[USC02] 49 USC SUBTITLE VI, PART B, CHAPTER 311, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL AUTHORITY AND STATE GRANTS
Result 1 of 1
   
 
49 USC SUBTITLE VI, PART B, CHAPTER 311, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL AUTHORITY AND STATE GRANTS
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VI—MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMSPART B—COMMERCIALCHAPTER 311—COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL AUTHORITY AND STATE GRANTS

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4110(a)(1), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1721, substituted "GENERAL AUTHORITY AND STATE GRANTS" for "STATE GRANTS AND OTHER COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE PROGRAMS" in subchapter heading.

1998Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4004(c), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 400, inserted "AND OTHER COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE PROGRAMS" after "GRANTS" in subchapter heading.

§31100. Purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to ensure that the Secretary, States, and other political jurisdictions work in partnership to establish programs to improve motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver safety to support a safe and efficient transportation system by—

(1) focusing resources on strategic safety investments to promote safe for-hire and private transportation, including transportation of passengers and hazardous materials, to identify high-risk carriers and drivers, and to invest in activities likely to generate maximum reductions in the number and severity of commercial motor vehicle crashes;

(2) increasing administrative flexibility and developing and enforcing effective, compatible, and cost-beneficial motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver safety regulations and practices, including improving enforcement of State and local traffic safety laws and regulations;

(3) assessing and improving statewide program performance by setting program outcome goals, improving problem identification and countermeasures planning, designing appropriate performance standards, measures, and benchmarks, improving performance information and analysis systems, and monitoring program effectiveness;

(4) ensuring that drivers of commercial motor vehicles and enforcement personnel obtain adequate training in safe operational practices and regulatory requirements; and

(5) advancing promising technologies and encouraging adoption of safe operational practices.

(Added Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4002(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 395.)

Compliance, Safety, Accountability Reform

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, subtitle B, part II, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1538, provided that:

"SEC. 5221. CORRELATION STUDY.

"(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (referred to in this part as the 'Administrator') shall commission the National Research Council of the National Academies to conduct a study of—

"(1) the Compliance, Safety, Accountability program of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (referred to in this part as the 'CSA program'); and

"(2) the Safety Measurement System utilized by the CSA program (referred to in this part as the 'SMS').

"(b) Scope of Study.—In carrying out the study commissioned pursuant to subsection (a), the National Research Council—

"(1) shall analyze—

"(A) the accuracy with which the Behavior Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (referred to in this part as 'BASIC')—

"(i) identify high risk carriers; and

"(ii) predict or are correlated with future crash risk, crash severity, or other safety indicators for motor carriers, including the highest risk carriers;

"(B) the methodology used to calculate BASIC percentiles and identify carriers for enforcement, including the weights assigned to particular violations and the tie between crash risk and specific regulatory violations, with respect to accurately identifying and predicting future crash risk for motor carriers;

"(C) the relative value of inspection information and roadside enforcement data;

"(D) any data collection gaps or data sufficiency problems that may exist and the impact of those gaps and problems on the efficacy of the CSA program;

"(E) the accuracy of safety data, including the use of crash data from crashes in which a motor carrier was free from fault;

"(F) whether BASIC percentiles for motor carriers of passengers should be calculated separately from motor carriers of freight;

"(G) the differences in the rates at which safety violations are reported to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for inclusion in the SMS by various enforcement authorities, including States, territories, and Federal inspectors; and

"(H) how members of the public use the SMS and what effect making the SMS information public has had on reducing crashes and eliminating unsafe motor carriers from the industry; and

"(2) shall consider—

"(A) whether the SMS provides comparable precision and confidence, through SMS alerts and percentiles, for the relative crash risk of individual large and small motor carriers;

"(B) whether alternatives to the SMS would identify high risk carriers more accurately; and

"(C) the recommendations and findings of the Comptroller General of the United States and the Inspector General of the Department [of Transportation], and independent review team reports, issued before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015].

"(c) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall—

"(1) submit a report containing the results of the study commissioned pursuant to subsection (a) to—

"(A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate;

"(B) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives; and

"(C) the Inspector General of the Department; and

"(2) publish the report on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Department.

"(d) Corrective Action Plan.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the Administrator submits the report under subsection (c), if that report identifies a deficiency or opportunity for improvement in the CSA program or in any element of the SMS, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a corrective action plan that—

"(A) responds to the deficiencies or opportunities identified by the report;

"(B) identifies how the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration will address such deficiencies or opportunities; and

"(C) provides an estimate of the cost, including with respect to changes in staffing, enforcement, and data collection, necessary to address such deficiencies or opportunities.

"(2) Program reforms.—The corrective action plan submitted under paragraph (1) shall include an implementation plan that—

"(A) includes benchmarks;

"(B) includes programmatic reforms, revisions to regulations, or proposals for legislation; and

"(C) shall be considered in any rulemaking by the Department that relates to the CSA program, including the SMS or data analysis under the SMS.

"(e) Inspector General Review.—Not later than 120 days after the Administrator submits a corrective action plan under subsection (d), the Inspector General of the Department shall—

"(1) review the extent to which such plan addresses—

"(A) recommendations contained in the report submitted under subsection (c); and

"(B) relevant recommendations issued by the Comptroller General or the Inspector General before the date of enactment of this Act; and

"(2) submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the responsiveness of the corrective action plan to the recommendations described in paragraph (1).

"SEC. 5222. BEYOND COMPLIANCE.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Administrator shall allow recognition, including credit or an improved SMS percentile, for a motor carrier that—

"(1) installs advanced safety equipment;

"(2) uses enhanced driver fitness measures;

"(3) adopts fleet safety management tools, technologies, and programs; or

"(4) satisfies other standards determined appropriate by the Administrator.

"(b) Implementation.—The Administrator shall carry out subsection (a) by—

"(1) incorporating a methodology into the CSA program; or

"(2) establishing a safety BASIC in the SMS.

"(c) Process.—

"(1) In general.—The Administrator, after providing notice and an opportunity for comment, shall develop a process for identifying and reviewing advanced safety equipment, enhanced driver fitness measures, fleet safety management tools, technologies, and programs, and other standards for use by motor carriers to receive recognition, including credit or an improved SMS percentile, for purposes of subsection (a).

"(2) Contents.—A process developed under paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) provide for a petition process for reviewing advanced safety equipment, enhanced driver fitness measures, fleet safety management tools, technologies, and programs, and other standards; and

"(B) seek input and participation from industry stakeholders, including commercial motor vehicle drivers, technology manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, motor carriers, law enforcement, safety advocates, and the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee.

"(d) Qualification.—The Administrator, after providing notice and an opportunity for comment, shall develop technical or other performance standards with respect to advanced safety equipment, enhanced driver fitness measures, fleet safety management tools, technologies, and programs, and other standards for purposes of subsection (a).

"(e) Monitoring.—The Administrator may authorize qualified entities to monitor motor carriers that receive recognition, including credit or an improved SMS percentile, under this section through a no-cost contract structure.

"(f) Dissemination of Information.—The Administrator shall maintain on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Department information on—

"(1) the advanced safety equipment, enhanced driver fitness measures, fleet safety management tools, technologies, and programs, and other standards eligible for recognition, including credit or an improved SMS percentile;

"(2) any petitions for review of advanced safety equipment, enhanced driver fitness measures, fleet safety management tools, technologies, and programs, and other standards; and

"(3) any relevant statistics relating to the use of advanced safety equipment, enhanced driver fitness measures, fleet safety management tools, technologies, and programs, and other standards.

"(g) Report.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the—

"(1) number of motor carriers receiving recognition, including credit or an improved SMS percentile, under this section; and

"(2) safety performance of such carriers.

"SEC. 5223. DATA CERTIFICATION.

"(a) In General.—On and after the date that is 1 day after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], no information regarding analysis of violations, crashes in which a determination is made that the motor carrier or the commercial motor vehicle driver is not at fault, alerts, or the relative percentile for each BASIC developed under the CSA program may be made available to the general public until the Inspector General of the Department certifies that—

"(1) the report required under section 5221(c) has been submitted in accordance with that section;

"(2) any deficiencies identified in the report required under section 5221(c) have been addressed;

"(3) if applicable, the corrective action plan under section 5221(d) has been implemented;

"(4) the Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration has fully implemented or satisfactorily addressed the issues raised in the report titled 'Modifying the Compliance, Safety, Accountability Program Would Improve the Ability to Identify High Risk Carriers' of the Government Accountability Office and dated February 2014 (GAO–14–114); and

"(5) the Secretary [of Transportation] has initiated modification of the CSA program in accordance with section 5222.

"(b) Limitation on the Use of CSA Analysis.—Information regarding alerts and the relative percentile for each BASIC developed under the CSA program may not be used for safety fitness determinations until the Inspector General of the Department makes the certification under subsection (a).

"(c) Continued Public Availability of Data.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, inspection and violation information submitted to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration by commercial motor vehicle inspectors and qualified law enforcement officials, out-of-service rates, and absolute measures shall remain available to the public.

"(d) Exceptions.—

"(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this section—

"(A) the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and State and local commercial motor vehicle enforcement agencies may use the information referred to in subsection (a) for purposes of investigation and enforcement prioritization;

"(B) a motor carrier and a commercial motor vehicle driver may access information referred to in subsection (a) that relates directly to the motor carrier or driver, respectively; and

"(C) a data analysis of motorcoach operators may be provided online with a notation indicating that the ratings or alerts listed are not intended to imply any Federal safety rating of the carrier.

"(2) Notation.—The notation described in paragraph (1)(C) shall include the following: 'Readers should not draw conclusions about a carrier's overall safety condition simply based on the data displayed in this system. Unless a motor carrier has received an UNSATISFACTORY safety rating under part 385 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, or has otherwise been ordered to discontinue operations by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, it is authorized to operate on the Nation's roadways.'.

"(3) Rule of construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to restrict the official use by State enforcement agencies of the data collected by State enforcement personnel.

"SEC. 5224. DATA IMPROVEMENT.

"(a) Functional Specifications.—The Administrator shall develop functional specifications to ensure the consistent and accurate input of data into systems and databases relating to the CSA program.

"(b) Functionality.—The functional specifications developed pursuant to subsection (a)—

"(1) shall provide for the hardcoding and smart logic functionality for roadside inspection data collection systems and databases; and

"(2) shall be made available to public and private sector developers.

"(c) Effective Data Management.—The Administrator shall ensure that internal systems and databases accept and effectively manage data using uniform standards.

"(d) Consultation With the States.—Before implementing the functional specifications developed pursuant to subsection (a) or the standards described in subsection (c), the Administrator shall seek input from the State agencies responsible for enforcing section 31102 of title 49, United States Code.

"SEC. 5225. ACCIDENT REVIEW.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after a certification under section 5223, the Secretary shall task the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee with reviewing the treatment of preventable crashes under the SMS.

"(b) Duties.—Not later than 6 months after being tasked under subsection (a), the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee shall make recommendations to the Secretary on a process to allow motor carriers and drivers to request that the Administrator make a determination with respect to the preventability of a crash, if such a process has not yet been established by the Secretary.

"(c) Report.—The Secretary shall—

"(1) review and consider the recommendations provided by the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; and

"(2) report to Congress on how the Secretary intends to address the treatment of preventable crashes.

"(d) Preventable Defined.—In this section, the term 'preventable' has the meaning given that term in Appendix B of part 385 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015]."

Administration of Grant Programs

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32603(i), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 808, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] is authorized to identify and implement processes to reduce the administrative burden on the States and the Department of Transportation concerning the application and management of the grant programs authorized under chapter 311 and chapter 313 of title 49, United States Code."

Trucking Security

Pub. L. 109–347, title VII, §703, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1944, provided that:

"(a) Legal Status Verification for Licensed United States Commercial Drivers.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 2006], the Secretary of Transportation, in cooperation with the Secretary [of Homeland Security], shall issue regulations to implement the recommendations contained in the memorandum of the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation issued on June 4, 2004 (Control No. 2004–054).

"(b) Commercial Driver's License Antifraud Programs.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 2006], the Secretary of Transportation, in cooperation with the Secretary [of Homeland Security], shall issue a regulation to implement the recommendations contained in the Report on Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Oversight of the Commercial Driver's License Program (MH–2006–037).

"(c) Verification of Commercial Motor Vehicle Traffic.—

"(1) Guidelines.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 2006], the Secretary [of Homeland Security], in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall draft guidelines for Federal, State, and local law enforcement officials, including motor carrier safety enforcement personnel, on how to identify noncompliance with Federal laws uniquely applicable to commercial motor vehicles and commercial motor vehicle operators engaged in cross-border traffic and communicate such noncompliance to the appropriate Federal authorities. Such guidelines shall be coordinated with the training and outreach activities of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration under section 4139 of SAFETEA-LU (Public Law 109–59) [set out below].

"(2) Verification.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 2006], the Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall modify the final rule regarding the enforcement of operating authority (Docket No. FMCSA–2002–13015) to establish a system or process by which a carrier's operating authority can be verified during a roadside inspection."

Outreach and Education

Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4127, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1741, as amended by Pub. L. 111–147, title IV, §422(g), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 111–322, title II, §2202(g), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3525; Pub. L. 112–5, title II, §202(g), Mar. 4, 2011, 125 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 112–30, title I, §122(f), Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 112–102, title II, §202(f), Mar. 30, 2012, 126 Stat. 274; Pub. L. 112–140, title II, §202(f), June 29, 2012, 126 Stat. 395; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32603(f), div. G, title II, §112002(e), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 808, 983; Pub. L. 113–159, title I, §1102(f), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1844; Pub. L. 114–21, title I, §1102(f), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 222; Pub. L. 114–41, title I, §1102(f), July 31, 2015, 129 Stat. 449; Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1102(f), Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 572; Pub. L. 114–87, title I, §1102(f), Nov. 20, 2015, 129 Stat. 681, which provided for an outreach and education program, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5103(c)(4), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1527. See section 31110(c) of this title.

Safety Data Improvement Program

Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4128, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1742, which provided for grants to States for projects and activities to improve the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of commercial motor vehicle safety data reported to the Secretary of Transportation, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(e)(6), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1525, effective Oct. 1, 2016.

Operating Authority Enforcement Assistance for States

Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4139(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1745, provided that:

"(1) Training and outreach.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005], the Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall conduct outreach and provide training as necessary to State personnel engaged in the enforcement of Federal motor carrier safety regulations to ensure their awareness of the process to be used for verification of the operating authority of motor carriers, including motor carriers of passengers, and to ensure proper enforcement when motor carriers are found to be in violation of operating authority requirements.

"(2) Assessment.—The Inspector General of the Department of Transportation may periodically assess the implementation and effectiveness of the training and outreach program."

Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee

Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4144, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1748, as amended by Pub. L. 111–147, title IV, §422(i), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 111–322, title II, §2202(i), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3525; Pub. L. 112–5, title II, §202(i), Mar. 4, 2011, 125 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 112–30, title I, §122(h), Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 112–102, title II, §202(h), Mar. 30, 2012, 126 Stat. 274; Pub. L. 112–140, title II, §202(h), June 29, 2012, 126 Stat. 395; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32912, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 818, provided that:

"(a) Establishment and Duties.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall establish in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration a motor carrier safety advisory committee. The committee shall—

"(1) provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration about needs, objectives, plans, approaches, content, and accomplishments of the motor carrier safety programs carried out by the Administration; and

"(2) provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator on motor carrier safety regulations.

"(b) Members, Chairman, Pay, and Expenses.—

"(1) In general.—The committee shall be composed of not more than 20 members appointed by the Administrator from among individuals who are not employees of the Administration and who are specially qualified to serve on the committee because of their education, training, or experience. The members shall include representatives of the motor carrier industry, safety advocates, and safety enforcement officials. Representatives of a single enumerated interest group may not constitute a majority of the members of the advisory committee.

"(2) Chairman.—The Administrator shall designate the chairman of the committee.

"(3) Pay.—A member of the committee shall serve without pay; except that the Administrator may allow a member, when attending meetings of the committee or a subcommittee of the committee, expenses authorized under section 5703 of title 5, relating to per diem, travel, and transportation expenses.

"(c) Support Staff, Information, and Services.—The Administrator shall provide support staff for the committee. On request of the committee, the Administrator shall provide information, administrative services, and supplies that the Administrator considers necessary for the committee to carry out its duties and powers.

"(d) Termination Date.—Notwithstanding the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), the advisory committee shall terminate on September 30, 2013."

Motor Carrier Safety Strategy

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §104, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1754, provided that:

"(a) Safety Goals.—In conjunction with existing federally required strategic planning efforts, the Secretary shall develop a long-term strategy for improving commercial motor vehicle, operator, and carrier safety. The strategy shall include an annual plan and schedule for achieving, at a minimum, the following goals:

"(1) Reducing the number and rates of crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving commercial motor vehicles.

"(2) Improving the consistency and effectiveness of commercial motor vehicle, operator, and carrier enforcement and compliance programs.

"(3) Identifying and targeting enforcement efforts at high-risk commercial motor vehicles, operators, and carriers.

"(4) Improving research efforts to enhance and promote commercial motor vehicle, operator, and carrier safety and performance.

"(b) Contents of Strategy.—

"(1) Measurable goals.—The strategy and annual plans under subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, specific numeric or measurable goals designed to achieve the strategic goals of subsection (a). The purposes of the numeric or measurable goals are as follows:

"(A) To increase the number of inspections and compliance reviews to ensure that all high-risk commercial motor vehicles, operators, and carriers are examined.

"(B) To eliminate, with meaningful safety measures, the backlog of rulemakings.

"(C) To improve the quality and effectiveness of data bases by ensuring that all States and inspectors accurately and promptly report complete safety information.

"(D) To eliminate, with meaningful civil and criminal penalties for violations, the backlog of enforcement cases.

"(E) To provide for a sufficient number of Federal and State safety inspectors, and provide adequate facilities and equipment, at international border areas.

"(2) Resource needs.—In addition, the strategy and annual plans shall include estimates of the funds and staff resources needed to accomplish each activity. Such estimates shall also include the staff skills and training needed for timely and effective accomplishment of each goal.

"(3) Savings clause.—In developing and assessing progress toward meeting the measurable goals set forth in this subsection, the Secretary and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator shall not take any action that would impinge on the due process rights of motor carriers and drivers.

"(c) Submission With the President's Budget.—Beginning with fiscal year 2001 and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress the strategy and annual plan at the same time as the President's budget submission.

"(d) Annual Performance.—

"(1) Annual performance agreement.—For each of fiscal years 2001 through 2003, the following officials shall enter into annual performance agreements:

"(A) The Secretary and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator.

"(B) The Administrator and the Deputy Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator.

"(C) The Administrator and the Chief Safety Officer of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

"(D) The Administrator and the regulatory ombudsman of the Administration designated by the Administrator under subsection (f).

"(2) Goals.—Each annual performance agreement entered into under paragraph (1) shall include the appropriate numeric or measurable goals of subsection (b).

"(3) Progress assessment.—Consistent with the current performance appraisal system of the Department of Transportation, the Secretary shall assess the progress of each official (other than the Secretary) referred to in paragraph (1) toward achieving the goals in his or her performance agreement. The Secretary shall convey the assessment to such official, including identification of any deficiencies that should be remediated before the next progress assessment.

"(4) Administration.—In deciding whether or not to award a bonus or other achievement award to an official of the Administration who is a party to a performance agreement required by this subsection, the Secretary shall give substantial weight to whether the official has made satisfactory progress toward meeting the goals of his or her performance agreement.

"(e) Achievement of Goals.—

"(1) Progress assessment.—No less frequently than semiannually, the Secretary and the Administrator shall assess the progress of the Administration toward achieving the strategic goals of subsection (a). The Secretary and the Administrator shall convey their assessment to the employees of the Administration and shall identify any deficiencies that should be remediated before the next progress assessment.

"(2) Report to congress.—The Secretary shall report annually to Congress the contents of each performance agreement entered into under subsection (d) and the official's performance relative to the goals of the performance agreement. In addition, the Secretary shall report to Congress on the performance of the Administration relative to the goals of the motor carrier safety strategy and annual plan under subsection (a).

"(f) Expediting Regulatory Proceedings.—The Administrator shall designate a regulatory ombudsman to expedite rulemaking proceedings. The Secretary and the Administrator shall each delegate to the ombudsman such authority as may be necessary for the ombudsman to expedite rulemaking proceedings of the Administration to comply with statutory and internal departmental deadlines, including authority to—

"(1) make decisions to resolve disagreements between officials in the Administration who are participating in a rulemaking process; and

"(2) ensure that sufficient staff are assigned to rulemaking projects to meet all deadlines."

Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Advisory Committee

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §105, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1756, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Secretary may establish a commercial motor vehicle safety advisory committee to provide advice and recommendations on a range of motor carrier safety issues.

"(b) Composition.—The members of the advisory committee shall be appointed by the Secretary and shall include representatives of the motor carrier industry, drivers, safety advocates, manufacturers, safety enforcement officials, law enforcement agencies of border States, and other individuals affected by rulemakings under consideration by the Department of Transportation. Representatives of a single interest group may not constitute a majority of the members of the advisory committee.

"(c) Function.—The advisory committee shall provide advice to the Secretary on commercial motor vehicle safety regulations and other matters relating to activities and functions of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

"(d) Termination Date.—The advisory committee shall remain in effect until September 30, 2003."

Study of Commercial Motor Vehicle Crash Causation

Pub. L. 106–159, title II, §224, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1770, provided that:

"(a) Objectives.—The Secretary shall conduct a comprehensive study to determine the causes of, and contributing factors to, crashes that involve commercial motor vehicles. The study shall also identify data requirements and collection procedures, reports, and other measures that will improve the Department of Transportation's and States' ability to—

"(1) evaluate future crashes involving commercial motor vehicles;

"(2) monitor crash trends and identify causes and contributing factors; and

"(3) develop effective safety improvement policies and programs.

"(b) Design.—The study shall be designed to yield information that will help the Department and the States identify activities and other measures likely to lead to significant reductions in the frequency, severity, and rate per mile traveled of crashes involving commercial motor vehicles, including vehicles described in section 31132(1)(B) of title 49, United States Code. As practicable, the study shall rank such activities and measures by the reductions each would likely achieve, if implemented.

"(c) Consultation.—In designing and conducting the study, the Secretary shall consult with persons with expertise on—

"(1) crash causation and prevention;

"(2) commercial motor vehicles, drivers, and carriers, including passenger carriers;

"(3) highways and noncommercial motor vehicles and drivers;

"(4) Federal and State highway and motor carrier safety programs;

"(5) research methods and statistical analysis; and

"(6) other relevant topics.

"(d) Public Comment.—The Secretary shall make available for public comment information about the objectives, methodology, implementation, findings, and other aspects of the study.

"(e) Reports.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall promptly transmit to Congress the results of the study, together with any legislative recommendations.

"(2) Review and update.—The Secretary shall review the study at least once every 5 years and update the study and report as necessary.

"(f) Funding.—Of the amounts made available for each of fiscal years 2001, 2002, and 2003 under section 4003(i) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century [Pub. L. 105–178, 49 U.S.C. 31104 note] (112 Stat. 395–398), as added by section 103(b)(1) of this Act, $5,000,000 per fiscal year shall be available only to carry out this section."

Data Collection and Analysis

Pub. L. 106–159, title II, §225, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1771, directed the Secretary, in cooperation with the States, to carry out a program to improve the collection and analysis of data on crashes, including crash causation, involving commercial motor vehicles and to transmit a report on the program and authorized appropriations for fiscal years 2001, 2002, and 2003.

§31101. Definitions

In this subchapter—

(1) "commercial motor vehicle" means (except in section 31106) a self-propelled or towed vehicle used on the highways in commerce principally to transport passengers or cargo, if the vehicle—

(A) has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight of at least 10,001 pounds, whichever is greater;

(B) is designed to transport more than 10 passengers including the driver; or

(C) is used in transporting material found by the Secretary of Transportation to be hazardous under section 5103 of this title and transported in a quantity requiring placarding under regulations prescribed by the Secretary under section 5103.


(2) "employee" means a driver of a commercial motor vehicle (including an independent contractor when personally operating a commercial motor vehicle), a mechanic, a freight handler, or an individual not an employer, who—

(A) directly affects commercial motor vehicle safety in the course of employment by a commercial motor carrier; and

(B) is not an employee of the United States Government, a State, or a political subdivision of a State acting in the course of employment.


(3) "employer"—

(A) means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce that owns or leases a commercial motor vehicle in connection with that business, or assigns an employee to operate the vehicle in commerce; but

(B) does not include the Government, a State, or a political subdivision of a State.


(4) "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4003(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 395.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
31101 49 App.:2301(1), (3)–(6). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §401(1), (3)–(6), 96 Stat. 2154, 2155.
  49 App.:2301(2). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §401(2), 96 Stat. 2154; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–554, §228(a), (b), 98 Stat. 2852.

Before clause (1), the words "unless the context otherwise requires" are omitted as unnecessary. The text of 49 App.:2301(4) is omitted as unnecessary because of 1:1. The text of 49 App.:2301(5) is omitted as surplus because the complete name of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a section.

In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words "(except in section 31106)" are added because the source provisions being restated in section 31106 of the revised title contain a definition of "commercial motor vehicle".

In clause (4), the words "the Commonwealth of" are omitted for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

Amendments

1998—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(a)(1), inserted "or gross vehicle weight" after "rating" and substituted "10,001 pounds, whichever is greater" for "10,000 pounds".

Par. (1)(C). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(a)(2), inserted "and transported in a quantity requiring placarding under regulations prescribed by the Secretary under section 5103" before period at end.

Savings Clause

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4003(h), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 398, provided that: "Amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 31102 to 31104 of this title] shall not affect any funds made available before the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998]."

§31102. Motor carrier safety assistance program

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall administer a motor carrier safety assistance program funded under section 31104.

(b) Goal.—The goal of the program is to ensure that the Secretary, States, local governments, other political jurisdictions, federally recognized Indian tribes, and other persons work in partnership to establish programs to improve motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver safety to support a safe and efficient surface transportation system by—

(1) making targeted investments to promote safe commercial motor vehicle transportation, including the transportation of passengers and hazardous materials;

(2) investing in activities likely to generate maximum reductions in the number and severity of commercial motor vehicle crashes and in fatalities resulting from such crashes;

(3) adopting and enforcing effective motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver safety regulations and practices consistent with Federal requirements; and

(4) assessing and improving statewide performance by setting program goals and meeting performance standards, measures, and benchmarks.


(c) State Plans.—

(1) In general.—In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall prescribe procedures for a State to submit a multiple-year plan, and annual updates thereto, under which the State agrees to assume responsibility for improving motor carrier safety by adopting and enforcing State regulations, standards, and orders that are compatible with the regulations, standards, and orders of the Federal Government on commercial motor vehicle safety and hazardous materials transportation safety.

(2) Contents.—The Secretary shall approve a State plan if the Secretary determines that the plan is adequate to comply with the requirements of this section, and the plan—

(A) implements performance-based activities, including deployment and maintenance of technology to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of commercial motor vehicle safety programs;

(B) designates a lead State commercial motor vehicle safety agency responsible for administering the plan throughout the State;

(C) contains satisfactory assurances that the lead State commercial motor vehicle safety agency has or will have the legal authority, resources, and qualified personnel necessary to enforce the regulations, standards, and orders;

(D) contains satisfactory assurances that the State will devote adequate resources to the administration of the plan and enforcement of the regulations, standards, and orders;

(E) provides a right of entry (or other method a State may use that the Secretary determines is adequate to obtain necessary information) and inspection to carry out the plan;

(F) provides that all reports required under this section be available to the Secretary on request;

(G) provides that the lead State commercial motor vehicle safety agency will adopt the reporting requirements and use the forms for recordkeeping, inspections, and investigations that the Secretary prescribes;

(H) requires all registrants of commercial motor vehicles to demonstrate knowledge of applicable safety regulations, standards, and orders of the Federal Government and the State;

(I) provides that the State will grant maximum reciprocity for inspections conducted under the North American Inspection Standards through the use of a nationally accepted system that allows ready identification of previously inspected commercial motor vehicles;

(J) ensures that activities described in subsection (h), if financed through grants to the State made under this section, will not diminish the effectiveness of the development and implementation of the programs to improve motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver safety as described in subsection (b);

(K) ensures that the lead State commercial motor vehicle safety agency will coordinate the plan, data collection, and information systems with the State highway safety improvement program required under section 148(c) of title 23;

(L) ensures participation in appropriate Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration information technology and data systems and other information systems by all appropriate jurisdictions receiving motor carrier safety assistance program funding;

(M) ensures that information is exchanged among the States in a timely manner;

(N) provides satisfactory assurances that the State will undertake efforts that will emphasize and improve enforcement of State and local traffic safety laws and regulations related to commercial motor vehicle safety;

(O) provides satisfactory assurances that the State will address national priorities and performance goals, including—

(i) activities aimed at removing impaired commercial motor vehicle drivers from the highways of the United States through adequate enforcement of regulations on the use of alcohol and controlled substances and by ensuring ready roadside access to alcohol detection and measuring equipment;

(ii) activities aimed at providing an appropriate level of training to State motor carrier safety assistance program officers and employees on recognizing drivers impaired by alcohol or controlled substances; and

(iii) when conducted with an appropriate commercial motor vehicle inspection, criminal interdiction activities, and appropriate strategies for carrying out those interdiction activities, including interdiction activities that affect the transportation of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802) and listed in part 1308 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, as updated and republished from time to time) by any occupant of a commercial motor vehicle;


(P) provides that the State has established and dedicated sufficient resources to a program to ensure that—

(i) the State collects and reports to the Secretary accurate, complete, and timely motor carrier safety data; and

(ii) the State participates in a national motor carrier safety data correction system prescribed by the Secretary;


(Q) ensures that the State will cooperate in the enforcement of financial responsibility requirements under sections 13906, 31138, and 31139 and regulations issued under those sections;

(R) ensures consistent, effective, and reasonable sanctions;

(S) ensures that roadside inspections will be conducted at locations that are adequate to protect the safety of drivers and enforcement personnel;

(T) provides that the State will include in the training manuals for the licensing examination to drive noncommercial motor vehicles and commercial motor vehicles information on best practices for driving safely in the vicinity of noncommercial and commercial motor vehicles;

(U) provides that the State will enforce the registration requirements of sections 13902 and 31134 by prohibiting the operation of any vehicle discovered to be operated by a motor carrier without a registration issued under those sections or to be operated beyond the scope of the motor carrier's registration;

(V) provides that the State will conduct comprehensive and highly visible traffic enforcement and commercial motor vehicle safety inspection programs in high-risk locations and corridors;

(W) except in the case of an imminent hazard or obvious safety hazard, ensures that an inspection of a vehicle transporting passengers for a motor carrier of passengers is conducted at a bus station, terminal, border crossing, maintenance facility, destination, or other location where a motor carrier may make a planned stop (excluding a weigh station);

(X) ensures that the State will transmit to its roadside inspectors notice of each Federal exemption granted under section 31315(b) of this title and sections 390.23 and 390.25 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, and provided to the State by the Secretary, including the name of the person that received the exemption and any terms and conditions that apply to the exemption;

(Y) except as provided in subsection (d), provides that the State—

(i) will conduct safety audits of interstate and, at the State's discretion, intrastate new entrant motor carriers under section 31144(g); and

(ii) if the State authorizes a third party to conduct safety audits under section 31144(g) on its behalf, the State verifies the quality of the work conducted and remains solely responsible for the management and oversight of the activities;


(Z) provides that the State agrees to fully participate in the performance and registration information systems management under section 31106(b) not later than October 1, 2020, by complying with the conditions for participation under paragraph (3) of that section, or demonstrates to the Secretary an alternative approach for identifying and immobilizing a motor carrier with serious safety deficiencies in a manner that provides an equivalent level of safety;

(AA) in the case of a State that shares a land border with another country, provides that the State—

(i) will conduct a border commercial motor vehicle safety program focusing on international commerce that includes enforcement and related projects; or

(ii) will forfeit all funds calculated by the Secretary based on border-related activities if the State declines to conduct the program described in clause (i) in its plan; and


(BB) in the case of a State that meets the other requirements of this section and agrees to comply with the requirements established in subsection (l)(3), provides that the State may fund operation and maintenance costs associated with innovative technology deployment under subsection (l)(3) with motor carrier safety assistance program funds authorized under section 31104(a)(1).


(3) Publication.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall publish each approved State multiple-year plan, and each annual update thereto, on a publically accessible Internet Web site of the Department of Transportation not later than 30 days after the date the Secretary approves the plan or update.

(B) Limitation.—Before publishing an approved State multiple-year plan or annual update under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall redact any information identified by the State that, if disclosed—

(i) would reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings; or

(ii) would reveal enforcement techniques or procedures that would reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law.


(d) Exclusion of U.S. Territories.—The requirement that a State conduct safety audits of new entrant motor carriers under subsection (c)(2)(Y) does not apply to a territory of the United States unless required by the Secretary.

(e) Intrastate Compatibility.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations specifying tolerance guidelines and standards for ensuring compatibility of intrastate commercial motor vehicle safety laws, including regulations, with Federal motor carrier safety regulations to be enforced under subsections (b) and (c). To the extent practicable, the guidelines and standards shall allow for maximum flexibility while ensuring a degree of uniformity that will not diminish motor vehicle safety.

(f) Maintenance of Effort.—

(1) Baseline.—Except as provided under paragraphs (2) and (3) and in accordance with section 5107 of the FAST Act, a State plan under subsection (c) shall provide that the total expenditure of amounts of the lead State commercial motor vehicle safety agency responsible for administering the plan will be maintained at a level each fiscal year that is at least equal to—

(A) the average level of that expenditure for fiscal years 2004 and 2005; or

(B) the level of that expenditure for the year in which the Secretary implements a new allocation formula under section 5106 of the FAST Act.


(2) Adjusted baseline after fiscal year 2017.—At the request of a State, the Secretary may evaluate additional documentation related to the maintenance of effort and may make reasonable adjustments to the maintenance of effort baseline after the year in which the Secretary implements a new allocation formula under section 5106 of the FAST Act, and this adjusted baseline will replace the maintenance of effort requirement under paragraph (1).

(3) Waivers.—At the request of a State, the Secretary may waive or modify the requirements of this subsection for a total of 1 fiscal year if the Secretary determines that the waiver or modification is reasonable, based on circumstances described by the State, to ensure the continuation of commercial motor vehicle enforcement activities in the State.

(4) Level of state expenditures.—In estimating the average level of a State's expenditures under paragraph (1), the Secretary—

(A) may allow the State to exclude State expenditures for federally sponsored demonstration and pilot programs and strike forces;

(B) may allow the State to exclude expenditures for activities related to border enforcement and new entrant safety audits; and

(C) shall require the State to exclude State matching amounts used to receive Federal financing under section 31104.


(g) Use of Unified Carrier Registration Fees Agreement.—Amounts generated under section 14504a and received by a State and used for motor carrier safety purposes may be included as part of the State's match required under section 31104 or maintenance of effort required by subsection (f).

(h) Use of Grants To Enforce Other Laws.—When approved as part of a State's plan under subsection (c), the State may use motor carrier safety assistance program funds received under this section—

(1) if the activities are carried out in conjunction with an appropriate inspection of a commercial motor vehicle to enforce Federal or State commercial motor vehicle safety regulations, for—

(A) enforcement of commercial motor vehicle size and weight limitations at locations, excluding fixed-weight facilities, such as near steep grades or mountainous terrains, where the weight of a commercial motor vehicle can significantly affect the safe operation of the vehicle, or at ports where intermodal shipping containers enter and leave the United States; and

(B) detection of and enforcement actions taken as a result of criminal activity, including the trafficking of human beings, in a commercial motor vehicle or by any occupant, including the operator, of the commercial motor vehicle; and


(2) for documented enforcement of State traffic laws and regulations designed to promote the safe operation of commercial motor vehicles, including documented enforcement of such laws and regulations relating to noncommercial motor vehicles when necessary to promote the safe operation of commercial motor vehicles, if—

(A) the number of motor carrier safety activities, including roadside safety inspections, conducted in the State is maintained at a level at least equal to the average level of such activities conducted in the State in fiscal years 2004 and 2005; and

(B) the State does not use more than 10 percent of the basic amount the State receives under a grant awarded under section 31104(a)(1) for enforcement activities relating to noncommercial motor vehicles necessary to promote the safe operation of commercial motor vehicles unless the Secretary determines that a higher percentage will result in significant increases in commercial motor vehicle safety.


(i) Evaluation of Plans and Award of Grants.—

(1) Awards.—The Secretary shall establish criteria for the application, evaluation, and approval of State plans under this section. Subject to subsection (j), the Secretary may allocate the amounts made available under section 31104(a)(1) among the States.

(2) Opportunity to cure.—If the Secretary disapproves a plan under this section, the Secretary shall give the State a written explanation of the reasons for disapproval and allow the State to modify and resubmit the plan for approval.


(j) Allocation of Funds.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary, by regulation, shall prescribe allocation criteria for funds made available under section 31104(a)(1).

(2) Annual allocations.—On October 1 of each fiscal year, or as soon as practicable thereafter, and after making a deduction under section 31104(c), the Secretary shall allocate amounts made available under section 31104(a)(1) to carry out this section for the fiscal year among the States with plans approved under this section in accordance with the criteria prescribed under paragraph (1).

(3) Elective adjustments.—Subject to the availability of funding and notwithstanding fluctuations in the data elements used by the Secretary to calculate the annual allocation amounts, after the creation of a new allocation formula under section 5106 of the FAST Act, the Secretary may not make elective adjustments to the allocation formula that decrease a State's Federal funding levels by more than 3 percent in a fiscal year. The 3 percent limit shall not apply to the withholding provisions of subsection (k).


(k) Plan Monitoring.—

(1) In general.—On the basis of reports submitted by the lead State agency responsible for administering a State plan approved under this section and an investigation by the Secretary, the Secretary shall periodically evaluate State implementation of and compliance with the State plan.

(2) Withholding of funds.—

(A) Disapproval.—If, after notice and an opportunity to be heard, the Secretary finds that a State plan previously approved under this section is not being followed or has become inadequate to ensure enforcement of State regulations, standards, or orders described in subsection (c)(1), or the State is otherwise not in compliance with the requirements of this section, the Secretary may withdraw approval of the State plan and notify the State. Upon the receipt of such notice, the State plan shall no longer be in effect and the Secretary shall withhold all funding to the State under this section.

(B) Noncompliance withholding.—In lieu of withdrawing approval of a State plan under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may, after providing notice to the State and an opportunity to be heard, withhold funding from the State to which the State would otherwise be entitled under this section for the period of the State's noncompliance. In exercising this option, the Secretary may withhold—

(i) up to 5 percent of funds during the fiscal year that the Secretary notifies the State of its noncompliance;

(ii) up to 10 percent of funds for the first full fiscal year of noncompliance;

(iii) up to 25 percent of funds for the second full fiscal year of noncompliance; and

(iv) not more than 50 percent of funds for the third and any subsequent full fiscal year of noncompliance.


(3) Judicial review.—A State adversely affected by a determination under paragraph (2) may seek judicial review under chapter 7 of title 5. Notwithstanding the disapproval of a State plan under paragraph (2)(A) or the withholding of funds under paragraph (2)(B), the State may retain jurisdiction in an administrative or a judicial proceeding that commenced before the notice of disapproval or withholding if the issues involved are not related directly to the reasons for the disapproval or withholding.


(l) High Priority Program.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall administer a high priority program funded under section 31104(a)(2) for the purposes described in paragraphs (2) and (3).

(2) Activities related to motor carrier safety.—The Secretary may make discretionary grants to and enter into cooperative agreements with States, local governments, federally recognized Indian tribes, other political jurisdictions as necessary, and any person to carry out high priority activities and projects that augment motor carrier safety activities and projects planned in accordance with subsections (b) and (c), including activities and projects that—

(A) increase public awareness and education on commercial motor vehicle safety;

(B) target unsafe driving of commercial motor vehicles and noncommercial motor vehicles in areas identified as high risk crash corridors;

(C) improve the safe and secure movement of hazardous materials;

(D) improve safe transportation of goods and persons in foreign commerce;

(E) demonstrate new technologies to improve commercial motor vehicle safety;

(F) support participation in performance and registration information systems management under section 31106(b)—

(i) for entities not responsible for submitting the plan under subsection (c); or

(ii) for entities responsible for submitting the plan under subsection (c)—

(I) before October 1, 2020, to achieve compliance with the requirements of participation; and

(II) beginning on October 1, 2020, or once compliance is achieved, whichever is sooner, for special initiatives or projects that exceed routine operations required for participation;


(G) conduct safety data improvement projects—

(i) that complete or exceed the requirements under subsection (c)(2)(P) for entities not responsible for submitting the plan under subsection (c); or

(ii) that exceed the requirements under subsection (c)(2)(P) for entities responsible for submitting the plan under subsection (c); and


(H) otherwise improve commercial motor vehicle safety and compliance with commercial motor vehicle safety regulations.


(3) Innovative technology deployment grant program.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary shall establish an innovative technology deployment grant program to make discretionary grants to eligible States for the innovative technology deployment of commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks.

(B) Purposes.—The purposes of the program shall be—

(i) to advance the technological capability and promote the deployment of intelligent transportation system applications for commercial motor vehicle operations, including commercial motor vehicle, commercial driver, and carrier-specific information systems and networks; and

(ii) to support and maintain commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks—

(I) to link Federal motor carrier safety information systems with State commercial motor vehicle systems;

(II) to improve the safety and productivity of commercial motor vehicles and drivers; and

(III) to reduce costs associated with commercial motor vehicle operations and Federal and State commercial motor vehicle regulatory requirements.


(C) Eligibility.—To be eligible for a grant under this paragraph, a State shall—

(i) have a commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks program plan approved by the Secretary that describes the various systems and networks at the State level that need to be refined, revised, upgraded, or built to accomplish deployment of commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks capabilities;

(ii) certify to the Secretary that its commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks deployment activities, including hardware procurement, software and system development, and infrastructure modifications—

(I) are consistent with the national intelligent transportation systems and commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks architectures and available standards; and

(II) promote interoperability and efficiency to the extent practicable; and


(iii) agree to execute interoperability tests developed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration to verify that its systems conform with the national intelligent transportation systems architecture, applicable standards, and protocols for commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks.


(D) Use of funds.—Grant funds received under this paragraph may be used—

(i) for deployment activities and activities to develop new and innovative advanced technology solutions that support commercial motor vehicle information systems and networks;

(ii) for planning activities, including the development or updating of program or top level design plans in order to become eligible or maintain eligibility under subparagraph (C); and

(iii) for the operation and maintenance costs associated with innovative technology.


(E) Secretary authorization.—The Secretary is authorized to award a State funding for the operation and maintenance costs associated with innovative technology deployment with funds made available under sections 31104(a)(1) and 31104(a)(2).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §104(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4003(b), (c), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 395, 396; Pub. L. 106–159, title II, §207, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1764; Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §§4106, 4307(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1717, 1774; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32601(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 805; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1514.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
31102(a) 49 App.:2302(a). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §402(a), (c), 96 Stat. 2155, 2156.
31102(b) 49 App.:2302(b), (d). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §402(b), (d), 96 Stat. 2155, 2156; Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(a), (b), 105 Stat. 2140.
31102(c) 49 App.:2302(e). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, 96 Stat. 2097, §402(e); added Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(c), 105 Stat. 2142.
31102(d) 49 App.:2302(c).

In this section, the word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations".

In subsection (a), the words "Subject to this section and the availability of amounts" are substituted for "Under the terms and conditions of this section, subject to the availability of funds" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the word "prescribe" is substituted for "formulate" for consistency in the revised title. Clause (D) is substituted for 49 App.:2302(d) to state the requirements of a plan in one place and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (K), the words "into law and practice" are omitted a unnecessary. In clause (O)(i), the words "highways of the United States" are substituted for "our Nation's highways" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In subclause (iii), the word "especially" is omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (b)(3)(B), the words "Government financing" are substituted for "Federal funding" for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "type of" are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (1), the word "leave" is substituted for "exit" for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (d), the words "the regulations, standards, or orders" are substituted for "Federal rules, regulations, standards, or orders applicable to commercial motor vehicle safety or compatible State rules, regulations, standards, or orders" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The last sentence is substituted for 49 App.:2302(c) (last sentence) for clarity.

References in Text

Sections 5106 and 5107 of the FAST Act, referred to in subsecs. (f)(1), (2) and (j)(3), are sections 5106 and 5107 of Pub. L. 114–94, which are set out as notes below.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to grants to States for programs to improve motor carrier safety.

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(1), amended heading generally, substituting "Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program" for "State Plan Procedures and Contents".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(3), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(2), redesignated par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(2)(I). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(4)(A), substituted "demonstrate" for "make a declaration of".

Subsec. (b)(2)(M). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(4)(B), amended subpar. (M) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (M) read as follows: "ensures participation in SAFETYNET and other information systems by all appropriate jurisdictions receiving funding under this section;".

Subsec. (b)(2)(Q). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(4)(C), inserted "and dedicated sufficient resources to" after "has established".

Subsec. (b)(2)(Y). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(4)(D)–(F), added subpar. (Y).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(2), redesignated par. (2) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(5), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "In estimating the average level of State expenditure under paragraph (1)(E) of this subsection, the Secretary—

"(A) may allow the State to exclude State expenditures for Government-sponsored demonstration or pilot programs; and

"(B) shall require the State to exclude Government amounts and State matching amounts used to receive Government financing under subsection (a) of this section."

Pub. L. 112–141, §32601(a)(2), redesignated par. (3) as (4).

2005—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–59, §4106(a)(1), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "implements performance-based activities by fiscal year 2000;".

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–59, §4106(a)(2), added subpar. (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: "provides that the total expenditure of amounts of the State and its political subdivisions (not including amounts of the Government) for commercial motor vehicle safety programs for enforcement of commercial motor vehicle size and weight limitations, drug interdiction, and State traffic safety laws and regulations under subsection (c) of this section will be maintained at a level at least equal to the average level of that expenditure for its last 3 full fiscal years before December 18, 1991;".

Subsec. (b)(1)(Q). Pub. L. 109–59, §4106(a)(3), added subpar. (Q) and struck out former subpar. (Q) which read as follows: "provides that the State will establish a program to ensure the proper and timely correction of commercial motor vehicle safety violations noted during an inspection carried out with funds authorized under section 31104;".

Subsec. (b)(1)(R). Pub. L. 109–59, §4106(a)(4), aligned margins.

Subsec. (b)(1)(U) to (X). Pub. L. 109–59, §4106(a)(5)–(7), added subpars. (U) to (X).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–59, §4307(b), substituted "paragraph (1)(E)" for "paragraph (1)(D)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §4106(b)(1), added subsec. (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c). Text read as follows: "A State may use amounts received under a grant under subsection (a) of this section for the following activities if the activities are carried out in conjunction with an appropriate inspection of the commercial motor vehicle to enforce Government or State commercial motor vehicle safety regulations:

"(1) enforcement of commercial motor vehicle size and weight limitations at locations other than fixed weight facilities, at specific locations such as steep grades or mountainous terrains where the weight of a commercial motor vehicle can significantly affect the safe operation of the vehicle, or at ports where intermodal shipping containers enter and leave the United States.

"(2) detection of the unlawful presence of a controlled substance (as defined under section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)) in a commercial motor vehicle or on the person of any occupant (including the operator) of the vehicle.

"(3) enforcement of State traffic laws and regulations designed to promote the safe operation of commercial motor vehicles."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §4106(b)(2), added subsec. (e).

1999—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–159, §207(1), realigned subpar. (A) margins.

Subsec. (b)(1)(R). Pub. L. 106–159, §207(2), added subpar. (R) and struck out former subpar. (R) which read as follows: "ensures that the State will cooperate in the enforcement of registration and financial responsibility requirements under sections 31138 and 31139, or regulations issued thereunder;".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(b)(1), inserted "improving motor carrier safety and" after "implementation of programs for" and ", hazardous materials transportation safety," after "commercial motor vehicle safety".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(b)(2), in introductory provisions, substituted "assume responsibility for improving motor carrier safety and to adopt and enforce" for "adopt and assume responsibility for enforcing" and inserted ", hazardous materials transportation safety," after "commercial motor vehicle safety".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A) to (I). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), (7), added subpar. (A) and redesignated former subpars. (A) to (H) as (B) to (I), respectively. Former subpar. (I) redesignated (J).

Subsec. (b)(1)(J). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), redesignated subpar. (I) as (J). Former subpar. (J) redesignated (K).

Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(1), substituted "subsection (c)(1)" for "subsection (c)".

Subsec. (b)(1)(K) to (M). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), redesignated subpars. (J) to (L) as (K) to (M), respectively. Former subpar. (M) redesignated (N).

Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(2), added subpars. (K) to (M) and struck out former subpars. (K) to (M) which read as follows:

"(K) ensures that fines imposed and collected by the State for violations of commercial motor vehicle safety regulations will be reasonable and appropriate and that, to the maximum extent practicable, the State will attempt to implement the recommended fine schedule published by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance;

"(L) ensures that the State agency will coordinate the plan prepared under this section with the State highway safety plan under section 402 of title 23;

"(M) ensures participation by the 48 contiguous States in SAFETYNET not later than January 1, 1994;".

Subsec. (b)(1)(N). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), redesignated subpar. (M) as (N). Former subpar. (N) redesignated (O).

Subsec. (b)(1)(O). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), redesignated subpar. (N) as (O). Former subpar. (O) redesignated (P).

Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(3), inserted "in support of national priorities and performance goals, including" after "activities" in introductory provisions, substituted "activities aimed at removing" for "to remove" in cl. (i), substituted "activities aimed at providing" for "to provide" and inserted "and" after semicolon in cl. (ii), added cl. (iii), and struck out former cls. (iii) and (iv) which read as follows:

"(iii) to promote enforcement of the requirements related to the licensing of commercial motor vehicle drivers, including checking the status of commercial drivers' licenses; and

"(iv) to improve enforcement of hazardous material transportation regulations by encouraging more inspections of shipper facilities affecting highway transportation and more comprehensive inspection of the loads of commercial motor vehicles transporting hazardous material;".

Subsec. (b)(1)(P). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), redesignated subpar. (O) as (P). Former subpar. (P) redesignated (Q).

Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(4), added subpar. (P) and struck out former subpar. (P) which read as follows: "provides satisfactory assurances that the State will promote effective—

"(i) interdiction activities affecting the transportation of controlled substances by commercial motor vehicle drivers and training on appropriate strategies for carrying out those interdiction activities; and

"(ii) use of trained and qualified officers and employees of political subdivisions and local governments, under the supervision and direction of the State motor vehicle safety agency, in the enforcement of regulations affecting commercial motor vehicle safety and hazardous material transportation safety; and".

Subsec. (b)(1)(Q). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), redesignated subpar. (P) as (Q). Former subpar. (Q) redesignated (R).

Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(5)(A), substituted "sections 31138 and 31139" for "sections 31140 and 31146".

Subsec. (b)(1)(R). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(6), redesignated subpar. (Q) as (R).

Subsec. (b)(1)(S), (T). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(c)(5)(B), (8), added subpars. (S) and (T).

1995—Subsec. (b)(1)(Q). Pub. L. 104–88 added subpar. (Q).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(f), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1526, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 31103, 31104, 31106, and 31144 of this title, repealing sections 31107 and 31109 of this title, amending provisions set out as a note under section 31133 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 31100, 31106, 31136, and 31301 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2016."

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

Transition

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(g), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1526, provided that: "Notwithstanding the amendments made by this section [see Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note above], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall carry out sections 31102, 31103, and 31104 of title 49, United States Code, and any sections repealed under subsection (e) [repealing sections 31107 and 31109 of this title and provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 31100, 31106, 31136, and 31301 of this title], as necessary, as those sections were in effect on the day before October 1, 2016, with respect to applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts under those sections submitted before October 1, 2016."

Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program Allocation

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5106, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1530, provided that:

"(a) Working Group.—

"(1) Establishment.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall establish a motor carrier safety assistance program formula working group (in this section referred to as the 'working group').

"(2) Membership.—

"(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), the working group shall consist of representatives of the following:

"(i) The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

"(ii) The lead State commercial motor vehicle safety agencies responsible for administering the plan required by section 31102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(iii) An organization representing State agencies responsible for enforcing a program for inspection of commercial motor vehicles.

"(iv) Such other persons as the Secretary considers necessary.

"(B) Composition.—Representatives of State commercial motor vehicle safety agencies shall comprise at least 51 percent of the membership.

"(3) New allocation formula.—The working group shall analyze requirements and factors for the establishment of a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program under section 31102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(4) Recommendation.—Not later than 1 year after the date the working group is established under paragraph (1), the working group shall make a recommendation to the Secretary regarding a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program.

"(5) Exemption.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the working group established under this subsection.

"(6) Publication.—The Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall publish on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration—

"(A) detailed summaries of the meetings of the working group; and

"(B) the final recommendation of the working group provided to the Secretary.

"(b) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.—After receiving the recommendation of the working group under subsection (a)(4), the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice seeking public comment on the establishment of a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program.

"(c) Basis for Formula.—The Secretary shall ensure that the new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program is based on factors that reflect, at a minimum—

"(1) the relative needs of the States to comply with section 31102 of title 49, United States Code;

"(2) the relative administrative capacities of and challenges faced by States in complying with that section;

"(3) the average of each State's new entrant motor carrier inventory for the 3-year period prior to the date of enactment of this Act;

"(4) the number of international border inspection facilities and border crossings by commercial vehicles in each State; and

"(5) any other factors the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(d) Funding Amounts Prior to Development of New Allocation Formula.—

"(1) Interim formula.—Prior to the development of the new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program, the Secretary may calculate the interim funding amounts for that program in fiscal year 2017 (and later fiscal years, as necessary) under section 31104(a)(1) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle, by using the following methodology:

"(A) The Secretary shall calculate the funding amount to a State using the allocation formula the Secretary used to award motor carrier safety assistance program funding in fiscal year 2016 under section 31102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(B) The Secretary shall average the funding awarded or other equitable amounts to a State in fiscal years 2013, 2014, and 2015 for—

"(i) border enforcement grants under section 31107 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(ii) new entrant audit grants under section 31144(g)(5) of that title.

"(C) The Secretary shall add the amounts calculated in subparagraphs (A) and (B).

"(2) Adjustments.—Subject to the availability of funding and notwithstanding fluctuations in the data elements used by the Secretary, the initial amounts resulting from the calculation described in paragraph (1) shall be adjusted to ensure that, for each State, the amount shall not be less than 97 percent of the average amount of funding received or other equitable amounts in fiscal years 2013, 2014, and 2015 for—

"(A) motor carrier safety assistance program funds awarded to the State under section 31102 of title 49, United States Code;

"(B) border enforcement grants awarded to the State under section 31107 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(C) new entrant audit grants awarded to the State under section 31144(g)(5) of title 49, United States Code.

"(3) Immediate relief.—On the date of enactment of this Act, and for the 3 fiscal years following the implementation of the new allocation formula, the Secretary shall terminate the withholding of motor carrier safety assistance program funds from a State if the State was subject to the withholding of such funds for matters of noncompliance immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act.

"(4) Future withholdings.—Beginning on the date that the new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program is implemented, the Secretary shall impose all future withholdings in accordance with section 31102(k) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle.

"(e) Termination of Working Group.—The working group established under subsection (a) shall terminate on the date of the implementation of the new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program."

Maintenance of Effort Calculation

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5107, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1532, provided that:

"(a) Before New Allocation Formula.—

"(1) Fiscal year 2017.—If a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program has not been established under this subtitle [subtitle A (§§5101–5107) of title V of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, see Tables for classification] for fiscal year 2017, the Secretary [of Transportation] shall calculate for fiscal year 2017 the maintenance of effort baseline required under section 31102(f) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle, by averaging the expenditures for fiscal years 2004 and 2005 required by section 31102(b)(4) of title 49, United States Code, as that section was in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015].

"(2) Subsequent fiscal years.—The Secretary may use the methodology for calculating the maintenance of effort baseline specified in paragraph (1) for fiscal year 2018 and subsequent fiscal years if a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program has not been established for that fiscal year.

"(b) Beginning With New Allocation Formation.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3)(B), beginning on the date that a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program is established under this subtitle, upon the request of a State, the Secretary may waive or modify the baseline maintenance of effort required of the State by section 31102(f) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle, for the purpose of establishing a new baseline maintenance of effort if the Secretary determines that a waiver or modification—

"(A) is equitable due to reasonable circumstances;

"(B) will ensure the continuation of commercial motor vehicle enforcement activities in the State; and

"(C) is necessary to ensure that the total amount of State maintenance of effort and matching expenditures required under sections 31102 and 31104 of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle, does not exceed a sum greater than the average of the total amount of State maintenance of effort and matching expenditures required under those sections for the 3 fiscal years prior to the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) Adjustment methodology.—If requested by a State, the Secretary may modify the maintenance of effort baseline referred to in paragraph (1) for the State according to the following methodology:

"(A) The Secretary shall establish the maintenance of effort baseline for the State using the average baseline of fiscal years 2004 and 2005, as required by section 31102(b)(4) of title 49, United States Code, as that section was in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act.

"(B) The Secretary shall calculate the average required match by a lead State commercial motor vehicle safety agency for fiscal years 2013, 2014, and 2015 for motor carrier safety assistance grants established at 20 percent by section 31103 of title 49, United States Code, as that section was in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act.

"(C) The Secretary shall calculate the estimated match required under section 31104(b) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle.

"(D) The Secretary shall subtract the amount in subparagraph (B) from the amount in subparagraph (C) and—

"(i) if the number is greater than 0, the Secretary shall subtract the number from the amount in subparagraph (A); or

"(ii) if the number is not greater than 0, the Secretary shall calculate the maintenance of effort using the methodology in subparagraph (A).

"(3) Maintenance of effort amount.—

"(A) In general.—The Secretary shall use the amount calculated under paragraph (2) as the baseline maintenance of effort required under section 31102(f) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle.

"(B) Deadline.—If a State does not request a waiver or modification under this subsection before September 30 during the first fiscal year that the Secretary implements a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program under this subtitle, the Secretary shall calculate the maintenance of effort using the methodology described in paragraph (2)(A).

"(4) Maintenance of effort described.—The maintenance of effort calculated under this section is the amount required under section 31102(f) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this subtitle.

"(c) Termination of Effectiveness.—The authority of the Secretary under this section shall terminate effective on the date that a new maintenance of effort baseline is calculated based on a new allocation formula for the motor carrier safety assistance program implemented under section 31102 of title 49, United States Code."

Relationship to Other Laws

Except as provided in sections 14504, 14504a, and 14506 of this title, subtitle C (§§4301–4308) of title IV of Pub. L. 109–59 is not intended to prohibit any State or any political subdivision of any State from enacting, imposing, or enforcing any law or regulation with respect to a motor carrier, motor private carrier, broker, freight forwarder, or leasing company that is not otherwise prohibited by law, see section 4302 of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as a note under section 13902 of this title.

Maintenance of Effort

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §103(c), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1753, which related to maintenance of effort as condition on grants to States, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(e)(8), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1525, effective Oct. 1, 2016.

State Compliance With CDL Requirements

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §103(e), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1754, which related to State compliance with CDL requirements and withholding of funds for noncompliance, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(e)(9), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1525, effective Oct. 1, 2016.

Effects of MCSAP Grant Reductions

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4032, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 419, required the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study and submit a report not later than two years after June 9, 1998, on the effects of reductions of grants under this section and authorized the Secretary to adjust State allocations under section 31103 of this title based on the study.

§31103. Commercial motor vehicle operators grant program

(a) In General.—The Secretary shall administer a commercial motor vehicle operators grant program funded under section 31104.

(b) Purpose.—The purpose of the grant program is to train individuals in the safe operation of commercial motor vehicles (as defined in section 31301).

(c) Veterans.—In administering grants under this section, the Secretary shall award priority to grant applications for programs to train former members of the armed forces (as defined in section 101 of title 10) in the safe operation of such vehicles.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 987; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4003(d), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 397; Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4307(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1774; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32933(c), (d), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1523.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
31103 49 App.:2303. Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §403, 96 Stat. 2156; Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(d), 105 Stat. 2142.

The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations".

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to United States Government's share of costs incurred by a State.

2012—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–141, §32933(c), substituted "section 31102(b)(2)(E)" for "section 31102(b)(1)(E)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–141, §32933(d), struck out "authorized by section 31104(f)(2)" after "public education activities".

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59 substituted "31102(b)(1)(E)" for "31102(b)(1)(D)" and inserted before last sentence "Amounts generated under the unified carrier registration agreement under section 14504a and received by a State and used for motor carrier safety purposes may be included as part of the State's share not provided by the United States."

1998Pub. L. 105–178 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted subsec. heading, inserted "improve commercial motor vehicle safety and" after "implementing programs to", and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2016, subject to a transition provision, see section 5101(f), (g) of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as Effective Date of 2015 Amendment and Transition notes under section 31102 of this title.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Relationship to Other Laws

Except as provided in sections 14504, 14504a, and 14506 of this title, subtitle C (§§4301–4308) of title IV of Pub. L. 109–59 is not intended to prohibit any State or any political subdivision of any State from enacting, imposing, or enforcing any law or regulation with respect to a motor carrier, motor private carrier, broker, freight forwarder, or leasing company that is not otherwise prohibited by law, see section 4302 of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as a note under section 13902 of this title.

§31104. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Financial Assistance Programs.—The following sums are authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account):

(1) Motor carrier safety assistance program.—Subject to paragraph (2) and subsection (c), to carry out section 31102 (except subsection (l))—

(A) $292,600,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(B) $298,900,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(C) $304,300,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(D) $308,700,000 for fiscal year 2020.


(2) High priority activities program.—Subject to subsection (c), to carry out section 31102(l)—

(A) $42,200,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(B) $43,100,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(C) $44,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(D) $44,900,000 for fiscal year 2020.


(3) Commercial motor vehicle operators grant program.—To carry out section 31103—

(A) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(B) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(C) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(D) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2020.


(4) Commercial driver's license program implementation program.—Subject to subsection (c), to carry out section 31313—

(A) $31,200,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(B) $31,800,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(C) $32,500,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(D) $33,200,000 for fiscal year 2020.


(b) Reimbursement and Payment to Recipients for Government Share of Costs.—

(1) In general.—Amounts made available under subsection (a) shall be used to reimburse financial assistance recipients proportionally for the Federal Government's share of the costs incurred.

(2) Reimbursement amounts.—The Secretary shall reimburse a recipient, in accordance with a financial assistance agreement made under section 31102, 31103, or 31313, an amount that is at least 85 percent of the costs incurred by the recipient in a fiscal year in developing and implementing programs under such sections. The Secretary shall pay the recipient an amount not more than the Federal Government share of the total costs approved by the Federal Government in the financial assistance agreement. The Secretary shall include a recipient's in-kind contributions in determining the reimbursement.

(3) Vouchers.—Each recipient shall submit vouchers at least quarterly for costs the recipient incurs in developing and implementing programs under sections 31102, 31103, and 31313.


(c) Deductions for Partner Training and Program Support.—On October 1 of each fiscal year, or as soon after that date as practicable, the Secretary may deduct from amounts made available under paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of subsection (a) for that fiscal year not more than 1.50 percent of those amounts for partner training and program support in that fiscal year. The Secretary shall use at least 75 percent of those deducted amounts to train non-Federal Government employees and to develop related training materials in carrying out such programs.

(d) Grants and Cooperative Agreements as Contractual Obligations.—The approval of a financial assistance agreement by the Secretary under section 31102, 31103, or 31313 is a contractual obligation of the Federal Government for payment of the Federal Government's share of costs in carrying out the provisions of the grant or cooperative agreement.

(e) Eligible Activities.—The Secretary shall establish criteria for eligible activities to be funded with financial assistance agreements under this section and publish those criteria in a notice of funding availability before the financial assistance program application period.

(f) Period of Availability of Financial Assistance Agreement Funds for Recipient Expenditures.—The period of availability for a recipient to expend funds under a grant or cooperative agreement authorized under subsection (a) is as follows:

(1) For grants made for carrying out section 31102, other than section 31102(l), for the fiscal year in which the Secretary approves the financial assistance agreement and for the next fiscal year.

(2) For grants made or cooperative agreements entered into for carrying out section 31102(l)(2), for the fiscal year in which the Secretary approves the financial assistance agreement and for the next 2 fiscal years.

(3) For grants made for carrying out section 31102(l)(3), for the fiscal year in which the Secretary approves the financial assistance agreement and for the next 4 fiscal years.

(4) For grants made for carrying out section 31103, for the fiscal year in which the Secretary approves the financial assistance agreement and for the next fiscal year.

(5) For grants made or cooperative agreements entered into for carrying out section 31313, for the fiscal year in which the Secretary approves the financial assistance agreement and for the next 4 fiscal years.


(g) Contract Authority; Initial Date of Availability.—Amounts authorized from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) by this section shall be available for obligation on the date of their apportionment or allocation or on October 1 of the fiscal year for which they are authorized, whichever occurs first.

(h) Availability of Funding.—Amounts made available under this section shall remain available until expended.

(i) Reallocation.—Amounts not expended by a recipient during the period of availability shall be released back to the Secretary for reallocation for any purpose under section 31102, 31103, or 31313 or this section to ensure, to the maximum extent possible, that all such amounts are obligated.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 987; Pub. L. 105–130, §7, Dec. 1, 1997, 111 Stat. 2559; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4003(e)–(g), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 397; Pub. L. 108–88, §7(b), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 108–202, §11(b), Feb. 29, 2004, 118 Stat. 490; Pub. L. 108–224, §9(b), Apr. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 638; Pub. L. 108–263, §9(b), June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 108–280, §9(b), July 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 886; Pub. L. 108–310, §7(b), Sept. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 1153; Pub. L. 109–14, §6(b), May 31, 2005, 119 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 109–20, §6(b), July 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 109–35, §6(b), July 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 385; Pub. L. 109–37, §6(b), July 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 400; Pub. L. 109–40, §6(b), July 28, 2005, 119 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §§4101(a), (b), 4107(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1714, 1719; Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §301(a), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1616; Pub. L. 111–147, title IV, §422(a), (b), (d), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 86, 87; Pub. L. 111–322, title II, §2202(a), (b), (d), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3524, 3525; Pub. L. 112–5, title II, §202(a), (b), (d), Mar. 4, 2011, 125 Stat. 16, 17; Pub. L. 112–30, title I, §122(a), (b), (d), Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 348, 349; Pub. L. 112–102, title II, §202(a), (b), (d), Mar. 30, 2012, 126 Stat. 273, 274; Pub. L. 112–140, title II, §202(a), (b), (d), June 29, 2012, 126 Stat. 394, 395; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32603(a), (b), (d), div. G, title II, §112002(a), (b), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 807, 808, 982; Pub. L. 113–159, title I, §1102(a), (b), (d), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1843, 1844; Pub. L. 114–21, title I, §1102(a), (b), (d), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 221, 222; Pub. L. 114–41, title I, §1102(a), (b), (d), July 31, 2015, 129 Stat. 448, 449; Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1102(a), (b), (d), Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 571, 572; Pub. L. 114–87, title I, §1102(a), (b), (d), Nov. 20, 2015, 129 Stat. 680, 681; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §§5101(c), 5103(c)(1), 5105(a), (c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1523, 1527, 1529.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
31104(a) 49 App.:2304(a). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §404(a), 96 Stat. 2156; restated Oct. 27, 1986, Pub. L. 99–570, §12014, 100 Stat. 3207–186; Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(e), 105 Stat. 2142.
31104(b) 49 App.:2304(c). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §404(c), 96 Stat. 2156; Oct. 27, 1986, Pub. L. 99–570, §12014, 100 Stat. 3207–186; restated Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(f), 105 Stat. 2142.
  49 App.:2304(e). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §404(b), (d), (e), 96 Stat. 2156; restated Oct. 27, 1986, Pub. L. 99–570, §12014, 100 Stat. 3207–186.
31104(c) 49 App.:2304(b).
31104(d) 49 App.:2304(d).
31104(e) 49 App.:2304(f)(1). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §404(f), 96 Stat. 2156; Oct. 27, 1986, Pub. L. 99–570, §12014, 100 Stat. 3207–186; restated Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(g), 105 Stat. 2142.
31104(f) 49 App.:2304(f)(2).
31104(g)(1) 49 App.:2304(g) (less last sentences of (5) and (6)). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, 96 Stat. 2155, §404(g), (h); added Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(h), (i), 105 Stat. 2143.
31104(g)(2) 49 App.:2304(g)(5) (last sentence).
31104(g)(3) 49 App.:2304(g)(6) (last sentence).
31104(h) 49 App.:2304(h).
31104(i) 49 App.:2304 (note). Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(k), 105 Stat. 2144.
31104(j) 49 App.:2302 (note). Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(l), 105 Stat. 2144.

In subsection (a), the text of 49 App.:2304(a)(1) and the references to fiscal years ending September 30, 1987–1992, are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b), the text of 49 App.:2304(e) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:2304(c) restated by section 4002(f) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (Public Law 102–240, 105 Stat. 2142) and restated in this subsection.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "Amounts made available under section 404(a)(2) of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 before October 1, 1991" are substituted for "Funds made available under this subchapter" for clarity and because of the restatement.

In subsection (c), the words "Funds authorized to be appropriated" are omitted because of the omission of 49 App.:2304(a)(1) as obsolete.

In subsection (e), the words "for administrative expenses incurred in carrying out section 31102 of this title" are substituted for "for administration of this section" for clarity and consistency with the source provisions restated in this section and section 31102 of the revised title.

In subsection (i), before clause (1), the words "Not later than 6 months after December 18, 1991" are omitted as obsolete. The words "for grants under section 31102(a) of this title" are substituted for "under the motor carrier safety assistance program" for clarity and because of the restatement. The words "In prescribing those regulations" are substituted for "In conducting such a revision" because of the restatement.

In subsection (j), the words "Not later than 9 months after December 18, 1991" are omitted as obsolete. The word "final" is omitted as unnecessary. The words "regulations to be enforced under section 31102(a) of this title" are substituted for "under the motor carrier safety assistance program" for clarity and because of the restatement.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94, §5101(c), amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to availability of appropriated amounts.

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 114–94, §5105(a), added par. (10) and struck out former par. (10) which read as follows: "$218,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and".

Pub. L. 114–41, §1102(a)(2), added par. (10) and struck out former par. (10) which read as follows: "$181,567,123 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–21, §1102(a), amended par. (10) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (10) read as follows: "$145,134,247 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015."

Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 114–94, §5105(a), added par. (11) and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: "$38,715,847 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on December 4, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–87, §1102(a), amended par. (11) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (11) read as follows: "$30,377,049 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–73, §1102(a), amended par. (11) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (11) read as follows: "$17,273,224 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–41, §1102(a), added par. (11).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–94, §5103(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i) and struck out former subsec. (i) which related to authorization of appropriations for certain administrative expenses of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. See section 31110 of this title.

Subsec. (i)(1)(J). Pub. L. 114–41, §1102(b)(2), added subpar. (J) and struck out former subpar. (J) which read as follows: "$215,715,068 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–21, §1102(b), amended subpar. (J) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (J) read as follows: "$172,430,137 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015."

Subsec. (i)(1)(K). Pub. L. 114–87, §1102(b), amended subpar. (K) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (K) read as follows: "$36,090,164 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–73, §1102(b), amended subpar. (K) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (K) read as follows: "$20,521,858 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–41, §1102(b), added subpar. (K).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 114–94, §5103(c)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 114–94, §5105(c), substituted "2016 for States," for "2015 and up to $2,663,934 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on December 4, 2015, for States,".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 114–94, §5103(c)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j).

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 114–87, §1102(d), substituted "and up to $2,663,934 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on December 4, 2015," for "and up to $2,090,164 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015,".

Pub. L. 114–73, §1102(d), substituted "and up to $2,090,164 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on November 20, 2015," for "and up to $1,188,525 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015,".

Pub. L. 114–41, §1102(d), substituted "each of fiscal years 2006 through 2015 and up to $1,188,525 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on October 29, 2015," for "each of fiscal years 2006 through 2014 and up to $12,493,151 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015,".

Pub. L. 114–21, §1102(d), substituted "and up to $12,493,151 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on July 31, 2015," for "and up to $9,986,301 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015,".

2014—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 113–159, §1102(a), added par. (10).

Subsec. (i)(1)(J). Pub. L. 113–159, §1102(b), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 113–159, §1102(d), inserted "and up to $9,986,301 for the period beginning on October 1, 2014, and ending on May 31, 2015," after "2014".

2012—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 112–141, §32603(a)(1), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 112–141, §112002(a), amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "$159,000,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on June 30, 2012."

Pub. L. 112–141, §32603(a)(2), (3), added par. (8) and struck out former par. (8) which read as follows: "$212,000,000 for fiscal year 2012."

Pub. L. 112–140, §§1(c), 202(a), temporarily amended par. (8) generally, authorizing $161,120,000 for the period beginning on Oct. 1, 2011, and ending on July 6, 2012. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 112–102, §202(a), amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "$106,000,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on March 31, 2012."

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 112–141, §32603(a)(3), added par. (9).

Subsec. (i)(1)(F). Pub. L. 112–141, §112002(b)(2), struck out open quotation marks and duplicate subpar. (F) designation after "(F)".

Subsec. (i)(1)(G). Pub. L. 112–141, §32603(b)(1), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (i)(1)(H). Pub. L. 112–141, §112002(b)(1), amended subpar. (H) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (H) read as follows: "$183,108,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on June 30, 2012."

Pub. L. 112–141, §32603(b)(2), (3), added subpar. (H) and struck out former subpar. (H) which read as follows: "$244,144,000 for fiscal year 2012."

Pub. L. 112–140, §§1(c), 202(b), temporarily amended subpar. (H) generally, authorizing $185,549,440 for the period beginning on Oct. 1, 2011, and ending on July 6, 2012. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 112–102, §202(b), amended subpar. (H) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (H) read as follows: "$122,072,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on March 31, 2012."

Subsec. (i)(1)(I). Pub. L. 112–141, §32603(b)(3), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 112–141, §32603(d), substituted "2014" for "2011 and $11,250,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on June 30, 2012,".

Pub. L. 112–140, §§1(c), 202(d), temporarily substituted "2011 and $11,400,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on July 6, 2012," for "2011 and $11,250,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on June 30, 2012,". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 112–102, §202(d), substituted "2011 and $11,250,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on June 30, 2012," for "2011 and $7,500,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on March 31, 2012,".

2011—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 112–5, §202(a), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "$88,753,000 for the period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending on March 4, 2011."

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 112–30, §122(a), added par. (8).

Subsec. (i)(1)(G). Pub. L. 112–5, §202(b), amended subpar. (G) generally, substituting "(G) $244,144,000 for fiscal year 2011." for "(G) '(G) $103,678,000 for the period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending on March 4, 2011."

Subsec. (i)(1)(H). Pub. L. 112–30, §122(b), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 112–30, §122(d), substituted "2011 and $7,500,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on March 31, 2012," for "2011".

Pub. L. 112–5, §202(d), substituted "through 2011" for "through 2010 and $6,370,000 for the period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending on March 4, 2011".

2010—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 111–147, §422(a), added par. (6).

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 111–322, §2202(a), substituted "$88,753,000 for the period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending on March 4, 2011." for "$52,679,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2010, and ending on December 31, 2010."

Pub. L. 111–147, §422(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (i)(1)(F). Pub. L. 111–147, §422(b), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (i)(1)(G). Pub. L. 111–322, §2202(b), substituted "$103,678,000 for the period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending on March 4, 2011." for "$61,036,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2010, and ending on December 31, 2010."

Pub. L. 111–147, §422(b), added subpar (G).

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 111–322, §2202(d), substituted "2010 and $6,370,000 for the period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending on March 4, 2011" for "2009, $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $3,781,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2010, and ending on December 31, 2010".

Pub. L. 111–147, §422(d), substituted "2009, $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $3,781,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2010, and ending on December 31, 2010" for "2009".

2008—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–244 struck out par. (1) designation and heading before "On October" and struck out par. (2) which permitted the Secretary to designate certain allocated amounts for high-priority and border activities.

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–59, §4101(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text contained pars. (1) to (8) making amounts available from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) for the Secretary of Transportation to incur obligations to carry out section 31102 for fiscal years 1998 to 2004 and part of 2005.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 109–40 amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "Not more than $138,904,110 for the period of October 1, 2004, through July 27, 2005."

Pub. L. 109–37 amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "Not more than $136,589,041 for the period of October 1, 2004, through July 21, 2005."

Pub. L. 109–35 amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "Not more than $135,200,000 for the period of October 1, 2004, through July 19, 2005."

Pub. L. 109–20 amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "Not more than $126,402,740 for the period of October 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005."

Pub. L. 109–14 amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "Not more than $112,512,329 for the period of October 1, 2004, through May 31, 2005."

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 109–59, §4101(b), added subsecs. (i) and (j).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 109–59, §4107(a), added subsec. (k).

2004—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 108–280 amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "Not more than $140,833,333 for the period of October 1, 2003, through July 31, 2004."

Pub. L. 108–263 amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "Not more than $126,519,126 for the period of October 1, 2003, through June 30, 2004."

Pub. L. 108–224 amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "Not more than $98,352,000 for the period of October 1, 2003, through April 30, 2004."

Pub. L. 108–202 amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "Not more than $68,750,000 for the period of October 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004."

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 108–310 added par. (8).

2003—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 108–88 added par. (7).

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(e), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally, substituting provisions relating to appropriations for fiscal years 1998 to 2003 for provisions relating to appropriations for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1993 to 1997 and for period of Oct. 1, 1997 through Mar. 31, 1998.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(f), struck out par. (1) designation and par. (2) which read as follows: "Amounts made available under section 404(a)(2) of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 before October 1, 1991, that are not obligated on October 1, 1992, are available for reallocation and obligation under paragraph (1) of this subsection."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(g)(1), added subsec. (f) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (f). Text read as follows: "On October 1 of each fiscal year or as soon after that date as practicable, the Secretary, after making the deduction described in subsection (e) of this section, shall allocate under criteria the Secretary establishes the amounts available for that fiscal year among the States with plans approved under section 31102 of this title. However, the Secretary may designate specific eligible States among which to allocate those amounts in allocating amounts available—

"(1) for research, development, and demonstration under subsection (g)(1)(F) of this section; and

"(2) for public education under subsection (g)(1)(G) of this section."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(g)(1), (2), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g) and struck out former subsec. (g) which related to specific allocations.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(g)(4), redesignated subsec. (j) as (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(g)(3), struck out heading and text of subsec. (i). Text read as follows: "The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to develop an improved formula and process for allocating amounts made available for grants under section 31102(a) of this title among States eligible for those amounts. In prescribing those regulations, the Secretary shall—

"(1) consider ways to provide incentives to States that demonstrate innovative, successful, cost-efficient, or cost-effective programs to promote commercial motor vehicle safety and hazardous material transportation safety;

"(2) place special emphasis on incentives to States that conduct traffic safety enforcement activities that are coupled with motor carrier safety inspections; and

"(3) consider ways to provide incentives to States that increase compatibility of State commercial motor vehicle safety and hazardous material transportation regulations with Government safety regulations and promote other factors intended to promote effectiveness and efficiency the Secretary decides are appropriate."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–178, §4003(g)(4), redesignated subsec. (j) as (h).

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–130 substituted "Not more" for "not more" in pars. (1) to (5) and added par. (6).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by sections 5103(c)(1) and 5105(a), (c) of Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendment by section 5101(c) of Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2016, subject to a transition provision, see section 5101(f), (g) of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as Effective Date of 2015 Amendment and Transition notes under section 31102 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by section 32603(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Amendment by section 112002(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141 effective July 1, 2012, see section 114001 of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as a note under section 5305 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–140 to cease to be effective on July 6, 2012, with text as amended by Pub. L. 112–140 to revert back to read as it did on the day before June 29, 2012, and amendments by Pub. L. 112–141 to be executed as if Pub. L. 112–140 had not been enacted, see section 1(c) of Pub. L. 112–140, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Funding

Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4116(d), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1728, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5103(c)(2), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1527, provided that: "Amounts made available pursuant to section 31110 of title 49, United States Code, shall be used by the Secretary [of Transportation] to carry out section 31149 of title 49, United States Code."

Increased Authorizations for Motor Carrier Safety Grants

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4003(i), as added by Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §103(b)(1), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1753, provided that: "The amount made available to incur obligations to carry out section 31102 of title 49, United States Code, by section 31104(a) of such title for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2003 shall be increased by $65,000,000."

§31105. Employee protections

(a) Prohibitions.—(1) A person may not discharge an employee, or discipline or discriminate against an employee regarding pay, terms, or privileges of employment, because—

(A)(i) the employee, or another person at the employee's request, has filed a complaint or begun a proceeding related to a violation of a commercial motor vehicle safety or security regulation, standard, or order, or has testified or will testify in such a proceeding; or

(ii) the person perceives that the employee has filed or is about to file a complaint or has begun or is about to begin a proceeding related to a violation of a commercial motor vehicle safety or security regulation, standard, or order;

(B) the employee refuses to operate a vehicle because—

(i) the operation violates a regulation, standard, or order of the United States related to commercial motor vehicle safety, health, or security; or

(ii) the employee has a reasonable apprehension of serious injury to the employee or the public because of the vehicle's hazardous safety or security condition;


(C) the employee accurately reports hours on duty pursuant to chapter 315;

(D) the employee cooperates, or the person perceives that the employee is about to cooperate, with a safety or security investigation by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the National Transportation Safety Board; or

(E) the employee furnishes, or the person perceives that the employee is or is about to furnish, information to the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the National Transportation Safety Board, or any Federal, State, or local regulatory or law enforcement agency as to the facts relating to any accident or incident resulting in injury or death to an individual or damage to property occurring in connection with commercial motor vehicle transportation.


(2) Under paragraph (1)(B)(ii) of this subsection, an employee's apprehension of serious injury is reasonable only if a reasonable individual in the circumstances then confronting the employee would conclude that the hazardous safety or security condition establishes a real danger of accident, injury, or serious impairment to health. To qualify for protection, the employee must have sought from the employer, and been unable to obtain, correction of the hazardous safety or security condition.

(b) Filing Complaints and Procedures.—(1) An employee alleging discharge, discipline, or discrimination in violation of subsection (a) of this section, or another person at the employee's request, may file a complaint with the Secretary of Labor not later than 180 days after the alleged violation occurred. All complaints initiated under this section shall be governed by the legal burdens of proof set forth in section 42121(b). On receiving the complaint, the Secretary of Labor shall notify, in writing, the person alleged to have committed the violation of the filing of the complaint.

(2)(A) Not later than 60 days after receiving a complaint, the Secretary of Labor shall conduct an investigation, decide whether it is reasonable to believe the complaint has merit, and notify, in writing, the complainant and the person alleged to have committed the violation of the findings. If the Secretary of Labor decides it is reasonable to believe a violation occurred, the Secretary of Labor shall include with the decision findings and a preliminary order for the relief provided under paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(B) Not later than 30 days after the notice under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the complainant and the person alleged to have committed the violation may file objections to the findings or preliminary order, or both, and request a hearing on the record. The filing of objections does not stay a reinstatement ordered in the preliminary order. If a hearing is not requested within the 30 days, the preliminary order is final and not subject to judicial review.

(C) A hearing shall be conducted expeditiously. Not later than 120 days after the end of the hearing, the Secretary of Labor shall issue a final order. Before the final order is issued, the proceeding may be ended by a settlement agreement made by the Secretary of Labor, the complainant, and the person alleged to have committed the violation.

(3)(A) If the Secretary of Labor decides, on the basis of a complaint, a person violated subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of Labor shall order the person to—

(i) take affirmative action to abate the violation;

(ii) reinstate the complainant to the former position with the same pay and terms and privileges of employment; and

(iii) pay compensatory damages, including backpay with interest and compensation for any special damages sustained as a result of the discrimination, including litigation costs, expert witness fees, and reasonable attorney fees.


(B) If the Secretary of Labor issues an order under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and the complainant requests, the Secretary of Labor may assess against the person against whom the order is issued the costs (including attorney fees) reasonably incurred by the complainant in bringing the complaint. The Secretary of Labor shall determine the costs that reasonably were incurred.

(C) Relief in any action under subsection (b) may include punitive damages in an amount not to exceed $250,000.

(c) De Novo Review.—With respect to a complaint under paragraph (1),1 if the Secretary of Labor has not issued a final decision within 210 days after the filing of the complaint and if the delay is not due to the bad faith of the employee, the employee may bring an original action at law or equity for de novo review in the appropriate district court of the United States, which shall have jurisdiction over such an action without regard to the amount in controversy, and which action shall, at the request of either party to such action, be tried by the court with a jury.

(d) Judicial Review and Venue.—A person adversely affected by an order issued after a hearing under subsection (b) of this section may file a petition for review, not later than 60 days after the order is issued, in the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the violation occurred or the person resided on the date of the violation. Review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5. The review shall be heard and decided expeditiously. An order of the Secretary of Labor subject to review under this subsection is not subject to judicial review in a criminal or other civil proceeding.

(e) Civil Actions to Enforce.—If a person fails to comply with an order issued under subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary of Labor shall bring a civil action to enforce the order in the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the violation occurred.

(f) No Preemption.—Nothing in this section preempts or diminishes any other safeguards against discrimination, demotion, discharge, suspension, threats, harassment, reprimand, retaliation, or any other manner of discrimination provided by Federal or State law.

(g) Rights Retained by Employee.—Nothing in this section shall be deemed to diminish the rights, privileges, or remedies of any employee under any Federal or State law or under any collective bargaining agreement. The rights and remedies in this section may not be waived by any agreement, policy, form, or condition of employment.

(h) Disclosure of Identity.—

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, or with the written consent of the employee, the Secretary of Transportation or the Secretary of Homeland Security may not disclose the name of an employee who has provided information about an alleged violation of this part, or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those provisions.

(2) The Secretary of Transportation or the Secretary of Homeland Security shall disclose to the Attorney General the name of an employee described in paragraph (1) of this subsection if the matter is referred to the Attorney General for enforcement. The Secretary making such disclosure shall provide reasonable advance notice to the affected employee if disclosure of that person's identity or identifying information is to occur.


(i) Process for Reporting Security Problems to the Department of Homeland Security.—

(1) Establishment of process.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish through regulations, after an opportunity for notice and comment, a process by which any person may report to the Secretary of Homeland Security regarding motor carrier vehicle security problems, deficiencies, or vulnerabilities.

(2) Acknowledgment of receipt.—If a report submitted under paragraph (1) identifies the person making the report, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall respond promptly to such person and acknowledge receipt of the report.

(3) Steps to address problem.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall review and consider the information provided in any report submitted under paragraph (1) and shall take appropriate steps to address any problems or deficiencies identified.


(j) Definition.—In this section, "employee" means a driver of a commercial motor vehicle (including an independent contractor when personally operating a commercial motor vehicle), a mechanic, a freight handler, or an individual not an employer, who—

(1) directly affects commercial motor vehicle safety or security in the course of employment by a commercial motor carrier; and

(2) is not an employee of the United States Government, a State, or a political subdivision of a State acting in the course of employment.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 990; Pub. L. 110–53, title XV, §1536, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 464.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
31105(a) 49 App.:2305(a), (b). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §405(a)–(d), 96 Stat. 2157.
31105(b) 49 App.:2305(c).
31105(c) 49 App.:2305(d).
31105(d) 49 App.:2305(e). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §405(e), 96 Stat. 2158; Nov. 8, 1984, Pub. L. 98–620, §402(51), 98 Stat. 3361.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "in any manner" are omitted as surplus. The word "conditions" is omitted as included in "terms". In clauses (A) and (B), the word "rule" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulation". In clause (A), the word "begun" is substituted for "instituted or caused to be instituted" for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words before subclause (i) are substituted for "for refusing to operate a vehicle when" and "or because of" for clarity and consistency. In subclause (ii), the words "vehicle's unsafe condition" are substituted for "unsafe condition of such equipment" for consistency.

Subsection (a)(2) is substituted for 49 App.:2305(b) (2d, last sentences) for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "alleging such discharge, discipline, or discrimination" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2)(B), the words "Not later than 30 days after the notice under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph" are substituted for "Thereafter" and "within thirty days" for clarity.

In subsection (b)(2)(C), the words "Before the final order is issued" are substituted for "In the interim" for clarity.

Subsection (b)(3)(A) is substituted for 49 App.:2305(c)(2)(B) (1st sentence) for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (ii), the word "conditions" is omitted as included in "terms". The provision for back pay is moved from clause (ii) to clause (iii) for clarity.

In subsection (b)(3)(B), the words "a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all" and "and expenses" are omitted as surplus. The words "in bringing the complaint" are substituted for "for, or in connection with, the bringing of the complaint upon which the order was issued" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words "or aggrieved" and "with respect to which the order was issued, allegedly" are omitted as surplus. The words "in accordance with the provisions of chapter 7 of title 5 and" are omitted because 5:ch. 7 applies unless otherwise stated.

In subsection (d), the text of 49 App.:2305(e) (last sentence) is omitted as unnecessary.

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–53 amended text of section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to, in subsec. (a), prohibition against discharge or discipline of, or discrimination against, an employee regarding pay, terms, or privileges of employment for certain actions, in subsec. (b), procedures for filing of complaint, in subsec. (c), judicial review and venue, and, in subsec. (d), civil action to enforce an order.

Employee Protections

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4023, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 415, provided that: "Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998], the Secretary [of Transportation], in conjunction with the Secretary of Labor, shall report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the effectiveness of existing statutory employee protections provided for under section 31105 of title 49, United States Code. The report shall include recommendations to address any statutory changes necessary to strengthen the enforcement of such employee protection provisions."

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection (b)(1),".

§31106. Information systems

(a) Information Systems and Data Analysis.—

(1) In general.—Subject to the provisions of this section, the Secretary shall establish and operate motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver information systems and data analysis programs to support safety regulatory and enforcement activities required under this title.

(2) Network coordination.—In cooperation with the States, the information systems under this section shall be coordinated into a network providing accurate identification of motor carriers and drivers, commercial motor vehicle registration and license tracking, and motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver safety performance data.

(3) Data analysis capacity and programs.—The Secretary shall develop and maintain under this section data analysis capacity and programs that provide the means to—

(A) identify and collect necessary motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver data;

(B) evaluate the safety fitness of motor carriers and drivers;

(C) develop strategies to mitigate safety problems and to use data analysis to address and measure the effectiveness of such strategies and related programs;

(D) determine the cost-effectiveness of Federal and State safety compliance and enforcement programs and other countermeasures;

(E) adapt, improve, and incorporate other information and information systems as the Secretary determines appropriate;

(F) ensure, to the maximum extent practical, all the data is complete, timely, and accurate across all information systems and initiatives;

(G) establish and implement a national motor carrier safety data correction system; and

(H) determine whether a person or employer is or was related, through common ownership, common management, common control, or common familial relationship, to any other person, employer, or any other applicant for registration under section 13902 or 31134.


(4) Standards.—To implement this section, the Secretary shall prescribe technical and operational standards to ensure—

(A) uniform, timely, and accurate information collection and reporting by the States and other entities as determined appropriate by the Secretary;

(B) uniform Federal, State, and local policies and procedures necessary to operate the information system; and

(C) the reliability and availability of the information to the Secretary and States.


(b) Performance and Registration Information Systems Management.—

(1) Information clearinghouse.—The Secretary shall include, as part of the motor carrier information system authorized by this section, a program to establish and maintain a clearinghouse and repository of information related to State registration and licensing of commercial motor vehicles, the registrants of such vehicles, and the motor carriers operating such vehicles. The clearinghouse and repository may include information on the safety fitness of each of the motor carriers and registrants and other information the Secretary considers appropriate, including information on motor carrier, commercial motor vehicle, and driver safety performance.

(2) Design.—The program shall link Federal motor carrier safety information systems with State commercial vehicle registration and licensing systems and shall be designed to enable a State to—

(A) determine the safety fitness of a motor carrier or registrant when licensing or registering the registrant or motor carrier or while the license or registration is in effect; and

(B) deny, suspend, or revoke the commercial motor vehicle registrations of a motor carrier or registrant that has been issued an operations out-of-service order by the Secretary.


(3) Conditions for participation.—The Secretary shall require States, as a condition of participation in the program, to—

(A) comply with the uniform policies, procedures, and technical and operational standards prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (a)(4);

(B) possess or seek the authority to possess for a time period no longer than determined reasonable by the Secretary, to impose sanctions relating to commercial motor vehicle registration on the basis of a Federal safety fitness determination; and

(C) establish and implement a process—

(i) to cancel the motor vehicle registration and seize the registration plates of a vehicle when an employer is found liable under section 31310(i)(2)(C) for knowingly allowing or requiring an employee to operate such a commercial motor vehicle in violation of an out-of-service order; and

(ii) to reinstate the vehicle registration or return the registration plates of the commercial motor vehicle, subject to sanctions under clause (i), if the Secretary permits such carrier to resume operations after the date of issuance of such order.


(c)(1) In General.—In coordination with the information system under section 31309, the Secretary is authorized to establish a program to improve commercial motor vehicle driver safety. The objectives of the program shall include—

(A) enhancing the exchange of driver licensing information among the States, the Federal Government, and foreign countries;

(B) providing information to the judicial system on commercial motor vehicle drivers;

(C) evaluating any aspect of driver performance that the Secretary determines appropriate; and

(D) developing appropriate strategies and countermeasures to improve driver safety.


(2) Access to records.—The Secretary may require a State, as a condition of an award of grant money under this section, to provide the Secretary access to all State licensing status and driver history records via an electronic information system, subject to section 2721 of title 18.

(d) Cooperative Agreements, Grants, and Contracts.—The Secretary may carry out this section either independently or in cooperation with other Federal departments, agencies, and instrumentalities, or by making grants to, and entering into contracts and cooperative agreements with, States, local governments, associations, institutions, corporations, and other persons.

(e)(1) Information Availability and Privacy Protection Policy.—The Secretary shall develop a policy on making information available from the information systems authorized by this section and section 31309. The policy shall be consistent with existing Federal information laws, including regulations, and shall provide for review and correction of such information in a timely manner.

(2) In general.—Notwithstanding any prohibition on disclosure of information in section 31105(h) or 31143(b) of this title or section 552a of title 5, the Secretary may disclose information maintained by the Secretary pursuant to chapters 51, 135, 311, or 313 of this title to appropriate personnel of a State agency or instrumentality authorized to carry out State commercial motor vehicle safety activities and commercial driver's license laws, or appropriate personnel of a local law enforcement agency, in accordance with standards, conditions, and procedures as determined by the Secretary. Disclosure under this section shall not operate as a waiver by the Secretary of any applicable privilege against disclosure under common law or as a basis for compelling disclosure under section 552 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4004(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 398; Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §§4108(a), 4109(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1720; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §§32103(b), 32306, 32508, 32602, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 780, 793, 805, 807; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §§5101(e)(2), 5102, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1525, 1526.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
31106(a) 49 App.:2306(f). Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, 96 Stat. 2155, §407; added Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4003, 105 Stat. 2144.
31106(b) 49 App.:2306(a) (2)–(5).
31106(c) 49 App.:2306(b).
31106(d) 49 App.:2306(a)(1).
31106(e) 49 App.:2306(c).
31106(f) 49 App.:2306(d).
31106(g) 49 App.:2306(e).

In subsection (b)(2), the word "schedule" is substituted for "system" for clarity.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–94, §5102, substituted "Systems Management" for "Program" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 114–94, §5101(e)(2), struck out par. (4). Text read as follows: "From the funds authorized by section 31104(i), the Secretary may make a grant in a fiscal year to a State to implement the performance and registration information system management requirements of this subsection."

2012—Subsec. (a)(3)(H). Pub. L. 112–141, §32103(b), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 112–141, §32602, amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "establish and implement a process to cancel the motor vehicle registration and seize the registration plates of a vehicle when an employer is found liable under section 31310(i)(2)(C) for knowingly allowing or requiring an employee to operate such a commercial motor vehicle in violation of an out-of-service order."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–141, §32306, struck out subsec. heading "Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Safety Program", designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted par. heading, redesignated former pars. (1) to (4) as subpars. (A) to (D), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–141, §32508, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

2005—Subsec. (a)(3)(F), (G). Pub. L. 109–59, §4108(a), added subpars. (F) and (G).

Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 109–59, §4109(a), added pars. (2) to (4) and struck out former pars. (2) to (4), which related to design of program with State licensing systems in par. (2), conditions of participation in par. (3), and funding for fiscal years 1998 to 2003 in par. (4).

1998Pub. L. 105–178 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting, in subsec. (a), provisions relating to information systems and data analysis for provisions relating to definition of commercial motor vehicle, in subsec. (b), provisions relating to performance and registration information program for provisions relating to information system, in subsec. (c), provisions relating to commercial motor vehicle driver safety program for provisions relating to demonstration project, in subsec. (d), provisions relating to cooperative agreements, grants, and contracts for provisions relating to review of State systems, and in subsec. (e), provisions relating to information availability and privacy protection policy for provisions relating to regulations, and striking out subsecs. (f) and (g), which related to report to Congress and authorization of appropriations, respectively.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by section 5102 of Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendment by section 5101(e)(2) of Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2016, see section 5101(f) of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 31102 of this title.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Deemed References to Chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51

General references to "this title" deemed to refer also to chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51, National and Commercial Space Programs, see section 4(d)(8) of Pub. L. 111–314, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks Deployment

Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4126, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1738, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5105(f)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1529, which required the Secretary of Transportation to carry out a commercial vehicle information systems and networks program and provided for grants for deployment, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(e)(5), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1525, effective Oct. 1, 2016.

[§31107. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(e)(3), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1525]

Section, added Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4110(a)(2), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1721; amended Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32603(h), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 808, related to border enforcement grants.

A prior section 31107, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4004(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 400; Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §103(d), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1754; Pub. L. 108–88, §7(c)(1), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 108–202, §11(c)(1), Feb. 29, 2004, 118 Stat. 490; Pub. L. 108–224, §9(c)(1), Apr. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 638; Pub. L. 108–263, §9(c)(1), June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 108–280, §9(c)(1), July 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 886; Pub. L. 108–310, §7(c)(1), Sept. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 1153; Pub. L. 109–14, §6(c)(1), May 31, 2005, 119 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 109–20, §6(c)(1), July 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 109–35, §6(c)(1), July 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 385; Pub. L. 109–37, §6(c)(1), July 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 400; Pub. L. 109–40, §6(c)(1), July 28, 2005, 119 Stat. 417, related to contract authority funding for information systems, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4110(a)(2), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1721.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 2016, subject to a transition provision, see section 5101(f), (g) of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as Effective Date of 2015 Amendment and Transition notes under section 31102 of this title.

§31108. Motor carrier research and technology program

(a) Research, Technology, and Technology Transfer Activities.—

(1) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish and carry out a motor carrier and motor coach research and technology program.

(2) Multiyear plan.—The program must include a multi-year research plan that focuses on nonredundant innovative research and shall be coordinated with other research programs or projects ongoing or planned within the Department of Transportation, as appropriate.

(3) Research, development, and technology transfer activities.—The Secretary may carry out under the program research, development, technology, and technology transfer activities with respect to—

(A) the causes of accidents, injuries, and fatalities involving commercial motor vehicles;

(B) means of reducing the number and severity of accidents, injuries, and fatalities involving commercial motor vehicles;

(C) improving the safety and efficiency of commercial motor vehicles through technological innovation and improvement;

(D) improving technology used by enforcement officers when conducting roadside inspections and compliance reviews to increase efficiency and information transfers; and

(E) increasing the safety and security of hazardous materials transportation.


(4) Tests and development.—The Secretary may test, develop, or assist in testing and developing any material, invention, patented article, or process related to the research and technology program.

(5) Training.—The Secretary may use the funds made available to carry out this section for training or education of commercial motor vehicle safety personnel, including training in accident reconstruction and detection of controlled substances or other contraband and stolen cargo or vehicles.

(6) Procedures.—The Secretary may carry out this section—

(A) independently;

(B) in cooperation with other Federal departments, agencies, and instrumentalities and Federal laboratories; or

(C) by making grants to, or entering into contracts and cooperative agreements with, any Federal laboratory, State agency, authority, association, institution, for-profit or nonprofit corporation, organization, foreign country, or person.


(7) Development and promotion of use of products.—The Secretary shall use funds made available to carry out this section to develop, administer, communicate, and promote the use of products of research, technology, and technology transfer programs under this section.


(b) Collaborative Research and Development.—

(1) In general.—To advance innovative solutions to problems involving commercial motor vehicle and motor carrier safety, security, and efficiency, and to stimulate the deployment of emerging technology, the Secretary may carry out, on a cost-shared basis, collaborative research and development with—

(A) non-Federal entities, including State and local governments, foreign governments, colleges and universities, corporations, institutions, partnerships, and sole proprietorships that are incorporated or established under the laws of any State; and

(B) Federal laboratories.


(2) Cooperative agreements.—In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may enter into cooperative research and development agreements (as defined in section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a)).

(3) Cost sharing.—

(A) Federal share.—The Federal share of the cost of activities carried out under a cooperative research and development agreement entered into under this subsection shall not exceed 50 percent; except that, if there is substantial public interest or benefit associated with any such activity, the Secretary may approve a greater Federal share.

(B) Treatment of directly incurred non-federal costs.—All costs directly incurred by the non-Federal partners, including personnel, travel, and hardware or software development costs, shall be credited toward the non-Federal share of the cost of the activities described in subparagraph (A).


(4) Use of technology.—The research, development, or use of a technology under a cooperative research and development agreement entered into under this subsection, including the terms under which the technology may be licensed and the resulting royalties may be distributed, shall be subject to the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 993; Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4111(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1722.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
31108 (uncodified). Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L. 102–240, §4002(j), 105 Stat. 2144.

The words "safety duties and powers" are substituted for "safety functions" for clarity and consistency in the revised title. The reference to fiscal year 1992 is omitted as obsolete.

References in Text

The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (b)(4), is Pub. L. 96–480, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2311, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 63 (§3701 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3701 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not more than $__________ may be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for the fiscal year ending September 30, 19__, to carry out the safety duties and powers of the Federal Highway Administration."

[§31109. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5101(e)(4), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1525]

Section, added Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4109(b)(1), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1721, related to performance and registration information system management.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 2016, subject to a transition provision, see section 5101(f), (g) of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as Effective Date of 2015 Amendment and Transition notes under section 31102 of this title.

§31110. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Administrative Expenses.—There is authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) for the Secretary of Transportation to pay administrative expenses of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration—

(1) $267,400,000 for fiscal year 2016;

(2) $277,200,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(3) $283,000,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(4) $284,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(5) $288,000,000 for fiscal year 2020.


(b) Use of Funds.—The funds authorized by this section shall be used for—

(1) personnel costs;

(2) administrative infrastructure;

(3) rent;

(4) information technology;

(5) programs for research and technology, information management, regulatory development, and the administration of performance and registration information systems management under section 31106(b);

(6) programs for outreach and education under subsection (c);

(7) other operating expenses;

(8) conducting safety reviews of new operators; and

(9) such other expenses as may from time to time become necessary to implement statutory mandates of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration not funded from other sources.


(c) Outreach and Education Program.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may conduct, through any combination of grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, and other activities, an internal and external outreach and education program to be administered by the Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. The program authorized under this subsection may support, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, the recognition, prevention, and reporting of human trafficking, while deferring to existing resources, as practicable.

(2) Federal share.—The Federal share of an outreach and education project for which a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement is made under this subsection may be up to 100 percent of the cost of the project.

(3) Funding.—From amounts made available under subsection (a), the Secretary shall make available not more than $4,000,000 each fiscal year to carry out this subsection.


(d) Contract Authority; Initial Date of Availability.—Amounts authorized from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) by this section shall be available for obligation on the date of their apportionment or allocation or on October 1 of the fiscal year for which they are authorized, whichever occurs first.

(e) Funding Availability.—Amounts made available under this section shall remain available until expended.

(f) Contractual Obligation.—The approval of funds by the Secretary under this section is a contractual obligation of the Federal Government for payment of the Federal Government's share of costs.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5103(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1526; amended Pub. L. 115–99, §3, Jan. 3, 2018, 131 Stat. 2242.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–99 inserted at end "The program authorized under this subsection may support, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, the recognition, prevention, and reporting of human trafficking, while deferring to existing resources, as practicable."

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.