[USC02] POSTAL SERVICE
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TITLE 39—POSTAL SERVICE

This title was enacted by Pub. L. 86–682, §1, Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 578, and was revised and reenacted by Pub. L. 91–375, §2, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719

Part
Sec.
I.
General
101
II.
Personnel
1001
III.
Modernization and Fiscal Administration
2001
IV.
Mail Matter
3001
V.
Transportation of Mail
5001

        

Table I
This Table lists the sections of former Title 39, The Postal Service, and indicates the sections of Title 39, as enacted in 1960, which covered similar and related subject matter.
Title 39

Former Sections

Title 39

1960 Revision Sections

1–3 701
4, 5 707
6 710
7 709
8 1, 510
9 509
10, 11 2102
11a Rep.
12 2102
13 Rep.
14 2102
31 3311
31a 3311, 3314
31b 3311, 3312
31c Rep.
31d 3313
32 3312
33 Rep.
34 502
35 Rep.
36 502
37 2405
38 2209, 3315
39 3315
39a 3315, 3317
40 2406
41 Rep.
42, 43 2208
44 2404
45 2208–2210
46, 47 2209
48 Rep.
49, 49a 2403
50, 51 Rep.
52 2008, 6420
53–54a, 55 Rep.
56, 56a 711
57–57c Rep.
57d 711
58–60a, 61–68 Rep.
69, 70 704
81 Rep.
82 703
83–103a Rep.
103b 3334
104–108 Rep.
109 3555
110–112d, 113–120 Rep.
121 3555
122 Rep.
123 3556
124–127 Rep.
128 3332
129–131 Rep.
132 502
133 Rep.
133a 3336
134–136 Rep.
136a 3335
137–139a, 140 Rep.
141–145 712
151 6106
152 6001
153, 153a 6002
153b Rep.
154 3116
155, 156 6003
157 502
158 705, 6004
159–160a 705
161 705, 2011
162 6002, 6005
163 Rep.
164 2004
165 2501, 6006
166 Rep.
167 2009, 6006, 6007
168 Rep.
169, 169a 6007
170 Rep.
171 501
172 Rep.
173, 174 3115
175, 176 Rep.
191 6005
192 Rep.
192a 3339
193 Rep.
194, 195 3113
196 3114
197, 197a, 198 Rep.
199 3543
200–207a, 208–211 Rep.
212 6009
213–215 3337
216–219 3338
221 4251, 4451, 4551
221a 4251, 4451
222 4251
223 4252
224 4351
225 4058, 4365
226 4354
226a 4352, 4357
226b Rep.
227 4353
228 4366
229 4355
230 4356
231 4368; T. 18 §1733
232 4352
233 4369
234 4367; T. 18 §1734
235 4451, 4555
236–238 4451
239 4060
240 4002, 4551, 4555
240a, 240b 4552
241 Rep.
242 2001
243 4001, 4002, 4058
244 5006, 5007
245, 245a Rep.
245a–1 5006
245a–2 5010
245b Rep.
245b–1 5007
245c 5009
245d Rep.
245d–1 5007
246 to 246a–1 Rep.
246b 507
246c 5007, 5008
246c–1 5008
246d, 246e Rep.
246f 507
247 Elim.
248 4059
249 4365, 4453, 4555
250 4058, 4251
251 4058
252, 253 Rep.
254 6438
255 4003
256 4001, 4057
257 4004
258 4001, 4003
259 4005, 4057
259a 4006
259b, 259c 4007
260 Rep.
260a 507, 5012
261 4105
270 2301
270a 2302
270b 2303
270c 2304
270d 2305
270e 2306
271 4051, 4052
272 Rep.
272a 4109, 4110
273 4052, 4053
273a 4052
274 Rep.
275 2501, 2505
276 Rep.
276a 2501
276b, 276c Rep.
276d 6006
277, 278 Rep.
278a 4101, 4102, 4103, 4105
278b 4106
279 708
280 4054, 4251, 4253
281 Rep.
282 4052
283 4358, 4359, 4363, 4364
284 4361
285 4052
286 4358
287–289 Rep.
289a 2302, 4352, 4358, 4359, 4360, 4362, 4452
290 4652
290a 4052, 4452
290a–1 4052, 4451, 4452
291 Rep.
291a 4052
291b 4421, 4422
292 4553
292a 4052, 4554, 6008
293–293b Rep.
293c 4653
294, 294a Rep.
295 4052, 4364
296–299 Rep.
300 4055
301, 302 Rep.
302a 4651
303 4253, 4254, 4303
321 4152, 4153
321–1 4152
321a 5003
321b–321h Rep.
321i 2302, 4155, 4156
321j 4157
321k 4158
321l 4152, 4158, 4159
321m 4160
321n 4154
321o 2302, 4166
321p 2302, 4156, 5004
321q 2302, 4156
321r 4156, 4165, 4167
322 Rep.
323 4152
324 Rep.
325 4163
325a Elim.
326 4162
327 4161
328 Rep.
329 4164
330 4152
331 4451, 4653, 4654
332–334 Rep.
335 4165
336 4167
337 Rep.
338 4152
351 2501
352 2004
353 Rep.
354 2503, 2510
355 2004
355a 2204
356 2503, 4251
357 2503
358 2502
358a 4251
359 Rep.
360 2504
361 Rep.
362 2503
363, 364 Rep.
365 2507
366 Rep.
367 2507
368 2508
368a 2508, 2509
369 Rep.
370 2507
371 2506
381 5001
381a 5005, 5011
382, 383 Rep.
383a 2204
384 Rep.
384a 5001
385 5002
386 Rep.
387 5001, 5005
338 Rep.
388a 5010
401–405 Rep.
406 4101, 4108
407 Rep.
408 4107, 4108
409 4103
410 4102
411 4105
421, 422 Rep.
422a 6412
422b 6413
423 Rep.
423a, 423b 6427
423c 6428
424 6402, 6405
425 6402, 6417
425a 6401, 6420
426 6402, 6418, 6419
427 6419
428 6417
429 6402, 6411
430 6402
431 Rep.
432 6421
433 6402, 6437
434 6401, 6402, 6407, 6414, 6415, 6416, 6422, 6423, 6424, 6425
435 6402, 6426
436 6402, 6405
437 6413
438 Rep.
439 6439
440 6424
441 Rep.
442 6424
443 6434
444, 445 6429
446 6430
447 6431, 6436
448 6432
449 6405, 6408
450 6410
451 6402
461 Rep.
462 4301, 4302
462a 4301, 4304
463 Rep.
463a 4303
464 Rep.
465 6301
465a–465f, 466–468 Rep.
469 4301
469a–469s Rep.
470 6303
471, 472 Rep.
473, 474 6402
475 4301, 4302, 4303, 4305, 6301
476 2102
481 6101, 6105
482 6101, 6106, 6402
483 6101, 6106
484, 485 6101
486 6101, 6402
487 6101
487a 6408
488 4304, 6102
488a 4304, 6302
488b 6302
489 6440
490, 491 Rep.
492 6166
493 6402
494 902
495 4056
496 902
497 905
498 904
499 906
500 901
501 6107
502–506 Rep.
507 6433
508 Rep.
521 Rep.
522 4159
523 6203
524 Rep.
525 6203
526–528 Rep.
529 6203
530–536 Rep.
537, 538 6204
539 6203, 6207
540 6202
541 6203
541–1 Rep.
541a 6202, 6214
542, 543 6208
544–547 6209
548 Elim.
549 6208
550 Rep.
551 6209
552 Rep.
553 6209
554 Elim.
555 6210
556 6206
557 Elim.
558 6210
559 6211
560, 561 6203
562 6214
563 6207
564 6205
565 6215
566 6206
567, 568 6207
569 Rep.
570 6207, 6208
571 6215
572 Rep.
573 6203
574, 575 Rep.
576 6212
577 2102
578 6401, 6403, 6423
579 6403
601, 601a, 602, 602a, 603–607a, 608–618a, 619–623 Rep.
624 3333
625 3556
626 Rep.
627 3555
628, 629 Rep.
630 3582
631 3111
632, 632a 3333
633–637 Rep.
638 3116
639 4370
640 Rep.
651 6101, 6402
652 6101, 6402
653 6101
654 6101, 6409
655 6304, 6435
656 6106, 6406
657–666 Rep.
667 6403, 6404
668 Rep.
669 6103
670, 671 Rep.
672 706
673, 674 Rep.
691–693a, 694, 695 Rep.
696 502
697–699 Rep.
700 903
701 3555
702 Rep.
703 3556
704 3112
711 5101, 5102
712 506
713 2209, 5102, 5103
714 2209, 3316
715 2005
716 Rep.
716a 5102
717–719 Rep.
720 5102
721, 722 Rep.
723 5103, 5104
724 5102
725, 726 Rep.
727 5103
727a 2204
728 5103
728a 2202, 5103
729 5103
730, 731 Rep.
732 4005, 4057
733–738 Rep.
738a 5105
739 Rep.
751 5203, 5204, 5205
752 Rep.
753 5206
754 5210
755 5207, 5208
756 5211, 5213
756a 5223
757 5213
758 5213, 5217, 5219, 5220
759 5203, 5214, 5215, 5216, 5217, 5218, 5219, 5221
760, 761 Rep.
762 5212
763–765 Rep.
766 5201
767 5222
768 5206, 5208
769 5203
770 5209
771 5224
781 Rep.
782 1
783 1, 2209
784 1
785 708
786 2201
787, 788 Rep.
789 2408
790 2410
791 1, 2407
792, 793 Rep.
794 2207, 2208, 2401, 2402
794a 2202
794b 2211
794c 2206
794d 2302
794e Rep.
794f 509, 2101, 2102
794g Rep.
795 2212
801 Rep.
802 2006
803, 804 2004
805 508
806–808 Rep.
809 2004
809a–811 Rep.
812 3104
813–819 Rep.
820 3331
821–823a, 824–824e, 825 Rep.
826 2331
827, 828 Rep.
829 2007
829a, 829b 2203
830 6305
831–833 Rep.
834 3302
835, 836 Rep.
837 See T. 28 §2710
838 See T. 28 §2711
839 See T. 28 §2712
840 See T. 28 §2713
841 See T. 28 §2714
842 See T. 28 §2715
843 See T. 28 §2716
844 See T. 28 §2717
845 Rep.
846 See T. 28 §2718
847, 847a 504
848, 848a Rep.
848b 2202
851–856b, 857–861b, 862–862c Rep.
862d 3557
863–867a, 868–876c, 877–878b, 879–890 Rep.
901 2115
902 2104–2108, 2110
903 2103
904 2110
905 2113
906 2111
907 2111, 2112, 2114
908 2109
909 2116
951 1, 3101
952 Rep.
961 3301, 3501
962 3502
963 3333, 3511–3531, 3582
964 3335
965 Rep.
971 3333, 3542
972 3543
973 702, 3544
974 3541
975 Rep.
981 3333, 3552, 3556, 3557
982 3553
983 Rep.
984 3558
991 3551
992 3559
993 3554
994 3555
995 Rep.
1001 3333, 3541
1002 3571
1003 3573
1004 3574
1005 3575
1006 3302, 3572
1007 3101, 3333, 3581
1007a 3576
1008 2008, 3542
1009 3543
1010 3544
1021 Rep.
1031 702
1032 3105
1033–1038 Rep.
1051 6351
1052 6352
1053 6106, 6352
1054 6353
1055 6354
1056 6355
1071 2231
1072 2232
1073 2233
1074 2234
1075 2332
Table II
This Table lists the sections of former Title 39, The Postal Service, and indicates the sections of Title 39, Postal Service, as revised in 1970, which cover similar and related subject matter.
Title 39

1960 Revision Sections

Title 39

New Sections

1 See 102, 2001
2 See 403
301 See 201
302 See 203
303 See 207
304 See 203
305 See 204
306 See 206
307 See 204
308 Rep.
308a See 204
309 See 402
501 See 202, 401, 403, 404
502 Elim.
503 See 2002
504 See 403
505 See 407
506 See 408
507 See 404, 3622
508 See 401
509 See 404
510 See 401
701 See 403, 404
702 See 403
703, 704 Elim.
705 See 404, 406
706 Elim.
707–710 See 404
711 Rep.
712 See 406, 2601
901 601
902 602
903 603
904 604
905 605
906 606
2001–2006 See 401
2007–2009 See 404
2010 2201
2011 See 404
2101, 2102 See 401
2103 See 401, 2002
2104–2106 See 401
2107 Elim.
2108 See 401
2109 Elim.
2110–2112 See 401
2113 See 2002
2114 See 401, 410
2115 See 401, 2002
2116 See 2402
2201 See 2002, 2004, 2401
2202 See 2003
2203 See 2401
2204 See 2603
2205 Elim.
2206 See 2008
2207, 2208 See 401, 2008
2209 See 1001
2210 See 2601
2211 See 401, 2008
2212 See 2601
2231–2234 See 2003, 2010
2301 See 101
2302 See 101, 403, 3621–3623, 3641, 3661
2303 See 2009, 3401, 3403, 3621–3623, 3627, 3641, 3661
2304 See 2402, 3601, 3621–3628, 3641, 3661
2305 Elim.
2306 See 1005, 3621
2331 See 2402
2332 Rep.
2401 See 2601
2402 2602
2403, 2404 See 2601
2405, 2406 Elim.
2407 See 404
2408 2605
2409 See 2603
2410 2604
2411, 2501–2505 See 404
2506 405
2507–2510 See 404
3101 Elim.
3103 1011
3104 1009
3105 See 1001, 1006
3106 See 1003
3107 Elim.
3108 See 1001
3111 Elim.
3112 See 1010
3113, 3114 See 1001
3115 See 1008
3116, 3301–3303, 3311, 3312 See 1001
3313, 3314 Elim.
3315 See 1001
3316, 3317 Elim.
3331 See 1001
3332 Elim.
3333 See 1001, 1006
3334 See 1005
3335 See 1001
3336 Elim.
3337 See 1007
3338, 3339 Elim.
3501 See 1003
3502, 3511–3531, 3541–3544 Elim.
3551 See 1001
3552–3557 Elim.
3558 Rep.
3559, 3560 Elim.
3571 See 1001
3572–3577, 3581, 3582 Elim.
4001, 4002 See 3001
4003 3003
4004 3004
4005 3005
4006 3006
4007 3007
4008 Elim.
4009 3008
4010 3002
4051, 4052 See 404
4053, 4054 Elim.
4055 See 3681
4056 Elim.
4057 See 404, 3623
4058–4060 Elim.
4101–4103 See 404
4104 See 407
4105 See 404
4106 Elim.
4107 See 404
4108 Elim.
4109 See 404
4110 Elim.
4151 3201
4152 3202
4153 3203
4154 3204
4155 3205
4156 3206
4157 Rep.
4158 See 3207
4159 3208
4160 3209
4161 See 3210
4162 See 3211
4163 3212
4164 3213
4165 3214
4166 3215
4167 See 3216
4168 3217
4169 See 3401
4170 See 3402
4171 3218
4251 See 3623
4252 See 3682
4253, 4254, 4301, 4302 Elim.
4303 See 3401
4304 Elim.
4305 See 3682
4351–4357 Elim.
4358 See 3626, 3627
4359 See 3626, 3627
4360, 4361 Rep.
4362–4368 Elim.
4369 See 3685
4370 Elim.
4421 See 3626, 3627
4422 See 3626, 3627
4451 Elim.
4452 See 3626, 3627
4453, 4551 Elim.
4552 See 3682
4553 Elim.
4554 See 3626, 3627, 3682, 3683
4555–4559 Elim.
4560 See 3401
4651 Elim.
4652 Rep.
4653 See 3403
4654 3404
4655 3405
5001–5013, 5101–5105, 5201–5229 Elim.
6001, 6002 See 404
6003, 6004 Elim.
6005 See 101
6006–6009 Elim.
6101 See 5001
6102 Elim.
6103 See 5002
6104 See 5005
6105 5003
6106 See 5004
6107 See 101
6201 See 5201
6202 See 5202, 5210
6203 See 5007, 5203
6204 See 5203, 5204
6205 See 5204
6206 See 5205
6207 See 5206
6208 See 5207
6209 See 5208
6210 See 5209
6211 Elim.
6212 See 3662
6213 See 5210
6214 See 5211
6215 See 5212
6216 See 5213
6301 See 5401
6302, 6303 See 5402
6304 See 5403
6305, 6351–6355 Elim.
6401 See 5201
6402 See 5005, 5215
6402a See 5214
6403 See 5005
6404 5601
6405 See 5605
6406 5602
6407 See 5005
6408 See 5605
6409 Elim.
6410 5603
6411, 6412 See 5005
6413 See 5005, 5605
6414, 6415 Elim.
6416 See 5005
6417–6421 Elim.
6422, 6423 See 5005
6424–6431 Elim.
6432 5006
6433 See 5007
6434 Elim.
6435 5604
6436–6440 Elim.
Table III
This Table lists the sections of Title 39, Postal Service, as revised in 1970, and indicates the sections of former Title 39, The Postal Service, which covered similar and related subject matter.
Title 39

New Sections

Title 39

Former Sections

101 2301, 2302, 6005, 6107
102 1
201 301
202 501
203 302, 304
204 305, 307, 308a
205  
206 306
207 303
208  
401 501, 508, 510, 2001–2006, 2101–2106, 2108, 2110–2112, 2114, 2115, 2207, 2208, 2211
402 309
403 2, 501, 504, 701, 702, 2302
404 501, 507, 509, 701, 705, 707–710, 2007–2009, 2011, 2407, 2411, 2501–2505, 2507–2510, 4051, 4052, 4057, 4101–4103, 4105, 4107, 4109, 6001, 6002
405 2506
406 705, 712
407 505, 4104
408 506
409  
410 2114
411, 412  
601 901
602 902
603 903
604 904
605 905
606 906
1001 2209, 3105, 3108, 3113, 3114, 3116, 3301–3303, 3311, 3312, 3315, 3331, 3333, 3335, 3551, 3571
1002  
1003 3106, 3501
1004  
1005 2306, 3334
1006 3105, 3333
1007 3337
1008 3115
1009 3104
1010 3112
1011 3103
1201–1209  
2001 1
2002 503, 2103, 2113, 2115, 2201
2003 2202, 2231–2234
2004 2201
2005–2007  
2008 2206–2208, 2211
2009 2303
2010 2231–2234
2201 2010
2401 2201, 2203
2402 2116, 2304, 2331
2601 712, 2210, 2212, 2401, 2403, 2404
2602 2402
2603 2204, 2409
2604 2410
2605 2408
3001 4001, 4002
3002 4010
3003 4003
3004 4004
3005 4005
3006 4006
3007 4007
3008 4009
3009–3011  
3201 4151
3202 4152
3203 4153
3204 4154
3205 4155
3206 4156
3207 4158
3208 4159
3209 4160
3210 4161
3211 4162
3212 4163
3213 4164
3214 4165
3215 4166
3216 4167
3217 4168
3218 4171
3401 2303, 4169, 4303, 4560
3402 4170
3403 2303, 4653
3404 4654
3405 4655
3601 2304
3602–3604  
3621 2302–2304, 2306
3622 507, 2302–2304
3623 2302–2304, 4057, 4251
3624 2304
3625 2304
3626 2304, 4358, 4359, 4421, 4422, 4452, 4554
3627 2303, 2304, 4358, 4359, 4421, 4422, 4452, 4554
3628 2304
3641 2302–2304
3661 2302–2304
3662 6212
3681 4055
3682 4252, 4305, 4552, 4554
3683 4554
3684  
3685 4369
5001 6101
5002 6103
5003 6105
5004 6106
5005 6104, 6402, 6403, 6407, 6411–6413, 6416, 6422, 6423
5006 6432
5007 6203, 6433
5201 6201, 6401
5202 6202
5203 6203, 6204
5204 6204, 6205
5205 6206
5206 6207
5207 6208
5208 6209
5209 6210
5210 6202, 6213
5211 6214
5212 6215
5213 6216
5214 6402a
5215 6402
5401 6301
5402 6302, 6303
5403 6304
5601 6404
5602 6406
5603 6410
5604 6435
5605 6405, 6408, 6413

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Positive Law

This title was enacted into law by Pub. L. 91–375, §2, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719, which provided that: "Title 39, United States Code, is revised and reenacted, and the sections thereof may be cited as 39 U.S.C. §__".

Effective Dates

Pub. L. 91–375, §15, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 787, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this section and sections 9 through 13 of this Act [set out as notes below and under sections 1001, 1003, 1201, and 2004 of this title], and sections 202, 203, 205(b) and (c), 206, and 401(2), and subchapter I of chapter 36 of title 39, United States Code [sections 3601 to 3604 of this title], as enacted by section 2 of this Act, shall become effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970]. Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] the other provisions of this Act shall become effective within 1 year after the enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970] on the date or dates established therefor by the Board of Governors and published by it in the Federal Register. References to the Postal Service in any provision of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] (other than a provision referred to in the first sentence of this subsection) which becomes effective before the Postal Service commences operations shall be held and considered to refer to the Post Office Department until the Postal Service commences operations.

"(b) Sections 3010 and 3011 of title 39, United States Code, as enacted by section 2 of this Act, and sections 1735, 1736, and 1737 of title 18, United States Code, as enacted by section 6(j) of this Act, shall become effective on the first day of the sixth month which begins after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970]."

The provisions of Title 39, as revised by Pub. L. 91–375, §2, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719, are effective on the following dates:

Effective Aug. 12, 1970, pursuant to section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375:

Sections 202, 203, 205(b), (c), 206, 401(2), and 3601 to 3604.

Effective Feb. 1, 1971, pursuant to section 15(b) of Pub. L. 91–375:

Sections 3010 and 3011.

Effective Jan. 16, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–5 of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Postal Service:

Sections 207 and 402.

Effective Jan. 20, 1971, pursuant to Resolution Nos. 71–7, 71–8 and 71–10 of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Postal Service:

Sections 101, 204, 403, 404(2), 410(b)(1), (c)(4), 1003, 2004, 2401(b)(c), 3621 to 3628, 3641 and 3681 to 3685.

Effective Mar. 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–13 of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Postal Service:

Sections 1001 and 1002.

Effective Apr. 13, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–14 of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Postal Service:

Section 410(a), (b)(2) to (6), (c)(1) to (3), (5), (6).

Effective July 1, 1971, all other provisions of Title 39, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors, which provided in part: "The Board of Governors establishes July 1, 1971, as the date upon which the Postal Service shall commence operations. All provisions of the Act [Pub. L. 91–375] not made effective on an earlier date shall become effective upon the commencement of operations."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 91–375, §5, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 774, provided that:

"(a) All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, contracts, certificates, licenses, and privileges—

"(1) which have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective—

"(A) under any provision of law amended by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title]; or

"(B) in the exercise of duties, powers, or functions which are transferred under this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title];

by (i) any department or agency, any functions of which are transferred by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title], or (ii) any court of competent jurisdiction; and

"(2) which are in effect at the time the United States Postal Service commences operations, shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or repealed by the Postal Service (in the exercise of any authority vested in it by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title]), by any court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law.

"(b) The provisions of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] shall not affect any proceedings pending at the time this section takes effect before any department or agency (or component thereof), the functions of which are transferred by this Act but such proceedings shall be continued before the Postal Service. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or repealed by the Postal Service (in the exercise of any authority vested in it by this Act), by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law.

"(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection—

"(A) the provisions of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] shall not affect suits commenced prior to the date this section takes effect; and

"(B) in all such suits proceedings shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered, in the same manner and effect as if this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] had not been enacted.

No suit, action, or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer in his official capacity as an officer of any department or agency, functions of which are transferred by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act. No cause of action by or against any department or agency, functions of which are transferred by this Act, or by or against any officer thereof in his official capacity shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act. Causes of actions, suits, actions, or other proceedings may be asserted by or against the Postal Service or such official of that Service as may be appropriate and, in any litigation pending when this section takes effect, the court may at any time, on its own motion or that of any party, enter an order which will give effect to the provisions of this subsection.

"(2) If before the date on which any provision of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] takes effect, any department or agency, or officer thereof in his official capacity, is a party to a suit, and under this Act–

"(A) such department or agency is transferred to the Postal Service; or

"(B) any function of such department, agency, or officer is transferred to the Postal Service;

such suit shall be continued by the Postal Service.

"(d) The amendment of any statute by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] shall not release or extinguish any criminal prosecution, penalty, forfeiture, or liability incurred under such statute, unless the amending Act shall so expressly provide, and such statute shall be treated as still remaining in force for the purpose of sustaining any proper action or prosecution for the enforcement of such prosecution, penalty, forfeiture, or liability.

"(e) With respect to any function, power, or duty transferred by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] and exercised after the effective date of this Act, reference in any other Federal law to any department or agency, officer, or office so transferred, or functions of which are so transferred, shall be deemed to mean the officer or agency of the Postal Service in which this Act vests such function after such transfer.

"(f) Provisions of title 39, United States Code, in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this section, but not reenacted by this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title], shall remain in force as rules or regulations of the Postal Service established by this Act, to the extent the Postal Service is authorized to adopt such provisions as rules or regulations, until they are revoked, amended, or revised by the Postal Service.

"(g) Notwithstanding section 202 of title 39, United States Code, as enacted by section 2 of this Act, Governors of the Board of Governors of the Postal Service may be paid $300 a day for not more than 60 days of meetings in each of the first 2 years following the effective date of such section 202 [see section 15(b) of Pub. L. 91–375 set out as an Effective Date note above]."

Provisions of section 5 of Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note above.

Corresponding References

Pub. L. 91–375, §6(o)–(q), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 783, provided that:

"(o) Whenever any reference is made in any provision of law (other than this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] or a provision of law amended by this Act), regulation, rule, record, or document to the Post Office Department, the Postal Service, the postal field service, the field postal service, or the departmental service or departmental headquarters of the Post Office Department, such reference shall be considered a reference to the United States Postal Service. Any reference to any officer or employee of the Post Office Department, the Postal Service, the postal field service, the field postal service, or the departmental service or departmental headquarters of the Post Office Department shall be deemed a reference to the appropriate officer or employee of the United States Postal Service.

"(p) Whenever reference is made in any provision of law (other than this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] or provision of law amended by this Act), regulation, rule, record, or document to a postal inspector or chief postal inspector of the Post Office Department, such reference shall be deemed to be a reference to the appropriate officer or employee of the United States Postal Service who performs duties related to the inspection of postal matters.

"(q) Whenever reference is made in any law to title 39, United States Code, or provision of that title, as such title or provision existed prior to the effective date of this section [see Effective Date note set out above], that reference shall be considered a reference to the appropriate provision of title 39, as amended by section 2 of this Act, unless no such provision is included therein."

Provisions of section 6(o) to (q) of Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note above.

Separability; Legislative Construction

Pub. L. 91–375, §11, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 785, provided that:

"(a) If a part of title 39, United States Code, as enacted by section 2 of this Act, is held invalid, the remainder of such title shall not be affected thereby; and if any other part of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] is held to be invalid, the remainder of the Act shall not be affected thereby.

"(b) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of a chapter in title 39, United States Code, as enacted by section 2 of this Act in which a section is placed nor by reason of the caption or catchline."

Provisions of section 11 of Pub. L. 91–375 effective Aug. 12, 1970, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note above.

PART I—GENERAL

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Postal Policy and Definitions
101
2.
Organization
201
4.
General Authority
401
5.
Postal Regulatory Commission
501
6.
Private Carriage of Letters
601

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §601(c), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3239, added item for chapter 5.

CHAPTER 1—POSTAL POLICY AND DEFINITIONS

Sec.
101.
Postal policy.
102.
Definitions.

        

§101. Postal policy

(a) The United States Postal Service shall be operated as a basic and fundamental service provided to the people by the Government of the United States, authorized by the Constitution, created by Act of Congress, and supported by the people. The Postal Service shall have as its basic function the obligation to provide postal services to bind the Nation together through the personal, educational, literary, and business correspondence of the people. It shall provide prompt, reliable, and efficient services to patrons in all areas and shall render postal services to all communities. The costs of establishing and maintaining the Postal Service shall not be apportioned to impair the overall value of such service to the people.

(b) The Postal Service shall provide a maximum degree of effective and regular postal services to rural areas, communities, and small towns where post offices are not self-sustaining. No small post office shall be closed solely for operating at a deficit, it being the specific intent of the Congress that effective postal services be insured to residents of both urban and rural communities.

(c) As an employer, the Postal Service shall achieve and maintain compensation for its officers and employees comparable to the rates and types of compensation paid in the private sector of the economy of the United States. It shall place particular emphasis upon opportunities for career advancements of all officers and employees and the achievement of worthwhile and satisfying careers in the service of the United States.

(d) Postal rates shall be established to apportion the costs of all postal operations to all users of the mail on a fair and equitable basis.

(e) In determining all policies for postal services, the Postal Service shall give the highest consideration to the requirement for the most expeditious collection, transportation, and delivery of important letter mail.

(f) In selecting modes of transportation, the Postal Service shall give highest consideration to the prompt and economical delivery of all mail. Modern methods of transporting mail by containerization and programs designed to achieve overnight transportation to the destination of important letter mail to all parts of the Nation shall be a primary goal of postal operations.

(g) In planning and building new postal facilities, the Postal Service shall emphasize the need for facilities and equipment designed to create desirable working conditions for its officers and employees, a maximum degree of convenience for efficient postal services, proper access to existing and future air and surface transportation facilities, and control of costs to the Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719; Pub. L. 110–405, §2(b)(9), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4289.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–405 substituted "mail." for "mail and shall make a fair and equitable distribution of mail business to carriers providing similar modes of transportation services to the Postal Service."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–405, §2(c), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4290, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 3401 and 5402 of this title, and sections 41901 to 41904 and 41910 of Title 49, Transportation, renumbering former sections 41906, 41909, 41910, and 41912 of Title 49 as sections 41905, 41906, 41907, and 41908 of Title 49, respectively, and repealing former sections 41905, 41907, 41908, and 41911 of Title 49] shall take effect on October 1, 2008."

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 20, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–10 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding this section.

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–99, §1, Dec. 11, 2015, 129 Stat. 2201, provided that: "This Act [amending section 414 of this title] may be cited as the 'Breast Cancer Research Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–165, §1, Sept. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 1878, provided that: "This Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 416 of this title] may be cited as the 'Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2013'."

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–155, §1, Apr. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 1112, provided that: "This Act [amending section 3001 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prevent Deceptive Census Look Alike Mailings Act'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–405, §1, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4287, provided that: "This Act [amending this section, sections 3401 and 5402 of this title, and sections 41901 to 41904 and 41910 of Title 49, Transportation, renumbering former sections 41906, 41909, 41910, and 41912 of Title 49 as sections 41905, 41906, 41907, and 41908 of Title 49, respectively, repealing former sections 41905, 41907, 41908, and 41911 of Title 49, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Air Carriage of International Mail Act'."

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–435, §1(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3198, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act'."

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–447, div. J, title III, §301(a), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3350, provided that: "This title [amending section 5402 of this title] may be cited as the 'Rural Air Service Improvement Act of 2004'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–86, §1, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1052, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1004 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1004 of this title] may be cited as the 'Postmasters Equity Act of 2003'."

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–206, title III, §3002(a), Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 910, provided that: "This title [amending section 5402 of this title, section 2703 of Title 19, Customs Duties, section 1626 of Title 43, Public Lands, and section 41901 of Title 49, Transportation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 5402 of this title, section 112 of Title 1, General Provisions, and sections 2703 and 3203 of Title 19] may be cited as the 'Rural Service Improvement Act of 2002'."

Short Title of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §650(a), Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 556, provided that: "This section [amending section 414 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 414 of this title] may be cited as the 'Breast Cancer Research Stamp Act of 2001'."

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–253, §1, July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 634, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 416 of this title, amending section 414 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 414 and 416 of this title] may be cited as the 'Semipostal Authorization Act'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–241, §1, Sept. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 1572, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 415 of this title and amending sections 404 and 3622 of this title, section 7902 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 652 and 668 of Title 29, Labor] may be cited as the 'Postal Employees Safety Enhancement Act'."

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–41, §1, Aug. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1119, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 414 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 414 of this title] may be cited as the 'Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act'."

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–123, title VII, §701(a), Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1267, provided that: "This title [enacting section 3642 of this title, amending sections 410, 2401, 3202, 3601, 3625 to 3627, and 3683 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2401, 3621, 3626, and 3683 of this title] may be cited as the 'Revenue Forgone Reform Act'."

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–421, §1, Sept. 24, 1976, 90 Stat. 1303, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 404, 2003, 2401, 3601, 3604, 3622, 3623, 3624, 3626, 3641, and 3683 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 404, 3601, 3624, 3641, and 3661 of this title] may be cited as the 'Postal Reorganization Act Amendments of 1976'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 91–375, §1, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719, provided: "That this Act [revising this title, enacting sections 1735 to 1737 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending section 356 of Title 2, The Congress, section 19 of Title 3, The President, sections 101, 104, 2104, 2105, 3104, 3304a, 4301, 5102, 5303, 5304, 5312, 5314 to 5316, 5541, 6301, 6323, 7101, and 8344 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 24 seventh par., 1701d–3, and 1701e of Title 12, Banks and Banking, section 637 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 460l–1 of Title 16, Conservation, section 8 of former Title 17, Copyrights, sections 12, 440, 441, 500, 501, 612, 876, 877, 1114, 1303, 1341, 1342, 1463, 1696, 1699, 1703, 1704, 1707, 1709 to 1713, 1715, 1716, 1716A, 1717, 1718, 1721 to 1725, 1729, 1730, 1733, and 3061 of Title 18, section 611 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, sections 72 fifth par., 129, and 724a of former Title 31, Money and Finance, sections 356, 474, 615, 723, and 724 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and section 2942 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing section 3327 of Title 5 and section 1028 of former Title 31, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 201, 601, 1001, 1003, 1201, 2002, 2004, 3010, and 3621 of this title] may be cited as the 'Postal Reorganization Act'."

COVID–19 Borrowing Authority for the United States Postal Service

Pub. L. 116–136, div. A, title VI, §6001, Mar. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 504, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section—

"(1) the term 'COVID–19 emergency' means the emergency involving Federal primary responsibility determined to exist by the President under section 501(b) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5191(b)) with respect to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID–19); and

"(2) the term 'Postal Service' means the United States Postal Service.

"(b) Additional Borrowing Authority.—Notwithstanding section 2005 of title 39, United States Code, or any other provision of law, if the Postal Service determines that, due to the COVID–19 emergency, the Postal Service will not be able to fund operating expenses without borrowing money—

"(1) the Postal Service may borrow money from the Treasury in an amount not to exceed $10,000,000,000—

"(A) to be used for such operating expenses; and

"(B) which may not be used to pay any outstanding debt of the Postal Service; and

"(2) the Secretary of the Treasury may lend up to the amount described in paragraph (1) at the request of the Postal Service, upon terms and conditions mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the Postal Service.

"(c) Prioritization of Delivery for Medical Purposes During COVID–19 Emergency.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, during the COVID–19 emergency, the Postal Service—

"(1) shall prioritize delivery of postal products for medical purposes; and

"(2) may establish temporary delivery points, in such form and manner as the Postal Service determines necessary, to protect employees of the Postal Service and individuals receiving deliveries from the Postal Service."

§102. Definitions

As used in this title—

(1) "Postal Service" means the United States Postal Service established by section 201 of this title;

(2) "Board of Governors", and "Board", unless the context otherwise requires, mean the Board of Governors established under section 202 of this title;

(3) "Governors" means the 9 members of the Board of Governors appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, under section 202(a) of this title;

(4) "Inspector General" means the Inspector General appointed under section 202(e) of this title;

(5) "postal service" refers to the delivery of letters, printed matter, or mailable packages, including acceptance, collection, sorting, transportation, or other functions ancillary thereto;

(6) "product" means a postal service with a distinct cost or market characteristic for which a rate or rates are, or may reasonably be, applied;

(7) "rates", as used with respect to products, includes fees for postal services;

(8) "market-dominant product" or "product in the market-dominant category of mail" means a product subject to subchapter I of chapter 36;

(9) "competitive product" or "product in the competitive category of mail" means a product subject to subchapter II of chapter 36; and

(10) "year", as used in chapter 36 (other than subchapters I and VI thereof), means a fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §662(a)(2)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-379; Pub. L. 109–435, title I, §101, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3199.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Pars. (5) to (10). Pub. L. 109–435 added pars. (5) to (10).

1996—Par. (4). Pub. L. 104–208 added par. (4).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

CHAPTER 2—ORGANIZATION

Sec.
201.
United States Postal Service.
202.
Board of Governors.
203.
Postmaster General; Deputy Postmaster General.
204.
General Counsel; Judicial Officer; Chief Postal Inspector.
205.
Procedures of the Board of Governors.
206.
Advisory Council.
207.
Seal.
208.
Reservation of powers.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §662(f)(2)(B)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-383, in item 204 substituted "General Counsel; Judicial Officer; Chief Postal Inspector" for "Assistant Postmasters General; General Counsel; Judicial Officer".

§201. United States Postal Service

There is established, as an independent establishment of the executive branch of the Government of the United States, the United States Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 720.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Transfer of Functions; Abolition of Office

Pub. L. 91–375, §4(a), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 773, provided that: "There are hereby transferred to the United States Postal Service all the functions, powers, and duties of the Post Office Department and the Postmaster General of the Post Office Department, and the Post Office Department and the office of Postmaster General of the Post Office Department are abolished."

Provisions of section 4(a) of Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of this title.

Inspector General of the United States Postal Service

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §662(e)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-382, provided that:

"(1) First appointment.—The first Inspector General of the United States Postal Service appointed pursuant to the amendments made by this section [amending sections 102, 202, 204, 410, and 1003 of this title, section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–452, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, and renumbering another section 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978 as 8H] shall be appointed before the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].

"(2) Transfers.—

"(A) In general.—All measures described in section 8G(b) of the Inspector General Act of 1978 necessary to establish an Office of Inspector General within the United States Postal Service pursuant to this section, including all appropriate transfers, shall occur—

"(i) no earlier than the date the appointment under paragraph (1) is made; and

"(ii) no later than 60 days after the date the appointment under paragraph (1) is made.

"(B) Provisions relating to personnel.—

"(i) Consultation.—Decisions concerning which personnel are to be transferred pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall be made by the Governors (within the meaning of section 102(3) of title 39, United States Code) in consultation with the Inspector General appointed under paragraph (1).

"(ii) Transferred personnel.—Personnel transferred pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall, to the extent not inconsistent with other provisions of this subsection, be transferred in accordance with applicable laws and regulations relating to the transfer of functions within the United States Postal Service, except that, notwithstanding any provision of section 1003(b) of title 39, United States Code, as amended by this section, the classification and compensation of such personnel shall not be reduced, by reason of having been transferred, for 1 year after being so transferred.

"(3) Transition provision.—The Chief Postal Inspector may continue to serve as Inspector General of the United States Postal Service until the date on which an Inspector General is appointed under paragraph (1) or, if earlier, the end of the period referred to in such paragraph. Compensation for any service under this paragraph shall be determined as if this section had not been enacted."

§202. Board of Governors

(a)(1) The exercise of the power of the Postal Service shall be directed by a Board of Governors composed of 11 members appointed in accordance with this section. Nine of the members, to be known as Governors, shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, not more than 5 of whom may be adherents of the same political party. The Governors shall elect a Chairman from among the members of the Board. The Governors shall represent the public interest generally, and shall be chosen solely on the basis of their experience in the field of public service, law or accounting or on their demonstrated ability in managing organizations or corporations (in either the public or private sector) of substantial size; except that at least 4 of the Governors shall be chosen solely on the basis of their demonstrated ability in managing organizations or corporations (in either the public or private sector) that employ at least 50,000 employees. The Governors shall not be representatives of specific interests using the Postal Service, and may be removed only for cause. Each Governor shall receive a salary of $30,000 a year plus $300 a day for not more than 42 days of meetings each year and shall be reimbursed for travel and reasonable expenses incurred in attending meetings of the Board. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to limit the number of days of meetings each year to 42 days.

(2) In selecting the individuals described in paragraph (1) for nomination for appointment to the position of Governor, the President should consult with the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the Senate, and the minority leader of the Senate.

(b)(1) The terms of the 9 Governors shall be 7 years, except that the terms of the 9 Governors first taking office shall expire as designated by the President at the time of appointment, 1 at the end of 1 year, 1 at the end of 2 years, 1 at the end of 3 years, 1 at the end of 4 years, 1 at the end of 5 years, 1 at the end of 6 years, 1 at the end of 7 years, 1 at the end of 8 years, and 1 at the end of 9 years, following the appointment of the first of them. Any Governor appointed to fill a vacancy before the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall serve for the remainder of such term. A Governor may continue to serve after the expiration of his term until his successor has qualified, but not to exceed one year.

(2) No person may serve more than 2 terms as a Governor.

(c) The Governors shall appoint and shall have the power to remove the Postmaster General, who shall be a voting member of the Board. His pay and term of service shall be fixed by the Governors.

(d) The Governors and the Postmaster General shall appoint and shall have the power to remove the Deputy Postmaster General, who shall be a voting member of the Board. His term of service shall be fixed by the Governors and the Postmaster General and his pay by the Governors.

(e)(1) The Governors shall appoint and shall have the power to remove the Inspector General.

(2) The Inspector General shall be appointed—

(A) for a term of 7 years;

(B) without regard to political affiliation; and

(C) solely on the basis of integrity and demonstrated ability in accounting, auditing, financial analysis, law, management analysis, public administration, or investigations.


(3) The Inspector General may at any time be removed upon the written concurrence of at least 7 Governors, but only for cause. Nothing in this subsection shall be considered to exempt the Governors from the requirements of section 8G(e) of the Inspector General Act of 1978.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 98–81, §2, Aug. 23, 1983, 97 Stat. 487; Pub. L. 99–190, §144, Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1324; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §§644(a), 662(a)(1)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-366, 3009-378; Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §501(a)(1), (b), (c)(1), (d)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3232, 3233.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (e), is section 8G of Pub. L. 95–452, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–435, §501(a)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and substituted "The Governors shall represent the public interest generally, and shall be chosen solely on the basis of their experience in the field of public service, law or accounting or on their demonstrated ability in managing organizations or corporations (in either the public or private sector) of substantial size; except that at least 4 of the Governors shall be chosen solely on the basis of their demonstrated ability in managing organizations or corporations (in either the public or private sector) that employ at least 50,000 employees. The Governors shall not be representatives of specific interests using the Postal Service, and may be removed only for cause." for "The Governors shall be chosen to represent the public interest generally, and shall not be representatives of specific interests using the Postal Service, and may be removed only for cause."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–435, §501(b), added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–435, §501(d)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 109–435, §501(c)(1), which directed amendment of first sentence by substituting "7 years" for "9 years", was executed by making substitution for "9 years" the first place appearing in first sentence, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §644(a)], substituted "$30,000 a year" for "$10,000 a year".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §662(a)(1)], added subsec. (e).

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–190 substituted "42" for "30" in two places.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–81 inserted provision that a Governor may continue to serve after the expiration of his term until his successor has qualified, but not to exceed one year.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §501(a)(2), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3232, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall not affect the appointment or tenure of any person serving as a Governor of the United States Postal Service under an appointment made before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006][;] however, when any such office becomes vacant, the appointment of any person to fill that office shall be made in accordance with such amendment. The requirement set forth in the fourth sentence of section 202(a)(1) of title 39, United States Code (as amended by subsection (a)) shall be met beginning not later than 9 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006]."

Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §501(c)(2), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3233, provided that:

"(A) Continuation by incumbents.—The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall not affect the tenure of any person serving as a Governor of the United States Postal Service on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006] and such person may continue to serve the remainder of the applicable term.

"(B) Vacancy by incumbent before 7 years of service.—If a person who is serving as a Governor of the United States Postal Service on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006] resigns, is removed, or dies before the expiration of the 9-year term of that Governor, and that Governor has served less than 7 years of that term, the resulting vacancy in office shall be treated as a vacancy in a 7-year term.

"(C) Vacancy by incumbent after 7 years of service.—If a person who is serving as a Governor of the United States Postal Service on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006] resigns, is removed, or dies before the expiration of the 9-year term of that Governor, and that Governor has served 7 years or more of that term, that term shall be deemed to have been a 7-year term beginning on its commencement date for purposes of determining vacancies in office. Any appointment to the vacant office shall be for a 7-year term beginning at the end of the original 9-year term determined without regard to the deeming under the preceding sentence. Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed to affect any action or authority of any Governor or the Board of Governors during any portion of a 9-year term deemed to be a 7-year term under this subparagraph."

Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §501(d)(2), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3233, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall not affect the tenure of any person serving as a Governor of the United States Postal Service on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006] with respect to the term which that person is serving on that date. Such person may continue to serve the remainder of the applicable term, after which the amendments made by paragraph (1) shall apply."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §644(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-366, provided that: "Subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect at the beginning of the next applicable pay period beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996]."

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 12, 1970, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Savings Provision

Payment to Governors of Board of Governors of Postal Service of $300 a day for not more than 60 days of meetings in each of first 2 years following effective date of this section [see Effective Date note set out above], notwithstanding this section, see section 5(g) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§203. Postmaster General; Deputy Postmaster General

The chief executive officer of the Postal Service is the Postmaster General appointed under section 202(c) of this title. The alternate chief executive officer of the Postal Service is the Deputy Postmaster General appointed under section 202(d) of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 721.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 12, 1970, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§204. General Counsel; Judicial Officer; Chief Postal Inspector

There shall be within the Postal Service a General Counsel, such number of Assistant Postmasters General as the Board shall consider appropriate, a Judicial Officer, and a Chief Postal Inspector. The General Counsel, the Assistant Postmasters General, the Judicial Officer, and the Chief Postal Inspector shall be appointed by, and serve at the pleasure of, the Postmaster General. The Judicial Officer shall perform such quasi-judicial duties, not inconsistent with chapter 36 of this title, as the Postmaster General may designate. The Judicial Officer shall be the agency for the purposes of the requirements of chapter 5 of title 5, to the extent that functions are delegated to him by the Postmaster General. The Chief Postal Inspector shall report to, and be under the general supervision of, the Postmaster General. The Postmaster General shall promptly notify the Governors and both Houses of Congress in writing if he or she removes the Chief Postal Inspector or transfers the Chief Postal Inspector to another position or location within the Postal Service, and shall include in any such notification the reasons for the removal or transfer.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §662(f)(2)(A)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-382.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §662(f)(2)(A)(i)], in section catchline substituted "General Counsel; Judicial Officer; Chief Postal Inspector" for "Assistant Postmasters General; General Counsel; Judicial Officer".

Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §662(f)(2)(A)(ii)–(iv)], substituted "a Judicial Officer, and a Chief Postal Inspector." for "and a Judicial Officer." and "the Judicial Officer, and the Chief Postal Inspector" for "and the Judicial Officer", and inserted at end "The Chief Postal Inspector shall report to, and be under the general supervision of, the Postmaster General. The Postmaster General shall promptly notify the Governors and both Houses of Congress in writing if he or she removes the Chief Postal Inspector or transfers the Chief Postal Inspector to another position or location within the Postal Service, and shall include in any such notification the reasons for the removal or transfer."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 20, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–7 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§205. Procedures of the Board of Governors

(a) The Board shall direct and control the expenditures and review the practices and policies of the Postal Service, and perform other functions and duties prescribed by this title.

(b) Vacancies in the Board, as long as there are sufficient members to form a quorum, shall not impair the powers of the Board under this title.

(c) The Board shall act upon majority vote of those members who are present, and any 6 members present shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business by the Board, except—

(1) that in the appointment or removal of the Postmaster General, and in setting the compensation of the Postmaster General and Deputy Postmaster General, a favorable vote of an absolute majority of the Governors in office shall be required;

(2) that in the appointment or removal of the Deputy Postmaster General, a favorable vote of an absolute majority of the Governors in office and the member serving as Postmaster General shall be required; and

(3) as otherwise provided in this title.


(d) No officer or employee of the United States may serve concurrently as a Governor. A Governor may hold any other office or employment not inconsistent or in conflict with his duties, responsibilities, and powers as an officer of the Government of the United States in the Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 721.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Subsecs. (a) and (d) effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors, and subsecs. (b) and (c) effective Aug. 12, 1970. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§206. Advisory Council

(a) There shall be a Postal Service Advisory Council of which the Postmaster General shall be the Chairman and the Deputy Postmaster General shall be the Vice Chairman. The Advisory Council shall have 11 additional members appointed by the President. He shall appoint as such members (1) 4 persons from among persons nominated by those labor organizations recognized as collective-bargaining representatives for employees of the Postal Service in one or more collective-bargaining units, (2) 4 persons as representatives of major mail users, and (3) 3 persons as representatives of the public at large. All members shall be appointed for terms of 2 years except that, of those first appointed, 2 of the members representative of labor organizations, 2 of the members representative of major postal users, and 1 member representing the public at large shall be appointed for 1 year. Any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall serve for the remainder of such term.

(b) The Postal Service shall consult with and receive the advice of the Advisory Council regarding all aspects of postal operations.

(c) The members of the Council representative of the public at large shall receive for each meeting of the Council an amount equal to the daily rate applicable to level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5. All members of the Council shall be reimbursed for necessary travel and reasonable expenses incurred in attending meetings of the Council.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 722.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 12, 1970, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Councils

Advisory councils in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a council established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such council is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a council established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§207. Seal

The seal of the Postal Service shall be filed by the Board in the Office of the Secretary of State, judicially noticed, affixed to all commissions of officers of the Postal Service, and used to authenticate records of the Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 722.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 16, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–5 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§208. Reservation of powers

Congress reserves the power to alter, amend, or repeal any or all of the sections of this title, but no such alteration, amendment, or repeal shall impair the obligation of any contract made by the Postal Service under any power conferred by this title.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 722.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

CHAPTER 4—GENERAL AUTHORITY

Sec.
401.
General powers of the Postal Service.
402.
Delegation of authority.
403.
General duties.
404.
Specific powers.
404a.
Specific limitations.
405.
Printing of illustrations of United States postage stamps.
406.
Postal services at Armed Forces installations.
407.
International postal arrangements.
408.
International money-order exchanges.
409.
Suits by and against the Postal Service.
410.
Application of other laws.
411.
Cooperation with other Government agencies.
412.
Nondisclosure of lists of names and addresses.
413.
Postal services at diplomatic posts.
414.
Special postage stamps.
415.
Prohibition on restriction or elimination of services.
416.
Authority to issue semipostals.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–234, §2(e)(2), Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1625, renumbered Pub. L. 106–253, §2(d). See 2000 Amendment note below.

2006Pub. L. 109–435, title IV, §403(c), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3227, added item 404a.

2000Pub. L. 106–253, §2(c), formerly §2(d), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 636, as renumbered §2(c) by Pub. L. 112–234, §2(e)(2), Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1625, added item 416.

1998Pub. L. 105–241, §4(b), Sept. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 1573, added item 415.

1997Pub. L. 105–41, §2(c), Aug. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1121, added item 414.

1990Pub. L. 101–524, §5(b), Nov. 6, 1990, 104 Stat. 2303, added item 413.

§401. General powers of the Postal Service

Subject to the provisions of section 404a, the Postal Service shall have the following general powers:

(1) to sue and be sued in its official name;

(2) to adopt, amend, and repeal such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with this title, as may be necessary in the execution of its functions under this title and such other functions as may be assigned to the Postal Service under any provisions of law outside of this title;

(3) to enter into and perform contracts, execute instruments, and determine the character of, and necessity for, its expenditures;

(4) to determine and keep its own system of accounts and the forms and contents of its contracts and other business documents, except as otherwise provided in this title;

(5) to acquire, in any lawful manner, such personal or real property, or any interest therein, as it deems necessary or convenient in the transaction of its business; to hold, maintain, sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of such property or any interest therein; and to provide services in connection therewith and charges therefor;

(6) to construct, operate, lease, and maintain buildings, facilities, equipment, and other improvements on any property owned or controlled by it, including, without limitation, any property or interest therein transferred to it under section 2002 of this title;

(7) to accept gifts or donations of services or property, real or personal, as it deems, necessary or convenient in the transaction of its business;

(8) to settle and compromise claims by or against it;

(9) to exercise, in the name of the United States, the right of eminent domain for the furtherance of its official purposes; and to have the priority of the United States with respect to the payment of debts out of bankrupt, insolvent, and decedents' estates; and

(10) to have all other powers incidental, necessary, or appropriate to the carrying on of its functions or the exercise of its specific powers.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 109–435, title IV, §403(b)(1), title V, §504, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3227, 3235.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–435, §403(b)(1), substituted "Subject to the provisions of section 404a, the" for "The" in introductory provisions.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 109–435, §504, amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "to adopt, amend, and repeal such rules and regulations as it deems necessary to accomplish the objectives of this title;".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pars. (1) and (3) to (10) effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors and par. (2) effective Aug. 12, 1970. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.


Executive Documents

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to the Postmaster General, see Parts 1, 2, and 26 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

§402. Delegation of authority

Except for those powers, duties, or obligations specifically vested in the Governors, as distinguished from the Board of Governors, the Board may delegate the authority vested in it to the Postmaster General under such terms, conditions, and limitations, including the power of redelegation, as it deems desirable. The Board may establish such committees of the Board, and delegate such powers to any committee, as the Board determines appropriate to carry out its functions and duties. Delegations to the Postmaster General or committees shall be consistent with other provisions of this title, shall not relieve the Board of full responsibility for the carrying out of its duties and functions, and shall be revocable by the Governors in their exclusive judgment.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 723.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 16, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–5 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§403. General duties

(a) The Postal Service shall plan, develop, promote, and provide adequate and efficient postal services at fair and reasonable rates and fees. The Postal Service shall receive, transmit, and deliver throughout the United States, its territories and possessions, and, pursuant to arrangements entered into under sections 406 and 411 of this title, throughout the world, written and printed matter, parcels, and like materials and provide such other services incidental thereto as it finds appropriate to its functions and in the public interest. The Postal Service shall serve as nearly as practicable the entire population of the United States.

(b) It shall be the responsibility of the Postal Service—

(1) to maintain an efficient system of collection, sorting, and delivery of the mail nationwide;

(2) to provide types of mail service to meet the needs of different categories of mail and mail users; and

(3) to establish and maintain postal facilities of such character and in such locations, that postal patrons throughout the Nation will, consistent with reasonable economies of postal operations, have ready access to essential postal services.


(c) In providing services and in establishing classifications, rates, and fees under this title, the Postal Service shall not, except as specifically authorized in this title, make any undue or unreasonable discrimination among users of the mails, nor shall it grant any undue or unreasonable preferences to any such user.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 723; Pub. L. 96–70, title I, §1331(e)(1), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 482.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–70 substituted "The Postal Service" for "Except as provided in the Canal Zone Code, the Postal Service".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 20, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–10 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Continuation of Mail Delivery Services

Provisions requiring continuation of six-day delivery and rural delivery of mail at not less than the 1983 level were contained in the Transportation, Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006, Pub. L. 109–115, div. A, title VI, Nov. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2490, and were repeated in provisions of subsequent appropriations acts which are not set out in the Code. Similar provisions were also contained in the following prior appropriations acts:

Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title IV, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3264.

Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title IV, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 340.

Pub. L. 108–7, div. J, title II, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 442.

Pub. L. 107–67, title II, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 525.

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(3) [title II], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-135.

Pub. L. 106–58, title II, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 444.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(h) [title II], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681-492.

Pub. L. 105–61, title II, Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1290.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title II], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-326.

Pub. L. 104–52, title II, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 476.

Pub. L. 103–329, title II, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2392.

Pub. L. 103–123, title II, Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1234.

Pub. L. 102–393, title II, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1737.

Pub. L. 102–141, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 843.

Pub. L. 101–509, title II, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1396.

Pub. L. 101–136, title II, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 790.

Pub. L. 100–440, title II, Sept. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1727.

Pub. L. 100–202, §§101(m) [title II], 102, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–390, 1329-397, 1329-433.

Pub. L. 99–500, §§101(m) [title II], 102, Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, 1783-314, 1783-346, and Pub. L. 99–591, §§101(m) [title II], 102, Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308, 3341-314, 3341-346.

Pub. L. 99–190, §§101(h) [H.R. 3036, title II], 102, Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1291, 1315.

Pub. L. 98–473, §§101(j) [H.R. 5798, title II], 102, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1963, 1964.

Pub. L. 98–151, §§102, 106, Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 975.

Pub. L. 98–107, §§102, 108, Oct. 1, 1983, 97 Stat. 740, 741.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §111B, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1912.

Pub. L. 97–35, title XVII, §1722, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 759, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title II, §2209, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1061.

Pub. L. 96–499, title IV, §412, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2607.

Prohibition of 9-Digit ZIP Code

Pub. L. 97–35, title XVII, §1726, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 761, prohibited Postal Service from implementing ZIP code system using more than 5 digits before Oct. 1, 1983, and prohibited executive agencies from taking action to conform mailing procedures to ZIP code system using more than 5 digits during the period from Aug. 13, 1981 to Dec. 31, 1982.

§404. Specific powers

(a) Subject to the provisions of section 404a, but otherwise without limitation of the generality of its powers, the Postal Service shall have the following specific powers, among others:

(1) to provide for the collection, handling, transportation, delivery, forwarding, returning, and holding of mail, and for the disposition of undeliverable mail;

(2) to prescribe, in accordance with this title, the amount of postage and the manner in which it is to be paid;

(3) to determine the need for post offices, postal and training facilities and equipment, and to provide such offices, facilities, and equipment as it determines are needed;

(4) to provide and sell postage stamps and other stamped paper, cards, and envelopes and to provide such other evidences of payment of postage and fees as may be necessary or desirable;

(5) to provide philatelic services;

(6) to investigate postal offenses and civil matters relating to the Postal Service;

(7) to offer and pay rewards for information and services in connection with violation of the postal laws, and, unless a different disposal is expressly prescribed, to pay one-half of all penalties and forfeitures imposed for violations of law affecting the Postal Service, its revenues, or property, to the person informing for the same, and to pay the other one-half into the Postal Service Fund; and

(8) to authorize the issuance of a substitute check for a lost, stolen, or destroyed check of the Postal Service.


(b) Except as otherwise provided, the Governors are authorized to establish reasonable and equitable classes of mail and reasonable and equitable rates of postage and fees for postal services in accordance with the provisions of chapter 36. Postal rates and fees shall be reasonable and equitable and sufficient to enable the Postal Service, under best practices of honest, efficient, and economical management, to maintain and continue the development of postal services of the kind and quality adapted to the needs of the United States.

(c) The Postal Service shall maintain one or more classes of mail for the transmission of letters sealed against inspection. The rate for each such class shall be uniform throughout the United States, its territories, and possessions. One such class shall provide for the most expeditious handling and transportation afforded mail matter by the Postal Service. No letter of such a class of domestic origin shall be opened except under authority of a search warrant authorized by law, or by an officer or employee of the Postal Service for the sole purpose of determining an address at which the letter can be delivered, or pursuant to the authorization of the addressee.

(d)(1) The Postal Service, prior to making a determination under subsection (a)(3) of this section as to the necessity for the closing or consolidation of any post office, shall provide adequate notice of its intention to close or consolidate such post office at least 60 days prior to the proposed date of such closing or consolidation to persons served by such post office to ensure that such persons will have an opportunity to present their views.

(2) The Postal Service, in making a determination whether or not to close or consolidate a post office—

(A) shall consider—

(i) the effect of such closing or consolidation on the community served by such post office;

(ii) the effect of such closing or consolidation on employees of the Postal Service employed at such office;

(iii) whether such closing or consolidation is consistent with the policy of the Government, as stated in section 101(b) of this title, that the Postal Service shall provide a maximum degree of effective and regular postal services to rural areas, communities, and small towns where post offices are not self-sustaining;

(iv) the economic savings to the Postal Service resulting from such closing or consolidation; and

(v) such other factors as the Postal Service determines are necessary; and


(B) may not consider compliance with any provision of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.).


(3) Any determination of the Postal Service to close or consolidate a post office shall be in writing and shall include the findings of the Postal Service with respect to the considerations required to be made under paragraph (2) of this subsection. Such determination and findings shall be made available to persons served by such post office.

(4) The Postal Service shall take no action to close or consolidate a post office until 60 days after its written determination is made available to persons served by such post office.

(5) A determination of the Postal Service to close or consolidate any post office may be appealed by any person served by such office to the Postal Regulatory Commission within 30 days after such determination is made available to such person under paragraph (3). The Commission shall review such determination on the basis of the record before the Postal Service in the making of such determination. The Commission shall make a determination based upon such review no later than 120 days after receiving any appeal under this paragraph. The Commission shall set aside any determination, findings, and conclusions found to be—

(A) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with the law;

(B) without observance of procedure required by law; or

(C) unsupported by substantial evidence on the record.


The Commission may affirm the determination of the Postal Service or order that the entire matter be returned for further consideration, but the Commission may not modify the determination of the Postal Service. The Commission may suspend the effectiveness of the determination of the Postal Service until the final disposition of the appeal. The provisions of section 556, section 557, and chapter 7 of title 5 shall not apply to any review carried out by the Commission under this paragraph.

(6) For purposes of paragraph (5), any appeal received by the Commission shall—

(A) if sent to the Commission through the mails, be considered to have been received on the date of the Postal Service postmark on the envelope or other cover in which such appeal is mailed; or

(B) if otherwise lawfully delivered to the Commission, be considered to have been received on the date determined based on any appropriate documentation or other indicia (as determined under regulations of the Commission).


(e)(1) In this subsection, the term "nonpostal service" means any service that is not a postal service defined under section 102(5).

(2) Nothing in this section shall be considered to permit or require that the Postal Service provide any nonpostal service, except that the Postal Service may provide nonpostal services which were offered as of January 1, 2006, as provided under this subsection.

(3) Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act, the Postal Regulatory Commission shall review each nonpostal service offered by the Postal Service on the date of enactment of that Act and determine whether that nonpostal service shall continue, taking into account—

(A) the public need for the service; and

(B) the ability of the private sector to meet the public need for the service.


(4) Any nonpostal service not determined to be continued by the Postal Regulatory Commission under paragraph (3) shall terminate.

(5) If the Postal Regulatory Commission authorizes the Postal Service to continue a nonpostal service under this subsection, the Postal Regulatory Commission shall designate whether the service shall be regulated under this title as a market dominant product, a competitive product, or an experimental product.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 94–421, §9(a), Sept. 24, 1976, 90 Stat. 1310; Pub. L. 105–241, §3, Sept. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 109–435, title I, §102(a), title IV, §403(b)(2), title VI, §604(a), title X, §§1006(a), 1010(e), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3200, 3227, 3241, 3258, 3261.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 91–596, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1590, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§651 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 651 of Title 29 and Tables.

The date of enactment of the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–435, which was approved Dec. 20, 2006.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–435, §403(b)(2), substituted "Subject to the provisions of section 404a, but otherwise without" for "Without" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(6) to (9). Pub. L. 109–435, §102(a)(1), redesignated pars. (7) to (9) as (6) to (8), respectively, and struck out former par. (6), which read "to provide, establish, change, or abolish special nonpostal or similar services;".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–435, §1010(e), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–435, §604(a), substituted "Postal Regulatory Commission" for "Postal Rate Commission".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 109–435, §1006(a), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–435, §1010(e), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (e).

Pub. L. 109–435, §102(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–435, §1010(e), redesignated subsecs. (b) and (c) as (d) and (e), respectively.

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–241 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The Postal Service, in making a determination whether or not to close or consolidate a post office, shall consider—

"(A) the effect of such closing or consolidation on the community served by such post office;

"(B) the effect of such closing or consolidation on employees of the Postal Service employed at such office;

"(C) whether such closing or consolidation is consistent with the policy of the Government, as stated in section 101(b) of this title, that the Postal Service shall provide a maximum degree of effective and regular postal services to rural areas, communities, and small towns where post offices are not self-sustaining;

"(D) the economic savings to the Postal Service resulting from such closing or consolidation; and

"(E) such other factors as the Postal Service determines are necessary."

1976—Pub. L. 94–421 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–435, title X, §1006(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3258, provided that: "This section [amending this section] and the amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to any determination to close or consolidate a post office which is first made available, in accordance with paragraph (3) of section 404(b) of title 39, United States Code, after the end of the 3-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006]."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–421, §9(b), Sept. 24, 1976, 90 Stat. 1311, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the day after the date on which the Commission on Postal Service transmits its final report under section 7(f)(1) of this Act [set out as a note under section 3661 of this title]."

Effective Date

Pars. (1), (3) to (9) of subsec. (a) of this section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors and par. (2) of subsec. (a) effective Jan. 20, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–10 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

References to Postal Rate Commission

Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §604(f), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3242, provided that: "Whenever a reference is made in any provision of law (other than this Act [see Tables for classification] or a provision of law amended by this Act), regulation, rule, document, or other record of the United States to the Postal Rate Commission, such reference shall be considered a reference to the Postal Regulatory Commission."

§404a. Specific limitations

(a) Except as specifically authorized by law, the Postal Service may not—

(1) establish any rule or regulation (including any standard) the effect of which is to preclude competition or establish the terms of competition unless the Postal Service demonstrates that the regulation does not create an unfair competitive advantage for itself or any entity funded (in whole or in part) by the Postal Service;

(2) compel the disclosure, transfer, or licensing of intellectual property to any third party (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and proprietary information); or

(3) obtain information from a person that provides (or seeks to provide) any product, and then offer any postal service that uses or is based in whole or in part on such information, without the consent of the person providing that information, unless substantially the same information is obtained (or obtainable) from an independent source or is otherwise obtained (or obtainable).


(b) The Postal Regulatory Commission shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section.

(c) Any party (including an officer of the Commission representing the interests of the general public) who believes that the Postal Service has violated this section may bring a complaint in accordance with section 3662.

(Added Pub. L. 109–435, title IV, §403(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3226.)

§405. Printing of illustrations of United States postage stamps

(a) When requested by the Postal Service, the Director of the Government Publishing Office shall print, as a public document for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, illustrations in black and white or in color of postage stamps of the United States, together with such descriptive, historical, and philatelic information with regard to the stamps as the Postal Service deems suitable.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 505 of title 44, stereotype or electrotype plates, or duplicates thereof, used in the publications authorized to be printed by this section may not be sold or otherwise disposed of.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 113–235, div. H, title I, §1301(d), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2537.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

"Director of the Government Publishing Office" substituted for "Public Printer" in subsec. (a) on authority of section 1301(d) of Pub. L. 113–235, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§406. Postal services at Armed Forces installations

(a) The Postal Service may establish branch post offices at camps, posts, bases, or stations of the Armed Forces and at defense or other strategic installations.

(b) The Secretaries of Defense and Transportation shall make arrangements with the Postal Service to perform postal services through personnel designated by them at or through branch post offices established under subsection (a) of this section.

(c)(1) The Secretary of Defense may authorize the use of a post office established under subsection (a) in a location outside the United States by citizens of the United States—

(A) who—

(i) are employed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; and

(ii) perform functions in support of the Armed Forces of the United States; and


(B) if the Secretary makes a written determination that such use is—

(i) in the best interests of the Department of Defense; and

(ii) otherwise authorized by applicable host nation law or agreement.


(2) No funds may be obligated or expended to establish, maintain, or expand a post office established under subsection (a) for the purpose of use described in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title X, §1056, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1593.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 116–92 added subsec. (c).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§407. International postal arrangements

(a) It is the policy of the United States—

(1) to promote and encourage communications between peoples by efficient operation of international postal services and other international delivery services for cultural, social, and economic purposes;

(2) to promote and encourage unrestricted and undistorted competition in the provision of international postal services and other international delivery services, except where provision of such services by private companies may be prohibited by law of the United States;

(3) to promote and encourage a clear distinction between governmental and operational responsibilities with respect to the provision of international postal services and other international delivery services by the Government of the United States and by intergovernmental organizations of which the United States is a member; and

(4) to participate in multilateral and bilateral agreements with other countries to accomplish these objectives.


(b)(1) The Secretary of State shall be responsible for formulation, coordination, and oversight of foreign policy related to international postal services and other international delivery services and shall have the power to conclude postal treaties, conventions, and amendments related to international postal services and other international delivery services, except that the Secretary may not conclude any treaty, convention, or other international agreement (including those regulating international postal services) if such treaty, convention, or agreement would, with respect to any competitive product, grant an undue or unreasonable preference to the Postal Service, a private provider of international postal or delivery services, or any other person.

(2) In carrying out the responsibilities specified in paragraph (1), the Secretary of State shall exercise primary authority for the conduct of foreign policy with respect to international postal services and international delivery services, including the determination of United States positions and the conduct of United States participation in negotiations with foreign governments and international bodies. In exercising this authority, the Secretary—

(A) shall coordinate with other agencies as appropriate, and in particular, shall give full consideration to the authority vested by law or Executive order in the Postal Regulatory Commission, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Transportation, and the Office of the United States Trade Representative in this area;

(B) shall maintain continuing liaison with other executive branch agencies concerned with postal and delivery services;

(C) shall maintain continuing liaison with the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Government Reform of the House of Representatives;

(D) shall maintain appropriate liaison with both representatives of the Postal Service and representatives of users and private providers of international postal services and other international delivery services to keep informed of their interests and problems, and to provide such assistance as may be needed to ensure that matters of concern are promptly considered by the Department of State or (if applicable, and to the extent practicable) other executive branch agencies; and

(E) shall assist in arranging meetings of such public sector advisory groups as may be established to advise the Department of State and other executive branch agencies in connection with international postal services and international delivery services.


(3) The Secretary of State shall establish an advisory committee (within the meaning of the Federal Advisory Committee Act) to perform such functions as the Secretary considers appropriate in connection with carrying out subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (2).

(c)(1) Before concluding any treaty, convention, or amendment that establishes a rate or classification for a product subject to subchapter I of chapter 36, the Secretary of State shall request the Postal Regulatory Commission to submit its views on whether such rate or classification is consistent with the standards and criteria established by the Commission under section 3622.

(2) The Secretary shall ensure that each treaty, convention, or amendment concluded under subsection (b) is consistent with the views submitted by the Commission pursuant to paragraph (1), except if, or to the extent, the Secretary determines, in writing, that it is not in the foreign policy or national security interest of the United States to ensure consistency with the Commission's views. Such written determination shall be provided to the Commission together with a full explanation of the reasons thereof, provided that the Secretary may designate which portions of the determination or explanation shall be kept confidential for reasons of foreign policy or national security.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be considered to prevent the Postal Service from entering into such commercial or operational contracts related to providing international postal services and other international delivery services as it deems appropriate, except that—

(1) any such contract made with an agency of a foreign government (whether under authority of this subsection or otherwise) shall be solely contractual in nature and may not purport to be international law; and

(2) a copy of each such contract between the Postal Service and an agency of a foreign government shall be transmitted to the Secretary of State and the Postal Regulatory Commission not later than the effective date of such contract.


(e)(1) In this subsection, the term "private company" means a private company substantially owned or controlled by persons who are citizens of the United States.

(2) With respect to shipments of international mail that are competitive products within the meaning of section 3631 that are exported or imported by the Postal Service, the Customs Service and other appropriate Federal agencies shall apply the customs laws of the United States and all other laws relating to the importation or exportation of such shipments in the same manner to both shipments by the Postal Service and similar shipments by private companies.

(3) In exercising the authority under subsection (b) to conclude new postal treaties and conventions related to international postal services and to renegotiate such treaties and conventions, the Secretary of State shall, to the maximum extent practicable, take such measures as are within the Secretary's control to encourage the governments of other countries to make available to the Postal Service and private companies a range of nondiscriminatory customs procedures that will fully meet the needs of all types of American shippers. The Secretary of State shall consult with the United States Trade Representative and the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in carrying out this paragraph.

(4) The provisions of this subsection shall take effect 6 months after the date of enactment of this subsection or such earlier date as the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection of the Department of Homeland Security may determine in writing.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(h) [title VI, §633(a)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681-523; Pub. L. 109–435, title IV, §405(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3229; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(d)(2), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e)(4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–435, which was approved Dec. 20, 2006.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–435 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) relating to responsibilities of the Secretary of State and the Postal Service for international postal arrangements.

1998—Pub. L. 105–277 substituted "International Postal Arrangements" for "International postal arrangements" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) The Postal Service, with the consent of the President, may negotiate and conclude postal treaties or conventions, and may establish the rates of postage or other charges on mail matter conveyed between the United States and other countries. The decisions of the Postal Service construing or interpreting the provisions of any treaty or convention which has been or may be negotiated and concluded shall, if approved by the President, be conclusive upon all officers of the Government of the United States.

"(b) The Postal Service shall transmit a copy of each postal convention concluded with other governments to the Secretary of State, who shall furnish a copy of the same to the Public Printer for publication."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

"Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection" substituted for "Commissioner of Customs" in subsec. (e)(3) on authority of section 802(d)(2) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–435, title IV, §405(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3232, provided that: "Notwithstanding any provision of the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section], the authority of the United States Postal Service to establish the rates of postage or other charges on mail matter conveyed between the United States and other countries shall remain available to the Postal Service until—

"(1) with respect to market-dominant products, the date as of which the regulations promulgated under section 3622 of title 39, United States Code (as amended by section 201(a)) take effect; and

"(2) with respect to competitive products, the date as of which the regulations promulgated under section 3633 of title 39, United States Code (as amended by section 202) take effect."

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Transfer of Funds to State Department

Pub. L. 105–277, §101(h) [title VI, §633(d)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681-524, provided that: "In fiscal year 1999 and each fiscal year hereafter, the Postal Service shall allocate to the Department of State from any funds available to the Postal Service such sums as may be reasonable, documented and auditable for the Department of State to carry out the activities of Section 407 of title 39 of the United States Code."


Executive Documents

Modernizing the Monetary Reimbursement Model for the Delivery of Goods Through the International Postal System and Enhancing the Security and Safety of International Mail

Memorandum of President of the United States, Aug. 23, 2018, 83 F.R. 47791, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State[,] the Secretary of the Treasury[,] the Secretary of Homeland Security[,] the Postmaster General[, and] the Chairman of the Postal Regulatory Commission

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Definitions. (a) "Good" means any tangible and movable object that can be conveyed by the international postal system, excluding (i) written, drawn, printed, or digital information recorded on a tangible medium that is not an object of merchandise and (ii) money.

(b) "Non-postal operator" means a private express carrier, freight forwarder, or other provider of services for the collection, transportation, and delivery of international documents and packages, other than a postal operator.

(c) "Postal operator" means a governmental or non-governmental entity officially designated by a Universal Postal Union (UPU) member country to operate postal services and to fulfill the related obligations arising out of the Acts of the UPU on its territory.

(d) "Terminal dues" means the rates or fees determined through the UPU and paid by the postal operator in the country of origin to the postal operator in the country of destination to compensate for costs incurred in the country of destination for processing, transportation, and delivery of international "letter post" items, which may include documents or goods and generally weigh up to 4.4 pounds.

Sec. 2. Policy. (a) The UPU was established in 1874 by 21 countries. The United States played an integral role in the UPU's creation and, since that time, the United States has actively participated in all phases of the UPU's work. The United States is a party to the current Constitution of the UPU—which was adopted in 1964—and intends to continue to participate fully in and financially contribute to the UPU, as provided in Article 21 of the UPU Constitution. As a member country of the UPU, the United States recognizes the importance of this long-standing organization and is proud of the United States' unbroken record of participation in it.

The Congress has provided that the Secretary of State (Secretary), in concluding postal treaties, conventions, or other international agreements, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, take measures to encourage governments of other countries to make available to the United States Postal Service (USPS) and private companies a range of nondiscriminatory customs procedures that will fully meet the needs of all types of American shippers (39 U.S.C. 407(e)(3)).

The Congress has likewise directed that responsible officials shall apply the customs laws of the United States and all other laws relating to importation or exportation of goods in the same manner to shipments of goods that are competitive products of the USPS and to similar shipments by private companies (39 U.S.C. 407(e)(2)).

It is the policy of the United States to promote and encourage the development of an efficient and competitive global system that provides for fair and nondiscriminatory postal rates.

(b) It is in the interest of the United States to:

(i) promote and encourage communications between peoples by efficient operation of international postal services and other international delivery services for cultural, social, and economic purposes (39 U.S.C. 407(a)(1));

(ii) promote and encourage unrestricted and undistorted competition in the provision of international postal services and other international delivery services, except where provision of such services by private companies may be prohibited by the laws of the United States (39 U.S.C. 407(a)(2));

(iii) promote and encourage a clear distinction between governmental and operational responsibilities with respect to the provision of international postal services and other international delivery services by the Government of the United States and by intergovernmental organizations of which the United States is a member (39 U.S.C. 407(a)(3)); and

(iv) participate in multilateral and bilateral agreements with other countries to accomplish these objectives (39 U.S.C. 407(a)(4)).

(c) Some current international postal practices in the UPU do not align with United States economic and national security interests:

(i) UPU terminal dues, in many cases, are less than comparable domestic postage rates. As a result:

(A) the United States, along with other member countries of the UPU, is in many cases not fully reimbursed by the foreign postal operator for the cost of delivering foreign-origin letter post items, which can result in substantial preferences for foreign mailers relative to domestic mailers;

(B) the current terminal dues rates undermine the goal of unrestricted and undistorted competition in cross-border delivery services because they disadvantage non-postal operators seeking to offer competing collection and outward transportation services for goods covered by terminal dues in foreign markets; and

(C) the current system of terminal dues distorts the flow of small packages around the world by incentivizing the shipping of goods from foreign countries that benefit from artificially low reimbursement rates.

(ii) The UPU has not done enough to reorient international mail to achieve a clear distinction between documents and goods. Without such a distinction, it is difficult to achieve essential pricing reforms or to ensure that customs requirements, including provision of electronic customs data for goods, are met. Under the current system, foreign postal operators do not uniformly furnish advance electronic customs data that are needed to enhance targeting and risk management for national security and to facilitate importation and customs clearance. My Administration's Initiative to Stop Opioids Abuse and Reduce Drug Supply and Demand, launched in March of this year [2018], requires accurate advance electronic customs data for 90 percent of all international mail shipments that contain goods and consignment shipments within 3 years, so that the Department of Homeland Security can better detect and flag high-risk shipments.

(d) It shall be the policy of the executive branch to support efforts that further the policies in this memorandum, including supporting a system of unrestricted and undistorted competition between United States and foreign merchants. Such efforts include:

(i) ensuring that rates charged for delivery of foreign-origin mail containing goods do not favor foreign mailers over domestic mailers;

(ii) setting rates charged for delivery of foreign-origin mail in a manner that does not favor postal operators over non-postal operators; and

(iii) ensuring the collection of advance electronic customs data.

Sec. 3. Relations with the UPU. (a) The United States must seek reforms to the UPU that promote the policies outlined in this memorandum. Such reforms shall provide for:

(i) a system of fair and nondiscriminatory rates for goods that promotes unrestricted and undistorted competition; and

(ii) terminal dues rates that:

(A) fully reimburse the USPS for costs to the same extent as domestic rates for comparable services;

(B) avoid a preference for inbound foreign small packages containing goods that favors foreign mailers over domestic mailers; and

(C) avoid a preference for inbound foreign small packages containing goods that favors postal operators over private-sector entities providing transportation services.

(b) If negotiations at the UPU's September 2018 Second Extraordinary Congress in Ethiopia fail to yield reforms that satisfy the criteria set forth in subsection (a) of this section, the United States will consider taking any appropriate actions to ensure that rates for the delivery of inbound foreign packages satisfy those criteria, consistent with applicable law.

Sec. 4. Actions by the Secretary. (a) The Secretary shall notify the Director General of the UPU of the policies and intentions of the United States described in this memorandum.

(b) The Secretary or his designee shall, consistent with 39 U.S.C. 407(b)(1), seek agreement on future Convention texts that comport with the policies of this memorandum in meetings of the UPU, including at the September 2018 Extraordinary Congress.

(c) No later than November 1, 2018, the Secretary shall submit to the President a report summarizing the steps being taken to implement this memorandum. If the Secretary determines that sufficient progress on reforms to promote compatibility of the Acts of the UPU with the policy of this memorandum is not being achieved, the Secretary shall include recommendations for future action, including the possibility of adopting self-declared rates.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(d) The Secretary is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.      

§408. International money-order exchanges

The Postal Service may make arrangements with other governments, with which postal conventions are or may be concluded, for the exchange of sums of money by means of postal orders. It shall fix limitations on the amount which may be so exchanged and the rates of exchange.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 725.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§409. Suits by and against the Postal Service

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title, the United States district courts shall have original but not exclusive jurisdiction over all actions brought by or against the Postal Service. Any action brought in a State court to which the Postal Service is a party may be removed to the appropriate United States district court under the provisions of chapter 89 of title 28.

(b) Unless otherwise provided in this title, the provisions of title 28 relating to service of process, venue, and limitations of time for bringing action in suits in which the United States, its officers, or employees are parties, and the rules of procedure adopted under title 28 for suits in which the United States, its officers, or employees are parties, shall apply in like manner to suits in which the Postal Service, its officers, or employees are parties.

(c) The provisions of chapter 171 and all other provisions of title 28 relating to tort claims shall apply to tort claims arising out of activities of the Postal Service.

(d)(1) For purposes of the provisions of law cited in paragraphs (2)(A) and (2)(B), respectively, the Postal Service—

(A) shall be considered to be a "person", as used in the provisions of law involved; and

(B) shall not be immune under any other doctrine of sovereign immunity from suit in Federal court by any person for any violation of any of those provisions of law by any officer or employee of the Postal Service.


(2) This subsection applies with respect to—

(A) the Act of July 5, 1946 (commonly referred to as the "Trademark Act of 1946" (15 U.S.C. 1051 and following)); and

(B) the provisions of section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act to the extent that such section 5 applies to unfair or deceptive acts or practices.


(e)(1) To the extent that the Postal Service, or other Federal agency acting on behalf of or in concert with the Postal Service, engages in conduct with respect to any product which is not reserved to the United States under section 1696 of title 18, the Postal Service or other Federal agency (as the case may be)—

(A) shall not be immune under any doctrine of sovereign immunity from suit in Federal court by any person for any violation of Federal law by such agency or any officer or employee thereof; and

(B) shall be considered to be a person (as defined in subsection (a) of the first section of the Clayton Act) for purposes of—

(i) the antitrust laws (as defined in such subsection); and

(ii) section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act to the extent that such section 5 applies to unfair methods of competition.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, any private carriage of mail allowable by virtue of section 601 shall not be considered a service reserved to the United States under section 1696 of title 18.

(2) No damages, interest on damages, costs or attorney's fees may be recovered, and no criminal liability may be imposed, under the antitrust laws (as so defined) from any officer or employee of the Postal Service, or other Federal agency acting on behalf of or in concert with the Postal Service, acting in an official capacity.

(3) This subsection shall not apply with respect to conduct occurring before the date of enactment of this subsection.

(f)(1) Each building constructed or altered by the Postal Service shall be constructed or altered, to the maximum extent feasible as determined by the Postal Service, in compliance with 1 of the nationally recognized model building codes and with other applicable nationally recognized codes.

(2) Each building constructed or altered by the Postal Service shall be constructed or altered only after consideration of all requirements (other than procedural requirements) of zoning laws, land use laws, and applicable environmental laws of a State or subdivision of a State which would apply to the building if it were not a building constructed or altered by an establishment of the Government of the United States.

(3) For purposes of meeting the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) with respect to a building, the Postal Service shall—

(A) in preparing plans for the building, consult with appropriate officials of the State or political subdivision, or both, in which the building will be located;

(B) upon request, submit such plans in a timely manner to such officials for review by such officials for a reasonable period of time not exceeding 30 days; and

(C) permit inspection by such officials during construction or alteration of the building, in accordance with the customary schedule of inspections for construction or alteration of buildings in the locality, if such officials provide to the Postal Service—

(i) a copy of such schedule before construction of the building is begun; and

(ii) reasonable notice of their intention to conduct any inspection before conducting such inspection.


Nothing in this subsection shall impose an obligation on any State or political subdivision to take any action under the preceding sentence, nor shall anything in this subsection require the Postal Service or any of its contractors to pay for any action taken by a State or political subdivision to carry out this subsection (including reviewing plans, carrying out on-site inspections, issuing building permits, and making recommendations).


(4) Appropriate officials of a State or a political subdivision of a State may make recommendations to the Postal Service concerning measures necessary to meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2). Such officials may also make recommendations to the Postal Service concerning measures which should be taken in the construction or alteration of the building to take into account local conditions. The Postal Service shall give due consideration to any such recommendations.

(5) In addition to consulting with local and State officials under paragraph (3), the Postal Service shall establish procedures for soliciting, assessing, and incorporating local community input on real property and land use decisions.

(6) For purposes of this subsection, the term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and a territory or possession of the United States.

(g)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, legal representation may not be furnished by the Department of Justice to the Postal Service in any action, suit, or proceeding arising, in whole or in part, under any of the following:

(A) Subsection (d) or (e) of this section.

(B) Subsection (f) or (g) of section 504 (relating to administrative subpoenas by the Postal Regulatory Commission).

(C) Section 3663 (relating to appellate review).


The Postal Service may, by contract or otherwise, employ attorneys to obtain any legal representation that it is precluded from obtaining from the Department of Justice under this paragraph.

(2) In any circumstance not covered by paragraph (1), the Department of Justice shall, under section 411, furnish the Postal Service such legal representation as it may require, except that, with the prior consent of the Attorney General, the Postal Service may, in any such circumstance, employ attorneys by contract or otherwise to conduct litigation brought by or against the Postal Service or its officers or employees in matters affecting the Postal Service.

(3)(A) In any action, suit, or proceeding in a court of the United States arising in whole or in part under any of the provisions of law referred to in subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (1), and to which the Commission is not otherwise a party, the Commission shall be permitted to appear as a party on its own motion and as of right.

(B) The Department of Justice shall, under such terms and conditions as the Commission and the Attorney General shall consider appropriate, furnish the Commission such legal representation as it may require in connection with any such action, suit, or proceeding, except that, with the prior consent of the Attorney General, the Commission may employ attorneys by contract or otherwise for that purpose.

(h) A judgment against the Government of the United States arising out of activities of the Postal Service shall be paid by the Postal Service out of any funds available to the Postal Service, subject to the restriction specified in section 2011(g).

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 725; Pub. L. 97–258, §2(k), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1062; Pub. L. 109–435, title IV, §404, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3227.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1982 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
409(e) 31:724a (last sentence). July 27, 1956, ch. 748, 70 Stat. 678, §1302 (last sentence); added Aug. 12, 1970, Pub. L. 91–375, §6(l)(3), 84 Stat. 782.

The words "Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section" are omitted as unnecessary.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Act of July 5, 1946, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(A), is act July 5, 1946, ch. 540, 60 Stat. 427, as amended, popularly known as the Trademark Act of 1946 and also as the Lanham Act, which is classified generally to chapter 22 (§1051 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1051 of Title 15 and Tables.

Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(2)(B) and (e)(1)(B)(ii), is classified to section 45 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

The first section of the Clayton Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(B), is classified to section 12 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 53 of Title 29, Labor.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–435, which was approved Dec. 20, 2006.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–435, §404(b), substituted "Except as otherwise provided in this title," for "Except as provided in section 3628 of this title,".

Subsecs. (d) to (h). Pub. L. 109–435, §404(a), added subsecs. (d) to (h) and struck out former subsecs. (d) and (e), which read as follows:

"(d) The Department of Justice shall furnish, under section 411 of this title, the Postal Service such legal representation as it may require, but with the prior consent of the Attorney General the Postal Service may employ attorneys by contract or otherwise to conduct litigation brought by or against the Postal Service or its officers or employees in matters affecting the Postal Service.

"(e) A judgment against the Government of the United States arising out of activities of the Postal Service shall be paid by the Postal Service out of any funds available to the Postal Service."

1982—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–258 added subsec. (e).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§410. Application of other laws

(a) Except as provided by subsection (b) of this section, and except as otherwise provided in this title or insofar as such laws remain in force as rules or regulations of the Postal Service, no Federal law dealing with public or Federal contracts, property, works, officers, employees, budgets, or funds, including the provisions of chapters 5 and 7 of title 5, shall apply to the exercise of the powers of the Postal Service.

(b) The following provisions shall apply to the Postal Service:

(1) section 552 (public information), section 552a (records about individuals), section 552b (open meetings), section 3102 (employment of personal assistants for blind, deaf, or otherwise handicapped employees), section 3110 (restrictions on employment of relatives), section 3333 and chapters 72 (antidiscrimination; right to petition Congress) and 73 (suitability, security, and conduct of employees), section 5520 (withholding city income or employment taxes), and section 5532 1 (dual pay) of title 5, except that no regulation issued under such chapters or section shall apply to the Postal Service unless expressly made applicable;

(2) all provisions of title 18 dealing with the Postal Service, the mails, and officers or employees of the Government of the United States;

(3) section 107 of title 20 (known as the Randolph-Sheppard Act, relating to vending machines operated by the blind);

(4) the following provisions of title 40:

(A) sections 3114–3116, 3118, 3131, 3133, and 3141–3147; and

(B) chapters 37 and 173;


(5) chapters 65 and 67 of title 41;

(6) sections 2000d, 2000d–1—2000d–4 of title 42 (title VI, the Civil Rights Act of 1964);

(7) section 19 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 668);

(8) the provisions of the Act of August 12, 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151–4156);

(9) chapter 39 of title 31;

(10) the Inspector General Act of 1978; and

(11) section 5520a of title 5.


(c) Subsection (b)(1) of this section shall not require the disclosure of—

(1) the name or address, past or present, of any postal patron;

(2) information of a commercial nature, including trade secrets, whether or not obtained from a person outside the Postal Service, which under good business practice would not be publicly disclosed;

(3) information prepared for use in connection with the negotiation of collective-bargaining agreements under chapter 12 of this title or minutes of, or notes kept during, negotiating sessions conducted under such chapter;

(4) information prepared for use in connection with proceedings under chapter 36 of this title;

(5) the reports and memoranda of consultants or independent contractors except to the extent that they would be required to be disclosed if prepared within the Postal Service; and

(6) investigatory files, whether or not considered closed, compiled for law enforcement purposes except to the extent available by law to a party other than the Postal Service.


(d)(1) A lease agreement by the Postal Service for rent of net interior space in excess of 6,500 square feet in any building or facility, or part of a building or facility, to be occupied for purposes of the Postal Service shall include a provision that all laborers and mechanics employed in the construction, modification, alteration, repair, painting, decoration, or other improvement of the building or space covered by the agreement, or improvement at the site of such building or facility, shall be paid wages at not less than those prevailing for similar work in the locality as determined by the Secretary of Labor under section 3142 of title 40.

(2) The authority and functions of the Secretary of Labor with respect to labor standards enforcement under Reorganization Plan numbered 14 of 1950 (title 5, appendix), and regulations for contractors and subcontractors under section 3145 of title 40, shall apply to the work under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) Paragraph (2) of this subsection shall not be construed to give the Secretary of Labor authority to direct the cancellation of the lease agreement referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 725; Pub. L. 91–656, §8(a), Jan. 8, 1971, 84 Stat. 1955; Pub. L. 93–340, §2, July 10, 1974, 88 Stat. 294; Pub. L. 94–82, title I, §101, Aug. 9, 1975, 89 Stat. 419; Pub. L. 94–409, §5(a), Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 94–541, title II, §203, Oct. 18, 1976, 90 Stat. 2508; Pub. L. 95–454, title III, §302(c), title VII, §703(c)(4), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1146, 1217; Pub. L. 96–523, §1(c)(2), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3040; Pub. L. 100–496, §2(c)(2), Oct. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 2456; Pub. L. 100–504, title I, §104(b), Oct. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 2525; Pub. L. 103–82, title II, §202(g)(6), Sept. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 890; Pub. L. 103–94, §9(b)(2), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1010; Pub. L. 103–123, title VII, §708(a), Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1272; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §662(f)(1)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-382; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(k), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1301; Pub. L. 108–178, §4(j), Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2642; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(k), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3850.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 5532 of title 5, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VI, §651(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 664.

Section 107 of title 20, known as the Randolph-Sheppard Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is section 1 of act June 20, 1936, ch. 638, 49 Stat. 1559, as amended. The act of June 20, 1936, known as the Randolph-Sheppard Act and also popularly known as the Randolph-Sheppard Vending Stand Act, is classified generally to chapter 6A (§107 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title notes set out under section 107 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 19 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 668), referred to in subsec. (b)(7), is section 19 of Pub. L. 91–596, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1609, which enacted section 668 of Title 29, Labor, and amended section 7902 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The provisions of the Act of August 12, 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151–4156), referred to in subsec. (b)(8), probably means Pub. L. 90–480, Aug. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 718, as amended, popularly known as the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§4151 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4151 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b)(10), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Reorganization Plan numbered 14 of 1950 (title 5, appendix), referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Reorg. Plan No. 14 of 1950, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3176, 64 Stat. 1267, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 111–350 added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5), which read as follows: "the following provisions of title 41:

"(A) sections 35–45 (known as the Walsh-Healey Act, relating to wages and hours); and

"(B) chapter 6 (the Service Contract Act of 1965);".

2003—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 108–178, §4(j)(1), substituted "section 3142 of title 40" for "section 276a of title 40".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 108–178, §4(j)(2), substituted "section 3145 of title 40" for "section 276c of title 40".

2002—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–217 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "the following provisions of title 40:

"(A) sections 258a–258e (relating to condemnation proceedings);

"(B) sections 270a–270e (known as the Miller Act, relating to performance bonds);

"(C) sections 276a—276a–7 (known as the Davis-Bacon Act, relating to prevailing wages);

"(D) section 276c (relating to wage payments of certain contractors);

"(E) chapter 5 (the Contract Work Hours Standards Act); and

"(F) chapter 15 (the Government Losses in Shipment Act);".

1996—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §662(f)(1)(A)], struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §662(f)(1)(B)], substituted "(10) the Inspector General Act of 1978; and" for "the provisions of section 8F of the Inspector General Act of 1978."

1993—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 103–82, §202(g)(6)(A), and Pub. L. 103–123, §708(a)(1), amended par. (8) identically, striking out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 103–123, §708(a)(2), substituted "chapter" for "Chapter" in par. (9) relating to title 31.

Pub. L. 103–82, §202(g)(6)(B), and Pub. L. 103–123, §708(a)(2), amended par. (9), relating to title 31, identically, substituting "; and" for period at end.

Pub. L. 103–94, §9(b)(2)(A), and Pub. L. 103–123, §708(a)(3), which directed the identical amendment of subsec. (b) by redesignating par. (9), providing for applicability to Postal Service of provisions of section 8E of Inspector General Act of 1978, as (10), could not be executed because Pub. L. 103–82, §202(g)(6)(C), struck out such par. See below.

Pub. L. 103–82, §202(g)(6)(C), struck out second par. (9) which provided for applicability to Postal Service of the provisions of section 8E of Inspector General Act of 1978.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 103–94, §9(b)(2)(A), and Pub. L. 103–123, §708(a)(3), which directed the identical amendment of subsec. (b) by redesignating par. (9), providing for applicability to Postal Service of provisions of section 8E of Inspector General Act of 1978, as (10), could not be executed because Pub. L. 103–82, §202(g)(6)(C), struck out such par. See above.

Pub. L. 103–82, §202(g)(6)(C), added par. (10).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 103–94, §9(b)(2)(B), added par. (11).

1988—Subsec. (b)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 100–504, §104(b)(1)–(4), struck out "and" after semicolon in par. (6), substituted semicolon for period in par. (7), and substituted "the provisions" for "The provisions" and "; and" for period in par. (8).

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 100–504, §104(b)(5), added par. (9) relating to section 8E of Inspector General Act.

Pub. L. 100–496 added par. (9) relating to chapter 39 of title 31.

1980—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–523 substituted "section 3102 (employment of personal assistants for blind, deaf, or otherwise handicapped" for "3102 (employment of reading assistants for blind employees and interpreting assistants for deaf".

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–454 inserted provisions relating to reading and interpreting assistants, and substituted provisions respecting applicability of chapter 72 of title 5, for provisions respecting applicability of chapter 71 of title 5.

1976—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–409 inserted references to sections 552a and 552b of title 5.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 94–541 added par. (8).

1975—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 94–82 added par. (7).

1974—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 93–340 inserted "section 5520 (withholding city income or employment taxes)," before "and section 5532 (dual pay)".

1971—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–656 inserted "section 3110 (restrictions on employment of relatives)," before "section 3333" and substituted "no regulation" for "not regulation".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–178 effective Aug. 21, 2002, see section 5 of Pub. L. 108–178, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendments; Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–94 effective 120 days after Oct. 6, 1993, but not to release or extinguish any penalty, forfeiture, or liability incurred under amended provision, which is to be treated as remaining in force for purpose of sustaining any proper proceeding or action for enforcement of that penalty, forfeiture, or liability, and no provision of Pub. L. 103–94 to affect any proceedings with respect to which charges were filed on or before 120 days after Oct. 6, 1993, with orders to be issued in such proceedings and appeals taken therefrom as if Pub. L. 103–94 had not been enacted, see section 12 of Pub. L. 103–94, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provision note under section 7321 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–82 effective Oct. 1, 1993, see section 202(i) of Pub. L. 103–82, set out as an Effective Date note under section 12651 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–504 effective 180 days after Oct. 18, 1988, see section 113 of Pub. L. 100–504, set out as a note under section 5 of Pub. L. 95–452 (Inspector General Act of 1978) in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–496 applicable with respect to all obligations incurred on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 14(c) of Pub. L. 100–496, set out as a note under section 3902 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–523 effective sixty days after Dec. 12, 1980, see section 3 of Pub. L. 96–523, set out as a note under section 3102 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–409 effective 180 days after Sept. 13, 1976, see section 6 of Pub. L. 94–409, set out as an Effective Date note under section 552b of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–340 effective on 90th day following July 10, 1974, see section 3 of Pub. L. 93–340, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5520 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–656, §8(b), Jan. 8, 1971, 84 Stat. 1955, provided that: "The provisions of this section [amending this section] shall become effective on the effective date prescribed under section 15(a) of the Postal Reorganization Act [set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of this title] for section 410 of title 39, United States Code, as enacted by that Act."

Effective Date

Subsecs. (a), (b)(2) to (6), and (c)(1) to (3), (5), (6) of this section effective Apr. 13, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–14 of the Board of Governors, subsecs. (b)(1), relating to section 552 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and (c)(4) effective Jan. 20, 1971 pursuant to Resolution No. 71–10 of the Board of Governors, and subsec. (d) effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Applicability of Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993 to Postal Employees

Pub. L. 103–94, §7, Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1005, as amended by Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §604(f), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3242, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 5520a and 7321 to 7326 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 610 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending this section, sections 1216, 2302, 3302, and 3303 of Title 5, sections 602 and 603 of Title 18, and sections 1973d and 9904 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and omitting former sections 7321 to 7328 of Title 5] (except for the amendments made by section 8 [amending sections 2302 and 3303 of Title 5]), and any regulations thereunder, shall apply with respect to employees of the United States Postal Service and the Postal Regulatory Commission, pursuant to sections 410(b) and 3604(e) [now 504(e)] of title 39, United States Code."

1 See References in Text note below.

§411. Cooperation with other Government agencies

Executive agencies within the meaning of section 105 of title 5 and the Government Publishing Office are authorized to furnish property, both real and personal, and personal and nonpersonal services to the Postal Service, and the Postal Service is authorized to furnish property and services to them. The furnishing of property and services under this section shall be under such terms and conditions, including reimbursability, as the Postal Service and the head of the agency concerned shall deem appropriate.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 113–235, div. H, title I, §1301(b), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2537.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

"Government Publishing Office" substituted for "Government Printing Office" in text on authority of section 1301(b) of Pub. L. 113–235, set out as a note preceding section 301 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§412. Nondisclosure of lists of names and addresses

(a) Except as specifically provided by subsection (b) or other law, no officer or employee of the Postal Service shall make available to the public by any means or for any purpose any mailing or other list of names or addresses (past or present) of postal patrons or other persons.

(b) The Postal Service shall provide to the Secretary of Commerce for use by the Bureau of the Census such address information, address-related information, and point of postal delivery information, including postal delivery codes, as may be determined by the Secretary to be appropriate for any census or survey being conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The provision of such information under this subsection shall be in accordance with such mutually agreeable terms and conditions, including reimbursability, as the Postal Service and the Secretary of Commerce shall deem appropriate.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 727; Pub. L. 103–430, §4, Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4394.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–430 substituted "(a) Except as specifically provided by subsection (b) or other law," for "Except as specifically provided by law," and added subsec. (b).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§413. Postal services at diplomatic posts

(a) The Postal Service and the Department of State may enter into 1 or more agreements for field testing to ascertain the feasibility of providing postal services through personnel provided by the Department of State at branch post offices established by the Postal Service in United States diplomatic missions at locations abroad for which branch post offices are not established under section 406.

(b) To the extent that the Postal Service and the Department of State conclude it to be feasible and in the public interest, the Postal Service may establish branch post offices at United States diplomatic missions in locations abroad for which branch post offices are not established under section 406, and the Department of State may enter into an agreement with the Postal Service to perform postal services at such branch post offices through personnel designated by the Department of State.

(c) The Department of State shall reimburse the Postal Service for any amounts, determined by the Postal Service, equal to the additional costs incurred by the Postal Service, including transportation costs, incurred by the Postal Service in the performance of its obligations under any agreement entered into under this section.

(d) Each agreement entered into under this section shall include—

(1) provisions under which the Department of State shall make any reimbursements required under subsection (c);

(2) provisions authorizing the Postal Service to terminate the agreement, and the services provided thereunder, in the event that the Department of State does not comply with the provisions under paragraph (1); and

(3) any other provisions which may be necessary, including provisions relating to the closing of a post office under this section if necessary because a post office under section 406 is established in the same location.

(Added Pub. L. 101–524, §5(a), Nov. 6, 1990, 104 Stat. 2303.)

§414. Special postage stamps

(a) In order to afford the public a convenient way to contribute to funding for breast cancer research, the Postal Service shall establish a special rate of postage for first-class mail under this section.

(b) The rate of postage established under this section—

(1) shall be equal to the regular first-class rate of postage, plus a differential of not less than 15 percent;

(2) shall be set by the Governors in accordance with such procedures as the Governors shall by regulation prescribe (in lieu of the procedures under chapter 36); and

(3) shall be offered as an alternative to the regular first-class rate of postage.


The use of the special rate of postage established under this section shall be voluntary on the part of postal patrons. The special rate of postage of an individual stamp under this section shall be an amount that is evenly divisible by 5.

(c)(1) Of the amounts becoming available for breast cancer research pursuant to this section, the Postal Service shall pay—

(A) 70 percent to the National Institutes of Health; and

(B) the remainder to the Department of Defense.


Payments under this paragraph to an agency shall be made under such arrangements as the Postal Service shall by mutual agreement with such agency establish in order to carry out the purposes of this section, except that, under those arrangements, payments to such agency shall be made at least twice a year. An agency that receives amounts from the Postal Service under this paragraph shall use the amounts for breast cancer research.

(2) For purposes of this section, the term "amounts becoming available for breast cancer research pursuant to this section" means—

(A) the total amounts received by the Postal Service that it would not have received but for the enactment of this section, reduced by

(B) an amount sufficient to cover reasonable costs incurred by the Postal Service in carrying out this section, including those attributable to the printing, sale, and distribution of stamps under this section,


as determined by the Postal Service under regulations that it shall prescribe.

(d) It is the sense of the Congress that nothing in this section should—

(1) directly or indirectly cause a net decrease in total funds received by the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense, or any other agency of the Government (or any component or program thereof) below the level that would otherwise have been received but for the enactment of this section; or

(2) affect regular first-class rates of postage or any other regular rates of postage.


(e) Special postage stamps under this section shall be made available to the public beginning on such date as the Postal Service shall by regulation prescribe, but in no event later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this section.

(f) The Postmaster General shall include in each report rendered under section 2402 with respect to any period during any portion of which this section is in effect information concerning the operation of this section, except that, at a minimum, each shall include—

(1) the total amount described in subsection (c)(2)(A) which was received by the Postal Service during the period covered by such report; and

(2) of the amount under paragraph (1), how much (in the aggregate and by category) was required for the purposes described in subsection (c)(2)(B).


(g) For purposes of section 416 (including any regulation prescribed under subsection (e)(1)(C) of that section), the special postage stamp issued under this section shall not apply to any limitation relating to whether more than 1 semipostal may be offered for sale at the same time.

(h) This section shall cease to be effective after December 31, 2027.

(Added Pub. L. 105–41, §2(a), Aug. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1119; amended Pub. L. 106–253, §3(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 636; Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §650(b)(1), (c), Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 556, 557; Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title V, §541, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 346; Pub. L. 109–100, §1, Nov. 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 2170; Pub. L. 110–150, §1, Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 112–80, §1, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 114–99, §§2, 3, Dec. 11, 2015, 129 Stat. 2201; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, §1737, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1820.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (e), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–41, which was approved Aug. 13, 1997.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 116–92 substituted "2027" for "2019".

2015—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–99, §3, inserted at end of concluding provisions "An agency that receives amounts from the Postal Service under this paragraph shall use the amounts for breast cancer research."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–99, §2, substituted "2019" for "2015".

2011—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 112–80 substituted "2015" for "2011".

2007—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–150 substituted "2011" for "2007".

2005—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–100 substituted "2007" for "2005".

2004—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 108–199 substituted "2005" for "2003".

2001—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–67, §650(c), substituted "of not less than 15 percent" for "of not to exceed 25 percent" in par. (1) and inserted at end of concluding provisions "The special rate of postage of an individual stamp under this section shall be an amount that is evenly divisible by 5."

Subsec. (g), (h). Pub. L. 107–67, §650(b)(1), added subsecs. (g) and (h) and struck out former subsec. (g) which read as follows: "This section shall cease to be effective after July 29, 2002, or the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of the Semipostal Authorization Act, whichever is later."

2000—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–253 amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows: "This section shall cease to be effective at the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date on which special postage stamps under this section are first made available to the public."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §650(b)(2), Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 557, provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on the earlier of—

"(A) the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 12, 2001]; or

"(B) July 29, 2002."

Reporting Requirements

Pub. L. 110–150, §2, Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1820, provided that: "The National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense shall each submit to Congress and the Government Accountability Office an annual report concerning the use of any amounts that it received under section 414(c) of title 39, United States Code, including a description of any significant advances or accomplishments, during the year covered by the report, that were funded, in whole or in part, with such amounts."

Report by Comptroller General of United States

Pub. L. 106–253, §3(b), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 637, provided that: "No later than 3 months and no earlier than 6 months before the date as of which section 414 of title 39, United States Code (as amended by this section) is scheduled to expire, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the Congress a report on the operation of such section. Such report shall be in addition to the report required by section 2(b) of Public Law 105–41 [set out below], and shall address at least the same matters as were required to be included in that earlier report."

Pub. L. 105–41, §2(b), Aug. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1120, provided that: "No later than 3 months (but no earlier than 6 months) before the end of the 2-year period referred to in section 414(g) of title 39, United States Code (as amended by subsection (a)), the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the Congress a report on the operation of such section. Such report shall include—

"(1) an evaluation of the effectiveness and the appropriateness of the authority provided by such section as a means of fund-raising; and

"(2) a description of the monetary and other resources required of the Postal Service in carrying out such section."

§415. Prohibition on restriction or elimination of services

The Postal Service may not restrict, eliminate, or adversely affect any service provided by the Postal Service as a result of the payment of any penalty imposed under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.).

(Added Pub. L. 105–241, §4(a), Sept. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 1573.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 91–596, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1590, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§651 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 651 of Title 29 and Tables.

§416. Authority to issue semipostals

(a) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "semipostal" means a postage stamp which is issued and sold by the Postal Service, at a premium, in order to help provide funding for a cause described in subsection (b); and

(2) the term "agency" means an Executive agency within the meaning of section 105 of title 5.


(b) Discretionary Authority.—The Postal Service is hereby authorized to issue and sell semipostals under this section in order to advance such causes as the Postal Service considers to be in the national public interest and appropriate.

(c) Rate of Postage.—The rate of postage on a semipostal issued under this section shall be established by the Governors, in accordance with such procedures as they shall by regulation prescribe (in lieu of the procedures under chapter 36), except that—

(1) the rate established for a semipostal under this section shall be equal to the rate of postage that would otherwise regularly apply, plus a differential of not less than 15 percent; and

(2) no regular rates of postage or fees for postal services under chapter 36 shall be any different from what they otherwise would have been if this section had not been enacted.


The use of any semipostal issued under this section shall be voluntary on the part of postal patrons. The special rate of postage of an individual stamp under this section shall be an amount that is evenly divisible by 5.

(d) Amounts Becoming Available.—

(1) In general.—The amounts becoming available from the sale of a semipostal under this section shall be transferred to the appropriate agency or agencies under such arrangements as the Postal Service shall by mutual agreement with each such agency establish.

(2) Identification of appropriate causes and agencies.—Decisions concerning the identification of appropriate causes and agencies to receive amounts becoming available from the sale of a semipostal under this section shall be made in accordance with applicable regulations under subsection (e).

(3) Determination of amounts.—

(A) In general.—The amounts becoming available from the sale of a semipostal under this section shall be determined in a manner similar to that provided for under section 414(c)(2) (as in effect on July 1, 2000).

(B) Administrative costs.—Regulations under subsection (e) shall specifically address how the costs incurred by the Postal Service in carrying out this section shall be computed, recovered, and kept to a minimum.


(4) Other funding not to be affected.—Amounts which have or may become available from the sale of a semipostal under this section shall not be taken into account in any decision relating to the level of appropriations or other Federal funding to be furnished to an agency in any year.

(5) Recovery of costs.—Before transferring to an agency in accordance with paragraph (1) any amounts becoming available from the sale of a semipostal over any period, the Postal Service shall ensure that it has recovered the full costs incurred by the Postal Service in connection with such semipostal through the end of such period.


(e) Regulations.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in subsection (c), the Postal Service shall prescribe any regulations necessary to carry out this section, including provisions relating to—

(A) which office or other authority within the Postal Service shall be responsible for making the decisions described in subsection (d)(2);

(B) what criteria and procedures shall be applied in making those decisions; and

(C) what limitations shall apply, if any, relating to the issuance of semipostals (such as whether more than one semipostal may be offered for sale at the same time).


(2) Notice and comment.—Before any regulation is issued under this section, a copy of the proposed regulation shall be published in the Federal Register, and an opportunity shall be provided for interested parties to present written and, where practicable, oral comment. All regulations necessary to carry out this section shall be issued not later than 30 days before the date on which semipostals are first made available to the public under this section.


(f) Annual Reports.—

(1) In general.—The Postmaster General shall include in each report rendered under section 2402, with respect to any period during any portion of which this section is in effect, information concerning the operation of any program established under this section.

(2) Specific requirement.—If any semipostal ceases to be offered during the period covered by such a report, the information contained in that report shall also include—

(A) the commencement and termination dates for the sale of such semipostal;

(B) the total amount that became available from the sale of such semipostal; and

(C) of that total amount, how much was applied toward administrative costs.


For each year before the year in which a semipostal ceases to be offered, any report under this subsection shall include, with respect to that semipostal (for the year covered by such report), the information described in subparagraphs (B) and (C).


(g) Termination.—This section shall cease to be effective at the end of the 10-year period beginning on the date on which semipostals are first made available to the public under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 106–253, §2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 634; amended Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §652(c)(1), Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 557; Pub. L. 107–117, div. B, §1201, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2335.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–117 amended Pub. L. 107–67. See 2001 Amendment note below.

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–67, as amended by Pub. L. 107–117, substituted "of not less than 15 percent" for "of not to exceed 25 percent" in par. (1) and inserted at end of concluding provisions "The special rate of postage of an individual stamp under this section shall be an amount that is evenly divisible by 5."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 106–253, §2(d), formerly §2(e), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 636, as renumbered §2(d) by Pub. L. 112–234, §2(e)(2), Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1625, provided that: "The program under section 416 of title 39, United States Code (as amended by this section) shall be established within 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 28, 2000]."

Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp

Pub. L. 111–241, Sept. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 2605, as amended by Pub. L. 113–165, §2, Sept. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 1878, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp Act of 2010'.

"SEC. 2. MULTINATIONAL SPECIES CONSERVATION FUNDS SEMIPOSTAL STAMP.

"(a) In General.—In order to afford a convenient way for members of the public to contribute to funding for the operations supported by the Multinational Species Conservation Funds, the United States Postal Service shall issue a semipostal stamp (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the 'Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp') in accordance with succeeding provisions of this section.

"(b) Cost and Use.—

"(1) In general.—The Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp shall be offered at a cost equal to the cost of mailing a letter weighing 1 ounce or less at the nonautomation single-piece first-ounce letter rate, in effect at the time of purchase, plus a differential of not less than 15 percent.

"(2) Voluntary use.—The use of any semipostal issued under this section shall be voluntary on the part of postal patrons.

"(3) Special rate.—The special rate of postage of an individual stamp under this section shall be an amount that is evenly divisible by 5.

"(c) Other Terms and Conditions.—The issuance and sale of the Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp shall be governed by the provisions of section 416 of title 39, United States Code, and regulations issued under such section, subject to subsection (b) and the following:

"(1) Disposition of proceeds.—

"(A) In general.—All amounts becoming available from the sale of the Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp (as determined under section 416(d) of such title 39) shall be transferred to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, for the purpose described in subsection (a), through payments which shall be made at least twice a year, with the proceeds to be divided equally among the African Elephant Conservation Fund, the Asian Elephant Conservation Fund, the Great Ape Conservation Fund, the Marine Turtle Conservation Fund, the Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Fund, and other international wildlife conservation funds authorized by the Congress after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 2010] and administered by the Service as part of the Multinational Species Conservation Fund.

"(B) Proceeds not to be offset.—In accordance with section 416(d)(4) of such title 39, amounts becoming available from the sale of the Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp (as so determined) shall not be taken into account in any decision relating to the level of appropriations or other Federal funding to be furnished in any year to—

"(i) the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; or

"(ii) any of the funds identified in subparagraph (A).

"(2) Duration.—The Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp shall be made available to the public for a period of at least 6 years, beginning no later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 2010].

"(3) Limitation.—The Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp shall not be subject to, or taken into account for purposes of applying, any limitation under section 416(e)(1)(C) of such title 39.

"(4) Restriction on use of funds.—Amounts transferred under paragraph (1) shall not be used to fund or support the Wildlife Without Borders Program or to supplement funds made available for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Fund.

"(d) Definition.—For purposes of this Act, the term 'semipostal stamp' refers to a stamp described in section 416(a)(1) of title 39, United States Code."

The 9/11 Heroes Stamp

Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §652, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 557, as amended by Pub. L. 107–117, div. B, §1201, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2335, provided that:

"(a) Short Title.—This section may be cited as the '9/11 Heroes Stamp Act of 2001'.

"(b) In General.—In order to afford the public a direct and tangible way to provide assistance to the families of emergency relief personnel killed or permanently disabled in the line of duty in connection with the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, the United States Postal Service shall issue a semipostal in accordance with subsection (c).

"(c) Requirements.—The provisions of section 416(a), (c), (d), and (f) of title 39, United States Code, shall apply as practicable with respect to the semipostal described in subsection (b), subject to the following:

"(1) Rate of postage.—[Amended subsec. (c) of this section.]

"(2) Disposition of amounts becoming available.—All amounts becoming available from the sale of the semipostal (as determined under such section) shall be transferred to the Federal Emergency Management Agency under such arrangements as the Postal Service shall by mutual agreement with such agency establish in order to carry out the purposes of this section.

"(3) Commencement and termination dates.—Stamps under this section shall be issued—

"(A) beginning on the earliest date practicable; and

"(B) for such period of time as the Postal Service considers necessary and appropriate, but in no event after December 31, 2004.

"(d) Limitation.—For purposes of section 416 of title 39, United States Code (including any regulation prescribed under subsection (e)(1)(C) of that section), the semipostal postage stamp issued under this section shall not apply to any limitation relating to whether more than one semipostal may be offered for sale at the same time.

"(e) Design.—It is the sense of the Congress that the semipostal issued under this section should depict, by such design as the Postal Service considers to be most appropriate, the efforts of emergency relief personnel at the site of the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia.

"(f) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) the term 'emergency relief personnel' means firefighters, law enforcement officers, paramedics, emergency medical technicians, members of the clergy, and other individuals (including employees of legally organized and recognized volunteer organizations, whether compensated or not) who, in the course of professional duties, respond to fire, medical, hazardous material, or other similar emergencies; and

"(2) the term 'semipostal' has the meaning given such term by section 416 of title 39, United States Code."

[For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.]

[For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Domestic Violence Semipostal Stamp

Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §653, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 558, provided that:

"(a) Short Title.—This section may be cited as the 'Stamp Out Domestic Violence Act of 2001'.

"(b) In General.—In order to afford the public a direct and tangible way to contribute to funding for domestic violence programs, the United States Postal Service shall issue a semipostal in accordance with subsection (c).

"(c) Requirements.—The provisions of section 416 of title 39, United States Code, shall apply as practicable with respect to the semipostal described in subsection (b), subject to the following:

"(1) Disposition of amounts becoming available.—All amounts becoming available from the sale of the semipostal (as determined under such section) shall be transferred to the Department of Health and Human Services under such arrangements as the Postal Service shall by mutual agreement with such agency establish in order to carry out the purposes of this section.

"(2) Commencement and termination dates.—Stamps under this section shall be issued—

"(A) beginning on the earliest date practicable, but not later than January 1, 2004; and

"(B) for such period of time as the Postal Service considers necessary and appropriate, but in no event after December 31, 2006.

"(d) Limitation.—For purposes of section 416 of title 39, United States Code (including any regulation prescribed under subsection (e)(1)(C) of that section), the semipostal stamp issued under this section shall not apply to any limitation relating to whether more than one semipostal may be offered for sale at the same time.

"(e) Definition.—For purposes of this section the term 'semipostal' has the meaning given such term by section 416 of title 39, United States Code."

Reports by Agencies

Pub. L. 106–253, §2(b), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 636, provided that: "Each agency that receives any funding in a year under section 416 of title 39, United States Code (as amended by this section) shall submit a written report under this subsection, with respect to such year, to the congressional committees with jurisdiction over the United States Postal Service. Each such report shall include—

"(1) the total amount of funding received by such agency under such section 416 during the year;

"(2) an accounting of how any funds received by such agency under such section 416 were allocated or otherwise used by such agency in such year; and

"(3) a description of any significant advances or accomplishments in such year that were funded, in whole or in part, out of amounts received by such agency under such section 416."

Reports by the Government Accountability Office

Pub. L. 106–253, §2(c), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 636, as amended by Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814, which required the GAO to submit both interim and final reports to the President and each House of Congress on operations of the program established under this section, with the final report to include a detailed statement of the findings and conclusions of the GAO and any appropriate recommendations, was repealed by Pub. L. 112–234, §2(e)(1), Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1624.

CHAPTER 5—POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION

Sec.
501.
Establishment.
502.
Commissioners.
503.
Rules; regulations; procedures.
504.
Administration.
505.
Officer of the Postal Regulatory Commission representing the general public.

        

§501. Establishment

The Postal Regulatory Commission is an independent establishment of the executive branch of the Government of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §601(a)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3238.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §601(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3239, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [enacting this section and section 502 of this title] shall not affect the appointment or tenure of any person serving as a Commissioner on the Postal Regulatory Commission (as so redesignated by section 604 [see Tables for classification]) under an appointment made before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006] or any nomination made before that date, but, when any such office becomes vacant, the appointment of any person to fill that office shall be made in accordance with such amendment."

Assessments of Ratemaking, Classification, and Other Provisions

Pub. L. 109–435, title VII, §701, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3242, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Postal Regulatory Commission shall, at least every 5 years, submit a report to the President and Congress concerning—

"(1) the operation of the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification]; and

"(2) recommendations for any legislation or other measures necessary to improve the effectiveness or efficiency of the postal laws of the United States.

"(b) Postal Service Views.—A report under this section shall be submitted only after reasonable opportunity has been afforded to the Postal Service to review the report and to submit written comments on the report. Any comments timely received from the Postal Service under the preceding sentence shall be attached to the report submitted under subsection (a)."

Report on Universal Postal Service and the Postal Monopoly

Pub. L. 109–435, title VII, §702, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3243, provided that:

"(a) Report by the Postal Regulatory Commission.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006], the Postal Regulatory Commission shall submit a report to the President and Congress on universal postal service and the postal monopoly in the United States (in this section referred to as 'universal service and the postal monopoly'), including the monopoly on the delivery of mail and on access to mailboxes.

"(2) Contents.—The report under this subsection shall include—

"(A) a comprehensive review of the history and development of universal service and the postal monopoly, including how the scope and standards of universal service and the postal monopoly have evolved over time for the Nation and its urban and rural areas;

"(B) the scope and standards of universal service and the postal monopoly provided under current law (including sections 101 and 403 of title 39, United States Code), and current rules, regulations, policy statements, and practices of the Postal Service;

"(C) a description of any geographic areas, populations, communities (including both urban and rural communities), organizations, or other groups or entities not currently covered by universal service or that are covered but that are receiving services deficient in scope or quality or both; and

"(D) the scope and standards of universal service and the postal monopoly likely to be required in the future in order to meet the needs and expectations of the United States public, including all types of mail users, based on discussion of such assumptions, alternative sets of assumptions, and analyses as the Postal Service considers plausible.

"(b) Recommended Changes to Universal Service and the Monopoly.—The Postal Regulatory Commission shall include in the report under subsection (a), and in all reports submitted under section 701 of this Act [set out as a note above]—

"(1) any recommended changes to universal service and the postal monopoly as the Commission considers appropriate, including changes that the Commission may implement under current law and changes that would require changes to current law, with estimated effects of the recommendations on the service, financial condition, rates, and security of mail provided by the Postal Service;

"(2) with respect to each recommended change described under paragraph (1)—

"(A) an estimate of the costs of the Postal Service attributable to the obligation to provide universal service under current law; and

"(B) an analysis of the likely benefit of the current postal monopoly to the ability of the Postal Service to sustain the current scope and standards of universal service, including estimates of the financial benefit of the postal monopoly to the extent practicable, under current law; and

"(3) such additional topics and recommendations as the Commission considers appropriate, with estimated effects of the recommendations on the service, financial condition, rates, and the security of mail provided by the Postal Service.

"(c) Consultation.—In preparing the report required by this section, the Postal Regulatory Commission—

"(1) shall solicit written comments from the Postal Service and consult with the Postal Service and other Federal agencies, users of the mails, enterprises in the private sector engaged in the delivery of the mail, and the general public; and

"(2) shall address in the report any written comments received under this section.

"(d) Clarifying Provision.—Nothing in this section shall be considered to relate to any services that are not postal services within the meaning of section 102 of title 39, United States Code, as amended by section 101 of this Act."

Provisions Relating to Cooperative Mailings

Pub. L. 109–435, title VII, §711, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3248, provided that:

"(a) Study.—

"(1) In general.—The Postal Regulatory Commission shall examine section E670.5.3 of the Domestic Mail Manual to determine whether it contains adequate safeguards to protect against—

"(A) abuses of rates for nonprofit mail; and

"(B) deception of consumers.

"(2) Report.—The Commission shall report the results of its examination to the Postal Service, along with any recommendations that the Commission determines appropriate.

"(b) Failure to Act.—If the Postal Service fails to act on the recommendations of the Commission, the Commission may take such action as it determines necessary to prevent abuse of rates or deception of consumers."

§502. Commissioners

(a) The Postal Regulatory Commission is composed of 5 Commissioners, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Commissioners shall be chosen solely on the basis of their technical qualifications, professional standing, and demonstrated expertise in economics, accounting, law, or public administration, and may be removed by the President only for cause. Each individual appointed to the Commission shall have the qualifications and expertise necessary to carry out the enhanced responsibilities accorded Commissioners under the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act. Not more than 3 of the Commissioners may be adherents of the same political party.

(b) No Commissioner shall be financially interested in any enterprise in the private sector of the economy engaged in the delivery of mail matter.

(c) A Commissioner may continue to serve after the expiration of his term until his successor has qualified, except that a Commissioner may not so continue to serve for more than 1 year after the date upon which his term otherwise would expire under subsection (f).

(d) One of the Commissioners shall be designated as Chairman by, and shall serve in the position of Chairman at the pleasure of, the President.

(e) The Commissioners shall by majority vote designate a Vice Chairman of the Commission. The Vice Chairman shall act as Chairman of the Commission in the absence of the Chairman.

(f) The Commissioners shall serve for terms of 6 years.

(Added Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §601(a)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3238.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 109–435, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3198. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section not to affect the appointment or tenure of any person serving as a Commissioner on the Postal Regulatory Commission under an appointment made before Dec. 20, 2006, or any nomination made before that date, but when any such office becomes vacant, the appointment to fill that office to be made in accordance with this section, see section 601(b) of Pub. L. 109–435, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 501 of this title.

§503. Rules; regulations; procedures

The Postal Regulatory Commission shall promulgate rules and regulations and establish procedures, subject to chapters 5 and 7 of title 5, and take any other action they deem necessary and proper to carry out their functions and obligations to the Government of the United States and the people as prescribed under this title. Such rules, regulations, procedures, and actions shall not be subject to any change or supervision by the Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 759, §3603; renumbered §503 and amended Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §§601(a)(3), 604(a), title X, 1010(c)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3239, 3241, 3261.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–435, §1010(c)(1), substituted "this title" for "this chapter".

Pub. L. 109–435, §604(a), substituted "Postal Regulatory Commission" for "Postal Rate Commission".

Pub. L. 109–435, §601(a)(3), renumbered section 3603 of this title as this section.

§504. Administration

(a) The Chairman of the Postal Regulatory Commission shall be the principal executive officer of the Commission. The Chairman shall exercise or direct the exercise of all the executive and administrative functions of the Commission, including functions of the Commission with respect to (1) the appointment of personnel employed under the Commission, except that the appointment of heads of major administrative units under the Commission shall require the approval of a majority of the members of the Commission, (2) the supervision of the personnel employed under the Commission and the distribution of business among them and among the Commissioners, and (3) the use and expenditure of funds.

(b) In carrying out any of his functions under this section, the Chairman shall be governed by the general policies of the Commission.

(c) The Chairman may obtain such facilities and supplies as may be necessary to permit the Commission to carry out its functions. Any officer or employee appointed under this section shall be paid at rates of compensation and shall be entitled to programs offering employee benefits established under chapter 10 or chapter 12 of this title, as appropriate.

(d) There are authorized to be appropriated, out of the Postal Service Fund, such sums as may be necessary for the Postal Regulatory Commission. In requesting an appropriation under this subsection for a fiscal year, the Commission shall prepare and submit to the Congress under section 2009 a budget of the Commission's expenses, including expenses for facilities, supplies, compensation, and employee benefits.

(e) The provisions of section 410 and chapter 10 of this title shall apply to the Commission, as appropriate.

(f)(1) Any Commissioner of the Postal Regulatory Commission, any administrative law judge appointed by the Commission under section 3105 of title 5, and any employee of the Commission designated by the Commission may administer oaths, examine witnesses, take depositions, and receive evidence.

(2) The Chairman of the Commission, any Commissioner designated by the Chairman, and any administrative law judge appointed by the Commission under section 3105 of title 5 may, with respect to any proceeding conducted by the Commission under this title or to obtain information to be used to prepare a report under this title—

(A) issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and presentation of testimony by, or the production of documentary or other evidence in the possession of, any covered person; and

(B) order the taking of depositions and responses to written interrogatories by a covered person.


The written concurrence of a majority of the Commissioners then holding office shall, with respect to each subpoena under subparagraph (A), be required in advance of its issuance.

(3) In the case of contumacy or failure to obey a subpoena issued under this subsection, upon application by the Commission, the district court of the United States for the district in which the person to whom the subpoena is addressed resides or is served may issue an order requiring such person to appear at any designated place to testify or produce documentary or other evidence. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.

(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term "covered person" means an officer, employee, agent, or contractor of the Postal Service.

(g)(1) If the Postal Service determines that any document or other matter it provides to the Postal Regulatory Commission under a subpoena issued under subsection (f), or otherwise at the request of the Commission in connection with any proceeding or other purpose under this title, contains information which is described in section 410(c) of this title, or exempt from public disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5, the Postal Service shall, at the time of providing such matter to the Commission, notify the Commission, in writing, of its determination (and the reasons therefor).

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), no officer or employee of the Commission may, with respect to any information as to which the Commission has been notified under paragraph (1)—

(A) use such information for purposes other than the purposes for which it is supplied; or

(B) permit anyone who is not an officer or employee of the Commission to have access to any such information.


(3)(A) Paragraph (2) shall not prohibit the Commission from publicly disclosing relevant information in furtherance of its duties under this title, provided that the Commission has adopted regulations under section 553 of title 5, that establish a procedure for according appropriate confidentiality to information identified by the Postal Service under paragraph (1). In determining the appropriate degree of confidentiality to be accorded information identified by the Postal Service under paragraph (1), the Commission shall balance the nature and extent of the likely commercial injury to the Postal Service against the public interest in maintaining the financial transparency of a government establishment competing in commercial markets.

(B) Paragraph (2) shall not prevent the Commission from requiring production of information in the course of any discovery procedure established in connection with a proceeding under this title. The Commission shall, by regulations based on rule 26(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, establish procedures for ensuring appropriate confidentiality for information furnished to any party.

(h)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title or of the Inspector General Act of 1978, the authority to select, appoint, and employ officers and employees of the Office of Inspector General of the Postal Regulatory Commission, and to obtain any temporary or intermittent services of experts or consultants (or an organization of experts or consultants) for such Office, shall reside with the Inspector General of the Postal Regulatory Commission.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (1), any exercise of authority under this subsection shall, to the extent practicable, be in conformance with the applicable laws and regulations that govern selections, appointments, and employment, and the obtaining of any such temporary or intermittent services, within the Postal Regulatory Commission.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 759, §3604; Pub. L. 94–421, §4, Sept. 24, 1976, 90 Stat. 1305; renumbered §504 and amended Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §§601(a)(3), 602, 603(a), 604(a), 605(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3239–3242.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Rule 26(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to subsec. (g)(3)(B), is set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (h)(1), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–435, §601(a)(3), renumbered section 3604 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–435, §604(a), substituted "Postal Regulatory Commission" for "Postal Rate Commission".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–435, §603(a), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) related to preparation, submission, and approval of Commission's budget and payment of expenses incurred under approved budget.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 109–435, §602, added subsecs. (f) and (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–435, §605(b), added subsec. (h).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–421 increased the authority of the Chairman to the exercise of all executive and administrative functions, including appointment of personnel and control over use and expenditure of funds, and struck out requirement that all final acts of the Commissioners be by a vote of an absolute majority.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–421 added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c) and amended.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–421 redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c), transferred authority to obtain facilities and supplies from the Commission to the chairman, and struck out the authority of the Commission to appoint and fix compensation of officers and employees and requiring them to be responsible to the Commissioners. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 94–421 redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively, and in subsec. (d), as so redesignated, made minor changes in phraseology.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment; Savings Provisions

Amendment by section 603(a) of Pub. L. 109–435 applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after Oct. 1, 2008, subject to savings provisions, see section 603(d) of Pub. L. 109–435, set out as a note under section 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–452, in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.


Executive Documents

Ex. Ord. No. 11570. Regulation of Conduct for Postal Rate Commission and Its Employees

Ex. Ord. No. 11570, Nov. 24, 1970, 35 F.R. 18183, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, provided:

Under the Postal Reorganization Act (Public Law 91–375) [this title], the Postal Rate Commission [now Postal Regulatory Commission] (referred to hereafter as the "Commission") is charged with the establishment and adjustment of fair and equitable rates of postage, fees for postal services, and classifications of mail. It is essential to public confidence in the United States Postal Service that the activities, procedures, decisions, and recommendations of the Commission be impartial and disinterested and free from taint or suspicion of favoritism of any kind whatsoever, both in fact and in appearance.

NOW THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of Title 3, and Section 7301 of Title 5, United States Code, and the Postal Reorganization Act [this title], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 101. The Commission is subject to Executive Order No. 11222 of May 8, 1965 [formerly set out as a note under section 201 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure], "Prescribing Standards of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees," and Part 735 of the regulations of the Office of Personnel Management (5 CFR Part 735).

Sec. 102. The Office of Personnel Management shall prepare initial standards of conduct regulations for the Commission. The regulations shall contain such provisions as will ensure that the Commissioners and employees of the Commission are fully guarded against involvement in conflicts of interest situations, or the appearance thereof, or other conduct that may lessen public confidence. The regulations shall include provision for:

(a) concurrent filing of confidential statements of outside employment and financial interests by employees of the Commission with a designated official of the Commission and the Director of the Office of Personnel Management;

(b) strict control of ex parte contacts with the Commission and the Commissioners or employees of the Commission regarding particular matters at issue in contested proceedings before the Commission. The control of such contacts shall include, but not be limited to, the maintenance of public records of such contacts which fully identify the individuals involved and the nature of the subject matter discussed; and

(c) prohibition against the receipt of honoraria, travel expenses, entertainment, gifts, loans, favors, or anything of value by a Commissioner or employee of the Commission from an individual (other than one having a close family or personal relationship) or organization having, or likely to have, business with the Commission.

Sec. 103. The Office of Personnel Management shall issue the initial standards of conduct regulations applicable to the Commission not later than 120 days after the effective date of this Order. Thereafter, the Office may from time to time amend the regulations, consistent with this Order. The regulations and any amendments thereto shall be published in the Federal Register.

§505. Officer of the Postal Regulatory Commission representing the general public

The Postal Regulatory Commission shall designate an officer of the Postal Regulatory Commission in all public proceedings (such as developing rules, regulations, and procedures) who shall represent the interests of the general public.

(Added Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §601(a)(4), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3239.)

CHAPTER 6—PRIVATE CARRIAGE OF LETTERS

Sec.
601.
Letters carried out of the mail.
602.
Foreign letters out of the mails.
603.
Searches authorized.
604.
Seizing and detaining letters.
605.
Searching vessels for letters.
606.
Disposition of seized mail.

        

§601. Letters carried out of the mail

(a) A letter may be carried out of the mails when—

(1) it is enclosed in an envelope;

(2) the amount of postage which would have been charged on the letter if it had been sent by mail is paid by stamps, or postage meter stamps, on the envelope;

(3) the envelope is properly addressed;

(4) the envelope is so sealed that the letter cannot be taken from it without defacing the envelope;

(5) any stamps on the envelope are canceled in ink by the sender; and

(6) the date of the letter, of its transmission or receipt by the carrier is endorsed on the envelope in ink.


(b) A letter may also be carried out of the mails when—

(1) the amount paid for the private carriage of the letter is at least the amount equal to 6 times the rate then currently charged for the 1st ounce of a single-piece first class letter;

(2) the letter weighs at least 12½ ounces; or

(3) such carriage is within the scope of services described by regulations of the United States Postal Service (including, in particular, sections 310.1 and 320.2–320.8 of title 39 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on July 1, 2005) that purport to permit private carriage by suspension of the operation of this section (as then in effect).


(c) Any regulations necessary to carry out this section shall be promulgated by the Postal Regulatory Commission.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 727; Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §503(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3234.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 109–435 added subsecs. (b) and (c) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: "The Postal Service may suspend the operation of any part of this section upon any mail route where the public interest requires the suspension."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §503(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3235, provided that: "This section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date as of which the regulations promulgated under section 3633 of title 39, United States Code (as amended by section 202) take effect [Dec. 10, 2007, 72 F.R. 63662, 64155]."

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Study of Private Carriage of Mail: Reports to President and Congress

Pub. L. 91–375, §7, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 783, required the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service to make a study of the restrictions on the private carriage of letters and packets and to submit a report and recommendations for modernization to the President and to the Congress within 2 years after the effective date of this section.

Provisions of section 7 of Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of this title.

§602. Foreign letters out of the mails

(a) Except as provided in section 601 of this title, the master of a vessel departing from the United States for foreign ports may not receive on board or transport any letter which originated in the United States that—

(1) has not been regularly received from a United States post office; or

(2) does not relate to the cargo of the vessel.


(b) The officer of the port empowered to grant clearances shall require from the master of such a vessel, as a condition of clearance, an oath that he does not have under his care or control, and will not receive or transport, any letter contrary to the provisions of this section.

(c) Except as provided in section 1699 of title 18, the master of a vessel arriving at a port of the United States carrying letters not regularly in the mails shall deposit them in the post office at the port of arrival.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 727.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§603. Searches authorized

The Postal Service may authorize any officer or employee of the Postal Service to make searches for mail matter transported in violation of law. When the authorized officer has reason to believe that mailable matter transported contrary to law may be found therein, he may open and search any—

(1) vehicle passing, or having lately passed, from a place at which there is a post office of the United States;

(2) article being, or having lately been, in the vehicle; or

(3) store or office, other than a dwelling house, used or occupied by a common carrier or transportation company, in which an article may be contained.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 727.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§604. Seizing and detaining letters

An officer or employee of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters, a customs officer, or United States marshal or his deputy, may seize at any time, letters and bags, packets, or parcels containing letters which are being carried contrary to law on board any vessel or on any post road. The officer or employee who makes the seizure shall convey the articles seized to the nearest post office, or, by direction of the Postal Service or the Secretary of the Treasury, he may detain them until 2 months after the final determination of all suits and proceedings which may be brought within 6 months after the seizure against any person for sending or carrying the letters.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 728.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§605. Searching vessels for letters

An officer or employee of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters, when instructed by the Postal Service to make examinations and seizures, and any customs officer without special instructions shall search vessels for letters which may be on board, or which may have been conveyed contrary to law.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 728.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§606. Disposition of seized mail

Every package or parcel seized by an officer or employee of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters, a customs officer, or United States marshal or his deputies, in which a letter is unlawfully concealed, shall be forfeited to the United States. The same proceedings may be used to enforce forfeitures as are authorized in respect of goods, wares, and merchandise forfeited for violation of the revenue laws. Laws for the benefit and protection of customs officers making seizures for violating revenue laws apply to officers and employees making seizures for violating the postal laws.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 728.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

PART II—PERSONNEL

Chap.
Sec.
10.
Employment Within the Postal Service
1001
12.
Employee-Management Agreements
1201

        

CHAPTER 10—EMPLOYMENT WITHIN THE POSTAL SERVICE

Sec.
1001.
Appointment and status.
1002.
Political recommendations.
1003.
Employment policy.
1004.
Supervisory and other managerial organizations.
1005.
Applicability of laws relating to Federal employees.
1006.
Right of transfer.
1007.
Seniority for employees in rural service.
1008.
Temporary employees or carriers.
1009.
Personnel not to receive fees.
1010.
Administration of oaths related to postal inspection matters.
1011.
Oath of office.

        

§1001. Appointment and status

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title, the Postal Service shall appoint all officers and employees of the Postal Service.

(b) Officers and employees of the Postal Service (other than those individuals appointed under sections 202, 204, and 1001(c) of this title) shall be in the postal career service, which shall be a part of the civil service. Such appointments and promotions shall be in accordance with the procedures established by the Postal Service. The Postal Service shall establish procedures, in accordance with this title, to assure its officers and employees meaningful opportunities for promotion and career development and to assure its officers and employees full protection of their employment rights by guaranteeing them an opportunity for a fair hearing on adverse actions, with representatives of their own choosing.

(c) The Postal Service may hire individuals as executives under employment contracts for periods not in excess of 5 years. Notwithstanding any such contract, the Postal Service may at its discretion and at any time remove any such individual without prejudice to his contract rights.

(d) Notwithstanding section 5533, 5535, or 5536 of title 5, or any other provision of law, any officer or employee of the Government of the United States is eligible to serve and receive pay concurrently as an officer or employee of the Postal Service (other than as a member of the Board or of the Postal Regulatory Commission) and as an officer or employee of any other department, agency, or establishment of the Government of the United States.

(e) The Postal Service shall have the right, consistent with section 1003 and chapter 12 of this title and applicable laws, regulations, and collective-bargaining agreements—

(1) to direct officers and employees of the Postal Service in the performance of official duties;

(2) to hire, promote, transfer, assign, and retain officers and employees in positions within the Postal Service, and to suspend, demote, discharge, or take other disciplinary action against such officers and employees;

(3) to relieve officers and employees from duties because of lack of work or for other legitimate reasons;

(4) to maintain the efficiency of the operations entrusted to it;

(5) to determine the methods, means, and personnel by which such operations are to be conducted;

(6) to prescribe a uniform dress to be worn by letter carriers and other designated employees; and

(7) to take whatever actions may be necessary to carry out its mission in emergency situations.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 728; Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §604(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3241.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–435 substituted "Postal Regulatory Commission" for "Postal Rate Commission".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Mar. 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–13 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Performance Evaluations

Pub. L. 109–435, title VII, §706(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3246, provided that: "The United States Postal Service shall, as soon as is practicable, take such measures as may be necessary to incorporate the affirmative action and equal opportunity criteria contained in 4313(5) of title 5, United States Code, into the performance appraisals of senior supervisory or managerial employees."

Transfer to United States Postal Service of Post Office Department Personnel

Pub. L. 91–375, §8, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 783, as amended by Pub. L. 109–435, title X, §1007(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3258, provided that:

"(a) Officers and employees of the Post Office Department shall become officers and employees of the United States Postal Service on the effective date of this section. The provisions of this section shall not apply to persons occupying the positions of Postmaster General, Deputy Postmaster General, Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, or Judicial Officer. This section shall not be construed, however, to prohibit the appointment of such persons to positions in the Postal Service.

"(b) For purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, United States Code, the Postal Service shall, with respect to any individual receiving benefits under such chapter as an officer or employee of the former Post Office Department, have the same authorities and responsibilities as it has with respect to an officer or employee of the Postal Service receiving such benefits."

[Pub. L. 109–435, title X, §1007(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3258, provided that: "This section [amending section 8 of Pub. L. 91–375, set out above] and the amendments made by this section shall be effective as of the first day of the fiscal year in which this Act is enacted."]

[Provisions of section 8 of Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of this title.]

Appointment of Postmasters and Other Employees on Merit Basis

Pub. L. 91–375, §13, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 786, provided that:

"(a) [Methods of Appointment; Order of precedence; Status of Postmasters in Office] Between the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970] and the date on which the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service determines that section 1001 of title 39, United States Code (as enacted by section 2 of this Act), is effective, the Postmaster General shall appoint postmasters at offices of all classes in the competitive civil service by one of the three following methods which shall be applied in the following order of precedence:

"(1) by selection of a qualified employee serving at the post office where the vacancy occurs, including an acting postmaster who was serving on January 1, 1969, who shall acquire a competitive status upon being appointed postmaster;

"(2) if no qualified employee serving at the post office where the vacancy occurs is available for, and willing to accept, appointment by the method described in subparagraph (1), by selection of a qualified employee serving in the postal field service; or

"(3) if no qualified employee is available for, and willing to accept, appointment by the methods described in subparagraph (1) or (2), by competitive examination in accordance with the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service.

Enactment of this subsection shall not affect the status or tenure of postmasters in office on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970].

"(b) [Political Test Prohibition; Merit and Fitness Basis of Personnel Actions; Disciplinary Actions for Violations; Exceptions] (1) In the selection, appointment, and promotion of employees of the Post Office Department between the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970] and the date on which the Board of Governors of the Postal Service determines that former section 3311 of title 39, United States Code, is no longer effective, no political test or qualification shall be permitted or given consideration, and all such personnel actions shall be taken on the basis of merit and fitness. Any officer or employee of the Post Office Department who violates this subsection shall be removed from office or otherwise disciplined in accordance with procedures for disciplinary action established pursuant to law.

"(2) This subsection does not apply to the selection and appointment of officers whose appointment is vested in the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, or to the selection, appointment, or promotion to a position designated by the Civil Service Commission as a position of a confidential or policy-determining character or as a position to be filled by a noncareer executive assignment."

[Provisions of section 13 of Pub. L. 91–375 effective Aug. 12, 1970, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of this title.]

§1002. Political recommendations

(a) Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, each appointment, promotion, assignment, transfer, or designation, interim or otherwise, of an officer or employee in the Postal Service (except a Governor or member of the Postal Regulatory Commission) shall be made without regard to any recommendation or statement, oral or written, with respect to any person who requests or is under consideration for such appointment, promotion, assignment, transfer, or designation, made by—

(1) any Member of the Senate or House of Representatives (including the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico);

(2) any elected official of the government of any State (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) or of any county, city, or other political subdivision of such State or Commonwealth;

(3) any official of a national political party or of a political party of any State (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico), county, city, or other subdivision of such State or Commonwealth; or

(4) any other individual or organization.


(b) Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, a person or organization referred to in clause (1), (2), (3), or (4) of subsection (a) of this section is prohibited from making or transmitting to the Postal Service, or to any other officer or employee of the Government of the United States, any recommendation or statement, oral or written, with respect to any person who requests or is under consideration for any such appointment, promotion, assignment, transfer, or designation. The Postal Service and any officer or employee of the Government of the United States, subject to subsection (e) of this section—

(1) shall not solicit, request, consider, or accept any such recommendation or statement; and

(2) shall return any such written recommendation or statement received by him, appropriately marked as in violation of this section, to the person or organization making or transmitting the same.


(c) A person who requests or is under consideration for any such appointment, promotion, assignment, transfer, or designation is prohibited from requesting or soliciting any such recommendation or statement from any person or organization except a statement of the type referred to in subsection (e)(2) of this section.

(d) Each employment form of the Postal Service used in connection with any such appointment, promotion, assignment, transfer, or designation shall contain appropriate language in boldface type informing all persons concerned of the provisions of this section. During the time any such appointment, promotion, assignment, transfer, or designation is under consideration, appropriate notice of the provisions of this section printed in boldface type shall be posted in the post office concerned.

(e) The Postal Service or any authorized officer or employee of the Government of the United States may solicit, accept, and consider, and any other individual or organization may furnish or transmit to the Postal Service or such authorized officer or employee, any statement with respect to a person who requests or is under consideration for such appointment, promotion, assignment, transfer, or designation, if—

(1) the statement is furnished pursuant to a request or requirement of the Postal Service and consists solely of an evaluation of the work performance, ability, aptitude, and general qualifications of such person;

(2) the statement relates solely to the character and residence of such person;

(3) the statement is furnished pursuant to a request made by an authorized representative of the Government of the United States solely in order to determine whether such person meets the loyalty, suitability, and character requirements for employment with the Government of the United States; or

(4) the statement is furnished by a former employer of such person pursuant to a request of the Postal Service, and consists solely of an evaluation of the work performance, ability, aptitude, and general qualifications of such person during his employment with such former employer.


(f) The Postal Service shall take any action it determines necessary and proper, including but not limited to suspension, removal from office, or disqualification from the Postal Service, to enforce the provisions of this section.

(g) The provisions of this section shall not affect the right of an officer or employee of the Postal Service to petition Congress as authorized by section 7211 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 95–454, title VII, §703(c)(5), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1217; Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §604(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3241.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–435 substituted "Postal Regulatory Commission" for "Postal Rate Commission".

1978—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–454 substituted "section 7211" for "section 7102".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date

Section effective Mar. 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–13 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1003. Employment policy

(a) Except as provided under chapters 2 and 12 of this title, section 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978, or other provision of law, the Postal Service shall classify and fix the compensation and benefits of all officers and employees in the Postal Service. It shall be the policy of the Postal Service to maintain compensation and benefits for all officers and employees on a standard of comparability to the compensation and benefits paid for comparable levels of work in the private sector of the economy. No officer or employee shall be paid compensation at a rate in excess of the rate for level I of the Executive Schedule under section 5312 of title 5.

(b) Compensation and benefits for all officers and employees serving in or under the Office of Inspector General of the United States Postal Service shall be maintained on a standard of comparability to the compensation and benefits paid for comparable levels of work in the respective Offices of Inspector General of the various establishments named in section 11(2) 1 of the Inspector General Act of 1978.

(c) Compensation and benefits for all Postal Inspectors shall be maintained on a standard of comparability to the compensation and benefits paid for comparable levels of work in the executive branch of the Government outside of the Postal Service. As used in this subsection, the term "Postal Inspector" included 2 any agent to whom any investigative powers are granted under section 3061 of title 18.

(d) The Postal Service shall follow an employment policy designed, without compromising the policy of section 101(a) of this title, to extend opportunity to the disadvantaged and the handicapped.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §662(c)(2)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-380.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Sections 8G and 11(2) of the Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), are sections 8G and 11(2) of Pub. L. 95–452, which are set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 11(2) of the Act was renumbered section 12(2) by Pub. L. 110–409, §7(a), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4305.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §662(c)(2)(B)], substituted "chapters 2 and 12 of this title, section 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978," for "chapters 2 and 12 of this title".

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 104–208, §101(f) [title VI, §662(c)(2)(A)], added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 20, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–8 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Compensation of Employees

Pub. L. 91–375, §9, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 784, provided that:

"(a) [Increase in Basic Pay Rate; Effective Date] The Postmaster General, under regulations made by him, shall increase the rates of basic pay or compensation of employees in the Post Office Department so that such rates will equal, as nearly as practicable, 108 percent of the rates of basic pay or compensation in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970]. Such increases shall take effect on the first day of the first pay period which begins on or after April 16, 1970.

"(b) [Retroactive Pay] Retroactive pay, compensation, or salary shall be paid by reason of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title] only in the case of an individual in the service of the United States (including service in the Armed Forces of the United States) on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970], except that such retroactive pay, compensation, or salary shall be paid—

"(1) to an officer or employee who retired, during the period beginning on the first day of the first pay period which began on or after April 16, 1970, and ending on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970], for services rendered during such period; and

"(2) in accordance with subchapter VIII of chapter 55 of title 5, United States Code [section 5581 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees], relating to settlement of accounts, for services rendered, during the period beginning on the first day of the first pay period which began on or after April 16, 1970, and ending on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970], by an officer or employee who died during such period.

Such retroactive pay, compensation, or salary shall not be considered as basic pay for the purposes of subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code [section 8331 et seq. of Title 5], relating to civil service retirement, or any other retirement law or retirement system, in the case of any such retired or deceased officer or employee.

"(c) [Period for Restoration to Government Position, as Service] For the purposes of this section, service in the Armed Forces of the United States, in the case of an individual relieved from training and service in the Armed Forces of the United States or discharged from hospitalization following such training and service, shall include the period provided by law for the mandatory restoration of such individual to a position in or under the Government of the United States.

"(d) [Group Life Insurance; Amount; Effective Date] For purposes of determining the amount of insurance for which an individual is eligible under chapter 87 of title 5, United States Code [section 8701 et seq. of Title 5], relating to group life insurance for Government employees, all changes in rates of pay, compensation, and salary which result from the enactment of this section shall be held and considered to become effective as of the date of such enactment [Aug. 12, 1970].

"(e) [Limitation of Basic Pay Rate] No rate of basic pay or compensation, in excess of the rate of basic pay for GS–18 of the General Schedule in section 5332 of title 5, United States Code, shall be paid by reason of the enactment of this section."

[Provisions of section 9 of Pub. L. 91–375 effective Aug. 12, 1970, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of this title.]

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "includes".

§1004. Supervisory and other managerial organizations

(a) It shall be the policy of the Postal Service to provide compensation, working conditions, and career opportunities that will assure the attraction and retention of qualified and capable supervisory and other managerial personnel; to provide adequate and reasonable differentials in rates of pay between employees in the clerk and carrier grades in the line work force and supervisory and other managerial personnel; to establish and maintain continuously a program for all such personnel that reflects the essential importance of a well-trained and well-motivated force to improve the effectiveness of postal operations; and to promote the leadership status of such personnel with respect to rank-and-file employees, recognizing that the role of such personnel in primary level management is particularly vital to the process of converting general postal policies into successful postal operations.

(b) The Postal Service shall provide a program for consultation with recognized organizations of supervisory and other managerial personnel who are not subject to collective-bargaining agreements under chapter 12 of this title. Upon presentation of evidence satisfactory to the Postal Service that a supervisory organization represents a majority of supervisors, that an organization (other than an organization representing supervisors) represents at least 20 percent of postmasters, or that a managerial organization (other than an organization representing supervisors or postmasters) represents a substantial percentage of managerial employees, such organization or organizations shall be entitled to participate directly in the planning and development of pay policies and schedules, fringe benefit programs, and other programs relating to supervisory and other managerial employees.

(c)(1) The Postal Service and the supervisors' organization shall, unless otherwise mutually agreed to, meet at least once each month to implement the consultation and direct participation procedures of subsection (b) of this section.

(2)(A) At least 7 days before each meeting, each party shall—

(i) provide notice of agenda items, and

(ii) describe in detail the proposals such party will make with respect to each such item.


(B) Grievances of individual employees shall not be matters which may be included as agenda items under this paragraph.

(d)(1) In order to facilitate consultation and direct participation by the supervisors' organization in the planning and development of programs under subsection (b) of this section which affect members of the supervisors' organization, the Postal Service shall—

(A) provide in writing a description of any proposed program and the reasons for it;

(B) give the organization at least 60 days (unless extraordinary circumstances require earlier action) to review and make recommendations with respect to the program; and

(C) give any recommendation from the organization full and fair consideration in deciding whether or how to proceed with the program.


(2) If the Postal Service decides to implement a program described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Postal Service shall before such implementation—

(A) give the supervisors' organization details of its decision to implement the program, together with the information upon which the decision is based;

(B) give the organization an opportunity to make recommendations with respect to the program; and

(C) give such recommendations full and fair consideration, including the providing of reasons to the organization if any of such recommendations are rejected.


(3) If a program described in paragraph (1) of this subsection is implemented, the Postal Service shall—

(A) develop a method for the supervisors' organization to participate in further planning and development of the program, and

(B) give the organization adequate access to information to make that participation productive.


(4) The Postal Service and the supervisors' organization may, by agreement, adopt procedures different from those provided by this subsection.

(e)(1) The Postal Service shall, within 45 days of each date on which an agreement is reached on a collective bargaining agreement between the Postal Service and the bargaining representative recognized under section 1203 of this title which represents the largest number of employees, make a proposal for any changes in pay policies and schedules and fringe benefit programs for members of the supervisors' organization which are to be in effect during the same period as covered by such agreement.

(2) The Postal Service and the supervisors' organization shall strive to resolve any differences concerning the proposal described in paragraph (1) of this subsection under the procedures provided for, or adopted under, subsection (d) of this section.

(3) The Postal Service shall provide its decision concerning changes proposed under paragraph (1) of this subsection to the supervisors' organization within 90 days following the submission of the proposal.

(f)(1) If, notwithstanding the mutual efforts required by subsection (e) of this section, the supervisors' organization believes that the decision of the Postal Service is not in accordance with the provisions of this title, the organization may, within 10 days following its receipt of such decision, request the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service to convene a factfinding panel (hereinafter referred to as the "panel") concerning such matter.

(2) Within 15 days after receiving a request under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service shall provide a list of 7 individuals recognized as experts in supervisory and managerial pay policies. Each party shall designate one individual from the list to serve on the panel. If, within 10 days after the list is provided, either of the parties has not designated an individual from the list, the Director of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service shall make the designation. The first two individuals designated from the list shall meet within 5 days and shall designate a third individual from the list. The third individual shall chair the panel. If the two individuals designated from the list are unable to designate a third individual within 5 days after their first meeting, the Director shall designate the third individual.

(3)(A) The panel shall recommend standards for pay policies and schedules and fringe benefit programs affecting the members of the supervisors' organization for the period covered by the collective bargaining agreement specified in subsection (e)(1) of this section. The standards shall be consistent with the policies of this title, including sections 1003(a) and 1004(a) of this title.

(B) The panel shall, consistent with such standards, make appropriate recommendations concerning the differences between the parties on such policies, schedules, and programs.

(4) The panel shall make its recommendation no more than 30 days after its appointment, unless the Postal Service and the supervisors' organization agree to a longer period. The panel shall hear from the Postal Service and the supervisors' organization in such a manner as it shall direct. The cost of the panel shall be borne equally by the Postal Service and the supervisors' organization.

(5) Not more than 15 days after the panel has made its recommendation, the Postal Service shall provide the supervisors' organization its final decision on the matters covered by factfinding under this subsection. The Postal Service shall give full and fair consideration to the panel's recommendation and shall explain in writing any differences between its final decision and the panel's recommendation.

(g) Not earlier than 3 years after the date of the enactment of this subsection, and from time to time thereafter, the Postal Service or the supervisors' organization may request, by written notice to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service and to the other party, the creation of a panel to review the effectiveness of the procedures and the other provisions of this section and the provisions of section 1003 of this title. The panel shall be designated in accordance with the procedure established in subsection (f)(2) of this section. The panel shall make recommendations to the Congress for changes in this title as it finds appropriate.

(h)(1) In order to ensure that postmasters and postmasters' organizations are afforded the same rights under this section as are afforded to supervisors and the supervisors' organization, subsections (c) through (g) shall be applied with respect to postmasters and postmasters' organizations—

(A) by substituting "postmasters' organization" for "supervisors' organization" each place it appears; and

(B) if 2 or more postmasters' organizations exist, by treating such organizations as if they constituted a single organization, in accordance with such arrangements as such organizations shall mutually agree to.


(2) If 2 or more postmasters' organizations exist, such organizations shall, in the case of any factfinding panel convened at the request of such organizations (in accordance with paragraph (1)(B)), be jointly and severally liable for the cost of such panel, apart from the portion to be borne by the Postal Service (as determined under subsection (f)(4)).

(i) For purposes of this section—

(1) "supervisors' organization" means the organization recognized by the Postal Service under subsection (b) of this section as representing a majority of supervisors;

(2) "members of the supervisors' organization" means employees of the Postal Service who are recognized under an agreement between the Postal Service and the supervisors' organization as represented by such organization;

(3) "postmaster" means an individual who is the manager in charge of the operations of a post office, with or without the assistance of subordinate managers or supervisors;

(4) "postmasters' organization" means an organization recognized by the Postal Service under subsection (b) as representing at least 20 percent of postmasters; and

(5) "members of the postmasters' organization" shall be considered to mean employees of the Postal Service who are recognized under an agreement—

(A) between the Postal Service and the postmasters' organization as represented by the organization; or

(B) in the circumstance described in subsection (h)(1)(B), between the Postal Service and the postmasters' organizations (acting in concert) as represented by either or any of the postmasters' organizations involved.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 96–326, Aug. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 108–86, §2(a)–(c), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1052.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (g), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 96–326, which was approved Aug. 8, 1980.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–86, §2(a)(2), which directed substitution of "supervisors or postmasters)" for "supervisors)" in second sentence, was executed by making the substitution the second time "supervisors)" appears in the sentence to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 108–86, §2(a)(1), inserted "that an organization (other than an organization representing supervisors) represents at least 20 percent of postmasters," after "majority of supervisors,".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 108–86, §2(b)(2), added subsec. (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 108–86, §2(b)(1), (c), redesignated subsec. (h) as (i) and added pars. (3) to (5).

1980—Subsecs. (c) to (h). Pub. L. 96–326 added subsecs. (c) to (h).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–86, §3, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1053, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [probably should be "this Act", amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 101 of this title] shall take effect 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 2003]."

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Thrift Advisory Council Not To Be Affected

Pub. L. 108–86, §2(d), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1053, provided that: "For purposes of section 8473(b)(4) of title 5, United States Code—

"(1) each of the 2 or more organizations referred to in section 1004(h)(1)(B) of title 39, United States Code (as amended by subsection (b)) shall be treated as a separate organization; and

"(2) any determination of the number of individuals represented by each of those respective organizations shall be made in a manner consistent with the purposes of this subsection."

§1005. Applicability of laws relating to Federal employees

(a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the provisions of chapter 75 of title 5 shall apply to officers and employees of the Postal Service except to the extent of any inconsistency with—

(A) the provisions of any collective-bargaining agreement negotiated on behalf of and applicable to them; or

(B) procedures established by the Postal Service and approved by the Civil Service Commission.


(2) The provisions of title 5 relating to a preference eligible (as that term is defined under section 2108(3) of such title) shall apply to an applicant for appointment and any officer or employee of the Postal Service in the same manner and under the same conditions as if the applicant, officer, or employee were subject to the competitive service under such title. The provisions of this paragraph shall not be modified by any program developed under section 1004 of this title or any collective-bargaining agreement entered into under chapter 12 of this title.

(3) The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to those individuals appointed under sections 202, 204, and 1001(c) of this title.

(4)(A) Subchapter II of chapter 75 of title 5 shall apply—

(i) to any preference eligible in the Postal Service who is an employee within the meaning of section 7511(a)(1)(B) of such title; and

(ii) to any other individual who—

(I) is in the position of a supervisor or a management employee in the Postal Service, or is an employee of the Postal Service engaged in personnel work in other than a purely nonconfidential clerical capacity; and

(II) has completed 1 year of current continuous service in the same or similar positions.


(B)(i) The second sentence of paragraph (2) of this subsection applies with respect to the provisions of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, to the extent that such provisions relate to preference eligibles.

(ii) The provisions of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall not, to the extent that such provisions relate to an individual under clause (ii) of such subparagraph, be modified by any program developed under section 1004 of this title.

(b)(1) Except as provided under paragraph (2), section 5941 of title 5 shall apply to the Postal Service. Except as provided under paragraph (2), for purposes of section 5941 of that title, the pay of officers and employees of the Postal Service shall be considered to be fixed by statute, and the basic pay of an employee shall be the pay (but not any allowance or benefit) of that officer or employee established in accordance with the provisions of this title.

(2) On and after the date of enactment of the Non-Foreign Area Retirement Equity Assurance Act of 2009—

(A) the provisions of that Act and section 5941 of title 5 shall apply to officers and employees covered by section 1003(b) and (c) whose duty station is in a nonforeign area; and

(B) with respect to officers and employees of the Postal Service (other than those officers and employees described under subparagraph (A)) of 1 section 1916(b)(2) of that Act shall apply.

(c) Officers and employees of the Postal Service shall be covered by subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5, relating to compensation for work injuries.

(d)(1) Officers and employees of the Postal Service (other than the Governors) shall be covered by chapters 83 and 84 of title 5. The Postal Service shall withhold from pay and shall pay into the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund the amounts specified in or determined under such chapter 83 and subchapter II of such chapter 84, respectively. The Postal Service shall pay into the Federal Retirement Thrift Savings Fund the amounts specified in or determined under subchapters III and VII of such chapter 84.

(2) The provisions of subsections (i) and (m)(2) of section 8344 and subsections (f) and (j)(2) of section 8468 of title 5 shall apply with respect to the Postal Service. For purposes of so applying such provisions—

(A) any reference in such provisions to the head of an Executive agency shall be considered a reference to the Postmaster General; and

(B) any reference in such provisions to an employee shall be considered a reference to an officer or employee of the Postal Service.


(e) Sick and annual leave, and compensatory time of officers and employees of the Postal Service, whether accrued prior to or after commencement of operations of the Postal Service, shall be obligations of the Postal Service under the provisions of this chapter.

(f) Compensation, benefits, and other terms and conditions of employment in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this section, whether provided by statute or by rules and regulations of the former Post Office Department or the executive branch of the Government of the United States, shall continue to apply to officers and employees of the Postal Service, until changed by the Postal Service in accordance with this chapter and chapter 12 of this title. Subject to the provisions of this chapter and chapter 12 of this title, the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 85 and chapters 87, 89, 89A, and 89B of title 5 shall apply to officers and employees of the Postal Service, unless varied, added to, or substituted for, under this subsection. No variation, addition, or substitution with respect to fringe benefits shall result in a program of fringe benefits which on the whole is less favorable to the officers and employees than fringe benefits in effect on the effective date of this section, and as to officers and employees for whom there is a collective-bargaining representative, no such variation, addition, or substitution shall be made except by agreement between the collective-bargaining representative and the Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 93–349, §2, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 354; Pub. L. 99–335, title III, §306, June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 607; Pub. L. 100–90, §1(a), Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 103–336, §3, Oct. 3, 1994, 108 Stat. 2661; Pub. L. 108–496, §5, Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 4011; Pub. L. 109–435, title X, §1010(g)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3262; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title XI, §1122(d), title XIX, §1916(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2509, 2624; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d)(22), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Non-Foreign Area Retirement Equity Assurance Act of 2009, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is subtitle B (§§1911–1919) of title XIX of div. A of Pub. L. 111–84, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2619, also known as the Non-Foreign AREA Act of 2009, which is set out as a note under section 5304 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The effective date of this section, referred to in subsec. (f), is July 1, 1971. See Effective Date note below.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–383 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 111–84, §1916(b)(1)(B). See 2009 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–84, §1916(b)(1)(A), inserted par. (1) designation before "Section 5941".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–84, §1916(b)(1)(C), substituted "Except as provided under paragraph (2), for purposes of section 5941 of that title," for "For purposes of such section,".

Pub. L. 111–84, §1916(b)(1)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, substituted "Except as provided under paragraph (2), section 5941" for "Section 5941".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–84, §1916(b)(1)(D), added par. (2).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 111–84, §1122(d), in introductory provisions, substituted "(m)(2)" for "(l)(2)" and "(j)(2)" for "(i)(2)".

2006—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–435 struck out "subsection (g) of section 5532," after "The provisions of" and substituted "8344" for "8344,".

2004—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–496 substituted "chapters 87, 89, 89A, and 89B" for "chapters 87 and 89" in second sentence.

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–336 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1987—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100–90 added par. (4).

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–335 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "Officers and employees of the Postal Service (other than the Governors) shall be covered by chapter 83 of title 5 relating to civil service retirement. The Postal Service shall withhold from pay and shall pay into the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund the amounts specified in such chapter. The Postal Service shall pay into the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund the amounts determined by the Civil Service Commission under section 8348(h) of title 5."

1974—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–349 substituted requirement that the Postal Service pay into the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund the amounts determined by the Civil Service Commission under section 8348(h) of title 5, for requirement that the Postal Service pay to the Civil Service Commission upon request of the Civil Service Commission but not less frequently than annually the costs reasonably related to the administration of Fund activities for officers and employees of the Postal Service.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4372, provided that the amendment made by section 1075(d)(22) is effective as of Oct. 28, 2009, and as if included in Pub. L. 111–84 as enacted.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by section 1916(b)(1) of Pub. L. 111–84 effective Oct. 28, 2009, with transition and savings provisions, see sections 1914, 1915, and 1919(a) of Pub. L. 111–84, set out in a Non-Foreign Area Retirement Equity Assurance note under section 5304 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–496 effective Dec. 23, 2004, and applicable to contracts that take effect with respect to the calendar year 2006, see section 7 of Pub. L. 108–496, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8951 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–90, §1(b)(1), Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 673, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective after the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 18, 1987]."

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–349, §3, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 354, provided that: "The effective date of this Act [amending this section and section 8348 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] shall be July 1, 1971, except that the Postal Service shall not be required to make (1) the payments due June 30, 1972, June 30, 1973, and June 30, 1974, attributable to pay increases granted by the Postal Service prior to July 1, 1973, until such time as funds are appropriated to the Postal Service for that purpose, and (2) the transfer to the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund required by title II of the Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government Appropriation Act, 1974, Public Law 93–143 [which is not classified to the Code]."

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Abatement of Actions

Pub. L. 100–90, §1(b)(2), Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 673, provided that: "An action which is commenced under section 1005(a)(1)(B) of title 39, United States Code, before the effective date of the amendment made by subsection (a) [see Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note above] shall not abate by reason of the enactment of this Act [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note above]. Determinations with respect to any such action shall be made as if this Act had not been enacted."


Executive Documents

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by statute in United States Civil Service Commission or Chairman thereof transferred to Director of Office of Personnel Management (except as otherwise specified) by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1978, §102, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783, set out under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–102 of Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, set out under section 1101 of Title 5.

1 So in original. The word "of" probably should not appear.

§1006. Right of transfer

Officers and employees in the postal career service of the Postal Service shall be eligible for promotion or transfer to any other position in the Postal Service or the executive branch of the Government of the United States for which they are qualified. The authority given by this section shall be used to provide a maximum degree of career promotion opportunities for officers and employees and to insure continued improvement of postal services.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 732.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1007. Seniority for employees in rural service

Subject to agreements made under chapter 12 of this title, the seniority of an employee of the Postal Service occupying a position whose regular duty involves the collection and delivery of mail on a rural route shall be preserved. Seniority for such employee shall commence on the first day of his service in such a position, or, in the event such an employee transfers to another such position, on the day he enters duty in the other position. Upon initial assignment, such an employee shall be assigned to the least desirable route and shall attain assignment to more desirable routes by seniority. Promotions and assignments for such an employee in such position shall be based on seniority and ability. If ability be sufficient, seniority shall govern.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 732.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1008. Temporary employees or carriers

(a) A person temporarily employed to deliver mail is deemed an employee of the Postal Service and is subject to the provisions of chapter 83 of title 18 to the same extent as other employees of the Postal Service.

(b) Any person, when engaged in carrying mail under contract with the Postal Service, or employed by the Postal Service, is deemed a carrier or person entrusted with the mail and having custody thereof, within the meaning of sections 1701, 1708, and 2114 of title 18.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 732.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1009. Personnel not to receive fees

An officer or employee of the Postal Service may not receive any fee or perquisite from a patron of the Postal Service on account of the duties performed by virtue of his appointment, except as authorized by law.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1010. Administration of oaths related to postal inspection matters

Officers and employees of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters may administer oaths required or authorized by law or regulation with respect to any matter coming before them in the performance of their official duties.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1011. Oath of office

Before entering upon their duties and before receiving any salary, all officers and employees of the Postal Service shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation:

"I, ________________, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter."


A person authorized to administer oaths by the laws of the United States, including section 2903 of title 5, or of a State or territory, or an officer, civil or military, holding a commission under the United States, or any officer or employee of the Postal Service designated by the Board may administer and certify the oath or affirmation.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

CHAPTER 12—EMPLOYEE-MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS

Sec.
1201.
Definition.
1202.
Bargaining units.
1203.
Recognition of labor organizations.
1204.
Elections.
1205.
Deductions of dues.
1206.
Collective-bargaining agreements.
1207.
Labor disputes.
1208.
Suits.
1209.
Applicability of Federal labor laws.

        

§1201. Definition

As used in this chapter, "guards" means—

(1) maintenance guards who, on the effective date of this chapter, are in key position KP–5 under the provisions of former section 3514 of title 39; and

(2) security guards, who may be employed in the Postal Service and whose primary duties shall include the exercise of authority to enforce rules to protect the safety of property, mail, or persons on the premises.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in par. (1), is July 1, 1971. See Effective Date note below.

Former section 3514 of title 39, referred to in par. (1), means section 3514 of former Title 39, The Postal Service, prior to the general revision and reenactment of Title 39 by Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Noninterference With Collective Bargaining Agreements

Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §505(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3236, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided by the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending section 1207 of this title], nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall restrict, expand, or otherwise affect any of the rights, privileges, or benefits of either employees of or labor organizations representing employees of the United States Postal Service under chapter 12 of title 39, United States Code, the National Labor Relations Act [29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.], any handbook or manual affecting employee labor relations within the United States Postal Service, or any collective bargaining agreement."

Labor Agreements

Pub. L. 91–375, §10, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 784, provided that:

"(a) [Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions; Parties to Agreement] As soon as practicable after the enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 1970], the Postmaster General and the labor organizations which as of the effective date of this section [see note below] hold national exclusive recognition rights granted by the Post Office Department, shall negotiate an agreement or agreements covering wages, hours, and working conditions of the employees represented by such labor organizations. The parties shall commence bargaining for such agreement or agreements not later than 30 days following delivery of a written request therefor by a labor organization to the Postmaster General or by the Postmaster General to a labor organization. Any agreement made pursuant to this section shall continue in force after the commencement of operations of the United States Postal Service in the same manner and to the same extent as if entered into between the Postal Service and recognized collective-bargaining representatives under chapter 12 of title 39, United States Code.

"(b) [Wage Schedule; Service Period for Maximum Pay; Pay Step Advancement] Any agreement negotiated under this section shall establish a new wage schedule whereunder postal employees will reach the maximum pay step for their respective labor grades after not more than 8 years of satisfactory service in such grades. The agreements shall provide that where an employee had sufficient satisfactory service in the pay step he occupied on the effective date of this section [see note below] to have qualified for advancement to the next highest pay step under the new wage schedule, had such schedule been in effect throughout the period of such service, the employee shall be advanced to such next highest pay step in the new schedule on the effective date of the new schedule.

"(c) [Effective Date; Establishment of Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions] An agreement made under this section shall become effective at any time after the commencement of bargaining, in accordance with the terms thereof. The Postmaster General shall establish wages, hours, and working conditions in accordance with the terms of any agreement or agreements made under this section notwithstanding the provisions of any law other than title 39.

"(d) [Fact-finding Panel, Other Procedure, or Arbitration Board for Resolution of Differences] If the parties fail to reach agreement within 90 days of the commencement of collective bargaining, a fact-finding panel will be established in accordance with the terms of section 1207(b) of title 39, United States Code, unless the parties have previously agreed to another procedure for a binding resolution of their differences. If the parties fail to reach agreement within 180 days of the commencement of collective bargaining, and if they have not agreed to another procedure for binding resolution, an arbitration board shall be established to provide conclusive and binding arbitration in accordance with the terms of section 1207(c) of such title.

"(e) [Appropriation Provisions Inapplicable] Agreements made pursuant to this section and expenditures made under such agreements shall not be subject to the provisions of section 3679 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (31 U.S.C. 665) [sections 1341, 1342, and 1349–1351, subchapter II and chapter 15 of Title 31, Money and Finance].

"(f) [References to Title 39] For the purposes of this section, references to title 39 and sections of title 39 are references to title 39, United States Code, as enacted by section 2 of this Act."

[Provisions of section 10 of Pub. L. 91–375 effective Aug. 12, 1970, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of this title.]

§1202. Bargaining units

The National Labor Relations Board shall decide in each case the unit appropriate for collective bargaining in the Postal Service. The National Labor Relations Board shall not include in any bargaining unit—

(1) any management official or supervisor;

(2) any employee engaged in personnel work in other than a purely nonconfidential clerical capacity;

(3) both professional employees and employees who are not professional employees unless a majority of such professional employees vote for inclusion in such unit; or

(4) together with other employees, any individual employed as a security guard to enforce against employees and other persons, rules to protect property of the Postal Service or to protect the safety of property, mail, or persons on the premises of the Postal Service; but no labor organization shall be certified as the representative of employees in a bargaining unit of security guards if such organization admits to membership, or is affiliated directly or indirectly with an organization which admits to membership, employees other than guards.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1203. Recognition of labor organizations

(a) The Postal Service shall accord exclusive recognition to a labor organization when the organization has been selected by a majority of the employees in an appropriate unit as their representative.

(b) Agreements and supplements in effect on the date of enactment of this section covering employees in the former Post Office Department shall continue to be recognized by the Postal Service until altered or amended pursuant to law.

(c) When a petition has been filed, in accordance with such regulations as may be prescribed by the National Labor Relations Board—

(1) by an employee, a group of employees, or any labor organization acting in their behalf, alleging that (A) a substantial number of employees wish to be represented for collective bargaining by a labor organization and that the Postal Service declines to recognize such labor organization as the representative; or (B) the labor organization which has been certified or is being currently recognized by the Postal Service as the bargaining representative is no longer a representative; or

(2) by the Postal Service, alleging that one or more labor organizations has presented to it a claim to be recognized as the representative;


the National Labor Relations Board shall investigate such petition and, if it has reasonable cause to believe that a question of representation exists, shall provide for an appropriate hearing upon due notice. Such hearing may be conducted by an officer or employee of the National Labor Relations Board, who shall not make any recommendations with respect thereto. If the National Labor Relations Board finds upon the record of such hearing that such a question of representation exists, it shall direct an election by secret ballot and shall certify the results thereof.

(d) A petition filed under subsection (c)(1) of this section shall be accompanied by a statement signed by at least 30 percent of the employees in the appropriate unit stating that they desire that an election be conducted for either of the purposes set forth in such subsection.

(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the waiving of hearings by stipulation for the purpose of a consent election in conformity with regulations and rules of decision of the National Labor Relations Board.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 734.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (b), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 91–375, which was approved Aug. 12, 1970.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1204. Elections

(a) All elections authorized under this chapter shall be conducted under the supervision of the National Labor Relations Board, or persons designated by it, and shall be by secret ballot. Each employee eligible to vote shall be provided the opportunity to choose the labor organization he wishes to represent him, from among those on the ballot, or "no union".

(b) In any election where none of the choices on the ballot receives a majority, a runoff shall be conducted, the ballot providing for a selection between the 2 choices receiving the largest and second largest number of valid votes cast in the election. In the event of a tie vote, additional runoff elections shall be conducted until one of the choices has received a majority of the votes.

(c) No election shall be held in any bargaining unit within which, in the preceding 12-month period, a valid election has been held.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 735.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1205. Deductions of dues

(a) When a labor organization holds exclusive recognition, or when an organization of personnel not subject to collective-bargaining agreements has consultation rights under section 1004 of this title, the Postal Service shall deduct the regular and periodic dues of the organization from the pay of all members of the organization in the unit of recognition if the Post Office Department or the Postal Service has received from each employee, on whose account such deductions are made, a written assignment which shall be irrevocable for a period of not more than one year.

(b) Any agreement in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of the Postal Reorganization Act between the Post Office Department and any organization of postal employees which provides for deduction by the Department of the regular and periodic dues of the organization from the pay of its members, shall continue in full force and effect and the obligation for such deductions shall be assumed by the Postal Service. No such deduction shall be made from the pay of any employee except on his written assignment, which shall be irrevocable for a period of not more than one year.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 735.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Postal Reorganization Act, referred to in subsec. (b), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 91–375, which was approved Aug. 12, 1970.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

§1206. Collective-bargaining agreements

(a) Collective-bargaining agreements between the Postal Service and bargaining representatives recognized under section 1203 of this title shall be effective for not less than 2 years.

(b) Collective-bargaining agreements between the Postal Service and bargaining representatives recognized under section 1203 may include any procedures for resolution by the parties of grievances and adverse actions arising under the agreement, including procedures culminating in binding third-party arbitration, or the parties may adopt any such procedures by mutual agreement in the event of a dispute.

(c) The Postal Service and bargaining representatives recognized under section 1203 may by mutual agreement adopt procedures for the resolution of disputes or impasses arising in the negotiation of a collective-bargaining agreement.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 735.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71–9 of the Board of Governors. See section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as a note preceding section 101 of this title.

Use of Funds for Restructuring of Employee Compensation Practices

Pub. L. 98–396, title III, §303, Aug. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 1422, provided that: "None of the funds made available to the United States Postal Service under this Act [see Tables for classification] or any other Act may be used to restructure employee compensation practices as in effect under the most recently effective collective bargaining agreement under section 1206 of title 39, United States Code, except in accordance with the results of procedures set forth in section 1207 of such title."

§1207. Labor disputes

(a) If there is a collective-bargaining agreement in effect, no party to such agreement shall terminate or modify such agreement unless the party desiring such termination or modification serves written notice upon the other party to the agreement of the proposed termination or modification not less than 90 days prior to the expiration date thereof, or not less than 90 days prior to the time it is proposed to make such termination or modification. The party serving such notice shall notify the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service of the existence of a dispute within 45 days after such notice, if no agreement has been reached by that time.

(b) If the parties fail to reach agreement or to adopt a procedure providing for a binding resolution of a dispute by the expiration date of the agreement in effect, or the date of the proposed termination or modification, the Director of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service shall within 10 days appoint a mediator of nationwide reputation and professional stature, and who is also a member of the National Academy of Arbitrators. The parties shall cooperate with the mediator in an effort to reach an agreement and shall meet and negotiate in good faith at such times and places that the mediator, in consultation with the parties, shall direct.

(c)(1) If no agreement is reached within 60 days after the expiration or termination of the agreement or the date on which the agreement became subject to modification under subsection (a) of this section, or if the parties decide upon arbitration but do not agree upon the procedures therefore, an arbitration board shall be established consisting of 3 members, 1 of whom shall be selected by the Postal Service, 1 by the bargaining representative of the employees, and the third by the 2 thus selected. If either of the parties fails to select a member, or if the members chosen by the parties fail to agree on the third person within 5 days after their first meeting, the selection shall be made from a list of names provided by the Director. This list shall consist of not less then 9 names of arbitrators of nationwide reputation and professional nature, who are also members of the National Academy of Arbitrators, and whom the Director has determined are available and willing to serve.

(2) The arbitration board shall give the parties a full and fair hearing, including an opportunity to present evidence in support of their claims, and an opportunity to present their case in person, by counsel or by other representative as they may elect. Decisions of the arbitration board shall be conclusive and binding upon the parties. The arbitration board shall render its decision within 45 days after its appointment.

(3) Costs of the arbitration board and mediation shall be shared equally by the Postal Service and the bargaining representative.

(d) In the case of a bargaining unit whose recognized collective-bargaining representative does not have an agreement with the Postal Service, if the parties fail to reach the agreement within 90 days after the commencement of collective bargaining, a mediator shall be appointed in accordance with the terms in subsection (b) of this section, unless the parties have previously agreed to another procedure for a binding resolution of their differences. If the parties fail to reach agreement within 180 days after the commencement of collective bargaining, and if they have not agreed to another procedure for binding resolution, an arbitration board shall be established to provide conclusive and binding arbitration in accordance with the terms of subsection (c) of this section.

(Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 735; Pub. L. 109–435, title V, §505(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3235.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–435 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) relating to labor disputes between the Postal Service and bargaining representatives.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1971, pursuant to Resolution No. 71&ndas