[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter N: Tax Based on Income From Sources Within or Without the United States
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter N: Tax Based on Income From Sources Within or Without the United States
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter N—Tax Based on Income From Sources Within or Without the United States

Part
I.
Source rules and other general rules relating to foreign income.
II.
Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.
III.
Income from sources without the United States.
IV.
Domestic international sales corporations.1

        

V.
International boycott determinations.

        

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(h)(2)(D), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3503, substituted "Source rules and other general rules relating to foreign income" for "Determination of sources of income" in item for part I.

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1064(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1653, added item V.

1 Editorially supplied. Part IV added by Pub. L. 92–178 without corresponding amendment of subchapter analysis.

PART I—SOURCE RULES AND OTHER GENERAL RULES RELATING TO FOREIGN INCOME

Sec.
861.
Income from sources within the United States.
862.
Income from sources without the United States.
863.
Special rules for determining source.
864.
Definitions and special rules.
865.
Source rules for personal property sales.

        

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1012(e)(3)(B), (h)(2)(C), 1018(u)(37), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3500, 3502, 3592, substituted "SOURCE RULES AND OTHER GENERAL RULES RELATING TO FOREIGN INCOME" for "DETERMINATION OF SOURCES OF INCOME" as part I heading, substituted "Special rules for determining source" for "Items not specified in section 861 or 862" in item 863, and added item 865.

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1215(b)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2545, substituted "Definitions and special rules" for "Definitions" in item 864.

§861. Income from sources within the United States

(a) Gross income from sources within United States

The following items of gross income shall be treated as income from sources within the United States:

(1) Interest

Interest from the United States or the District of Columbia, and interest on bonds, notes, or other interest-bearing obligations of noncorporate residents or domestic corporations not including—

(A) interest—

(i) on deposits with a foreign branch of a domestic corporation or a domestic partnership if such branch is engaged in the commercial banking business, and

(ii) on amounts satisfying the requirements of subparagraph (B) of section 871(i)(3) which are paid by a foreign branch of a domestic corporation or a domestic partnership, and


(B) in the case of a foreign partnership, which is predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business outside the United States, any interest not paid by a trade or business engaged in by the partnership in the United States and not allocable to income which is effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected) with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States.

(2) Dividends

The amount received as dividends—

(A) from a domestic corporation, or

(B) from a foreign corporation unless less than 25 percent of the gross income from all sources of such foreign corporation for the 3-year period ending with the close of its taxable year preceding the declaration of such dividends (or for such part of such period as the corporation has been in existence) was effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected other than income described in section 884(d)(2)) with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States; but only in an amount which bears the same ratio to such dividends as the gross income of the corporation for such period which was effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected other than income described in section 884(d)(2)) with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States bears to its gross income from all sources; but dividends (other than dividends for which a deduction is allowable under section 245(b)) from a foreign corporation shall, for purposes of subpart A of part III (relating to foreign tax credit), be treated as income from sources without the United States to the extent (and only to the extent) exceeding the amount which is 100/50th of the amount of the deduction allowable under section 245 in respect of such dividends, or

(C) from a foreign corporation to the extent that such amount is required by section 243(e) (relating to certain dividends from foreign corporations) to be treated as dividends from a domestic corporation which is subject to taxation under this chapter, and to such extent subparagraph (B) shall not apply to such amount, or

(D) from a DISC or former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)) except to the extent attributable (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to qualified export receipts described in section 993(a)(1) (other than interest and gains described in section 995(b)(1)).


In the case of any dividend from a 20-percent owned corporation (as defined in section 243(c)(2)), subparagraph (B) shall be applied by substituting "100/65th" for "100/50th".

(3) Personal services

Compensation for labor or personal services performed in the United States; except that compensation for labor or services performed in the United States shall not be deemed to be income from sources within the United States if—

(A) the labor or services are performed by a nonresident alien individual temporarily present in the United States for a period or periods not exceeding a total of 90 days during the taxable year,

(B) such compensation does not exceed $3,000 in the aggregate, and

(C) the compensation is for labor or services performed as an employee of or under a contract with—

(i) a nonresident alien, foreign partnership, or foreign corporation, not engaged in trade or business within the United States, or

(ii) an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, a domestic partnership, or a domestic corporation, if such labor or services are performed for an office or place of business maintained in a foreign country or in a possession of the United States by such individual, partnership, or corporation.


In addition, compensation for labor or services performed in the United States shall not be deemed to be income from sources within the United States if the labor or services are performed by a nonresident alien individual in connection with the individual's temporary presence in the United States as a regular member of the crew of a foreign vessel engaged in transportation between the United States and a foreign country or a possession of the United States.

(4) Rentals and royalties

Rentals or royalties from property located in the United States or from any interest in such property, including rentals or royalties for the use of or for the privilege of using in the United States patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trade-marks, trade brands, franchises, and other like property.

(5) Disposition of United States real property interest

Gains, profits, and income from the disposition of a United States real property interest (as defined in section 897(c)).

(6) Sale or exchange of inventory property

Gains, profits, and income derived from the purchase of inventory property (within the meaning of section 865(i)(1)) without the United States (other than within a possession of the United States) and its sale or exchange within the United States.


(7) Amounts received as underwriting income (as defined in section 832(b)(3)) derived from the issuing (or reinsuring) of any insurance or annuity contract—

(A) in connection with property in, liability arising out of an activity in, or in connection with the lives or health of residents of, the United States, or

(B) in connection with risks not described in subparagraph (A) as a result of any arrangement whereby another corporation receives a substantially equal amount of premiums or other consideration in respect to issuing (or reinsuring) any insurance or annuity contract in connection with property in, liability arising out of activity in, or in connection with the lives or health of residents of, the United States.

(8) Social security benefits

Any social security benefit (as defined in section 86(d)).

(9) Guarantees

Amounts received, directly or indirectly, from—

(A) a noncorporate resident or domestic corporation for the provision of a guarantee of any indebtedness of such resident or corporation, or

(B) any foreign person for the provision of a guarantee of any indebtedness of such person, if such amount is connected with income which is effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected) with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States.

(b) Taxable income from sources within United States

From the items of gross income specified in subsection (a) as being income from sources within the United States there shall be deducted the expenses, losses, and other deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto and a ratable part of any expenses, losses, or other deductions which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income. The remainder, if any, shall be included in full as taxable income from sources within the United States. In the case of an individual who does not itemize deductions, an amount equal to the standard deduction shall be considered a deduction which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income.

(c) Special rule for application of subsection (a)(2)(B)

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(B), if the foreign corporation has no gross income from any source for the 3-year period (or part thereof) specified, the requirements of such subsection shall be applied with respect to the taxable year of such corporation in which the payment of the dividend is made.

(d) Income from certain railroad rolling stock treated as income from sources within the United States

(1) General rule

For purposes of subsection (a) and section 862(a), if—

(A) a taxpayer leases railroad rolling stock which is section 1245 property (as defined in section 1245(a)(3)) to a domestic common carrier by railroad or a corporation which is controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more such common carriers, and

(B) the use under such lease is expected to be use within the United States,


all amounts includible in gross income by the taxpayer with respect to such railroad rolling stock (including gain from sale or other disposition of such railroad rolling stock) shall be treated as income from sources within the United States. The requirements of subparagraph (B) of the preceding sentence shall be treated as satisfied if the only expected use outside the United States is use by a person (whether or not a United States person) in Canada or Mexico on a temporary basis which is not expected to exceed a total of 90 days in any taxable year.

(2) Paragraph (1) not to apply where lessor is a member of controlled group which includes a railroad

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a lease between two members of the same controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 1563) if any member of such group is a domestic common carrier by railroad or a switching or terminal company all of whose stock is owned by one or more domestic common carriers by railroad.

(3) Denial of foreign tax credit

No credit shall be allowed under section 901 for any payments to foreign countries with respect to any amount received by the taxpayer with respect to railroad rolling stock which is subject to paragraph (1).

(e) Cross reference

For treatment of interest paid by the branch of a foreign corporation, see section 884(f).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 275; Pub. L. 86–779, §3(b), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 87–834, §9(c), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1001; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §102(a)(1)–(3), (b), (c), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1541–1543; Pub. L. 91–172, title IV, §435(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 625; Pub. L. 92–9, §3(a)(2), Apr. 1, 1971, 85 Stat. 15; Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §314(a), title V, §503, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 528, 550; Pub. L. 93–625, §§8, 9(a), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2116; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1036(a), 1041, 1051(h)(3), title XIX, §§1901(b)(26)(A), (B), (c)(7), 1904(b)(10)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1633, 1634, 1647, 1798, 1803, 1817, 1834; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §102(b)(9), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 138; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §370(a), title V, §540(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2858, 2887; Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1124, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2690; Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §104(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3523; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §121(d), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(11), title XII, §§1211(b)(1)(B), 1212(d), 1214(a), (b), (c)(5), 1241(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105, 2536, 2539, 2541-2543, 2579; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10221(d)(4), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–409; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1012(g)(3), (i)(10), (14)(B), (q)(7), (9), (15), 1018(u)(39), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3501, 3509, 3510, 3524, 3525, 3592; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7811(i)(2), 7841(d)(9), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2409, 2428; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11801(a)(29), (c)(6)(C), (14), 11813(b)(17), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521, 1388-524, 1388-527, 1388-555; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1702(h)(9), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1174(a)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 989; Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §621(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 111; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §410(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1500; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §217(a), (c)(1), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2400, 2402; Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2122(a), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2567; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13002(e), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2100; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(D)(ix), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1207.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–141 struck out "other than a corporation which has an election in effect under section 936" after "corporation".

2017—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–97, §13002(e)(2), substituted "100/65th" for "100/80th" and "100/50th" for "100/70th" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–97, §13002(e)(1), substituted "100/50th" for "100/70th".

2010—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–226, §217(a), redesignated subpars. (B) and (C) as (A) and (B), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "interest from a resident alien individual or domestic corporation, if such individual or corporation meets the 80-percent foreign business requirements of subsection (c)(1),".

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 111–240 added par. (9).

Subsecs. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 111–226, §217(c)(1), redesignated subsecs. (d) to (f) as (c) to (e), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to foreign business requirements.

2004—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 108–357 added subpar. (C).

2001—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–16 struck out "except for purposes of sections 79 and 105 and subchapter D," after "In addition," in concluding provisions.

1997—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–34 inserted concluding provisions "In addition, except for purposes of sections 79 and 105 and subchapter D, compensation for labor or services performed in the United States shall not be deemed to be income from sources within the United States if the labor or services are performed by a nonresident alien individual in connection with the individual's temporary presence in the United States as a regular member of the crew of a foreign vessel engaged in transportation between the United States and a foreign country or a possession of the United States."

1996—Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–188 provided that the amendment made by section 11813(b)(17) of Pub. L. 101–508 shall be applied as if the material stricken by such amendment included the closing parenthesis after "section 48(a)(5)". See 1990 Amendment note below.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(a)(29), (c)(14), inserted "and" at end of subpar. (A), substituted a period for a comma at end of subpar. (B), and struck out subpars. (C) and (D) which read as follows:

"(C) interest on a debt obligation which was part of an issue with respect to which an election has been made under subsection (c) of section 4912 (as in effect before July 1, 1974) and which, when issued (or treated as issued under subsection (c)(2) of such section), had a maturity not exceeding 15 years and, when issued, was purchased by one or more underwriters with a view to distribution through resale, but only with respect to interest attributable to periods after the date of such election, and

"(D) interest on a debt obligation which was part of an issue which—

"(i) was part of an issue outstanding on April 1, 1971,

"(ii) was guaranteed by a United States person,

"(iii) was treated under chapter 41 as a debt obligation of a foreign obligor,

"(iv) as of June 30, 1974, had a maturity of not more than 15 years, and

"(v) when issued, was purchased by one or more underwriters for the purpose of distribution through resale."

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(17), which directed the substitution of "which is section 1245 property (as defined in section 1245(a)(3))" for "which is section 38 property (or would be section 38 property but for section 48(a)(5)", was executed by making the substitution for "which is section 38 property (or would be section 38 property but for section 48(a)(5))". See 1996 Amendment note above.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(c)(6)(C), substituted "all of whose stock is owned by one or more domestic common carriers by railroad" for "referred to in subparagraph (B) of section 184(d)(1)".

1989—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(2), substituted "865(i)(1)" for "865(h)(1)".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7841(d)(9), substituted "section 862(a)" for "section 826(a)" in introductory provisions.

1988—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(7), substituted "other than income described in section 884(d)(2)" for "other than under section 884(d)(2)" in two places.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(15), substituted "section 243(e)" for "section 243(d)".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(u)(39), substituted "inventory property" for "personal property" in heading.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(10), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "Amounts received as underwriting income (as defined in section 832(b)(3)) derived from the insurance of United States risks (as defined in section 953(a))."

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(g)(3), inserted "or, in the case of a corporation, is attributable to income so derived by a subsidiary of such corporation" after parenthetical in cl. (i), struck out "or chain of subsidiaries of such corporation" after "by a subsidiary" in cl. (ii), and inserted sentence at end defining "subsidiary".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(14)(B), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "such section shall be applied by substituting '10 percent' for '50 percent' each place it appears."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(g)(9), added subsec. (f).

1987—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–203, §10221(d)(4)(B), inserted at end "In the case of any dividend from a 20-percent owned corporation (as defined in section 243(c)(2)), subparagraph (B) shall be applied by substituting '100/80th' for '100/70th'."

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–203, §10221(d)(4)(A), which directed that subpar. (B) be amended by substituting "100/70th" for "100/85th", was executed by substituting "100/70th" for "100/85ths" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1241(b)(1)(A), substituted "noncorporate residents or domestic corporations" for "residents, corporate or otherwise," in introductory text.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(a)(1), (c)(5)(A), amended subpar. (B) generally and redesignated it as (A). Prior to amendment and redesignation, former subpar. (B) read as follows: "interest received from a resident alien individual or a domestic corporation, when it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that less than 20 percent of the gross income from all sources of such individual or such corporation has been derived from sources within the United States, as determined under the provisions of this part, for the 3-year period ending with the close of the taxable year of such individual or such corporation preceding the payment of such interest, or for such part of such period as may be applicable,". Former subpar. (A), which read "interest on amounts described in subsection (c) received by a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation, if such interest is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States,", was struck out.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1241(b)(1)(B), redesignated subpar. (D), as previously redesignated and amended by §1214(c)(5)(A), (B) of Pub. L. 99–514, as (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) [previously (C)] which read as follows: "interest received from a foreign corporation (other than interest paid or credited by a domestic branch of a foreign corporation, if such branch is engaged in the commercial banking business), when it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that less than 50 percent of the gross income from all sources of such foreign corporation for the 3-year period ending with the close of its taxable year preceding the payment of such interest (or for such part of such period as the corporation has been in existence) was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States,".

Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(c)(5)(A), (B), redesignated former subpar. (F) as (D), substituted in cl. (ii), "subparagraph (B) of section 871(i)(3)" for "paragraph (2) of subsection (c)", and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (B). Former subpar. (B) redesignated (A).

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1241(b)(1)(B), redesignated subpar. (E), as previously redesignated by §1214(c)(5)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514, as (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) [previously (D)] which read as follows: "in the case of interest received from a foreign corporation (other than interest paid or credited by a domestic branch of a foreign corporation, if such branch is engaged in the commercial banking business), 50 percent or more of the gross income of which from all sources for the 3-year period ending with the close of its taxable year preceding the payment of such interest (or for such part of such period as the corporation has been in existence) was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, an amount of such interest which bears the same ratio to such interest as the gross income of such foreign corporation for such period which was not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States bears to its gross income from all sources,".

Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(c)(5)(A), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (B).

Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(c)(5)(A), redesignated subpar. (H) as (F). Pub. L. 99–514, §1241(b)(1)(B), then redesignated such subpar. (F) as (D). The original subpar. (D) was redesignated (C) and struck out, and the original subpar. (F) was redesignated (D), then (B).

Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 99–514, §1241(b)(1)(B), redesignated subpar. (E), as previously redesignated by §1214(c)(5)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514, as (C).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(c)(5)(A), redesignated subpar. (G) as (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: "income derived by a foreign central bank of issue from bankers' acceptances,".

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 99–514, §§1214(c)(5)(A), 1241(b)(1)(B), redesignated successively former subpar. (F) as (D) and (B), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(1)(G). Pub. L. 99–514, §§1214(c)(5)(A), 1241(b)(1)(B), redesignated successively former subpar. (G) as (E) and (C), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 99–514, §§1214(c)(5)(A), 1241(b)(1)(B), redesignated successively former subpar. (H) as (F) and (D), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(b), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "from a domestic corporation other than a corporation which has an election in effect under section 936, and other than a corporation less than 20 percent of whose gross income is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary to have been derived from sources within the United States, as determined under the provisions of this part, for the 3-year period ending with the close of the taxable year of such corporation preceding the declaration of such dividends (or for such part of such period as the corporation has been in existence), or".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1241(b)(2), substituted "25 percent" for "50 percent" and inserted "(or treated as effectively connected other than under section 884(d)(2))" in two places.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(1)(B), substituted "inventory property (within the meaning of section 865(h)(1))" for "personal property".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(11), substituted "the standard deduction" for "the zero bracket amount".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(a)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to foreign business requirements for provisions relating to interest on deposits.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(c)(5)(C), amended subsec. (d) generally, substituting provision for special rule for application of subsec. (a)(2)(B) for former provision for special rules for application of subsec. (a), pars. (1)(B) to (1)(D) and (2)(B), pars. (1) and (2) thereof relating to new entities and transition rule provisions.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1212(d), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) relating to treatment of income from certain leased aircraft, vessels, and spacecraft as income from sources within the United States.

1983—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 98–21 added par. (8).

1980—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 96–499 substituted "Disposition of United States real property interest" for "Sale or exchange of real property" in heading and "disposition of a United States real property interest (as defined in section 897(c))" for "sale or exchange of real property located in the United States" in text.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–605 substituted provision directing that income from certain leased aircraft, vessels, and spacecraft be treated as income from sources within the United States for provision permitting the taxpayer to elect to treat income from certain aircraft and vessels as income from sources within the United States and prescribing the manner of revocating such an election.

1978—Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 95–600, §540(a), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–600, §370(a), added subsec. (f).

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–30 provided that, in the case of an individual who does not itemize deductions, an amount equal to the zero bracket amount shall be considered a deduction which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(c)(7), 1904(b)(10)(B), struck out ", any Territory, any political subdivision of a Territory," after "United States" in provisions preceding subpar. (A) and, in subpar. (G), substituted "subsection (c) of section 4912 (as in effect before July 1, 1974)" for "section 4912(c)" and "subsection (c)(2) of such section" for "section 4912(c)(2)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1051(h)(3), 1906(b)(13)(A), substituted "other than a corporation which has an election in effect under section 936" for "other than a corporation entitled to the benefits of section 931" and struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(26)(A), substituted "sale or exchange" for "sale" in headings and text.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 94–455, §1036(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 94–455, §1041, struck out provision that subsecs. (a)(1)(A) and (c) would cease to apply effective with respect to amounts paid or credited after Dec. 31, 1976.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(26)(B), substituted "sale, exchange, or other disposition" for "sale or other disposition".

Subsecs. (e)(2), (3). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1975—Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 93–625, §9(a), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 93–625, §8, substituted "1976" for "1975".

1971—Subsec. (a)(1)(G). Pub. L. 92–9 added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 92–178, §503, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–178, §314(a), added subsec. (e).

1969—Subsec. (a)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 91–172, §435(a)(1), struck out "after December 31, 1972," after "interest paid or credited" in parenthetical after "interest received from a foreign corporation".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 91–172, §435(a)(2), substituted "1975" for "1972".

1966—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 89–809, §102(a)(1)(A), substituted "interest on amounts described in subsection (c) received by a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation, if such interest is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States" for "interest on deposits with persons carrying on the banking business paid to persons not engaged in business within the United States".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 89–809, §102(a)(2), struck out interest received from a resident foreign corporation, and substituted "gross income from all sources of such individual or such corporation" for "gross income of such resident payor or domestic corporation", and "taxable year of such individual or such corporation" for "taxable year of such payor".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C) to (F). Pub. L. 89–809, §102(a)(2), added subpars. (C), (D), and (F), and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (E).

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 89–809, §102(b), substituted "50 percent of the gross income from all sources" for "50 percent of the gross income", "effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States" for "derived from sources within the United States as determined from the provisions of this part", and "ratio to such dividends as the gross income of the corporation for such period which was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States bears to its gross income from all sources" for "ratio to such dividends as the gross income of the corporation for such period derived from sources within the United States bears to its gross income from all sources" and inserted "(other than dividends for which a deduction is allowable under section 245(b))" after "dividends" and "(and only to the extent)" after "extent".

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 89–809, §102(c), inserted "an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, a domestic partnership, or" before "a domestic corporation" and "individual, partnership, or" after "United States by such".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 89–809, §102(a)(1)(B), (3), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1962—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 87–834 substituted "to the extent exceeding the amount which is 100/85ths of the amount of the deduction allowable under section 245 in respect of such dividends" for "to the extent exceeding the amount of the deduction allowable under section 245 in respect of such dividends."

1960—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 86–779 added subpar. (C).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 13002(f) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 243 of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2122(d), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2568, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 862 and 864 of this title] shall apply to guarantees issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 2010]."

Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §217(d), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2402, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 871, 904, and 2104 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010.

"(2) Grandfather rule for outstanding debt obligations.—

"(A) In general.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to payments of interest on obligations issued before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2010].

"(B) Exception for related party debt.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any interest which is payable to a related person (determined under rules similar to the rules of section 954(d)(3)).

"(C) Significant modifications treated as new issues.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), a significant modification of the terms of any obligation (including any extension of the term of such obligation) shall be treated as a new issue."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §410(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1500, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003."

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §621(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 111, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to remuneration for services performed in plan years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to remuneration for services performed in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1174(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 7701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 effective, except as otherwise expressly provided, as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, to which such amendment relates, see section 1702(i) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 38 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 11813(b)(17) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1990, but not applicable to any transition property (as defined in section 49(e) of this title), any property with respect to which qualified progress expenditures were previously taken into account under section 46(d) of this title, and any property described in section 46(b)(2)(C) of this title, as such sections were in effect on Nov. 4, 1990, see section 11813(c) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7811(i)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable to dividends received or accrued after Dec. 31, 1987, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 10221(e)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 243 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b)(11) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1211(b)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1211(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 865 of this title.

Amendment by section 1212(d) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with special rules for certain leased property and for certain ships leased by United States Navy, see section 1212(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 863 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1214(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2543, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(g)(1)(A), (2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3500, 3501, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 871, 881, 1441, and 6049 of this title] shall apply to payments made in a taxable year of the payor beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(2) Treatment of certain interest.—

"(A) In general.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any interest paid or accrued on any obligation outstanding on December 31, 1985. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any interest paid pursuant to any extension or renewal of such an obligation agreed to after December 31, 1985.

"(B) Special rule for related payee.—If the payee of any interest to which subparagraph (A) applies is related (within the meaning of section 904(d)(2)(H) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) to the payor, such interest shall be treated for purposes of section 904 of such Code as if the payor were a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957(a) of such Code).

"(3) Transitional rule.—

"(A) Years before 1988.—In applying the amendments made by this section to any payment made by a corporation in a taxable year of such corporation beginning before January 1, 1988, the requirements of clause (ii) of [former] section 861(c)(1)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to active business requirements), as amended by this section, shall not apply to gross income of such corporation for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1987.

"(B) Years after 1987.—In applying the amendments made by this section to any payment made by a corporation in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after December 31, 1987, the testing period for purposes of [former] section 861(c) of such Code (as so amended) shall not include any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987.

"(4) Certain dividends.—

"(A) In general.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any dividend paid before January 1, 1991, by a qualified corporation with respect to stock which was outstanding on May 31, 1985.

"(B) Qualified corporation.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term 'qualified corporation' means any business systems corporation which—

"(i) was incorporated in Delaware in February, 1979,

"(ii) is headquartered in Garden City, New York, and

"(iii) the parent corporation of which is a resident of Sweden."

[Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(g)(1)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3500, provided that: "A taxpayer may elect not to have the amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending section 1214(d)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out above] apply and to have section 1214(d)(1) of the Reform Act [section 1214(d)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out above] apply as in effect before such amendment. Such election shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may prescribe."]

Amendment by section 1241(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1241(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 884 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date, except for any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as an Effective Date note under section 86 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §104(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3523, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to property first leased after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 1980]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–499 applicable to dispositions after June 18, 1980, see section 1125(a) of Pub. L. 96–499, set out as an Effective Date note under section 897 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §370(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2858, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to all railroad rolling stock placed in service with respect to the taxpayer after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978].

"(2) Election to extend section 861(f) [now 861(e)] to railroad rolling stock placed in service before date of enactment.

"(A) In general.—At the election of the taxpayer, the amendment made by subsection (a) shall also apply, for taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act, to all railroad rolling stock placed in service with respect to the taxpayer on or before such date of enactment. Such an election may not be revoked except with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate.

"(B) Manner and time of election and revocation.—An election under subparagraph (A), and any revocation of such an election, shall be made in such manner and at such time as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulations prescribe."

Pub. L. 95–600, title V, §540(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2887, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978]."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title I, §1036(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1633, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 862 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976."

For effective date of amendment by section 1051(h)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455, see section 1051(i)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 27 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(26)(A), (B), (c)(7) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1904(b)(10)(B) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on first day of first month which begins more than 90 days after date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976], see section 1904(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–625, §9(c), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2116, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] applies to interest paid after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 1975], and the amendment made by subsection (b) [amending section 2104 of this title] applies with respect to estates of decedents dying after such date."

Effective Date of 1971 Amendments

Pub. L. 92–9, §3(a)(3), Apr. 1, 1971, 85 Stat. 15, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 4912 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 1, 1971]."

Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §314(c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 528, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 862 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after August 15, 1971, but only with respect to leases entered into after such date."

Amendment by section 503 of Pub. L. 92–178 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1971, except that a corporation may not be a DISC for any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1972, see section 507 of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as an Effective Date note under section 991 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–172, title IV, §435(a)(1), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 625, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to amounts paid or credited after Dec. 31, 1969.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §102(e), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1547, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by subsections (a), (c), and (d) [amending this section and sections 864 and 895 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966; except that in applying section 864(c)(4)(B)(iii) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by subsection (d)) with respect to a binding contract entered into on or before February 24, 1966, activities in the United States on or before such date in negotiating or carrying out such contract shall not be taken into account.

"(2) The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to amounts received after December 31, 1966."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation after Dec. 31, 1964, and in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation before Jan. 1, 1965, in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, but only to the extent that such distribution is made out of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable year (of such foreign corporation) beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 9(e) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as an Effective Date note under section 78 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–779 applicable to dividends received after Dec. 31, 1959, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 3(c) of Pub. L. 86–779, set out as a note under section 243 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Short Title of 1971 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–9, §1(a), Apr. 1, 1971, 85 Stat. 13, provided that: "This Act [amending this section and sections 4911, 4912, 4914 to 4916, 4919 to 4921, 6651, 6680, and 6681 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 6680 and 6681 of this title] may be cited as the 'Interest Equalization Tax Extension Act of 1971'."

Short Title of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §101, Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1541, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 877, 896, 906, 981, 2107, 2108, and 6683 of this title, amending this section and sections 1, 11, 116, 154, 245, 301, 512, 542, 543, 545, 819, 821, 822, 831, 832, 841, 842, 864, 871, 872, 873, 874, 875, 881, 882, 884, 894, 895, 901, 904, 911, 931, 932, 952, 953, 1248, 1249, 1441, 1442, 1461, 2014, 2101, 2102, 2104, 2105, 2106, 2501, 2511, 3401, 6015, 6016, 6018, 6501, 6513, and 7701 of this title, redesignating former section 877 as 878, repealing section 1493, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 11, 871, 874, 894, 901, 904, 931, 2101, 2501, and 6501 of this title] may be cited as the 'Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966'."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Dividends Received or Accrued During 1987

Subsec. (a)(2)(B) of this section to be applied by substituting "100/80ths" for the fraction specified therein with regard to dividends received or accrued during 1987, see section 1006(b)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(aa)(2)–(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3531, 3532, provided that:

"(2) Certain amendments to apply notwithstanding treaties.—The following amendments made by the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514] shall apply notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on the date of the enactment of the Reform Act [Oct. 22, 1986]:

"(A) The amendments made by section 1201 of the Reform Act [amending sections 864, 904, and 954 of this title].

"(B) The amendments made by title VII of the Reform Act [enacting sections 53 and 55 to 59 of this title and amending sections 5, 12, 26, 28, 29, 38, 48, 173, 174, 263, 381, 443, 703, 882, 897, 904, 936, 1016, 1363, 1366, 1561, 6154, 6425, and 6655 of this title] to the extent such amendments relate to the alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit.

"(3) Certain amendments not to apply to the extent inconsistent with treaties.—The following amendments made by the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514] shall not apply to the extent the application of such amendments would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on the date of the enactment of the Reform Act [Oct. 22, 1986]:

"(A) The amendments made by section 1211 of the Reform Act [enacting section 865 of this title and amending this section and sections 862 to 864, 871, 881, and 904 of this title] to the extent—

"(i) such amendments apply in the case of an individual treated as a resident of a foreign country under a treaty obligation of the United States as so in effect, or

"(ii) such amendments relate to income of a nonresident from the sale or exchange of inventory property which would otherwise be sourced under section 865(e)(2) of the 1986 Code.

"(B) The amendments made by section 1212(a) of the Reform Act [amending section 863 of this title]; except for purposes of determining the amount of the foreign tax credit.

"(C) The amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) of section 1212 of the Reform Act [enacting section 887 of this title and amending sections 872 and 883 of this title].

"(D) The amendments made by section 1214 of the Reform Act [amending this section and sections 871, 881, 1441, and 6049 of this title]; except for purposes of determining the amount of the foreign tax credit.

"(E) The amendment made by section 1241(a) of the Reform Act [enacting section 884 of this title and renumbering former section 884 as 885] to the extent that, under a treaty obligation of the United States, interest described in section 884(f)(1)(A) of the 1986 Code (as added by such amendment) which is in excess of amounts deducted would be treated as other than United States source.

"(F) The amendment made by section 1241(b)(2)(A) of the Reform Act [amending this section].

"(G) The amendment made by section 1241(a) of the Reform Act [enacting section 884 of this title and renumbering former section 884 as 885] to the extent such amendment relates to section 884(f)(1)(B) of the 1986 Code.

"(H) The amendments made by section 1242 of the Reform Act [amending section 864 of this title] to the extent they relate to paragraph (7) of section 864(c) of the 1986 Code.

"(I) The amendment made by section 1247(a) of the Reform Act [amending section 892 of this title].

"(J) The amendments made by section 123 of the Reform Act [amending sections 74, 117, 1441, and 7871 of this title].

"(4) Treatment of technical corrections.—For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), any amendment made by this title [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as if it had been included in the provision of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514] to which such amendment relates."

Qualified Research and Experimental Expenditures; Allocation and Apportionment; Definitions; Special Rules; Effective Dates

Pub. L. 100–647, title IV, §4009, Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3653, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—For purposes of sections 861(b), 862(b), and 863(b) of the 1986 Code, qualified research and experimental expenditures shall be allocated and apportioned as follows:

"(1) Any qualified research and experimental expenditures expended solely to meet legal requirements imposed by a political entity with respect to the improvement or marketing of specific products or processes for purposes not reasonably expected to generate gross income (beyond de minimis amounts) outside the jurisdiction of the political entity shall be allocated only to gross income from sources within such jurisdiction.

"(2) In the case of any qualified research and experimental expenditures (not allocated under paragraph (1)) to the extent—

"(A) that such expenditures are attributable to activities conducted in the United States, 64 percent of such expenditures shall be allocated and apportioned to income from sources within the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources within the United States, and

"(B) that such expenditures are attributable to activities conducted outside the United States, 64 percent of such expenditures shall be allocated and apportioned to income from sources outside the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources outside the United States.

"(3) The remaining portion of qualified research and experimental expenditures (not allocated under paragraphs (1) and (2)) shall be apportioned, at the annual election of the taxpayer, on the basis of gross sales or gross income, except that, if the taxpayer elects to apportion on the basis of gross income, the amount apportioned to income from sources outside the United States shall be at least 30 percent of the amount which would be so apportioned on the basis of gross sales.

"(b) Qualified Research and Experimental Expenditures.—For purposes of this section, the term 'qualified research and experimental expenditures' means amounts which are research and experimental expenditures within the meaning of section 174 of the 1986 Code. For purposes of this subsection, rules similar to the rules of [former] subsection (c) of section 174 of the 1986 Code shall apply.

"(c) Special Rules for Expenditures Attributable to Activities Conducted in Space, Etc.—

"(1) In general.—Any qualified research and experimental expenditures described in paragraph (2)—

"(A) if incurred by a United States person, shall be allocated and apportioned under this section in the same manner as if they were attributable to activities conducted in the United States, and

"(B) if incurred by a person other than a United States person, shall be allocated and apportioned under this section in the same manner as if they were attributable to activities conducted outside the United States.

"(2) Description of expenditures.—For purposes of paragraph (1), qualified research and experimental expenditures are described in this paragraph if such expenditures are attributable to activities conducted—

"(A) in space,

"(B) on or under water not within the jurisdiction (as recognized by the United States) of a foreign country, possession of the United States, or the United States, or

"(C) in Antarctica.

"(d) Affiliated Group.—

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the allocation and apportionment required by subsection (a) shall be determined as if all members of the affiliated group (as defined in subsection (e)(5) of section 864 of the 1986 Code) were a single corporation.

"(2) For purposes of the allocation and apportionment required by subsection (a)—

"(A) sales and gross income from products produced in whole or in part in a possession by an electing corporation (within the meaning of [former] section 936(h)(5)(E) of the 1986 Code); and

"(B) dividends from an electing corporation,

shall not be taken into account, except that this paragraph shall not apply to sales of (and gross income and dividends attributable to sales of) products with respect to which an election under [former] section 936(h)(5)(F) of the 1986 Code is not in effect.

"(3) The qualified research and experimental expenditures taken into account for purposes of subsection (a) shall be adjusted to reflect the amount of such expenditures included in computing the cost-sharing amount (determined under [former] section 936(h)(5)(C)(i)(I) of the 1986 Code).

"(4) The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations providing for the source of gross income and the allocation and apportionment of deductions to take into account the adjustments required by paragraph (3).

"(5) Paragraph (6) of section 864(e) of the 1986 Code shall not apply to qualified research and experimental expenditures.

"(e) Years to Which Section Applies.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in this subsection, this section shall apply to the taxpayer's 1st taxable year beginning after August 1, 1987.

"(2) Reduction in amounts to which section applies.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1), this section shall only apply to that portion of the qualified research and experimental expenditures for the taxable year referred to in paragraph (1) which bears the same ratio to the total amount of such expenditures as—

"(A) the lesser of 4 months or the number of months in the taxable year, bears to

"(B) the number of months in the taxable year."

1-Year Modification in Regulations Providing for Allocation of Research and Experimental Expenditures

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1216, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2549, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—For purposes of section 861(b), section 862(b), and section 863(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986], notwithstanding section 864(e) of such Code—

"(1) 50 percent of all amounts allowable as a deduction for qualified research and experimental expenditures shall be apportioned to income from sources within the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources within the United States, and

"(2) the remaining portion of such amounts shall be apportioned on the basis of gross sales or gross income.

The preceding sentence shall not apply to any expenditures described in section 1.861–8(e)(3)(i)(B) of the Income Tax Regulations.

"(b) Qualified Research and Experimental Expenditures.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) In general.—The term 'qualified research and experimental expenditures' means amounts—

"(A) which are research and experimental expenditures within the meaning of section 174 of such Code, and

"(B) which are attributable to activities conducted in the United States.

"(2) Treatment of depreciation, etc.—Rules similar to the rules of [former] section 174(c) of such Code shall apply.

"(c) Effective Date.—This section shall apply to taxable years beginning after August 1, 1986, and on or before August 1, 1987."

Allocation Under Section 861 of Research and Experimental Expenditures

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §126, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 648, as amended by Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, §13211, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 324; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) In General.—For purposes of section 861(b), section 862(b), and section 863(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], all amounts allowable as a deduction for qualified research and experimental expenditures shall be allocated to income from sources within the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources within the United States.

"(b) Qualified Research and Experimental Expenditures.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) In general.—The term 'qualified research and experimental expenditures' means amounts—

"(A) which are research and experimental expenditures within the meaning of section 174 of such Code, and

"(B) which are attributable to activities conducted in the United States.

"(2) Treatment of depreciation, etc.—Rules similar to the rules of [former] subsection (c) of section 174 of such Code shall apply.

"(c) Effective Dates.—

"(1) In general.—This section shall apply to taxable years beginning after August 13, 1983, and on or before August 1, 1986.

"(2) Special rule.—If the taxpayer's 4th taxable year beginning after August 13, 1981, is not described in paragraph (1), this section shall apply also to such 4th taxable year."

Conformity of Amendments Made by Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966 With Treaty Obligations of the United States

Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §110, Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1575, provided that: "No amendment made by this title [see Short Title note above] shall apply in any case where its application would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the extension of a benefit provided by any amendment made by this title shall not be deemed to be contrary to a treaty obligation of the United States."

§862. Income from sources without the United States

(a) Gross income from sources without United States

The following items of gross income shall be treated as income from sources without the United States:

(1) interest other than that derived from sources within the United States as provided in section 861(a)(1);

(2) dividends other than those derived from sources within the United States as provided in section 861(a)(2);

(3) compensation for labor or personal services performed without the United States;

(4) rentals or royalties from property located without the United States or from any interest in such property, including rentals or royalties for the use of or for the privilege of using without the United States patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trade-marks, trade brands, franchises, and other like properties;

(5) gains, profits, and income from the sale or exchange of real property located without the United States;

(6) gains, profits, and income derived from the purchase of inventory property (within the meaning of section 865(i)(1)) within the United States and its sale or exchange without the United States;

(7) underwriting income other than that derived from sources within the United States as provided in section 861(a)(7);

(8) gains, profits, and income from the disposition of a United States real property interest (as defined in section 897(c)) when the real property is located in the Virgin Islands; and

(9) amounts received, directly or indirectly, from a foreign person for the provision of a guarantee of indebtedness of such person other than amounts which are derived from sources within the United States as provided in section 861(a)(9).

(b) Taxable income from sources without United States

From the items of gross income specified in subsection (a) there shall be deducted the expenses, losses, and other deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto, and a ratable part of any expenses, losses, or other deductions which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income. The remainder, if any, shall be treated in full as taxable income from sources without the United States. In the case of an individual who does not itemize deductions, an amount equal to the standard deduction shall be considered a deduction which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 276; Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §314(b), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1036(b), title XIX, §1901(b)(26)(C), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1633, 1798; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §102(b)(10), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 138; Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §831(a)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(12), title XII, §1211(b)(1)(C), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105, 2536; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(e)(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3500; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(i)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2409; Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2122(b), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2568.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 111–240 added par. (9).

1989—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "865(i)(1)" for "865(h)(1)".

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647 repealed subsec. (c) which read as follows:

"(c) Cross reference.—For source of amounts attributable to certain aircraft and vessels, see section 861(e)."

1986—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(1)(C), substituted "inventory property (within the meaning of section 865(h)(1))" for "personal property".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(12), substituted "the standard deduction" for "the zero bracket amount".

1981—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 97–34 added par. (8).

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–30 provided that, in the case of an individual who does not itemize deductions, an amount equal to the zero bracket amount shall be considered a deduction which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income.

1976—Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(26)(C), inserted "or exchange" after "sale".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 94–455, §1036(b), added par. (7).

1971—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–178 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–240 applicable to guarantees issued after Sept. 27, 2010, see section 2122(d) of Pub. L. 111–240, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b)(12) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1211(b)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1211(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 865 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to dispositions after June 18, 1980, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 831(i) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 897 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1036(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1036(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(26)(C) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–178 applicable to taxable years ending after Aug. 15, 1971, but only with respect to leases entered into after such date, see section 314(c) of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendment by section 1211(b)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Qualified Research and Experimental Expenditures; Allocation and Apportionment; Definitions; Special Rules; Effective Dates

For allocation and apportionment of qualified research and experimental expenditures for purposes of sections 861 to 863 of this title, see section 4009 of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

1-Year Modification in Regulations Providing for Allocation of Research and Experimental Expenditures

For rule governing allocation under subsec. (b) of this section of amounts allowable as a deduction for qualified research and experimental expenditures during taxable years beginning after Aug. 1, 1986, and on or before Aug. 1, 1987, see section 1216 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Allocation Under Section 861 of Research and Experimental Expenditures

For purposes of subsec. (b) of this section, all amounts allowable as a deduction for qualified research and experimental expenditures are to be allocated to income from sources within the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources within the United States for taxable years beginning after Aug. 13, 1983, and on or before Aug. 1, 1986, see section 126 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

§863. Special rules for determining source

(a) Allocation under regulations

Items of gross income, expenses, losses, and deductions, other than those specified in sections 861(a) and 862(a), shall be allocated or apportioned to sources within or without the United States, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Where items of gross income are separately allocated to sources within the United States, there shall be deducted (for the purpose of computing the taxable income therefrom) the expenses, losses, and other deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto and a ratable part of other expenses, losses, or other deductions which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income. The remainder, if any, shall be included in full as taxable income from sources within the United States.

(b) Income partly from within and partly from without the United States

In the case of gross income derived from sources partly within and partly without the United States, the taxable income may first be computed by deducting the expenses, losses, or other deductions apportioned or allocated thereto and a ratable part of any expenses, losses, or other deductions which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income; and the portion of such taxable income attributable to sources within the United States may be determined by processes or formulas of general apportionment prescribed by the Secretary. Gains, profits, and income—

(1) from services rendered partly within and partly without the United States,

(2) from the sale or exchange of inventory property (within the meaning of section 865(i)(1)) produced (in whole or in part) by the taxpayer within and sold or exchanged without the United States, or produced (in whole or in part) by the taxpayer without and sold or exchanged within the United States, or

(3) derived from the purchase of inventory property (within the meaning of section 865(i)(1)) within a possession of the United States and its sale or exchange within the United States,


shall be treated as derived partly from sources within and partly from sources without the United States. Gains, profits, and income from the sale or exchange of inventory property described in paragraph (2) shall be allocated and apportioned between sources within and without the United States solely on the basis of the production activities with respect to the property.

(c) Source rule for certain transportation income

(1) Transportation beginning and ending in the United States

All transportation income attributable to transportation which begins and ends in the United States shall be treated as derived from sources within the United States.

(2) Other transportation having United States connection

(A) In general

50 percent of all transportation income attributable to transportation which—

(i) is not described in paragraph (1), and

(ii) begins or ends in the United States,


shall be treated as from sources in the United States.

(B) Special rule for personal service income

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any transportation income which is income derived from personal services performed by the taxpayer, unless such income is attributable to transportation which—

(i) begins in the United States and ends in a possession of the United States, or

(ii) begins in a possession of the United States and ends in the United States.


In the case of transportation income derived from, or in connection with, a vessel, this subparagraph shall only apply if the taxpayer is a citizen or resident alien.

(3) Transportation income

For purposes of this subsection, the term "transportation income" means any income derived from, or in connection with—

(A) the use (or hiring or leasing for use) of a vessel or aircraft, or

(B) the performance of services directly related to the use of a vessel or aircraft.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "vessel or aircraft" includes any container used in connection with a vessel or aircraft.

(d) Source rules for space and certain ocean activities

(1) In general

Except as provided in regulations, any income derived from a space or ocean activity—

(A) if derived by a United States person, shall be sourced in the United States, and

(B) if derived by a person other than a United States person, shall be sourced outside the United States.

(2) Space or ocean activity

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(A) In general

The term "space or ocean activity" means—

(i) any activity conducted in space, and

(ii) any activity conducted on or under water not within the jurisdiction (as recognized by the United States) of a foreign country, possession of the United States, or the United States.


Such term includes any activity conducted in Antarctica.

(B) Exception for certain activities

The term "space or ocean activity" shall not include—

(i) any activity giving rise to transportation income (as defined in section 863(c)),

(ii) any activity giving rise to international communications income (as defined in subsection (e)(2)), and

(iii) any activity with respect to mines, oil and gas wells, or other natural deposits to the extent within the United States or any foreign country or possession of the United States (as defined in section 638).


For purposes of applying section 638, the jurisdiction of any foreign country shall not include any jurisdiction not recognized by the United States.

(e) International communications income

(1) Source rules

(A) United States persons

In the case of any United States person, 50 percent of any international communications income shall be sourced in the United States and 50 percent of such income shall be sourced outside the United States.

(B) Foreign persons

(i) In general

Except as provided in regulations or clause (ii), in the case of any person other than a United States person, any international communications income shall be sourced outside the United States.

(ii) Special rule for income attributable to office or fixed place of business in the United States

In the case of any person (other than a United States person) who maintains an office or other fixed place of business in the United States, any international communications income attributable to such office or other fixed place of business shall be sourced in the United States.

(2) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "international communications income" includes all income derived from the transmission of communications or data from the United States to any foreign country (or possession of the United States) or from any foreign country (or possession of the United States) to the United States.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 277; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(b)(26)(C), (D), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1798, 1799, 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §124(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 646; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §§1211(b)(1)(A), 1212(a), (e), 1213(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2536, 2539, 2540; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(e)(3)(A), (f), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3500; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(i)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2409; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1174(a)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 989; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14303(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2225.)

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–97 inserted at end of concluding provisions "Gains, profits, and income from the sale or exchange of inventory property described in paragraph (2) shall be allocated and apportioned between sources within and without the United States solely on the basis of the production activities with respect to the property."

1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–34 inserted concluding provisions "In the case of transportation income derived from, or in connection with, a vessel, this subparagraph shall only apply if the taxpayer is a citizen or resident alien."

1989—Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "865(i)(1)" for "865(h)(1)".

1988Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(e)(3)(A), substituted "Special rules for determining source" for "Item not specified in section 861 or 862" in section catchline.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(f), substituted "foreign country (or possession of the United States)" for "foreign country" in two places.

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1212(e), substituted "services" for "transportation or other services".

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(1)(A), substituted "inventory property (within the meaning of section 865(h)(1))" for "personal property".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1212(a), amended par. (2) generally, in subpar. (A) substituting provisions relating to other transportation having United States connections for provisions relating to transportation between United States and any possession, and in subpar. (B) substituting provisions relating to special rule for personal service income for provisions relating to special rule for certain lessors of aircraft.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1213(a), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(b)(26)(C), (D), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" in introductory provisions, and inserted "or exchange" after "sale" in pars. (2) and (3), and "or exchanged" after "sold" in par. (2) wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14303(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2225, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to remuneration for services performed in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1174(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 7701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1211(b)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1211(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 865 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1212(f), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2539, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 887 of this title and amending this section and sections 861, 872, and 883 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(2) Special rule for certain leased property.—The amendments made by subsections (a) and (d) [amending this section and section 861 of this title] shall not apply to any income attributable to property held by the taxpayer on January 1, 1986, if such property was first leased by the taxpayer before January 1, 1986, in a lease to which section 863(c)(2)(B) or 861(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]) applied.

"(3) Special rule for certain ships leased by the united states navy.—

"(A) In general.—In the case of any property described in subparagraph (B), paragraph (2) shall be applied by substituting '1987' for '1986' each place it appears.

"(B) Property to which paragraph applies.—Property described in this subparagraph consists of 4 ships which are to be leased by the United States Navy and which are the subject of Internal Revenue Service rulings bearing the following dates and which involved the following amount of financing, respectively:


 
  
"March 5, 1986 $176,844,000  
  February 5, 1986 64,567,000  
  April 22, 1986 64,598,000  
  May 22, 1986 175,300,000."

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1213(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2541, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §124(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 647, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to transportation beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(b)(26)(C), (D) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendments by sections 1211(b)(1)(A) and 1212(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendments would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Qualified Research and Experimental Expenditures; Allocation and Appointment; Definitions; Special Rules; Effective Dates

For allocation and apportionment of qualified research and experimental expenditures for purposes of sections 861 to 863 of this title, see section 4009 of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

1-Year Modification in Regulations Providing for Allocation of Research and Experimental Expenditures

For rule governing allocation under subsec. (b) of this section of amounts allowable as a deduction for qualified research and experimental expenditures during taxable years beginning after Aug. 1, 1986, and on or before Aug. 1, 1987, see section 1216 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Allocation Under Section 861 of Research and Experimental Expenditures

For purposes of subsec. (b) of this section, all amounts allowable as a deduction for qualified research and experimental expenditures are to be allocated to income from sources within the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources within the United States for taxable years beginning after Aug. 13, 1983, and on or before Aug. 1, 1986, see section 126 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

§864. Definitions and special rules

(a) Produced

For purposes of this part, the term "produced" includes created, fabricated, manufactured, extracted, processed, cured, or aged.

(b) Trade or business within the United States

For purposes of this part, part II, and chapter 3, the term "trade or business within the United States" includes the performance of personal services within the United States at any time within the taxable year, but does not include—

(1) Performance of personal services for foreign employer

The performance of personal services—

(A) for a nonresident alien individual, foreign partnership, or foreign corporation, not engaged in trade or business within the United States, or

(B) for an office or place of business maintained in a foreign country or in a possession of the United States by an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States or by a domestic partnership or a domestic corporation,


by a nonresident alien individual temporarily present in the United States for a period or periods not exceeding a total of 90 days during the taxable year and whose compensation for such services does not exceed in the aggregate $3,000.

(2) Trading in securities or commodities

(A) Stocks and securities

(i) In general

Trading in stocks or securities through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other independent agent.

(ii) Trading for taxpayer's own account

Trading in stocks or securities for the taxpayer's own account, whether by the taxpayer or his employees or through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other agent, and whether or not any such employee or agent has discretionary authority to make decisions in effecting the transactions. This clause shall not apply in the case of a dealer in stocks or securities.

(B) Commodities

(i) In general

Trading in commodities through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other independent agent.

(ii) Trading for taxpayer's own account

Trading in commodities for the taxpayer's own account, whether by the taxpayer or his employees or through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other agent, and whether or not any such employee or agent has discretionary authority to make decisions in effecting the transactions. This clause shall not apply in the case of a dealer in commodities.

(iii) Limitation

Clauses (i) and (ii) shall apply only if the commodities are of a kind customarily dealt in on an organized commodity exchange and if the transaction is of a kind customarily consummated at such place.

(C) Limitation

Subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(i) shall apply only if, at no time during the taxable year, the taxpayer has an office or other fixed place of business in the United States through which or by the direction of which the transactions in stocks or securities, or in commodities, as the case may be, are effected.

(c) Effectively connected income, etc.

(1) General rule

For purposes of this title—

(A) In the case of a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year, the rules set forth in paragraphs (2), (3), (4), (6), (7), and (8) shall apply in determining the income, gain, or loss which shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(B) Except as provided in paragraph (6) 1 (7), or (8) or in section 871(d) or sections 882(d) and (e), in the case of a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation not engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year, no income, gain, or loss shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(2) Periodical, etc., income from sources within United States—factors

In determining whether income from sources within the United States of the types described in section 871(a)(1), section 871(h), section 881(a), or section 881(c), or whether gain or loss from sources within the United States from the sale or exchange of capital assets, is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, the factors taken into account shall include whether—

(A) the income, gain, or loss is derived from assets used in or held for use in the conduct of such trade or business, or

(B) the activities of such trade or business were a material factor in the realization of the income, gain, or loss.


In determining whether an asset is used in or held for use in the conduct of such trade or business or whether the activities of such trade or business were a material factor in realizing an item of income, gain, or loss, due regard shall be given to whether or not such asset or such income, gain, or loss was accounted for through such trade or business.

(3) Other income from sources within United States

All income, gain, or loss from sources within the United States (other than income, gain, or loss to which paragraph (2) applies) shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(4) Income from sources without United States

(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), no income, gain, or loss from sources without the United States shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(B) Income, gain, or loss from sources without the United States shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States by a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation if such person has an office or other fixed place of business within the United States to which such income, gain, or loss is attributable and such income, gain, or loss—

(i) consists of rents or royalties for the use of or for the privilege of using intangible property described in section 862(a)(4) derived in the active conduct of such trade or business;

(ii) consists of dividends, interest, or amounts received for the provision of guarantees of indebtedness, and either is derived in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business within the United States or is received by a corporation the principal business of which is trading in stocks or securities for its own account; or

(iii) is derived from the sale or exchange (outside the United States) through such office or other fixed place of business of personal property described in section 1221(a)(1), except that this clause shall not apply if the property is sold or exchanged for use, consumption, or disposition outside the United States and an office or other fixed place of business of the taxpayer in a foreign country participated materially in such sale.


Any income or gain which is equivalent to any item of income or gain described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) shall be treated in the same manner as such item for purposes of this subparagraph.


(C) In the case of a foreign corporation taxable under part I or part II of subchapter L, any income from sources without the United States which is attributable to its United States business shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(D) No income from sources without the United States shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States if it either—

(i) consists of dividends, interest, or royalties paid by a foreign corporation in which the taxpayer owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)), or is considered as owning (by applying the ownership rules of section 958(b)), more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, or

(ii) is subpart F income within the meaning of section 952(a).

(5) Rules for application of paragraph (4)(B)

For purposes of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4)—

(A) in determining whether a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation has an office or other fixed place of business, an office or other fixed place of business of an agent shall be disregarded unless such agent (i) has the authority to negotiate and conclude contracts in the name of the nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation and regularly exercises that authority or has a stock of merchandise from which he regularly fills orders on behalf of such individual or foreign corporation, and (ii) is not a general commission agent, broker, or other agent of independent status acting in the ordinary course of his business,

(B) income, gain, or loss shall not be considered as attributable to an office or other fixed place of business within the United States unless such office or fixed place of business is a material factor in the production of such income, gain, or loss and such office or fixed place of business regularly carries on activities of the type from which such income, gain, or loss is derived, and

(C) the income, gain, or loss which shall be attributable to an office or other fixed place of business within the United States shall be the income, gain, or loss property allocable thereto, but, in the case of a sale or exchange described in clause (iii) of such subparagraph, the income which shall be treated as attributable to an office or other fixed place of business within the United States shall not exceed the income which would be derived from sources within the United States if the sale or exchange were made in the United States.

(6) Treatment of certain deferred payments, etc.

For purposes of this title, in the case of any income or gain of a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation which—

(A) is taken into account for any taxable year, but

(B) is attributable to a sale or exchange of property or the performance of services (or any other transaction) in any other taxable year,


the determination of whether such income or gain is taxable under section 871(b) or 882 (as the case may be) shall be made as if such income or gain were taken into account in such other taxable year and without regard to the requirement that the taxpayer be engaged in a trade or business within the United States during the taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A).

(7) Treatment of certain property transactions

For purposes of this title, if—

(A) any property ceases to be used or held for use in connection with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, and

(B) such property is disposed of within 10 years after such cessation,


the determination of whether any income or gain attributable to such disposition is taxable under section 871(b) or 882 (as the case may be) shall be made as if such sale or exchange occurred immediately before such cessation and without regard to the requirement that the taxpayer be engaged in a trade or business within the United States during the taxable year for which such income or gain is taken into account.

(8) Gain or loss of foreign persons from sale or exchange of certain partnership interests

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, if a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation owns, directly or indirectly, an interest in a partnership which is engaged in any trade or business within the United States, gain or loss on the sale or exchange of all (or any portion of) such interest shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of such trade or business to the extent such gain or loss does not exceed the amount determined under subparagraph (B).

(B) Amount treated as effectively connected

The amount determined under this subparagraph with respect to any partnership interest sold or exchanged—

(i) in the case of any gain on the sale or exchange of the partnership interest, is—

(I) the portion of the partner's distributive share of the amount of gain which would have been effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States if the partnership had sold all of its assets at their fair market value as of the date of the sale or exchange of such interest, or

(II) zero if no gain on such deemed sale would have been so effectively connected, and


(ii) in the case of any loss on the sale or exchange of the partnership interest, is—

(I) the portion of the partner's distributive share of the amount of loss on the deemed sale described in clause (i)(I) which would have been so effectively connected, or

(II) zero if no loss on such deemed sale would be have been so effectively connected.


 For purposes of this subparagraph, a partner's distributive share of gain or loss on the deemed sale shall be determined in the same manner as such partner's distributive share of the non-separately stated taxable income or loss of such partnership.

(C) Coordination with United States real property interests

If a partnership described in subparagraph (A) holds any United States real property interest (as defined in section 897(c)) at the time of the sale or exchange of the partnership interest, then the gain or loss treated as effectively connected income under subparagraph (A) shall be reduced by the amount so treated with respect to such United States real property interest under section 897.

(D) Sale or exchange

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "sale or exchange" means any sale, exchange, or other disposition.

(E) Secretarial authority

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations or other guidance as the Secretary determines appropriate for the application of this paragraph, including with respect to exchanges described in section 332, 351, 354, 355, 356, or 361.

(d) Treatment of related person factoring income

(1) In general

For purposes of the provisions set forth in paragraph (2), if any person acquires (directly or indirectly) a trade or service receivable from a related person, any income of such person from the trade or service receivable so acquired shall be treated as if it were interest on a loan to the obligor under the receivable.

(2) Provisions to which paragraph (1) applies

The provisions set forth in this paragraph are as follows:

(A) Section 904 (relating to limitation on foreign tax credit).

(B) Subpart F of part III of this subchapter (relating to controlled foreign corporations).

(3) Trade or service receivable

For purposes of this subsection, the term "trade or service receivable" means any account receivable or evidence of indebtedness arising out of—

(A) the disposition by a related person of property described in section 1221(a)(1), or

(B) the performance of services by a related person.

(4) Related person

For purposes of this subsection, the term "related person" means—

(A) any person who is a related person (within the meaning of section 267(b)), and

(B) any United States shareholder (as defined in section 951(b)) and any person who is a related person (within the meaning of section 267(b)) to such a shareholder.

(5) Certain provisions not to apply

The following provisions shall not apply to any amount treated as interest under paragraph (1) or (6):

(A) Section 904(d)(2)(B)(iii)(I) (relating to exceptions for export financing interest).

(B) Subparagraph (A) of section 954(b)(3) (relating to exception where foreign base company income is less than 5 percent or $1,000,000).

(C) Subparagraph (B) of section 954(c)(2) (relating to certain export financing).

(D) Clause (i) of section 954(c)(3)(A) (relating to certain income received from related persons).

(6) Special rule for certain income from loans of a controlled foreign corporation

Any income of a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957(a)) from a loan to a person for the purpose of financing—

(A) the purchase of property described in section 1221(a)(1) of a related person, or

(B) the payment for the performance of services by a related person,


shall be treated as interest described in paragraph (1).

(7) Exception for certain related persons doing business in same foreign country

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any trade or service receivable acquired by any person from a related person if—

(A) the person acquiring such receivable and such related person are created or organized under the laws of the same foreign country and such related person has a substantial part of its assets used in its trade or business located in such same foreign country, and

(B) such related person would not have derived any foreign base company income (as defined in section 954(a), determined without regard to section 954(b)(3)(A)), or any income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, from such receivable if it had been collected by such related person.

(8) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to prevent the avoidance of the provisions of this subsection or section 956(c)(3).

(e) Rules for allocating interest, etc.

For purposes of this subchapter—

(1) Treatment of affiliated groups

The taxable income of each member of an affiliated group shall be determined by allocating and apportioning interest expense of each member as if all members of such group were a single corporation.

(2) Gross income and fair market value methods may not be used for interest

All allocations and apportionments of interest expense shall be determined using the adjusted bases of assets rather than on the basis of the fair market value of the assets or gross income.

(3) Tax-exempt assets not taken into account

For purposes of allocating and apportioning any deductible expense, any tax-exempt asset (and any income from such an asset) shall not be taken into account. A similar rule shall apply in the case of the portion of any dividend (other than a qualifying dividend as defined in section 243(b)) equal to the deduction allowable under section 243 or 245(a) with respect to such dividend and in the case of a like portion of any stock the dividends on which would be so deductible and would not be qualifying dividends (as so defined).

(4) Basis of stock in nonaffiliated 10-percent owned corporations adjusted for earnings and profits changes

(A) In general

For purposes of allocating and apportioning expenses on the basis of assets, the adjusted basis of any stock in a nonaffiliated 10-percent owned corporation shall be—

(i) increased by the amount of the earnings and profits of such corporation attributable to such stock and accumulated during the period the taxpayer held such stock, or

(ii) reduced (but not below zero) by any deficit in earnings and profits of such corporation attributable to such stock for such period.

(B) Nonaffiliated 10-percent owned corporation

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "nonaffiliated 10-percent owned corporation" means any corporation if—

(i) such corporation is not included in the taxpayer's affiliated group, and

(ii) members of such affiliated group own 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote.

(C) Earnings and profits of lower tier corporations taken into account

(i) In general

If, by reason of holding stock in a nonaffiliated 10-percent owned corporation, the taxpayer is treated under clause (iii) as owning stock in another corporation with respect to which the stock ownership requirements of clause (ii) are met, the adjustment under subparagraph (A) shall include an adjustment for the amount of the earnings and profits (or deficit therein) of such other corporation which are attributable to the stock the taxpayer is so treated as owning and to the period during which the taxpayer is treated as owning such stock.

(ii) Stock ownership requirements

The stock ownership requirements of this clause are met with respect to any corporation if members of the taxpayer's affiliated group own (directly or through the application of clause (iii)) 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote.

(iii) Stock owned through entities

For purposes of this subparagraph, stock owned (directly or indirectly) by a corporation, partnership, or trust shall be treated as being owned proportionately by its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. Stock considered to be owned by a person by reason of the application of the preceding sentence, shall, for purposes of applying such sentence, be treated as actually owned by such person.

(D) Coordination with subpart F, etc.

For purposes of this paragraph, proper adjustment shall be made to the earnings and profits of any corporation to take into account any earnings and profits included in gross income under section 951 or under any other provision of this title and reflected in the adjusted basis of the stock.

(5) Affiliated group

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "affiliated group" has the meaning given such term by section 1504. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a foreign corporation shall be treated as a member of the affiliated group if—

(i) more than 50 percent of the gross income of such foreign corporation for the taxable year is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, and

(ii) at least 80 percent of either the vote or value of all outstanding stock of such foreign corporation is owned directly or indirectly by members of the affiliated group (determined with regard to this sentence).

(B) Treatment of certain financial institutions

For purposes of subparagraph (A), any corporation described in subparagraph (C) shall be treated as an includible corporation for purposes of section 1504 only for purposes of applying such section separately to corporations so described. This subparagraph shall not apply for purposes of paragraph (6).

(C) Description

A corporation is described in this subparagraph if—

(i) such corporation is a financial institution described in section 581 or 591,

(ii) the business of such financial institution is predominantly with persons other than related persons (within the meaning of subsection (d)(4)) or their customers, and

(iii) such financial institution is required by State or Federal law to be operated separately from any other entity which is not such an institution.

(D) Treatment of bank holding companies

To the extent provided in regulations—

(i) a bank holding company (within the meaning of section 2(a) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956), and

(ii) any subsidiary of a financial institution described in section 581 or 591 or of any bank holding company if such subsidiary is predominantly engaged (directly or indirectly) in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business,


shall be treated as a corporation described in subparagraph (C).

(6) Allocation and apportionment of other expenses

Expenses other than interest which are not directly allocable or apportioned to any specific income producing activity shall be allocated and apportioned as if all members of the affiliated group were a single corporation.

(7) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations providing—

(A) for the resourcing of income of any member of an affiliated group or modifications to the consolidated return regulations to the extent such resourcing or modification is necessary to carry out the purposes of this section,

(B) for direct allocation of interest expense incurred to carry out an integrated financial transaction to any interest (or interest-type income) derived from such transaction and in other circumstances where such allocation would be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection,

(C) for the apportionment of expenses allocated to foreign source income among the members of the affiliated group and various categories of income described in section 904(d)(1),

(D) for direct allocation of interest expense in the case of indebtedness resulting in a disallowance under section 246A,

(E) for appropriate adjustments in the application of paragraph (3) in the case of an insurance company,

(F) preventing assets or interest expense from being taken into account more than once, and

(G) that this subsection shall not apply for purposes of any provision of this subchapter to the extent the Secretary determines that the application of this subsection for such purposes would not be appropriate.

(f) Election to allocate interest, etc. on worldwide basis

For purposes of this subchapter, at the election of the worldwide affiliated group—

(1) Allocation and apportionment of interest expense

(A) In general

The taxable income of each domestic corporation which is a member of a worldwide affiliated group shall be determined by allocating and apportioning interest expense of each member as if all members of such group were a single corporation.

(B) Treatment of worldwide affiliated group

The taxable income of the domestic members of a worldwide affiliated group from sources outside the United States shall be determined by allocating and apportioning the interest expense of such domestic members to such income in an amount equal to the excess (if any) of—

(i) the total interest expense of the worldwide affiliated group multiplied by the ratio which the foreign assets of the worldwide affiliated group bears to all the assets of the worldwide affiliated group, over

(ii) the interest expense of all foreign corporations which are members of the worldwide affiliated group to the extent such interest expense of such foreign corporations would have been allocated and apportioned to foreign source income if this subsection were applied to a group consisting of all the foreign corporations in such worldwide affiliated group.

(C) Worldwide affiliated group

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "worldwide affiliated group" means a group consisting of—

(i) the includible members of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a), determined without regard to paragraph (2) of section 1504(b)), and

(ii) all controlled foreign corporations in which such members in the aggregate meet the ownership requirements of section 1504(a)(2) either directly or indirectly through applying paragraph (2) of section 958(a) or through applying rules similar to the rules of such paragraph to stock owned directly or indirectly by domestic partnerships, trusts, or estates.

(2) Allocation and apportionment of other expenses

Expenses other than interest which are not directly allocable or apportioned to any specific income producing activity shall be allocated and apportioned as if all members of the affiliated group were a single corporation. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "affiliated group" has the meaning given such term by section 1504 (determined without regard to paragraph (2) of section 1504(b)).

(3) Treatment of tax-exempt assets; basis of stock in nonaffiliated 10-percent owned corporations

The rules of paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (e) shall apply for purposes of this subsection, except that paragraph (4) shall be applied on a worldwide affiliated group basis.

(4) Treatment of certain financial institutions

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), any corporation described in subparagraph (B) shall be treated as an includible corporation for purposes of section 1504 only for purposes of applying this subsection separately to corporations so described.

(B) Description

A corporation is described in this subparagraph if—

(i) such corporation is a financial institution described in section 581 or 591,

(ii) the business of such financial institution is predominantly with persons other than related persons (within the meaning of subsection (d)(4)) or their customers, and

(iii) such financial institution is required by State or Federal law to be operated separately from any other entity which is not such an institution.

(C) Treatment of bank and financial holding companies

To the extent provided in regulations—

(i) a bank holding company (within the meaning of section 2(a) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841(a)),

(ii) a financial holding company (within the meaning of section 2(p) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841(p)), and

(iii) any subsidiary of a financial institution described in section 581 or 591, or of any such bank or financial holding company, if such subsidiary is predominantly engaged (directly or indirectly) in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business,


shall be treated as a corporation described in subparagraph (B).

(5) Election to expand financial institution group of worldwide group

(A) In general

If a worldwide affiliated group elects the application of this subsection, all financial corporations which—

(i) are members of such worldwide affiliated group, but

(ii) are not corporations described in paragraph (4)(B),


shall be treated as described in paragraph (4)(B) for purposes of applying paragraph (4)(A). This subsection (other than this paragraph) shall apply to any such group in the same manner as this subsection (other than this paragraph) applies to the pre-election worldwide affiliated group of which such group is a part.

(B) Financial corporation

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "financial corporation" means any corporation if at least 80 percent of its gross income is income described in section 904(d)(2)(D)(ii) and the regulations thereunder which is derived from transactions with persons who are not related (within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)(1)) to the corporation. For purposes of the preceding sentence, there shall be disregarded any item of income or gain from a transaction or series of transactions a principal purpose of which is the qualification of any corporation as a financial corporation.

(C) Anti-abuse rules

In the case of a corporation which is a member of an electing financial institution group, to the extent that such corporation—

(i) distributes dividends or makes other distributions with respect to its stock after the date of the enactment of this paragraph to any member of the pre-election worldwide affiliated group (other than to a member of the electing financial institution group) in excess of the greater of—

(I) its average annual dividend (expressed as a percentage of current earnings and profits) during the 5-taxable-year period ending with the taxable year preceding the taxable year, or

(II) 25 percent of its average annual earnings and profits for such 5-taxable-year period, or


(ii) deals with any person in any manner not clearly reflecting the income of the corporation (as determined under principles similar to the principles of section 482),


an amount of indebtedness of the electing financial institution group equal to the excess distribution or the understatement or overstatement of income, as the case may be, shall be recharacterized (for the taxable year and subsequent taxable years) for purposes of this paragraph as indebtedness of the worldwide affiliated group (excluding the electing financial institution group). If a corporation has not been in existence for 5 taxable years, this subparagraph shall be applied with respect to the period it was in existence.

(D) Election

An election under this paragraph with respect to any financial institution group may be made only by the common parent of the pre-election worldwide affiliated group and may be made only for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2020, in which such affiliated group includes 1 or more financial corporations. Such an election, once made, shall apply to all financial corporations which are members of the electing financial institution group for such taxable year and all subsequent years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(E) Definitions relating to groups

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Pre-election worldwide affiliated group

The term "pre-election worldwide affiliated group" means, with respect to a corporation, the worldwide affiliated group of which such corporation would (but for an election under this paragraph) be a member for purposes of applying paragraph (1).

(ii) Electing financial institution group

The term "electing financial institution group" means the group of corporations to which this subsection applies separately by reason of the application of paragraph (4)(A) and which includes financial corporations by reason of an election under subparagraph (A).

(F) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to carry out this subsection, including regulations—

(i) providing for the direct allocation of interest expense in other circumstances where such allocation would be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection,

(ii) preventing assets or interest expense from being taken into account more than once, and

(iii) dealing with changes in members of any group (through acquisitions or otherwise) treated under this paragraph as an affiliated group for purposes of this subsection.

(6) Election

An election to have this subsection apply with respect to any worldwide affiliated group may be made only by the common parent of the domestic affiliated group referred to in paragraph (1)(C) and may be made only for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2020, in which a worldwide affiliated group exists which includes such affiliated group and at least 1 foreign corporation. Such an election, once made, shall apply to such common parent and all other corporations which are members of such worldwide affiliated group for such taxable year and all subsequent years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(g) Allocation of research and experimental expenditures

(1) In general

For purposes of sections 861(b), 862(b), and 863(b), qualified research and experimental expenditures shall be allocated and apportioned as follows:

(A) Any qualified research and experimental expenditures expended solely to meet legal requirements imposed by a political entity with respect to the improvement or marketing of specific products or processes for purposes not reasonably expected to generate gross income (beyond de minimis amounts) outside the jurisdiction of the political entity shall be allocated only to gross income from sources within such jurisdiction.

(B) In the case of any qualified research and experimental expenditures (not allocated under subparagraph (A)) to the extent—

(i) that such expenditures are attributable to activities conducted in the United States, 50 percent of such expenditures shall be allocated and apportioned to income from sources within the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources within the United States, and

(ii) that such expenditures are attributable to activities conducted outside the United States, 50 percent of such expenditures shall be allocated and apportioned to income from sources outside the United States and deducted from such income in determining the amount of taxable income from sources outside the United States.


(C) The remaining portion of qualified research and experimental expenditures (not allocated under subparagraphs (A) and (B)) shall be apportioned, at the annual election of the taxpayer, on the basis of gross sales or gross income, except that, if the taxpayer elects to apportion on the basis of gross income, the amount apportioned to income from sources outside the United States shall at least be 30 percent of the amount which would be so apportioned on the basis of gross sales.

(2) Qualified research and experimental expenditures

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified research and experimental expenditures" means amounts which are research and experimental expenditures within the meaning of section 174. For purposes of this paragraph, rules similar to the rules of subsection (c) 2 of section 174 shall apply. Any qualified research and experimental expenditures treated as deferred expenses under subsection (b) 2 of section 174 shall be taken into account under this subsection for the taxable year for which such expenditures are allowed as a deduction under such subsection.

(3) Special rules for expenditures attributable to activities conducted in space, etc.

(A) In general

Any qualified research and experimental expenditures described in subparagraph (B)—

(i) if incurred by a United States person, shall be allocated and apportioned under this section in the same manner as if they were attributable to activities conducted in the United States, and

(ii) if incurred by a person other than a United States person, shall be allocated and apportioned under this section in the same manner as if they were attributable to activities conducted outside the United States.

(B) Description of expenditures

For purposes of subparagraph (A), qualified research and experimental expenditures are described in this subparagraph if such expenditures are attributable to activities conducted—

(i) in space,

(ii) on or under water not within the jurisdiction (as recognized by the United States) of a foreign country, possession of the United States, or the United States, or

(iii) in Antarctica.

(4) Affiliated group

(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the allocation and apportionment required by paragraph (1) shall be determined as if all members of the affiliated group (as defined in subsection (e)(5)) were a single corporation.

(B) For purposes of the allocation and apportionment required by paragraph (1)—

(i) sales and gross income from products produced in whole or in part in a possession by an electing corporation (within the meaning of section 936(h)(5)(E)),2 and

(ii) dividends from an electing corporation,


shall not be taken into account, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to sales of (and gross income and dividends attributable to sales of) products with respect to which an election under section 936(h)(5)(F) 2 is not in effect.

(C) The qualified research and experimental expenditures taken into account for purposes of paragraph (1) shall be adjusted to reflect the amount of such expenditures included in computing the cost-sharing amount (determined under section 936(h)(5)(C)(i)(I)).2

(D) The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations providing for the source of gross income and the allocation and apportionment of deductions to take into account the adjustments required by subparagraph (B) or (C).

(E) Paragraph (6) of subsection (e) shall not apply to qualified research and experimental expenditures.

(5) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations relating to the determination of whether any expenses are attributable to activities conducted in the United States or outside the United States and regulations providing such adjustments to the provisions of this subsection as may be appropriate in the case of cost-sharing arrangements and contract research.

(6) Applicability

This subsection shall apply to the taxpayer's first taxable year (beginning on or before August 1, 1994) following the taxpayer's last taxable year to which Revenue Procedure 92–56 applies or would apply if the taxpayer elected the benefits of such Revenue Procedure.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 278; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §102(d), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1544; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(113), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §§123(a), 127(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 644, 651; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §§1201(d)(4), 1211(b)(2), 1215(a), (b)(1), 1221(a)(2), 1223(b)(1), 1242(a), (b), 1275(c)(7), title XVIII, §§1810(c)(2), (3), 1899A(21), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2525, 2536, 2544, 2545, 2550, 2558, 2580, 2599, 2824, 2959; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10242(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–423; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(a)(1)(B), (d)(7), (10), (g)(5), (h)(1), (2)(A), (3)–(6), (p)(30), (r), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3494, 3498, 3499, 3501-3503, 3521, 3525; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7111, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2326; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11401(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–472; Pub. L. 102–227, title I, §101(a), Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1686; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13234, Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 504; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1162(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 987; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §532(c)(2)(N)–(P), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1931; Pub. L. 106–519, §4(3), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2432; Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(b)(6), title IV, §§401(a), (b), 403(b)(6), 413(c)(12), title VIII, §894(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423, 1488, 1491, 1494, 1507, 1647; Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title III, §3093(a), (b), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2912; Pub. L. 111–92, §15(a), (b), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2996; Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §551(a), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §216(a), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2400; Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2122(c), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2568; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §§13501(a), 14502(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2138, 2235; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(152), (d)(1)(D)(x), (xvii)(IV), (V), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1191, 1207, 1208.)

References in Text

Section 2(a) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, referred to in subsec. (e)(5)(D)(i), is classified to section 1841(a) of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

The date of the enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (f)(5)(C)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

Section 174, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), was amended generally by Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13206(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2111. Provisions similar to those contained in former subsec. (c) of section 174 are now contained in subsec. (c)(1) of section 174. For provisions similar to those contained in former subsec. (b) of section 174 relating to amortization of certain research and experimental expenditures, see subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 174.

Section 936, referred to in subsec. (g)(4)(B), (C), was repealed by Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(C), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1206.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(d)(1)(D)(x), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) related to certain provisions that did not apply to any amount treated as interest under par. (1) or (6).

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(152), substituted "section 956(c)(3)" for "section 956(b)(3)".

Subsec. (e)(5)(A). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(d)(1)(D)(xvii)(IV), struck out "(determined without regard to paragraph (4) of section 1504(b))" after "section 1504" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(d)(1)(D)(xvii)(V), substituted "paragraph (2)" for "paragraphs (2) and (4)".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(d)(1)(D)(xvii)(V), which directed amendment of par. (2) by substituting "paragraph (2)" for "paragraphs (2) and (4)", was executed by making the substitution for "paragraph (4)", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2017—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–97, §13501(a)(2)(A), substituted "(7), and (8)" for "and (7)".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–97, §13501(a)(2)(B), substituted "(7), or (8)" for "or (7)".

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 115–97, §13501(a)(1), added par. (8).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 115–97, §14502(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "All allocations and apportionments of interest expense shall be made on the basis of assets rather than gross income."

2010—Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 111–240 substituted "dividends, interest, or amounts received for the provision of guarantees of indebtedness" for "dividends or interest".

Subsec. (e)(5)(A). Pub. L. 111–226 inserted at end "Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a foreign corporation shall be treated as a member of the affiliated group if—" and added cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (f)(5)(D), (6). Pub. L. 111–147 substituted "December 31, 2020" for "December 31, 2017".

2009—Subsec. (f)(5)(D), (6). Pub. L. 111–92, §15(a), substituted "December 31, 2017" for "December 31, 2010".

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 111–92, §15(b), struck out par. (7). Text read as follows: "In the case of the first taxable year to which this subsection applies, the increase (if any) in the amount of the interest expense allocable to sources within the United States by reason of the application of this subsection shall be 30 percent of the amount of such increase determined without regard to this paragraph."

2008—Subsec. (f)(5)(D), (6). Pub. L. 110–289, §3093(a), substituted "December 31, 2010" for "December 31, 2008".

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 110–289, §3093(b), added par. (7).

2004—Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 108–357, §894(a), added concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 108–357, §413(c)(12), redesignated subpars. (B) and (C) as (A) and (B), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "Part III of subchapter G of this chapter (relating to foreign personal holding companies)."

Subsec. (d)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(6), substituted "(C)(iii)(II)" for "(C)(iii)(III)".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 108–357, §101(b)(6), struck out "(A) In general" before "For purposes" and struck out heading and text of subpar. (B). Text read as follows: "For purposes of allocating and apportioning any interest expense, there shall not be taken into account any qualifying foreign trade property (as defined in section 943(a)) which is held by the taxpayer for lease or rental in the ordinary course of trade or business for use by the lessee outside the United States (as defined in section 943(b)(2))."

Subsec. (e)(7)(B). Pub. L. 108–357, §401(b)(1), inserted "and in other circumstances where such allocation would be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection" before comma at end.

Subsec. (e)(7)(F), (G). Pub. L. 108–357, §401(b)(2), added subpar. (F) and redesignated former subpar. (F) as (G).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 108–357, §401(a), added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

2000—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 106–519 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, and added subpar. (B).

1999—Subsecs. (c)(4)(B)(iii), (d)(3)(A), (6)(A). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted "section 1221(a)(1)" for "section 1221(1)".

1997—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 105–34 struck out ", or in the case of a corporation (other than a corporation which is, or but for section 542(c)(7), 542(c)(10), or 543(b)(1)(C) would be, a personal holding company) the principal business of which is trading in stocks or securities for its own account, if its principal office is in the United States" after "dealer in stocks or securities".

1993—Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13234(a), substituted "50 percent" for "64 percent" in cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (f)(4)(D). Pub. L. 103–66, §13234(b)(2), substituted "subparagraph (B) or (C)" for "subparagraph (C)".

Subsec. (f)(5), (6). Pub. L. 103–66, §13234(b)(1), added pars. (5) and (6) and struck out heading and text of former par. (5). Text read as follows:

"(A) In general.—This subsection shall apply to the taxpayer's first 3 taxable years beginning after August 1, 1989, and on or before August 1, 1992.

"(B) Reduction.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), in the case of the taxpayer's first taxable year beginning after August 1, 1991, this subsection shall only apply to qualified research and experimental expenditures incurred during the first 6 months of such taxable year."

1991—Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 102–227 amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "This subsection shall apply to the taxpayer's first 2 taxable years beginning after August 1, 1989, and on or before August 1, 1991."

1990—Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted "Years" for "Year" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(A) In general.—Except as provided in this paragraph, this subsection shall apply to the taxpayer's first taxable year beginning after August 1, 1989, and before August 2, 1990.

"(B) Reduction.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), this subsection shall only apply to that portion of the qualified research and experimental expenditures for the taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A) which bears the same ratio to the total amount of such expenditures as—

"(i) the lesser of 9 months or the number of months in the taxable year, bears to

"(ii) the number of months in the taxable year."

1989—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–239 added subsec. (f).

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(p)(30), substituted "section 542(c)(7), 542(c)(10)," for "section 542(c)(7)".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(g)(5), struck out at end "In applying this paragraph and paragraph (4), interest referred to in section 861(a)(1)(A) shall be considered income from sources within the United States."

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(10), struck out "(including any gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of such property)" after "section 862(a)(4)" in cl. (i) and ", or gain or loss from the sale or exchange of stock or notes, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness" after "dividends or interest" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(7), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(r)(2), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "For purposes of this title, any income or gain of a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation for any taxable year which is attributable to a sale or exchange of property or the performance of services (or any other transaction) in any other taxable year shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States if it would have been so treated if such income or gain were taken into account in such other taxable year."

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(r)(1), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "For purposes of this title, if any property ceases to be used or held for use in connection with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, the determination of whether any income or gain attributable to a sale or exchange of such property occurring within 10 years after such cessation is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall be made as if such sale or exchange occurred immediately before such cessation."

Subsec. (d)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(1)(B), substituted "(C)(iii)(III)" for "(C)(iii)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(6)(B), struck out "(except as provided in regulations)" after "subchapter".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(2)(A), struck out "from sources outside the United States" after "affiliated group".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(3), inserted sentence at end and struck out former last sentence which read as follows: "A similar rule shall apply in the case of any dividend (other than a qualifying dividend as defined in section 243(b)) for which a deduction is allowable under section 243 or 245(a) and any stock the dividends on which would be so deductible and would not be qualifying dividends (as so defined)."

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(1), substituted "nonaffiliated 10-percent owned corporations" for "certain corporations" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of allocating and apportioning expenses on the basis of assets, the adjusted basis of any asset which is stock in a corporation which is not included in the affiliated group and in which members of the affiliated group own 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote in such corporation shall be—

"(A) increased by the amount of the earnings and profits of such corporation attributable to such stock and accumulated during the period the taxpayer held such stock, or

"(B) reduced (but not below zero) by any deficit in earnings and profits of such corporation attributable to such stock for such period."

Subsec. (e)(5)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(4)(B), inserted at end "This subparagraph shall not apply for purposes of paragraph (6)."

Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(4)(A), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(5), substituted "directly allocable or apportioned" for "directly allocable and apportioned".

Subsec. (e)(7)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(6)(A), added subpars. (D) to (F).

1987—Subsec. (c)(4)(C). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted "or part II" after "part I".

1986Pub. L. 99–514, §1215(b)(1), inserted "and special rules" in section catchline.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1242(b)(1), inserted reference to pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1242(b)(2), inserted "paragraph (6) or (7) or in".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(21), inserted a comma between "section 871(h)" and "section 881(a)".

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(2), struck out cl. (iii), which read as follows: "is derived from the sale or exchange (without the United States) through such office or other fixed place of business of personal property described in section 1221(1), except that this clause shall not apply if the property is sold or exchanged for use, consumption, or disposition outside the United States and an office or other fixed place of business of the taxpayer outside the United States participated materially in such sale or exchange."

Subsec. (c)(6), (7). Pub. L. 99–514, §1242(a), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (d)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1201(d)(4), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "Subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of section 904(d)(2) (relating to interest income to which separate limitation applies) and subparagraph (J) of section 904(d)(3) (relating to interest from members of same affiliated group)."

Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(c)(3), inserted "and subparagraph (J) of section 904(d)(3) (relating to interest from members of same affiliated group)".

Subsec. (d)(5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1223(b)(1), substituted "less than 5 percent or $1,000,000" for "less than 10 percent".

Subsec. (d)(5)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(a)(2), amended cl. (iii) generally, substituting "section 954(c)(2) (relating to certain export financing)" for "section 954(c)(3) (relating to certain income derived in active conduct of trade or business)".

Subsec. (d)(5)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(a)(2), amended cl. (iv) generally, substituting "Clause (i) of section 954(c)(3)(A) (relating to" for "Subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 954(c)(4) (relating to exception for".

Subsec. (d)(5)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(7), amended subpar. (B) generally, striking out cl. (i) heading, substituting "An amount" for "Any amount", and striking out cl. (ii), Virgin Islands corporations, which read as follows: "Subsection (b) of section 934 shall not apply to any amount treated as interest under paragraph (1) unless such amount is from sources within the Virgin Islands (determined after the application of paragraph (1))."

Subsec. (d)(7), (8). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(c)(2), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1215(a), added subsec. (e).

1984—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §127(c), substituted "section 871(a)(1), section 871(h) section 881(a), or section 881(c)" for "section 871(a)(1) or section 881(a)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §123(a), added subsec. (d).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(113)(A), substituted in heading "Produced" for "Sale, etc." and struck out in text provisions relating to the definition of sale and sold.

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(113)(B), substituted "sale or exchange" for "sale".

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(113)(B), (C), substituted "sold or exchanged" for "sold" and "sale or exchange" for "sale" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(5)(C). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(113)(B), substituted "sale or exchange" for "sale" wherever appearing.

1966Pub. L. 89–809 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13501(c)(1), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2141, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to sales, exchanges, and dispositions on or after November 27, 2017."

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14502(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2235, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–240 applicable to guarantees issued after Sept. 27, 2010, see section 2122(d) of Pub. L. 111–240, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §216(b), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2400, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2010]."

Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §551(b), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 117, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 18, 2010]."

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–92, §15(c), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2996, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title III, §3093(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2912, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b)(6) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §401(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1491, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §403(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1494, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002."

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §403(d), as added by Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(l), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2625, provided that: "If the taxpayer elects (at such time and in such form and manner as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe) to have the rules of this subsection apply—

"(1) the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall not apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002, and before January 1, 2005, and

"(2) in the case of taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004, clause (iv) of section 904(d)(4)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by this section) shall be applied by substituting 'January 1, 2005' for 'January 1, 2003' both places it appears."

[Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 adding section 403(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out above, effective as if included in the provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which such amendment relates, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as an Effective Date of 2005 Amendment note under section 26 of this title.]

Amendment by section 413(c)(12) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 413(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendments note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §894(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1647, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–519 applicable to transactions after Sept. 30, 2000, with special rules relating to existing foreign sales corporations, see section 5 of Pub. L. 106–519, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to any instrument held, acquired, or entered into, any transaction entered into, and supplies held or acquired on or after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 532(d) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1162(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 987, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–227, title I, §101(b), Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1686, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after August 1, 1989."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11401(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–472, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after August 1, 1989."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 10242(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 816 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1201(d)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1201(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Amendment by section 1211(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1211(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 865 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1215(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2545, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(h)(7), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3504; Pub. L. 104–191, title V, §521(a), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2103, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(2) Transitional rules.—

"(A) General phase-in.—

"(i) In general.—In the case of the 1st 3 taxable years of the taxpayer beginning after December 31, 1986, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to interest expenses paid or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year with respect to an aggregate amount of indebtedness which does not exceed the general phase-in amount.

"(ii) General phase-in amount.—Except as provided in clause (iii), the general phase-in amount for purposes of clause (i) is the applicable percentage (determined under the following table) of the aggregate amount of indebtedness of the taxpayer outstanding on November 16, 1985:

 
  
  The applicable
"In the case of the: percentage is:
1st taxable year 75 
2nd taxable year 50 
3rd taxable year 25.

"(iii) Lower limit where taxpayer reduces indebtedness.—For purposes of applying this subparagraph to interest expenses attributable to any month, the general phase-in amount shall in no event exceed the lowest amount of indebtedness of the taxpayer outstanding as of the close of any preceding month beginning after November 16, 1985. To the extent provided in regulations, the average amount of indebtedness outstanding during any month shall be used (in lieu of the amount outstanding as of the close of such month) for purposes of the preceding sentence.

"(B) Consolidation rule not to apply to certain interest.—

"(i) In general.—In the case of the 1st 5 taxable years of the taxpayer beginning after December 31, 1986—

"(I) subparagraph (A) shall not apply for purposes of paragraph (1) of section 864(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section), but

"(II) such paragraph (1) shall not apply to interest expenses paid or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year with respect to an aggregate amount of indebtedness which does not exceed the special phase-in amount.

"(ii) Special phase-in amount.—The special phase-in amount for purposes of clause (i) is the sum of—

"(I) the general phase-in amount as determined for purposes of subparagraph (A),

"(II) the 5-year phase-in amount, and

"(III) the 4-year phase-in amount.

  For purposes of applying this subparagraph to interest expense attributable to any month, the special phase-in amount shall in no event exceed the limitation determined under subparagraph (A)(iii).

"(iii) 5-year phase-in amount.—The 5-year phase-in amount is the lesser of—

"(I) the applicable percentage (determined under the following table for purposes of this subclause) of the 5-year debt amount, or

"(II) the applicable percentage (determined under the following table for purposes of this subclause) of the 5-year debt amount reduced by paydowns:

 
"In the case of the:The applicable percentage for purposes of subclause (I) is:The applicable percentage for purposes of subclause (II) is:
1st taxable year 81/3  10 
2nd taxable year 162/3  25 
3rd taxable year 25  50 
4th taxable year 331/3 100 
5th taxable year 162/3 100.

"(iv) 4-year phase-in amount.—The 4-year phase-in amount is the lesser of—

"(I) the applicable percentage (determined under the following table for purposes of this subclause) of the 4-year debt amount, or

"(II) the applicable percentage (determined under the following table for purposes of this subclause) of the 4-year debt amount reduced by paydowns to the extent such paydowns exceed the 5-year debt amount:

 
"In the case of the:The applicable percentage for purposes of subclause (I) is:The applicable percentage for purposes of subclause (II) is:
1st taxable year 5
2nd taxable year 10 162/3
3rd taxable year 15 37½
4th taxable year 20 100
5th taxable year 0  0. 

"(v) 5-year debt amount.—The term '5-year debt amount' means the excess (if any) of—

"(I) the amount of the outstanding indebtedness of the taxpayer on May 29, 1985, over

"(II) the amount of the outstanding indebtedness of the taxpayer as of the close of December 31, 1983.

  The 5-year debt amount shall not exceed the aggregate amount of indebtedness of the taxpayer outstanding on November 16, 1985.

"(vi) 4-year debt amount.—The term '4-year debt amount' means the excess (if any) of—

"(I) the amount referred to in clause (v)(II), over

"(II) the amount of the outstanding indebtedness of the taxpayer as of the close of December 31, 1982.

  The 4-year debt amount shall not exceed the aggregate amount of indebtedness of the taxpayer outstanding on November 16, 1985, reduced by the 5-year debt amount.

"(vii) Paydowns.—For purposes of applying this subparagraph to interest expenses attributable to any month, the term 'paydowns' means the excess (if any) of—

"(I) the aggregate amount of indebtedness of the taxpayer outstanding on November 16, 1985, over

"(II) the lowest amount of indebtedness of the taxpayer outstanding as of the close of any preceding month beginning after November 16, 1985 (or, to the extent provided in regulations under subparagraph (A)(iii), the average amount of indebtedness outstanding during any such month).

"(C) Coordination of subparagraphs (a) and (b).—In applying subparagraph (B), there shall first be taken into account indebtedness to which subparagraph (A) applies.

"(D) Special rules.—

"(i) In the case of the 1st 9 taxable years of the taxpayer beginning after December 31, 1986, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to interest expenses paid or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year with respect to an aggregate amount of indebtedness which does not exceed the applicable percentage (determined under the following table) of the indebtedness described in clause (iii) or (iv):

 
  "In the case of the:The applicable percentage is:
1st taxable year 90  
2nd taxable year 80  
3rd taxable year 70  
4th taxable year 60  
5th taxable year 50  
6th taxable year 40  
7th taxable year 30  
8th taxable year 20  
9th taxable year 10.

"(ii) The provisions of this subparagraph shall apply in lieu of the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B).

"(iii) Indebtedness outstanding on may 29, 1985.—Indebtedness is described in this clause if it is indebtedness (which was outstanding on May 29, 1985) of a corporation incorporated on June 13, 1917, which has its principal place of business in Bartlesville, Oklahoma.

"(iv) Indebtedness outstanding on may 29, 1985.—Indebtedness is described in this clause if it is indebtedness (which was outstanding on May 29, 1985) of a member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a) [of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986]), the common parent of which was incorporated on August 26, 1926, and has its principal place of business in Harrison, New York.

"(E) Treatment of affiliated group.—For purposes of this paragraph, all members of the same affiliated group of corporations (as defined in section 864(e)(5)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this section) shall be treated as 1 taxpayer whether or not such members filed a consolidated return.

"(F) Election to have paragraph not apply.—A taxpayer may elect (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may prescribe) to have this paragraph not apply. In the case of members of the same affiliated group (as so defined), such an election may be made only if each member consents to such election.

"(3) Special rule.—

"(A) In general.—In the case of a qualified corporation, in lieu of applying paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section shall not apply to interest expenses allocable to any indebtedness to the extent such indebtedness does not exceed $500,000,000 if—

"(i) the indebtedness was incurred to develop or improve existing property that is owned by the taxpayer on November 16, 1985, and was acquired with the intent to develop or improve the property,

"(ii) the loan agreement with respect to the indebtedness provides that the funds are to be utilized for purposes of developing or improving the above property, and

"(iii) the debt to equity ratio of the companies that join in the filing of the consolidated return is less than 15 percent.

"(B) Qualified corporation.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term 'qualified corporation' means a corporation—

"(i) which was incorporated in Delaware on June 29, 1964,

"(ii) the principal subsidiary of which is a resident of Arkansas, and

"(iii) which is a member of an affiliated group the average daily United States production of oil of which is less than 50,000 barrels and the average daily United States refining of which is less than 150,000 barrels.

"(4) Special rules for subsidiary.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to interest on up to the applicable dollar amount of indebtedness of a subsidiary incorporated on February 11, 1975, the indebtedness of which on May 6, 1986, included—

"(A) $100,000,000 face amount of 11¾ percent notes due in 1990,

"(B) $100,000,000 of 8¾ percent notes due in 1989,

"(C) 6¾ percent Japanese yen notes due in 1991, and

"(D) 53/8 percent Swiss franc bonds due in 1994.

For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'applicable dollar amount' means $600,000,000 in the case of taxable years beginning in 1987 through 1991, $500,000,000 in the case of the taxable year beginning in 1992, $400,000,000 in the case of the taxable year beginning in 1993, $300,000,000 in the case of the taxable year beginning in 1994, $200,000,000 in the case of the taxable year beginning in 1995, $100,000,000 in the case of the taxable year beginning in 1996, and zero in the case of taxable years beginning after 1996.

"[(5) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–191, title V, §521(a), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2103.]

"(6) Special rules for allocating general and administrative expenses.—

"(A) In general.—In the case of an affiliated group of domestic corporations the common parent of which has its principal office in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and has a certificate of organization which was filed with the Secretary of the State of New Jersey on November 10, 1887, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to the phase-in percentage of general and administrative expenses paid or incurred in its 1st 3 taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(B) Phase-in percentage.—For purposes of subparagraph (A):

 
  
"In the case of taxable The phase-in
 years beginning in: percentage is:
1987 75
1988 50
1989 25."

[Pub. L. 104–191, title V, §521(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2103, provided that:

["(1) In general.—The amendment made by this section [amending section 1215(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.

["(2) Special rule.—In the case of the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1995, the pre-effective date portion of the interest expense of the corporation referred to in such paragraph (5) of such section 1215(c) [of Pub. L. 99–514] for such taxable year shall be allocated and apportioned without regard to such amendment. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the pre-effective date portion is the amount which bears the same ratio to the interest expense for such taxable year as the number of days during such taxable year before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 21, 1996] bears to 366."]

Amendment by section 1221(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1221(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 954 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1223(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2558, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 881 and 954 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1242(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2580, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Amendment by section 1275(c)(7) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Amendment by section 1810(c)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §123(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 646, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 956 of this title] shall apply to accounts receivable and evidences of indebtedness transferred after March 1, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Transitional rule.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to accounts receivable and evidences of indebtedness acquired after March 1, 1984, and before March 1, 1994, by a Belgian corporation in existence on March 1, 1984, in any taxable year ending after such date, but only to the extent that the amount includible in gross income by reason of section 956 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] with respect to such corporation for all such taxable years is not reduced by reason of this paragraph by more than the lesser of—

"(A) $15,000,000 or

"(B) the amount of the Belgian corporation's adjusted basis on March 1, 1984, in stock of a foreign corporation formed to issue bonds outside the United States to the public."

Amendment by section 127(c) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to interest received after July 18, 1984, with respect to obligations issued after such date, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 127(g)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, except that in applying section 864(c)(4)(B)(iii) of this title with respect to a binding contract entered into on or before Feb. 24, 1966, activities in the United States on or before such date in negotiating or carrying out such contract shall not be taken into account, see section 102(e)(1) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 401(d)(1)(D)(x), (xvii)(IV), (V) of Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 1201(d)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, and for nonapplication of amendments by sections 1211(b)(2) and 1242(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendments would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2) to (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

§865. Source rules for personal property sales

(a) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in this section, income from the sale of personal property—

(1) by a United States resident shall be sourced in the United States, or

(2) by a nonresident shall be sourced outside the United States.

(b) Exception for inventory property

In the case of income derived from the sale of inventory property—

(1) this section shall not apply, and

(2) such income shall be sourced under the rules of sections 861(a)(6), 862(a)(6), and 863.


Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any income from the sale of any unprocessed timber which is a softwood and was cut from an area in the United States shall be sourced in the United States and the rules of sections 862(a)(6) and 863(b) shall not apply to any such income. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "unprocessed timber" means any log, cant, or similar form of timber.

(c) Exception for depreciable personal property

(1) In general

Gain (not in excess of the depreciation adjustments) from the sale of depreciable personal property shall be allocated between sources in the United States and sources outside the United States—

(A) by treating the same proportion of such gain as sourced in the United States as the United States depreciation adjustments with respect to such property bear to the total depreciation adjustments, and

(B) by treating the remaining portion of such gain as sourced outside the United States.

(2) Gain in excess of depreciation

Gain (in excess of the depreciation adjustments) from the sale of depreciable personal property shall be sourced as if such property were inventory property.

(3) United States depreciation adjustments

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "United States depreciation adjustments" means the portion of the depreciation adjustments to the adjusted basis of the property which are attributable to the depreciation deductions allowable in computing taxable income from sources in the United States.

(B) Special rule for certain property

Except in the case of property of a kind described in section 168(g)(4), if, for any taxable year—

(i) such property is used predominantly in the United States, or

(ii) such property is used predominantly outside the United States,


all of the depreciation deductions allowable for such year shall be treated as having been allocated to income from sources in the United States (or, where clause (ii) applies, from sources outside the United States).

(4) Other definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Depreciable personal property

The term "depreciable personal property" means any personal property if the adjusted basis of such property includes depreciation adjustments.

(B) Depreciation adjustments

The term "depreciation adjustments" means adjustments reflected in the adjusted basis of any property on account of depreciation deductions (whether allowed with respect to such property or other property and whether allowed to the taxpayer or to any other person).

(C) Depreciation deductions

The term "depreciation deductions" means any deductions for depreciation or amortization or any other deduction allowable under any provision of this chapter which treats an otherwise capital expenditure as a deductible expense.

(d) Exception for intangibles

(1) In general

In the case of any sale of an intangible—

(A) this section shall apply only to the extent the payments in consideration of such sale are not contingent on the productivity, use, or disposition of the intangible, and

(B) to the extent such payments are so contingent, the source of such payments shall be determined under this part in the same manner as if such payments were royalties.

(2) Intangible

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "intangible" means any patent, copyright, secret process or formula, goodwill, trademark, trade brand, franchise, or other like property.

(3) Special rule in the case of goodwill

To the extent this section applies to the sale of goodwill, payments in consideration of such sale shall be treated as from sources in the country in which such goodwill was generated.

(4) Coordination with subsection (c)

(A) Gain not in excess of depreciation adjustments sourced under subsection (c)

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), any gain from the sale of an intangible shall be sourced under subsection (c) to the extent such gain does not exceed the depreciation adjustments with respect to such intangible.

(B) Subsection (c)(2) not to apply to intangibles

Paragraph (2) of subsection (c) shall not apply to any gain from the sale of an intangible.

(e) Special rules for sales through offices or fixed places of business

(1) Sales by residents

(A) In general

In the case of income not sourced under subsection (b), (c), (d)(1)(B) or (3), or (f), if a United States resident maintains an office or other fixed place of business in a foreign country, income from sales of personal property attributable to such office or other fixed place of business shall be sourced outside the United States.

(B) Tax must be imposed

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply unless an income tax equal to at least 10 percent of the income from the sale is actually paid to a foreign country with respect to such income.

(2) Sales by nonresidents

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, if a nonresident maintains an office or other fixed place of business in the United States, income from any sale of personal property (including inventory property) attributable to such office or other fixed place of business shall be sourced in the United States. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of section 971 (defining export trade corporation).

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any sale of inventory property which is sold for use, disposition, or consumption outside the United States if an office or other fixed place of business of the taxpayer in a foreign country materially participated in the sale.

(3) Sales attributable to an office or other fixed place of business

The principles of section 864(c)(5) shall apply in determining whether a taxpayer has an office or other fixed place of business and whether a sale is attributable to such an office or other fixed place of business.

(f) Stock of affiliates

If—

(1) a United States resident sells stock in an affiliate which is a foreign corporation,

(2) such sale occurs in a foreign country in which such affiliate is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business, and

(3) more than 50 percent of the gross income of such affiliate for the 3-year period ending with the close of such affiliate's taxable year immediately preceding the year in which the sale occurred was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in such foreign country,


any gain from such sale shall be sourced outside the United States. For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), the United States resident may elect to treat an affiliate and all other corporations which are wholly owned (directly or indirectly) by the affiliate as one corporation.

(g) United States resident; nonresident

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection—

(A) United States resident

The term "United States resident" means—

(i) any individual who—

(I) is a United States citizen or a resident alien and does not have a tax home (as defined in section 911(d)(3)) in a foreign country, or

(II) is a nonresident alien and has a tax home (as so defined) in the United States, and


(ii) any corporation, trust, or estate which is a United States person (as defined in section 7701(a)(30)).

(B) Nonresident

The term "nonresident" means any person other than a United States resident.

(2) Special rules for United States citizens and resident aliens

For purposes of this section, a United States citizen or resident alien shall not be treated as a nonresident with respect to any sale of personal property unless an income tax equal to at least 10 percent of the gain derived from such sale is actually paid to a foreign country with respect to that gain.

(3) Special rule for certain stock sales by residents of Puerto Rico

Paragraph (2) shall not apply to the sale by an individual who was a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year of stock in a corporation if—

(A) such corporation is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business in Puerto Rico, and

(B) more than 50 percent of its gross income for the 3-year period ending with the close of such corporation's taxable year immediately preceding the year in which such sale occurred was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in Puerto Rico.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the taxpayer may elect to treat a corporation and all other corporations which are wholly owned (directly or indirectly) by such corporation as one corporation.

(h) Treatment of gains from sale of certain stock or intangibles and from certain liquidations

(1) In general

In the case of gain to which this subsection applies—

(A) such gain shall be sourced outside the United States, but

(B) subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 904 and sections 907 and 960 shall be applied separately with respect to such gain.

(2) Gain to which subsection applies

This subsection shall apply to—

(A) Gain from sale of certain stock or intangibles

Any gain—

(i) which is from the sale of stock in a foreign corporation or an intangible (as defined in subsection (d)(2)) and which would otherwise be sourced in the United States under this section,

(ii) which, under a treaty obligation of the United States (applied without regard to this section), would be sourced outside the United States, and

(iii) with respect to which the taxpayer chooses the benefits of this subsection.

(B) Gain from liquidation in possession

Any gain which is derived from the receipt of any distribution in liquidation of a corporation—

(i) which is organized in a possession of the United States, and

(ii) more than 50 percent of the gross income of which during the 3-taxable year period ending with the close of the taxable year immediately preceding the taxable year in which the distribution is received is from the active conduct of a trade or business in such possession.

(i) Other definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Inventory property

The term "inventory property" means personal property described in paragraph (1) of section 1221(a).

(2) Sale includes exchange

The term "sale" includes an exchange or any other disposition.

(3) Treatment of possessions

Any possession of the United States shall be treated as a foreign country.

(4) Affiliate

The term "affiliate" means a member of the same affiliated group (within the meaning of section 1504(a) without regard to section 1504(b)).

(5) Treatment of partnerships

In the case of a partnership, except as provided in regulations, this section shall be applied at the partner level.

(j) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purpose of this section, including regulations—

(1) relating to the treatment of losses from sales of personal property,

(2) applying the rules of this section to income derived from trading in futures contracts, forward contracts, options contracts, and other instruments, and

(3) providing that, subject to such conditions (which may include provisions comparable to section 877) as may be provided in such regulations, subsections (e)(1)(B) and (g)(2) shall not apply for purposes of sections 931 and 933.

(k) Cross references

(1) For provisions relating to the characterization as dividends for source purposes of gains from the sale of stock in certain foreign corporations, see section 1248.

(2) For sourcing of income from certain foreign currency transactions, see section 988.

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1211(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2533; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(d)(1)–(6), (8), (9), (11), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3497–3499; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11813(b)(18), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–555; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13239(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(f)(4)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1880; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §532(c)(1)(E), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1930; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14301(c)(6), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2222; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(D)(xi), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1208.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "and 933" for ", 933, and 936".

2017—Subsec. (h)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "907" for "902, 907,".

1999—Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted "section 1221(a)" for "section 1221".

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–188 substituted "863" for "863(b)".

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–66 inserted at end "Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any income from the sale of any unprocessed timber which is a softwood and was cut from an area in the United States shall be sourced in the United States and the rules of sections 862(a)(6) and 863(b) shall not apply to any such income. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'unprocessed timber' means any log, cant, or similar form of timber."

1990—Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted "section 168(g)(4)" for "section 48(a)(2)(B)".

1988—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(12), inserted "franchise," after "trade brand,".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(2), (9), substituted "(d)(1)(B) or (3)" for "(d)" and "in a foreign country" for first reference to "outside the United States".

Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(5), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to—

"(i) any sale of inventory property which is sold for use, disposition, or consumption outside the United States if an office or other fixed place of business of the taxpayer outside the United States materially participated in the sale, or

"(ii) any amount included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A)."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(4), amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (f) read as follows: "If—

"(1) a United States resident sells stock in an affiliate which is a foreign corporation,

"(2) such affiliate is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business, and

"(3) such sale occurs in the foreign country in which the affiliate derived more than 50 percent of its gross income for the 3-year period ending with the close of the affiliate's taxable year immediately preceding the year during which such sale occurred,

any gain from such sale shall be sourced outside the United States."

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(11), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "any individual who has a tax home (as defined in section 911(d)(3)) in the United States, and".

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(3)(A), struck out "partnership," after "corporation,".

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(6)(A), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(8), added subsec. (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).

Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(3)(B), added par. (5) to subsec. (h) prior to redesignation as subsec. (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(8), redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i). Former subsec. (i) redesignated (j).

Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(6)(B), added par. (3) to subsec. (i) prior to redesignation as subsec. (j).

Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(3)(B), added par. (5) to subsec. (h) prior to redesignation as subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(8), redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(6)(B), added par. (3) to subsec. (i) prior to redesignation as subsec. (j).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(d)(8), redesignated former subsec. (j) as (k).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 14301(d) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to any instrument held, acquired, or entered into, any transaction entered into, and supplies held or acquired on or after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 532(d) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(f)(4)(B), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1880, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 1211 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514]."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13239(e), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 509, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 927, 954, and 993 of this title] shall apply to sales, exchanges, or other dispositions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 1993]."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1990, but not applicable to any transition property (as defined in section 49(e) of this title), any property with respect to which qualified progress expenditures were previously taken into account under section 46(d) of this title, and any property described in section 46(b)(2)(C) of this title, as such sections were in effect on Nov. 4, 1990, see section 11813(c) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(d)(5), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3497, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987.

Amendment by section 1012(d)(1)–(4), (6), (8), (9), (11), (12) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1211(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2536, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this section, amending sections 861 to 864, 871, 881, and 904 of this title, and enacting provisions set out below] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(2) Special rule for foreign persons.—In the case of any foreign person other than any controlled foreign corporations (within the meaning of section 957(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]), the amendments made by this section shall apply to transactions entered into after March 18, 1986."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendment by section 1211(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 (enacting this section) to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Study of Source Rules for Sales of Inventory Property

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1211(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2536, directed Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to conduct a study of source rules for sales of inventory property and, not later than Sept. 30, 1987 (due date extended to Jan. 1, 1992, by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11831(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–559), to submit to Committee on Ways and Means of House of Representatives and Committee on Finance of Senate a report of such study (together with recommendations he deemed advisable).

PART II—NONRESIDENT ALIENS AND FOREIGN CORPORATIONS

Subpart
A.
Nonresident alien individuals.
B.
Foreign corporations.
C.
Tax on gross transportation income.
D.
Miscellaneous provisions.

        

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1212(b)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2538, added item for subpart C and redesignated item for former subpart C as D.

Subpart A—Nonresident Alien Individuals

Sec.
871.
Tax on nonresident alien individuals.
872.
Gross income.
873.
Deductions.
874.
Allowance of deductions and credits.
875.
Partnerships; beneficiaries of estates and trusts.
876.
Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.
877.
Expatriation to avoid tax.
877A.
Tax responsibilities of expatriation.
878.
Foreign educational, charitable, and certain other exempt organizations.
879.
Tax treatment of certain community income in the case of nonresident alien individuals.

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–245, title III, §301(f), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1647, added item 877A.

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(d)(13), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2595, inserted ", Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands" in item 876.

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §139(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 677, substituted "nonresident alien individuals" for "a resident or citizen of the United States who is married to a nonresident alien individual" in item 879.

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1012(b)(3)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1614, added item 879.

1966Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(e)(2), (f)(2), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1551, 1552, inserted "; beneficiaries of estates and trusts" in item 875, added item 877, and redesignated former item 877 as 878.

§871. Tax on nonresident alien individuals

(a) Income not connected with United States business—30 percent tax

(1) Income other than capital gains

Except as provided in subsection (h), there is hereby imposed for each taxable year a tax of 30 percent of the amount received from sources within the United States by a nonresident alien individual as—

(A) interest (other than original issue discount as defined in section 1273), dividends, rents, salaries, wages, premiums, annuities, compensations, remunerations, emoluments, and other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gains, profits, and income,

(B) gains described in subsection (b) or (c) of section 631,

(C) in the case of—

(i) a sale or exchange of an original issue discount obligation, the amount of the original issue discount accruing while such obligation was held by the nonresident alien individual (to the extent such discount was not theretofore taken into account under clause (ii)), and

(ii) a payment on an original issue discount obligation, an amount equal to the original issue discount accruing while such obligation was held by the nonresident alien individual (except that such original issue discount shall be taken into account under this clause only to the extent such discount was not theretofore taken into account under this clause and only to the extent that the tax thereon does not exceed the payment less the tax imposed by subparagraph (A) thereon), and


(D) gains from the sale or exchange after October 4, 1966, of patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like property, or of any interest in any such property, to the extent such gains are from payments which are contingent on the productivity, use, or disposition of the property or interest sold or exchanged,


but only to the extent the amount so received is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(2) Capital gains of aliens present in the United States 183 days or more

In the case of a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the taxable year, there is hereby imposed for such year a tax of 30 percent of the amount by which his gains, derived from sources within the United States, from the sale or exchange at any time during such year of capital assets exceed his losses, allocable to sources within the United States, from the sale or exchange at any time during such year of capital assets. For purposes of this paragraph, gains and losses shall be taken into account only if, and to the extent that, they would be recognized and taken into account if such gains and losses were effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, except that such gains and losses shall be determined without regard to section 1202 and such losses shall be determined without the benefits of the capital loss carryover provided in section 1212. Any gain or loss which is taken into account in determining the tax under paragraph (1) or subsection (b) shall not be taken into account in determining the tax under this paragraph. For purposes of the 183-day requirement of this paragraph, a nonresident alien individual not engaged in trade or business within the United States who has not established a taxable year for any prior period shall be treated as having a taxable year which is the calendar year.

(3) Taxation of social security benefits

For purposes of this section and section 1441—

(A) 85 percent of any social security benefit (as defined in section 86(d)) shall be included in gross income (notwithstanding section 207 of the Social Security Act), and

(B) section 86 shall not apply.

(b) Income connected with United States business—graduated rate of tax

(1) Imposition of tax

A nonresident alien individual engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year shall be taxable as provided in section 1 or 55 on his taxable income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(2) Determination of taxable income

In determining taxable income for purposes of paragraph (1), gross income includes only gross income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(c) Participants in certain exchange or training programs

For purposes of this section, a nonresident alien individual who (without regard to this subsection) is not engaged in trade or business within the United States and who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(F), (J), (M), or (Q)), shall be treated as a nonresident alien individual engaged in trade or business within the United States, and any income described in the second sentence of section 1441(b) which is received by such individual shall, to the extent derived from sources within the United States, be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(d) Election to treat real property income as income connected with United States business

(1) In general

A nonresident alien individual who during the taxable year derives any income—

(A) from real property held for the production of income and located in the United States, or from any interest in such real property, including (i) gains from the sale or exchange of such real property or an interest therein, (ii) rents or royalties from mines, wells, or other natural deposits, and (iii) gains described in section 631(b) or (c), and

(B) which, but for this subsection, would not be treated as income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States,


may elect for such taxable year to treat all such income as income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. In such case, such income shall be taxable as provided in subsection (b)(1) whether or not such individual is engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year. An election under this paragraph for any taxable year shall remain in effect for all subsequent taxable years, except that it may be revoked with the consent of the Secretary with respect to any taxable year.

(2) Election after revocation

If an election has been made under paragraph (1) and such election has been revoked, a new election may not be made under such paragraph for any taxable year before the 5th taxable year which begins after the first taxable year for which such revocation is effective, unless the Secretary consents to such new election.

(3) Form and time of election and revocation

An election under paragraph (1), and any revocation of such an election, may be made only in such manner and at such time as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1211(b)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2536]

(f) Certain annuities received under qualified plans

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, gross income does not include any amount received as an annuity under a qualified annuity plan described in section 403(a)(1), or from a qualified trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), if—

(A) all of the personal services by reason of which the annuity is payable were either—

(i) personal services performed outside the United States by an individual who, at the time of performance of such personal services, was a nonresident alien, or

(ii) personal services described in section 864(b)(1) performed within the United States by such individual, and


(B) at the time the first amount is paid as an annuity under the annuity plan or by the trust, 90 percent or more of the employees for whom contributions or benefits are provided under such annuity plan, or under the plan or plans of which the trust is a part, are citizens or residents of the United States.

(2) Exclusion

Income received during the taxable year which would be excluded from gross income under this subsection but for the requirement of paragraph (1)(B) shall not be included in gross income if—

(A) the recipient's country of residence grants a substantially equivalent exclusion to residents and citizens of the United States; or

(B) the recipient's country of residence is a beneficiary developing country under title V of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2461 et seq.).

(g) Special rules for original issue discount

For purposes of this section and section 881—

(1) Original issue discount obligation

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "original issue discount obligation" means any bond or other evidence of indebtedness having original issue discount (within the meaning of section 1273).

(B) Exceptions

The term "original issue discount obligation" shall not include—

(i) Certain short-term obligations

Any obligation payable 183 days or less from the date of original issue (without regard to the period held by the taxpayer).

(ii) Tax-exempt obligations

Any obligation the interest on which is exempt from tax under section 103 or under any other provision of law without regard to the identity of the holder.

(2) Determination of portion of original issue discount accruing during any period

The determination of the amount of the original issue discount which accrues during any period shall be made under the rules of section 1272 (or the corresponding provisions of prior law) without regard to any exception for short-term obligations.

(3) Source of original issue discount

Except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the determination of whether any amount described in subsection (a)(1)(C) is from sources within the United States shall be made at the time of the payment (or sale or exchange) as if such payment (or sale or exchange) involved the payment of interest.

(4) Stripped bonds

The provisions of section 1286 (relating to the treatment of stripped bonds and stripped coupons as obligations with original issue discount) shall apply for purposes of this section.

(h) Repeal of tax on interest of nonresident alien individuals received from certain portfolio debt investments

(1) In general

In the case of any portfolio interest received by a nonresident individual from sources within the United States, no tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(C) of subsection (a).

(2) Portfolio interest

For purposes of this subsection, the term "portfolio interest" means any interest (including original issue discount) which—

(A) would be subject to tax under subsection (a) but for this subsection, and

(B) is paid on an obligation—

(i) which is in registered form, and

(ii) with respect to which—

(I) the United States person who would otherwise be required to deduct and withhold tax from such interest under section 1441(a) receives a statement (which meets the requirements of paragraph (5)) that the beneficial owner of the obligation is not a United States person, or

(II) the Secretary has determined that such a statement is not required in order to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(3) Portfolio interest not to include interest received by 10-percent shareholders

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "portfolio interest" shall not include any interest described in paragraph (2) which is received by a 10-percent shareholder.

(B) 10-Percent shareholder

The term "10-percent shareholder" means—

(i) in the case of an obligation issued by a corporation, any person who owns 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote, or

(ii) in the case of an obligation issued by a partnership, any person who owns 10 percent or more of the capital or profits interest in such partnership.

(C) Attribution rules

For purposes of determining ownership of stock under subparagraph (B)(i) the rules of section 318(a) shall apply, except that—

(i) section 318(a)(2)(C) shall be applied without regard to the 50-percent limitation therein,

(ii) section 318(a)(3)(C) shall be applied—

(I) without regard to the 50-percent limitation therein; and

(II) in any case where such section would not apply but for subclause (I), by considering a corporation as owning the stock (other than stock in such corporation) which is owned by or for any shareholder of such corporation in that proportion which the value of the stock which such shareholder owns in such corporation bears to the value of all stock in such corporation, and


(iii) any stock which a person is treated as owning after application of section 318(a)(4) shall not, for purposes of applying paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 318(a), be treated as actually owned by such person.


Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of the preceding sentence shall be applied in determining the ownership of the capital or profits interest in a partnership for purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii).

(4) Portfolio interest not to include certain contingent interest

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term "portfolio interest" shall not include—

(i) any interest if the amount of such interest is determined by reference to—

(I) any receipts, sales or other cash flow of the debtor or a related person,

(II) any income or profits of the debtor or a related person,

(III) any change in value of any property of the debtor or a related person, or

(IV) any dividend, partnership distributions, or similar payments made by the debtor or a related person, or


(ii) any other type of contingent interest that is identified by the Secretary by regulation, where a denial of the portfolio interest exemption is necessary or appropriate to prevent avoidance of Federal income tax.

(B) Related person

The term "related person" means any person who is related to the debtor within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)(1), or who is a party to any arrangement undertaken for a purpose of avoiding the application of this paragraph.

(C) Exceptions

Subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply to—

(i) any amount of interest solely by reason of the fact that the timing of any interest or principal payment is subject to a contingency,

(ii) any amount of interest solely by reason of the fact that the interest is paid with respect to nonrecourse or limited recourse indebtedness,

(iii) any amount of interest all or substantially all of which is determined by reference to any other amount of interest not described in subparagraph (A) (or by reference to the principal amount of indebtedness on which such other interest is paid),

(iv) any amount of interest solely by reason of the fact that the debtor or a related person enters into a hedging transaction to manage the risk of interest rate or currency fluctuations with respect to such interest,

(v) any amount of interest determined by reference to—

(I) changes in the value of property (including stock) that is actively traded (within the meaning of section 1092(d)) other than property described in section 897(c)(1) or (g),

(II) the yield on property described in subclause (I), other than a debt instrument that pays interest described in subparagraph (A), or stock or other property that represents a beneficial interest in the debtor or a related person, or

(III) changes in any index of the value of property described in subclause (I) or of the yield on property described in subclause (II), and


(vi) any other type of interest identified by the Secretary by regulation.

(D) Exception for certain existing indebtedness

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any interest paid or accrued with respect to any indebtedness with a fixed term—

(i) which was issued on or before April 7, 1993, or

(ii) which was issued after such date pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on such date and at all times thereafter before such indebtedness was issued.

(5) Certain statements

A statement with respect to any obligation meets the requirements of this paragraph if such statement is made by—

(A) the beneficial owner of such obligation, or

(B) a securities clearing organization, a bank, or other financial institution that holds customers' securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business.


The preceding sentence shall not apply to any statement with respect to payment of interest on any obligation by any person if, at least one month before such payment, the Secretary has published a determination that any statement from such person (or any class including such person) does not meet the requirements of this paragraph.

(6) Secretary may provide subsection not to apply in cases of inadequate information exchange

(A) In general

If the Secretary determines that the exchange of information between the United States and a foreign country is inadequate to prevent evasion of the United States income tax by United States persons, the Secretary may provide in writing (and publish a statement) that the provisions of this subsection shall not apply to payments of interest to any person within such foreign country (or payments addressed to, or for the account of, persons within such foreign country) during the period—

(i) beginning on the date specified by the Secretary, and

(ii) ending on the date that the Secretary determines that the exchange of information between the United States and the foreign country is adequate to prevent the evasion of United States income tax by United States persons.

(B) Exception for certain obligations

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to the payment of interest on any obligation which is issued on or before the date of the publication of the Secretary's determination under such subparagraph.

(7) Registered form

For purposes of this subsection, the term "registered form" has the same meaning given such term by section 163(f).

(i) Tax not to apply to certain interest and dividends

(1) In general

No tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(C) of subsection (a) on any amount described in paragraph (2).

(2) Amounts to which paragraph (1) applies

The amounts described in this paragraph are as follows:

(A) Interest on deposits, if such interest is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(B) The active foreign business percentage of—

(i) any dividend paid by an existing 80/20 company, and

(ii) any interest paid by an existing 80/20 company.


(C) Income derived by a foreign central bank of issue from bankers' acceptances.

(D) Dividends paid by a foreign corporation which are treated under section 861(a)(2)(B) as income from sources within the United States.

(3) Deposits

For purposes of paragraph (2), the term "deposits" means amounts which are—

(A) deposits with persons carrying on the banking business,

(B) deposits or withdrawable accounts with savings institutions chartered and supervised as savings and loan or similar associations under Federal or State law, but only to the extent that amounts paid or credited on such deposits or accounts are deductible under section 591 (determined without regard to sections 265 and 291) in computing the taxable income of such institutions, and

(C) amounts held by an insurance company under an agreement to pay interest thereon.

(j) Exemption for certain gambling winnings

No tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) on the proceeds from a wager placed in any of the following games: blackjack, baccarat, craps, roulette, or big-6 wheel. The preceding sentence shall not apply in any case where the Secretary determines by regulation that the collection of the tax is administratively feasible.

(k) Exemption for certain dividends of regulated investment companies

(1) Interest-related dividends

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) on any interest-related dividend received from a regulated investment company which meets the requirements of section 852(a) for the taxable year with respect to which the dividend is paid.

(B) Exceptions

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply—

(i) to any interest-related dividend received from a regulated investment company by a person to the extent such dividend is attributable to interest (other than interest described in subparagraph (E)(i) or (iii)) received by such company on indebtedness issued by such person or by any corporation or partnership with respect to which such person is a 10-percent shareholder,

(ii) to any interest-related dividend with respect to stock of a regulated investment company unless the person who would otherwise be required to deduct and withhold tax from such dividend under chapter 3 receives a statement (which meets requirements similar to the requirements of subsection (h)(5)) that the beneficial owner of such stock is not a United States person, and

(iii) to any interest-related dividend paid to any person within a foreign country (or any interest-related dividend payment addressed to, or for the account of, persons within such foreign country) during any period described in subsection (h)(6) with respect to such country.


Clause (iii) shall not apply to any dividend with respect to any stock which was acquired on or before the date of the publication of the Secretary's determination under subsection (h)(6).

(C) Interest-related dividend

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), an interest related dividend is any dividend, or part thereof, which is reported by the company as an interest related dividend in written statements furnished to its shareholders.

(ii) Excess reported amounts

If the aggregate reported amount with respect to the company for any taxable year exceeds the qualified net interest income of the company for such taxable year, an interest related dividend is the excess of—

(I) the reported interest related dividend amount, over

(II) the excess reported amount which is allocable to such reported interest related dividend amount.

(iii) Allocation of excess reported amount

(I) In general

Except as provided in subclause (II), the excess reported amount (if any) which is allocable to the reported interest related dividend amount is that portion of the excess reported amount which bears the same ratio to the excess reported amount as the reported interest related dividend amount bears to the aggregate reported amount.

(II) Special rule for noncalendar year taxpayers

In the case of any taxable year which does not begin and end in the same calendar year, if the post-December reported amount equals or exceeds the excess reported amount for such taxable year, subclause (I) shall be applied by substituting "post-December reported amount" for "aggregate reported amount" and no excess reported amount shall be allocated to any dividend paid on or before December 31 of such taxable year.

(iv) Definitions

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) Reported interest related dividend amount

The term "reported interest related dividend amount" means the amount reported to its shareholders under clause (i) as an interest related dividend.

(II) Excess reported amount

The term "excess reported amount" means the excess of the aggregate reported amount over the qualified net interest income of the company for the taxable year.

(III) Aggregate reported amount

The term "aggregate reported amount" means the aggregate amount of dividends reported by the company under clause (i) as interest related dividends for the taxable year (including interest related dividends paid after the close of the taxable year described in section 855).

(IV) Post-December reported amount

The term "post-December reported amount" means the aggregate reported amount determined by taking into account only dividends paid after December 31 of the taxable year.

(D) Qualified net interest income

For purposes of subparagraph (C), the term "qualified net interest income" means the qualified interest income of the regulated investment company reduced by the deductions properly allocable to such income.

(E) Qualified interest income

For purposes of subparagraph (D), the term "qualified interest income" means the sum of the following amounts derived by the regulated investment company from sources within the United States:

(i) Any amount includible in gross income as original issue discount (within the meaning of section 1273) on an obligation payable 183 days or less from the date of original issue (without regard to the period held by the company).

(ii) Any interest includible in gross income (including amounts recognized as ordinary income in respect of original issue discount or market discount or acquisition discount under part V of subchapter P and such other amounts as regulations may provide) on an obligation which is in registered form; except that this clause shall not apply to—

(I) any interest on an obligation issued by a corporation or partnership if the regulated investment company is a 10-percent shareholder in such corporation or partnership, and

(II) any interest which is treated as not being portfolio interest under the rules of subsection (h)(4).


(iii) Any interest referred to in subsection (i)(2)(A) (without regard to the trade or business of the regulated investment company).

(iv) Any interest-related dividend includable in gross income with respect to stock of another regulated investment company.

(F) 10-percent shareholder

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "10-percent shareholder" has the meaning given such term by subsection (h)(3)(B).

(2) Short-term capital gain dividends

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) on any short-term capital gain dividend received from a regulated investment company which meets the requirements of section 852(a) for the taxable year with respect to which the dividend is paid.

(B) Exception for aliens taxable under subsection (a)(2)

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of any nonresident alien individual subject to tax under subsection (a)(2).

(C) Short-term capital gain dividend

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the term "short-term capital gain dividend" means any dividend, or part thereof, which is reported by the company as a short-term capital gain dividend in written statements furnished to its shareholders.

(ii) Excess reported amounts

If the aggregate reported amount with respect to the company for any taxable year exceeds the qualified short-term gain of the company for such taxable year, the term "short-term capital gain dividend" means the excess of—

(I) the reported short-term capital gain dividend amount, over

(II) the excess reported amount which is allocable to such reported short-term capital gain dividend amount.

(iii) Allocation of excess reported amount

(I) In general

Except as provided in subclause (II), the excess reported amount (if any) which is allocable to the reported short-term capital gain dividend amount is that portion of the excess reported amount which bears the same ratio to the excess reported amount as the reported short-term capital gain dividend amount bears to the aggregate reported amount.

(II) Special rule for noncalendar year taxpayers

In the case of any taxable year which does not begin and end in the same calendar year, if the post-December reported amount equals or exceeds the excess reported amount for such taxable year, subclause (I) shall be applied by substituting "post-December reported amount" for "aggregate reported amount" and no excess reported amount shall be allocated to any dividend paid on or before December 31 of such taxable year.

(iv) Definitions

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) Reported short-term capital gain dividend amount

The term "reported short-term capital gain dividend amount" means the amount reported to its shareholders under clause (i) as a short-term capital gain dividend.

(II) Excess reported amount

The term "excess reported amount" means the excess of the aggregate reported amount over the qualified short-term gain of the company for the taxable year.

(III) Aggregate reported amount

The term "aggregate reported amount" means the aggregate amount of dividends reported by the company under clause (i) as short-term capital gain dividends for the taxable year (including short-term capital gain dividends paid after the close of the taxable year described in section 855).

(IV) Post-December reported amount

The term "post-December reported amount" means the aggregate reported amount determined by taking into account only dividends paid after December 31 of the taxable year.

(D) Qualified short-term gain

For purposes of subparagraph (C), the term "qualified short-term gain" means the excess of the net short-term capital gain of the regulated investment company for the taxable year over the net long-term capital loss (if any) of such company for such taxable year. For purposes of this subparagraph, the net short-term capital gain of the regulated investment company shall be computed by treating any short-term capital gain dividend includible in gross income with respect to stock of another regulated investment company as a short-term capital gain.

(E) Certain distributions

In the case of a distribution to which section 897 does not apply by reason of the second sentence of section 897(h)(1), the amount which would be treated as a short-term capital gain dividend to the shareholder (without regard to this subparagraph)—

(i) shall not be treated as a short-term capital gain dividend, and

(ii) shall be included in such shareholder's gross income as a dividend from the regulated investment company.

(l) Rules relating to existing 80/20 companies

For purposes of this subsection and subsection (i)(2)(B)—

(1) Existing 80/20 company

(A) In general

The term "existing 80/20 company" means any corporation if—

(i) such corporation met the 80-percent foreign business requirements of section 861(c)(1) (as in effect before the date of the enactment of this subsection) for such corporation's last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2011,

(ii) such corporation meets the 80-percent foreign business requirements of subparagraph (B) with respect to each taxable year after the taxable year referred to in clause (i), and

(iii) there has not been an addition of a substantial line of business with respect to such corporation after the date of the enactment of this subsection.

(B) Foreign business requirements

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (iv), a corporation meets the 80-percent foreign business requirements of this subparagraph if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that at least 80 percent of the gross income from all sources of such corporation for the testing period is active foreign business income.

(ii) Active foreign business income

For purposes of clause (i), the term "active foreign business income" means gross income which—

(I) is derived from sources outside the United States (as determined under this subchapter), and

(II) is attributable to the active conduct of a trade or business in a foreign country or possession of the United States.

(iii) Testing period

For purposes of this subsection, the term "testing period" means the 3-year period ending with the close of the taxable year of the corporation preceding the payment (or such part of such period as may be applicable). If the corporation has no gross income for such 3-year period (or part thereof), the testing period shall be the taxable year in which the payment is made.

(iv) Transition rule

In the case of a taxable year for which the testing period includes 1 or more taxable years beginning before January 1, 2011—

(I) a corporation meets the 80-percent foreign business requirements of this subparagraph if and only if the weighted average of—

(aa) the percentage of the corporation's gross income from all sources that is active foreign business income (as defined in subparagraph (B) of section 861(c)(1) (as in effect before the date of the enactment of this subsection)) for the portion of the testing period that includes taxable years beginning before January 1, 2011, and

(bb) the percentage of the corporation's gross income from all sources that is active foreign business income (as defined in clause (ii) of this subparagraph) for the portion of the testing period, if any, that includes taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011,


is at least 80 percent, and

(II) the active foreign business percentage for such taxable year shall equal the weighted average percentage determined under subclause (I).

(2) Active foreign business percentage

Except as provided in paragraph (1)(B)(iv), the term "active foreign business percentage" means, with respect to any existing 80/20 company, the percentage which—

(A) the active foreign business income of such company for the testing period, is of

(B) the gross income of such company for the testing period from all sources.

(3) Aggregation rules

For purposes of applying paragraph (1) (other than subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(iv) thereof) and paragraph (2)—

(A) In general

The corporation referred to in paragraph (1)(A) and all of such corporation's subsidiaries shall be treated as one corporation.

(B) Subsidiaries

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "subsidiary" means any corporation in which the corporation referred to in subparagraph (A) owns (directly or indirectly) stock meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2) (determined by substituting "50 percent" for "80 percent" each place it appears and without regard to section 1504(b)(3)).

(4) Regulations

The Secretary may issue such regulations or other guidance as is necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations or other guidance which provide for the proper application of the aggregation rules described in paragraph (3).

(m) Treatment of dividend equivalent payments

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a), sections 881 and 4948(a), and chapters 3 and 4, a dividend equivalent shall be treated as a dividend from sources within the United States.

(2) Dividend equivalent

For purposes of this subsection, the term "dividend equivalent" means—

(A) any substitute dividend made pursuant to a securities lending or a sale-repurchase transaction that (directly or indirectly) is contingent upon, or determined by reference to, the payment of a dividend from sources within the United States,

(B) any payment made pursuant to a specified notional principal contract that (directly or indirectly) is contingent upon, or determined by reference to, the payment of a dividend from sources within the United States, and

(C) any other payment determined by the Secretary to be substantially similar to a payment described in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(3) Specified notional principal contract

For purposes of this subsection, the term "specified notional principal contract" means—

(A) any notional principal contract if—

(i) in connection with entering into such contract, any long party to the contract transfers the underlying security to any short party to the contract,

(ii) in connection with the termination of such contract, any short party to the contract transfers the underlying security to any long party to the contract,

(iii) the underlying security is not readily tradable on an established securities market,

(iv) in connection with entering into such contract, the underlying security is posted as collateral by any short party to the contract with any long party to the contract, or

(v) such contract is identified by the Secretary as a specified notional principal contract,


(B) in the case of payments made after the date which is 2 years after the date of the enactment of this subsection, any notional principal contract unless the Secretary determines that such contract is of a type which does not have the potential for tax avoidance.

(4) Definitions

For purposes of paragraph (3)(A)—

(A) Long party

The term "long party" means, with respect to any underlying security of any notional principal contract, any party to the contract which is entitled to receive any payment pursuant to such contract which is contingent upon, or determined by reference to, the payment of a dividend from sources within the United States with respect to such underlying security.

(B) Short party

The term "short party" means, with respect to any underlying security of any notional principal contract, any party to the contract which is not a long party with respect to such underlying security.

(C) Underlying security

The term "underlying security" means, with respect to any notional principal contract, the security with respect to which the dividend referred to in paragraph (2)(B) is paid. For purposes of this paragraph, any index or fixed basket of securities shall be treated as a single security.

(5) Payments determined on gross basis

For purposes of this subsection, the term "payment" includes any gross amount which is used in computing any net amount which is transferred to or from the taxpayer.

(6) Prevention of over-withholding

In the case of any chain of dividend equivalents one or more of which is subject to tax under subsection (a) or section 881, the Secretary may reduce such tax, but only to the extent that the taxpayer can establish that such tax has been paid with respect to another dividend equivalent in such chain, or is not otherwise due, or as the Secretary determines is appropriate to address the role of financial intermediaries in such chain. For purposes of this paragraph, a dividend shall be treated as a dividend equivalent.

(7) Coordination with chapters 3 and 4

For purposes of chapters 3 and 4, each person that is a party to any contract or other arrangement that provides for the payment of a dividend equivalent shall be treated as having control of such payment.

(n) Cross references

(1) For tax treatment of certain amounts distributed by the United States to nonresident alien individuals, see section 402(e)(2).

(2) For taxation of nonresident alien individuals who are expatriate United States citizens, see section 877.

(3) For doubling of tax on citizens of certain foreign countries, see section 891.

(4) For adjustment of tax in case of nationals or residents of certain foreign countries, see section 896.

(5) For withholding of tax at source on nonresident alien individuals, see section 1441.

(6) For election to treat married nonresident alien individual as resident of United States in certain cases, see subsections (g) and (h) of section 6013.

(7) For special tax treatment of gain or loss from the disposition by a nonresident alien individual of a United States real property interest, see section 897.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 278; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §§40(a), 41(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1638, 1639; Pub. L. 86–437, §2(b), Apr. 22, 1960, 74 Stat. 79; Pub. L. 87–256, §110(b), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §113(b), title II, §201(d)(12), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 24, 32; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(a)(1), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1547; Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §313(a), (b), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 526, 527; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §2005(c)(8), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1012(a)(2), title XIX, §§1901(b)(3)(I), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1613, 1793, 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §§401(b)(3), 421(e)(4), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2867, 2876; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §104(a)(4)(H)(v), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 217; Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1122(c)(1), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2687; Pub. L. 96–605, title II, §227(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3530; Pub. L. 97–34, title VII, §725(c)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 346; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §121(c)(1), title III, §335(b)(2)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 82, 130; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §§42(a)(9), 127(a), 128(a), title IV, §412(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 557, 648, 653, 792; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §12103(b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 285; Pub. L. 99–514, title III, §301(b)(9), title XII, §§1211(b)(4), (5), 1214(c)(1), title XVIII, §1810(d)(1)(A), (2), (3)(A), (B), (e)(2)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2217, 2536, 2542, 2825, 2826; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(d)(2)(B), title VI, §6134(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3350, 3721; Pub. L. 102–318, title V, §521(b)(28)–(30), July 3, 1992, 106 Stat. 312; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13113(d)(5), 13237(a)(1), (c)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 430, 506, 508; Pub. L. 103–296, title III, §320(a)(1)(A), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1535; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §733(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5006; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1401(b)(10), 1954(b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1789, 1928; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6023(10), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 825; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §532(b)(2), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1930; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(11)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-646; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §§409(a), 411(a)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1500; Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §505(c)(2), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 356; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §206(a), (b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3865; Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §§502(b)(1), (2)(A), 541(a), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 107, 115; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §217(b), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2400; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §748(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3320; Pub. L. 111–325, title III, §§301(f), 302(b)(2), 308(b)(3), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3544, 3548, 3551; Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §320(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2332; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §132(a), title II, §221(a)(71), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4018, 4048; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §125(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3054; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(b)(29), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1203.)

References in Text

Section 207 of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), is classified to section 407 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended. Title V of the Trade Act of 1974 is classified generally to subchapter V (§2461 et seq.) of chapter 12 of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 2101 of Title 19 and Tables.

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (l)(1)(A)(i), (iii), (B)(iv)(I)(aa), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 111–226, which was approved Aug. 10, 2010.

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (m)(3)(B), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 111–147, which was approved Mar. 18, 2010.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–141 struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: "For treatment of certain citizens of possessions of the United States, see section 932(c)."

2015—Subsec. (k)(1)(C)(v). Pub. L. 114–113 struck out cl. (v). Text read as follows: "The term 'interest related dividend' shall not include any dividend with respect to any taxable year of the company beginning after December 31, 2014."

Subsec. (k)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 114–113 struck out cl. (v). Text read as follows: "The term 'short-term capital gain dividend' shall not include any dividend with respect to any taxable year of the company beginning after December 31, 2014."

2014—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(71), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "gains described in section 631(b) or (c), and gains on transfers described in section 1235 made on or before October 4, 1966,".

Subsec. (k)(1)(C)(v), (2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 113–295, §132(a), substituted "December 31, 2014" for "December 31, 2013".

2013—Subsec. (k)(1)(C)(v), (2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "December 31, 2013" for "December 31, 2011".

2010—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 111–147, §502(b)(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) defined portfolio interest to also include interest on certain obligations not in registered form.

Subsec. (h)(3)(A). Pub. L. 111–147, §502(b)(2)(A), struck out "subparagraph (A) or (B) of" before "paragraph (2)".

Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 111–226, §217(b)(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "A percentage of any dividend paid by a domestic corporation meeting the 80-percent foreign business requirements of section 861(c)(1) equal to the percentage determined for purposes of section 861(c)(2)(A)."

Subsec. (k)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–325, §302(b)(2), inserted "which meets the requirements of section 852(a) for the taxable year with respect to which the dividend is paid" before period at end.

Subsec. (k)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–325, §301(f)(1), substituted introductory provisions, cls. (i) to (iv), and cl. (v) heading and "The term 'interest related dividend' shall not include any dividend with respect to" for "For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'interest-related dividend' means any dividend (or part thereof) which is designated by the regulated investment company as an interest-related dividend in a written notice mailed to its shareholders not later than 60 days after the close of its taxable year. If the aggregate amount so designated with respect to a taxable year of the company (including amounts so designated with respect to dividends paid after the close of the taxable year described in section 855) is greater than the qualified net interest income of the company for such taxable year, the portion of each distribution which shall be an interest-related dividend shall be only that portion of the amounts so designated which such qualified net interest income bears to the aggregate amount so designated. Such term shall not include any dividend with respect to".

Pub. L. 111–312, §748(a), substituted "December 31, 2011" for "December 31, 2009".

Subsec. (k)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–325, §302(b)(2), inserted "which meets the requirements of section 852(a) for the taxable year with respect to which the dividend is paid" before period at end.

Subsec. (k)(2)(C). Pub. L. 111–325, §301(f)(2), substituted introductory provisions, cls. (i) to (iv), and cl. (v) heading and "The term 'short-term capital gain dividend' shall not include any dividend with respect to" for "For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'short-term capital gain dividend' means any dividend (or part thereof) which is designated by the regulated investment company as a short-term capital gain dividend in a written notice mailed to its shareholders not later than 60 days after the close of its taxable year. If the aggregate amount so designated with respect to a taxable year of the company (including amounts so designated with respect to dividends paid after the close of the taxable year described in section 855) is greater than the qualified short-term gain of the company for such taxable year, the portion of each distribution which shall be a short-term capital gain dividend shall be only that portion of the amounts so designated which such qualified short-term gain bears to the aggregate amount so designated. Such term shall not include any dividend with respect to".

Pub. L. 111–312, §748(a), substituted "December 31, 2011" for "December 31, 2009".

Subsec. (k)(2)(D). Pub. L. 111–325, §308(b)(3), substituted "For purposes of this subparagraph, the net short-term capital gain of the regulated investment company shall be computed by treating any short-term capital gain dividend includible in gross income with respect to stock of another regulated investment company as a short-term capital gain." for "For purposes of this subparagraph—

"(i) the net short-term capital gain of the regulated investment company shall be computed by treating any short-term capital gain dividend includible in gross income with respect to stock of another regulated investment company as a short-term capital gain, and

"(ii) the excess of the net short-term capital gain for a taxable year over the net long-term capital loss for a taxable year (to which an election under section 4982(e)(4) does not apply) shall be determined without regard to any net capital loss or net short-term capital loss attributable to transactions after October 31 of such year, and any such net capital loss or net short-term capital loss shall be treated as arising on the 1st day of the next taxable year.

To the extent provided in regulations, clause (ii) shall apply also for purposes of computing the taxable income of the regulated investment company."

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 111–226, §217(b)(2), added subsec. (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m).

Pub. L. 111–147, §541(a), added subsec. (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 111–226, §217(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (l) as (m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (n).

Pub. L. 111–147, §541(a), redesignated subsec. (l) as (m).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 111–226, §217(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (m) as (n).

2008—Subsec. (k)(1)(C), (2)(C). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted "December 31, 2009" for "December 31, 2007".

2006—Subsec. (k)(2)(E). Pub. L. 109–222 added subpar. (E).

2004—Subsec. (i)(2)(D). Pub. L. 108–357, §409(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 108–357, §411(a)(1), added subsec. (k) and redesignated former subsec. (k) as (l).

2000—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–554 inserted opening parenthesis before "19 U.S.C.".

1999—Subsec. (h)(4)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted "to manage" for "to reduce".

1998—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted "19 U.S.C. 2461 et seq.)" for "(19 U.S.C. 2462)".

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–188, §1401(b)(10), substituted "section 1 or 55" for "section 1, 55, or 402(d)(1)".

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–188, §1954(b)(1), substituted "under title V" for "within the meaning of section 502".

1994—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–465 substituted "85 percent" for "one-half".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–296 substituted "(J), (M), or (Q)" for "(J), or (M)" in two places.

1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–66, §13113(d)(5), inserted "such gains and losses shall be determined without regard to section 1202 and" after "except that" in second sentence.

Subsec. (h)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–66, §13237(c)(1), substituted "paragraph (5)" for "paragraph (4)".

Subsec. (h)(4) to (7). Pub. L. 103–66, §13237(a)(1), added par. (4) and redesignated former pars. (4) to (6) as (5) to (7), respectively.

1992—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–318, §521(b)(28), struck out "402(a)(2), 403(a)(2), or" before "631(b)".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–318, §521(b)(29), substituted "402(d)(1)" for "402(e)(1)".

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 102–318, §521(b)(30), substituted "402(e)(2)" for "402(a)(4)".

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(d)(2)(B), substituted "the second sentence of section 1441(b)" for "section 1441(b)(1) or (2)", and "(F), (J), or (M)" for "(F) or (J)" in two places.

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 100–647, §6134(a)(1), added subsec. (j) and redesignated former subsec. (j) as (k).

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(d)(3)(A), substituted "subsection (h)" for "subsection (i)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(e)(2)(A), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "in the case of—

"(i) a sale or exchange of an original issue discount obligation, the amount of any gain not in excess of the original issue discount accruing while such obligation was held by the nonresident alien individual (to the extent such discount was not theretofore taken into account under clause (ii)), and

"(ii) the payment of interest on an original issue discount obligation, an amount equal to the original issue discount accrued on such obligation since the last payment of interest thereon (except that such original issue discount shall be taken into account under this clause only to the extent that the tax thereon does not exceed the interest payment less the tax imposed by subparagraph (A) thereon), and".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(4), struck out "or from payments which are treated as being so contingent under subsection (e)," after "sold or exchanged,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(9), struck out "such gains and losses shall be determined without regard to section 1202 (relating to deduction for capital gains) and" after "United States, except that".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–272 inserted at end "For treatment of certain citizens of possessions of the United States, see section 932(c)."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(5), struck out subsec. (e) which related to gains from sale or exchange of certain intangible property, par. (1) treating payments as contingent on use, etc., and par. (2) containing source rule.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(d)(1)(A), (3)(B), inserted "which would be subject to tax under subsection (a) but for this subsection and" in introductory provisions and substituted "receives a statement" for "has received a statement" in subpar. (B)(ii).

Subsec. (h)(3)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(d)(2), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 99–514, §1214(c)(1), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §127(a)(2), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (i), there" for "There".

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §42(a)(9), substituted "section 1273" for "section 1232(b)".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §128(a)(1), amended subpar. (C) generally, substituting in cl. (i), "a sale or exchange of an original issue discount obligation, the amount of any gain not in excess of the original issue discount accruing while such obligation was held by the nonresident alien individual (to the extent such discount was not theretofore taken into account under clause (ii)), and" for "bonds or other evidences of indebtedness issued after September 28, 1965, and before April 1, 1972, amounts which under section 1232(a)(2)(B) are considered as ordinary income, and, in the case of corporate obligations issued after May 27, 1969, and before April 1, 1972, amounts which would be so considered but for the fact the obligations were issued after May 27, 1969,", substituting in cl. (ii), "the payment of interest on an original issue discount obligation, an amount equal to the original issue discount accrued on such obligation since the last payment of interest thereon (except that such original issue discount shall be taken into account under this clause only to the extent that the tax thereon does not exceed the interest payment less the tax imposed by subparagraph (A) thereon), and" for "bonds or other evidences of indebtedness issued after March 31, 1972, and payable more than 6 months from the date of original issue (without regard to the period held by the taxpayer), amounts which under section 1232(a)(2)(B) would be considered as ordinary income but for the fact such obligations were issued after May 27, 1969, and", and striking out cl. (iii) which required that in the case of the payment of interest on an obligation described in cl. (ii), an amount equal to the original issue discount, but not in excess of such interest less the tax imposed by subpar. (A) thereon, accrued on such obligation since the last payment of interest thereon, be included for purpose of the 30 percent tax.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–369, §128(a)(2), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g), relating to cross references, redesignated (h).

Subsec. (g)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 98–369, §412(b)(1), amended subsec. (g), relating to cross references, by striking out par. (6) referring to section 6015(j) for the requirement of making a declaration of estimated tax by certain nonresident alien individuals and redesignating pars. (7) and (8) as (6) and (7), respectively.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, §127(a), added subsec. (h). Former subsec. (h), relating to cross references, redesignated (i).

Pub. L. 98–369, §128(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (g), relating to cross references, as (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–369, §127(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (h), relating to cross references, as (i).

1983—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §121(c)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §335(b)(2)(B), inserted "(notwithstanding section 207 of the Social Security Act)" after "income".

1981—Subsec. (g)(6). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted "6015(j)" for "6015(i)".

1980—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–222 substituted "55" for "section 55".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–605 designated existing provision as par. (1), inserted heading "In general" and redesignated par. (1) as subpar. (A), cls. (A) and (B) of subpar. (A) as so redesignated as cls. (i) and (ii), and par. (2) as subpar. (B), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g)(8). Pub. L. 96–499 added par. (8).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §§401(b)(3), 421(e)(4), substituted "section 1, section 55, or 402(e)(1)" for "section 1, 402(e)(1), or 1201(b)".

1976—Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(3)(I), substituted "ordinary income" for "gain from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary", each time appearing.

Subsec. (g)(7). Pub. L. 94–455, §1012(a)(2), added par. (7).

1974—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 93–406 inserted reference to section 402(e)(1).

1971—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 92–178, §313(a), inserted "(other than original issue discount as defined in section 1232(b))" after "interest".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 92–178, §313(b), designated existing provisions as cl. (i), inserted "and before April 1, 1972," after "September 28, 1965,", substituted "section 1232(a)(2)(B)" for "section 1232", and inserted ", in the case of corporate obligations issued after May 27, 1969, and before April 1, 1972, amounts which would be so considered but for the fact the obligations were issued after May 27, 1969,", and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

1966—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 89–809 consolidated the substance of former subsecs. (a) to (c) and, as part of the consolidation, revised the overall income tax treatment of nonresident alien individuals by substituting provisions dividing their income for tax purposes into two basic groups according to whether or not the income is effectively connected with a United States trade or business for provisions calling for different tax treatment based upon whether or not they are, or are not, engaged in a trade or business in the United States, with a further breakdown of those not engaged in trade or business in the United States as to whether their income is over or under $21,200.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–809 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and inserted provisions that any income described in section 1441(b)(1) or (2) which is received by such individual shall, to the extent derived from sources within the United States, be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. Substance of former subsec. (c) revised and incorporated into subsecs. (a) and (b).

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 89–809 added subsecs. (d) to (f) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) and (e) as (c) and (g), respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89–809 redesignated former subsec. (e) as (g), added pars. (2) and (4) to (6), and redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as (3) and (1), respectively.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–272, §113(b)(2), substituted "30 percent tax" for "and gross income of not more than $15,400" in heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–272, §§113(b)(1), (3), 201(d)(12), substituted "$19,000 in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1964 or more than $21,200 in the case of a taxable year beginning after 1964" for "$15,400", "the credit under section 35" for "the sum of the credits under sections 34 and 35" in text, and "Regular tax" for "and gross income of more than $15,400" in heading.

1961—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 87–256 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1960—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–437 substituted "Cross references" for "Doubling of tax" in heading, and inserted cross reference to section 402(a)(4).

1958—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 85–866, §40(a), inserted "section 403(a)(2)," after "section 402(a)(2),".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–866, §41(a), inserted last par. covering former provisions of par. (3), which was struck out by the amendment, and containing new provisions with references to credits under section 34 and 35 and exclusion under section 116 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §125(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3054, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §132(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4018, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013."

Amendment by section 221(a)(71) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §320(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2332, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2011."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(f) of Pub. L. 111–325 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 22, 2010, see section 301(h) of Pub. L. 111–325, set out as a note under section 852 of this title.

Amendment by section 302(b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–325 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 22, 2010, see section 302(c) of Pub. L. 111–325, set out as a note under section 852 of this title.

Amendment by section 308(b)(3) of Pub. L. 111–325 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 22, 2010, see section 308(c) of Pub. L. 111–325, set out as a note under section 852 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §748(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3320, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009."

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–226 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, with certain exceptions, see section 217(d) of Pub. L. 111–226, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Amendment by section 502(b)(1), (2)(A) of Pub. L. 111–147 applicable to obligations issued after the date which is 2 years after Mar. 18, 2010, see section 502(f) of Pub. L. 111–147, set out as a note under section 149 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §541(b), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 117, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments made on or after the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 18, 2010]."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §206(c), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3865, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to dividends with respect to taxable years of regulated investment companies beginning after December 31, 2007."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–222 applicable to taxable years of qualified investment entities beginning after December 31, 2005, except that no amount shall be required to be withheld under section 1441, 1442, or 1445 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to any distribution before May 17, 2006 if such amount was not otherwise required to be withheld under any such section as in effect before such amendments, see section 505(d) of Pub. L. 109–222, set out as a note under section 852 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §409(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1500, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments made after December 31, 2004."

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §411(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1505, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 881, 897, 1441, 1442, and 2105 of this title] shall apply to dividends with respect to taxable years of regulated investment companies beginning after December 31, 2004.

"(2) Estate tax treatment.—The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending section 2105 of this title] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 2004.

"(3) Certain other provisions.—The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending section 897 of this title] (other than paragraph (1) thereof) shall take effect after December 31, 2004."

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to any instrument held, acquired, or entered into, any transaction entered into, and supplies held or acquired on or after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 532(d) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 1401(b)(10) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1999, with retention of certain transition rules, see section 1401(c) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 1954(b)(1) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to articles entered on or after Oct. 1, 1996, with provisions relating to retroactive application, see section 1953 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2461 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §733(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5006, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to benefits paid after December 31, 1994, in taxable years ending after such date."

Pub. L. 103–296, title III, §320(c), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1535, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [probably means this section, which amended this section, sections 872, 1441, 3121, 3231, 3306, and 7701 of this title, and section 410 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall take effect with the calendar quarter following the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994]."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by section 13113(d)(5) of Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to stock issued after Aug. 10, 1993, see section 13113(e) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 53 of this title.

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13237(d), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 508, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 881, 1441, 1442, and 2105 of this title] shall apply to interest received after December 31, 1993; except that the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 2105 of this title] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1993."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–318 applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 521(e) of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1001(d)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6134(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3721, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 1441 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(b)(9) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by section 1211(b)(4), (5) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1211(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 865 of this title.

Amendment by section 1214(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to payments made in taxable year of payor beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1214(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Amendment by section 1810(d)(1)(A), (2), (3)(A), (B), (e)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §12103(c), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 285, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 932 of this title] shall apply to benefits received after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 42(a)(9) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years ending after July 18, 1984, see section 44 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1271 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §127(g), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 652, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6128(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3716, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 163, 864, 881, 1441, 1442, and 2105 of this title] shall apply to interest received after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] with respect to obligations issued after such date, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Subsection (d).—The amendment made by subsection (d) [amending section 2105 of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] with respect to the estates of decedents dying after such date.

"(3) Special rule for certain united states affiliate obligations.—

"(A) In general.—For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], payments of interest on a United States affiliate obligation to an applicable CFC in existence on or before June 22, 1984, shall be treated as payments to a resident of the country in which the applicable CFC is incorporated.

"(B) Exception.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any applicable CFC which did not meet requirements which are based on the principles set forth in Revenue Rulings 69–501, 69–377, 70–645, and 73–110 as such principles are applied in Revenue Ruling 86–6, except that the maximum debt-to-equity ratio described in such Revenue Rulings shall be increased from 5-to-1 to 25-to-1.

"(C) Definitions.—

"(i) The term 'applicable CFC' has the meaning given such term by section 121(b)(2)(D) of this Act [set out as a note under section 904 of this title], except that such section shall be applied by substituting 'the date of interest payment' for 'March 31, 1984,' in clause (i) thereof.

"(ii) The term 'United States affiliate obligation' means an obligation described in section 121(b)(2)(F) of this Act [set out as a note under section 904 of this title] which was issued before June 22, 1984."

[Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6128(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3716, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending section 127(g) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out above] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]."]

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §128(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 655, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 163 and 881 of this title] shall apply to payments made on or after the 60th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] with respect to obligations issued after March 31, 1972.

"(2) Subsection (c).—The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 163 of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after June 9, 1984."

Amendment by section 412(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 414(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6654 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by section 121(c)(1) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date, except for any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as an Effective Date note under section 86 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title VII, §725(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 346, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6015, 6153, 6654, and 7701 of this title] shall apply to estimated tax for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1980."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–605, title II, §227(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3530, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after July 1, 1979."

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–499 applicable to dispositions after June 18, 1980, see section 1125(a) of Pub. L. 96–499, set out as an Effective Date note under section 897 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 401(b)(3) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 401(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Amendment by section 421(e)(4) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 421(g) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1012(a)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years ending on or after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1012(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(3)(I) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable only with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §313(f), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 528, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments to section 871 and 881 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] made by this section shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966. The amendments to sections 1441 and 1442 of such Code made by this section shall apply with respect to payments occurring on or after April 1, 1972."

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(n), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1555, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by this section (other than the amendments made by subsections (h), (i), and (k)) [amending this section and sections 1, 116, 154, 872 to 874, 875, 932, 6015, and 7701 of this title, redesignating section 877 as 878, enacting section 877 of this title, and repealing section 1493 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966.

"(2) The amendments made by subsection (h) [amending section 1441 of this title] shall apply with respect to payments made in taxable years of recipients beginning after December 31, 1966.

"(3) The amendments made by subsection (i) [amending section 1461 of this title] shall apply with respect to payments occurring after December 31, 1966.

"(4) The amendments made by subsection (k) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply with respect to remuneration paid after December 31, 1966."

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by section 113(b)(1) of Pub. L. 88–272 effective, except for purposes of section 21 of this title, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 131 of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 201(d)(12) of Pub. L. 88–272 applicable with respect to dividends received after Dec. 31, 1964, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 201(e) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–256 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1961, see section 110(h)(1) of Pub. L. 87–256, set out as a note under section 117 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–437 applicable only with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1959, see section 3 of Pub. L. 86–437, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §40(c), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1639, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958]. The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 1441 of this title] shall take effect on the day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958]."

Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §41(c), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1639, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 35 of this title] shall apply only with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1957."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendments by sections 1211(b)(4), (5) and 1214(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendments would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1994

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle B [§§521–523] of title V of Pub. L. 102–318 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1994, see section 523 of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§872. Gross income

(a) General rule

In the case of a nonresident alien individual, except where the context clearly indicates otherwise, gross income includes only—

(1) gross income which is derived from sources within the United States and which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, and

(2) gross income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(b) Exclusions

The following items shall not be included in gross income of a nonresident alien individual, and shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle:

(1) Ships operated by certain nonresidents

Gross income derived by an individual resident of a foreign country from the international operation of a ship or ships if such foreign country grants an equivalent exemption to individual residents of the United States.

(2) Aircraft operated by certain nonresidents

Gross income derived by an individual resident of a foreign country from the international operation of aircraft if such foreign country grants an equivalent exemption to individual residents of the United States.

(3) Compensation of participants in certain exchange or training programs

Compensation paid by a foreign employer to a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "foreign employer" means—

(A) a nonresident alien individual, foreign partnership, or foreign corporation, or

(B) an office or place of business maintained in a foreign country or in a possession of the United States by a domestic corporation, a domestic partnership, or an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States.

(4) Certain bond income of residents of the Ryukyu Islands or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Income derived by a nonresident alien individual from a series E or series H United States savings bond, if such individual acquired such bond while a resident of the Ryukyu Islands or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(5) Income derived from wagering transactions in certain parimutuel pools

Gross income derived by a nonresident alien individual from a legal wagering transaction initiated outside the United States in a parimutuel pool with respect to a live horse race or dog race in the United States.

(6) Certain rental income

Income to which paragraphs (1) and (2) apply shall include income which is derived from the rental on a full or bareboat basis of a ship or ships or aircraft, as the case may be.

(7) Application to different types of transportation

The Secretary may provide that this subsection be applied separately with respect to income from different types of transportation.

(8) Treatment of possessions

To the extent provided in regulations, a possession of the United States shall be treated as a foreign country for purposes of this subsection.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 280; Pub. L. 87–256, §110(c), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 536; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(b), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1550; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1212(c)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2538; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(e)(2)(B), (5), (s)(2)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3500, 3527; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(i)(8)(C), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2411; Pub. L. 103–296, title III, §320(a)(2), Aug. 15, 1994,