the economy following an attack; for the development of emergency monetary, credit, and Federal benefit payment programs of those Federal departments and agencies that have responsibilities dependent on the policies or capabilities of the Department of the Treasury; and for the implementation of national policy on sharing war losses;

(8) Develop plans for initiating tax changes, waiving regulations, and, in conjunction with the Secretary of Commerce or other guaranteeing agency, granting or guaranteeing loans for the expansion of industrial capacity, the development of technological processes, or the production or acquisition of essential materials;

(9) Develop plans, in coordination with the heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, to acquire emergency imports, make foreign barter arrangements, or otherwise provide for essential material from foreign sources using, as appropriate, the resources of the Export-Import Bank or resources available to the Bank;

(10) Develop plans for encouraging capital inflow and discouraging the flight of capital from the United States and, in coordination with the Secretary of State, for the seizure and administration of assets of enemy aliens during national security emergencies;

(11) Develop plans, in consultation with the heads of approporiate Federal departments and agencies, to regulate financial and commercial transactions with other countries;

(12) Develop plans, in coordination with the Secretary of Commerce and the Attorney General of the United States, to control the movement of property entering or leaving the United States;

(13) Cooperate and consult with the Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, the Chairman of the Commodities Futures Trading Commission in the development of emergency financial control plans and regulations for trading of stocks and commodities, and in the development of plans for the maintenance and restoration of stable and orderly markets;

(14) Develop plans, in coordination with the Secretary of State, for the formulation and execution of economic measures with respect to other nations in national security emergencies.

Sec. 1502. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of the Treasury shall:

(1) Cooperate with the Attorney General of the United States on law enforcement activities, including the control of people entering and leaving the United States;

(2) Support the Secretary of Labor in developing plans and procedures for wage, salary, and benefit costs stabilization;

(3) Support the Secretary of State in plans for the protection of international organizations and foreign diplomatic, consular, and other official personnel and property or other assets in the United States.

PART 16—Environmental Protection Agency

Sec. 1601. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall:

(1) Develop Federal plans and foster development of State and local plans designed to prevent or minimize the ecological impact of hazardous agents (biological, chemical, or radiological) introduced into the environment in national security emergencies;

(2) Develop, for national security emergencies, guidance on acceptable emergency levels of nuclear radiation, assist in determining acceptable emergency levels of biological agents, and help to provide detection and identification of chemical agents;

(3) Develop, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, plans to assure the provision of potable water supplies to meet community needs under national security emergency conditions, including claimancy for materials and equipment for public water systems.

Sec. 1602. Support Responsibilities. The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall:

(1) Assist the heads of other Federal agencies that are responsible for developing plans for the detection, reporting, assessment, protection against, and reduction of effects of hazardous agents introduced into the environment;

(2) Advise the heads of Federal departments and agencies regarding procedures for assuring compliance with environmental restrictions and for expeditious review of requests for essential waivers.

PART 17—Department of Homeland Security

Sec. 1701. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

(1) Coordinate and support the initiation, development, and implementation of national security emergency preparedness programs and plans among Federal departments and agencies;

(2) Coordinate the development and implementation of plans for the operation and continuity of essential domestic emergency functions of the Federal Government during national security emergencies;

(3) Coordinate the development of plans, in cooperation with the Secretary of Defense, for mutual civil-military support during national security emergencies;

(4) Guide and assist State and local governments and private sector organizations in achieving preparedness for national security emergencies, including development of plans and procedures for assuring continuity of government, and support planning for prompt and coordinated Federal assistance to States and localities in responding to national security emergencies;

(5) Provide the President a periodic assessment of Federal, State, and local capabilities to respond to national security emergencies;

(6) Coordinate the implementation of policies and programs for efficient mobilization of Federal, State, local, and private sector resources in response to national security emergencies;

(7) Develop and coordinate with all appropriate agencies civil defense programs to enhance Federal, State, local, and private sector capabilities for national security emergency crisis management, population protection, and recovery in the event of an attack on the United States;

(8) Develop and support public information, education and training programs to assist Federal, State, and local government and private sector entities in planning for and implementing national security emergency preparedness programs;

(9) Coordinate among the heads of Federal, State, and local agencies the planning, conduct, and evaluation of national security emergency exercises;

(10) With the assistance of the heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, develop and maintain capabilities to assess actual attack damage and residual recovery capabilities as well as capabilities to estimate the effects of potential attacks on the Nation;

(11) Provide guidance to the heads of Federal departments and agencies on the appropriate use of defense production authorities, including resource claimancy, in order to improve the capability of industry and infrastructure systems to meet national security emergency needs;

(12) Assist the Secretary of State in coordinating the formulation and implementation of United States policy for NATO and other allied civil emergency planning, including the provision of:

(a) advice and assistance to the departments and agencies in alliance civil emergency planning matters;

(b) support to the United States Mission to NATO in the conduct of day-to-day civil emergency planning activities; and

(c) support facilities for NATO Civil Wartime Agencies in cooperation with the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Energy, State, and Transportation.

Sec. 1702. Support Responsibilities. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

(1) Support the heads of other Federal departments and agencies in preparing plans and programs to discharge their national security emergency preparedness responsibilities, including, but not limited to, such programs as mobilization preparedness, continuity of government planning, and continuance of industry and infrastructure functions essential to national security;

(2) Support the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Defense, and the Members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in developing plans and capabilities for identifying, analyzing, mitigating, and responding to emergencies related to nuclear weapons, materials, and devices, including mobile and fixed nuclear facilities, by providing, inter alia, off-site coordination;

(3) Support the Administrator of General Services in efforts to promote a government-wide program with respect to Federal buildings and installations to minimize the effects of attack and establish shelter management organizations.

PART 18—General Services Administration

Sec. 1801. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Administrator of General Services shall:

(1) Develop national security emergency plans and procedures for the operation, maintenance, and protection of federally owned and occupied buildings managed by the General Services Administration, and for the construction, alteration, and repair of such buildings;

(2) Develop national security emergency operating procedures for the control, acquisition, leasing, assignment, and priority of occupancy of real property by the Federal Government, and by State and local governments acting as agents of the Federal Government, except for the military facilities and facilities with special nuclear materials within the jurisdiction of the Departments of Defense and Energy;

(3) Develop national security emergency operational plans and procedures for the use of public utility services (other than telecommunications services) by Federal departments and agencies, except for Department of Energy-operated facilities;

(4) Develop plans and operating procedures of government-wide supply programs to meet the requirements of Federal departments and agencies during national security emergencies;

(5) Develop plans and operating procedures for the use, in national security emergencies, of excess and surplus real and personal property by Federal, State, and local governmental entities;

(6) Develop plans, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, with respect to Federal buildings and installations, to minimize the effects of attack and establish shelter management organizations;

Sec. 1802. Support Responsibility. The Administrator of General Services shall develop plans to assist Federal departments and agencies in operation and maintenance of essential automated information processing facilities during national security emergencies:[.]

PART 19—National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Sec. 1901. Lead Responsibility. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall coordinate with the Secretary of Defense to prepare for the use, maintenance, and development of technologically advanced aerospace and aeronautical-related systems, equipment, and methodologies applicable to national security emergencies.

PART 20—National Archives and Records Administration

Sec. 2001. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Archivist of the United States shall:

(1) Develop procedures for publication during national security emergencies of the Federal Register for as broad public dissemination as is practicable of presidential proclamations and Executive orders, Federal administrative regulations, Federal emergency notices and actions, and Acts of Congress;

(2) Develop emergency procedures for providing instructions and advice on the handling and preservation of records critical to the operation of the Federal Government in national security emergencies.

PART 21—Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Sec. 2101. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall:

(1) Promote the development and maintenance of national security emergency preparedness programs through security and safeguards programs by licensed facilities and activities;

(2) Develop plans to suspend any licenses granted by the Commission; to order the operations of any facility licensed under Section 103 or 104; Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2133 or 2134); to order the entry into any plant or facility in order to recapture special nuclear material as determined under Subsection (3) below; and operate such facilities;

(3) Recapture or authorize recapture of special nuclear materials from licensees where necessary to assure the use, preservation, or safeguarding of such materials for the common defense and security, as determined by the Commission or as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

Sec. 2102. Support Responsibilities. The Members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall:

(1) Assist the Secretary of Energy in assessing damage to Commission-licensed facilities, identifying useable facilities, and estimating the time and actions necessary to restart inoperative facilities;

(2) Provide advice and technical assistance to Federal, State, and local officials and private sector organizations regarding radiation hazards and protective actions in national security emergencies.

PART 22—Office of Personnel Management

Sec. 2201. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall:

(1) Prepare plans to administer the Federal civilian personnel system in national security emergencies, including plans and procedures for the rapid mobilization and reduction of an emergency Federal workforce;

(2) Develop national security emergency work force policies for Federal civilian personnel;

(3) Develop plans to accommodate the surge of Federal personnel security background and pre-employment investigations during national security emergencies.

Sec. 2202. Support Responsibilities. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall:

(1) Assist the heads of other Federal departments and agencies with personnel management and staffing in national security emergencies, including facilitating transfers between agencies of employees with critical skills;

(2) In consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Selective Service, develop plans and procedures for a system to control any conscription of Federal civilian employees during national security emergencies.

PART 23—Selective Service System

Sec. 2301. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Director of Selective Service shall:

(1) Develop plans to provide by induction, as authorized by law, personnel that would be required by the armed forces during national security emergencies;

(2) Develop plans for implementing an alternative service program.

PART 24—Tennessee Valley Authority

Sec. 2401. Lead Responsibility. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority shall develop plans and maintain river control operations for the prevention or control of floods affecting the Tennessee River System during national security emergencies.

Sec. 2402. Support Responsibilities. The Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority shall:

(1) Assist the Secretary of Energy in the development of plans for the integration of the Tennessee Valley Authority power system into nationwide national security emergency programs;

(2) Assist the Secretaries of Defense, Interior, and Transportation and the Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission in the development of plans for operation and maintenance of inland waterway transportation in the Tennessee River System during national security emergencies.

PART 25—United States Information Agency

Sec. 2501. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Director of the United States Information Agency shall:

(1) Plan for the implementation of information programs to promote an understanding abroad of the status of national security emergencies within the United States;

(2) In coordination with the Secretary of State's exercise of telecommunications functions affecting United States diplomatic missions and consular offices overseas, maintain the capability to provide television and simultaneous direct radio broadcasting in major languages to all areas of the world, and the capability to provide wireless file to all United States embassies during national security emergencies.

Sec. 2502. Support Responsibility. The Director of the United States Information Agency shall assist the heads of other Federal departments and agencies in planning for the use of media resources and foreign public information programs during national security emergencies.

PART 26—United States Postal Service

Sec. 2601. Lead Responsibility. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Postmaster General shall prepare plans and programs to provide essential postal services during national security emergencies.

Sec. 2602. Support Responsibilities. The Postmaster General shall:

(1) Develop plans to assist the Attorney General of the United States in the registration of nationals of enemy countries residing in the United States;

(2) Develop plans to assist the Secretary of Health and Human Services in registering displaced persons and families;

(3) Develop plans to assist the heads of other Federal departments and agencies in locating and leasing privately owned property for Federal use during national security emergencies.

PART 27—Veterans' Administration

Sec. 2701. Lead Responsibilities. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] shall:

(1) Develop plans for provision of emergency health care services to veteran beneficiaries in Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs] medical facilities, to active duty military personnel and, as resources permit, to civilians in communities affected by national security emergencies;

(2) Develop plans for mortuary services for eligible veterans, and advise on methods for interment of the dead during national security emergencies.

Sec. 2702. Support Responsibilities. The Administrator of Veterans' Affairs [now Secretary of Veterans Affairs] shall:

(1) Assist the Secretary of Health and Human Services in promoting the development of State and local plans for the provision of medical services in national security emergencies, and develop appropriate plans to support such State and local plans;

(2) Assist the Secretary of Health and Human Services in developing national plans to mobilize the health care industry and medical resources during national security emergencies;

(3) Assist the Secretary of Health and Human Services in developing national plans to set priorities and allocate medical resources among civilian and military claimants.

PART 28—Office of Management and Budget

Sec. 2801. In addition to the applicable responsibilities covered in Parts 1 and 2, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall prepare plans and programs to maintain its functions during national security emergencies. In connection with these functions, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall:

(1) Develop plans to ensure the preparation, clearance, and coordination of proposed Executive orders and proclamations;

(2) Prepare plans to ensure the preparation, supervision, and control of the budget and the formulation of the fiscal program of the Government;

(3) Develop plans to coordinate and communicate Executive branch views to the Congress regarding legislation and testimony by Executive branch officials;

(4) Develop plans for keeping the President informed of the activities of government agencies, continuing the Office of Management and Budget's management functions, and maintaining presidential supervision and direction with respect to legislation and regulations in national security emergencies.

PART 29—General

Sec. 2901. Executive Order Nos. 10421 and 11490, as amended, are hereby revoked. This Order shall be effective immediately.

[Responsibilities assigned to specific Federal officials pursuant to Ex. Ord. No. 12656, set out above, that are substantially the same as any responsibility assigned to, or function transferred to, the Secretary of Homeland Security pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. 101 et seq., or intended or required to be carried out by an agency or an agency component transferred to the Department of Homeland Security pursuant to such Act, reassigned to the Secretary of Homeland Security by section 42 of Ex. Ord. No. 13286, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10626, set out as a note under section 111 of Title 6, Domestic Security.]

[For abolition of United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau), transfer of functions, and treatment of references thereto, see sections 6531, 6532, and 6551 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.]

[Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §42, which directed amendment of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, set out above, by substituting "the Secretary of Homeland Security" for "the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" in section "1801(b)", was executed by making the substitution in section 1801(6).]

Ex. Ord. No. 12657. Department of Homeland Security Assistance in Emergency Preparedness Planning at Commercial Nuclear Power Plants

Ex. Ord. No. 12657, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47513, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §41, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10626, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended ([former] 50 U.S.C. App. 2251 et seq.), the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 [set out above], Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 [set out above], and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and in order to ensure that plans and procedures are in place to respond to radiological emergencies at commercial nuclear power plants in operation or under construction, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Scope. (a) This Order applies whenever State or local governments, either individually or together, decline or fail to prepare commercial nuclear power plant radiological emergency preparedness plans that are sufficient to satisfy Nuclear Regulatory Commission ("NRC") licensing requirements or to participate adequately in the preparation, demonstration, testing, exercise, or use of such plans.

(b) In order to request the assistance of the Department of Homeland Security ("DHS") provided for in this Order, an affected nuclear power plant applicant or licensee ("licensee") shall certify in writing to DHS that the situation described in Subsection (a) exists.

Sec. 2. Generally Applicable Principles and Directives. (a) Subject to the principles articulated in this Section, the Secretary of Homeland Security is hereby authorized and directed to take the actions specified in Sections 3 through 6 of this Order.

(b) In carrying out any of its responsibilities under this Order, DHS:

(1) shall work actively with the licensee, and, before relying upon its resources or those of any other Department or agency within the Executive branch, shall make maximum feasible use of the licensee's resources;

(2) shall take care not to supplant State and local resources. DHS shall substitute its own resources for those of the State and local governments only to the extent necessary to compensate for the nonparticipation or inadequate participation of those governments, and only as a last resort after appropriate consultation with the Governors and responsible local officials in the affected area regarding State and local participation;

(3) is authorized, to the extent permitted by law, to enter into interagency Memoranda of Understanding providing for utilization of the resources of other Executive branch Departments and agencies and for delegation to other Executive branch Departments and agencies of any of the functions and duties assigned to DHS under this Order; however, any such Memorandum of Understanding shall be subject to approval by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget ("OMB") and published in final form in the Federal Register; and

(4) shall assume for purposes of Sections 3 and 4 of this Order that, in the event of an actual radiological emergency or disaster, State and local authorities would contribute their full resources and exercise their authorities in accordance with their duties to protect the public from harm and would act generally in conformity with the licensee's radiological emergency preparedness plan.

(c) The Director of OMB shall resolve any issue concerning the obligation of Federal funds arising from the implementation of this Order. In resolving issues under this Subsection, the Director of OMB shall ensure:

(1) that DHS has utilized to the maximum extent possible the resources of the licensee and State and local governments before it relies upon its appropriated and lawfully available resources or those of any Department or agency in the Executive branch;

(2) that DHS shall use its existing resources to coordinate and manage, rather than duplicate, other available resources;

(3) that implementation of this Order is accomplished with an economy of resources; and

(4) that full reimbursement to the Federal Government is provided, to the extent permitted by law.

Sec. 3. DHS Participation in Emergency Preparedness Planning. (a) DHS assistance in emergency preparedness planning shall include advice, technical assistance, and arrangements for facilities and resources as needed to satisfy the emergency planning requirements under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], and any other Federal legislation or regulations pertaining to issuance or retention of a construction permit or an operating license for a nuclear power plant.

(b) DHS shall make all necessary plans and arrangements to ensure that the Federal Government is prepared to assume any and all functions and undertakings necessary to provide adequate protection to the public in cases within the scope of this Order. In making such plans and arrangements,

(1) DHS shall focus planning of Federal response activities to ensure that:

(A) adequate resources and arrangements will exist, as of the time when an initial response is needed, given the absence or inadequacy of advance State and local commitments; and

(B) attention has been given to coordinating (including turning over) response functions when State and local governments do exercise their authority, with specific attention to the areas where prior State and local participation has been insufficient or absent;

(2) FEMA's [DHS's] planning for Federal participation in responding to a radiological emergency within the scope of this Order shall include, but not be limited to, arrangements for using existing Federal resources to provide prompt notification of the emergency to the general public; to assist in any necessary evacuation; to provide reception centers or shelters and related facilities and services for evacuees; to provide emergency medical services at Federal hospitals, including those operated by the military services and by the Veterans' Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs]; and to ensure the creation and maintenance of channels of communication from commercial nuclear power plant licensees or applicants to State and local governments and to surrounding members of the public.

Sec. 4. Evaluation of Plans. (a) DHS shall consider and evaluate all plans developed under the authority of this Order as though drafted and submitted by a State or local government.

(b) DHS shall take all actions necessary to carry out the evaluation referred to in the preceding Subsection and to permit the NRC to conduct its evaluation of radiological emergency preparedness plans including, but not limited to, planning, participating in, and evaluating exercises, drills, and tests, on a timely basis, as necessary to satisfy NRC requirements for demonstrations of off-site radiological emergency preparedness.

Sec. 5. Response to a Radiological Emergency. (a) In the event of an actual radiological emergency or disaster, DHS shall take all steps necessary to ensure the implementation of the plans developed under this Order and shall coordinate the actions of other Federal agencies to achieve the maximum effectiveness of Federal efforts in responding to the emergency.

(b) DHS shall coordinate Federal response activities to ensure that adequate resources are directed, when an initial response is needed, to activities hindered by the absence or inadequacy of advance State and local commitments. DHS shall also coordinate with State and local governmental authorities and turn over response functions as appropriate when State and local governments do exercise their authority.

(c) DHS shall assume any necessary command-and-control function, or delegate such function to another Federal agency, in the event that no competent State and local authority is available to perform such function.

(d) In any instance in which Federal personnel may be called upon to fill a command-and-control function during a radiological emergency, in addition to any other powers it may have, DHS or its designee is authorized to accept volunteer assistance from utility employees and other nongovernmental personnel for any purpose necessary to implement the emergency response plan and facilitate off-site emergency response.

Sec. 6. Implementation of Order. (a) DHS shall issue interim and final directives and procedures implementing this Order as expeditiously as is feasible and in any event shall issue interim directives and procedures not more than 90 days following the effective date of this Order and shall issue final directives and procedures not more than 180 days following the effective date of this Order.

(b) Immediately upon the effective date of this Order, DHS shall review, and initiate necessary revisions of, all DHS regulations, directives, and guidance to conform them to the terms and policies of this Order.

(c) Immediately upon the effective date of this Order, DHS shall review, and initiate necessary renegotiations of, all interagency agreements to which DHS is a party, so as to conform them to the terms and policies of this Order. This directive shall include, but not be limited to, the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (50 Fed. Reg. 46542 (November 8, 1985)).

(d) To the extent permitted by law, DHS is directed to obtain full reimbursement, either jointly or severally, for services performed by DHS or other Federal agencies pursuant to this Order from any affected licensee and from any affected nonparticipating or inadequately participating State or local government.

Sec. 7. Amendments. This Executive Order amends Executive Order Nos. 11490 (34 Fed. Reg. 17567 (October 28, 1969)) [see note above], 12148 (44 Fed. Reg. 43239 (July 20, 1979)) [set out above], and 12241 (45 Fed. Reg. 64879 (September 29, 1980)), and the same are hereby superseded to the extent that they are inconsistent with this Order.

Sec. 8. Judicial Review. This Order is intended only to improve the internal management of the Executive branch, and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

Sec. 9. Effective Date. This Order shall be effective November 18, 1988.

Ex. Ord. No. 12673. Delegation of Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12673, Mar. 23, 1989, 54 F.R. 12571, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), and in order to conform delegations of authority to recent legislation, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Section 4–203 of Executive Order No. 12148 [set out above] is amended to read:

Section 4–203. The functions vested in the President by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), except those functions vested in the President by Section 401 (relating to the declaration of major disasters and emergencies), Section 501 (relating to the declaration of emergencies), Section 405 (relating to the repair, reconstruction, restoration, or replacement of Federal facilities), and Section 412 (relating to food coupons [benefits] and distribution), are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Sec. 2. Section 3 of Executive Order No. 11795 [42 U.S.C. 5121 note] is amended by removing the words "Section 409" and inserting "Section 412" in place thereof.

Sec. 3. The functions vested in the President by Section 103(e)(2) of the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988, Public Law 100–707 [42 U.S.C. 5122 note] (relating to the transmission of a report to the Committee on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate), are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Sec. 4. The functions vested in the President by Section 110 of the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988, Public Law 100–707 [42 U.S.C. 5121 note], are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Sec. 5. The functions vested in the President by Section 113 of the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988, Public Law 100–707 [42 U.S.C. 5201 note], are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Sec. 6. The amendments to Executive Order No. 12148 that are made by Section 1 of this Executive Order shall not affect the administration of any assistance for major disasters or emergencies declared by the President before the effective date of "The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988 [probably means date of enactment of Pub. L. 100–707, which was approved Nov. 23, 1988]."

George Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13010. Critical Infrastructure Protection

Ex. Ord. No. 13010, July 15, 1996, 61 F.R. 37347, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13025, Nov. 13, 1996, 61 F.R. 58623; Ex. Ord. No. 13041, Apr. 3, 1997, 62 F.R. 17039; Ex. Ord. No. 13064, Oct. 11, 1997, 62 F.R. 53711; Ex. Ord. No. 13077, Mar. 10, 1998, 63 F.R. 12381; Ex. Ord. No. 13138, §3(c), Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53880, provided:

Certain national infrastructures are so vital that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States. These critical infrastructures include telecommunications, electrical power systems, gas and oil storage and transportation, banking and finance, transportation, water supply systems, emergency services (including medical, police, fire, and rescue), and continuity of government. Threats to these critical infrastructures fall into two categories: physical threats to tangible property ("physical threats"), and threats of electronic, radio-frequency, or computer-based attacks on the information or communications components that control critical infrastructures ("cyber threats"). Because many of these critical infrastructures are owned and operated by the private sector, it is essential that the government and private sector work together to develop a strategy for protecting them and assuring their continued operation.

NOW, THEREFORE, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. There is hereby established the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection ("Commission").

(a) Chair. A qualified individual from outside the Federal Government shall be designated by the President from among the members to serve as Chair of the Commission. The Commission Chair shall be employed on a full-time basis.

(b) Members. The head of each of the following executive branch departments and agencies shall nominate not more than two full-time members of the Commission:

(i) Department of the Treasury;

(ii) Department of Justice;

(iii) Department of Defense;

(iv) Department of Commerce;

(v) Department of Transportation;

(vi) Department of Energy;

(vii) Central Intelligence Agency;

(viii) Federal Emergency Management Agency;

(ix) Federal Bureau of Investigation;

(x) National Security Agency.

One of the nominees of each agency may be an individual from outside the Federal Government who shall be employed by the agency on a full-time basis. Each nominee must be approved by the Steering Committee.

Sec. 2. The Principals Committee. The Commission shall report to the President through a Principals Committee ("Principals Committee"), which shall review any reports or recommendations before submission to the President. The Principals Committee shall comprise the:

(i) Secretary of the Treasury;

(ii) Secretary of Defense;

(iii) Attorney General;

(iv) Secretary of Commerce;

(v) Secretary of Transportation;

(vi) Secretary of Energy;

(vii) Director of Central Intelligence;

(viii) Director of the Office of Management and Budget;

(ix) Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency;

(x) Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs;

(xi) Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs.[;]

(xii) Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Director of the National Economic Council; and

(xiii) Assistant to the President and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Sec. 3. The Steering Committee of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection. A Steering Committee ("Steering Committee") shall oversee the work of the Commission on behalf of the Principals Committee. The Steering Committee shall comprise [sic] five members. Four of the members shall be appointed by the President, and the fifth member shall be the Chair of the Commission. Two of the members of the Committee shall be employees of the Executive Office of the President. The Steering Committee will receive regular reports on the progress of the Commission's work and approve the submission of reports to the Principals Committee.

Sec. 4. Mission. The Commission shall: (a) within 30 days of this order, produce a statement of its mission objectives, which will elaborate the general objectives set forth in this order, and a detailed schedule for addressing each mission objective, for approval by the Steering Committee;

(b) identify and consult with: (i) elements of the public and private sectors that conduct, support, or contribute to infrastructure assurance; (ii) owners and operators of the critical infrastructures; and (iii) other elements of the public and private sectors, including the Congress, that have an interest in critical infrastructure assurance issues and that may have differing perspectives on these issues;

(c) assess the scope and nature of the vulnerabilities of, and threats to, critical infrastructures;

(d) determine what legal and policy issues are raised by efforts to protect critical infrastructures and assess how these issues should be addressed;

(e) recommend a comprehensive national policy and implementation strategy for protecting critical infrastructures from physical and cyber threats and assuring their continued operation;

(f) propose any statutory or regulatory changes necessary to effect its recommendations; and

(g) produce reports and recommendations to the Steering Committee as they become available; it shall not limit itself to producing one final report.

Sec. 5. [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13138, §3(c), Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53880.]

Sec. 6. Administration. (a) All executive departments and agencies shall cooperate with the Commission and provide such assistance, information, and advice to the Commission as it may request, to the extent permitted by law.