[USC02] 49 USC Ch. 475: NOISE
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49 USC Ch. 475: NOISE
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VII—AVIATION PROGRAMSPART B—AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT AND NOISE

CHAPTER 475—NOISE

SUBCHAPTER I—NOISE ABATEMENT

Sec.
47501.
Definitions.
47502.
Noise measurement and exposure systems and identifying land use compatible with noise exposure.
47503.
Noise exposure maps.
47504.
Noise compatibility programs.
47505.
Airport noise compatibility planning grants.
47506.
Limitations on recovering damages for noise.
47507.
Nonadmissibility of noise exposure map and related information as evidence.
47508.
Noise standards for air carriers and foreign air carriers providing foreign air transportation.
47509.
Research program on quiet aircraft technology for propeller and rotor driven aircraft.
47510.
Tradeoff allowance.
47511.
CLEEN engine and airframe technology partnership.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—NATIONAL AVIATION NOISE POLICY

47521.
Findings.
47522.
Definitions.
47523.
National aviation noise policy.
47524.
Airport noise and access restriction review program.
47525.
Decision about airport noise and access restrictions on certain stage 2 aircraft.
47526.
Limitations for noncomplying airport noise and access restrictions.
47527.
Liability of the United States Government for noise damages.
47528.
Prohibition on operating certain aircraft not complying with stage 3 noise levels.
47529.
Nonaddition rule.
47530.
Nonapplication of sections 47528(a)–(d) and 47529 to aircraft outside the 48 contiguous States.
47531.
Penalties.
47532.
Judicial review.
47533.
Relationship to other laws.
47534.
Prohibition on operating certain aircraft weighing 75,000 pounds or less not complying with stage 3 noise levels.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title VII, §743(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3413, added item 47511.

2012Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §506(b)(3), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 106, which directed amendment of the analysis for subchapter II of this chapter by substituting "Penalties" for "Penalties for violating sections 47528–47530" in item 47531 and by adding item 47534, was executed to the analysis for this chapter to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994Pub. L. 103–429, §6(72)(B), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388, added item 47510.

Pub. L. 103–305, title III, §308(b), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1594, added item 47509.

SUBCHAPTER I—NOISE ABATEMENT

§47501. Definitions

In this subchapter—

(1) "airport" means a public-use airport as defined in section 47102 of this title.

(2) "airport operator" means—

(A) for an airport serving air carriers that have certificates from the Secretary of Transportation, any person holding an airport operating certificate issued under section 44706 of this title; and

(B) for any other airport, the person operating the airport.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1284.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47501(1) 49 App.:2101(1). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §101(1), 94 Stat. 50; restated Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §524(b)(1), 96 Stat. 696; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §103(f), 101 Stat. 1489.
  49 App.:2101(3). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §101(3), 94 Stat. 50.
47501(2) 49 App.:2101(2). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §101(2), 94 Stat. 50; restated Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §524(b)(2), 96 Stat. 696.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, the words "the term" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (1), the text of 49 App.:2101(3) is omitted as surplus because the complete name of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a section.

In clause (2), the word "valid" is omitted as surplus.

Addressing Community Noise Concerns

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title I, §175, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3228, provided that: "When proposing a new area navigation departure procedure, or amending an existing procedure that would direct aircraft between the surface and 6,000 feet above ground level over noise sensitive areas, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consider the feasibility of dispersal headings or other lateral track variations to address community noise concerns, if—

"(1) the affected airport operator, in consultation with the affected community, submits a request to the Administrator for such a consideration;

"(2) the airport operator's request would not, in the judgment of the Administrator, conflict with the safe and efficient operation of the national airspace system; and

"(3) the effect of a modified departure procedure would not significantly increase noise over noise sensitive areas, as determined by the Administrator."

Aviation Noise Complaints

Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §510, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 107, provided that: "Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], each owner or operator of a large hub airport (as defined in section 40102(a) of title 49, United States Code) shall publish on an Internet Web site of the airport a telephone number to receive aviation noise complaints related to the airport."

Airport Noise Study

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §745, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 178, as amended by Pub. L. 106–528, §7(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2521, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study on airport noise in the United States.

"(b) Contents of Study.—In conducting the study, the National Academy of Sciences shall examine—

"(1) the threshold of noise at which health begins to be affected;

"(2) the effectiveness of noise abatement programs at airports located in the United States;

"(3) the impacts of aircraft noise on communities, including schools; and

"(4) the noise assessment practices of the Federal Aviation Administration and whether such practices fairly and accurately reflect the burden of noise on communities.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the agreement entered into under subsection (a), the National Academy of Sciences shall transmit to the Secretary a report on the results of the study. Upon receipt of the report, the Secretary shall transmit a copy of the report to the appropriate committees of Congress.

"(d) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section."

Nonmilitary Helicopter Noise

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §747, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 179, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall conduct a study—

"(1) on the effects of nonmilitary helicopter noise on individuals in densely populated areas in the continental United States; and

"(2) to develop recommendations for the reduction of the effects of nonmilitary helicopter noise.

"(b) Focus.—In conducting the study, the Secretary shall focus on air traffic control procedures to address helicopter noise problems and shall take into account the needs of law enforcement.

"(c) Consideration of Views.—In conducting the study, the Secretary shall consider the views of representatives of the helicopter industry and organizations with an interest in reducing nonmilitary helicopter noise.

"(d) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study conducted under this section."

§47502. Noise measurement and exposure systems and identifying land use compatible with noise exposure

After consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and United States Government, State, and interstate agencies that the Secretary of Transportation considers appropriate, the Secretary shall by regulation—

(1) establish a single system of measuring noise that—

(A) has a highly reliable relationship between projected noise exposure and surveyed reactions of individuals to noise; and

(B) is applied uniformly in measuring noise at airports and the surrounding area;


(2) establish a single system for determining the exposure of individuals to noise resulting from airport operations, including noise intensity, duration, frequency, and time of occurrence; and

(3) identify land uses normally compatible with various exposures of individuals to noise.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1284.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47502 49 App.:2102. Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §102, 94 Stat. 50.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "Not later than the last day of the twelfth month which begins after February 18, 1980" are omitted as obsolete.

§47503. Noise exposure maps

(a) Submission and Preparation.—An airport operator may submit to the Secretary of Transportation a noise exposure map showing the noncompatible uses in each area of the map on the date the map is submitted, a description of estimated aircraft operations during a forecast period that is at least 5 years in the future and how those operations will affect the map. The map shall—

(1) be prepared in consultation with public agencies and planning authorities in the area surrounding the airport; and

(2) comply with regulations prescribed under section 47502 of this title.


(b) Revised Maps.—

(1) In general.—An airport operator that submits a noise exposure map under subsection (a) shall submit a revised map to the Secretary if, in an area surrounding an airport, a change in the operation of the airport would establish a substantial new noncompatible use, or would significantly reduce noise over existing noncompatible uses, that is not reflected in either the existing conditions map or forecast map currently on file with the Federal Aviation Administration.

(2) Timing.—A submission under paragraph (1) shall be required only if the relevant change in the operation of the airport occurs during—

(A) the forecast period of the applicable noise exposure map submitted by an airport operator under subsection (a); or

(B) the implementation period of the airport operator's noise compatibility program.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1284; Pub. L. 108–176, title III, §324, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2542; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title I, §174, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3228.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47503(a) 49 App.:2103(a)(1). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §103(a), 94 Stat. 50.
47503(b) 49 App.:2103(a)(2).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "After the effective date of the regulations promulgated in accordance with section 2102 of this Appendix" are omitted as executed. The words "of an airport" and "at such airport" are omitted as surplus. The word "how" is substituted for "the ways, if any, in which" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words "planning authorities" are substituted for "planning agencies" for consistency.

In subsection (b), the words "to the Secretary" are added for clarity. The words "after the submission to the Secretary of a noise exposure map under paragraph (1)" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–254 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If, in an area surrounding an airport, a change in the operation of the airport would establish a substantial new noncompatible use, or would significantly reduce noise over existing noncompatible uses, that is not reflected in either the existing conditions map or forecast map currently on file with the Federal Aviation Administration, the airport operator shall submit a revised noise exposure map to the Secretary showing the new noncompatible use or noise reduction."

2003—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–176, §324(1), substituted "a forecast period that is at least 5 years in the future" for "1985," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–176, §324(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b). Text read as follows: "If a change in the operation of an airport will establish a substantial new noncompatible use in an area surrounding the airport, the airport operator shall submit a revised noise exposure map to the Secretary showing the new noncompatible use."

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Noise Disclosure

Pub. L. 108–176, title III, §322, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2540, provided that:

"(a) Noise Disclosure System Implementation Study.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct a study to determine the feasibility of developing a program under which prospective home buyers of property located in the vicinity of an airport could be notified of information derived from noise exposure maps that may affect the use and enjoyment of the property. The study shall assess the scope, administration, usefulness, and burdensomeness of any such program, the costs and benefits of such a program, and whether participation in such a program should be voluntary or mandatory.

"(b) Public Availability of Noise Exposure Maps.—The Administrator shall make noise exposure and land use information from noise exposure maps available to the public via the Internet on its website in an appropriate format.

"(c) Noise Exposure Map.—In this section, the term 'noise exposure map' means a noise exposure map prepared under section 47503 of title 49, United States Code."

§47504. Noise compatibility programs

(a) Submissions.—(1) An airport operator that submitted a noise exposure map and related information under section 47503(a) of this title may submit a noise compatibility program to the Secretary of Transportation after—

(A) consulting with public agencies and planning authorities in the area surrounding the airport, United States Government officials having local responsibility for the airport, and air carriers using the airport; and

(B) notice and an opportunity for a public hearing.


(2) A program submitted under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall state the measures the operator has taken or proposes to take to reduce existing noncompatible uses and prevent introducing additional noncompatible uses in the area covered by the map. The measures may include—

(A) establishing a preferential runway system;

(B) restricting the use of the airport by a type or class of aircraft because of the noise characteristics of the aircraft;

(C) constructing barriers and acoustical shielding and soundproofing public buildings;

(D) using flight procedures to control the operation of aircraft to reduce exposure of individuals to noise in the area surrounding the airport; and

(E) acquiring land, air rights, easements, development rights, and other interests to ensure that the property will be used in ways compatible with airport operations.


(b) Approvals.—(1) The Secretary shall approve or disapprove a program submitted under subsection (a) of this section (except as the program is related to flight procedures referred to in subsection (a)(2)(D) of this section) not later than 180 days after receiving it. The Secretary shall approve the program (except as the program is related to flight procedures referred to in subsection (a)(2)(D)) if the program—

(A) does not place an unreasonable burden on interstate or foreign commerce;

(B) is reasonably consistent with achieving the goal of reducing noncompatible uses and preventing the introduction of additional noncompatible uses; and

(C) provides for necessary revisions because of a revised map submitted under section 47503(b) of this title.


(2) A program (except as the program is related to flight procedures referred to in subsection (a)(2)(D) of this section) is deemed to be approved if the Secretary does not act within the 180-day period.

(3) The Secretary shall submit any part of a program related to flight procedures referred to in subsection (a)(2)(D) of this section to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. The Administrator shall approve or disapprove that part of the program.

(4) The Secretary shall not approve in fiscal years 2004 through 2007 a program submitted under subsection (a) if the program requires the expenditure of funds made available under section 48103 for mitigation of aircraft noise less than 65 DNL.

(c) Grants.—(1) The Secretary may incur obligations to make grants from amounts available under section 48103 of this title to carry out a project under a part of a noise compatibility program approved under subsection (b) of this section. A grant may be made to—

(A) an airport operator submitting the program; and

(B) a unit of local government in the area surrounding the airport, if the Secretary decides the unit is able to carry out the project.


(2) Soundproofing and acquisition of certain residential buildings and properties.—The Secretary may incur obligations to make grants from amounts made available under section 48103 of this title

(A) for projects to soundproof residential buildings—

(i) if the airport operator received approval for a grant for a project to soundproof residential buildings pursuant to section 301(d)(4)(B) of the Airport and Airway Safety and Capacity Expansion Act of 1987;

(ii) if the airport operator submits updated noise exposure contours, as required by the Secretary; and

(iii) if the Secretary determines that the proposed projects are compatible with the purposes of this chapter;


(B) to an airport operator and unit of local government referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) of this subsection to soundproof residential buildings located on residential properties, and to acquire residential properties, at which noise levels are not compatible with normal operations of an airport—

(i) if the airport operator amended an existing local aircraft noise regulation during calendar year 1993 to increase the maximum permitted noise levels for scheduled air carrier aircraft as a direct result of implementation of revised aircraft noise departure procedures mandated for aircraft safety purposes by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration for standardized application at airports served by scheduled air carriers;

(ii) if the airport operator submits updated noise exposure contours, as required by the Secretary; and

(iii) if the Secretary determines that the proposed projects are compatible with the purposes of this chapter;


(C) to an airport operator and unit of local government referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) of this subsection to carry out any part of a program developed before February 18, 1980, or before implementing regulations were prescribed, if the Secretary decides the program is substantially consistent with reducing existing noncompatible uses and preventing the introduction of additional noncompatible uses and the purposes of this chapter will be furthered by promptly carrying out the program;

(D) to an airport operator and unit of local government referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) of this subsection to soundproof a building in the noise impact area surrounding the airport that is used primarily for educational or medical purposes and that the Secretary decides is adversely affected by airport noise;

(E) to an airport operator of a congested airport (as defined in section 47175) and a unit of local government referred to in paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection to carry out a project to mitigate noise in the area surrounding the airport if the project is included as a commitment in a record of decision of the Federal Aviation Administration for an airport capacity enhancement project (as defined in section 47175) even if that airport has not met the requirements of part 150 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations; and

(F) to an airport operator of a congested airport (as defined in section 47175) and a unit of local government referred to in paragraph (1)(B) to carry out a project to mitigate noise, if the project—

(i) consists of—

(I) replacement windows, doors, and the installation of through-the-wall air conditioning units; or

(II) a contribution of the equivalent costs to be used for reconstruction if reconstruction is the preferred local solution;


(ii) is located at a school near the airport; and

(iii) is included in a memorandum of agreement entered into before September 30, 2002, even if the airport has not met the requirements of part 150 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, and only if the financial limitations of the memorandum are applied.


(3) An airport operator may agree to make a grant made under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection available to a public agency in the area surrounding the airport if the Secretary decides the agency is able to carry out the project.

(4) The Government's share of a project for which a grant is made under this subsection is the greater of—

(A) 80 percent of the cost of the project; or

(B) the Government's share that would apply if the amounts available for the project were made available under subchapter I of chapter 471 of this title for a project at the airport.


(5) The provisions of subchapter I of chapter 471 of this title related to grants apply to a grant made under this chapter, except—

(A) section 47109(a) and (b) of this title; and

(B) any provision that the Secretary decides is inconsistent with, or unnecessary to carry out, this chapter.


(6) Aircraft noise primarily caused by military aircraft.—The Secretary may make a grant under this subsection for a project even if the purpose of the project is to mitigate the effect of noise primarily caused by military aircraft at an airport.

(d) Government Relief From Liability.—The Government is not liable for damages from aviation noise because of action taken under this section.

(e) Grants for Assessment of Flight Procedures.—

(1) In general.—In accordance with subsection (c)(1), the Secretary may make a grant to an airport operator to assist in completing environmental review and assessment activities for proposals to implement flight procedures at such airport that have been approved as part of an airport noise compatibility program under subsection (b).

(2) Additional staff.—The Administrator may accept funds from an airport operator, including funds provided to the operator under paragraph (1), to hire additional staff or obtain the services of consultants in order to facilitate the timely processing, review, and completion of environmental activities associated with proposals to implement flight procedures at such airport that have been approved as part of an airport noise compatibility program under subsection (b).

(3) Receipts credited as offsetting collections.—Notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, any funds accepted under this section—

(A) shall be credited as offsetting collections to the account that finances the activities and services for which the funds are accepted;

(B) shall be available for expenditure only to pay the costs of activities and services for which the funds are accepted; and

(C) shall remain available until expended.


(f) Determination of Fair Market Value of Residential Properties.—In approving a project to acquire residential real property using financial assistance made available under this section or chapter 471, the Secretary shall ensure that the appraisal of the property to be acquired disregards any decrease or increase in the fair market value of the real property caused by the project for which the property is to be acquired, or by the likelihood that the property would be acquired for the project, other than that due to physical deterioration within the reasonable control of the owner.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 103–305, title I, §119, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1580; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4387; Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §154, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 88; Pub. L. 108–176, title I, §189, title III, §306, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2519, 2539; Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §§504, 505, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 104; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1044, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1958.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47504(a) 49 App.:2104(a). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §104(a), 94 Stat. 51; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §301(a), 101 Stat. 1523.
47504(b) 49 App.:2104(b). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §104(b), (d), 94 Stat. 52, 53.
47504(c) 49 App.:2104(c). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §104(c), 94 Stat. 52; Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §524(b)(4), 96 Stat. 696; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §301(b), (c), 101 Stat. 1523; Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, §336, 105 Stat. 947.
47504(d) 49 App.:2104(d).

In subsection (a)(1)(A), the words "the officials of" are omitted as surplus. The words "planning authorities" are substituted for "planning agencies" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(2)(A), the word "establishing" is substituted for "the implementation of" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(2)(B), the words "the implementation of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "to him" and "the measures to be undertaken in carrying out" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the word "achieving" is substituted for "obtaining" for clarity. The word "existing" is omitted as surplus.

Subsection (b)(2) is substituted for 49 App.:2104(b) (3d sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(1)(B) and (2), the words "for which grant applications are made in accordance with such noise compatibility programs" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "incur obligations to" and "further . . . under this section" are omitted as surplus. In clause (C), the words "to carry out any part of a program" are substituted for "any project to carry out a noise compatibility program", and the words "or before implementing regulations were prescribed" are substituted for "or the promulgation of its implementing regulations", for clarity and consistency. The words "the purposes of" before "reducing" are omitted as surplus. The word "noncompatible" is added after "existing" for clarity and consistency. In clause (D), the words "for any project" and "determined to be" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "in turn" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(4), before clause (A), the words "All of" and "made under section 505 of that Act" are omitted as surplus. The word "except" is substituted for "unless" for clarity. In clause (1), the words "relating to United States share of project costs" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "the purposes of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words "by the Secretary or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–429

This redesignates 49:47504(c)(1)(C) and (D) as 49:47504(c)(2)(C) and (D) because the subject matter is similar to that of 49:47504(c)(2)(A) and (B) that was added by section 119(2) of the Federal Aviation Administration Authorization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–305, 108 Stat. 1580).

References in Text

Section 301(d)(4)(B) of the Airport and Airway Safety and Capacity Expansion Act of 1987, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A)(i), is section 301(d)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 100–223, which was set out as a note under section 2104 of former Title 49, Transportation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(2)(F). Pub. L. 115–232 added subpar. (F).

2012—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–95, §504, added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 112–95, §505, added subsec. (f).

2003—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–176, §189, added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)–(E). Pub. L. 108–176, §306, realigned margins of subpars. (C) and (D) and added subpar. (E).

2000—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 106–181 added par. (6).

1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71)(A), inserted "and" after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71)(B), substituted a period for semicolon at end.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71)(C), redesignated par. (1)(C) as (2)(C) and (1)(D) as (2)(D).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–305, §119(2), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71)(D), struck out "and" after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71)(E), substituted a semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71)(F), substituted "to an airport operator and unit of local government referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) of this subsection" for "an airport operator or unit of local government referred to in clause (A) or (B) of this paragraph".

Pub. L. 103–429, §6(71)(C), redesignated par. (1)(C) as (2)(C) and (1)(D) as (2)(D).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–305, §119(1), redesignated par. (2) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–305, §119(3), struck out "paragraph (1) of" before "this subsection" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 103–305, §119(1), redesignated par. (3) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 103–305, §119(1), redesignated par. (4) as (5).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§47505. Airport noise compatibility planning grants

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may make a grant to a sponsor of an airport to develop, for planning purposes, information necessary to prepare and submit—

(1) a noise exposure map and related information under section 47503 of this title, including the cost of obtaining the information; or

(2) a noise compatibility program under section 47504 of this title.


(b) Availability of Amounts and Government's Share of Costs.—A grant under subsection (a) of this section may be made from amounts available under section 48103 of this title. The United States Government's share of the grant is the percent for which a project for airport development at an airport would be eligible under section 47109(a) and (b) of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1286.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47505 49 App.:2103(b). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §103(b), 94 Stat. 51; restated Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §524(b)(3), 96 Stat. 696.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "incur obligations to" are omitted as surplus.

§47506. Limitations on recovering damages for noise

(a) General Limitations.—A person acquiring an interest in property after February 18, 1980, in an area surrounding an airport for which a noise exposure map has been submitted under section 47503 of this title and having actual or constructive knowledge of the existence of the map may recover damages for noise attributable to the airport only if, in addition to any other elements for recovery of damages, the person shows that—

(1) after acquiring the interest, there was a significant—

(A) change in the type or frequency of aircraft operations at the airport;

(B) change in the airport layout;

(C) change in flight patterns; or

(D) increase in nighttime operations; and


(2) the damages resulted from the change or increase.


(b) Constructive Knowledge.—Constructive knowledge of the existence of a map under subsection (a) of this section shall be imputed, at a minimum, to a person if—

(1) before the person acquired the interest, notice of the existence of the map was published at least 3 times in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the property is located; or

(2) the person is given a copy of the map when acquiring the interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1286.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47506 49 App.:2107. Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §107, 94 Stat. 53.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "for which recovery is sought have" are omitted as surplus.

§47507. Nonadmissibility of noise exposure map and related information as evidence

No part of a noise exposure map or related information described in section 47503 of this title that is submitted to, or prepared by, the Secretary of Transportation and no part of a list of land uses the Secretary identifies as normally compatible with various exposures of individuals to noise may be admitted into evidence or used for any other purpose in a civil action asking for relief for noise resulting from the operation of an airport.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1287.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47507 49 App.:2106. Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §106, 94 Stat. 53.

The words "land uses which are" are omitted as surplus. The words "civil action" are substituted for "suit or action" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "damages or other" are omitted as surplus.

§47508. Noise standards for air carriers and foreign air carriers providing foreign air transportation

(a) General Requirements.—The Secretary of Transportation shall require each air carrier and foreign air carrier providing foreign air transportation to comply with noise standards—

(1) the Secretary prescribed for new subsonic aircraft in regulations of the Secretary in effect on January 1, 1977; or

(2) of the International Civil Aviation Organization that are substantially compatible with standards of the Secretary for new subsonic aircraft in regulations of the Secretary at parts 36 and 91 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, prescribed between January 2, 1977, and January 1, 1982.


(b) Compliance at Phased Rate.—The Secretary shall require each air carrier and foreign air carrier providing foreign air transportation to comply with the noise standards at a phased rate similar to the rate for aircraft registered in the United States.

(c) Nondiscrimination.—The requirement for air carriers providing foreign air transportation may not be more stringent than the requirement for foreign air carriers.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1287.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47508(a) 49 App.:2122(a) (1st sentence words before last comma, last sentence). Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §302(a), 94 Stat. 56.
47508(b) 49 App.:2122(a) (1st sentence words after last comma).
47508(c) 49 App.:2122(a) (2d sentence).

In this section, the word "providing" is substituted for "engaging in" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words "acting through the Administrator" and "acting through the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (14 CFR part 36)" are omitted for consistency. Section 6(c)(1) of the Department of Transportation Act (Public Law 89–670, 80 Stat. 938) transferred all duties and powers of the Federal Aviation Agency and the Administrator to the Secretary of Transportation. However, the Secretary was to carry out certain provisions through the Administrator. In addition, various laws enacted since then have vested duties and powers in the Administrator. All provisions of law the Secretary is required to carry out through the Administrator are included in 49:106(g). Before clause (1), the words "If, by January 1, 1980, the International Civil Aviation Organization (hereafter referred to as 'ICAO') does not reach an agreement" and "commence a rulemaking to" and 49 App.:2122(a) (last sentence) are omitted as executed. In clause (1), the words "as such regulations were" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "on noise standards and an international schedule" and "(annex 16)" are omitted as surplus. The words "of the Secretary for new subsonic aircraft in regulations of the Secretary at parts 36 and 91 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, prescribed between January 2, 1977, and January 1, 1982" are substituted for "set forth in such regulations issued by the Secretary (14 CFR parts 36 and 91) during the 5-year period thereafter" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), the words "in effect" are omitted as surplus.

Implementation of Chapter 4 Noise Standards

Pub. L. 108–176, title III, §325, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2542, provided that: "Not later than April 1, 2005, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue final regulations to implement Chapter 4 noise standards, consistent with the recommendations adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization."

Standards for Aircraft and Aircraft Engines To Reduce Noise Levels

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §726, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 167, as amended by Pub. L. 113–188, title XV, §1501(f), Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2025, provided that:

"(a) Development of New Standards.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall continue to work to develop through the International Civil Aviation Organization new performance standards for aircraft and aircraft engines that will lead to a further reduction in aircraft noise levels.

"(b) Goals To Be Considered in Developing New Standards.—In negotiating standards under subsection (a), the Secretary shall give high priority to developing standards that—

"(1) are performance based and can be achieved by use of a full range of certifiable noise reduction technologies;

"(2) protect the useful economic value of existing Stage 3 aircraft in the United States fleet;

"(3) ensure that United States air carriers and aircraft engine and hushkit manufacturers are not competitively disadvantaged;

"(4) use dynamic economic modeling capable of determining impacts on all aircraft in service in the United States fleet; and

"(5) continue the use of a balanced approach to address aircraft environmental issues, taking into account aircraft technology, land use planning, economic feasibility, and airspace operational improvements."

Aircraft Noise Research Program

Pub. L. 102–581, title III, §304, Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4896, as amended by Pub. L. 109–155, title VII, §706(b), Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2937, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall jointly conduct a research program to develop new technologies for quieter subsonic jet aircraft engines and airframes.

"(b) Goal.—The goal of the research program established by subsection (a) is to develop by the year 2010 technologies for subsonic jet aircraft engines and airframes which would permit a subsonic jet aircraft to operate at reduced noise levels.

"(c) Participation.—In carrying out the program established by subsection (a), the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall encourage the participation of representatives of the aviation industry and academia.

"(d) Report to Congress.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall jointly submit to Congress, on an annual basis during the term of the program established by subsection (a), a report on the progress being made under the program toward meeting the goal described in subsection (b)."

§47509. Research program on quiet aircraft technology for propeller and rotor driven aircraft

(a) Establishment.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall conduct a study to identify technologies for noise reduction of propeller driven aircraft and rotorcraft.

(b) Goal.—The goal of the study conducted under subsection (a) is to determine the status of research and development now underway in the area of quiet technology for propeller driven aircraft and rotorcraft, including technology that is cost beneficial, and to determine whether a research program to supplement existing research activities is necessary.

(c) Participation.—In conducting the study required under subsection (a), the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall encourage the participation of the Department of Defense, the Department of the Interior, the airtour industry, the aviation industry, academia and other appropriate groups.

(d) Report.—Not less than 280 days after August 23, 1994, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study required under subsection (a).

(e) Research and Development Program.—If the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration determine that additional research and development is necessary and would substantially contribute to the development of quiet aircraft technology, then the agencies shall conduct an appropriate research program in consultation with the entities listed in subsection (c) to develop safe, effective, and economical noise reduction technology (including technology that can be applied to existing propeller driven aircraft and rotorcraft) that would result in aircraft that operate at substantially reduced levels of noise to reduce the impact of such aircraft and rotorcraft on the resources of national parks and other areas.

(Added Pub. L. 103–305, title III, §308(a), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1593; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(86), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3398.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "August 23, 1994" for "the date of the enactment of this section".

§47510. Tradeoff allowance

Notwithstanding another law or a regulation prescribed or order issued under that law, the tradeoff provisions contained in appendix C of part 36 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, apply in deciding whether an aircraft complies with subpart I of part 91 of title 14.

(Added Pub. L. 103–429, §6(72)(A), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4387.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47510 49 App.:2125. Feb. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–193, §305, 94 Stat. 57.

The word "prescribed" is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "subpart I of part 91" are substituted for "subpart E of part 91" because of the restatement of part 91. See 54 Fed. Reg. 34321 (Aug. 18, 1989).

§47511. CLEEN engine and airframe technology partnership

(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall enter into a cost-sharing cooperative agreement, using a competitive process, with institutions, entities, or consortiums to carry out a program for the development, maturation, and testing of certifiable CLEEN aircraft, engine technologies, and jet fuels for civil subsonic airplanes.

(b) CLEEN Engine and Airframe Technology Defined.—In this section, the term "CLEEN aircraft and engine technology" means continuous lower energy, emissions, and noise aircraft and engine technology.

(c) Performance Objective.—The Administrator shall establish the performance objectives for the program in terms of the specific objectives to reduce fuel burn, emissions and noise.

(Added Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title VII, §743(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3413.)

SUBCHAPTER II—NATIONAL AVIATION NOISE POLICY

§47521. Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) aviation noise management is crucial to the continued increase in airport capacity;

(2) community noise concerns have led to uncoordinated and inconsistent restrictions on aviation that could impede the national air transportation system;

(3) a noise policy must be carried out at the national level;

(4) local interest in aviation noise management shall be considered in determining the national interest;

(5) community concerns can be alleviated through the use of new technology aircraft and the use of revenues, including those available from passenger facility charges, for noise management;

(6) revenues controlled by the United States Government can help resolve noise problems and carry with them a responsibility to the national airport system;

(7) revenues derived from a passenger facility charge may be applied to noise management and increased airport capacity; and

(8) a precondition to the establishment and collection of a passenger facility charge is the prescribing by the Secretary of Transportation of a regulation establishing procedures for reviewing airport noise and access restrictions on operations of stage 2 and stage 3 aircraft.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1287; Pub. L. 112–95, title I, §111(c)(2)(A)(vi), (B), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 18.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47521 49 App.:2151. Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9302, 104 Stat. 1388–378.

Amendments

2012—Par. (5). Pub. L. 112–95, §111(c)(2)(B), substituted "charges" for "fees".

Pars. (7), (8). Pub. L. 112–95, §111(c)(2)(A)(vi), substituted "charge" for "fee".

Authorization of Certain Flights by Stage 2 Aircraft

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title I, §172, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3227, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding chapter 475 of title 49, United States Code, not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall initiate a pilot program to permit an operator of a stage 2 aircraft to operate that aircraft in nonrevenue service into not more than 4 medium hub airports or nonhub airports if—

"(1) the airport—

"(A) is certified under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations;

"(B) has a runway that—

"(i) is longer than 8,000 feet and not less than 200 feet wide; and

"(ii) is load bearing with a pavement classification number of not less than 38; and

"(C) has a maintenance facility with a maintenance certificate issued under part 145 of such title; and

"(2) the operator of the stage 2 aircraft operates not more than 10 flights per month using that aircraft.

"(b) Termination.—The pilot program shall terminate on the earlier of—

"(1) the date that is 10 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018]; or

"(2) the date on which the Administrator determines that no stage 2 aircraft remain in service.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Medium hub airport; nonhub airport.—The terms 'medium hub airport' and 'nonhub airport' have the meanings given those terms in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(2) Stage 2 aircraft.—The term 'stage 2 aircraft' has the meaning given the term 'stage 2 airplane' in section 91.851 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018])."

§47522. Definitions

In this subchapter—

(1) "air carrier", "air transportation", and "United States" have the same meanings given those terms in section 40102(a) of this title.

(2) "stage 3 noise levels" means the stage 3 noise levels in part 36 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, in effect on November 5, 1990.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1288.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47522 49 App.:2157(h). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9308(h), 104 Stat. 1388–384.

The definitions are made applicable to all of subchapter II, rather than only to those provisions based on 49 App.:2157 as in the source provisions, because the defined terms appear in several sections of subchapter II and it is assumed they are intended to have the same meaning in each of those sections.

§47523. National aviation noise policy

(a) General Requirements.—Not later than July 1, 1991, the Secretary of Transportation shall establish by regulation a national aviation noise policy that considers this subchapter, including the phaseout and nonaddition of stage 2 aircraft as provided in this subchapter and dates for carrying out that policy and reporting requirements consistent with this subchapter and law existing as of November 5, 1990.

(b) Detailed Economic Analysis.—The policy shall be based on a detailed economic analysis of the impact of the phaseout date for stage 2 aircraft on competition in the airline industry, including—

(1) the ability of air carriers to achieve capacity growth consistent with the projected rate of growth for the airline industry;

(2) the impact of competition in the airline and air cargo industries;

(3) the impact on nonhub and small community air service; and

(4) the impact on new entry into the airline industry.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1288.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47523 49 App.:2152. Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9303, 104 Stat. 1388–378.

In this section, the text of 49 App.:2152(c) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (a), the words "(hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the 'Secretary')" are omitted because of the restatement. The words "this subchapter" (the first time they appear) are substituted for "the findings, determinations, and provisions of this chapter" to eliminate unnecessary words.

Subsection (b) is tabulated for clarity.

§47524. Airport noise and access restriction review program

(a) General Requirements.—The national aviation noise policy established under section 47523 of this title shall provide for establishing by regulation a national program for reviewing airport noise and access restrictions on the operation of stage 2 and stage 3 aircraft. The program shall provide for adequate public notice and opportunity for comment on the restrictions.

(b) Stage 2 Aircraft.—Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, an airport noise or access restriction may include a restriction on the operation of stage 2 aircraft proposed after October 1, 1990, only if the airport operator publishes the proposed restriction and prepares and makes available for public comment at least 180 days before the effective date of the proposed restriction—

(1) an analysis of the anticipated or actual costs and benefits of the existing or proposed restriction;

(2) a description of alternative restrictions;

(3) a description of the alternative measures considered that do not involve aircraft restrictions; and

(4) a comparison of the costs and benefits of the alternative measures to the costs and benefits of the proposed restriction.


(c) Stage 3 Aircraft.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, an airport noise or access restriction on the operation of stage 3 aircraft not in effect on October 1, 1990, may become effective only if the restriction has been agreed to by the airport proprietor and all aircraft operators or has been submitted to and approved by the Secretary of Transportation after an airport or aircraft operator's request for approval as provided by the program established under this section. Restrictions to which this paragraph applies include—

(A) a restriction on noise levels generated on either a single event or cumulative basis;

(B) a restriction on the total number of stage 3 aircraft operations;

(C) a noise budget or noise allocation program that would include stage 3 aircraft;

(D) a restriction on hours of operations; and

(E) any other restriction on stage 3 aircraft.


(2) Not later than 180 days after the Secretary receives an airport or aircraft operator's request for approval of an airport noise or access restriction on the operation of a stage 3 aircraft, the Secretary shall approve or disapprove the restriction. The Secretary may approve the restriction only if the Secretary finds on the basis of substantial evidence that—

(A) the restriction is reasonable, nonarbitrary, and nondiscriminatory;

(B) the restriction does not create an unreasonable burden on interstate or foreign commerce;

(C) the restriction is not inconsistent with maintaining the safe and efficient use of the navigable airspace;

(D) the restriction does not conflict with a law or regulation of the United States;

(E) an adequate opportunity has been provided for public comment on the restriction; and

(F) the restriction does not create an unreasonable burden on the national aviation system.


(3) Paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection do not apply if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, before November 5, 1990, has formed a working group (outside the process established by part 150 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations) with a local airport operator to examine the noise impact of air traffic control procedure changes at the airport. However, if an agreement on noise reductions at that airport is made between the airport proprietor and one or more air carriers or foreign air carriers that constitute a majority of the carrier use of the airport, this paragraph applies only to a local action to enforce the agreement.

(4) The Secretary may reevaluate an airport noise or access restriction previously agreed to or approved under this subsection on request of an aircraft operator able to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Secretary that there has been a change in the noise environment of the affected airport that justifies a reevaluation. The Secretary shall establish by regulation procedures for conducting a reevaluation. A reevaluation—

(A) shall be based on the criteria in paragraph (2) of this subsection; and

(B) may be conducted only after 2 years after a decision under paragraph (2) of this subsection has been made.


(d) Nonapplication.—Subsections (b) and (c) of this section do not apply to—

(1) a local action to enforce a negotiated or executed airport noise or access agreement between the airport operator and the aircraft operators in effect on November 5, 1990;

(2) a local action to enforce a negotiated or executed airport noise or access restriction agreed to by the airport operator and the aircraft operators before November 5, 1990;

(3) an intergovernmental agreement including an airport noise or access restriction in effect on November 5, 1990;

(4) a subsequent amendment to an airport noise or access agreement or restriction in effect on November 5, 1990, that does not reduce or limit aircraft operations or affect aircraft safety;

(5)(A) an airport noise or access restriction adopted by an airport operator not later than October 1, 1990, and stayed as of October 1, 1990, by a court order or as a result of litigation, if any part of the restriction is subsequently allowed by a court to take effect; or

(B) a new restriction imposed by an airport operator to replace any part of a restriction described in subclause (A) of this clause that is disallowed by a court, if the new restriction would not prohibit aircraft operations in effect on November 5, 1990; or

(6) a local action that represents the adoption of the final part of a program of a staged airport noise or access restriction if the initial part of the program was adopted during 1988 and was in effect on November 5, 1990.


(e) Grant Limitations.—Beginning on the 91st day after the Secretary prescribes a regulation under subsection (a) of this section, a sponsor of a facility operating under an airport noise or access restriction on the operation of stage 3 aircraft that first became effective after October 1, 1990, is eligible for a grant under section 47104 of this title and is eligible to impose a passenger facility charge under section 40117 of this title only if the restriction has been—

(1) agreed to by the airport proprietor and aircraft operators;

(2) approved by the Secretary as required by subsection (c)(1) of this section; or

(3) rescinded.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1288; Pub. L. 112–95, title I, §111(c)(2)(A)(vii), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 18.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47524(a) 49 App.:2153(a)(1). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9304(a)(1)– (2)(C), (3)–(g), 104 Stat. 1388–379.
47524(b) 49 App.:2153(a)(2)(A), (c).
47524(c)(1) 49 App.:2153(a)(2)(B), (b).
47524(c)(2) 49 App.:2153(d).
47524(c)(3) 49 App.:2153(a)(2)(D). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9304(a)(2)(D), 104 Stat. 1388–380; Oct. 31, 1992, Pub. L. 102–581, §136(a), 106 Stat. 4889.
47524(c)(4) 49 App.:2153(f), (g).
47524(d) 49 App.:2153(a)(2)(C).
47524(e) 49 App.:2153(e).

In subsection (a), the words "shall provide for establishing" are substituted for "shall require the establishment . . . of" as being more appropriate. The words "in accordance with the provisions of this section" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "proposed after October 1, 1990" are substituted for 49 App.:2153(a)(2)(A) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "not in effect on October 1, 1990" are substituted for 49 App.:2153(a)(2)(B) to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words "direct or indirect" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2)(A)–(D) and (F), the word "proposed" is omitted as surplus. In clause (D), the word "existing" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(4), the words "that justifies a reevaluation" are substituted for "and that a review and reevaluation . . . of the previously approved or agreed to noise restriction is therefore justified" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d)(6), the words "calendar year" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–95 substituted "charge" for "fee" in introductory provisions.

§47525. Decision about airport noise and access restrictions on certain stage 2 aircraft

The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a study and decide on the application of section 47524(a)–(d) of this title to airport noise and access restrictions on the operation of stage 2 aircraft with a maximum weight of not more than 75,000 pounds. In making the decision, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) noise levels produced by those aircraft relative to other aircraft;

(2) the benefits to general aviation and the need for efficiency in the national air transportation system;

(3) the differences in the nature of operations at airports and the areas immediately surrounding the airports;

(4) international standards and agreements on aircraft noise; and

(5) other factors the Secretary considers necessary.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1291.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47525 49 App.:2154. Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9305, 104 Stat. 1388–382.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "conduct a study and decide on" are substituted for "determine by a study" for clarity. The words "with a maximum weight of not more than" are substituted for "weighing less than" for consistency with sections 47528 and 47529 of the revised title.

§47526. Limitations for noncomplying airport noise and access restrictions

Unless the Secretary of Transportation is satisfied that an airport is not imposing an airport noise or access restriction not in compliance with this subchapter, the airport may not—

(1) receive money under subchapter I of chapter 471 of this title; or

(2) impose a passenger facility charge under section 40117 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1291; Pub. L. 112–95, title I, §111(c)(2)(A)(viii), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 18.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47526 49 App.:2156. Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9307, 104 Stat. 1388–382.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "Under no conditions" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "or collect" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2012—Par. (2). Pub. L. 112–95 substituted "charge" for "fee".

§47527. Liability of the United States Government for noise damages

When a proposed airport noise or access restriction is disapproved under this subchapter, the United States Government shall assume liability for noise damages only to the extent that a taking has occurred as a direct result of the disapproval. The United States Court of Federal Claims has exclusive jurisdiction of a civil action under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1291.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47527 49 App.:2155. Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9306, 104 Stat. 1388–382.

The words "under this subchapter" are added for clarity. The words "has exclusive jurisdiction of a civil action under this section" are substituted for "Action for the resolution of such a case shall be brought solely in" for clarity and consistency. The words "Court of Federal Claims" are substituted for "Claims Court" to reflect the change of name of the Court by section 902(b) of the Federal Courts Administration Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–572, 106 Stat. 4516).

§47528. Prohibition on operating certain aircraft not complying with stage 3 noise levels

(a) Prohibition.—Except as provided in subsection (b) or (f) of this section and section 47530 of this title, a person may operate after December 31, 1999, a civil subsonic turbojet (for which an airworthiness certificate other than an experimental certificate has been issued by the Administrator) with a maximum weight of more than 75,000 pounds to or from an airport in the United States only if the Secretary of Transportation finds that the aircraft complies with the stage 3 noise levels.

(b) Waivers.—(1) If, not later than July 1, 1999, at least 85 percent of the aircraft used by an air carrier or foreign air carrier to provide air transportation comply with the stage 3 noise levels, the carrier may apply for a waiver of subsection (a) of this section for the remaining aircraft used by the carrier to provide air transportation. The application must be filed with the Secretary not later than January 1, 1999, or, in the case of a foreign air carrier, the 15th day following the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century and must include a plan with firm orders for making all aircraft used by the carrier to provide air transportation comply with the noise levels not later than December 31, 2003.

(2) The Secretary may grant a waiver under this subsection if the Secretary finds it would be in the public interest. In making the finding, the Secretary shall consider the effect of granting the waiver on competition in the air carrier industry and on small community air service.

(3) A waiver granted under this subsection may not permit the operation of stage 2 aircraft in the United States after December 31, 2003.

(c) Schedule for Phased-In Compliance.—The Secretary shall establish by regulation a schedule for phased-in compliance with subsection (a) of this section. The phase-in period shall begin on November 5, 1990, and end before December 31, 1999. The regulations shall establish interim compliance dates. The schedule for phased-in compliance shall be based on—

(1) a detailed economic analysis of the impact of the phaseout date for stage 2 aircraft on competition in the airline industry, including—

(A) the ability of air carriers to achieve capacity growth consistent with the projected rate of growth for the airline industry;

(B) the impact of competition in the airline and air cargo industries;

(C) the impact on nonhub and small community air service; and

(D) the impact on new entry into the airline industry; and


(2) an analysis of the impact of aircraft noise on individuals residing near airports.


(d) Annual Report.—Beginning with calendar year 1992—

(1) each air carrier shall submit to the Secretary an annual report on the progress the carrier is making toward complying with the requirements of this section and regulations prescribed under this section; and

(2) the Secretary shall submit to Congress an annual report on the progress being made toward that compliance.


(e) Hawaiian Operations.—(1) In this subsection, "turnaround service" means a flight between places only in Hawaii.

(2)(A) An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not operate in Hawaii, or between a place in Hawaii and a place outside the 48 contiguous States, a greater number of stage 2 aircraft with a maximum weight of more than 75,000 pounds than it operated in Hawaii, or between a place in Hawaii and a place outside the 48 contiguous States, on November 5, 1990.

(B) An air carrier that provided turnaround service in Hawaii on November 5, 1990, using stage 2 aircraft with a maximum weight of more than 75,000 pounds may include in the number of aircraft authorized under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph all stage 2 aircraft with a maximum weight of more than 75,000 pounds that were owned or leased by that carrier on that date, whether or not the aircraft were operated by the carrier on that date.

(3) An air carrier may provide turnaround service in Hawaii using stage 2 aircraft with a maximum weight of more than 75,000 pounds only if the carrier provided the service on November 5, 1990.

(4) An air carrier operating stage 2 aircraft under this subsection may transport stage 2 aircraft to or from the 48 contiguous States on a nonrevenue basis in order—

(A) to perform maintenance (including major alterations) or preventative maintenance on aircraft operated, or to be operated, within the limitations of paragraph (2)(B); or

(B) conduct operations within the limitations of paragraph (2)(B).


(f) Aircraft Modification, Disposal, Scheduled Heavy Maintenance, or Leasing.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall permit a person to operate after December 31, 1999, a stage 2 aircraft in nonrevenue service through the airspace of the United States or to or from an airport in the contiguous 48 States in order to—

(A) sell, lease, or use the aircraft outside the contiguous 48 States;

(B) scrap the aircraft;

(C) obtain modifications to the aircraft to meet stage 3 noise levels;

(D) perform scheduled heavy maintenance or significant modifications on the aircraft at a maintenance facility located in the contiguous 48 States;

(E) deliver the aircraft to an operator leasing the aircraft from the owner or return the aircraft to the lessor;

(F) prepare or park or store the aircraft in anticipation of any of the activities described in subparagraphs (A) through (E); or

(G) divert the aircraft to an alternative airport in the contiguous 48 States on account of weather, mechanical, fuel, air traffic control, or other safety reasons while conducting a flight in order to perform any of the activities described in subparagraphs (A) through (F).


(2) Procedure To Be Published.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall establish and publish a procedure to implement paragraph (1) through the use of categorical waivers, ferry permits, or other means.


(g) Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed as interfering with, nullifying, or otherwise affecting determinations made by the Federal Aviation Administration, or to be made by the Administration with respect to applications under part 161 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, that were pending on November 1, 1999.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1291; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(5) [title II, §231(a), (b)(1)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-300, 1501A-301; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §721(a)–(c)(1), (d), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 164, 165.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47528(a) 49 App.:2157(a). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9308(a)–(c), (g), 104 Stat. 1388–382, 1388-383.
47528(b) 49 App.:2157(b).
47528(c) 49 App.:2157(c).
47528(d) 49 App.:2157(g).
47528(e) 49 App.:2157(i). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, 104 Stat. 1388–382, §9308(i); added Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, §349(b), 105 Stat. 949.

In subsection (e), the words "the State of" are omitted as surplus. The words "place" and "places" are substituted for "point" and "points" for consistency in title the revised title.

In subsection (e)(1), the words "the operation of" are omitted as surplus. The words "places only in Hawaii" are substituted for "two or more points, all of which are within the State of Hawaii" to eliminate unnecessary words.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–181, §721(a), repealed Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(5) [title II, §231]. See 1999 Amendment notes and Construction of 2000 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–181, §721(b)(1), (c)(1), substituted "subsection (b) or (f)" for "subsection (b)" and inserted "(for which an airworthiness certificate other than an experimental certificate has been issued by the Administrator)" after "civil subsonic turbojet".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §721(d), in first sentence, inserted "or foreign air carrier" after "air carrier", and, in last sentence, inserted "or, in the case of a foreign air carrier, the 15th day following the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century" after "January 1, 1999,".

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 106–181, §721(b)(2), added par. (4).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 106–181, §721(b)(3), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

1999Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(5) [title II, §231(a)], which directed the amendment of section 47528 by substituting "subsection (b) or (f)" for "subsection (b)" in subsec. (a), adding a par. (4) to subsec. (e), and adding subsec. (f) at the end, without specifying the Code title to be amended, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–181, §721(a). See Construction of 2000 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(5) [title II, §231(b)(1)], which inserted "(for which an airworthiness certificate other than an experimental certificate has been issued by the Administrator)" after "civil subsonic turbojet", was repealed by Pub. L. 106–181, §721(a). See Construction of 2000 Amendment note below.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §721(c)(2), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 165, provided that: "Regulations contained in title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, that implement section 47528 of title 49, United States Code, and related provisions shall be deemed to incorporate the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000]."

Construction of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §721(a), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 164, provided that: "Section 231 of H.R. 3425 of the 106th Congress, as enacted into law by section 1000(a)(5) of Public Law 106–113 [amending this section], is repealed and the provisions of law amended by such section shall be read as if such section had not been enacted into law."

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (d)(2) of this section relating to the requirement that the Secretary submit an annual report to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 7th item on page 132 of House Document No. 103–7.

§47529. Nonaddition rule

(a) General Limitations.—Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section and section 47530 of this title, a person may operate a civil subsonic turbojet aircraft with a maximum weight of more than 75,000 pounds that is imported into the United States after November 4, 1990, only if the aircraft—

(1) complies with the stage 3 noise levels; or

(2) was purchased by the person importing the aircraft into the United States under a legally binding contract made before November 5, 1990.


(b) Exemptions.—The Secretary of Transportation may provide an exemption from subsection (a) of this section to permit a person to obtain modifications to an aircraft to meet the stage 3 noise levels.

(c) Aircraft Deemed Not Imported.—In this section, an aircraft is deemed not to have been imported into the United States if the aircraft—

(1) was owned on November 5, 1990, by—

(A) a corporation, trust, or partnership organized under the laws of the United States or a State (including the District of Columbia);

(B) an individual who is a citizen of the United States; or

(C) an entity that is owned or controlled by a corporation, trust, partnership, or individual described in subclause (A) or (B) of this clause; and


(2) enters the United States not later than 6 months after the expiration of a lease agreement (including any extension) between an owner described in clause (1) of this subsection and a foreign carrier.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1292.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47529 49 App.:2158. Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9309, 104 Stat. 1388–384; Oct. 31, 1992, Pub. L. 102–581, §136(b), 106 Stat. 4889.

§47530. Nonapplication of sections 47528(a)–(d) and 47529 to aircraft outside the 48 contiguous States

Sections 47528(a)–(d) and 47529 of this title do not apply to aircraft used only to provide air transportation outside the 48 contiguous States. A civil subsonic turbojet aircraft with a maximum weight of more than 75,000 pounds that is imported into a noncontiguous State or a territory or possession of the United States after November 4, 1990, may be used to provide air transportation in the 48 contiguous States only if the aircraft complies with the stage 3 noise levels.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1293.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47530 49 App.:2157(d). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9308(d), 104 Stat. 1388–383; Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, §349(a), 105 Stat. 949.

§47531. Penalties

A person violating section 47528, 47529, 47530, or 47534 of this title or a regulation prescribed under any of those sections is subject to the same civil penalties and procedures under chapter 463 of this title as a person violating section 44701(a) or (b) or any of sections 44702–44716 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1293; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(73), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388; Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §506(b)(1), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 106.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47531 49 App.:2157(e). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9308(e), 104 Stat. 1388–383.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:47531 to correct a grammatical error and erroneous cross-references.

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–95 struck out "for violating sections 47528–47530" after "Penalties" in section catchline and substituted "47529, 47530, or 47534" for "47529, or 47530" in text.

1994Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "section 47528" for "sections 47528" and inserted "any of" before "those" and "any of sections" before "44702–44716".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§47532. Judicial review

An action taken by the Secretary of Transportation under any of sections 47528–47531 or 47534 of this title is subject to judicial review as provided under section 46110 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1293; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(74), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388; Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §506(b)(2), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 106.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47532 49 App.:2157(f). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9308(f), 104 Stat. 1388–383.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:47532 to correct an erroneous cross-reference.

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–95 inserted "or 47534" after "47528–47531".

1994Pub. L. 103–429 inserted "any of" before "sections".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§47533. Relationship to other laws

Except as provided by section 47524 of this title, this subchapter does not affect—

(1) law in effect on November 5, 1990, on airport noise or access restrictions by local authorities;

(2) any proposed airport noise or access restriction at a general aviation airport if the airport proprietor has formally initiated a regulatory or legislative process before October 2, 1990; or

(3) the authority of the Secretary of Transportation to seek and obtain legal remedies the Secretary considers appropriate, including injunctive relief.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1293.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
47533 49 App.:2153(h). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9304(h), 104 Stat. 1388–382.

§47534. Prohibition on operating certain aircraft weighing 75,000 pounds or less not complying with stage 3 noise levels

(a) Prohibition.—Except as otherwise provided by this section, after December 31, 2015, a person may not operate a civil subsonic jet airplane with a maximum weight of 75,000 pounds or less, and for which an airworthiness certificate (other than an experimental certificate) has been issued, to or from an airport in the United States unless the Secretary of Transportation finds that the aircraft complies with stage 3 noise levels.

(b) Aircraft Operations Outside 48 Contiguous States.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to aircraft operated only outside the 48 contiguous States.

(c) Temporary Operations.—The Secretary may allow temporary operation of an aircraft otherwise prohibited from operation under subsection (a) to or from an airport in the contiguous United States by granting a special flight authorization for one or more of the following circumstances:

(1) To sell, lease, or use the aircraft outside the 48 contiguous States.

(2) To scrap the aircraft.

(3) To obtain modifications to the aircraft to meet stage 3 noise levels.

(4) To perform scheduled heavy maintenance or significant modifications on the aircraft at a maintenance facility located in the contiguous 48 States.

(5) To deliver the aircraft to an operator leasing the aircraft from the owner or return the aircraft to the lessor.

(6) To prepare, park, or store the aircraft in anticipation of any of the activities described in paragraphs (1) through (5).

(7) To provide transport of persons and goods in the relief of an emergency situation.

(8) To divert the aircraft to an alternative airport in the 48 contiguous States on account of weather, mechanical, fuel, air traffic control, or other safety reasons while conducting a flight in order to perform any of the activities described in paragraphs (1) through (7).


(d) Regulations.—The Secretary may prescribe such regulations or other guidance as may be necessary for the implementation of this section.

(e) Statutory Construction.—

(1) AIP grant assurances.—Noncompliance with subsection (a) shall not be construed as a violation of section 47107 or any regulations prescribed thereunder.

(2) Pending applications.—Nothing in this section may be construed as interfering with, nullifying, or otherwise affecting determinations made by the Federal Aviation Administration, or to be made by the Administration, with respect to applications under part 161 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, that were pending on the date of enactment of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §506(a), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 105.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–95, which was approved Feb. 14, 2012.