[USC02] 46 USC Ch. 21: GENERAL
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46 USC Ch. 21: GENERAL
From Title 46—SHIPPINGSubtitle II—Vessels and SeamenPart A—General Provisions

CHAPTER 21—GENERAL

Sec.
2101.
General definitions.
2102.
Limited definitions.
2103.
Superintendence of the merchant marine.
2104.
Delegation.
2105.
Report.
2106.
Liability in rem.
2107.
Civil penalty procedures.
[2108.
Repealed.]
2109.
Public vessels.
2110.
Fees.
2111.
Pay for overtime services.
2112.
Authority to change working hours.
2113.
Authority to exempt certain vessels.
2114.
Protection of seamen against discrimination.
2115.
Civil penalty to enforce alcohol and dangerous drug testing.
2116.
Marine safety strategy, goals, and performance assessments.
2117.
Termination for unsafe operation.
2118.
Establishment of equipment standards.

        

Historical and Revision Notes

Chapter 21 contains definitions that are general in nature and applicable to all references within Subtitle II—Vessels and Seamen. The chapter provides the basic authority and responsibility for the enforcement and administration of this subtitle with appropriate delegation and reporting requirements.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–281, title V, §522(b), title VI, §608(b), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2957, 2968, added items 2116 to 2118.

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3529(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 603, struck out item 2108 "Refund of penalties".

1996Pub. L. 104–324, title III, §303(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3917, added item 2115.

1990Pub. L. 101–508, title X, §10401(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–398, substituted "Fees" for "Fees prohibited" in item 2110.

1984Pub. L. 98–557, §13(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2864, added item 2114.

§2101. General definitions

In this subtitle—

(1) "associated equipment"—

(A) means—

(i) a system, accessory, component, or appurtenance of a recreational vessel; or

(ii) a marine safety article intended for use on board a recreational vessel; but


(B) with the exception of emergency locator beacons for recreational vessels operating beyond 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured or beyond 3 nautical miles from the coastline of the Great Lakes, does not include radio equipment.


(2) "Coast Guard" means the organization established and continued under section 1 1 of title 14.

(3) "Commandant" means the Commandant of the Coast Guard.

(4) "commercial service" includes any type of trade or business involving the transportation of goods or individuals, except service performed by a combatant vessel.

(5) "consideration" means an economic benefit, inducement, right, or profit including pecuniary payment accruing to an individual, person, or entity, but not including a voluntary sharing of the actual expenses of the voyage, by monetary contribution or donation of fuel, food, beverage, or other supplies.

(6) "crude oil" means a liquid hydrocarbon mixture occurring naturally in the earth, whether or not treated to render it suitable for transportation, and includes crude oil from which certain distillate fractions may have been removed, and crude oil to which certain distillate fractions may have been added.

(7) "crude oil tanker" means a tanker engaged in the trade of carrying crude oil.

(8) "dangerous drug" means a narcotic drug, a controlled substance, or a controlled substance analog (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)).

(9) "discharge", when referring to a substance discharged from a vessel, includes spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping, however caused.

(10) "ferry" means a vessel that is used on a regular schedule—

(A) to provide transportation only between places that are not more than 300 miles apart; and

(B) to transport only—

(i) passengers; or

(ii) vehicles, or railroad cars, that are being used, or have been used, in transporting passengers or goods.


(11) "fish" means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life, except marine mammals and birds.

(12) "fishing vessel" means a vessel that commercially engages in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish or an activity that can reasonably be expected to result in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish.

(13) "fish processing vessel" means a vessel that commercially prepares fish or fish products other than by gutting, decapitating, gilling, skinning, shucking, icing, freezing, or brine chilling.

(14) "fish tender vessel" means a vessel that commercially supplies, stores, refrigerates, or transports fish, fish products, or materials directly related to fishing or the preparation of fish to or from a fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel or a fish processing facility.

(15) "freight vessel" means a motor vessel of more than 15 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that carries freight for hire, except an oceanographic research vessel or an offshore supply vessel.

(16) "Great Lakes barge" means a non-self-propelled vessel of at least 3,500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title operating on the Great Lakes.

(17) "hazardous material" means a liquid material or substance that is—

(A) flammable or combustible;

(B) designated a hazardous substance under section 311(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1321); or

(C) designated a hazardous material under section 5103(a) of title 49.


(18) "major conversion" means a conversion of a vessel that—

(A) substantially changes the dimensions or carrying capacity of the vessel;

(B) changes the type of the vessel;

(C) substantially prolongs the life of the vessel; or

(D) otherwise so changes the vessel that it is essentially a new vessel, as decided by the Secretary.


(19) "marine environment" means—

(A) the navigable waters of the United States and the land and resources in and under those waters;

(B) the waters and fishery resources of an area over which the United States asserts exclusive fishery management authority;

(C) the seabed and subsoil of the outer Continental Shelf of the United States, the resources of the Shelf, and the waters superjacent to the Shelf; and

(D) the recreational, economic, and scenic values of the waters and resources referred to in subclauses (A)–(C) of this clause.


(20) "mobile offshore drilling unit" means a vessel capable of engaging in drilling operations for the exploration or exploitation of subsea resources.

(21) "motor vessel" means a vessel propelled by machinery other than steam.

(22) "nautical school vessel" means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school or an educational institution under section 558 of title 40.

(23) "navigable waters of the United States" includes all waters of the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation No. 5928 of December 27, 1988.

(24) "oceanographic research vessel" means a vessel that the Secretary finds is being employed only in instruction in oceanography or limnology, or both, or only in oceanographic or limnological research, including studies about the sea such as seismic, gravity meter, and magnetic exploration and other marine geophysical or geological surveys, atmospheric research, and biological research.

(25) "offshore supply vessel" means a motor vessel that regularly carries goods, supplies, individuals in addition to the crew, or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources.

(26) "oil" includes oil of any type or in any form, including petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes except dredged spoil.

(27) "oil spill response vessel" means a vessel that is designated in its certificate of inspection as such a vessel, or that is adapted to respond to a discharge of oil or a hazardous material.

(28) "overall in length" means—

(A) for a foreign vessel or a vessel engaged on a foreign voyage, the greater of—

(i) 96 percent of the length on a waterline at 85 percent of the least molded depth measured from the top of the keel (or on a vessel designed with a rake of keel, on a waterline parallel to the designed waterline); or

(ii) the length from the fore side of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline; and


(B) for any other vessel, the horizontal distance of the hull between the foremost part of the stem and the aftermost part of the stern, excluding fittings and attachments.


(29) "passenger"—

(A) means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) the owner or an individual representative of the owner or, in the case of a vessel under charter, an individual charterer or individual representative of the charterer;

(ii) the master; or

(iii) a member of the crew engaged in the business of the vessel who has not contributed consideration for carriage and who is paid for on board services;


(B) on an offshore supply vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(ii) an employee of the owner, or of a subcontractor to the owner, engaged in the business of the owner;

(iii) an employee of the charterer, or of a subcontractor to the charterer, engaged in the business of the charterer; or

(iv) an individual employed in a phase of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources served by the vessel;


(C) on a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(ii) a managing operator;

(iii) an employee of the owner, or of a subcontractor to the owner, engaged in the business of the owner;

(iv) an employee of the charterer, or of a subcontractor to the charterer, engaged in the business of the charterer; or

(v) an observer or sea sampler on board the vessel pursuant to a requirement of State or Federal law; or


(D) on a sailing school vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(ii) an employee of the owner of the vessel engaged in the business of the owner, except when the vessel is operating under a demise charter;

(iii) an employee of the demise charterer of the vessel engaged in the business of the demise charterer; or

(iv) a sailing school instructor or sailing school student.


(30) "passenger for hire" means a passenger for whom consideration is contributed as a condition of carriage on the vessel, whether directly or indirectly flowing to the owner, charterer, operator, agent, or any other person having an interest in the vessel.

(31) "passenger vessel" means a vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title

(A) carrying more than 12 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire;

(B) that is chartered and carrying more than 12 passengers;

(C) that is a submersible vessel carrying at least one passenger for hire; or

(D) that is a ferry carrying a passenger.


(32) "product carrier" means a tanker engaged in the trade of carrying oil except crude oil.

(33) "public vessel" means a vessel that—

(A) is owned, or demise chartered, and operated by the United States Government or a government of a foreign country; and

(B) is not engaged in commercial service.


(34) "recreational vessel" means a vessel—

(A) being manufactured or operated primarily for pleasure; or

(B) leased, rented, or chartered to another for the latter's pleasure.


(35) "recreational vessel manufacturer" means a person engaged in the manufacturing, construction, assembly, or importation of recreational vessels, components, or associated equipment.

(36) "riding gang member" means an individual who—

(A) has not been issued a merchant mariner document under chapter 73;

(B) does not perform—

(i) watchstanding, automated engine room duty watch, or personnel safety functions; or

(ii) cargo handling functions, including any activity relating to the loading or unloading of cargo, the operation of cargo-related equipment (whether or not integral to the vessel), and the handling of mooring lines on the dock when the vessel is made fast or let go;


(C) does not serve as part of the crew complement required under section 8101;

(D) is not a member of the steward's department; and

(E) is not a citizen or temporary or permanent resident of a country designated by the United States as a sponsor of terrorism or any other country that the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the heads of other appropriate United States agencies, determines to be a security threat to the United States.


(37) "sailing instruction" means teaching, research, and practical experience in operating vessels propelled primarily by sail and may include—

(A) any subject related to that operation and to the sea, including seamanship, navigation, oceanography, other nautical and marine sciences, and maritime history and literature; and

(B) only when in conjunction with a subject referred to in subclause (A) of this clause, instruction in mathematics and language arts skills to sailing school students having learning disabilities.


(38) "sailing school instructor" means an individual who is on board a sailing school vessel to provide sailing instruction, but does not include an operator or crewmember who is among those required to be on board the vessel to meet a requirement established under part F of this subtitle.

(39) "sailing school student" means an individual who is on board a sailing school vessel to receive sailing instruction.

(40) "sailing school vessel" means a vessel—

(A) that is less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title;

(B) carrying more than 6 individuals who are sailing school instructors or sailing school students;

(C) principally equipped for propulsion by sail, even if the vessel has an auxiliary means of propulsion; and

(D) owned or demise chartered, and operated by an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3)) and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of that Code, or by a State or political subdivision of a State, during times that the vessel is operated by the organization, State, or political subdivision only for sailing instruction.


(41)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), "scientific personnel" means individuals on board an oceanographic research vessel only to engage in scientific research, or to instruct or receive instruction in oceanography or limnology.

(B)(i) Such term includes an individual who is on board an oceanographic research vessel only to—

(I) engage in scientific research;

(II) instruct in oceanography or limnology; or

(III) receive instruction in oceanography or limnology.


(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the age of an individual may not be considered in determining whether the individual is described in such clause.

(42) "seagoing barge" means a non-self-propelled vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title making voyages beyond the Boundary Line.

(43) "seagoing motor vessel" means a motor vessel of at least 300 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title making voyages beyond the Boundary Line.

(44) "Secretary" means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

(45) "small passenger vessel" means a wing-in-ground craft, regardless of tonnage, carrying at least one passenger for hire, and a vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title

(A) carrying more than 6 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire;

(B) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying more than 6 passengers;

(C) that is chartered with no crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying more than 12 passengers;

(D) that is a submersible vessel carrying at least one passenger for hire; or

(E) that is a ferry carrying more than 6 passengers.


(46) "steam vessel" means a vessel propelled in whole or in part by steam, except a recreational vessel of not more than 40 feet in length.

(47) "submersible vessel" means a vessel that is capable of operating below the surface of the water.

(48) "tanker" means a self-propelled tank vessel constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil or hazardous material in bulk in the cargo spaces.

(49) "tank vessel" means a vessel that is constructed or adapted to carry, or that carries, oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or cargo residue, and that—

(A) is a vessel of the United States;

(B) operates on the navigable waters of the United States; or

(C) transfers oil or hazardous material in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.


(50) "towing vessel" means a commercial vessel engaged in or intending to engage in the service of pulling, pushing, or hauling along side, or any combination of pulling, pushing, or hauling along side.

(51) "uninspected passenger vessel" means an uninspected vessel—

(A) of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title

(i) carrying not more than 12 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire; or

(ii) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying not more than 12 passengers; and


(B) of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title

(i) carrying not more than 6 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire; or

(ii) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying not more than 6 passengers.


(52) "uninspected vessel" means a vessel not subject to inspection under section 3301 of this title that is not a recreational vessel.

(53) "vessel of war" means a vessel—

(A) belonging to the armed forces of a country;

(B) bearing the external marks distinguishing vessels of war of that country;

(C) under the command of an officer commissioned by the government of that country and whose name appears in the appropriate service list or its equivalent; and

(D) staffed by a crew under regular armed forces discipline.


(54) "wing-in-ground craft" means a vessel that is capable of operating completely above the surface of the water on a dynamic air cushion created by aerodynamic lift due to the ground effect between the vessel and the water's surface.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 98–364, title IV, §402(1), July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 98–454, title III, §301(a), Oct. 5, 1984, 98 Stat. 1734; Pub. L. 98–557, §34(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2876; Pub. L. 99–307, §1(1), (2), May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1926; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 99–640, §§10(b)(1), 11(a), 13(d), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3549–3551; Pub. L. 100–239, §6(a)(1), Jan. 11, 1988, 101 Stat. 1781; Pub. L. 100–424, §8(c)(1), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1593; Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §104(a)(1), (2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4749; Pub. L. 101–225, title II, §209, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1913; Pub. L. 101–380, title IV, §4103(a)(2)(A), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 101–595, title VI, §603(1), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2993; Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5208(a), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5075; Pub. L. 103–206, title V, §§502–510, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2439–2441; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(l), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 104–324, title VII, §709, title XI, §1104(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3934, 3966; Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §301(b)(1), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3417; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(m)(1), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1302; Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §419, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2124; Pub. L. 109–241, title III, §§301, 312(b), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 526, 533; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702; Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §§617(a)(1)(A), 618, Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2972, 2975; Pub. L. 111–330, §1(9), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3570; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3541(a)(1), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 115–282, title V, §515, Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4279.)

Historical and Revision Notes

A number of definitions are provided because of the need to define jurisdictional and applicability limits of various sections to the many types and classes of vessels.

 
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2101(1) 46:1452(8)
2101(2) ..............................................
2101(3) ..............................................
2101(4) 14:1
2101(5) 46:391a(2)(H)
2101(6) ..............................................
2101(7) 46:391a(2)(S)
2101(8) 46:391a(2)(N)
2101(9) 46:391a(2)(A)
2101(10) 46:65(1)
2101(11) 46:65(2)
2101(12) 46:391a(2)(B)

46:597

46:599

2101(13) 46:404

46:390(e)

2101(14) 46:391a(2)(C)
2101(15) 46:391a(2)(D)
2101(16) 46:361

46:367

46:404

2101(17) 46:404

46:1295f(c)

46:1295g(e)(1)

2101(18) 46:441(1)
2101(19) 46:404–1(1)
2101(20) 46:391a(2)(E)
2101(21) 46:390(a)

46:404–1(4)

46:1452(5)

2101(22) 46:391(c)
2101(23) 46:391a(2)(O)
2101(24) 46:391a(2)(G)
2101(25) 46:1452(1)(A), (B)
2101(26) 46:1452(7)
2101(27) 46:390(f)
2101(28) 46:390(h)
2101(29) 46:390(i)
2101(30) 46:390(g)
2101(31) 46:441(2)
2101(32) 46:395(e)
2101(33) 46:367
2101(34) 33:151

46:216(b)

46:239a(b)

46:390(d)

46:391a(2)(I)

46:405(b)(1)(A)

46:481(a)

46:672(a)

46:1452(9)

2101(35) 46:390(b)
2101(36) ..............................................
2101(37) 46:361
2101(38) 46:391a(2)(M)
2101(39) 46:391a(3)
2101(40) 46:405
2101(41) 46:1452(3)
2101(42) 46:1452(1)(C)
2101(43) 46:526
2101(44) ..............................................
2101(45) 1:3

46:1452(2)

2101(46) 46:391a(2)(L)

Section 2101(1) defines the type of "associated equipment" that is involved in the use of recreational boats that are subject to Federal regulatory authority. This equipment is subject to a number of controls under federally established construction and performance standards. Radio equipment is exempt from these regulatory controls, since this equipment continues to be regulated by the Federal Communications Commission.

Section 2101(2) defines "barge" as a vessel that is non-self-propelled and that is often pushed ahead, towed alongside, or towed astern on a hawser by a towing vessel. It does not include a vessel that is propelled by sail only.

Section 2101(3) defines "boundary line" for the establishment of jurisdictional parameters for various maritime safety laws. Public Law 96–324, codified at 33 U.S.C. 151, permits the Secretary to establish appropriate identifiable lines dividing inland waters of the U.S. from the high seas for the purpose of determining the applicability of these laws. These laws will now be included within subtitle II of title 46—Shipping. These lines may not be located more than twelve nautical miles seaward of the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured and may differ in position for the purposes of different parts or sections of subtitle II.

Section 2101(4) defines "Coast Guard".

Section 2101(5) provides that wherever the term "commercial service" is used it is to include all vessels except those that are primarily used for combatant purposes. This is to make sure that vessels that are engaged in the transportation of goods or individuals are subject to the applicable maritime and environmental safety laws, even if they are sovereign controlled vessels.

Section 2101(6) defines "consular officer" as one who has authority to issue visas. Traditionally this person is knowledgeable and familiar with the maritime safety and seamen's welfare laws.

Section 2101(7) defines "crude oil" because certain equipment requirements like inert gas systems, segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems or special ballast arrangements are applicable only to tank vessels that carry crude oil. Crude oil is still included within the definition of "hazardous material" and "oil".

Section 2101(8) defines a "crude oil tanker" as one engaged in carrying crude oil. The definition does not include a tank barge since a tanker is defined as a self-propelled tank vessel. See also 2101(38).

Section 2101(9) makes it clear that the term "discharge" when referring to a substance that emanates from a vessel and is related to the marine environmental laws concerning pollution by oil or hazardous substances.

Section 2101(10) defines a "documented vessel" as any vessel of the United States that has been issued a certificate of documentation that might include a register, enrollment, license, or enrollment and license for various trades.

Section 2101(11) lists what is included in the term "fisheries" for the purpose of documentation of vessels and is intended to be all-inclusive of the numerous types of fishing activities.

Section 2101(12) defines "foreign vessel" as any foreign flag or foreign operated vessel that is operated under the jurisdiction or authority of a government other than the United States.

Section 2101(13) defines a "freight vessel" as a motor vessel or any vessel propelled by diesel or other internal combustion engines and that carries freight for hire.

Section 2101(14) defines "hazardous materials" as a broad range of materials that are not only flammable or combustible but are also designated under related maritime safety and environmental laws.

Section 2101(15) defines "marine environment" as an all-inclusive term that was developed to cover land and water areas that could be affected by pollution from all vessels and not only tank vessels.

Section 2101(16) defines "motor vessel" as a vessel propelled by machinery other than steam to make it clear that these vessels are not steam vessels.

Section 2101(17) defines "nautical school vessel" as a vessel that can be a privately owned and operated as well as a publicly owned and operated school vessel.

Section 2101(18) defines "oceanographic research vessel" as a vessel employed in oceanography or limnology research or instruction. It is defined because this type of vessel, while not inspected and certified as such, is subject to a number of special statutory and regulatory requirements.

Section 2101(19) defines "offshore supply vessel" as a class of vessel that is limited by tonnage and its employment in the mineral and oil industry and while so employed it is not a small passenger vessel.

Section 2101(20) defines "oil" to include oil of any type, in any form, or in any mixture. This is the definition that originated with marine environment and pollution laws and continues the definition that was adopted by port and tanker safety laws.

Section 2101(21) defines the term "passengers" in relation to various types of vessels. Due to the complexity of existing laws with respect to the definitions of "passenger" on various categories of vessels and the need to not make any changes of a substantive nature that could be construed as controversial, four definitions of "passenger" have been included.

Section 2101(22) defines "passenger vessel" as one that is at least 100 gross tons and carries at least one passenger for hire.

Section 2101(23) defines "product carrier" as a tanker that is engaged in carrying oil. This definition when read with the definition of tanker means that it is a self-propelled vessel. A tank barge carrying oil products is a tank vessel but is not subject to the special standards or requirements for a product carrier.

Section 2101(24) defines a "public vessel" as a governmental vessel that is not in commercial service. It should be noted that a sovereign-controlled foreign-flag vessel that is engaged in commercial service is not a public vessel and is subject to maritime safety and environment laws.

Section 2101(25) defines a "recreational vessel" as a class of vessel whose primary purpose is for pleasure. These vessels while not subject to inspection are subject to certain requirements of law to improve boating safety.

Section 2101(26) defines a "recreational vessel manufacturer" as one that is involved with not only the recreational vessels themselves but also with their components or associated equipment.

Section 2101(27), (28), (29), and (30) provides a number of definitions that define the type of instruction, instructor, student, and vessel that is involved in the teaching of sailing.

Section 2101(31) defines "scientific personnel" as individuals engaged in oceanography or limnology because they are specially treated under various maritime safety requirements.

Section 2101(32) defines a "seagoing barge" as a vessel that is at least 100 gross tons making voyages to sea beyond the boundary line.

Section 2101(33) defines a "seagoing motor vessel" as a vessel that must be a motor vessel, as defined in 2101(15), of at least 300 gross tons making voyages to sea beyond the boundary line.

Section 2101(34) defines "Secretary" so that maritime safety and seamen's welfare jurisdiction remains within the Coast Guard at all times.

Section 2101(35) defines "small passenger vessel" as one that is less than 100 gross tons carrying more than six passengers as defined in section 2101(21).

Section 2101(36) defines "State" as a State, territory or possession of the United States and is used to establish jurisdictional limits for the application of the various maritime safety and environmental safety laws of this subtitle. This definition is further limited by definitions in section 2102 that relate to recreational boating safety and facility improvement programs.

Section 2101(37) defines a "steam vessel" as a vessel propelled by steam. However, steam vessels of not more than 40 feet that are used exclusively for pleasure are not included.

Section 2101(38) defines "tanker" as a self-propelled tank vessel that has been constructed or primarily adapted to carry oil or hazardous material in bulk in the cargo spaces. This vessel is a subclass of tank vessel, which is defined in section 2101(39). This subclass definition is necessary because certain statutory minimum requirements that are consistent with internationally accepted standards are solely applicable to these vessels.

Section 2101(39) defines a "tank vessel" as a vessel carrying oil or hazardous materials in bulk or residue including a tanker as defined in section 2101(38).

Section 2101(40) defines "towing vessel" as a vessel in commercial service that pushes, pulls, or tows alongside and includes what is traditionally known as a tug.

Section 2101(41) defines "undocumented" which, in part, facilitates the classification of vessels that may be numbered by the proper issuing authority in a State.

Section 2101(42) defines an "uninspected passenger vessel" as a vessel carrying six or less passengers.

Section 2101(43) defines an "uninspected vessel" as a vessel not subject to inspection and certification by the Coast Guard under section 3301. Recreational vessels and inland towing vessels are typical uninspected vessels.

Section 2101(44) defines "United States" to establish geographical boundaries for the applicability of the various maritime safety and environmental safety laws of this subtitle. This definition is further limited by definitions in section 2102 that relate to recreational boating safety and facility improvement programs.

Section 2101(45) makes it clear that "vessel" as used in this subtitle has the same meaning as is provided in section 3 of title 1, of the U.S.C.

Section 2101(46) defines "vessel of the United States" as a vessel that is documented or numbered under the laws of the United States. A documented vessel and those vessels that are numbered by a State or Federal authority are afforded the protection of the laws of the United States.

References in Text

Presidential Proclamation No. 5928, referred to in par. (17a), is set out under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232 added undesignated par. defining "Commandant" after par. (4), substituted period for semicolon at end of par. (14), and redesignated pars. (1) to (48) as (1) to (54), respectively.

Par. (41). Pub. L. 115–282 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted "Subject to subparagraph (B)," before " 'scientific personnel' " and added subpar. (B).

2010—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 111–281, §618, as amended by Pub. L. 111–330, inserted "with the exception of emergency locator beacons for recreational vessels operating beyond 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured or beyond 3 nautical miles from the coastline of the Great Lakes," before "does not include".

Par. (19). Pub. L. 111–281, §617(a)(1)(A), struck out "of more than 15 gross tons but less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "means a motor vessel".

2006—Pars. (2) to (3a). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out pars. (2), (3), and (3a), which defined "barge", "Boundary Line", and "citizen of the United States", respectively. See sections 102, 103, and 104 of this title.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (6) which read as follows: " 'consular officer' means an officer or employee of the United States Government designated under regulations to grant visas." See section 105 of this title.

Par. (8a). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(B), inserted "Prevention" after "Abuse".

Pars. (10), (10a). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out pars. (10) and (10a) which defined "documented vessel" and "Exclusive Economic Zone", respectively. See sections 106 and 107 of this title.

Par. (10b). Pub. L. 109–241, §301(a), added par. (10b).

Par. (12). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (12) which read as follows: " 'foreign vessel' means a vessel of foreign registry or operated under the authority of a country except the United States." See section 110 of this title.

Par. (17b). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (17b) which read as follows: " 'numbered vessel' means a vessel for which a number has been issued under chapter 123 of this title." See section 111 of this title.

Par. (18). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(C), struck out "those" after "including".

Par. (22)(D). Pub. L. 109–241, §301(b), added subpar. (D).

Par. (26a). Pub. L. 109–241, §312(b), added par. (26a).

Par. (34). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(D), struck out ", except in part H," before "means" and substituted "Secretary of" for "head of".

Par. (35)(E). Pub. L. 109–241, §301(c), added subpar. (E).

Par. (36). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (36) which read as follows: " 'State' means a State of the United States, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the District of Columbia, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States." See section 112 of this title.

Par. (41). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (41) which read as follows: " 'undocumented' means not having and not required to have a document issued under chapter 121 of this title." See section 113 of this title.

Pars. (44) to (46). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out pars. (44) to (46), which defined "United States", "vessel", and "vessel of the United States", respectively. See sections 114, 115, and 116 of this title.

2002—Par. (17). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted "section 558 of title 40" for "section 13 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1986".

Par. (35). Pub. L. 107–295, §419(a), inserted "a wing-in-ground craft, regardless of tonnage, carrying at least one passenger for hire, and" after " 'small passenger vessel' means" in introductory provisions.

Par. (48). Pub. L. 107–295, §419(b), added par. (48).

1998—Pars. (17a), (17b). Pub. L. 105–383 added par. (17a) and redesignated former par. (17a) as (17b).

1996—Par. (13). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(1), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "15 gross tons".

Par. (13a). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(2), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "3,500 gross tons".

Par. (19). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(3), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "500 gross tons".

Par. (20a). Pub. L. 104–324, §1104(a)(2), added par. (20a). Former par. (20a) redesignated (20b).

Par. (20b). Pub. L. 104–324, §1104(a)(1), redesignated par. (20a) as (20b).

Par. (22). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(4), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons".

Par. (30)(A). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(5), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "500 gross tons".

Par. (32). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(6), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons".

Par. (33). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(7), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "300 gross tons".

Par. (35). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(8), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons".

Par. (42). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(9), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons" in subpars. (A) and (B).

1994—Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "section 5103(a) of title 49" for "section 104 of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 App. U.S.C. 1803)".

1993—Par. (5a). Pub. L. 103–206, §507, added par. (5a).

Par. (19). Pub. L. 103–206, §508, inserted "individuals in addition to the crew," after "supplies," and struck out "and is not a small passenger vessel" after "resources".

Par. (21). Pub. L. 103–206, §502, amended par. (21) generally, substituting subpars. (A) to (D) defining "passenger" for former subpars. (A) to (F) defining "passenger".

Par. (21a). Pub. L. 103–206, §506, added par. (21a).

Par. (22). Pub. L. 103–206, §503, amended par. (22) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (22) read as follows: " 'passenger vessel' means a vessel of at least 100 gross tons carrying at least one passenger for hire."

Par. (30)(B). Pub. L. 103–206, §509, substituted "more than 6" for "at least 6".

Par. (35). Pub. L. 103–206, §504, amended par. (35) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (35) read as follows: " 'small passenger vessel' means a vessel of less than 100 gross tons carrying more than 6 passengers (as defined in clause (21)(B) and (C) of this section)."

Par. (37a). Pub. L. 103–206, §510, added par. (37a).

Par. (42). Pub. L. 103–206, §505, amended par. (42) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (42) read as follows: " 'uninspected passenger vessel' means an uninspected vessel carrying not more than 6 passengers."

1992—Par. (13a). Pub. L. 102–587 added par. (13a).

1990—Par. (8a). Pub. L. 101–380 added par. (8a).

Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 101–595 substituted "(49 App. U.S.C. 1803)" for "(49 U.S.C. 1803)".

1989—Par. (17a). Pub. L. 101–225 added par. (17a).

1988—Par. (10a). Pub. L. 100–239 added par. (10a).

Par. (14a). Pub. L. 100–424 added par. (14a).

Par. (34). Pub. L. 100–710, §104(a)(1), inserted ", except in part H," before "means".

Par. (46). Pub. L. 100–710, §104(a)(2), inserted "or titled under the law of a State" before period at end.

1986—Par. (11b). Pub. L. 99–640, §10(b)(1), inserted "freezing,".

Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(1), substituted "Materials" for "Material".

Par. (15a). Pub. L. 99–640, §11(a), added par. (15a).

Par. (17). Pub. L. 99–640, §13(d), inserted "or an educational institution under section 13 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1986".

Par. (20a). Pub. L. 99–509, §5102(b)(1)(A), added par. (20a).

Par. (21)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(A), inserted "or other individual engaged in the business of the vessel who has not contributed consideration for carriage on board the vessel" after "crewmember".

Par. (21)(B). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(D), struck out "or a sailing school vessel," after "passenger vessel".

Par. (21)(B)(v) to (vii). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(B), added cls. (v) and (vi) and struck out former cls. (v) to (vii) which read as follows:

"(v) a guest on board a vessel that is being operated only for pleasure, or a guest on board a sailing school vessel, who has not contributed consideration for carriage on board;

"(vi) an individual on board a towing vessel of at least 50 gross tons who has not contributed consideration for carriage on board; or

"(vii) a sailing school instructor or sailing school student."

Par. (21)(F). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(C), added subpar. (F).

Par. (30)(D). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954".

Par. (47). Pub. L. 99–509, §5102(b)(1)(B), added par. (47).

1984—Par. (3a). Pub. L. 98–454 added par. (3a).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 98–364, §402(1)(A), substituted " 'fish' means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant lift, except marine mammals and birds" for " 'fisheries' includes planting, cultivating, catching, taking, or harvesting fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation at a place in the fishery conservation zone established by section 101 of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (16 U.S.C. 1811)", which is now covered in section 12101 of this title.

Pars. (11a) to (11c). Pub. L. 98–364, §402(1)(B), added pars. (11a) to (11c).

Par. (21)(B). Pub. L. 98–557, §34(a)(1), inserted reference to a sailing school vessel in provisions preceding cl. (i).

Par. (21)(E). Pub. L. 98–364, §402(1)(C), added subpar. (E).

Par. (27). Pub. L. 98–557, §34(a)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282

Section 1 of title 14 redesignated section 101 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §103(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4195, and references to section 1 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–330, §1, Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3569, provided that the amendment made by section 1(9) is effective with the enactment of Pub. L. 111–281.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5208(c), (d), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5076, provided that:

"(c) For Great Lakes barges placed in operation after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 4, 1992], the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 3301 of this title] take effect on the date of enactment of this Act.

"(d)(1) For Great Lakes barges in operation on the date of enactment of this Act, the amendments made by this section take effect one year after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) The Secretary of Transportation may impose reasonable interim requirements to assure safe operation of the barges affected by paragraph (1)."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–380 applicable to incidents occurring after Aug. 18, 1990, see section 1020 of Pub. L. 101–380, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2701 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–710 effective Jan. 1, 1989, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 107 of Pub. L. 100–710, set out as an Effective Date note under section 31301 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Fishing and Fish Tender Vessels

Pub. L. 103–206, title III, §321, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2427, provided that:

"(a) In this section, 'fish tender vessel', 'fishing vessel', and 'tank vessel' have the meanings given those terms under section 2101 of title 46, United States Code.

"(b) A fishing vessel or fish tender vessel of not more than 750 gross tons, when engaged only in the fishing industry, shall not be deemed to be a tank vessel for the purposes of any law.

"(c)(1) This section does not affect the authority of the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 33 of title 46, United States Code, to regulate the operation of the vessels listed in subsection (b) to ensure the safe carriage of oil and hazardous substances.

"(2) This section does not affect the requirement for fish tender vessels engaged in the Aleutian trade to comply with chapters 33, 45, 51, 81, and 87 of title 46, United States Code, as provided in the Aleutian Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–595) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title]."

Applicability Date for Revised Regulations

Pub. L. 103–206, title V, §513, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2443, provided that:

"(a) Applicability Date for Certain Chartered Vessels.—Revised regulations governing small passenger vessels and passenger vessels (as the definitions of those terms in section 2101 of title 46, United States Code, are amended by this Act) shall not, before the date that is 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 1993], apply to such vessels when chartered with no crew provided.

"(b) Extension of Period.—The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall extend for up to 30 additional months or until issuance of a certificate of inspection, whichever occurs first, the period of inapplicability specified in subsection (a) if the owner of the vessel concerned carries out the provisions of subsection (c) to the satisfaction of the Secretary.

"(c) Conditions for Extension.—To receive an extension authorized by subsection (b), the owner of the vessel shall—

"(1) make application for inspection with the Coast Guard within 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 1993];

"(2) make the vessel available for examination by the Coast Guard prior to the carriage of passengers;

"(3)(A) correct especially any hazardous conditions involving the vessel's structure, electrical system, and machinery installation, such as (i) grossly inadequate, missing, unsound, or severely deteriorated frames or major structural members; (ii) wiring systems or electrical appliances without proper grounding or overcurrent protection; and (iii) significant fuel or exhaust system leaks;

"(B) equip the vessel with lifesaving and fire fighting equipment, or the portable equivalent, required for the route and number of persons carried; and

"(C) verify through stability tests, calculations, or other practical means (which may include a history of safe operations) that the vessel's stability is satisfactory for the size, route, and number of passengers; and

"(4) develop a work plan approved by the Coast Guard to complete in a good faith effort all requirements necessary for issuance of a certificate of inspection as soon as practicable.

"(d) Operation of Vessel During Extension Period.—The owner of a vessel receiving an extension under this section shall operate the vessel under the conditions of route, service, number of passengers, manning, and equipment as may be prescribed by the Coast Guard for the extension period."

Tank Vessel Definition Clarification

Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5209, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5076, as amended by Pub. L. 105–383, title IV, §422, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §617(a)(1)(B), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2972, provided that:

"(a) In this section, 'offshore supply vessel', 'fish tender vessel', 'fishing vessel', and 'tank vessel' have the meanings given those terms under section 2101 of title 46, United States Code.

"(b) The following vessels are deemed not to be a tank vessel for the purposes of any law:

"(1) An offshore supply vessel of less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of such title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of such title.

"(2) A fishing or fish tender vessel of not more than 750 gross tons that transfers without charge to a fishing vessel owned by the same person.

"(3) A vessel—

"(A) configured, outfitted, and operated primarily for dredging operations; and

"(B) engaged in dredging operations which transfers fuel to other vessels engaged in the same dredging operations without charge.

"(c)(1) This section does not affect the authority of the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 33 of title 46, United States Code, to regulate the operation of the vessels listed in subsection (b) to ensure the safe carriage of oil and hazardous substances.

"(2) This section does not affect the requirement for fish tender vessels engaged in the Aleutian trade to comply with chapters 33, 45, 51, 81, and 87 of title 46, United States Code, as provided in the Aleutian Trade Act of 1990 ([title VI of] Public Law 101–595) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title].

"(d) Current regulations governing the vessels in subsection (b) remain in effect."

Definitions of Terms Used in Title II of Pub. L. 115–265

Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §203, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3745, provided that: "In this title [see section 201 of Pub. L. 115–265, set out as a Short Title of 2018 Amendment note under section 101 of this title]:

"(1) Commandant.—The term 'Commandant' means the Commandant of the Coast Guard.

"(2) Recognized organization.—The term 'recognized organization' has the meaning given that term in section 2.45–1 of title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 2018].

"(3) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating."

1 See References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note below.

§2102. Limited definitions

In chapters 33, 45, 51, 81, and 87 of this title, "Aleutian trade" means the transportation of cargo (including fishery related products) for hire on board a fish tender vessel to or from a place in Alaska west of 153 degrees west longitude and east of 172 degrees east longitude, if that place receives weekly common carrier service by water, to or from a place in the United States (except a place in Alaska).

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 505; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1011(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1013; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(2), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1926; Pub. L. 101–595, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 109–304, §§15(3), 16(a), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702, 1705.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2102 46:1452(10)–(14)

Section 2102 contains a number of definitions that are limited to recreational vessels in Chapter 43 of Part B and the numbering of these vessels in Chapter 123 of Part H.

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–304 redesignated subsec. (b) as entire section, substituted "west" for "West" and "east" for "East", and struck out subsec. (a) which defined "eligible State", "State", "United States", and "State recreational boating safety program" in chapters 37, 43, 51, and 123 of this title and part I of this subtitle.

1990Pub. L. 101–595 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1986Pub. L. 99–509 inserted reference to chapters 37 and 51.

1984—Par. (1). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(1), struck out "and facilities improvement" after "recreational boating safety".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (5) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which defined a State recreational boating facilities improvement program.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(2), struck out par. (4) which defined State recreational boating safety and facilities improvement program.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(3), redesignated par. (5) as (3).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Oct. 1, 1984, to apply with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1984, see section 1013 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 13101 of this title.

§2103. Superintendence of the merchant marine

The Secretary has general superintendence over the merchant marine of the United States and of merchant marine personnel insofar as the enforcement of this subtitle is concerned and insofar as those vessels and personnel are not subject, under other law, to the supervision of another official of the United States Government. In the interests of marine safety and seamen's welfare, the Secretary shall enforce this subtitle and shall carry out correctly and uniformly administer this subtitle. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the provisions of this subtitle.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 99–307, §9, May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 447.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2103 46:2

46:372

46:689

Section 2103 provides the Secretary with the authority to superintend the merchant marine and those involved personnel insofar as the vessels and personnel are not subject, under other laws, to the supervision of another official. The Secretary has the duty to enforce the laws with respect to vessels and seamen and to carry out correctly and uniformly these laws and regulations. The term "superintendence" is used to indicate the Secretary's broad responsibility for overseeing maritime safety and seamen's welfare, including employment, shipping, navigation, and protection of the marine environment.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–307 substituted "subtitle. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the provisions of this subtitle" for "subtitle and regulations prescribed under this subtitle".

§2104. Delegation

(a) The Secretary may delegate the duties and powers conferred by this subtitle to any officer, employee, or member of the Coast Guard, and may provide for the subdelegation of those duties and powers.

(b) When this subtitle authorizes an officer or employee of the Customs Service to act in place of a Coast Guard official, the Secretary may designate that officer or employee subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2104 46:65v(1)

46:382b

46:416

46:543

46:689

Section 2104 provides the Secretary with authority to delegate duties and powers to others. It also contains the authority to designate an officer or employee of the United States Customs Service to act in the place of a Coast Guard official.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

§2105. Report

The Secretary shall provide for the investigation of the operation of this subtitle and of all laws related to marine safety, and shall require that a report be made to the Secretary annually about those matters that may require improvement or amendment.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2105 46:4

Section 2105 requires the Secretary to investigate the operation of this subtitle and all laws related to maritime safety and requires appropriate reports to ensure that the Secretary is attentive to all the shipping laws under the Secretary's superintendence.

§2106. Liability in rem

When a vessel is made liable in rem under this subtitle, the vessel may be libeled and proceeded against in the district court of the United States for any district in which the vessel is found.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(4), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2106 46:170(14)
  46:216e(e)
  46:390d
  46:391a(14)(C)
  46:436
  46:462
  46:481(c)
  46:497
  46:526o
  46:672(j)
  46:1484(b)

Section 2106 provides that when a vessel is made liable in rem the vessel may be libeled and proceeded against in a United States district court.

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "the district court of the United States for any district" for "a district court of the United States".

§2107. Civil penalty procedures

(a) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, a person found by the Secretary to have violated this subtitle or subtitle VII or a regulation prescribed under this subtitle or subtitle VII for which a civil penalty is provided, is liable to the United States Government for the civil penalty provided. The amount of the civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary by written notice. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Secretary shall consider the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and other matters that justice requires.

(b) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without consideration, a civil penalty under this subtitle or subtitle VII until the assessment is referred to the Attorney General.

(c) If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become final, the Secretary may refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection in an appropriate district court of the United States.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 109–241, title III, §306(b), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 528.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2107 33:364

46:7

46:65u

46:216e(d)

46:391a(14)

46:526

o

46:526p

46:1484(c)

Section 2107 provides for standard procedures for the handling of civil penalties for infractions of law or regulation. Some changes were made to increase some antiquated and inadequate penalties.

The assessment of civil penalties under this section should not require an "on the record" hearing within the meaning of the Administrative Procedures Act (APA). It is intended that these civil penalties be assessed in a fair manner. However, the Committee recognizes that statutes passed in the last decade have involved the Coast Guard in tens of thousands of civil penalty enforcement cases and that it is necessary that the penalties be assessed efficiently. The Coast Guard's procedural regulations for assessing civil penalties ensure that the essential elements of due process, notice, and opportunity to be heard, are provided to alleged violators (see 33 CFR Subpart 1.07). The more rigid and time-consuming procedures applicable to APA adjudications are unwarranted in the case of Coast Guard civil penalty assessment procedures and would seriously hamper the orderly enforcement of these administrative penalties.

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–241 substituted "this subtitle or subtitle VII" for "this subtitle" in two places in subsec. (a) and in one place in subsec. (b).

[§2108. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, §15(5), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702]

Section, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507, related to refund of penalties unlawfully, improperly, or excessively imposed. See section 504 of this title.

§2109. Public vessels

Except as otherwise provided, this subtitle does not apply to a public vessel of the United States. However, this subtitle does apply to a vessel (except a Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation vessel) owned or operated by the Department of Transportation or by any corporation organized or controlled by the Department.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(3), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1927; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §902(e)(1), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 567; Pub. L. 111–281, title IX, §903(a)(5)(A), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3010.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2109 46:362

46:363

46:391a(4)

Section 2109 exempts public vessels from the applicability of the maritime safety and seamen's welfare laws of this subtitle although some public vessels are inspected under interagency voluntary agreements.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–281 amended directory language of Pub. L. 109–241, §902(e)(1). See 2006 Amendment note below.

2006Pub. L. 109–241, §902(e)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 111–281, struck out "a Coast Guard or" after "(except".

1986Pub. L. 99–509 substituted "Except as otherwise provided, this" for "This".

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–281, title IX, §903(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3010, provided that the amendment by section 903(a)(5)(A) is effective with enactment of Pub. L. 109–241.

§2110. Fees

(a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this title, the Secretary shall establish a fee or charge for a service or thing of value provided by the Secretary under this subtitle, in accordance with section 9701 of title 31.

(2) The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a non-self-propelled tank vessel under part B of this subtitle that is more than $500 annually. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a small passenger vessel under this title that is more than $300 annually for such vessels under 65 feet in length, or more than $600 annually for such vessels 65 feet in length and greater. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination under this title for any publicly-owned ferry.

(3) The Secretary may, by regulation, adjust a fee or charge collected under this subsection to accommodate changes in the cost of providing a specific service or thing of value, but the adjusted fee or charge may not exceed the total cost of providing the service or thing of value for which the fee or charge is collected, including the cost of collecting the fee or charge.

(4) The Secretary may not collect a fee or charge under this subsection that is in conflict with the international obligations of the United States.

(5) The Secretary may not collect a fee or charge under this subsection for any search or rescue service.

(b)(1) In addition to the collection of fees and charges established under subsection (a), in providing a service or thing of value under this subtitle the Secretary may accept in-kind transportation, travel, and subsistence.

(2) The value of in-kind transportation, travel, and subsistence accepted under this paragraph may not exceed applicable per diem rates set forth in regulations prescribed under section 464 of title 37.

(c) In addition to the collection of fees and charges established under subsection (a), the Secretary may recover appropriate collection and enforcement costs associated with delinquent payments of the fees and charges.

(d)(1) The Secretary may employ any Federal, State, or local agency or instrumentality, or any private enterprise or business, to collect a fee or charge established under this section. A private enterprise or business selected by the Secretary to collect fees or charges—

(A) shall be subject to reasonable terms and conditions agreed to by the Secretary and the enterprise or business;

(B) shall provide appropriate accounting to the Secretary; and

(C) may not institute litigation as part of that collection.


(2) A Federal agency shall account for the agency's costs of collecting the fee or charge under this subsection as a reimbursable expense, and the costs shall be credited to the account from which expended.

(e) A person that violates this section by failing to pay a fee or charge established under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.

(f) When requested by the Secretary, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall deny the clearance required by section 60105 of this title to a vessel for which a fee or charge established under this section has not been paid until the fee or charge is paid or until a bond is posted for the payment.

(g) The Secretary may exempt a person from paying a fee or charge established under this section if the Secretary determines that it is in the public interest to do so.

(h) Fees and charges collected by the Secretary under this section shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury as offsetting receipts of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating and ascribed to Coast Guard activities.

(i) The collection of a fee or charge under this section does not alter or expand the functions, powers, responsibilities, or liability of the United States under any law for the performance of services or the provision of a thing of value for which a fee or charge is collected under this section.

(j) The Secretary may not establish or collect a fee or charge for the inspection under part B of this subtitle of training vessels operated by State maritime academies.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(4), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1927; Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §104(a)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4749; Pub. L. 101–508, title X, §10401(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–397; Pub. L. 102–241, §53, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2232; Pub. L. 102–582, title V, §501(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4909; Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5207, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5075; Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, §1112, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3970; Pub. L. 105–383, title II, §207, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3416; Pub. L. 107–295, title III, §344, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2106; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702; Pub. L. 113–281, title III, §311(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3047; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3546(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2326.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2110 46:331

Section 2110 prevents the assessment of user fees for certain maritime safety and seamen's welfare services unless otherwise provided for by law. These include:

Measurement of tonnage and certifying the same, except that the compensation and necessary travel and subsistence expenses of the officers so measuring or certifying such vessels at the request of the owners thereof at a place other than a port of entry or a customs station shall be paid by such owners; issuing of license or granting of certificate of registry, record, or enrollment, including all indorsements on the same and oath; indorsement of change of master; certifying and receiving manifest, including master's oath and permit; granting permit to vessels licensed for the fisheries to touch and trade; granting certificate of payment of tonnage dues; recording bill of sale, mortgage, hypothecation or conveyance, or the discharge of such mortgage or hypothecation; furnishing certificate of title; furnishing the crew list; certificate of protection to seamen; bill of health; shipping or discharging of seamen; apprenticing boys to the merchant service; inspecting, examining, and licensing steam vessels, including inspection certificate and copies thereof; and licensing of master, engineer, pilot, or mate of a vessel.

References in Text

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), is Pub. L. 101–508, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 115–232 struck out subsec. (k) which read as follows: "The Secretary may not plan, implement or finalize any regulation that would promulgate any new maritime user fee which was not implemented and collected prior to January 1, 1998, including a fee or charge for any domestic icebreaking service or any other navigational assistance service. This subsection expires on September 30, 2006."

2014—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–281, §311(a)(1), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to fees and charges in fiscal years 1993 and 1994.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–281, §311(a)(2), substituted "subsection (a)," for "subsections (a) and (b),".

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(A), substituted "part B of this subtitle" for "part B of this title".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(B), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(C), substituted "The fee" for "The fees".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(D), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security shall deny the clearance required by section 60105 of this title" for "Secretary of the Treasury shall deny the clearance required by section 4197 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (46 App. U.S.C. 91)".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(E), substituted "State" for "state".

2002—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 107–295 substituted "2006" for "2001".

1998—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–383 added subsec. (k).

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–324, §1112, which directed amendment of section 10401(g) of Pub. L. 101–508 by inserting "The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a small passenger vessel under this title that is more than $300 annually for such vessels under 65 feet in length, or more than $600 annually for such vessels 65 feet in length and greater. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination under this title for any publicly-owned ferry." after "annually.", was executed by making insertion in subsec. (a)(2) of this section to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because section 10401(a) of Pub. L. 101–508 amended this section generally, and section 10401 of Pub. L. 101–508 did not contain a subsec. (g).

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–582, §501(a)(1), substituted "1993 and 1994" for "1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995" and "to which paragraph (2) of this subsection applies" for "that is greater than 16 feet in length".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–582, §501(a)(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The fee or charge established under paragraph (1) of this subsection is as follows:

"(A) for vessels greater than 16 feet in length but less than 20 feet, not more than $25;

"(B) for vessels of at least 20 feet in length but less than 27 feet, not more than $35;

"(C) for vessels of at least 27 feet in length but less than 40 feet, not more than $50; and

"(D) for vessels of at least 40 feet in length, not more than $100."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–587 added subsec. (j).

1991—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 102–241 added par. (5).

1990Pub. L. 101–508, as amended by Pub. L. 104–324, substituted "Fees" for "Fees prohibited" as section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Fees may not be charged or collected by the Secretary for services provided for in this subtitle related to the engagement and discharge of seamen, the inspection and examination of vessels under part B of this subtitle, and the licensing of masters, mates, pilots, and engineers, except when specifically provided for in this subtitle." See 1996 Amendment note above.

1988Pub. L. 100–710 substituted "and the licensing of masters, mates, pilots, and engineers" for "the licensing of masters, mates, pilots, and engineers, and the documentation of vessels".

1986Pub. L. 99–509 substituted "examination of vessels under part B of this subtitle" for "examination of vessels" and struck out "measurement or" before "documentation".

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–582, title V, §501(b), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4910, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] are effective October 1, 1992."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–710 effective Jan. 1, 1989, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 107 of Pub. L. 100–710, set out as an Effective Date note under section 31301 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Acceptance of Evidence of Payment of Coast Guard Fees

Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5214, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5077, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation may not issue a citation for failure to pay a fee or charge established under section 2110 of title 46, United States Code, to an owner or operator of a recreational vessel who provides reasonable evidence of prior payment of the fee or charge to a Coast Guard boarding officer."

§2111. Pay for overtime services

(a) The Secretary may prescribe a reasonable rate of extra pay for overtime services of civilian officers and employees of the Coast Guard required to remain on duty between 5 p.m. and 8 a.m., or on Sundays or holidays, to perform services related to—

(1) the inspection of vessels or their equipment;

(2) the engagement and discharge of crews of vessels;

(3) the measurement of vessels; and

(4) the documentation of vessels.


(b) Except for Sundays and holidays, the overtime rate provided under subsection (a) of this section is one-half day's additional pay for each 2 hours of overtime (or part of 2 hours of at least one hour). The total extra pay may be not more than 2 and one-half days' pay for any one period from 5 p.m. to 8 a.m.

(c) The overtime rate provided under subsection (a) of this section for Sundays and holidays is 2 additional days' pay.

(d) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel shall pay the amount of the overtime pay provided under this section to the official designated by regulation. The official shall deposit the amount paid to the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. Payment to the officer or employee entitled to the pay shall be made from the annual appropriations for salaries and expenses of the Coast Guard.

(e) The overtime pay provided under this section shall be paid if the authorized officers and employees have been ordered to report for duty and have reported, even if services requested were not performed.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2111 46:382b

Section 2111 provides for the payment of overtime rates for work performed by civilian officers and employees of the Coast Guard for certain specified activities.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2112. Authority to change working hours

In a port at which the customary working hours begin before 8 a.m. or end after 5 p.m., the Secretary may regulate the working hours of the officers and employees referred to in section 2111 of this title so that those hours conform to the prevailing working hours of the port. However—

(1) the total period for which overtime pay may be required under section 2111 of this title may not be more than 15 hours between any 2 periods of ordinary working hours on other than Sundays and holidays;

(2) the length of the working day for the officers and employees involved may not be changed; and

(3) the rate of overtime pay may not be changed.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 508.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2112 46:382b

Section 2112 provides the Secretary with the authority to regulate the working hours of civilian officers and employees of the Coast Guard to conform with the prevailing working hours of a port.

§2113. Authority to exempt certain vessels

If the Secretary decides that the application of a provision of part B, C, F, or G of this subtitle is not necessary in performing the mission of the vessel engaged in excursions or an oceanographic research vessel, or not necessary for the safe operation of certain vessels carrying passengers, the Secretary by regulation may—

(1) for a vessel, issue a special permit specifying the conditions of operation and equipment;

(2) exempt an oceanographic research vessel from that provision under conditions the Secretary may specify;

(3) establish different operating and equipment requirements for vessels defined in section 2101(51)(A) of this title; and

(4) maintain different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for vessels that satisfied requirements set forth in the Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–206) before June 21, 1994.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 103–206, title V, §511(a), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2441; Pub. L. 104–324, title VII, §710, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3935; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §§3541(b)(6), 3542(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2323, 2324.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2113 46:445

46:453

Section 2113 provides the Secretary with the authority to exempt certain vessels from the inspection and manning requirements of law when vessels are engaged in excursions or oceanographic research. This is the authority of the issuance of excursion permits when special circumstances justify the waiver of certain maritime safety and seamen's welfare laws for a short period of time. It also contains flexible exemption authority for regulation of oceanographic research vessels.

References in Text

The Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993, referred to in par. (4), is Pub. L. 103–206, title V, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2439. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Par. (3). Pub. L. 115–232, §3541(b)(6), substituted "section 2101(51)(A)" for "section 2101(42)(A)".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 115–232, §3542(a), added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4) which related to establishing different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for vessels of at least 100 gross tons but less than 300 gross tons.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 115–232, §3542(a)(2), struck out par. (5) which related to establishing different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for former public vessels of the United States of at least 100 gross tons but less than 500 gross tons.

1996—Par. (4). Pub. L. 104–324, §710(1), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "less than 300 gross tons".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 104–324, §710(2), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "less than 500 gross tons".

1993Pub. L. 103–206 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If the Secretary decides that the application of a provision of part B or F of this subtitle is not necessary in performing the mission of a vessel engaged in excursions or an oceanographic research vessel, the Secretary by regulation may—

"(1) for an excursion vessel, issue a special permit specifying the conditions of operation and equipment; and

"(2) exempt the oceanographic research vessel from that provision under conditions the Secretary may specify."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2114. Protection of seamen against discrimination

(a)(1) A person may not discharge or in any manner discriminate against a seaman because—

(A) the seaman in good faith has reported or is about to report to the Coast Guard or other appropriate Federal agency or department that the seaman believes that a violation of a maritime safety law or regulation prescribed under that law or regulation has occurred;

(B) the seaman has refused to perform duties ordered by the seaman's employer because the seaman has a reasonable apprehension or expectation that performing such duties would result in serious injury to the seaman, other seamen, or the public;

(C) the seaman testified in a proceeding brought to enforce a maritime safety law or regulation prescribed under that law;

(D) the seaman notified, or attempted to notify, the vessel owner or the Secretary of a work-related personal injury or work-related illness of a seaman;

(E) the seaman cooperated with a safety investigation by the Secretary or the National Transportation Safety Board;

(F) the seaman furnished information to the Secretary, the National Transportation Safety Board, or any other public official as to the facts relating to any marine casualty resulting in injury or death to an individual or damage to property occurring in connection with vessel transportation; or

(G) the seaman accurately reported hours of duty under this part.


(2) The circumstances causing a seaman's apprehension of serious injury under paragraph (1)(B) must be of such a nature that a reasonable person, under similar circumstances, would conclude that there is a real danger of an injury or serious impairment of health resulting from the performance of duties as ordered by the seaman's employer.

(3) To qualify for protection against the seaman's employer under paragraph (1)(B), the employee must have sought from the employer, and been unable to obtain, correction of the unsafe condition.

(b) A seaman alleging discharge or discrimination in violation of subsection (a) of this section, or another person at the seaman's request, may file a complaint with respect to such allegation in the same manner as a complaint may be filed under subsection (b) of section 31105 of title 49. Such complaint shall be subject to the procedures, requirements, and rights described in that section, including with respect to the right to file an objection, the right of a person to file for a petition for review under subsection (c) of that section, and the requirement to bring a civil action under subsection (d) of that section.

(Added Pub. L. 98–557, §13(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2863; amended Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §428, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2127; Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §611(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2969.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(1)(C) to (G). Pub. L. 111–281, §611(a)(1)–(3), added subpars. (C) to (G).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–281, §611(a)(4), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "A seaman discharged or otherwise discriminated against in violation of this section may bring an action in an appropriate district court of the United States. In that action, the court may order any appropriate relief, including—

"(1) restraining violations of this section;

"(2) reinstatement to the seaman's former position with back pay;

"(3) an award of costs and reasonable attorney's fees to a prevailing plaintiff not exceeding $1,000; and

"(4) an award of costs and reasonable attorney's fees to a prevailing employer not exceeding $1,000 if the court finds that a complaint filed under this section is frivolous or has been brought in bad faith."

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–295, §428(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel may not discharge or in any manner discriminate against a seaman because the seaman in good faith has reported or is about to report to the Coast Guard that the seaman believes that a violation of this subtitle, or a regulation issued under this subtitle, has occurred."

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 107–295, §428(b), added pars. (3) and (4).

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §611(b), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2970, provided that: "This section [amending this section] shall not affect the application of section 2114(b) of title 46, United States Code, as in effect before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 15, 2010], to an action filed under that section before that date."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2115. Civil penalty to enforce alcohol and dangerous drug testing

Any person who fails to implement or conduct, or who otherwise fails to comply with the requirements prescribed by the Secretary for, chemical testing for dangerous drugs or for evidence of alcohol use, as prescribed under this subtitle or a regulation prescribed by the Secretary to carry out the provisions of this subtitle, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation.

(Added Pub. L. 104–324, title III, §303(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3917; amended Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §304(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3419.)

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–383 substituted "$5,000" for "$1,000".

§2116. Marine safety strategy, goals, and performance assessments

(a) Long-Term Strategy and Goals.—In conjunction with existing federally required strategic planning efforts, the Secretary shall develop a long-term strategy for improving vessel safety and the safety of individuals on vessels. The strategy shall include the issuance of a triennial plan and schedule for achieving the following goals:

(1) Reducing the number and rates of marine casualties.

(2) Improving the consistency and effectiveness of vessel and operator enforcement and compliance programs.

(3) Identifying and targeting enforcement efforts at high-risk vessels and operators.

(4) Improving research efforts to enhance and promote vessel and operator safety and performance.


(b) Contents of Strategy and Triennial Plans.—

(1) Measurable goals.—The strategy and triennial plans shall include specific numeric or measurable goals designed to achieve the goals set forth in subsection (a). The purposes of the numeric or measurable goals are the following:

(A) To increase the number of safety examinations on all high-risk vessels.

(B) To eliminate the backlog of marine safety-related rulemakings.

(C) To improve the quality and effectiveness of marine safety information databases by ensuring that all Coast Guard personnel accurately and effectively report all safety, casualty, and injury information.

(D) To provide for a sufficient number of Coast Guard marine safety personnel, and provide adequate facilities and equipment to carry out the functions referred to in section 93(c) 1 of title 14.


(2) Resource needs.—The strategy and triennial plans shall include estimates of—

(A) the funds and staff resources needed to accomplish each activity included in the strategy and plans; and

(B) the staff skills and training needed for timely and effective accomplishment of each goal.


(c) Submission With the President's Budget.—Beginning with fiscal year 2020 and triennially thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress the strategy and triennial plan not later than 60 days following the transmission of the President's budget submission under section 1105 of title 31.

(d) Achievement of Goals.—

(1) Progress assessment.—No less frequently than semiannually, the Commandant shall assess the progress of the Coast Guard toward achieving the goals set forth in subsection (b). The Commandant shall convey the Commandant's assessment to the employees of the marine safety workforce and shall identify any deficiencies that should be remedied before the next progress assessment.

(2) Report to congress.—The Secretary shall report triennially to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate—

(A) on the performance of the marine safety program in achieving the goals of the marine safety strategy and annual plan under subsection (a) for the year covered by the report;

(B) on the program's mission performance in achieving numerical measurable goals established under subsection (b), including—

(i) the number of civilian and military Coast Guard personnel assigned to marine safety positions; and

(ii) an identification of marine safety positions that are understaffed to meet the workload required to accomplish each activity included in the strategy and plans under subsection (a); and


(C) recommendations on how to improve performance of the program.

(Added Pub. L. 111–281, title V, §522(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2956; amended Pub. L. 113–281, title II, §221(b)(1)(A), title III, §307(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3037, 3045; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §§3541(b)(7), 3546(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2323, 2326; Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §214, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3751.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(1), substituted "of a triennial" for "each year of an annual" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(2), substituted "Triennial" for "Annual" in heading and "triennial" for "annual" in introductory provisions of pars. (1) and (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(3)(B), substituted "triennial plan" for "annual plan".

Pub. L. 115–265, §214(3)(A), which directed substitution of "fiscal year 2020 and triennially" for "fiscal year 2011 and each fiscal year", was executed by substituting "Beginning with fiscal year 2020 and triennially thereafter, the" for "The", to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening amendment by Pub. L. 115–232, §3546(b). See below.

Pub. L. 115–232, §3546(b), substituted "The" for "Beginning with fiscal year 2011 and each fiscal year thereafter, the".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–232, §3541(b)(7), substituted "the Commandant shall assess" for "the Coast Guard Commandant shall assess".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(4), substituted "triennially" for "annually" in introductory provisions.

2014—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 113–281, §307(a), substituted "section 93(c) of title 14" for "section 93(c)".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–281, §221(b)(1)(A), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "on the program's mission performance in achieving numerical measurable goals established under subsection (b); and".

References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282

Section 93 of title 14 redesignated section 504 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §105(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4200, and references to section 93 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Domestic Vessel Compliance

Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §204, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3745, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 60 days after the date on which the President submits to the Congress a budget each year pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, the Commandant [of the Coast Guard] shall publish on a publicly accessible Website information documenting domestic vessel compliance with the requirements of subtitle II of title 46, United States Code.

"(b) Content.—The information required under subsection (a) shall—

"(1) include flag-State detention rates for each type of inspected vessel; and

"(2) identify any recognized organization that inspected or surveyed a vessel that was later subject to a Coast Guard-issued control action attributable to a major nonconformity that the recognized organization failed to identify in such inspection or survey."

[For definition of "recognized organization" as used in section 204 of Pub. L. 115–265, set out above, see section 203 of Pub. L. 115–265, set out as a note under section 2101 of this title.]

1 See References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note below.

§2117. Termination for unsafe operation

An individual authorized to enforce this title—

(1) may remove a certificate required by this title from a vessel that is operating in a condition that does not comply with the provisions of the certificate;

(2) may order the individual in charge of a vessel that is operating that does not have on board the certificate required by this title to return the vessel to a mooring and to remain there until the vessel is in compliance with this title; and

(3) may direct the individual in charge of a vessel to which this title applies to immediately take reasonable steps necessary for the safety of individuals on board the vessel if the official observes the vessel being operated in an unsafe condition that the official believes creates an especially hazardous condition, including ordering the individual in charge to return the vessel to a mooring and to remain there until the situation creating the hazard is corrected or ended.

(Added Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §608(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2967.)

§2118. Establishment of equipment standards

(a) In establishing standards for approved equipment required on vessels subject to part B of this subtitle, the Secretary shall establish standards that are—

(1) based on performance using the best available technology that is economically achievable; and

(2) operationally practical.


(b) Using the standards established under subsection (a), the Secretary may also certify lifesaving equipment that is not required to be carried on vessels subject to part B of this subtitle to ensure that such equipment is suitable for its intended purpose.

(c) At least once every 10 years the Secretary shall review and revise the standards established under subsection (a) to ensure that the standards meet the requirements of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §608(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2968; amended Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §306(a)(2), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 54.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–120, §306(a)(2)(A), substituted "subtitle," for "title,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–120, §306(a)(2)(B), substituted "subtitle" for "title".