10 USC Subtitle A, PART V, Subpart D: General Contracting Requirements
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

10 USC Subtitle A, PART V, Subpart D: General Contracting Requirements
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART V—ACQUISITION

Subpart D—General Contracting Requirements

CHAPTER 271—TRUTHFUL COST OR PRICING DATA (TRUTH IN NEGOTIATIONS)

Sec.
3701.
Definitions.
3702.
Required cost or pricing data and certification.
3703.
Exceptions.
3704.
Cost or pricing data on below-threshold contracts.
3705.
Submission of other information.
3706.
Price reductions for defective cost or pricing data.
3707.
Interest and penalties for certain overpayments.
3708.
Right to examine contractor records.

        

§3701. Definitions

(a) 1 Definitions.—In this chapter:

(1) Cost or pricing data.—The term "cost or pricing data" means all facts that, as of the date of agreement on the price of a contract (or the price of a contract modification), or, if applicable consistent with section 3706(a)(2) of this title, another date agreed upon between the parties, a prudent buyer or seller would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Such term does not include information that is judgmental, but does include the factual information from which a judgment was derived.

(2) Subcontract.—The term "subcontract" includes a transfer of commercial products or commercial services between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or a subcontractor.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 So in original. There is no subsec. (b).

§3702. Required cost or pricing data and certification

(a) When Required.—The head of an agency shall require offerors, contractors, and subcontractors to make cost or pricing data available as follows:

(1) Offeror for prime contract.—An offeror for a prime contract under a chapter 137 legacy provision to be entered into using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures that is only expected to receive one bid shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of a contract if—

(A) in the case of a prime contract entered into after June 30, 2018, the price of the contract to the United States is expected to exceed $2,000,000; and

(B) in the case of a prime contract entered into on or before June 30, 2018, the price of the contract to the United States is expected to exceed $750,000.


(2) 1 Contractor.—The contractor for a prime contract under a chapter 137 legacy provision shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the contract if the price adjustment is expected to exceed $2,000,000.


(3) 1 Offeror for subcontract.—An offeror for a subcontract (at any tier) of a contract under this chapter shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of the subcontract if the prime contractor and each higher-tier subcontractor have been required to make available cost or pricing data under this section and the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed $2,000,000.


(4) 1 Subcontractor.—The subcontractor for a subcontract covered by paragraph (3) shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the subcontract if the price adjustment is expected to exceed $2,000,000.


(b) Certfication 2.—A person required, as an offeror, contractor, or subcontractor, to submit cost or pricing data under subsection (a) (or required by the head of the agency concerned to submit such data under section 3704 of this title) shall be required to certify that, to the best of the person's knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data submitted are accurate, complete, and current.

(c) To Whom Submitted.—Cost or pricing data required to be submitted under subsection (a) (or under section 3704 of this title), and a certification required to be submitted under subsection (b), shall be submitted—

(1) in the case of a submission by a prime contractor (or an offeror for a prime contract), to the contracting officer for the contract (or to a designated representative of the contracting officer); or

(2) in the case of a submission by a subcontractor (or an offeror for a subcontract), to the prime contractor.


(d) Applicability of Chapter.—Except as provided under section 3703 of this title, this section applies to contracts entered into by the head of an agency on behalf of a foreign government.

(e) Subcontracts Not Affected by Waiver.—A waiver of requirements for submission of certified cost or pricing data that is granted under section 3703(a)(3) of this title in the case of a contract or subcontract does not waive the requirement under subsection (a)(3) for submission of cost or pricing data in the case of subcontracts under that contract or subcontract unless the head of the procuring activity granting the waiver determines that the requirement under that subsection should be waived in the case of such subcontracts and justifies in writing the reasons for the determination.

(f) Modifications to Prior Contracts.—Upon the request of a contractor that was required to submit cost or pricing data under subsection (a) in connection with a prime contract entered into on or before June 30, 2018, the head of the agency that entered into such contract shall modify the contract to reflect paragraphs (2)(B) and (3)(B) of subsection (a). All such modifications shall be made without requiring consideration.

(g) Adjustment of Amounts.—Effective on October 1 of each year that is divisible by 5, each amount set forth in subsection (a) shall be adjusted in accordance with section 1908 of title 41.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (c), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 Some amendments made by section 1831(c)(2)(D)–(F) of Pub. L. 116–283 could not be executed because of amendments made to section 2306a of this title by section 814(a)(1) of Pub. L. 116–283 prior to its transfer to this section.

2 So in original. Probably should be "Certification".

§3703. Exceptions

(a) In general.—Submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under section 3702 of this title in the case of a contract, a subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract—

(1) for which the price agreed upon is based on—

(A) adequate competition that results in at least two or more responsive and viable competing bids; or

(B) prices set by law or regulation;


(2) for the acquisition of a commercial product or a commercial service;

(3) in an exceptional case when the head of the procuring activity, without delegation, determines that the requirements of this chapter may be waived and justifies in writing the reasons for such determination; or

(4) to the extent such data—

(A) relates to an offset agreement in connection with a contract for the sale of a weapon system or defense-related item to a foreign country or foreign firm; and

(B) does not relate to a contract or subcontract under the offset agreement for work performed in such foreign country or by such foreign firm that is directly related to the weapon system or defense-related item being purchased under the contract.


(b) Modifications of contracts and subcontracts for commercial products or commercial services.—In the case of a modification of a contract or subcontract for a commercial product or commercial services that is not covered by the exception to the submission of certified cost or pricing data in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under section 3702 of this title if—

(1) the contract or subcontract being modified is a contract or subcontract for which submission of certified cost or pricing data may not be required by reason of paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a); and

(2) the modification would not change the contract or subcontract, as the case may be, from a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of a commercial product or commercial services to a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of an item other than a commercial product or commercial services.


(c) Noncommercial modifications of commercial products.—(1) The exception in subsection (a)(2) does not apply to cost or pricing data on noncommercial modifications of a commercial product that are expected to cost, in the aggregate, more than the amount specified in section 3702(a)(1)(A) of this title, as adjusted from time to time under section 3702(g) of this title, or 5 percent of the total price of the contract (at the time of contract award), whichever is greater.

(2) In this subsection, the term "noncommercial modification", with respect to a commercial product, means a modification of such product that is not a modification described in section 103(3)(A) of title 41.

(3) Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed—

(A) to limit the applicability of the exception in paragraph (1) or (3) of subsection (a) to cost or pricing data on a noncommercial modification of a commercial product; or

(B) to require the submission of cost or pricing data on any aspect of an acquisition of a commercial product other than the cost and pricing of noncommercial modifications of such product.


(d) Commercial product or commercial service determination.—(1) For purposes of applying the exception under subsection (a)(2) to the required submission of certified cost or pricing data, the contracting officer may presume that a prior commercial product or commercial service determination made by a military department, a Defense Agency, or another component of the Department of Defense shall serve as a determination for subsequent procurements of such product or service.

(2) If the contracting officer does not make the presumption described in paragraph (1) and instead chooses to proceed with a procurement of a product or service previously determined to be a commercial product or a commercial service using procedures other than the procedures authorized for the procurement of a commercial product or a commercial service, as the case may be, the contracting officer shall request a review of the commercial product or commercial service determination by the head of the contracting activity.

(3) Not later than 30 days after receiving a request for review of a determination under paragraph (2), the head of a contracting activity shall—

(A) confirm that the prior determination was appropriate and still applicable; or

(B) issue a revised determination with a written explanation of the basis for the revision.


(e) A contracting officer shall consider evidence provided by an offeror of recent purchase prices paid by the Government for the same or similar commercial products or commercial services in establishing price reasonableness on a subsequent purchase if the contracting officer is satisfied that the prices previously paid remain a valid reference for comparison after considering the totality of other relevant factors such as the time elapsed since the prior purchase and any differences in the quantities purchased or applicable terms and conditions.

(f) Determination by prime contractor.—A prime contractor required to submit certified cost or pricing data under section 3702 of this title with respect to a prime contract shall be responsible for determining whether a subcontract under such contract qualifies for an exception under subsection (a)(1) from such requirement.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (d), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209, 4211.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3704. Cost or pricing data on below-threshold contracts

(a) Authority to require submission.—Subject to subsection (b), when certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted by section 3702 of this title for a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, such data may nevertheless be required to be submitted by the head of the procuring activity, but only if the head of the procuring activity determines that such data are necessary for the evaluation by the agency of the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract. In any case in which the head of the procuring activity requires such data to be submitted under this section, the head of the procuring activity shall justify in writing the reason for such requirement.

(b) Exception.—The head of the procuring activity may not require certified cost or pricing data to be submitted under this subsection for any contract or subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, covered by the exceptions in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 3703(a) of this title.

(c) Delegation of authority prohibited.—The head of a procuring activity may not delegate functions under this subsection.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (e), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209, 4213.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3705. Submission of other information

(a) Authority to require submission.—When certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted under this chapter for a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, the offeror shall be required to submit to the contracting officer data other than certified cost or pricing data (if requested by the contracting officer), to the extent necessary to determine the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of the contract or subcontract. Except in the case of a contract or subcontract covered by the exceptions in section 3703(a)(1) of this title, the contracting officer shall require that the data submitted include, at a minimum, appropriate information on the prices at which the same item or similar items have previously been sold that is adequate for evaluating the reasonableness of the price for the procurement. If the contracting officer determines that the offeror does not have access to and cannot provide sufficient information on prices for the same or similar items to determine the reasonableness of price, the contracting officer shall require the submission of information on prices for similar levels of work or effort on related products or services, prices for alternative solutions or approaches, and other information that is relevant to the determination of a fair and reasonable price. Contracting officers shall not determine the price of a contract or subcontract to be fair and reasonable based solely on historical prices paid by the Government.

(b) Ineligibility for award.—(1) In the event the contracting officer is unable to determine proposed prices are fair and reasonable by any other means, an offeror who fails to make a good faith effort to comply with a reasonable request to submit data in accordance with subsection (a) is ineligible for award unless the head of the contracting activity, or the designee of the head of contracting activity, determines that it is in the best interest of the Government to make the award to that offeror, based on consideration of pertinent factors, including the following:

(A) The effort to obtain the data.

(B) Availability of other sources of supply of the item or service.

(C) The urgency or criticality of the Government's need for the item or service.

(D) Reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of the contract or subcontract based on information available to the contracting officer.

(E) Rationale or justification made by the offeror for not providing the requested data.

(F) Risk to the Government if award is not made.


(2)(A) Any new determination made by the head of the contracting activity under paragraph (1) shall be reported to the Principal Director, Defense Pricing and Contracting on a quarterly basis.

(B) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, or a designee, shall produce an annual report identifying offerors that have denied multiple requests for submission of uncertified cost or pricing data over the preceding three-year period, but nevertheless received an award. The report shall identify products or services offered by such offerors that should undergo should-cost analysis. The Secretary of Defense may include a notation on such offerors in the system used by the Federal Government to monitor or record contractor past performance. The Under Secretary shall assess the extent to which these offerors are sole source providers within the defense industrial base and shall develop strategies to incentivize new entrants into the industrial base to increase the availability of other sources of supply for the product or service.

(c) Limitations on authority.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include the following provisions regarding the types of information that contracting officers may require under subsection (a):

(1) Reasonable limitations on requests for sales data relating to commercial products or commercial services.

(2) A requirement that a contracting officer limit, to the maximum extent practicable, the scope of any request for information relating to commercial products or commercial services from an offeror to only that information that is in the form regularly maintained by the offeror in commercial operations.

(3) A statement that any information received relating to commercial products or commercial services that is exempt from disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5 shall not be disclosed by the Federal Government.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (f), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209, 4213.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3706. Price reductions for defective cost or pricing data

(a) Provision Requiring Adjustment.—

(1) In general.—A prime contract (or change or modification to a prime contract) under which a certificate under section 3702(b) of this title is required shall contain a provision that the price of the contract to the United States, including profit or fee, shall be adjusted to exclude any significant amount by which it may be determined by the head of the agency that such price was increased because the contractor (or any subcontractor required to make available such a certificate) submitted defective cost or pricing data.

(2) What constitutes defective cost or pricing data.—For the purposes of this chapter, defective cost or pricing data are cost or pricing data which, as of the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or another date agreed upon between the parties), were inaccurate, incomplete, or noncurrent. If for purposes of the preceding sentence the parties agree upon a date other than the date of agreement on the price of the contract, the date agreed upon by the parties shall be as close to the date of agreement on the price of the contract as is practicable.

(b) Valid Defense.—In determining for purposes of a contract price adjustment under a contract provision required by subsection (a) whether, and to what extent, a contract price was increased because the contractor (or a subcontractor) submitted defective cost or pricing data, it shall be a defense that the United States did not rely on the defective data submitted by the contractor or subcontractor.

(c) Invalid Defenses.—It is not a defense to an adjustment of the price of a contract under a contract provision required by subsection (a) that—

(1) the price of the contract would not have been modified even if accurate, complete, and current cost or pricing data had been submitted by the contractor or subcontractor because the contractor or subcontractor—

(A) was the sole source of the property or services procured; or

(B) otherwise was in a superior bargaining position with respect to the property or services procured;


(2) the contracting officer should have known that the cost and pricing data in issue were defective even though the contractor or subcontractor took no affirmative action to bring the character of the data to the attention of the contracting officer;

(3) the contract was based on an agreement between the contractor and the United States about the total cost of the contract and there was no agreement about the cost of each item procured under such contract; or

(4) the prime contractor or subcontractor did not submit a certification of cost and pricing data relating to the contract as required under section 3702(b) of this title.


(d) Offsets.—

(1) When allowed.—A contractor shall be allowed to offset an amount against the amount of a contract price adjustment under a contract provision required by subsection (a) if—

(A) the contractor certifies to the contracting officer (or to a designated representative of the contracting officer) that, to the best of the contractor's knowledge and belief, the contractor is entitled to the offset; and

(B) the contractor proves that the cost or pricing data were available before the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or price of the modification) or, if applicable consistent with subsection (a)(2), another date agreed upon between the parties, and that the data were not submitted as specified in section 3702(c) of this title before such date.


(2) A contractor shall not be allowed to offset an amount otherwise authorized to be offset under paragraph (1) if—

(A) the certification under section 3702(b) of this title with respect to the cost or pricing data involved was known to be false when signed; or

(B) the United States proves that, had the cost or pricing data referred to in paragraph (1)(B) been submitted to the United States before the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or price of the modification) or, if applicable consistent with subsection (a)(2), another date agreed upon between the parties, the submission of such cost or pricing data would not have resulted in an increase in that price in the amount to be offset.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (g), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209, 4214.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3707. Interest and penalties for certain overpayments

(a) In General.—If the United States makes an overpayment to a contractor under a contract subject to this chapter and the overpayment was due to the submission by the contractor of defective cost or pricing data, the contractor shall be liable to the United States—

(1) for interest on the amount of such overpayment, to be computed—

(A) for the period beginning on the date the overpayment was made to the contractor and ending on the date the contractor repays the amount of such overpayment to the United States; and

(B) at the current rate prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury under section 6621 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and


(2) if the submission of such defective data was a knowing submission, for an additional amount equal to the amount of the overpayment.


(b) Liability Not Affected by Refusal to Submit Certification.—Any liability under this section of a contractor that submits cost or pricing data but refuses to submit the certification required by section 3702(b) of this title with respect to the cost or pricing data shall not be affected by the refusal to submit such certification.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (h), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209, 4216.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3708. Right to examine contractor records

For the purpose of evaluating the accuracy, completeness, and currency of cost or pricing data required to be submitted by this chapter, the head of an agency shall have the authority provided by section 3841(b)(2) of this title.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(a), (i), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4209, 4216.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

CHAPTER 272—OTHER PROVISIONS RELATING TO COST OR PRICING DATA

Sec.
3721.
Evaluating the reasonableness of price: guidance and training.
3722.
Grants of exceptions to cost or pricing data certification requirements and waivers of cost accounting standards.
3723.
Streamlining awards for innovative technology projects: pilot program.
3724.
Risk-based contracting for smaller contract actions under Truth in Negotiations Act: pilot program.1

        

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§3721. Evaluating the reasonableness of price: guidance and training

[Reserved].

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(k), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4217.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3722. Grants of exceptions to cost or pricing data certification requirements and waivers of cost accounting standards

[Reserved].

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(k), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4217.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3723. Streamlining awards for innovative technology projects: pilot program

[Reserved].

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(k), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4217.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3724. Risk-based contracting for smaller contract actions under truth in negotiations act: 1 pilot program

[Reserved].

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1831(k), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4217.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Truth in Negotiations Act:".

CHAPTER 273—ALLOWABLE COSTS

Subchapter
Sec.
I.
General
3741
II.
Other Allowable Cost Provisions
3761

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

Sec.
3741.
Definitions.
3742.
Adjustment of threshold amount of covered contract.
3743.
Effect of submission of unallowable costs.
3744.
Specific costs not allowable.
3745.
Required regulations.
3746.
Applicability of regulations to subcontractors.
3747.
Contractor certification.
3748.
Penalties for submission of cost known as not allowable.
3749.
Burden of proof on contractor.
3750.
Proceeding costs not allowable.

        

§3741. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Compensation.—The term "compensation", for a year, means the total amount of wages, salary, bonuses and deferred compensation for the year, whether paid, earned, or otherwise accruing, as recorded in an employer's cost accounting records for the year.

(2) Covered contract.—The term "covered contract" means a contract for an amount in excess of $500,000 that is entered into by the head of an agency, except that such term does not include a fixed-price contract without cost incentives or any firm fixed-price contract for the purchase of commercial products or commercial services.

(3) Fiscal year.—The term "fiscal year" means a fiscal year established by a contractor for accounting purposes.

(4) Head of the agency.—The term "head of the agency" or "agency head" does not include the Secretary of a military department.

(5) Agency.—The term "agency" means the Department of Defense, the Coast Guard, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (b)(1)–(3), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3742. Adjustment of threshold amount of covered contract

Effective on October 1 of each year that is divisible by five, the amount set forth in section 3741(2) of this title shall be adjusted in accordance with section 1908 of title 41.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (b)(4), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4219.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3743. Effect of submission of unallowable costs

(a) Indirect Cost That Violates a FAR Cost Principle.—The head of an agency shall require that a covered contract provide that if the contractor submits to the agency a proposal for settlement of indirect costs incurred by the contractor for any period after such costs have been accrued and if that proposal includes the submission of a cost which is unallowable because the cost violates a cost principle in the Federal Acquisition Regulation or applicable agency supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation, the cost shall be disallowed.

(b) Penalty for Violation of Cost Principle.—

(1) If the head of the agency determines that a cost submitted by a contractor in its proposal for settlement is expressly unallowable under a cost principle referred to in subsection (a) that defines the allowability of specific selected costs, the head of the agency shall assess a penalty against the contractor in an amount equal to—

(A) the amount of the disallowed cost allocated to covered contracts for which a proposal for settlement of indirect costs has been submitted; plus

(B) interest (to be computed based on provisions in the Federal Acquisition Regulation) to compensate the United States for the use of any funds which a contractor has been paid in excess of the amount to which the contractor was entitled.


(2) Cost determined to be unallowable before proposal submitted.—If the head of the agency determines that a proposal for settlement of indirect costs submitted by a contractor includes a cost determined to be unallowable in the case of such contractor before the submission of such proposal, the head of the agency shall assess a penalty against the contractor in an amount equal to two times the amount of the disallowed cost allocated to covered contracts for which a proposal for settlement of indirect costs has been submitted.


(c) Waiver of Penalty.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide for a penalty under subsection (b) to be waived in the case of a contractor's proposal for settlement of indirect costs when—

(1) the contractor withdraws the proposal before the formal initiation of an audit of the proposal by the Federal Government and resubmits a revised proposal;

(2) the amount of unallowable costs subject to the penalty is insignificant; or

(3) the contractor demonstrates, to the contracting officer's satisfaction, that—

(A) it has established appropriate policies and personnel training and an internal control and review system that provide assurances that unallowable costs subject to penalties are precluded from being included in the contractor's proposal for settlement of indirect costs; and

(B) the unallowable costs subject to the penalty were inadvertently incorporated into the proposal.


(d) Applicability of Contract Disputes Procedure to Disallowance of Cost and Assessment of Penalty.—An action of the head of an agency under subsection (a) or (b)—

(1) shall be considered a final decision for the purposes of section 7103 of title 41; and

(2) is appealable in the manner provided in section 7104(a) of title 41.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (c), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4219.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3744. Specific costs not allowable

(a) Specific Costs.—The following costs are not allowable under a covered contract:

(1) Costs of entertainment, including amusement, diversion, and social activities and any costs directly associated with such costs (such as tickets to shows or sports events, meals, lodging, rentals, transportation, and gratuities).

(2) Costs incurred to influence (directly or indirectly) legislative action on any matter pending before Congress, a State legislature, or a legislative body of a political subdivision of a State.

(3) Costs incurred in defense of any civil or criminal fraud proceeding or similar proceeding (including filing of any false certification) brought by the United States where the contractor is found liable or has pleaded nolo contendere to a charge of fraud or similar proceeding (including filing of a false certification).

(4) Payments of fines and penalties resulting from violations of, or failure to comply with, Federal, State, local, or foreign laws and regulations, except when incurred as a result of compliance with specific terms and conditions of the contract or specific written instructions from the contracting officer authorizing in advance such payments in accordance with applicable provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

(5) Costs of membership in any social, dining, or country club or organization.

(6) Costs of alcoholic beverages.

(7) Contributions or donations, regardless of the recipient.

(8) Costs of advertising designed to promote the contractor or its products.

(9) Costs of promotional items and memorabilia, including models, gifts, and souvenirs.

(10) Costs for travel by commercial aircraft which exceed the amount of the standard commercial fare.

(11) Costs incurred in making any payment (commonly known as a "golden parachute payment") which is—

(i) in an amount in excess of the normal severance pay paid by the contractor to an employee upon termination of employment; and

(ii) is paid to the employee contingent upon, and following, a change in management control over, or ownership of, the contractor or a substantial portion of the contractor's assets.


(12) Costs of commercial insurance that protects against the costs of the contractor for correction of the contractor's own defects in materials or workmanship.

(13) Costs of severance pay paid by the contractor to foreign nationals employed by the contractor under a service contract performed outside the United States, to the extent that the amount of severance pay paid in any case exceeds the amount paid in the industry involved under the customary or prevailing practice for firms in that industry providing similar services in the United States, as determined under the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

(14) Costs of severance pay paid by the contractor to a foreign national employed by the contractor under a service contract performed in a foreign country if the termination of the employment of the foreign national is the result of the closing of, or the curtailment of activities at, a United States military facility in that country at the request of the government of that country.

(15) Costs incurred by a contractor in connection with any criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding commenced by the United States or a State, to the extent provided in section 3750 of this title.

(16) 1 Costs of compensation of any contractor employee for a fiscal year, regardless of the contract funding source, to the extent that such compensation exceeds $625,000 adjusted annually for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Cost Index for total compensation for private industry workers, by occupational and industry group not seasonally adjusted, except that the Secretary of Defense may establish exceptions for positions in the science, technology, engineering, mathematics, medical, and cybersecurity fields and other fields requiring unique areas of expertise upon a determination that such exceptions are needed to ensure that the Department of Defense has continued access to needed skills and capabilities.

(16) 1 Costs of compensation of contractor and subcontractor employees for a fiscal year, regardless of the contract funding source, to the extent that such compensation exceeds $487,000 per year, adjusted annually to reflect the change in the Employment Cost Index for all workers, as calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, except that the head of an executive agency may establish one or more narrowly targeted exceptions for scientists, engineers, or other specialists upon a determination that such exceptions are needed to ensure that the executive agency has continued access to needed skills and capabilities.

(17) Costs incurred by a contractor in connection with a congressional investigation or inquiry into an issue that is the subject matter of a proceeding resulting in a disposition as described in section 3750(c) of this title.


(b) Waiver of Severance Pay Restrictions for Foreign Nationals.—

(1) Head of an agency determination.—Pursuant to the Federal Acquisition Regulation and subject to the availability of appropriations, the head of an agency awarding a covered contract (other than a contract to which subsection (d) applies) may waive the application of the provisions of subsections (a)(13) and (a)(14) to that contract if the head of the agency determines that—

(A) the application of such provisions to the contract would adversely affect the continuation of a program, project, or activity that provides significant support services for members of the armed forces stationed or deployed outside the United States;

(B) the contractor has taken (or has established plans to take) appropriate actions within the contractor's control to minimize the amount and number of incidents of the payment of severance pay by the contractor to employees under the contract who are foreign nationals; and

(C) the payment of severance pay is necessary in order to comply with a law that is generally applicable to a significant number of businesses in the country in which the foreign national receiving the payment performed services under the contract or is necessary to comply with a collective bargaining agreement.


(2) Solicitation to include statement about waiver.—The head of an agency shall include in the solicitation for a covered contract a statement indicating—

(A) that a waiver has been granted under paragraph (1) for the contract; or

(B) whether the head of the agency will consider granting such a waiver, and, if the agency head will consider granting a waiver, the criteria to be used in granting the waiver.


(3) Determination to be made before contract awarded.—The head of an agency shall make the final determination regarding whether to grant a waiver under paragraph (1) with respect to a covered contract before award of the contract.


(c) Establishment of Definitions, Exclusions, Limitations, and Qualifications.—The provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation implementing this subchapter may establish appropriate definitions, exclusions, limitations, and qualifications.

(d) Specific Costs Under Military Banking Contracts Relating to Foreign Nationals.—

(1) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may provide in a military banking contract that the provisions of subsections (a)(13) and (a)(14) shall not apply to costs incurred under the contract by the contractor for payment of mandated foreign national severance pay. The Secretary may include such a provision in a military banking contract only if the Secretary determines, with respect to that contract, that the contractor has taken (or has established plans to take) appropriate actions within the contractor's control to minimize the amount and number of incidents of the payment of severance pay by the contractor to employees under the contract who are foreign nationals.

(2) Definitions.—In paragraph (1):

(A) Military banking contract.—The term "military banking contract" means a contract between the Secretary and a financial institution under which the financial institution operates a military banking facility outside the United States for use by members of the armed forces stationed or deployed outside the United States and other authorized personnel.

(B) Mandated foreign national severance pay.—The term "mandated foreign national severance pay" means severance pay paid by a contractor to a foreign national employee the payment of which by the contractor is required in order to comply with a law that is generally applicable to a significant number of businesses in the country in which the foreign national receiving the payment performed services under the contract.


(3) Exception for foreign-owned financial institutions.—Paragraph (1) does not apply to a contract with a financial institution that is owned or controlled by citizens or nationals of a foreign country, as determined by the Secretary of Defense. Such a determination shall be made in accordance with the criteria set out in paragraph (1) of section 4(g) of the Buy American Act (as added by section 7002(2) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988) and the policy guidance referred to in paragraph (2)(A) of that section.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (d), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4219.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 So in original. There are two pars. (16).

§3745. Required regulations

(a) In General.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall contain provisions on the allowability of contractor costs. Such provisions shall define in detail and in specific terms those costs which are unallowable, in whole or in part, under covered contracts.

(b) Specific Items.—The regulations shall, at a minimum, clarify the cost principles applicable to contractor costs of the following:

(1) Air shows.

(2) Membership in civic, community, and professional organizations.

(3) Recruitment.

(4) Employee morale and welfare.

(5) Actions to influence (directly or indirectly) executive branch action on regulatory and contract matters (other than costs incurred in regard to contract proposals pursuant to solicited or unsolicited bids).

(6) Community relations.

(7) Dining facilities.

(8) Professional and consulting services, including legal services.

(9) Compensation.

(10) Selling and marketing.

(11) Travel.

(12) Public relations.

(13) Hotel and meal expenses.

(14) Expense of corporate aircraft.

(15) Company-furnished automobiles.

(16) Advertising.

(17) Conventions.


(c) Additional Requirements.—

(1) When questioned costs may be resolved.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall require that a contracting officer not resolve any questioned costs until he has obtained—

(A) adequate documentation with respect to such costs; and

(B) the opinion of the contract auditor on the allowability of such costs.


(2) Presence of contract auditor.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide that, to the maximum extent practicable, the contract auditor be present at any negotiation or meeting with the contractor regarding a determination of the allowability of indirect costs of the contractor.

(3) Settlement to reflect amount of individual questioned costs.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall require that all categories of costs designated in the report of the contract auditor as questioned with respect to a proposal for settlement be resolved in such a manner that the amount of the individual questioned costs that are paid will be reflected in the settlement.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (e), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4221.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3746. Applicability of regulations to subcontractors

The regulations referred to in sections 3744 and 3745(a) and (b) of this title shall require prime contractors of a covered contract, to the maximum extent practicable, to apply the provisions of such regulations to all subcontractors of the covered contract.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (e), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4221.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3747. Contractor certification

(a) Content and Form.—A proposal for settlement of indirect costs applicable to a covered contract shall include a certification by an official of the contractor that, to the best of the certifying official's knowledge and belief, all indirect costs included in the proposal are allowable. Any such certification shall be in a form prescribed in the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

(b) Waiver.—The head of the agency or the Secretary of the military department concerned may, in an exceptional case, waive the requirement for certification under subsection (a) in the case of any contract if the head of the agency or the Secretary—

(1) determines in such case that it would be in the interest of the United States to waive such certification; and

(2) states in writing the reasons for that determination and makes such determination available to the public.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (f), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4221.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3748. Penalties for submission of cost known as not allowable

The submission to an agency of a proposal for settlement of costs for any period after such costs have been accrued that includes a cost that is expressly specified by statute or regulation as being unallowable, with the knowledge that such cost is unallowable, shall be subject to the provisions of section 287 of title 18 and section 3729 of title 31.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (g), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4222.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3749. Burden of proof on contractor

In a proceeding before the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals, the United States Court of Federal Claims, or any other Federal court in which the reasonableness of indirect costs for which a contractor seeks reimbursement from the Department of Defense is in issue, the burden of proof shall be upon the contractor to establish that those costs are reasonable.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (h), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4222.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3750. Proceeding costs not allowable

(a) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Costs.—The term "costs", with respect to a proceeding—

(A) means all costs incurred by a contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor, whether before or after the commencement of any such proceeding; and

(B) includes—

(i) administrative and clerical expenses;

(ii) the cost of legal services, including legal services performed by an employee of the contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor;

(iii) the cost of the services of accountants and consultants retained by the contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor; and

(iv) the pay of directors, officers, and employees of the contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor for time devoted by such directors, officers, and employees to such proceeding.


(2) Penalty.—The term "penalty" does not include restitution, reimbursement, or compensatory damages.

(3) Proceedings.—The term "proceeding" includes an investigation.


(b) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, costs incurred by a contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor in connection with any criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding commenced by the United States, by a State, or by a contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor employee submitting a complaint under section 4701 of this title are not allowable as reimbursable costs under a covered contract, subcontract, or personal services contract if the proceeding—

(1) relates to a violation of, or failure to comply with, a Federal or State statute or regulation or to any other activity described in section 4701(a)(1) of this title; and

(2) results in a disposition described in subsection (c).


(c) Covered Dispositions.—A disposition referred to in subsection (b)(2) is any of the following:

(1) In the case of a criminal proceeding, a conviction (including a conviction pursuant to a plea of nolo contendere) by reason of the violation or failure referred to in subsection (b).

(2) In the case of a civil or administrative proceeding involving an allegation of fraud or similar misconduct, a determination of contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor liability on the basis of the violation or failure referred to in subsection (b).

(3) In the case of any civil or administrative proceeding, the imposition of a monetary penalty or an order to take corrective action under section 4701 of this title by reason of the violation or failure referred to in subsection (b).

(4) A final decision—

(A) to debar or suspend the contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor;

(B) to rescind or void the contract, subcontract, or personal services contract; or

(C) to terminate the contract, subcontract, or personal services contract for default;


by reason of the violation or failure referred to in subsection (b).

(5) A disposition of the proceeding by consent or compromise if such action could have resulted in a disposition described in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), or (4).


(d) Costs Allowed by Settlement Agreement in Proceeding Commenced by United States.—In the case of a proceeding referred to in subsection (b) that is commenced by the United States and is resolved by consent or compromise pursuant to an agreement entered into by a contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor and the United States, the costs incurred by the contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor in connection with such proceeding that are otherwise not allowable as reimbursable costs under such subsection may be allowed to the extent specifically provided in such agreement.

(e) Costs Specifically Authorized in Proceeding Commenced by State.—In the case of a proceeding referred to in subsection (b) that is commenced by a State, the head of the agency or Secretary of the military department concerned that awarded the covered contract, subcontract, or personal services contract involved in the proceeding may allow the costs incurred by the contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor in connection with such proceeding as reimbursable costs if the agency head or Secretary determines, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation, that the costs were incurred as a result of (1) a specific term or condition of the contract, subcontract, or personal services contract, or (2) specific written instructions of the agency or military department.

(f) Other Allowable Costs.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (3), costs incurred by a contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor in connection with a criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding commenced by the United States or a State in connection with a covered contract, subcontract, or personal services contract may be allowed as reimbursable costs under the contract, subcontract, or personal services contract if such costs are not disallowable under subsection (b), but only to the extent provided in paragraph (2).

(2) Amount of Allowable Costs.—

(A) Maximum amount allowed.—The amount of the costs allowable under paragraph (1) in any case may not exceed the amount equal to 80 percent of the amount of the costs incurred, to the extent that such costs are determined to be otherwise allowable and allocable under the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

(B) Content of regulations.—Regulations issued for the purpose of subparagraph (A) shall provide for appropriate consideration of—

(i) the complexity of procurement litigation;

(ii) generally accepted principles governing the award of legal fees in civil actions involving the United States as a party; and

(iii) such other factors as may be appropriate.


(3) When otherwise allowable costs are not allowable.—In the case of a proceeding referred to in paragraph (1), contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor costs otherwise allowable as reimbursable costs under this subsection are not allowable if—

(A) such proceeding involves the same contractor or subcontractor, or personal services contractor misconduct alleged as the basis of another criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding; and

(B) the costs of such other proceeding are not allowable under paragraph (1).1

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(a), (i), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4218, 4222.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "under subsection (b)."

SUBCHAPTER II—OTHER ALLOWABLE COST PROVISIONS

Sec.
3761.
Restructuring costs.
3762.
Independent research and development costs: allowable costs.
3763.
Bid and proposal costs: allowable costs.
3764.
Excessive pass-through charges.1

        

3765.
Institutions of higher education: reimbursement of indirect costs under Department of Defense contracts.1

        

1 So in original. There is no section 3764 or 3765.

§3761. Restructuring costs

(a) Limitation on Payment of Restructuring Costs.—The Secretary of Defense may not pay, under subchapter I, a defense contractor for restructuring costs associated with a business combination of the contractor that occurs after November 18, 1997, unless the Secretary determines in writing either—

(1) that the amount of projected savings for the Department of Defense associated with the restructuring will be at least twice the amount of the costs allowed; or

(2) that the amount of projected savings for the Department of Defense associated with the restructuring will exceed the amount of the costs allowed and that the business combination will result in the preservation of a critical capability that otherwise might be lost to the Department.


(b) Limitation on Delegation.—The Secretary may not delegate the authority to make a determination under subsection (a), with respect to a business combination, to an official of the Department of Defense—

(1) below the level of an Assistant Secretary of Defense for cases in which the amount of restructuring costs is expected to exceed $25,000,000 over a 5-year period; or

(2) below the level of the Director of the Defense Contract Management Agency for all other cases.


(c) Definition.—In this section, the term "business combination" includes a merger or acquisition.

(Added Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §804(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1832, §2325; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(a)(19), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 771; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §819, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2016; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(g)(2), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1955; renumbered §3761 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(j)(2), (3), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4225.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3762. Independent research and development costs: allowable costs

(a) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations governing the payment by the Department of Defense of expenses incurred by contractors for independent research and development costs. Such regulations shall provide that expenses incurred for independent research and development shall be reported independently from other allowable indirect costs.

(b) Costs Treated as Fair and Reasonable, and Allowable, Expenses.—The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall provide that independent research and development costs shall be considered a fair and reasonable, and allowable, indirect expense on Department of Defense contracts.

(c) Additional Controls.—Subject to subsection (d), the regulations prescribed under subsection (a) may include the following provisions:

(1) Controls on the reimbursement of costs to the contractor for expenses incurred for independent research and development to ensure that such costs were incurred for independent research and development.

(2) Implementation of regular methods for transmission—

(A) from the Department of Defense to contractors, in a reasonable manner, of timely and comprehensive information regarding planned or expected needs of the Department of Defense for future technology and advanced capability; and

(B) from contractors to the Department of Defense, in a reasonable manner, of information regarding progress by the contractor on the independent research and development programs of the contractor.


(d) Limitations on Regulations.—Regulations prescribed under subsection (a) may not include provisions that would infringe on the independence of a contractor to choose which technologies to pursue in its independent research and development program if the chief executive officer of the contractor determines that expenditures will advance the needs of the Department of Defense for future technology and advanced capability as transmitted pursuant to subsection (c)(2)(A).

(e) Effective Date.—The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall apply to indirect costs incurred on or after October 1, 2017.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §824(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1603, §2372; amended Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(c), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 113; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §802(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1412; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(27), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2500; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(c)(5), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 98; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(b)(11), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 672; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §824(a)(1), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2277; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(35), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1596; renumbered §3762, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(j)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4225.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3763. Bid and proposal costs: allowable costs

(a) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations governing the payment by the Department of Defense of expenses incurred by contractors for bid and proposal costs. Such regulations shall provide that expenses incurred for bid and proposal costs shall be reported independently from other allowable indirect costs.

(b) Costs Allowable as Indirect Expenses.—The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall provide that bid and proposal costs shall be allowable as indirect expenses on covered contracts, as defined in section 3741 of this title, to the extent that those costs are allocable, reasonable, and not otherwise unallowable by law or under the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

(c) Goal for Reimbursable Bid and Proposal Costs.—The Secretary shall establish a goal each fiscal year limiting the amount of reimbursable bid and proposal costs paid by the Department of Defense to an amount equal to not more than one percent of the total aggregate industry sales to the Department of Defense. To achieve such goal, the Secretary may not limit the payment of allowable bid and proposal costs for the covered year.

(d) Panel.—(1) If the Department of Defense exceeds the goal established under subsection (c) for a fiscal year, within 180 days after exceeding the goal, the Secretary shall establish an advisory panel. The panel shall be supported by the Defense Acquisition University and the National Defense University, including administrative support.

(2) The panel shall be composed of nine individuals who are recognized experts in acquisition and procurement policy appointed by the Secretary. In making such appointments, the Secretary shall ensure that the members of the panel reflect diverse experiences in the public and private sector.

(3) The panel shall review laws, regulations, and practices that contribute to the expenses incurred by contractors for bids and proposals in the fiscal year concerned and recommend changes to such laws, regulations, and practices that may reduce expenses incurred by contractors for bids and proposals.

(4)(A) Not later than six months after the establishment of the panel, the panel shall submit to the Secretary and the congressional defense committees an interim report on the findings of the panel.

(B) Not later than one year after the establishment of the panel, the panel shall submit to the Secretary and the congressional defense committees a final report on the findings of the panel.

(5) The panel shall terminate on the day the panel submits the final report under paragraph (4)(B).

(6) The Secretary of Defense may use amounts available in the Department of Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund established under section 1705 of this title to support the activities of the panel established under this subsection.

(e) Effective Date.—The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall apply to indirect costs incurred on or after October 1, 2017.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §824(b)(1), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2278, §2372a; renumbered §3763 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1832(j)(2), (4), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4225.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

CHAPTER 275—PROPRIETARY CONTRACTOR DATA AND RIGHTS IN TECHNICAL DATA

Subchapter
Sec.
I.
Rights in Technical Data
3771
II.
Validation of Proprietary Data Restrictions
3781
III.
Other Provisions Relating to Proprietary Contractor Data and Rights in Technical Data
3791

        

SUBCHAPTER I—RIGHTS IN TECHNICAL DATA

Sec.
3771.
Rights in technical data: regulations.
3772.
Rights in technical data: provisions required in contracts.
3773.
Domestic business concerns: programs for replenishment parts.
3774.
Major weapon systems and subsystems: long-term technical data needs.
3775.
Definitions.

        

§3771. Rights in technical data: regulations

(a) Regulations Required.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to define the legitimate interest of the United States and of a contractor or subcontractor in technical data pertaining to an item or process. Such regulations shall be included in regulations of the Department of Defense prescribed as part of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

(2) Other rights not impaired.—Regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) may not impair—

(A) any right of the United States or of any contractor or subcontractor with respect to patents or copyrights or any other right in technical data otherwise established by law; or

(B) the right of a contractor or subcontractor to receive from a third party a fee or royalty for the use of technical data pertaining to an item or process developed exclusively at private expense by the contractor or subcontractor, except as otherwise specifically provided by law.


(b) Required Provisions.—Regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall include the following provisions:

(1) Development exclusively with federal funds.—In the case of an item or process that is developed by a contractor or subcontractor exclusively with Federal funds (other than an item or process developed under a contract or subcontract to which regulations under section 9(j)(2) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638(j)(2)) apply), the United States shall have the unlimited right to—

(A) use technical data pertaining to the item or process; or

(B) release or disclose the technical data to persons outside the government or permit the use of the technical data by such persons.


(2) Development exclusively at private expense.—Except as provided in paragraphs (3), (4), and (7), in the case of an item or process that is developed by a contractor or subcontractor exclusively at private expense, the contractor or subcontractor may restrict the right of the United States to release or disclose technical data pertaining to the item or process to persons outside the government or permit the use of the technical data by such persons.

(3) Exception to paragraph (2).—Paragraph (2) does not apply to technical data that—

(A) constitutes a correction or change to data furnished by the United States;

(B) relates to form, fit, or function;

(C) is necessary for operation, maintenance, installation, or training (other than detailed manufacturing or process data, including such data pertaining to a major system component); or

(D) is otherwise publicly available or has been released or disclosed by the contractor or subcontractor without restriction on further release or disclosure.


(4) Exception to paragraph (2).—Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the United States may release or disclose technical data to persons outside the Government, or permit the use of technical data by such persons, if—

(A) such release, disclosure, or use—

(i) is necessary for emergency repair and overhaul;

(ii) is a release, disclosure, or use of technical data pertaining to an interface between an item or process and other items or processes necessary for the segregation of an item or process from, or the reintegration of that item or process (or a physically or functionally equivalent item or process) with, other items or processes; or

(iii) is a release or disclosure of technical data (other than detailed manufacturing or process data) to, or use of such data by, a foreign government that is in the interest of the United States and is required for evaluational or informational purposes;


(B) such release, disclosure, or use is made subject to a prohibition that the person to whom the data is released or disclosed may not further release, disclose, or use such data; and

(C) the contractor or subcontractor asserting the restriction is notified of such release, disclosure, or use.


(5) Development with mixed funding.—

(A) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (6) and (7), in the case of an item or process that is developed in part with Federal funds and in part at private expense, the respective rights of the United States and of the contractor or subcontractor in technical data pertaining to such item or process shall be established as early in the acquisition process as practicable (preferably during contract negotiations) and shall be based on negotiations between the United States and the contractor, except in any case in which the Secretary of Defense determines, on the basis of criteria established in the regulations, that negotiations would not be practicable.

(B) Factors to be considered.—The establishment of such rights shall be based upon consideration of all of the following factors:

(i) The statement of congressional policy and objectives in section 200 of title 35, the statement of purposes in section 2(b) of the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 638 note), and the declaration of policy in section 2 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 631).

(ii) The interest of the United States in increasing competition and lowering costs by developing and locating alternative sources of supply and manufacture.

(iii) The interest of the United States in encouraging contractors to develop at private expense items for use by the Government.

(iv) Such other factors as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe.


(6) Interfaces developed with mixed funding.—Notwithstanding paragraph (5), the United States shall have government purpose rights in technical data pertaining to an interface between an item or process and other items or processes that was developed in part with Federal funds and in part at private expense, except in any case in which the Secretary of Defense determines, on the basis of criteria established in the regulations, that negotiation of different rights in such technical data would be in the best interest of the United States.

(7) Modular system interfaces developed exclusively at private expense or with mixed funding.—

(A) Notwithstanding paragraphs (2) and (5), the United States shall have government purpose rights in technical data pertaining to a modular system interface developed exclusively at private expense or in part with Federal funds and in part at private expense and used in a modular open system approach pursuant to section 4401 of this title, except in any case in which the Secretary of Defense determines that negotiation of different rights in such technical data would be in the best interest of the United States.

(B) Such modular system interface shall be identified in the contract solicitation and the contract.

(C) For technical data pertaining to a modular system interface developed exclusively at private expense for which the United States asserts government purpose rights, the Secretary of Defense shall negotiate with the contractor the appropriate and reasonable compensation for such technical data.


(8) Limitations on requirements related to contractor or subcontractor rights in technical data.—A contractor or subcontractor (or a prospective contractor or subcontractor) may not be required, as a condition of being responsive to a solicitation or as a condition for the award of a contract—

(A) to sell or otherwise relinquish to the United States any rights in technical data except—

(i) rights in technical data described in paragraph (1) for which a use or release restriction has been erroneously asserted by a contractor or subcontractor;

(ii) rights in technical data described in paragraph (3); or

(iii) under the conditions described in paragraph (4); or


(B) to refrain from offering to use, or from using, an item or process to which the contractor is entitled to restrict rights in data under paragraph (2).


(9) Actions authorized if necessary to develop alternative sources of supply and manufacture.—The Secretary of Defense may—

(A) negotiate and enter into a contract with a contractor or subcontractor for the acquisition of rights in technical data not otherwise provided under paragraph (3) or (4), if necessary to develop alternative sources of supply and manufacture;

(B) agree to restrict rights in technical data otherwise accorded to the United States under this subchapter if the United States receives a royalty-free license to use, release, or disclose the data for purposes of the United States (including purposes of competitive procurement); or

(C) permit a contractor or subcontractor to license directly to a third party the use of technical data which the contractor is otherwise allowed to restrict, if necessary to develop alternative sources of supply and manufacture.


(c) Secretary of Defense to Define Terms.—The Secretary of Defense shall define the terms "developed", "exclusively with Federal funds", and "exclusively at private expense" in regulations prescribed under subsection (a). In defining such terms, the Secretary—

(1) shall specify the manner in which indirect costs shall be treated; and

(2) shall specify that amounts spent for independent research and development and bid and proposal costs shall not be considered to be Federal funds for the purposes of the definitions under this subsection.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(a)(1), (b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4226.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3772. Rights in technical data: provisions required in contracts

(a) Contract Provisions Relating to Technical Data.—Regulations prescribed under section 3771 of this title shall require that, whenever practicable, a contract for supplies or services entered into by an agency named in section 3063 of this title contain appropriate provisions relating to technical data, including provisions—

(1) defining the respective rights of the United States and the contractor or subcontractor (at any tier) regarding any technical data to be delivered under the contract and providing that, in the case of a contract for a commercial product, the product shall be presumed to be developed at private expense unless shown otherwise in accordance with section 3784;

(2) specifying the technical data, if any, to be delivered under the contract and delivery schedules for such delivery;

(3) establishing or referencing procedures for determining the acceptability of technical data to be delivered under the contract;

(4) establishing separate contract line items for the technical data, if any, to be delivered under the contract;

(5) to the maximum practicable extent, identifying, in advance of delivery, technical data which is to be delivered with restrictions on the right of the United States to use such data;

(6) requiring the contractor—

(A) to revise any technical data delivered under the contract to reflect engineering design changes made during the performance of the contract and affecting the form, fit, and function of the items specified in the contract; and

(B) to deliver such revised technical data to an agency within a time specified in the contract;


(7) establishing remedies to be available to the United States when technical data required to be delivered or made available under the contract is found—

(A) to be incomplete or inadequate; or

(B) to not satisfy the requirements of the contract concerning technical data;


(8) authorizing the head of the agency to withhold payments under the contract (or exercise such other remedies as the head of the agency considers appropriate) during any period if the contractor does not meet the requirements of the contract pertaining to the delivery of technical data;

(9) providing that, in addition to technical data that is already subject to a contract delivery requirement, the United States may require, until the date occurring six years after acceptance of the last item (other than technical data) under a contract or the date of contract termination, whichever is later, the delivery of technical data that has been generated in the performance of the contract, and compensate the contractor only for reasonable costs incurred for having converted and delivered the data in the required form, upon a determination that—

(A) the technical data is needed for the purpose of reprocurement, sustainment, modification, or upgrade (including through competitive means) of a major system or subsystem thereof, a weapon system or subsystem thereof, or any noncommercial product or process; and

(B) the technical data—

(i) pertains to an item or process developed in whole or in part with Federal funds; or

(ii) is described in paragraphs (4)(A)(ii), (6), and (7) of section 3771(b) of this title; and


(10) providing that the United States is not foreclosed from requiring the delivery of the technical data by a failure to challenge, in accordance with the requirements of section 3782 of this title, the contractor's assertion of a use or release restriction on the technical data.


(b) Nothing in this subchapter or in section 3208 1 of this title prohibits the Secretary of Defense from—

(1) prescribing standards for determining whether a contract entered into by the Department of Defense shall provide for a time to be specified in the contract after which the United States shall have the right to use (or have used) for any purpose of the United States all technical data required to be delivered to the United States under the contract or providing for such a period of time (not to exceed 7 years) as a negotiation objective;

(2) notwithstanding any limitation upon the license rights conveyed under section 3771 of this title, allowing a covered Government support contractor access to and use of any technical data delivered under a contract for the sole purpose of furnishing independent and impartial advice or technical assistance directly to the Government in support of the Government's management and oversight of the program or effort to which such technical data relates; or

(3) prescribing reasonable and flexible guidelines, including negotiation objectives, for the conduct of negotiations regarding the respective rights in technical data of the United States and the contractor.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(a)(1), (c), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4226, 4228.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 Amendment by section 1833(c)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 116–283 executed to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

§3773. Domestic business concerns: programs for replenishment parts

The Secretary of Defense shall by regulation establish programs which provide domestic business concerns an opportunity to purchase or borrow replenishment parts from the United States for the purpose of design replication or modification, to be used by such concerns in the submission of subsequent offers to sell the same or like parts to the United States. Nothing in this section limits the authority of the head of an agency to impose restrictions on such a program related to national security considerations, inventory needs of the United States, the improbability of future purchases of the same or like parts, or any additional restriction otherwise required by law.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(a)(1), (d), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4226, 4229.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3774. Major weapon systems and subsystems: long-term technical data needs

(a) Assessments and Acquisitions Strategies.—

(1) The Secretary of Defense shall require program managers for major weapon systems and subsystems of major weapon systems to—

(A) assess the long-term technical data needs of such systems and subsystems; and

(B) establish corresponding acquisition strategies that provide for technical data rights needed to sustain such systems and subsystems over their life cycle.


(2) Such strategies may include—

(A) the development of maintenance capabilities within the Department of Defense; or

(B) competition for contracts for sustainment of such systems or subsystems.


(b) Requirements Relating to Assessments and Acquisition Strategies.—Assessments and corresponding acquisition strategies developed under subsection (a) with respect to a weapon system or subsystem shall—

(1) be developed before issuance of a contract solicitation for the weapon system or subsystem;

(2) address the merits of including a priced contract option for the future delivery of technical data that were not acquired upon initial contract award;

(3) address the potential for changes in the sustainment plan over the life cycle of the weapon system or subsystem; and

(4) apply to weapon systems and subsystems that are to be supported by performance-based logistics arrangements as well as to weapons systems and subsystems that are to be supported by other sustainment approaches.


(c) Preference for Specially Negotiated Licenses.—

(1) The Secretary of Defense shall, to the maximum extent practicable, negotiate and enter into a contract with a contractor for a specially negotiated license for technical data to support the product support strategy of a major weapon system or subsystem of a major weapon system.

(2) In performing the assessment and developing the corresponding strategy required under subsection (a) for such a system or subsystem, a program manager shall consider the use of specially negotiated licenses to acquire customized technical data appropriate for the particular elements of the product support strategy.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(a)(1), (e), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4226, 4229.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3775. Definitions

(a) Covered Government Support Contractor Defined.—In this subchapter, the term "covered Government support contractor" means a contractor under a contract the primary purpose of which is to furnish independent and impartial advice or technical assistance directly to the Government in support of the Government's management and oversight of a program or effort (rather than to directly furnish an end item or service to accomplish a program or effort), which contractor—

(1) is not affiliated with the prime contractor or a first-tier subcontractor on the program or effort, or with any direct competitor of such prime contractor or any such first-tier subcontractor in furnishing end items or services of the type developed or produced on the program or effort; and

(2) executes a contract with the Government agreeing to and acknowledging—

(A) that proprietary or nonpublic technical data furnished will be accessed and used only for the purposes stated in that contract;

(B) that the covered Government support contractor will enter into a non-disclosure agreement with the contractor to whom the rights to the technical data belong;

(C) that the covered Government support contractor will take all reasonable steps to protect the proprietary and nonpublic nature of the technical data furnished to the covered Government support contractor during the program or effort for the period of time in which the Government is restricted from disclosing the technical data outside of the Government;

(D) that a breach of that contract by the covered Government support contractor with regard to a third party's ownership or rights in such technical data may subject the covered Government support contractor—

(i) to criminal, civil, administrative, and contractual actions in law and equity for penalties, damages, and other appropriate remedies by the United States; and

(ii) to civil actions for damages and other appropriate remedies by the contractor or subcontractor whose technical data is affected by the breach; and


(E) that such technical data provided to the covered Government support contractor under the authority of this section shall not be used by the covered Government support contractor to compete against the third party for Government or non-Government contracts.


(b) Additional Definitions.—In this subchapter, the terms "major system component", "modular system interface", and "modular open system approach" have the meanings provided in section 4401 of this title.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(a)(1), (f), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4226, 4230.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—VALIDATION OF PROPRIETARY DATA RESTRICTIONS

Sec.
3781.
Technical data: contractor justification for restrictions; review of restrictions.
3782.
Technical data: challenges to contractor restrictions.
3783.
Technical data: time for contractors to submit justifications.
3784.
Technical data under contracts for commercial items: presumption of development exclusively at private expense.
3785.
Technical data: decision by contracting officer; claims; rights and liability upon final disposition.
3786.
Use or release restriction: definition.

        

§3781. Technical data: contractor justification for restrictions; review of restrictions

(a) Contracts Covered by Subchapter.—This subchapter applies to any contract for supplies or services entered into by the Department of Defense that includes provisions for the delivery of technical data.

(b) Contractor Justification for Restrictions.—A contract subject to this subchapter shall provide that a contractor under the contract and any subcontractor under the contract at any tier shall be prepared to furnish to the contracting officer a written justification for any use or release restriction (as defined in section 3786 of this title) asserted by the contractor or subcontractor.

(c) Review of Restrictions.—

(1) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that there is a thorough review of the appropriateness of any use or release restriction asserted with respect to technical data by a contractor or subcontractor at any tier under a contract subject to this subchapter.

(2) The review of an asserted use or release restriction under paragraph (1) shall be conducted before the end of the three-year period beginning on the later of—

(A) the date on which final payment is made on the contract under which the technical data is required to be delivered; or

(B) the date on which the technical data is delivered under the contract.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(g), (h), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4231.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3782. Technical data: challenges to contractor restrictions

(a) Challenges by Secretary of Defense.—The Secretary of Defense may challenge a use or release restriction asserted with respect to technical data by a contractor or subcontractor at any tier under a contract subject to this subchapter if the Secretary finds that—

(1) reasonable grounds exist to question the current validity of the asserted restriction; and

(2) the continued adherence by the United States to the asserted restriction would make it impracticable to procure the item to which the technical data pertain competitively at a later time.


(b) Time Limit for Challenges; Exceptions.—

(1) A challenge to a use or release restriction asserted by the contractor in accordance with applicable regulations may not be made under subsection (a) after the end of the six-year period described in paragraph (2) unless the technical data involved—

(A) are publicly available;

(B) have been furnished to the United States without restriction;

(C) have been otherwise made available without restriction; or

(D) are the subject of a fraudulently asserted use or release restriction.


(2) The six-year period referred to in paragraph (1) is the six-year period beginning on the later of—

(A) the date on which final payment is made on the contract under which the technical data are required to be delivered; or

(B) the date on which the technical data are delivered under the contract.


(c) Written Notice to Contractor or Subcontractor.—If the Secretary challenges an asserted use or release restriction under subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide written notice of the challenge to the contractor or subcontractor asserting the restriction. Any such notice shall—

(1) state the specific grounds for challenging the asserted restriction;

(2) require a response within 60 days justifying the current validity of the asserted restriction; and

(3) state that evidence of a justification described in subsection (d) may be submitted.


(d) Justification.—It is a justification of an asserted use or release restriction challenged under subsection (a) that, within the three-year period preceding the challenge to the restriction, the Department of Defense validated a restriction identical to the asserted restriction if—

(1) such validation occurred after a challenge to the validated restriction under this section; and

(2) the validated restriction was asserted by the same contractor or subcontractor (or a licensee of such contractor or subcontractor).

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(g), (i), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4231.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3783. Technical data: time for contractors to submit justifications

(a) Additional Time to Submit Justifications.—If a contractor or subcontractor asserting a use or release restriction submits to the contracting officer a written request, showing the need for additional time to comply with the requirement to justify the current validity of the asserted restriction, additional time to adequately permit the submission of such justification shall be provided by the contracting officer as appropriate.

(b) Multiple Challenges; Schedule of Responses.—If a party asserting a restriction receives notices of challenges to restrictions on technical data from more than one contracting officer, and notifies each contracting officer of the existence of more than one challenge, the contracting officer initiating the first in time challenge, after consultation with the party asserting the restriction and the other contracting officers, shall formulate a schedule of responses to each of the challenges that will afford the party asserting the restriction with an equitable opportunity to respond to each such challenge.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(g), (j), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4231, 4232.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3784. Technical data under contracts for commercial items: presumption of development exclusively at private expense

In the case of a challenge to a use or release restriction that is asserted with respect to technical data of a contractor or subcontractor under a contract for commercial products, the contracting officer shall presume that the contractor or subcontractor has justified the restriction on the basis that the item 1 was developed exclusively at private expense, whether or not the contractor or subcontractor submits a justification in response to the notice provided pursuant to section 3782(c) of this title. In such a case, the challenge to the use or release restriction may be sustained only if information provided by the Department of Defense demonstrates that the item 1 was not developed exclusively at private expense.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(g), (k), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4231, 4233.)

Codification

Prior to transfer of section 2321(f) of this title to this section, Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(8)(A)(ii), amended such section 2321(f) by substituting "commercial products" for "the item" in two places. Subsequently, Pub. L. 116–283, §1081(d)(4)(B)(ii), generally amended section 836(c)(8) of Pub. L. 115–232, and in so doing, omitted that substitution. As a result, this section reflects the text as it reads had that substitution not occurred.

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 See Codification note below.

§3785. Technical data: decision by contracting officer; claims; rights and liability upon final disposition

(a) Decision by Contracting Officer.—

(1) Upon failure 1 by the contractor or subcontractor to submit any response under section 3782(c) of this title, the contracting officer shall issue a decision pertaining to the validity of the asserted restriction.

(2) After review of any justification submitted in response to the notice provided pursuant to section 3782(c) of this title, the contracting officer shall, within 60 days of receipt of any justification submitted, issue a decision or notify the party asserting the restriction of the time within which a decision will be issued.


(b) Claims.—If a claim pertaining to the validity of the asserted restriction is submitted in writing to a contracting officer by a contractor or subcontractor at any tier, such claim shall be considered a claim within the meaning of chapter 71 of title 41.

(c) Rights and Liability Upon Final Disposition.—

(1) If, upon final disposition, the contracting officer's challenge to the use or release restriction is sustained—

(A) the restriction shall be cancelled; and

(B) if the asserted restriction is found not to be substantially justified, the contractor or subcontractor asserting the restriction shall be liable to the United States for payment of the cost to the United States of reviewing the asserted restriction and the fees and other expenses (as defined in section 2412(d)(2)(A) of title 28) incurred by the United States in challenging the asserted restriction, unless special circumstances would make such payment unjust.


(2) If, upon final disposition, the contracting officer's challenge to the use or release restriction is not sustained—

(A) the United States shall continue to be bound by the restriction; and

(B) the United States shall be liable for payment to the party asserting the restriction for fees and other expenses (as defined in section 2412(d)(2)(A) of title 28) incurred by the party asserting the restriction in defending the asserted restriction if the challenge by the United States is found not to be made in good faith.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(g), (l), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4231, 4233.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 Amendment by section 1833(l)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 116–283 executed to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

§3786. Use or release restriction: definition

In this subchapter, the term "use or release restriction", with respect to technical data delivered to the United States under a contract subject to this section, means a restriction by the contractor or subcontractor on the right of the United States—

(1) to use such technical data; or

(2) to release or disclose such technical data to persons outside the Government or permit the use of such technical data by persons outside the Government.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(g), (m), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4231, 4233.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—OTHER PROVISIONS RELATING TO PROPRIETARY CONTRACTOR DATA AND RIGHTS IN TECHNICAL DATA

Sec.
3791.
Management of intellectual property matters within the Department of Defense.1

        

3792.
Technical data rights: non-FAR agreements.2

        

3793.
Copyrights, patents, designs, etc.; acquisition.
3794.
Release of technical data under Freedom of Information Act: recovery of costs.

        

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

2 So in original. There is no section 3792.

§3791. Management of intellectual property matters within the department of defense 1

(a) Policy Required.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, shall develop policy on the acquisition or licensing of intellectual property—

(1) to enable coordination and consistency across the military departments and the Department of Defense in strategies for acquiring or licensing intellectual property and communicating with industry;

(2) to ensure that program managers are aware of the rights afforded the Federal Government and contractors in intellectual property and that program managers fully consider and use all available techniques and best practices for acquiring or licensing intellectual property early in the acquisition process; and

(3) to encourage customized intellectual property strategies for each system based on, at a minimum, the unique characteristics of the system and its components, the product support strategy for the system, the organic industrial base strategy of the military department concerned, and the commercial market.


(b) Cadre of Intellectual Property Experts.—For a provision requiring establishment of a cadre of personnel who are experts in intellectual property matters, see section 1707 of this title.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(n), (o)(1), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Department of Defense".

§3793. Copyrights, patents, designs, etc.; acquisition

Funds appropriated for a military department available for making or procuring supplies may be used to acquire any of the following if the acquisition relates to supplies or processes produced or used by or for, or useful to, that department:

(1) Copyrights, patents, and applications for patents.

(2) Licenses under copyrights, patents, and applications for patents.

(3) Design and process data, technical data, and computer software.

(4) Releases for past infringement of patents or copyrights or for unauthorized use of technical data or computer software.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 137, §2386; Pub. L. 86–726, §3, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 855; Pub. L. 103–355, title III, §3063, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3337; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title VIII, §813, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 395; renumbered §3793, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(o)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3794. Release of technical data under Freedom of Information Act: recovery of costs

(a) In General.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall, if required to release technical data under section 552 of title 5 (relating to the Freedom of Information Act), release such technical data to the person requesting the release if the person pays all reasonable costs attributable to search, duplication, and review.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations, pursuant to notice and receipt of public comment, specifying a uniform schedule of fees under this section.

(b) Crediting of Receipts.—An amount received under this section—

(1) shall be retained by the Department of Defense or the element of the Department of Defense receiving the amount; and

(2) shall be merged with and available for the same purpose and the same time period as the appropriation from which the costs incurred in complying with requests for technical data were paid.


(c) Waiver.—The Secretary of Defense shall waive the payment of costs required by subsection (a) which are in an amount greater than the costs that would be required for such a release of information under section 552 of title 5 if—

(1) the request is made by a citizen of the United States or a United States corporation, and such citizen or corporation certifies that the technical data requested is required to enable such citizen or corporation to submit an offer or determine whether it is capable of submitting an offer to provide the product to which the technical data relates to the United States or a contractor with the United States (except that the Secretary may require the citizen or corporation to pay a deposit in an amount equal to not more than the cost of complying with the request, to be refunded upon submission of an offer by the citizen or corporation);

(2) the release of technical data is requested in order to comply with the terms of an international agreement; or

(3) the Secretary determines, in accordance with section 552(a)(4)(A)(iii) of title 5, that such a waiver is in the interests of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §954(a)(1)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-172, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §954(a)(1)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341-172, §2328; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §954(a)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3952, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; amended Pub. L. 100–26, §7(a)(7)(A), (B)(i), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 278; renumbered §3794, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1833(o)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

CHAPTER 277—CONTRACT FINANCING

Sec.
3801.
Authority of agency.
3802.
Payment.
3803.
Security for advance payments.
3804.
Conditions for progress payments.
3805.
Payments for commercial products and commercial services.
3806.
Action in case of fraud.
3807.
Vesting of title in the United States.

        

§3801. Authority of agency

(a) Payment Authority.—The head of any agency may—

(1) make advance, partial, progress, or other payments under contracts for property or services made by the agency; and

(2) insert in solicitations for procurement of property or services a provision limiting to small business concerns advance or progress payments.


(b) Payment Dates for Contractors That Are Small Business Concerns.—

(1) Prime contractors.—For a prime contractor (as defined in section 8701 of title 41) that is a small business concern (as defined in section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632)), the Secretary of Defense shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, establish an accelerated payment date with a goal of 15 days after receipt of a proper invoice for the amount due.

(2) Subcontractors.—For a prime contractor that subcontracts with a small business concern, the Secretary of Defense shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, establish an accelerated payment date with a goal of 15 days after receipt of a proper invoice for the amount due if the prime contractor agrees or proposes to make payments to the subcontractor in accordance with the accelerated payment date, to the maximum extent practicable, without any further consideration from or fees charged to the subcontractor.1

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1834(a), (b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 Amendment by section 1834(b)(3)(C)(ii) of Pub. L. 116–283 could not be executed because of amendment made to section 2307(a) of this title by section 815(2) of Pub. L. 116–283 prior to its transfer to this section.

§3802. Payment

(a) Preference for Performance-Based Payments.—Whenever practicable, payments under section 3801 of this title shall be made using performance-based payments on any of the following bases:

(1) Performance measured by objective, quantifiable methods such as delivery of acceptable items, work measurement, or statistical process controls.

(2) Accomplishment of events defined in the program management plan.

(3) Other quantifiable measures of results.


(b) Basis for performance-based payments.—Performance-based payments shall not be conditioned upon costs incurred in contract performance but on the achievement of performance outcomes listed in subsection (a).

(c) Contractor Accounting Systems.—

(1) In order to receive performance-based payments, a contractor's accounting system shall be in compliance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, and there shall be no requirement for a contractor to develop Government-unique accounting systems or practices as a prerequisite for agreeing to receive performance-based payments.

(2) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to grant the Defense Contract Audit Agency the authority to audit compliance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.


(d) Payment Amount.—Payments made under section 3801 of this title may not exceed the unpaid contract price.

(e) Eligibility of Nontraditional Defense Contractors.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that nontraditional defense contractors and other private sector companies are eligible for performance-based payments, consistent with best commercial practices.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1834(a), (c), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234, 4235.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3803. Security for advance payments

Advance payments made under section 3801 of this title may be made only if the contractor gives adequate security and after a determination by the head of the agency that to do so would be in the public interest. Such security may be in the form of a lien in favor of the United States on the property contracted for, on the balance in an account in which such payments are deposited, and on such of the property acquired for performance of the contract as the parties may agree. This lien is paramount to any other liens and is effective immediately upon the first advancement of funds without filing, notice, or any other action by the United States.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1834(a), (d), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234, 4236.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3804. Conditions for progress payments

(a) Payment Commensurate With Work.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that any payment for work in progress (including materials, labor, and other items) under a defense contract that provides for such payments is commensurate with the work accomplished that meets standards established under the contract. The contractor shall provide such information and evidence as the Secretary of Defense determines necessary to permit the Secretary to carry out the preceding sentence.

(b) Limitation.—The Secretary shall ensure that progress payments referred to in subsection (a) are not made for more than 80 percent of the work accomplished under a defense contract so long as the Secretary has not made the contractual terms, specifications, and price definite.

(c) Applicability.—This section applies to any contract in an amount greater than $25,000.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1834(a), (e), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234, 4236.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

Waivers of Certain Conditions for Progress Payments Under Certain Contracts During the COVID–19 National Emergency

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title VIII, §891, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3793, provided that:

"(a) Waiver of Progress Payments Requirements.—The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirements of section 2307(e)(2) [now 3804(b)] of title 10, United States Code, with respect to progress payments for any undefinitized contractual action (as defined in section 2326 of title 10, United States Code [see 10 U.S.C. 3377(b)]; in this section referred to as 'UCA') if the Secretary determines that the waiver is necessary due to the national emergency for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID–19) and—

"(1) a contractor performing the contract for which a UCA is entered into has not already received increased progress payments from the Secretary of Defense on contractual actions other than UCAs; or

"(2) a contractor performing the contract for which a UCA is entered into, and that has received increased progress payments from the Secretary of Defense on contractual actions other than UCAs, can demonstrate that the contractor has promptly provided the amount of the increase to any subcontractors (at any tier), small business concerns (as defined under section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632)), or suppliers of the contractor.

"(b) Definitization.—With respect to a UCA that not been definitized for a period of 180 days beginning on the date on which such UCA was entered into, the Secretary of Defense may only use the waiver authority described in subsection (a) if the Secretary (or a designee at a level not below the head of a contracting activity) provides a certification to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] that such UCA will be definitized within 60 days after the date on which the waiver is issued.

"(c) Submission.—For each use of the waiver authority under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees an estimate of the amounts to be provided to subcontractors (at any tier), small business concerns, and suppliers, including an identification of the specific entities receiving an amount from an increased progress payment described under such subsection (a)."

§3805. Payments for commercial products and commercial services

(a) Terms and Conditions for Payments.—Payments under section 3801 of this title for commercial products and commercial services may be made under such terms and conditions as the head of the agency determines are appropriate or customary in the commercial marketplace and are in the best interests of the United States.

(b) Security for Payments.—The head of the agency shall obtain adequate security for such payments. If the security is in the form of a lien in favor of the United States, such lien is paramount to all other liens and is effective immediately upon the first payment, without filing, notice, or other action by the United States.

(c) Limitation on Advance Payments.—Advance payments made under section 3801 of this title for commercial products and commercial services may include payments, in a total amount of not more than 15 percent of the contract price, in advance of any performance of work under the contract.

(d) Nonapplication of Certain Conditions.—The conditions of sections 3803 and 3804 of this title need not be applied if they would be inconsistent, as determined by the head of the agency, with commercial terms and conditions pursuant to this section.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1834(a), (f), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234, 4236.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3806. Action in case of fraud

(a) Remedy Coordination Official Defined.—In this section, the term "remedy coordination official", with respect to an agency, means the person or entity in that agency who coordinates within that agency the administration of criminal, civil, administrative, and contractual remedies resulting from investigations of fraud or corruption related to procurement activities.

(b) Recommendation to Reduce or Suspend Payments.—In any case in which the remedy coordination official of an agency finds that there is substantial evidence that the request of a contractor for advance, partial, or progress payment under a contract awarded by that agency is based on fraud, the remedy coordination official shall recommend that the head of the agency reduce or suspend further payments to such contractor.

(c) Reduction or Suspension of Payments.—The head of an agency receiving a recommendation under subsection (b) in the case of a contractor's request for payment under a contract shall determine whether there is substantial evidence that the request is based on fraud. Upon making such a determination, the agency head may reduce or suspend further payments to the contractor under such contract.

(d) Extent of Reduction or Suspension.—The extent of any reduction or suspension of payments by the head of an agency under subsection (c) on the basis of fraud shall be reasonably commensurate with the anticipated loss to the United States resulting from the fraud.

(e) Written Justification.—A written justification for each decision of the head of an agency whether to reduce or suspend payments under subsection (c) and for each recommendation received by such agency head in connection with such decision shall be prepared and be retained in the files of such agency.

(f) Notice.—The head of an agency shall prescribe procedures to ensure that, before such agency head decides to reduce or suspend payments in the case of a contractor under subsection (c), the contractor is afforded notice of the proposed reduction or suspension and an opportunity to submit matters to the head of the agency in response to such proposed reduction or suspension.

(g) Review.—Not later than 180 days after the date on which the head of an agency reduces or suspends payments to a contractor under subsection (c), the remedy coordination official of such agency shall—

(1) review the determination of fraud on which the reduction or suspension is based; and

(2) transmit a recommendation to the head of such agency whether the suspension or reduction should continue.


(h) Annual Report.—The head of an agency shall prepare for each year a report containing the recommendations made by the remedy coordination official of that agency to reduce or suspend payments under subsection (c), the actions taken on the recommendations and the reasons for such actions, and an assessment of the effects of such actions on the Federal Government. The Secretary of each military department shall transmit the annual report of such department to the Secretary of Defense. Each such report shall be available to any member of Congress upon request.

(i) Restriction on Delegation.—The head of an agency may not delegate responsibilities under this section to any person in a position below level IV of the Executive Schedule.

(j) Inapplicability to Coast Guard.—This section applies to the agencies named in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), and (6) of section 3063 of this title.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1834(a), (g), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234, 4237.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3807. Vesting of title in the United States

If a contract paid by a method authorized under section 3801(1) of this title provides for title to property to vest in the United States, the title to the property shall vest in accordance with the terms of the contract, regardless of any security interest in the property that is asserted before or after the contract is entered into.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1834(a), (h), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4234, 4239.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

CHAPTER 279—CONTRACTOR AUDITS AND ACCOUNTING

Sec.
3841.
Examination of records of contractor.
3842.
Performance of incurred cost audits.
3843.
Contractor internal audit reports: Department of Defense access to, use of, and safeguards and protections for.
3844.
Contractor business systems.
3845.
Contractor inventory accounting systems: standards.
3846.
Defense Contract Audit Agency: legal resources and expertise.
3847.
Defense Contract Audit Agency: annual report.
3848.
Defense audit agencies: Small Business Ombudsmen.

        

§3841. Examination of records of contractor

(a) Records Defined.—In this section, the term "records" includes books, documents, accounting procedures and practices, and other data, regardless of type and regardless of whether such items are in written form, in the form of computer data, or in any other form.

(b) Agency Authority.—

(1) The head of an agency, acting through an authorized representative, is authorized to inspect the plant and audit the records of—

(A) a contractor performing a cost-reimbursement, incentive, time-and-materials, labor-hour, or price-redeterminable contract, or any combination of such contracts,made by that agency under a chapter 137 legacy provision; and

(B) a subcontractor performing any cost-reimbursement, incentive, time-and-materials, labor-hour, or price-redeterminable subcontract or any combination of such subcontracts under a contract referred to in subparagraph (A).


(2) The head of an agency, acting through an authorized representative, is authorized, for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy, completeness, and currency of certified cost or pricing data required to be submitted pursuant to chapter 271 of this title with respect to a contract or subcontract, to examine all records of the contractor or subcontractor related to—

(A) the proposal for the contract or subcontract;

(B) the discussions conducted on the proposal;

(C) pricing of the contract or subcontract; or

(D) performance of the contract or subcontract.


(c) DCAA Subpoena Authority.—

(1) Authority to require the production of records.—The Director of the Defense Contract Audit Agency (or any successor agency) may require by subpoena the production of any records of a contractor that the Secretary of Defense is authorized to audit or examine under subsection (b).

(2) Enforcement of subpoena.—Any such subpoena, in the case of contumacy or refusal to obey, shall be enforceable by order of an appropriate United States district court.

(3) Authority not delegable.—The authority provided by paragraph (1) may not be redelegated.


(d) Comptroller General Authority.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), each contract awarded after using procedures other than sealed bid procedures shall provide that the Comptroller General and his representatives are authorized to examine any records of the contractor, or any of its subcontractors, that directly pertain to, and involve transactions relating to, the contract or subcontract and to interview any current employee regarding such transactions.

(2) Exception for foreign contractor or subcontractor.—Paragraph (1) does not apply to a contract or subcontract with a foreign contractor or foreign subcontractor if the head of the agency concerned determines, with the concurrence of the Comptroller General or his designee, that the application of that paragraph to the contract or subcontract would not be in the public interest. However, the concurrence of the Comptroller General or his designee is not required—

(A) where the contractor or subcontractor is a foreign government or agency thereof or is precluded by the laws of the country involved from making its records available for examination; and

(B) where the head of the agency determines, after taking into account the price and availability of the property and services from United States sources, that the public interest would be best served by not applying paragraph (1).


(3) Additional records not required.—Paragraph (1) may not be construed to require a contractor or subcontractor to create or maintain any record that the contractor or subcontractor does not maintain in the ordinary course of business or pursuant to another provision of law.


(e) Limitation on Audits Relating to Indirect Costs.—The head of an agency may not perform an audit of indirect costs under a contract, subcontract, or modification before or after entering into the contract, subcontract, or modification in any case in which the contracting officer determines that the objectives of the audit can reasonably be met by accepting the results of an audit that was conducted by any other department or agency of the Federal Government within one year preceding the date of the contracting officer's determination.

(f) Limitation.—The authority of the head of an agency under subsection (b), and the authority of the Comptroller General under subsection (d), with respect to a contract or subcontract shall expire three years after final payment under such contract or subcontract.

(g) Inapplicability to Certain Contracts.—This section does not apply to the following contracts:

(1) Contracts for utility services at rates not exceeding those established to apply uniformly to the public, plus any applicable reasonable connection charge.

(2) A contract or subcontract that is for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.


(h) Forms of Original Record Storage.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude a contractor from duplicating or storing original records in electronic form.

(i) Use of Images of Original Records.—The head of an agency shall not require a contractor or subcontractor to provide original records in an audit carried out pursuant to this section if the contractor or subcontractor provides photographic or electronic images of the original records and meets the following requirements:

(1) The contractor or subcontractor has established procedures to ensure that the imaging process preserves the integrity, reliability, and security of the original records.

(2) The contractor or subcontractor maintains an effective indexing system to permit timely and convenient access to the imaged records.

(3) The contractor or subcontractor retains the original records for a minimum of one year after imaging to permit periodic validation of the imaging systems.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(a), (b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4239.)

Effective Date

Section and amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3842. Performance of incurred cost audits

(a) Compliance With Standards of Risk and Materiality.—Not later than October 1, 2020, the Secretary of Defense shall comply with commercially accepted standards of risk and materiality in the performance of each incurred cost audit of costs associated with a contract of the Department of Defense.

(b) Conditions for the Use of Qualified Auditors to Perform Incurred Cost Audits.—(1) To support the need of the Department of Defense for timely and effective incurred cost audits, and to ensure that the Defense Contract Audit Agency is able to allocate resources to higher-risk and more complex audits, the Secretary of Defense shall use qualified private auditors to perform a sufficient number of incurred cost audits of contracts of the Department of Defense to—

(A) eliminate, by October 1, 2020, any backlog of incurred cost audits of the Defense Contract Audit Agency;

(B) ensure that incurred cost audits are completed not later than one year after the date of receipt of a qualified incurred cost submission;

(C) maintain an appropriate mix of Government and private sector capacity to meet the current and future needs of the Department of Defense for the performance of incurred cost audits;

(D) ensure that qualified private auditors perform incurred cost audits on an ongoing basis to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the performance of incurred cost audits; and

(E) limit multiyear auditing to ensure that multiyear auditing is conducted only—

(i) to address outstanding incurred cost audits for which a qualified incurred cost submission was submitted to the Defense Contract Audit Agency more than 12 months before the date of the enactment of this section; or

(ii) when the contractor being audited submits a written request, including a justification for the use of multiyear auditing, to the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).


(2) The Secretary of Defense shall consult with Federal agencies that have awarded contracts or task orders to qualified private auditors to ensure that the Department of Defense is using, as appropriate, best practices relating to contracting with qualified private auditors.

(3) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that a qualified private auditor performing an incurred cost audit under this section—

(A) has no conflict of interest in performing such an audit, as defined by generally accepted government auditing standards;

(B) possesses the necessary independence to perform such an audit, as defined by generally accepted government auditing standards;

(C) signs a nondisclosure agreement, as appropriate, to protect proprietary or nonpublic data;

(D) accesses and uses proprietary or nonpublic data furnished to the qualified private auditor only for the purposes stated in the contract;

(E) takes all reasonable steps to protect proprietary and nonpublic data furnished during the audit; and

(F) does not use proprietary or nonpublic data provided to the qualified private auditor under the authority of this section to compete for Government or nongovernment contracts.


(c) Procedures for the Use of Qualified Private Auditors.—(1) Not later than October 1, 2018, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a plan to implement the requirements of subsection (b). Such plan shall include, at a minimum—

(A) a description of the incurred cost audits that the Secretary determines are appropriate to be conducted by qualified private auditors, including the approximate number and dollar value of such incurred cost audits;

(B) an estimate of the number and dollar value of incurred cost audits to be conducted by qualified private auditors for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2025 necessary to meet the requirements of subsection (b); and

(C) all other elements of an acquisition plan as required by the Federal Acquisition Regulation.


(2) Not later than April 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense or a Federal department or agency authorized by the Secretary shall award a contract or issue a task order under an existing contract to two or more qualified private auditors to perform incurred cost audits of costs associated with contracts of the Department of Defense. The Defense Contract Management Agency or a contract administration office of a military department shall use a contract or a task order awarded or issued pursuant to this paragraph for the performance of an incurred cost audit, if doing so will assist the Secretary in meeting the requirements in subsection (b).

(3) To improve the quality of incurred cost audits and reduce duplication of performance of such audits, the Secretary of Defense may provide a qualified private auditor with information on past or ongoing audit results or other relevant information on the entities the qualified private auditor is auditing.

(4) The Secretary of Defense shall consider the results of an incurred cost audit performed under this section without regard to whether the Defense Contract Audit Agency or a qualified private auditor performed the audit.

(5) The contracting officer for a contract that is the subject of an incurred cost audit shall have the sole discretion to determine what action should be taken based on an audit finding on direct costs of the contract.

(d) Qualified Private Auditor Requirements.—(1) A qualified private auditor awarded a contract or issued a task order under subsection (c)(2) shall conduct an incurred cost audit in accordance with the generally accepted government auditing standards.

(2) A qualified private auditor awarded a contract or issued a task order under subsection (c)(2) shall develop and maintain complete and accurate working papers on each incurred cost audit. All working papers and reports on the incurred cost audit prepared by such qualified private auditor shall be the property of the Department of Defense, except that the qualified private auditor may retain a complete copy of all working papers to support such reports made pursuant to this section.

(3) A breach of contract by a qualified private auditor with respect to use of proprietary or nonpublic data may subject the qualified private auditor to—

(A) criminal, civil, administrative, and contractual actions for penalties, damages, and other appropriate remedies by the United States; and

(B) civil actions for damages and other appropriate remedies by the contractor or subcontractor whose data are affected by the breach.


(e) Peer Review.—(1) Effective October 1, 2022, the Defense Contract Audit Agency may issue unqualified audit findings for an incurred cost audit only if the Defense Contract Audit Agency is peer reviewed by a commercial auditor and passes such peer review. Such peer review shall be conducted in accordance with the peer review requirements of generally accepted government auditing standards, including the requirements related to frequency of peer reviews, and shall be deemed to meet the requirements of the Defense Contract Audit Agency for a peer review under such standards.

(2) Not later than October 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives an update on the process of securing a commercial auditor to perform the peer review referred to in paragraph (1).

(f) Numeric Materiality Standards for Incurred Cost Audits.—(1) Not later than October 1, 2020, the Department of Defense shall implement numeric materiality standards for incurred cost audits to be used by auditors that are consistent with commercially accepted standards of risk and materiality.

(2) Not later than October 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report containing proposed numeric materiality standards required under paragraph (1). In developing such standards, the Secretary shall consult with commercial auditors that conduct incurred cost audits, the advisory panel authorized under section 809 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 129 Stat. 889), and other governmental and nongovernmental entities with relevant expertise.

(g) Timeliness of Incurred Cost Audits.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that all incurred cost audits performed by qualified private auditors or the Defense Contract Audit Agency are performed in a timely manner.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall notify a contractor of the Department of Defense within 60 days after receipt of an incurred cost submission from the contractor whether the submission is a qualified incurred cost submission.

(3) With respect to qualified incurred cost submissions received on or after the date of the enactment of this section, audit findings shall be issued for an incurred cost audit not later than one year after the date of receipt of such qualified incurred cost submission.

(4) Not later than October 1, 2020, and subject to paragraph (5), if audit findings are not issued within one year after the date of receipt of a qualified incurred cost submission, the audit shall be considered to be complete and no additional audit work shall be conducted.

(5) The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) may waive the requirements of paragraph (4) on a case-by-case basis if the Director of the Defense Contract Audit Agency submits a written request. The Director of the Defense Contract Audit Agency shall include in the report required under section 3847 of this title the total number of waivers issued and the reasons for issuing each such waiver.

(h) Review of Audit Performance.—Not later than April 1, 2025, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report that evaluates for the period beginning on October 1, 2019, and ending on August 31, 2023—

(1) the timeliness, individual cost, and quality of incurred cost audits, set forth separately by incurred cost audits performed by the Defense Contract Audit Agency and by qualified private auditors;

(2) the cost to contractors of the Department of Defense for incurred cost audits, set forth separately by incurred cost audits performed by the Defense Contract Audit Agency and by qualified private auditors;

(3) the effect, if any, on other types of audits conducted by the Defense Contract Audit Agency that results from incurred cost audits conducted by qualified private auditors; and

(4) the capability and capacity of qualified private auditors to conduct incurred cost audits for the Department of Defense.


(i) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "commercial auditor" means a private entity engaged in the business of performing audits.

(2) The term "incurred cost audit" means an audit of charges to the Government by a contractor under a flexibly priced contract.

(3) The term "flexibly priced contract" has the meaning given the term "flexibly-priced contracts and subcontracts" in part 30 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (section 30.001 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations).

(4) The term "generally accepted government auditing standards" means the generally accepted government auditing standards of the Comptroller General of the United States.

(5) The term "numeric materiality standard" means a dollar amount of misstatements, including omissions, contained in an incurred cost audit that would be material if the misstatements, individually or in the aggregate, could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of the Government made on the basis of the incurred cost audit.

(6) The term "qualified incurred cost submission" means a submission by a contractor of costs incurred under a flexibly priced contract that has been qualified by the Department of Defense as sufficient to conduct an incurred cost audit.

(7) The term "qualified private auditor" means a commercial auditor—

(A) that performs audits in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards; and

(B) that has received a passing peer review rating, as defined by generally accepted government auditing standards.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §803(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1451, §2313b; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(19), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1984; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, §1731(a)(41), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1814; renumbered §3842 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(c), (d)(1), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4240.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3843. Contractor internal audit reports: Department of Defense access to, use of, and safeguards and protections for

[Reserved.]

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(e)(1), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4241.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3844. Contractor business systems

[Reserved.]

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(e)(1), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4241.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3845. Contractor inventory accounting systems: standards

(a) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe in regulations—

(1) standards for inventory accounting systems used by contractors under contract with the Department of Defense; and

(2) appropriate enforcement requirements with respect to such standards.


(b) The regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) shall not apply to a contract that is for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.

(c) The regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) shall not apply to a contract for the purchase of commercial products.

(Added Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §834(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2024, §2410b; amended Pub. L. 103–355, title IV, §4102(h), title VIII, §8105(i), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3341, 3393; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4301(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(b)(3), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2660; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(28), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3845; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(e)(6), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1870; renumbered §3845 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(c), (d)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4240.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3846. Defense Contract Audit Agency: legal resources and expertise

[Reserved.]

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(e)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4241.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as an Effective Date of 2021 Amendment note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3847. Defense Contract Audit Agency: annual report

(a) Required Report.—The Director of the Defense Contract Audit Agency shall prepare an annual report of the activities of the Agency during the previous fiscal year. The report shall include, at a minimum—

(1) a description of significant problems, abuses, and deficiencies encountered during the conduct of contractor audits;

(2) statistical tables showing—

(A) the total number and dollar value of audit reports completed and pending, set forth separately by type of audit;

(B) the priority given to each type of audit;

(C) the length of time taken for each type of audit, both from the date of receipt of a qualified incurred cost submission and from the date the audit begins;

(D) the sustained questioned costs, set forth separately by type of audit, both as a total value and as a percentage of the total questioned costs for the audit;

(E) the total number and dollar value of incurred cost audits completed, and the method by which such incurred cost audits were completed;

(F) the aggregate cost of performing audits, set forth separately by type of audit;

(G) the ratio of sustained questioned costs to the aggregate costs of performing audits, set forth separately by type of audit; and

(H) the total number and dollar value of audits that are pending for a period longer than one year as of the end of the fiscal year covered by the report, and the fiscal year in which the qualified submission was received, set forth separately by type of audit;


(3) a summary of any recommendations of actions or resources needed to improve the audit process;

(4) a summary, set forth separately by dollar amount and percentage, of indirect costs for independent research and development incurred by contractors in the previous fiscal year;

(5) a summary, set forth separately by dollar amount and percentage, of indirect costs for bid and proposal costs incurred by contractors in the previous fiscal year;

(6) a description of outreach actions toward industry to promote more effective use of audit resources; and

(7) any other matters the Director considers appropriate.


(b) Submission of Annual Report.—Not later than March 30 of each year, the Director shall submit to the congressional defense committees the report required by subsection (a).

(c) Public Availability.—Not later than 60 days after the submission of an annual report to the congressional defense committees under subsection (b), the Director shall make the report available on the publicly available website of the Agency or such other publicly available website as the Director considers appropriate.

(d) Definitions.—

(1) The terms "incurred cost audit" and "qualified incurred cost submission" have the meaning given those terms in section 3842 of this title.

(2) The term "sustained questioned costs" means questioned costs that were recovered by the Federal Government as a result of contract negotiations related to such questioned costs.

(Added Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §805(a), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1486, §2313a; amended Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §893(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §824(d)(1), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2279; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §811(d)(1), title X, §1081(d)(5), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1460, 1600; renumbered §3847 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(c), (d)(3), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4240.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3848. Defense audit agencies: Small Business Ombudsmen

(a) Small Business Ombudsman.—The Secretary of Defense shall designate within each defense audit agency an official as the Small Business Ombudsman to have the duties described in subsection (b) and such other responsibilities as may be determined by the Secretary.

(b) Duties.—The Small Business Ombudsman of a defense audit agency shall—

(1) advise the Director of the defense audit agency on policy issues related to small business concerns;

(2) serve as the defense audit agency's primary point of contact and source of information for small business concerns;

(3) collect and monitor relevant data regarding the defense audit agency's conduct of audits of small business concerns, including—

(A) data regarding the timeliness of audit closeouts for small business concerns; and

(B) data regarding the responsiveness of the defense audit agency to issues or other matters raised by small business concerns; and


(4) make recommendations to the Director regarding policies, processes, and procedures related to the timeliness of audits of small business concerns and the responsiveness of the defense audit agency to issues or other matters raised by small business concerns.


(c) Audit Independence.—The Small Business Ombudsman of a defense audit agency shall be segregated from ongoing audits in the field and shall not engage in activities with regard to particular audits that could compromise the independence of the defense audit agency or undermine compliance with applicable audit standards.

(d) Defense Audit Agency Defined.—In this section, the term "defense audit agency" means the Defense Contract Audit Agency and the Defense Contract Management Agency.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XVI, §1612(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2064, §204; renumbered §3848 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1835(c), (d)(4), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4240.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

CHAPTER 281—CLAIMS AND DISPUTES

Sec.
3861.
Research and development contracts: indemnification provisions.
3862.
Requests for equitable adjustment or other relief: certification.
3863.
Retention of amounts collected from contractor during the pendency of contract dispute.

        

§3861. Research and development contracts: indemnification provisions

(a) With the approval of the Secretary of the military department concerned, any contract of a military department for research or development, or both, may provide that the United States will indemnify the contractor against either or both of the following, but only to the extent that they arise out of the direct performance of the contract and to the extent not compensated by insurance or otherwise:

(1) Claims (including reasonable expenses of litigation or settlement) by third persons, including employees of the contractor, for death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property, from a risk that the contract defines as unusually hazardous.

(2) Loss of or damage to property of the contractor from a risk that the contract defines as unusually hazardous.


(b) A contract, made under subsection (a), that provides for indemnification must also provide for—

(1) notice to the United States of any claim or suit against the contractor for the death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property; and

(2) control of or assistance in the defense by the United States, at its election, of that suit or claim.


(c) No payment may be made under subsection (a) unless the Secretary of the department concerned, or an officer or official of his department designated by him, certifies that the amount is just and reasonable.

(d) Upon approval by the Secretary concerned, payments under subsection (a) may be made from—

(1) funds obligated for the performance of the contract concerned;

(2) funds available for research or development, or both, and not otherwise obligated; or

(3) funds appropriated for those payments.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 134, §2354; renumbered §3861 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1836(b), (c), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4241.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3862. Requests for equitable adjustment or other relief: certification

(a) Certification Requirement.—A request for equitable adjustment to contract terms or request for relief under Public Law 85–804 (50 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.) that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold may not be paid unless a person authorized to certify the request on behalf of the contractor certifies, at the time the request is submitted, that—

(1) the request is made in good faith, and

(2) the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of that person's knowledge and belief.


(b) Restriction on Legislative Payment of Claims.—In the case of a contract of an agency named in section 2303(a) 1 of this title, no provision of a law enacted after September 30, 1994, that directs the payment of a particular claim under such contract, a particular request for equitable adjustment to any term of such contract, or a particular request for relief under Public Law 85–804 (50 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.) regarding such contract may be implemented unless such provision of law—

(1) specifically refers to this subsection; and

(2) specifically states that this subsection does not apply with respect to the payment directed by that provision of law.


(c) Definition.—In this section, the term "simplified acquisition threshold" has the meaning given that term in section 134 of title 41.

(Added Pub. L. 103–355, title II, §2301(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3320, §2410; amended Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(27), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3845; renumbered §3862 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §§1836(b), 1883(b)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4241, 4294.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 Probably refers to section 3063 of this title, but amendment by section 1883(b)(2) of Pub. L. 116–283 was not executed as section 2303(a) was transferred to two different sections.

§3863. Retention of amounts collected from contractor during the pendency of contract dispute

(a) Retention of Funds.—Notwithstanding sections 1552(a) and 3302(b) of title 31, any amount, including interest, collected from a contractor as a result of a claim made by a military department or Defense Agency under chapter 71 of title 41, shall remain available in accordance with this section to pay—

(1) any settlement of the claim by the parties;

(2) any judgment rendered in the contractor's favor on an appeal of the decision on that claim to the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals under section 7104(a) of title 41; or

(3) any judgment rendered in the contractor's favor in an action on that claim in a court of the United States.


(b) Period of Availability.—(1) The period of availability of an amount under subsection (a), in connection with a claim—

(A) expires 180 days after the expiration of the period for bringing an action on that claim in the United States Court of Federal Claims under section 7104(b) of title 41 if, within that 180-day period—

(i) no appeal on the claim is commenced at the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals under section 7104(a) of such title; and

(ii) no action on the claim is commenced in a court of the United States; or


(B) if not expiring under subparagraph (A), expires—

(i) in the case of a settlement of the claim, 180 days after the date of the settlement; or

(ii) in the case of a judgment rendered on the claim in an appeal to the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals under section 7104(a) of title 41 or an action in a court of the United States, 180 days after the date on which the judgment becomes final and not appealable.


(2) While available under this section, an amount may be obligated or expended only for a purpose described in subsection (a).

(3) Upon the expiration of the period of availability of an amount under paragraph (1), the amount shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(Added Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §831(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1841, §2410m; amended Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(a)(21), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1598; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(32), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3845; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1061(15), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(a)(8), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3504; renumbered §3863, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1836(b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4241.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

CHAPTER 283—FOREIGN ACQUISITIONS

Subchapter
Sec.
I.
General
3881
II.
Prohibition on Contracting with the Enemy
3891

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

Sec.
3881.
Contracts: consideration of national security objectives.

        

§3881. Contracts: consideration of national security objectives

(a) Disclosure of Ownership or Control by a Foreign Government.—The head of an agency shall require a firm or a subsidiary of a firm that submits a bid or proposal in response to a solicitation issued by the Department of Defense to disclose in that bid or proposal any significant interest in such firm or subsidiary (or, in the case of a subsidiary, in the firm that owns the subsidiary) that is owned or controlled (whether directly or indirectly) by a foreign government or an agent or instrumentality of a foreign government, if such foreign government is the government of a country that the Secretary of State determines under section 6(j)(1)(A) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 4605(j)(1)(A)) has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism.

(b) Prohibition on Entering Into Contracts Against the Interests of the United States.—Except as provided in subsection (c), the head of an agency may not enter into a contract with a firm or a subsidiary of a firm if—

(1) a foreign government owns or controls (whether directly or indirectly) a significant interest in such firm or subsidiary (or, in the case of a subsidiary, in the firm that owns the subsidiary); and

(2) such foreign government is the government of a country that the Secretary of State determines under section 6(j)(1)(A) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 4605(j)(1)(A)) has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism.


(c) Waiver.—(1)(A) If the Secretary of Defense determines under paragraph (2) that entering into a contract with a firm or a subsidiary of a firm described in subsection (b) is not inconsistent with the national security objectives of the United States, the head of an agency may enter into a contract with such firm or subsidiary if in the best interests of the Government.

(B) The Secretary shall maintain records of each contract entered into by reason of subparagraph (A). Such records shall include the following:

(i) The identity of the foreign government concerned.

(ii) The nature of the contract.

(iii) The extent of ownership or control of the firm or subsidiary concerned (or, if appropriate in the case of a subsidiary, of the firm that owns the subsidiary) by the foreign government concerned or the agency or instrumentality of such foreign government.

(iv) The reasons for entering into the contract.


(2) Upon the request of the head of an agency, the Secretary of Defense shall determine whether entering into a contract with a firm or subsidiary described in subsection (b) is inconsistent with the national security objectives of the United States. In making such a determination, the Secretary of Defense shall consider the following:

(A) The relationship of the United States with the foreign government concerned.

(B) The obligations of the United States under international agreements.

(C) The extent of the ownership or control of the firm or subsidiary (or, if appropriate in the case of a subsidiary, of the firm that owns the subsidiary) by the foreign government or an agent or instrumentality of the foreign government.

(D) Whether payments made, or information made available, to the firm or subsidiary under the contract could be used for purposes hostile to the interests of the United States.


(d) List of Firms Subject to Prohibition.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall develop and maintain a list of all firms and subsidiaries of firms that the Secretary has identified as being subject to the prohibition in subsection (b).

(2)(A) A person may request the Secretary to include on the list maintained under paragraph (1) any firm or subsidiary of a firm that the person believes to be owned or controlled by a foreign government described in subsection (b)(2). Upon receipt of such a request, the Secretary shall determine whether the conditions in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) exist in the case of that firm or subsidiary. If the Secretary determines that such conditions do exist, the Secretary shall include the firm or subsidiary on the list.

(B) A firm or subsidiary of a firm included on the list may request the Secretary to remove such firm or subsidiary from the list on the basis that it has been erroneously included on the list or its ownership circumstances have significantly changed. Upon receipt of such a request, the Secretary shall determine whether the conditions in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) exist in the case of that firm or subsidiary. If the Secretary determines that such conditions do not exist, the Secretary shall remove the firm or subsidiary from the list.

(C) The Secretary shall establish procedures to carry out this paragraph.

(3) The head of an agency shall prohibit each firm or subsidiary of a firm awarded a contract by the agency from entering into a subcontract under that contract in an amount in excess of $25,000 with a firm or subsidiary included on the list maintained under paragraph (1) unless there is a compelling reason to do so. In the case of any subcontract requiring consent by the head of an agency, the head of the agency shall not consent to the award of the subcontract to a firm or subsidiary included on such list unless there is a compelling reason for such approval.

(e) Distribution of List.—The Administrator of General Services shall ensure that the list developed and maintained under subsection (d) is made available to Federal agencies and the public in the same manner and to the same extent as the list of suspended and debarred contractors compiled pursuant to subpart 9.4 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

(f) Applicability.—(1) This section does not apply to a contract for an amount less than $100,000.

(2) The provisions of section 3011 of this title apply in this section, except that this section does not apply to the Coast Guard or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

(g) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the Secretary of State, shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. Such regulations shall include a definition of the term "significant interest".

(Added Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §951(a)(1)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-164, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §951(a)(1)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341-164, §2327; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §951(a)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3944, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1231(8), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1160; Pub. L. 100–224, §5(b)(2), Dec. 30, 1987, 101 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §843, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1844; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(a)(16), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1597; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1081(b)(3)(C), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2418; renumbered §3881 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1837(b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4241.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—PROHIBITION ON CONTRACTING WITH THE ENEMY

Sec.
3891.
[Reserved].
3892.
[Reserved].
3893.
[Reserved].

        

CHAPTER 287—SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS

Sec.
3901.
Contracts: prohibition on competition between Department of Defense and small businesses.
3902.
Credit for Indian contracting in meeting certain subcontracting goals for small disadvantaged businesses.
3903.
Subcontracting plans: credit for certain purchases.
3904.
Research and educational programs and activities: historically black colleges and universities and minority-serving institutions of higher education.
3905.
Products of Federal Prison Industries: procedural requirements.

        

§3901. Contracts: prohibition on competition between Department of Defense and small businesses

(a) Exclusion.—In any case in which the Secretary of Defense plans to use competitive procedures for a procurement, if the procurement is to be conducted as described in subsection (b), then the Secretary shall exclude the Department of Defense from competing in the procurement.

(b) Procurement Description.—The requirement to exclude the Department of Defense under subsection (a) applies in the case of a procurement to be conducted by excluding from competition entities in the private sector other than small business concerns in furtherance of section 8 or 15 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637 or 644).

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §848(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1724, §2304a; renumbered §2304e, Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(b)(6)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 672; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(a)(2)(C)(vi), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1847; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, §1731(a)(39)(A), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1814; renumbered §3901, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1838(b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4242.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3902. Credit for Indian contracting in meeting certain subcontracting goals for small disadvantaged businesses

(a) Regulations.—Subject to subsections (b) and (c), in any case in which a subcontracting goal is specified in a Department of Defense contract in the implementation of section 8(d) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)), credit toward meeting that subcontracting goal shall be given for—

(1) work performed in connection with that Department of Defense contract, and work performed in connection with any subcontract awarded under that Department of Defense contract, if such work is performed on any Indian lands and meets the requirements of paragraph (1) of subsection (b); or

(2) work performed in connection with that Department of Defense contract, and work performed in connection with any subcontract awarded under that Department of Defense contract, if the performance of such contract or subcontract is undertaken as a joint venture that meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of that subsection.


(b) Eligible Work.—(1) Work performed on Indian lands meets the requirements of this paragraph if—

(A) not less than 40 percent of the workers directly engaged in the performance of the work are Indians; or

(B) the contractor or subcontractor has an agreement with the tribal government having jurisdiction over such Indian lands that provides goals for training and development of the Indian workforce and Indian management.


(2) A joint venture undertaking to perform a contract or subcontract meets the requirements of this paragraph if—

(A) an Indian tribe or tribally owned corporation owns at least 50 percent of the joint venture;

(B) the activities of the joint venture under the contract or subcontract provide employment opportunities for Indians either directly or through the purchase of products or services for the performance of such contract or subcontract; and

(C) the Indian tribe or tribally owned corporation manages the performance of such contract or subcontract.


(c) Extent of Credit.—The amount of the credit given toward the attainment of any subcontracting goal under subsection (a) shall be—

(1) in the case of work performed as described in subsection (a)(1), the value of the work performed; and

(2) in the case of a contract or subcontract undertaken to be performed by a joint venture as described in subsection (a)(2), an amount equal to the amount of the contract or subcontract multiplied by the percentage of the tribe's or tribally owned corporation's ownership interest in the joint venture.


(d) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations for the implementation of this section.

(e) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "Indian lands" has the meaning given that term by section 4(4) of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (25 U.S.C. 2703(4)).

(2) The term "Indian" has the meaning given that term by section 4(d) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 5304(d)).

(3) The term "Indian tribe" has the meaning given that term by section 4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 5304(e)).

(4) The term "tribally owned corporation" means a corporation owned entirely by an Indian tribe.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §801(g)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2445, §2323a; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(a)(13), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2659; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(a)(2)(C)(vii), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1847; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, §1731(a)(39)(B), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1814; renumbered §3902, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1838(b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4242.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3903. Subcontracting plans: credit for certain purchases

(a) Purchases Benefiting Severely Handicapped Persons.—In the case of a business concern that has negotiated a small business subcontracting plan with a military department or a Defense Agency, purchases made by that business concern from qualified nonprofit agencies for the blind or other severely handicapped shall count toward meeting the subcontracting goal provided in that plan.

(b) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "small business subcontracting plan" means a plan negotiated pursuant to section 8(d) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)) that establishes a goal for the participation of small business concerns as subcontractors under a contract.

(2) The term "qualified nonprofit agency for the blind or other severely handicapped" means—

(A) a qualified nonprofit agency for the blind, as defined in section 8501(7) of title 41;

(B) a qualified nonprofit agency for other severely disabled, as defined in section 8501(6) of title 41; and

(C) a central nonprofit agency designated by the Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled under section 8503(c) of title 41.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §808(b)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2449, §2410d; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title VIII, §804, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2815; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(b)(15), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §835, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1843; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §807, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(29), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3845; renumbered §3903, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1838(b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4242.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3904. Research and educational programs and activities: historically black colleges and universities and minority-serving institutions of higher education

(a) Program Established.—(1) The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and the Secretary of each military department, shall carry out a program to provide assistance to covered educational institutions to assist the Department in defense-related research, development, testing, and evaluation activities.

(2) The Secretary of Defense may not delegate or transfer to an individual outside the Office of the Secretary of Defense the authority regarding the programming or budgeting of the program established by this section that is carried out by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.

(b) Program Objective.—The objective of the program established by subsection (a)(1) is to enhance defense-related research and education at covered educational institutions. Such objective shall be accomplished through initiatives designed to—

(1) enhance the research and educational capabilities of such institutions in areas of importance to national defense, as determined by the Secretary;

(2) encourage the participation of such institutions in the research, development, testing, and evaluation programs and activities of the Department of Defense;

(3) increase the number of graduates from such institutions engaged in disciplines important to the national security functions of the Department of Defense, as determined by the Secretary; and

(4) encourage research and educational collaborations between such institutions and other institutions of higher education, Government defense organizations, and the defense industry.


(c) Assistance Provided.—Under the program established by subsection (a)(1), the Secretary of Defense may provide covered educational institutions with funding or technical assistance, including any of the following:

(1) Support for research, development, testing, evaluation, or educational enhancements in areas important to national defense through the competitive awarding of grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, scholarships, fellowships, or the acquisition of research equipment or instrumentation.

(2) Support to assist in the attraction and retention of faculty in scientific disciplines important to the national security functions of the Department of Defense.

(3) Establishing partnerships between such institutions and defense laboratories, Government defense organizations, the defense industry, and other institutions of higher education in research, development, testing, and evaluation in areas important to the national security functions of the Department of Defense.

(4) Other such non-monetary assistance as the Secretary finds appropriate to enhance defense-related research, development, testing, and evaluation activities at such institutions.


(d) Incentives.—The Secretary of Defense may develop incentives to encourage research and educational collaborations between covered educational institutions and other institutions of higher education.

(e) Criteria for Funding.—The Secretary of Defense may establish procedures under which the Secretary may limit funding under this section to institutions that have not otherwise received a significant amount of funding from the Department of Defense for research, development, testing, and evaluation programs supporting the national security functions of the Department.

(f) Definition of Covered Educational Institution.—In this section the term "covered educational institution" means—

(1) an institution of higher education eligible for assistance under title III or V of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.); or

(2) an accredited postsecondary minority institution.

(Added Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title II, §252(a), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2242, §2362; amended Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(b)(32), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4370; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title II, §219, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(c)(2)(A)(i), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1949; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title II, §245, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1700; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, §214, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1257; renumbered §3904, Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §1838(b), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4242.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§3905. Products of Federal Prison Industries: procedural requirements

(a) Products for Which Federal Prison Industries Does Not Have Significant Market Share.—(1) Before purchasing a product listed in the latest edition of the Federal Prison Industries catalog under section 4124(d) of title 18 for which Federal Prison Industries does not have a significant market share, the Secretary of Defense shall conduct market research to determine whether the product is comparable to products available from the private sector that best meet the needs of the Department in terms of price, quality, and time of delivery.

(2) If the Secretary determines that a Federal Prison Industries product described in paragraph (1) is not comparable in price, quality, or time of delivery to products of the private sector that best meets the needs of the Department in terms of price, quality, and time of delivery, the Secretary shall use competitive procedures for the procurement of the product, or shall make an individual purchase under a multiple award contract in accordance with the competition requirements applicable to such contract. In conducting such a competition, the Secretary shall consider a timely offer from Federal Prison Industries.

(b) Products for Which Federal Prison Industries Has Significant Market Share.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may purchase a product listed in the latest edition of the Federal Prison Industries catalog for which Federal Prison Industries has a significant market share only if the Secretary uses competitive procedures for the procurement of the product or makes an individual purchase under a multiple award contract in accordance with the competition requirements applicable to such contract. In conducting such a competition, the Secretary shall consider a timely offer from Federal Prison Industries.

(2) For purposes of this subsection, Federal Prison Industries shall be treated as having a significant share of the market for a product if the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of Federal Procurement Policy, determines that the Federal Prison Industries share of the Department of Defense market for the category of products including such product is greater than 5 percent.

(c) Implementation by Secretary of Defense.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that—

(1) the Department of Defense does not purchase a Federal Prison Industries product or service unless a contracting officer of the Department determines that the product or service is comparable to products or services available from the private sector that best meet the Department's needs in terms of price, quality, and time of delivery; and

(2) Federal Prison Industries performs its contractual obligations to the same extent as any other contractor for the Department of Defense.


(d) Market Research Determination Not Subject to Review.—A determination by a contracting officer regarding whether a product or service offered by Federal Prison Industries is comparable to products or services available from the private sector that best meet the Department's needs in terms of price, quality, and time of delivery shall not be subject to review pursuant to section 4124(b) of title 18.

(e) Performance as a Subcontractor.—(1) A contractor or potential contractor of the Department of Defense may not be required to use Federal Prison Industries as a subcontractor or supplier of products or provider of services for the performance of a Department of Defense contract by any means, including means such as—

(A) a contract solicitation provision requiring a contractor to offer to make use of products or services of Federal Prison Industries in the performance of the contract;

(B) a contract specification requiring the contractor to use specific products or services (or classes of products or services) offered by Federal Prison Industries in the performance of the contract; or

(C) any contract modification directing the use of products or services of Federal Prison Industries in the performance of the contract.


(2) In this subsection, the term "contractor", with respect to a contract, includes a subcontractor at any tier under the contract.

(f) Protection of Classified and Sensitive Information.—The Secretary of Defense may not enter into any contract with Federal Prison Industries under which an inmate worker would have access to—

(1) any data that is classified;

(2) any geographic data regarding the location of—

(A) surface and subsurface infrastructure providing communications or water or electrical power distribution;

(B) pipelines for the distribution of natural gas, bulk petroleum products, or other commodities; or

(C) other utilities; or


(3) any personal or financial information about any individual private citizen, including information relating to such person's real property however described, without the prior consent of the individual.


(g) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "competitive procedures" has the meaning given such term in section 3012 1 of this title.

(2) The term "market research" means obtaining specific information about the price, quality, and time of delivery of products available in the private sector through a variety of means, which may include—

(A) contacting knowledgeable individuals in government and industry;

(B) interactive communication among industry, acquisition personnel, and customers; and

(C) interchange meetings or pre-solicitation conferences with potential offerors.

(Added Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §811(a)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1180, §2410n; amended Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §819(a)(1), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2612; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1056(c)(4), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §827(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 228; renumbered §3905 and amended Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title XVIII, §§1838(b), 1883(b)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4242, 4294.)

Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

1 Reference reflects amendment made by section 1883(b)(2) of Pub. L. 116–283.