[USC02] 7 USC CHAPTER 35, SUBCHAPTER II, Part D: Wheat Marketing Allocation
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7 USC CHAPTER 35, SUBCHAPTER II, Part D: Wheat Marketing Allocation
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 35—AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ACT OF 1938SUBCHAPTER II—LOANS, PARITY PAYMENTS, CONSUMER SAFEGUARDS, MARKETING QUOTAS, AND MARKETING CERTIFICATES

Part D—Wheat Marketing Allocation

§1379a. Legislative findings

Wheat, in addition to being a basic food, is one of the great export crops of American agriculture and its production for domestic consumption and for export is necessary to the maintenance of a sound national economy and to the general welfare. The movement of wheat from producer to consumer, in the form of the commodity or any of the products thereof, is preponderantly in interstate and foreign commerce. Unreasonably low prices of wheat to producers impair their purchasing power for nonagriculture products and place them in a position of serious disparity with other industrial groups. The conditions affecting the production of wheat are such that without Federal assistance, producers cannot effectively prevent disastrously low prices for wheat. It is necessary, in order to assist wheat producers in obtaining fair prices, to regulate the price of wheat used for domestic food and for exports in the manner provided in this part.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379a, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 626.)

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

§1379b. Wheat marketing allocation; amount; national allocation percentage; commercial and noncommercial wheat-producing areas

During any marketing year for which a marketing quota is in effect for wheat, beginning with the marketing year for the 1964 crop, a wheat marketing allocation program shall be in effect as provided in this part. Whenever a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect for any marketing year the Secretary shall determine (1) the wheat marketing allocation for such year which shall be the amount of wheat which in determining the national marketing quota for such marketing year he estimated would be used during such year for food products for consumption in the United States, and that portion of the amount of wheat which in determining such quota he estimated would be exported in the form of wheat or products thereof during the marketing year on which the Secretary determines that marketing certificates shall be issued to producers in order to achieve, insofar as practicable, the price and income objectives of this part, and (2) the national allocation percentage which shall be the percentage which the national marketing allocation is of the national marketing quota. Each farm shall receive a wheat marketing allocation for such marketing year equal to the number of bushels obtained by multiplying the number of acres in the farm acreage allotment for wheat by the projected farm yield, and multiplying the resulting number of bushels by the national allocation percentage. If a noncommercial wheat-producing area is established for any marketing year, farms in such area shall be given wheat marketing allocations which are determined by the Secretary to be fair and reasonable in relation to the wheat marketing allocation given producers in the commercial wheat-producing area.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379b, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 626; amended Pub. L. 88–297, title II, §202(10), (11), Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 179, 180; Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §§502, 503, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1202; Pub. L. 90–559, §1(1), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(a), (b)(B), (C), Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1362, as renumbered and amended Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 225.)

Amendments

1973—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(B)(i)–(vi), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily substituted "payments authorized by section 1445a(c) of this title" for "certificates on wheat", "wheat allotment" for "domestic wheat allotment", "thirteen and three-tenths million" for "13.3 million", "1971 crop; plus, if required by the Secretary, (ii) the acreage" for "1971 crop or 15 million acres in the case of the 1972 or 1973 crop, plus (ii) the acreage", "The Secretary is authorized for the 1974 through 1977 crops to limit" for "The Secretary is authorized for the 1971, 1972, and 1973 crops to limit", "such percentage of the acreage allotment" for "such percentage of the domestic wheat allotment as he determines necessary to provide an orderly transition to the program provided for under this section", "The Secretary shall permit producers to plant and graze on set-aside acreage sweet sorghum, and the Secretary may permit, subject to such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, all or any of the set-aside acreage to be devoted to hay and" for "Grazing shall not be permitted during any of the five principal months of the normal growing season as determined by the county committee established pursuant to section 590h(b) of Title 16 and subject to this limitation (1) the Secretary shall permit producers to plant and graze on the set-aside acreage sweet sorghum, and (2) the Secretary may permit, subject to such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, all or any of the set-aside acreage to be devoted to", and "flaxseed, triticale, oats, rye, or other commodity" for "flaxseed, or other commodity". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(B)(i), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily substituted "payments authorized by section 1445a(c) of this title" for "certificates authorized in subsection (b) of this section". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(B)(vii), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily inserted provisions authorizing the Secretary, in the case of programs for the 1974 through 1977 crops, to pay an appropriate share of the cost of practices designated to protect set-aside acreage against erosion, insects, weeds, and rodents and to devote such acreage to wildlife food plots or wildlife habitat. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(B)(i), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily substituted "payments authorized by section 1445a(c) of this title" for "marketing certificates". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(C), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily struck out "certificates issued and of" before "payments made". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(C), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily struck out references to the issuance of certificates. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(C), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily reenacted subsec. (g) without change. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(C), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily reenacted subsec. (i) without change. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

1970Pub. L. 91–524, §402(a), formerly §402, temporarily substituted provisions covering the issuance of domestic certificates to producers and a voluntary set-aside program for wheat for provisions for a wheat marketing allocation program for the 1964 to 1970 crops. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment note below.

1968Pub. L. 90–559 temporarily provided for a one year extension through 1970.

1965Pub. L. 89–321, §502, temporarily amended section generally and, among other changes, extended the wheat marketing allocation program from 1964 and 1965 to 1966 through 1969, put a minimum limitation of five hundred million bushels on the amount of wheat included in the marketing allocation for food products for consumption in the United States, and required the cost of any domestic marketing certificates issued to producers in excess of the number of certificates acquired by processors as a result of the application of the five hundred million bushel minimum or an overestimate of the amount of wheat used during such year for food products for consumption in the United States to be borne by the Commodity Credit Corporation. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1965 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 89–321, §503, substituted "projected farm yield" for "normal wheat for the farm as projected by the Secretary".

1964Pub. L. 88–297, §202(10), temporarily struck out introductory phrase "During any marketing year for which a marketing quota is in effect for wheat", reduced the national allocation percentage by the expected production on the acreage allotments for farms which will not be in compliance with the requirements of the program, and struck out provisions for wheat marketing allocations to non-commercial wheat-producing areas reasonably related to such allocations to producers in commercial wheat-producing areas. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1964 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 88–297, §202(11), substituted "food products for consumption in the United States" for "human consumption in the United States, as food, food products, and beverages, composed wholly or partly of wheat" in second sentence.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(b)(B), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 226, provided that subsec. (c) of this section, as amended by section 402(a), (b)(B) of Pub. L. 91–524, is effective with respect to the 1974 through 1977 crops of wheat.

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(b)(C), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 226, provided that subsecs. (d), (e), (g), and (i) of this section, as amended by section 402(a), (b)(C) of Pub. L. 91–524, is effective for the 1974 through 1977 crops.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(a), formerly §402, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1362, as renumbered by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 225, provided that the amendment made by section 402(a) of Pub. L. 91–524 is effective only with respect to the 1971, 1972, and 1973 crops of wheat.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §502, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1202, as amended by Pub. L. 90–559, §1(1), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996, provided that the amendment made by section 502 of Pub. L. 89–321 is effective only with respect to the crops of wheat planted for harvest in calendar years 1966 through 1970, and marketing years for such crops.

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §503, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1202, provided that the amendment made by section 503 of Pub. L. 89–321 is effective beginning with the 1970 crop.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–297, title II, §202(10), Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 179, provided that the amendment made by section 202(10) of Pub. L. 88–297 is effective only with respect to crops planted for harvest in 1964 and 1965.

Pub. L. 88–297, title II, §202(11), Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 180, provided that the amendment made by section 202(11) of Pub. L. 88–297 is effective with respect to the crops planted for harvest in calendar year 1966 and any subsequent year.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1991 through 1995 crops of wheat, see section 303 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1986 through 1990 crops of wheat, see section 310(b) of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1982 through 1985 crops of wheat, see section 303 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1978 through 1981 crops of wheat, see section 404 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(b)(A), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 226, provided that: "Section 379b of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 [7 U.S.C. 1379b] (which provides for a wheat marketing certificate program) shall not be applicable to the 1974 through 1977 crops of wheat, except as provided in paragraphs (B) and (C) of this subsection [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section]."

§1379c. Marketing certificates

(a) Issuance; amount; reduction; sharing among producers; domestic and export certificates

The Secretary shall provide for the issuance of wheat marketing certificates for each marketing year for which a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect for the purpose of enabling producers on any farm with respect to which certificates are issued to receive, in addition to the other proceeds from the sale of wheat, an amount equal to the value of such certificates. The wheat marketing certificates issued with respect to any farm for any marketing year shall be in the amount of the farm wheat marketing allocation for such year, but not to exceed (i) the actual acreage of wheat planted on the farm for harvest in the calendar year in which the marketing year begins multiplied by the normal yield of wheat for the farm, plus (ii) the amount of wheat stored under subsection (b) or to avoid or postpone a marketing quota penalty, which is released from storage during the marketing year on account of underplanting or underproduction, and if this limitation operates to reduce the amount of wheat marketing certificates which would otherwise be issued with respect to the farm, such reduction shall be made first from the amount of export certificates which would otherwise be issued. The Secretary shall provide for the sharing of wheat marketing certificates among producers on the farm on the basis of their respective shares in the wheat crop produced on the farm, or the proceeds therefrom; except that in any case in which the Secretary determines that such basis would not be fair and equitable, the Secretary shall provide for such sharing on such other basis as he may determine to be fair and equitable. The Secretary shall, in accordance with such regulation as he may prescribe, provide for the issuance of domestic marketing certificates for the portion of the wheat marketing allocation representing wheat used for food products for consumption in the United States. The Secretary shall also provide for the issuance of export marketing certificates to eligible producers at the end of the marketing year on a pro rata basis. For such purposes, the value per bushel of export marketing certificates shall be an average of the total net proceeds from the sale of export marketing certificates during the marketing year after deducting the total amount of wheat export subsidies paid to exporters. An acreage on the farm which the Secretary finds was not planted to wheat for harvest in 1965 because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster shall be deemed by the Secretary to be an actual acreage of wheat planted for harvest for purposes of this subsection, provided such acreage is not subsequently planted to any other price supported crop for 1965. An acreage on the farm not planted to wheat because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster shall be deemed to be an actual acreage of wheat planted for harvest for purposes of this subsection provided such acreage is not subsequently planted to any crop for which there are marketing quotas or voluntary adjustment programs in effect. Producers on any farm who have planted not less than 90 per centum of the acreage of wheat required to be planted in order to earn the full amount of marketing certificates for which the farm is eligible shall be deemed to have planted the entire acreage required to be planted for that purpose.

(b) Producers eligible for certificates; storage conditions

No producer shall be eligible to receive wheat marketing certificates with respect to any farm for any marketing year in which a marketing quota penalty is assessed for any commodity on such farm or in which the farm has not complied with the land-use requirements of section 1339 of this title to the extent prescribed by the Secretary, or in which, except as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe, the producer exceeds the farm acreage allotment on any other farm for any commodity in which he has an interest as a producer. No producer shall be deemed to have exceeded a farm acreage allotment for wheat if the entire amount of the farm marketing excess is delivered to the Secretary or stored in accordance with applicable regulations to avoid or postpone payment of the penalty. No producer shall be deemed to have exceeded the farm acreage allotment for wheat on any other farm if such farm is exempt from the farm marketing quota for such crop under section 1335 of this title. Any wheat delivered to the Secretary hereunder shall become the property of the United States and shall be disposed of by the Secretary for relief purposes in the United States or in foreign countries or in such other manner as he shall determine will divert it from the normal channels of trade and commerce. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary may provide that a producer shall not be eligible to receive marketing certificates, or may adjust the amount of marketing certificates to be received by the producer, with respect to any farm for any year in which a variety of wheat is planted on the farm which has been determined by the Secretary, after consultation with State Agricultural Experiment Stations, agronomists, cereal chemists and other qualified technicians, to have undesirable milling or baking qualities and has made public announcement thereof.

(c) Face value

The Secretary shall determine and proclaim for each marketing year the face value per bushel of wheat marketing certificates. The face value per bushel of domestic certificates shall be the amount by which the level of price support for wheat accompanied by domestic certificates exceeds the level of price support for wheat not accompanied by certificates (noncertificate wheat).

(d) Statement or form of certificates and transfers

Marketing certificates and transfers thereof shall be represented by such documents, marketing cards, records, accounts, certifications, or other statements or forms as the Secretary may prescribe.

(e) Failure of producer to comply with programs; issuance of certificates

In any case in which the failure of a producer to comply fully with the term and conditions of the programs formulated under this chapter preclude the issuance of marketing certificates, the Secretary may, nevertheless, issue such certificates in such amounts as he determines to be equitable in relation to the seriousness of the default.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379c, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 627; amended Pub. L. 88–297, title II, §202(12)–(14), Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 180, 181; Pub. L. 89–112, §3, Aug. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 447; Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §§508, 510(a), 513(b), (c), 515, 517, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1204–1206; Pub. L. 89–451, §3, June 17, 1966, 80 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(a), (b)(D), Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1364, as renumbered and amended Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 225.)

Amendments

1973—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily substituted references to a farm acreage allotment for references to the farm domestic allotment wherever appearing, struck out provisions limiting the impact of the section to the 1972 and 1973 crops of wheat, substituted "estimated national average yield for the crop for which the determination is being made will produce the quantity (less imports) that he estimates will be utilized domestically and for export during the marketing year for such crop. If the Secretary determines that carryover stocks are excessive or an increase in stocks is needed to assure a desirable carryover, he may adjust the allotment by the amount he determines will accomplish the desired decrease or increase in carryover stocks" for "estimated national yield will result in marketing certificates being issued to producers participating in the program in an amount equal to the amount of wheat which he estimates will be used for food products for consumption in the United States during the marketing year for the crop (not less than 535 million bushels)" in the provisions covering the determination of the estimated national yield, and inserted "(1973 national domestic allotment in the case of apportionment of the 1974 national acreage allotment)" before "adjusted to the extent deemed necessary". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily struck out "domestic" before "acreage allotment" and "wheat allotment". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily struck out "domestic" before "allotment" and "wheat allotment" wherever appearing and struck out provisions establishing special requirements to be met in determining the allotment for the 1971 crop of wheat. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily struck out "domestic" before "allotment" wherever appearing. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily reenacted par. (6) without change. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily struck out "domestic" before "allotment" wherever appearing and inserted ", guar, castor beans, cotton, triticale, oats, rye, or such other crops as the Secretary may deem appropriate" after "feed grains for which there is a set-aside program in effect". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–524, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, temporarily struck out "domestic" before "allotment" wherever appearing and substituted "payments" for "certificates" and "section 1445a(c) of this title" for "this chapter". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment note below.

1970Pub. L. 91–524, §402(a), formerly §402, temporarily substituted provisions for the apportionment of the farm domestic allotment for each crop of wheat among the States for provisions covering the marketing certificates program. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment note below.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–451 substituted "any crop for which there are marketing quotas or voluntary adjustment programs in effect" for "any other income-producing crops during such year" in penultimate sentence.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–321, §§508, 513(b), authorized the Secretary to provide for the sharing of wheat marketing certificates among producers on a fair and equitable basis even though such basis might be other than the basis of their respective shares in the wheat crop produced on the farm, provided that acreage not planted to wheat because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster be deemed, with certain conditions, be planted for harvest for purposes of this subsection, and expanded the reference to the issuance of export marketing certificates by requiring their issuance on a pro rata basis and providing for the determination of such certificate's value per bushel.

Pub. L. 89–112 provided that the Secretary shall deem acreage on the farm which the Secretary finds was not planted to wheat for harvest in 1965 because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster, to be an actual acreage of wheat planted for harvest when that acreage was not subsequently planted to any other price supported crop for 1965.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–321, §§510(a), 517 substituted "projected farm yield" for "normal yield of wheat per acre established for the farm", permitted delivery to the Secretary of the wheat produced on excess acreage as an additional means of disposing of excess wheat so as to allow a producer to be deemed not to have exceeded the farm acreage allotment for wheat for purposes of this section, and provided for the disposition of wheat delivered to the Secretary and the adjustment of certificates to a producer who has produced an undesirable variety of wheat following public announcement by the Secretary of its undesirable characteristics.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–321, §513(c), struck out provisions that the face value per bushel of export certificates shall be the amount by which the level of price support for wheat accompanied by export certificates exceeds the level of price support for noncertificate wheat.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–321, §515, added subsec. (e).

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–297, §202(12), inserted "under subsection (b) of this section or" after "stored" in second sentence, added to such sentence provision for reduction of wheat marketing certificates from amount of export certificates, and inserted provision for issuance of domestic marketing certificates for wheat used for domestic consumption and export marketing certificates for wheat used for export.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–297, §202(13), temporarily authorized producers who exceeded their wheat allotments to store their excess wheat in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary and be eligible for wheat marketing certificates, prohibited wheat stored under this provision from being removed from storage until a subsequent year when acreage allotment was underplanted or the production on the acreage allotment was less than normal, required the producer (for removal of the wheat contrary to these conditions) to pay an amount one and one-half times the value of the wheat marketing certificates issued with respect to the farm for the year in which the wheat on the acreage in excess of the allotment was produced, and made producers who exceeded their allotment and stored their excess wheat ineligible for diversion payments. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1964 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–297, §202(14), struck out introductory phrase "Whenever a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect for any marketing year" from first sentence, substituted in such sentence "each marketing year" for "such marketing year", inserted in such sentence "wheat" before "marketing certificates", substituted in second sentence "domestic certificates shall be the amount" for "marketing certificates shall be equal to the amount" and "domestic certificates" for "certificates" before "exceeds", and inserted to such sentence provision for face value per bushel of export certificates.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1973 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(b)(D), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 227, provided that the amendment made by section 402(b)(D) of Pub. L. 91–524 is effective only with respect to the 1974 through 1977 crops of wheat.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §402(a), formerly §402, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1362, as renumbered by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(9), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 225, provided that the amendment made by section 402(a) of Pub. L. 91–524 is effective only with respect to the 1971, 1972, and 1973 crops of wheat.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §508, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1204, provided that the amendment made by section 508 of Pub. L. 89–321 is effective beginning with the crop planted for harvest in calendar year 1966.

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §510(a), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1205, provided that the amendment made by section 510(a) of Pub. L. 89–321 is effective beginning with the 1966 crop.

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §515, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1206, provided that the amendment made by section 515 of Pub. L. 89–321 is effective beginning with the crop planted for harvest in calendar year 1964.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–297, title II, §202(13), Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 180, as amended by Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §505(2), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1203; Pub. L. 90–559, §1(1), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996, provided that the amendment made by section 202(13) of Pub. L. 88–297 is effective with respect to crops planted for harvest in calendar years 1965 through 1970.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1991 through 1995 crops of wheat, see section 303 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1986 through 1990 crops of wheat, see section 310(b) of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1982 through 1985 crops of wheat, see section 303 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1978 through 1981 crops of wheat, see section 404 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

Reduction of Wheat Stored by Producers Prior to 1971 Crop

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §407, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1367, as amended by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(14), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 229, provided that: "The amount of any wheat stored by a producer under section 379c(b) of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1379c(b)], prior to the 1971 crop of wheat may be reduced by the amount by which the actual total production of the 1971, 1972, or 1973 crop on the farm is less than the number of bushels determined by multiplying three times the domestic allotment for such crop on the farm by the yield established for the farm for the purpose of issuance of domestic marketing certificates. The provisions of such section shall continue to apply to the wheat so stored to the extent not inconsistent therewith. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Secretary may authorize release of wheat stored by a producer under section 379c(b) of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended, prior to the 1971 crop, whenever he determines such release will not significantly affect market prices for wheat. As a condition of release, the Secretary may require a refund of such portion of the value of certificates received in the crop year the excess wheat was produced as he deems appropriate considering the period of time the excess wheat has been in storage and the need to provide fair and equitable treatment among all wheat program participants."

§1379d. Marketing restrictions

(a) Transfers of certificates; purchases by Commodity Credit Corporation

Marketing certificates shall be transferable only in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Any unused certificates legally held by any person shall be purchased by Commodity Credit Corporation if tendered to the Corporation for purchase in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(b) Processor and exporter acquisition of domestic and export certificates; international trade, expansion; refunds or credits for certificates; exemptions from requirements

During any marketing year for which a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect, (i) all persons engaged in the processing of wheat into food products shall, prior to marketing any such food product or removing such food product for sale or consumption, acquire domestic marketing certificates equivalent to the number of bushels of wheat contained in such product and (ii) all persons exporting wheat shall, prior to such export, acquire export marketing certificates equivalent to the number of bushels so exported. The cost of the export marketing certificates per bushel to the exporter shall be that amount determined by the Secretary on a daily basis which would make United States wheat and wheat flour generally competitive in the world market, avoid disruption of world market prices, and fulfill the international obligations of the United States. The Secretary may exempt from the requirements of this subsection wheat exported for donation abroad and other noncommercial exports of wheat, wheat processed for use on the farm where grown, wheat produced by a State or agency thereof and processed for use by the State or agency thereof, wheat processed for donation, and wheat processed for uses determined by the Secretary to be noncommercial. Such exemptions may be made applicable with respect to any wheat processed or exported beginning July 1, 1964. There shall be exempt from the requirements of this subsection beverage distilled from wheat prior to July 1, 1964. A beverage distilled from wheat after July 1, 1964, shall be deemed to be removed for sale or consumption at the time it is placed in barrels for aging except that upon the giving of a bond as prescribed by the Secretary, the purchase of and payment for such marketing certificates as may be required may be deferred until such beverage is bottled for sale. Wheat shipped to a Canadian port for storage in bond, or storage under a similar arrangement, and subsequent exportation, shall be deemed to have been exported for purposes of this subsection when it is exported from the Canadian port. Marketing certificates shall be valid to cover only sales or removals for sale or consumption or exportations made during the marketing year with respect to which they are issued, and after being once used to cover a sale or removal for sale or consumption or export of a food product or an export of wheat shall be void and shall be disposed of in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions hereof, the Secretary may require marketing certificates issued for any marketing year to be acquired to cover sales, removals, or exportations made on or after the date during the calendar year in which wheat harvested in such calendar year begins to be marketed as determined by the Secretary even though such wheat is marketed prior to the beginning of the marketing year, and marketing certificates for such marketing year shall be valid to cover sales, removals, or exportations made on or after the date so determined by the Secretary. Whenever the face value per bushel of domestic marketing certificates for a marketing year is different from the face value of domestic marketing certificates for the preceding marketing year, the Secretary may require marketing certificates issued for the preceding marketing year to be acquired to cover all wheat processed into food products during such preceding marketing year even though the food product may be marketed or removed for sale or consumption after the end of the marketing year.

(c) Undertaking to secure marketing of commodity without certificate

Upon the giving of a bond or other undertaking satisfactory to the Secretary to secure the purchase of and payment for such marketing certificates as may be required, and subject to such regulations as he may prescribe, any person required to have marketing certificates in order to market or export a commodity may be permitted to market any such commodity without having first acquired marketing certificates.

(d) "Food products" defined; exemption of flour second clears

As used in this part, the term "food products" means flour (excluding flour second clears not used for human consumption as determined by the Secretary), semolina, farina, bulgur, beverage, and any other product composed wholly or partly of wheat which the Secretary may determine to be a food product. The Secretary may at his election administer the exemption for wheat processed into flour second clears through refunds either to processors of such wheat or to the users of such clears. For the purpose of such refunds, the wheat equivalent of flour second clears may be determined on the basis of conversion factors authorized by section 1379f of this title, even though certificates had been surrendered on the basis of the weight of the wheat.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379d, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 628; amended Pub. L. 88–297, title II, §202(15)–(17), Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 181, 182; Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §§504(a)–(c), 513(a), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1202, 1203, 1205; Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §403(a)(1), (2), formerly §403(1), (2), Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1366, as renumbered Pub. L. 93–86, §1(10), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 228.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (d), commences with section 1379a of this title.

Amendments

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–524, temporarily struck out provision limiting the section to only those marketing years for which a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect and inserted provisions authorizing the Secretary to temporarily suspend the requirement for export marketing certificates for the period beginning July 1, 1971, and ending June 30, 1974. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment note below.

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–321, §§504(a), (c), 513(a), among other changes, amended second sentence, and also authorized the Secretary to exempt from the requirements of this subsection wheat produced by a State or agency thereof and processed for use by the State or agency thereof, wheat processed for donations, and wheat processed for uses determined by the Secretary to be noncommercial, permitted exemptions to be made applicable with respect to any wheat processed or exported beginning July 1, 1964, exempted from requirements of this subsection beverage distilled from wheat prior to July 1, 1964, required beverage distilled from wheat after July 1, 1964, to be deemed as being removed for sale or consumption at the time it is placed in barrels for aging, permitted upon the giving of a bond as prescribed by the Secretary, the purchase of and payment for such marketing certificates as may be required to be deferred until such beverage is bottled for sale, required wheat shipped to a Canadian port for storage in bond, or storage under a similar arrangement, and subsequent exportation, to be deemed as having been exported for purposes of this subsection when it is exported from the Canadian port, and, whenever the face value per bushel of domestic marketing certificates for a marketing year is different from the face value of domestic marketing certificates for the preceding marketing year, empowered the Secretary to require marketing certificates issued for the preceding marketing year to be acquired to cover all wheat processed into food products during such preceding marketing year even though the food product may be marketed or removed for sale or consumption after the end of the marketing year.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–321, §504(b), excluded four second clears not used for human consumption from term "food products", authorized the Secretary at his election to administer the exemption for wheat processed into flour second clears through refunds either to processors of such wheat or to the users of such clears, and permitted, for the purpose of such refunds, the wheat equivalent of flour second clears to be determined on the basis of conversion factors authorized by section 1379f of this title, even though certificates had been surrendered on the basis of the weight of the wheat.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–297, §202(15), struck out provisions prohibiting persons from acquiring marketing certificates from the producer to whom such certificates were issued, unless such certificates were acquired in connection with acquisition from such producer of a number of bushels of wheat equivalent to the marketing certificates and authorizing the CCC to purchase from producers certificates not accompanied by wheat in cases where the Secretary determined that it would constitute an undue hardship to require the producer to transfer his certificates only in connection with the disposition of wheat and substituted "by any person" for "by persons other than the producer to whom such certificates are issued".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–297, §202(16), in cl. (i) substituted "marketing any such food product or removing such food product for sale or consumption" for "marketing any such product for human food in the United States" and inserted "domestic" before "marketing certificates"; in cl. (ii) struck out "or food products" after "wheat" and inserted "export" before "marketing certificates"; inserted references to removals for sale or consumption in two other places and to removals in two places to make it clear that certificates were required on all wheat processed into food products whether sold, removed for sale, or removed for consumption; required the CCC to refund to the exporter such part of the cost of the certificate as the Secretary determined would make United States wheat and wheat flour generally competitive in the world market, avoid disruption of world market prices, and fulfill the international obligations of the United States; and authorized the Secretary to exempt from the requirement to have marketing certificates, wheat which was donated abroad and wheat processed for use on the farm where grown.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–297, §202(17), redefined "food products" to mean flour, semolina, farina, bulgur, beverage, and any other product composed wholly or partly of wheat which the Secretary may determine to be a food product instead of any product composed wholly or partly of wheat to be used for human consumption, including beverage.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §403(a), formerly §403, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1366, as renumbered by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(10), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 228, provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 91–524 is effective only with respect to the marketing years beginning July 1, 1971, July 1, 1972, and July 1, 1973.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §504(a), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1202, provided that the amendment made by section 504(a) of Pub. L. 89–321 is effective upon the enactment of Pub. L. 89–321 (Nov. 3, 1965).

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §504(b), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1202, provided in part that: "This subsection [amending this section] shall be effective as to products sold, or removed for sale or consumption on or after sixty days following enactment of this Act [Nov. 3, 1965], unless the Secretary shall by regulation designate an earlier effective date within such sixty-day period."

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Pub. L. 101–624, title III, §302, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3400, provided that: "Sections 379d through 379j of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (7 U.S.C. 1379d–1379j) (relating to marketing certificate requirements for processors and exporters) shall not be applicable to wheat processors or exporters during the period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1996."

Pub. L. 99–198, title III, §309, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1394, provided that: "Sections 379d, 379e, 379f, 379g, 379h, 379i, and 379j of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (7 U.S.C. 1379d–1379j) (relating to marketing certificate requirements for processors and exporters) shall not be applicable to wheat processors or exporters during the period June 1, 1986, through May 31, 1991."

Pub. L. 97–98, title III, §302, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1227, provided that: "Sections 379d, 379e, 379f, 379g, 379h, 379i, and 379j of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 [sections 1379d, 1379e, 1379f, 1379g, 1379h, 1379i, and 1379j of this title] (which deal with marketing certificate requirements for processors and exporters) shall not be applicable to wheat processors or exporters during the period June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1986."

Pub. L. 95–113, title IV, §403, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 926, provided that: "Sections 379d, 379e, 379f, 379g, 379h, 379i, and 379j of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 [sections 1379d, 1379e, 1379f, 1379g, 1379h, 1379i, and 1379j of this title] (which deal with marketing certificate requirements for processors and exporters) shall not be applicable to wheat processors or exporters during the period July 1, 1973, through May 31, 1982."

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §403(b), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(10), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 228, provided in part that: "Sections 379d, 379e, 379f, 379g, 379h, 379i, and 379j of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 [sections 1379d, 1379e, 1379f, 1379g, 1379h, 1379i and 1379j of this title] (which deal with marketing certificate requirements for processors and exporters) shall not be applicable to wheat processed or exported during the period July 1, 1973 through June 30, 1978".

§1379e. Assistance in purchase and sale of marketing certificates; regulations; administrative expenses; interest

For the purpose of facilitating the purchase and sale of marketing certificates, the Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to issue, buy, and sell marketing certificates in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Such regulations may authorize the Corporation to issue and sell certificates in excess of the quantity of certificates which it purchases. Such regulations may authorize the Corporation in the sale of marketing certificates to charge, in addition to the face value thereof, an amount determined by the Secretary to be appropriate to cover estimated administrative costs in connection with the purchase and sale of the certificates and estimated interest incurred on funds of the Corporation invested in certificates purchased by it.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379e, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 628; amended Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §516, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1206; Pub. L. 90–559, §1(6), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §403(a)(3), Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1366.)

Codification

The sentence added by Pub. L. 89–321, as amended by Pub. L. 90–559, which directed the Commodity Credit Corporation to sell marketing certificates for the marketing years for the 1966 through 1970 wheat crops to persons processing food products at the face value thereof less any amount by which price support for wheat accompanied by domestic certificates exceeded $2 per bushel, was omitted as executed.

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–524, temporarily directed the Commodity Credit Corporation to sell marketing certificates for the marketing years for the 1971, 1972, and 1973 crops of wheat to persons engaged in the processing of food products but directed that, in determining the cost to processors of food products, the face value be 75 cents per bushel. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment note below.

1968Pub. L. 90–559 provided for a one year extension of period for sale of marketing certificates, substituting "1966 through the 1970" for "1966 through the 1969" wheat crops.

1965Pub. L. 89–321 required the Commodity Credit Corporation to sell marketing certificates for the marketing years for the 1966 through the 1969 wheat crops to persons engaged in the processing of food products at the face value thereof less any amount by which price support for wheat accompanied by domestic certificates exceeds $2 per bushel.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment

Section 403(a) of Pub. L. 91–524 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective only with respect to marketing years beginning July 1, 1971, July 1, 1972, and July 1, 1973.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1996, see section 302 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1986, through May 31, 1991, see section 309 of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1986, see section 302 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period July 1, 1973, through May 31, 1982, see section 403 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processed or exported during period July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1978, see section 403(b) of Pub. L. 91–524, as added by section 1(10) of Pub. L. 93–86, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

§1379f. Conversion factors

The Secretary shall establish conversion factors which shall be used to determine the amount of wheat contained in any food product. The conversion factor for any such food product shall be determined upon the basis of the weight of wheat used in the manufacture of such product.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379f, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 629.)

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1996, see section 302 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1986, through May 31, 1991, see section 309 of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1986, see section 302 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period July 1, 1973, through May 31, 1982, see section 403 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processed or exported during period July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1978, see section 403(b) of Pub. L. 91–524, as added by section 1(10) of Pub. L. 93–86, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

§1379g. Authority to facilitate transition

(a) The Secretary is authorized to take such action as he determines to be necessary to facilitate the transition from the program currently in effect to the program provided for in this part. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, such authority shall include, but shall not be limited to, the authority to exempt all or a portion of the wheat or food products made therefrom in the channels of trade on the effective date of the program under this part from the marketing restrictions in subsection (b) of section 1379d of this title, or to sell certificates to persons owning such wheat or food products at such prices as the Secretary may determine. Any such certificate shall be issued by Commodity Credit Corporation.

(b) Whenever the face value per bushel of domestic marketing certificates for a marketing year is substantially different from the face value of domestic marketing certificates for the preceding marketing year, the Secretary is authorized to take such action as he determines necessary to facilitate the transition between marketing years. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, such authority shall include, but shall not be limited to, the authority to sell certificates to persons engaged in the processing of wheat into food products covering such quantities of wheat, at such prices, and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may by regulation provide. Any such certificate shall be issued by Commodity Credit Corporation.

(c) The Secretary is authorized to take such action as he determines to be necessary to facilitate the transition from the certificate program provided for under section 1379d of this title to a program under which no certificates are required. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such authority shall include, but shall not be limited to the authority to exempt all or a portion of wheat or food products made therefrom in the channels of trade on July 1, 1973, from the marketing restrictions in subsection (b) of section 1379d of this title, or to sell certificates to persons owning such wheat or food products made therefrom at such price and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may determine. Any such certificate shall be issued by the Commodity Credit Corporation. Nothing herein shall authorize the Secretary to require certificates on wheat processed after June 30, 1973.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379g, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 629; amended Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §504(d), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1203; Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §403(b), Nov. 30, 1970, as added Pub. L. 93–86, §1(10), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 228.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), commences with section 1379a of this title.

Amendments

1973—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–524, §403(b), as added by Pub. L. 93–86, added subsec. (c).

1965Pub. L. 89–321 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1996, see section 302 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1986, through May 31, 1991, see section 309 of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1986, see section 302 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period July 1, 1973, through May 31, 1982, see section 403 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processed or exported during period July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1978, see section 403(b) of Pub. L. 91–524, as added by section 1(10) of Pub. L. 93–86, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

§1379h. Applicability of provisions to designated persons; reports and records; examinations by the Secretary

This section shall apply to processors of wheat, warehousemen and exporters of wheat and food products, and all persons purchasing, selling, or otherwise dealing in wheat marketing certificates. Any such person shall, from time to time on request of the Secretary, report to the Secretary such information and keep such records as the Secretary finds to be necessary to enable him to carry out the provisions of this part. Such information shall be reported and such records shall be kept in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe. For the purpose of ascertaining the correctness of any report made or record kept, or of obtaining information required to be furnished in any report, but not so furnished, the Secretary is authorized to examine such books, papers, records, accounts, correspondence, contracts, documents, and memorandums as he has reason to believe are relevant and are within the control of such person.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379h, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 629.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, commences with section 1379a of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1996, see section 302 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1986, through May 31, 1991, see section 309 of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1986, see section 302 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period July 1, 1973, through May 31, 1982, see section 403 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processed or exported during period July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1978, see section 403(b) of Pub. L. 91–524, as added by section 1(10) of Pub. L. 93–86, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

§1379i. Penalties

(a) Forfeitures; amount; civil action

Any person who knowingly violates or attempts to violate or who knowingly participates or aids in the violation of any of the provisions of subsection (b) of section 1379d of this title shall forfeit to the United States a sum equal to two times the face value of the marketing certificates involved in such violation. Such forfeiture shall be recoverable in a civil action brought in the name of the United States.

(b) Misdemeanors; punishment

Any person, except a producer in his capacity as a producer, who knowingly violates or attempts to violate or who knowingly participates or aids in the violation of any provision of this part, or of any regulation, governing the acquisition, disposition, or handling of marketing certificates or who knowingly fails to make any report or keep any record as required by section 1379h of this title shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not more than $5,000 for each violation.

(c) Forfeiture of right to receive certificates; payment of face value

Any person who, in his capacity as a producer, knowingly violates or attempts to violate or participates or aids in the violation of any provision of this part, or of any regulation, governing the acquisition, disposition, or handling of marketing certificates or fails to make any report or keep any record as required by section 1379h of this title shall, (i) forfeit any right to receive marketing certificates, in whole or in part as the Secretary may determine, with respect to the farm or farms and for the marketing year with respect to which any such act or default is committed, or (ii), if such marketing certificates have already been issued, pay to the Secretary, upon demand, the amount of the face value of such certificates, or such part thereof as the Secretary may determine. Such determination by the Secretary with respect to the amount of such marketing certificates to be forfeited or the amount to be paid by such producer shall take into consideration the circumstances relating to the act or default committed and the seriousness of such act or default.

(d) Felonies; punishment

Any person who falsely makes, issues, alters, forges, or counterfeits any marketing certificate, or with fraudulent intent possesses, transfers, or uses any such falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited marketing certificate, shall be deemed guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment of not more than ten years, or both.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379i, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 629; amended Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §510(b), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1205.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), commences with section 1379a of this title.

Amendments

1965—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 89–321 inserted "knowingly" after "who" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §510(b), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1205, provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 89–321 is effective as of the effective date of the original enactment of this section.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1996, see section 302 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1986, through May 31, 1991, see section 309 of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1986, see section 302 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period July 1, 1973, through May 31, 1982, see section 403 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processed or exported during period July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1978, see section 403(b) of Pub. L. 91–524, as added by section 1(10) of Pub. L. 93–86, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

§1379j. Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this part including but not limited to regulations governing the acquisition, disposition, or handling of marketing certificates.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, §379j, as added Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §324(2), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 630.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, commences with section 1379a of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(a)(3) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2001 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(a)(1)(H) of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1996, see section 302 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1986, through May 31, 1991, see section 309 of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1986, see section 302 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processors or exporters during period July 1, 1973, through May 31, 1982, see section 403 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.

Section inapplicable to wheat processed or exported during period July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1978, see section 403(b) of Pub. L. 91–524, as added by section 1(10) of Pub. L. 93–86, set out as a note under section 1379d of this title.