42 USC Ch. 163: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, COMPETITION, AND INNOVATION
Result 1 of 1
   
 
42 USC Ch. 163: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, COMPETITION, AND INNOVATION
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 163—RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, COMPETITION, AND INNOVATION

Sec.
18901.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SCIENCE FOR THE FUTURE

18911.
Basic energy sciences program.
18912.
Research security.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE FUTURE

18921.
Definitions.

        

Part A—Measurement Research

18931.
Engineering biology and biometrology.
18932.
Greenhouse gas measurement research.
18933.
Software security and authentication.
18934.
Biometrics research and testing.
18935.
Dissemination of resources for research institutions.
18936.
Neutron scattering.
18937.
Artificial intelligence.
18938.
Sustainable chemistry research and education.
18939.
Premise plumbing research.
18940.
Dr. David Satcher Cybersecurity Education Grant Program.

        

Part B—General Activities

18951.
International standards development.
18952.
Standards development organization grants.

        

Part C—Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership

18961.
National Supply Chain Database.

        

Part D—Manufacturing USA Program

18971.
Expanding opportunities through the Manufacturing USA Program.
18972.
Promoting domestic production of technologies developed under Manufacturing USA Program.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION FOR THE FUTURE

Part A—Preliminary Matters

18981.
Definitions.

        

Part B—STEM Education

18991.
PreK–12 STEM education.
18992.
Undergraduate STEM education.
18993.
Graduate STEM education.
18994.
STEM workforce data.
18995.
Cyber workforce development research and development.
18996.
Cybersecurity workforce data initiative.
18997.
Microelectronics workforce development activities.
18998.
Mandatory cost-sharing.
18999.
Programs to address the STEM workforce.

        

Part C—Broadening Participation

19011.
Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship program update.
19012.
NSF Eddie Bernice Johnson INCLUDES Initiative.
19013.
Broadening participation on major facilities awards.
19014.
Expanding geographic and institutional diversity in research.
19015.
Diversity in tech research.
19016.
Chief Diversity Officer of the NSF.
19017.
Research and dissemination to increase the participation of women and underrepresented minorities in STEM fields.
19018.
Intramural emerging research institutions pilot program.

        

Part D—NSF Research Security

19031.
Office of Research Security and Policy.
19032.
Chief of Research Security.
19033.
Reporting to Congress.
19034.
Online resource.
19035.
Research awards.
19036.
Authorities.
19037.
Research security and integrity information sharing analysis organization.
19038.
Plan with respect to controlled information and background screening.
19039.
Foundation funding to institutions hosting or supporting Confucius Institutes.
19040.
Foreign financial support.

        

Part E—Fundamental Research

19051.
Broader impacts.
19052.
Research ethics.
19053.
Research reproducibility and replicability.
19054.
Climate change research.
19055.
Social, behavioral, and economic sciences.
19056.
Measuring impacts of Federally funded research and development.
19057.
Food-energy-water research.
19058.
Biological field stations and marine laboratories.
19059.
Sustainable chemistry research and education.
19060.
Risk and resilience research.
19061.
Unmanned aircraft systems technologies.
19062.
Accelerating unmanned maritime systems technologies.
19063.
Leveraging international expertise in research.
19064.
Biological research collections.
19065.
Clean water research and technology acceleration.
19066.
Technology and behavioral science research.
19067.
Critical minerals mining research and development.
19068.
Advancing IoT for Precision Agriculture Capabilities Act.
19069.
Astronomy and satellite constellations.
19070.
Research on the impact of inflation.
19071.
Microgravity utilization policy.

        

Part F—Research Infrastructure

19081.
Facility operation and maintenance.
19082.
Reviews.
19083.
Helium conservation.
19084.
Advanced computing.
19085.
National secure data service.

        

Part G—Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships

19101.
Establishment.
19102.
Purposes.
19103.
Activities.
19104.
Requirements.
19105.
Assistant Director.
19106.
Advisory committee.
19107.
Challenges and focus areas.
19108.
Regional Innovation Engines.
19109.
Translation Accelerator.
19110.
Test beds.
19111.
Planning and capacity building awards.
19112.
Entrepreneurial fellowships.
19113.
Scholarships and fellowships.
19114.
Research and development awards.
19115.
Scaling innovations in PreK–12 STEM education.
19116.
Authorities.
19117.
Coordination of activities.
19118.
Ethical, legal, and societal considerations.
19119.
Reports and roadmaps.
19120.
Evaluation.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—BIOECONOMY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

19131.
Definitions.
19132.
National Engineering Biology Research and Development Initiative.
19133.
Initiative coordination.
19134.
Advisory committee on engineering biology research and development.
19135.
Agency activities.
19136.
Rule of construction.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—BROADENING PARTICIPATION IN SCIENCE

Part A—STEM Opportunities

19151.
Federal research agency policies for caregivers.
19152.
Collection and reporting of data on Federal research awards.
19153.
Policies for review of Federal research awards.
19154.
Collection of data on demographics of faculty.
19155.
Cultural and institutional barriers to expanding the academic and Federal STEM workforce.
19156.
Existing activities.
19157.
Merit review.
19158.
Definition.

        

Part B—Rural STEM Education Research

19171.
Definition.
19172.
National Science Foundation rural STEM activities.
19173.
Opportunities for online education.
19174.
NIST engagement with rural communities.

        

Part C—MSI STEM Achievement

19181.
Agency responsibilities.
19182.
Research at the National Science Foundation.
19183.
Capacity-building program for developing universities.
19184.
Definitions.

        

Part D—Combating Sexual Harassment in Science

19191.
Findings.
19192.
Purpose.
19193.
Definition.
19194.
Research awards.
19195.
Interagency working group.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—MISCELLANEOUS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROVISIONS

Part A—Supporting Early-Career Researchers

19211.
Early-career research fellowship program.

        

Part B—National Science and Technology Strategy

19221.
Strategy and report on the nation's economic security, science, research, and innovation to support the national security strategy.
19222.
National research and development strategy for distributed ledger technology.

        

Part C—Research Security

19231.
Requirements for foreign talent recruitment programs.
19232.
Malign foreign talent recruitment program prohibition.
19233.
Review of contracts and agreements.
19234.
Research security training requirement for Federal research award personnel.
19235.
Person or entity of concern prohibition.
19236.
Nondiscrimination.
19237.
Definitions.

        

Part D—Interagency Working Group

19251.
Interagency working group.

        

Part E—Quantum Networking and Communications

19261.
Quantum networking and communications.

        

Part F—Blockchain Specialist

19271.
Establishment of blockchain and cryptocurrency specialist position within OSTP.

        

Part G—Partnerships for Energy Security and Innovation

19281.
Foundation for Energy Security and Innovation.

        

Part H—Energizing Technology Transfer

19291.
Definitions.

        

subpart 1—national clean energy technology transfer programs

19301.
National Clean Energy Incubator Program.
19302.
Clean Energy Technology University Prize competition.
19303.
Clean energy technology transfer coordination.

        

subpart 2—supporting technology development at the national laboratories

19311.
Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship Program.
19312.
Entrepreneurial leave program.
19313.
National Laboratory non-Federal employee outside employment authority.

        

subpart 3—department of energy modernization

19321.
Special hiring authority for scientific, engineering, and project management personnel.

        

Part I—Micro Act

19331.
Microelectronics research for energy innovation.

        

Part J—Applied Laboratories Infrastructure Restoration and Modernization

19341.
Applied laboratories infrastructure restoration and modernization.

        

Part K—Fission for the Future

19351.
Advanced nuclear technologies Federal research, development, and demonstration program.

        

§18901. Definitions

In this division:

(1) Artificial intelligence

The term "artificial intelligence" or "AI" has the meaning given such term in section 9401 of title 15.

(2) Awardee

The term "awardee" means the legal entity to which Federal assistance is awarded and that is accountable to the Federal Government for the use of the funds provided.

(3) Award personnel

The term "award personnel" means principal investigators and co-principal investigators, faculty, postdoctoral researchers, and other employees supported by a grant, cooperative agreement, or contract under Federal law.

(4) Biomanufacturing

The term "biomanufacturing" means the utilization of biological systems to develop new and advance existing products, tools, and processes at commercial scale.

(5) Emerging research institution

The term "emerging research institution" means an institution of higher education with an established undergraduate or graduate program that has less than $50,000,000 in Federal research expenditures.

(6) Engineering biology

The term "engineering biology" means the application of engineering design principles and practices to biological systems, including molecular and cellular systems, to advance fundamental understanding of complex natural systems and to enable novel or optimize functions and capabilities.

(7) EPSCoR

The term "EPSCoR" has the meaning given the term in section 502 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p note).

(8) EPSCoR institution

The term "EPSCoR institution" means an institution of higher education, nonprofit organization, or other institution located in a jurisdiction eligible to participate in the program under section 1862g of this title.

(9) Federal laboratory

The term "Federal laboratory" has the meaning given such term in section 3703 of title 15.

(10) Federal research agency

The term "Federal research agency" means any Federal agency with an annual extramural research expenditure of over $100,000,000 in fiscal year 2022 constant dollars.

(11) Foundation

The term "Foundation" means the National Science Foundation.

(12) Historically Black college and university

The term "historically Black college and university" has the meaning given the term "part B institution" in section 1061 of title 20.

(13) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001(a) of title 20.

(14) Interagency working group on inclusion in STEM

The term "interagency working group on inclusion in STEM" means the interagency working group established by section 6626 of this title.

(15) Labor organization

The term "labor organization" has the meaning given the term in section 152(5) of title 29, except that such term shall also include—

(A) any organization composed of labor organizations, such as a labor union federation or a State or municipal labor body; and

(B) any organization which would be included in the definition for such term under such section 152(5) of title 29 but for the fact that the organization represents—

(i) individuals employed by the United States, any wholly owned Government corporation, any Federal Reserve Bank, or any State or political subdivision thereof;

(ii) individuals employed by persons subject to the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.); or

(iii) individuals employed as agricultural laborers.

(16) Low-income individual

The term "low-income individual" means an individual from a family whose taxable income for the preceding year did not exceed 150 percent of an amount equal to the poverty level determined by using criteria of poverty established by the Bureau of the Census.

(17) Manufacturing extension center

The term "manufacturing extension center" has the meaning given the term "Center" in section 278k(a) of title 15.

(18) Manufacturing USA institute

The term "Manufacturing USA institute" means a Manufacturing USA institute described in section 278s(d) of title 15.

(19) Minority-serving institution

The term "minority-serving institution" means a Hispanic-serving institution as defined in section 1101a(a) of title 20; an Alaska Native-serving institution or Native Hawaiian-serving institution as defined in section 1059d(b) of title 20; or a Predominantly Black institution, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-serving institution, or Native American-serving nontribal institution as defined in section 1067q(c) of title 20.

(20) National Academies

The term "National Academies" means the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

(21) Non-profit organization

The term "non-profit organization" means an organization which is described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such title.

(22) PreK–12

The term "PreK–12" means pre-kindergarten through grade 12.

(23) Quantum information science

The term "quantum information science" has the meaning given such term in section 8801 of title 15.

(24) Recipient

The term "recipient" means an entity, usually a non-Federal entity, that receives a Federal award directly from a Federal research agency. The term "recipient" does not include entities that receive subawards or individuals that are the beneficiaries of the award.

(25) Research and development award

The term "research and development award" means support provided to an individual or entity by a Federal research agency to carry out research and development activities, which may include support in the form of a grant, contract, cooperative agreement, or other such transaction. The term does not include a grant, contract, agreement or other transaction for the procurement of goods or services to meet the administrative needs of a Federal research agency.

(26) Skilled technical work

The term "skilled technical work" means an occupation that requires a high level of knowledge in a technical domain and does not require a bachelor's degree for entry.

(27) STEM

The term "STEM" means science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, including computer science.

(28) STEM education

The term "STEM education" has the meaning given the term in section 2 of the STEM Education Act of 2015 (42 U.S.C. 6621 note).

(29) Technical standard

The term "technical standard" has the meaning given such term in section 12(d)(5) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

(30) Tribal College or University

The term "Tribal College or University" has the meaning given such term in section 1059c of title 20.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, §10002, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1405.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This division, referred to in introductory provisions, is div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1399, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of div. B to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Section 502 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010, referred to in par. (7), is section 502 of Pub. L. 111–358, which is set out as a note under section 1862p of this title.

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in par. (15)(B)(ii), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.

Section 2 of the STEM Education Act of 2015, referred to in par. (28), is section 2 of Pub. L. 114–59, which is set out as a note under section 6621 of this title.

Section 12(d)(5) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, referred to in par. (29), is section 12(d)(5) of Pub. L. 104–113, which defines "technical standards" and is set out as a note under section 272 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Short Title

Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, §10001, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1405, provided that: "This division [div. B (§§10001–10862) of Pub. L. 117–167, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Research and Development, Competition, and Innovation Act'."

SUBCHAPTER I—DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SCIENCE FOR THE FUTURE

§18911. Basic energy sciences program

(a) to (c) Omitted

(d) Foundational nuclear science

(1) In general

The Director of the Office of Science shall support a program of research and development to bridge scientific barriers to, and expand theoretical and fundamental knowledge relevant to, understanding nuclear materials and matter for the benefit of commerce, medicine, and national security.

(2) Activities

As part of the program described in paragraph (1)—

(A) the Director of the Office of Science shall support basic research to pursue distinct lines of scientific inquiry, including—

(i) research in nuclear materials science, including the application of advanced computing practices to foundational and emerging research areas in nuclear materials science and discovery, such as—

(I) the advanced characterization of materials;

(II) materials synthesis;

(III) processing;

(IV) the innovative use of experimental and theoretical data; and

(V) mechanical behavior in unique environments, including the effects of radiation;


(ii) electrochemistry research and associated techniques for processing nuclear materials;

(iii) the development of advanced instrumentation and nuclear data collection to inform the activities described in clauses (i) and (ii); and

(iv) any other area of research, as determined by the Director of the Office of Science; and


(B) the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy shall consult with the Director of the Office of Science to support the direction of translational research, development, and validation of physical concepts developed under the program.

(3) Funding

Of the funds authorized to be appropriated for basic energy sciences in a fiscal year, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Energy to carry out activities under this subsection $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(e) Carbon Materials Science Initiative

(1) Initiative

(A) In general

The Director of the Office of Science (referred to in this subsection as the "Director") shall establish a research initiative, to be known as the "Carbon Materials Science Initiative" (referred to in this subsection as the "Initiative"), to expand the fundamental knowledge of coal, coal-wastes, and carbon ore chemistry useful for understanding the conversion of carbon to material products.

(B) Coordination

In carrying out programs and activities under the Initiative, the Director shall leverage expertise and resources from the Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management and the United States Geological Survey.

(C) Teams

(i) In general

In carrying out the Initiative, the Director shall establish and organize activities among multidisciplinary teams to leverage, to the maximum extent practicable, expertise from the National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, and the private sector.

(ii) Goals

The multidisciplinary teams described in clause (i) shall pursue expedient, milestone-driven research goals established by the Director.

(2) Research program

(A) In general

The Director shall carry out under the Initiative a program to support, and discover fundamental knowledge relevant to, carbon materials and carbon ore processing research.

(B) Activities

As part of the program described in subparagraph (A), the Director shall, in coordination with the Assistant Secretary of Energy for Fossil Energy and Carbon Management, as appropriate, support research to pursue distinct lines of scientific inquiry, including—

(i) methods of extraction, processing, recycling, and utilization of the materials and valuable minerals contained in raw coal and coal-waste;

(ii) methods of improving performance, cost, and availability of materials for use in carbon capture systems; and

(iii) unconventional pathways and materials for conversion of carbon dioxide molecules, minerals, and materials.

(C) Review

The Director shall periodically review activities carried out under the program described in subparagraph (A) to evaluate the achievement of scientific objectives and research milestones.

(D) Coordination with existing programs and centers

In carrying out the program described in subparagraph (A), the Director shall—

(i) ensure coordination and knowledge sharing with—

(I) the United States Geological Survey; and

(II) the programs and the Carbon Utilization Research Center established under section 16298a of this title; and


(ii) avoid duplication of efforts to the maximum extent practicable.

(3) Carbon Materials Research Centers

(A) In general

In carrying out the activities authorized under paragraph (2), the Director shall establish 1 center in each of the 2 major coal-producing regions of the United States, each of which shall—

(i) be known as a "Carbon Materials Research Center" (referred to in this paragraph as a "Center"); and

(ii) focus on early stage research and development activities, including—

(I) developing and advancing methods of extracting, processing, or recycling carbon or other valuable materials or minerals from raw coal, coal-waste, or other solid carbon materials, for the development of new carbon-based materials;

(II) methods of improving the structural, physical, and chemical properties of carbon-based materials or other valuable materials from raw coal, coal-waste, or other solid carbon materials and their recyclability;

(III) overcoming the challenges and maximizing the benefits of commercially extracting, producing, or improving coal-derived carbon and resulting products; and

(IV) identifying novel pathways and materials for carbon storage and conversion into useful products.

(B) Selection

The Director shall—

(i) select Centers under subparagraph (A) on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis; and

(ii) consider applications from the National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, multi-institutional collaborations, and other appropriate entities.

(C) Duration

A Center shall receive support for a period of not more than 5 years beginning on the date of establishment of that Center, subject to the availability of appropriations.

(D) Renewal

On the expiration of any period of support of a Center, the Director may renew support for that Center, on a merit-reviewed basis, for a period of not more than 5 years.

(E) Existing facilities

The Director shall—

(i) ensure that the research activities carried out by the Centers are not duplicative of existing efforts; and

(ii) if practicable, leverage existing user facilities and other capabilities of the Department of Energy to carry out the research objectives of the Centers.

(f) Carbon Sequestration Research and Geologic Computational Science Initiative

(1) Initiative

(A) In general

The Secretary of Energy (referred to in this subsection as the "Secretary") shall establish a research initiative, to be known as the "Carbon Sequestration Research and Geologic Computational Science Initiative" (referred to in this subsection as the "Initiative"), to expand the fundamental knowledge, data collection, data analysis, and modeling of subsurface geology for the purpose of advancing carbon sequestration in geologic formations.

(B) Leveraging

In carrying out programs and activities under the Initiative, the Secretary shall leverage expertise and resources from the Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management and the United States Geological Survey.

(C) Teams

(i) In general

In carrying out the Initiative, the Secretary shall establish and organize activities among multidisciplinary teams to leverage, to the maximum extent practicable, expertise from the National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, and the private sector.

(ii) Goals

The multidisciplinary teams described in clause (i) shall pursue aggressive, milestone-driven research goals established by the Secretary.

(D) Additional activities

The Secretary may organize additional activities under this subsection through other organizational structures.

(2) Research program

(A) In general

The Secretary shall carry out under the Initiative a program to support research needed for, and discover knowledge relevant to, the sequestration of carbon in geologic formations.

(B) Activities

As part of the program described in subparagraph (A), the Director of the Office of Science shall support fundamental research to pursue distinct lines of scientific inquiry, including—

(i) gathering geologic data for pore space characterization, including improvements to geologic seismic imaging;

(ii) evaluating pore space quality, including evaluation of geologic samples, to determine appropriate sequestration zones for carbon;

(iii) testing carbon sequestration;

(iv) monitoring carbon migration in geologic formations;

(v) advancements in data analytics, including the analysis of seismic data, and computational science to improve the advanced computing, visualization, and imaging of geologic formations for the sequestration of carbon; and

(vi) predictive understanding of coupled processes in complex subsurface geologic systems for secure carbon storage.

(C) Review

The Secretary shall periodically review activities carried out under the program described in subparagraph (A) to evaluate achievement of scientific objectives and research milestones.

(3) Carbon storage research and geologic computational science centers

(A) In general

In carrying out the activities authorized under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall select and establish not more than 2 carbon storage research and geologic computational science centers (referred to in this paragraph as a "Center") to develop and advance improvements to data collection, analysis, and modeling of subsurface geology for the purpose of advancing carbon sequestration in geologic formations.

(B) Selection

(i) In general

The Secretary shall—

(I) select Centers under subparagraph (A) on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis; and

(II) to the maximum extent practicable, locate each Center in a geographically diverse region with established and ongoing geologic carbon sequestration research and demonstration.

(ii) Applications

In selecting Centers under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider applications from institutions of higher education, multi-institutional collaborations, and other appropriate entities.

(C) Duration

(i) New Centers

A Center established after August 9, 2022, shall receive support for a period of not more than 5 years beginning on the date of establishment of that Center, subject to the availability of appropriations.

(ii) Existing Centers

A Center already in existence on August 9, 2022, may continue to receive support for a period of not more than 5 years beginning on August 9, 2022.

(iii) Renewal

On expiration of a period of support described in clause (i) or (ii), the Secretary may renew support for the Center, on a merit-reviewed basis, for a period of not more than 5 years.

(4) Coordination with existing programs and Centers

In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) ensure coordination with—

(i) the United States Geological Survey; and

(ii) the programs established under section 16293 of this title; and


(B) avoid duplication of efforts to the maximum extent practicable.

(g) Funding for Carbon Initiatives

Of the funds authorized to be appropriated for basic energy sciences in a fiscal year, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out activities under subsections (e) and (f) $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title I, §10102, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1409.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10102 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsecs. (a), (b), and (c) of section 10102 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167 amended sections 18641, 16313, and 16315 of this title, respectively.

§18912. Research security

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Country of risk

(A) In general

The term "country of risk" means a foreign country determined by the Secretary, in accordance with subparagraph (B), to present a risk of theft of United States intellectual property or a threat to the national security of the United States if nationals of the country, or entities owned or controlled by the country or nationals of the country, participate in any research, development, demonstration, or deployment activity authorized under this division or division A or an amendment made by this division or division A.

(B) Determination

In making a determination under subparagraph (A), the Secretary, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, shall take into consideration—

(i) the most recent World Wide Threat Assessment of the United States Intelligence Community, prepared by the Director of National Intelligence; and

(ii) the most recent National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States.

(2) Covered support

The term "covered support" means any grant, contract, subcontract, award, loan, program, support, or other activity authorized under this division or division A, or an amendment made by this division or division A.

(3) Entity of concern

The term "entity of concern" means any entity, including a national, that is—

(A) identified under section 1237(b) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; Public Law 105–261);

(B) identified under section 1260H of the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 (10 U.S.C. 113 note; Public Law 116–283);

(C) on the Entity List maintained by the Bureau of Industry and Security of the Department of Commerce and set forth in Supplement No. 4 to part 744 of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations;

(D) included in the list required by section 9(b)(3) of the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act of 2020 (Public Law 116–145; 134 Stat. 656); or

(E) identified by the Secretary, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence and the applicable office that would provide, or is providing, covered support, as posing an unmanageable threat—

(i) to the national security of the United States; or

(ii) of theft or loss of United States intellectual property.

(4) National

The term "national" has the meaning given the term in section 1101 of title 8.

(5) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(b) Science and technology risk assessment

(1) In general

The Secretary shall develop and maintain tools and processes to manage and mitigate research security risks, such as a science and technology risk matrix, informed by threats identified by the Director of the Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, to facilitate determinations of the risk of loss of United States intellectual property or threat to the national security of the United States posed by activities carried out under any covered support.

(2) Content and implementation

In developing and using the tools and processes developed under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) deploy risk-based approaches to evaluating, awarding, and managing certain research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities, including designations that will indicate the relative risk of activities;

(B) assess, to the extent practicable, ongoing high-risk activities;

(C) designate an officer or employee of the Department of Energy to be responsible for tracking and notifying recipients of any covered support of unmanageable threats to United States national security or of theft or loss of United States intellectual property posed by an entity of concern;

(D) consider requiring recipients of covered support to implement additional research security mitigations for higher-risk activities if appropriate; and

(E) support the development of research security training for recipients of covered support on the risks posed by entities of concern.

(3) Annual updates

The tools and processes developed under paragraph (1) shall be evaluated annually and updated as needed, with threat-informed input from the Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, to reflect changes in the risk designation under paragraph (2)(A) of research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities conducted by the Department.

(c) Entity of concern

(1) Prohibition

Except as provided in paragraph (2), no entity of concern, or individual that owns or controls, is owned or controlled by, or is under common ownership or control with an entity of concern, may receive, or perform work under, any covered support.

(2) Waiver of prohibition

(A) In general

The Secretary may waive the prohibition under paragraph (1) if determined by the Secretary to be in the national interest.

(B) Notification to Congress

Not less than 2 weeks prior to issuing a waiver under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives of the intent to issue the waiver, including a justification for the waiver.

(3) Penalty

(A) Termination of support

On finding that any entity of concern or individual described in paragraph (1) has received covered support and has not received a waiver under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall terminate all covered support to that entity of concern or individual, as applicable.

(B) Penalties

An entity of concern or individual identified under subparagraph (A) shall be—

(i) prohibited from receiving or participating in covered support for a period of not less than 1 year but not more than 10 years, as determined by the Secretary; or

(ii) instead of the penalty described in clause (i), subject to any other penalties authorized under applicable law or regulations that the Secretary determines to be in the national interest.

(C) Notification to Congress

Prior to imposing a penalty under subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives of the intent to impose the penalty, including a description of and justification for the penalty.

(4) Coordination

The Secretary shall—

(A) share information about the unmanageable threats described in subsection (a)(3)(E) with other Federal agencies; and

(B) develop consistent approaches to identifying entities of concern.

(d) International agreements

This section shall be applied in a manner consistent with the obligations of the United States under international agreements.

(e) Report required

Not later than 240 days after August 9, 2022, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that—

(1) describes—

(A) the tools and processes developed under subsection (b)(1) and any updates to those tools and processes; and

(B) if applicable, the science and technology risk matrix developed under that subsection and how that matrix has been applied;


(2) includes a mitigation plan for managing risks posed by countries of risk with respect to future or ongoing research and development activities of the Department of Energy; and

(3) defines critical research areas, designated by risk, as determined by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title I, §10114, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1469.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This division, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), (2), is div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1399, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of div. B to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18901 of this title and Tables.

Division A, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), (2), is div. A of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1372, known as the CHIPS Act of 2022. For complete classification of div. A to the Code, see Short Title of 2022 Amendment note set out under section 4651 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and Tables.

Section 9(b)(3) of the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act of 2020, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(D), is section 9(b)(3) of Pub. L. 116–145, June 17, 2020, 134 Stat. 656, which is not classified to the Code.

SUBCHAPTER II—NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE FUTURE

§18921. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Director

The term "Director" means the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

(2) Enrollment of needy students

The term "enrollment of needy students" has the meaning given the term in section 1058(d) of title 20.

(3) Framework

The term "Framework" means the Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and referred to in Executive Order No. 13800 issued on May 11, 2017 (82 Fed. Reg. 22391 et seq.).

(4) Institute

The term "Institute" means the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

(5) International standards organization

The term "international standards organization" has the meaning given such term in section 2571 of title 19.

(6) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Commerce.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10201, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1471.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Executive Order No. 13800, referred to in par. (3), is set out as a note preceding section 1500 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Part A—Measurement Research

§18931. Engineering biology and biometrology

(a) In general

The Director, in coordination with the National Engineering Biology Research and Development Initiative established pursuant to subchapter IV, shall—

(1) support basic measurement science and technology research for engineering biology, biomanufacturing, and biometrology to advance—

(A) measurement technologies to support foundational understanding of the mechanisms of conversion of DNA information into cellular function;

(B) technologies for measurement of such biomolecular components and related systems;

(C) new data tools, techniques, and processes to improve engineering biology, biomanufacturing, and biometrology research; and

(D) other areas of measurement science and technology research determined by the Director to be critical to the development and deployment of engineering biology, biomanufacturing and biometrology;


(2) support activities to inform and expand the development of measurements infrastructure needed to develop technical standards to establish interoperability and facilitate commercial development of biomolecular measurement technology and engineering biology applications;

(3) convene industry, institutions of higher education, nonprofit organizations, Federal laboratories, and other Federal agencies engaged in engineering biology research and development to develop coordinated technical roadmaps for authoritative measurement of the molecular components of the cell;

(4) provide access to user facilities with advanced or unique equipment, services, materials, and other resources to industry, institutions of higher education, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies to perform research and testing;

(5) establish or expand collaborative partnerships or consortia with other Federal agencies engaged in engineering biology research and development, institutions of higher education, Federal laboratories, and industry to advance engineering biology applications; and

(6) support graduate and postgraduate research and training in biometrology, biomanufacturing, and engineering biology.

(b) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section may be construed to alter the policies, processes, or practices of individual Federal agencies in effect on the day before August 9, 2022, relating to the conduct or support of biomedical research and advanced development, including the solicitation and review of extramural research proposals.

(c) Controls

In carrying out activities authorized by this section, the Secretary shall ensure proper security controls are in place to protect sensitive information, as appropriate.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10221, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1474.)

§18932. Greenhouse gas measurement research

(a) In general

The Director, in consultation with the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Secretary of Energy, and the heads of other Federal agencies, as appropriate, shall carry out a measurement research program to inform the development or improvement of best practices, benchmarks, methodologies, procedures, and technical standards for the measurement of greenhouse gas emissions and to assess and improve the performance of greenhouse gas emissions measurement systems placed in situ and on space-based platforms.

(b) Activities

In carrying out such a program, the Director may—

(1) conduct research and testing to improve the accuracy, efficacy, and reliability of the measurement of greenhouse gas emissions at a range of scales that covers direct measurement at the component or process level through atmospheric observations;

(2) conduct research to create novel measurement technologies and techniques for the measurement of greenhouse gas emissions;

(3) convene and engage with relevant Federal agencies and stakeholders to establish common definitions and characterizations for the measurement of greenhouse gas emissions, taking into account any existing United States and international technical standards and guidance;

(4) conduct outreach and coordination to share technical expertise with relevant industry and nonindustry stakeholders and standards development organizations to—

(A) assist such entities in the development and adoption of best practices and technical standards for greenhouse gas emissions measurements; and

(B) promote consistency and traceability in international reference standards and central calibration laboratories;


(5) in coordination with the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Secretary of Energy, develop such standard reference materials as the Director determines is necessary to further the development of such technical standards, taking into account any existing United States or international standards;

(6) coordinate with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to ensure data are managed, stewarded, and archived at all levels and promote full and open exchange at Federal and State levels, and with academia, industry, and other users; and

(7) coordinate with international partners, including international standards organizations, to maintain global greenhouse gas measurement technical standards.

(c) Testbeds

In coordination with the private sector, institutions of higher education, State and local governments, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, and other Federal agencies, as appropriate, the Director may continue to develop and manage testbeds to advance research and standards development for greenhouse gas emissions measurements from in situ and space-based platforms.

(d) Center for Greenhouse Gas Measurements, Standards, and Information

(1) In general

The Director, in collaboration with the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the heads of other Federal agencies, as appropriate, shall establish a Center for Greenhouse Gas Measurements, Standards, and Information (in this subsection referred to as the "Center").

(2) Collaborations

The Director shall require that the activities of the Center include collaboration among public and private organizations, including institutions of higher education, nonprofit organizations, private sector entities, and State, Tribal, territorial, and local officials.

(3) Purpose

The purpose of the Center shall be to—

(A) advance measurement science, data analytics, and modeling at a range of scales that covers direct measurement and estimation at the component or process level through atmospheric observations and at the analysis level to improve the accuracy of spatially and temporally resolved greenhouse gas emissions measurement, validation, and attribution to specific underlying activities and processes;

(B) test and evaluate the performance of existing capabilities, and inform and improve best practices, benchmarks, methodologies, procedures, and technical standards, for the measurement and validation of greenhouse gas emissions at scales noted in subparagraph (A);

(C) educate and train students in measurement science, computational science, and systems engineering research relevant to greenhouse gas emissions measurements;

(D) foster collaboration among academic researchers, private sector stakeholders, and State, Tribal, territorial, and local officials in the use of Institute testbeds as described in subsection (c);

(E) conduct activities with research institutions, industry partners, and State and local officials to identify research, testing, and technical standards needs relevant to greenhouse gas emissions; and

(F) collaborate with other Federal agencies to conduct outreach and coordination to share and promote technical data, tools, and expertise with relevant public and private sector stakeholders, including State, Tribal, territorial, and local officials, to assist such in the accurate measurement of greenhouse gas emissions.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10222, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1475.)

§18933. Software security and authentication

(a) Vulnerabilities in open source software

The Director shall assign severity metrics to identified vulnerabilities with open source software and produce voluntary guidance to assist the entities that maintain open source software repositories to discover and mitigate vulnerabilities.

(b) Artificial intelligence-enabled defenses

The Director shall carry out research and testing to improve the effectiveness of artificial intelligence-enabled cybersecurity, including by generating optimized data sets to train artificial intelligence defense systems and evaluating the performance of varying network architectures at strengthening network security.

(c) Authentication of Institute software

The Director shall ensure all software released by the Institute is digitally signed and maintained to enable stakeholders to verify its authenticity and integrity upon installation and execution.

(d) Assistance to Inspectors General

Subject to available funding, the Director shall provide technical assistance to improve the education and training of individual Federal agency Inspectors General and staff who are responsible for the annual independent evaluation they are required to perform of the information security program and practices of Federal agencies under section 3555 of title 44.

(e) Software supply chain security practices

(1) In general

The Director shall, in coordination with industry, academia, and other Federal agencies, as appropriate, develop a set of security outcomes and practices, including security controls, control enhancements, supplemental guidance, or other supporting information to enable software developers and operators to identify, assess, and manage cybersecurity risks over the full lifecycle of software products.

(2) Outreach

The Director shall conduct outreach and coordination activities to share technical expertise with Federal agencies, relevant industry stakeholders, and standards development organizations, as appropriate, to encourage the voluntary adoption of the software lifecycle security practices by Federal agencies and industry stakeholders.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10224, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1478.)

§18934. Biometrics research and testing

(a) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Director, shall establish a program to support measurement research to inform the development of best practices, benchmarks, methodologies, procedures, and voluntary, consensus-based technical standards for biometric identification systems, including facial recognition systems, to assess and improve the performance of such systems. In carrying out such program, the Director may—

(1) conduct measurement research to support efforts to improve the performance of biometric identification systems, including in areas related to conformity assessment, image quality and interoperability, contactless biometric capture technologies, and human-in-the-loop biometric identification systems and processes;

(2) convene and engage with relevant stakeholders to establish common definitions and characterizations for biometric identification systems, which may include accuracy, fairness, bias, privacy, consent, and other properties, taking into account definitions in relevant international technical standards and other publications;

(3) carry out measurement research and testing on a range of biometric modalities, such as fingerprints, voice, iris, face, vein, behavioral biometrics, genetics, multimodal biometrics, and emerging applications of biometric identification technology;

(4) study the use of privacy-enhancing technologies and other technical protective controls to facilitate access, as appropriate, to public data sets for biometric research;

(5) conduct outreach and coordination to share technical expertise with relevant industry and nonindustry stakeholders and standards development organizations to assist such entities in the development of best practices and voluntary technical standards; and

(6) develop such standard reference artifacts as the Director determines is necessary to further the development of such voluntary technical standards.

(b) Biometrics test program

(1) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Director, shall carry out a test program to provide biometrics vendors the opportunity to test biometric identification technologies across a range of modalities.

(2) Activities

In carrying out the program under this subsection, the Director shall—

(A) conduct research and regular testing to improve and benchmark the accuracy, efficacy, and bias of biometric identification technologies, which may include research and testing on demographic variations, capture devices, presentation attack detection, partially occluded or computer generated images, privacy and security designs and controls, template protection, de-identification, and comparison of algorithm, human, and combined algorithm-human recognition capability;

(B) develop an approach for testing software and cloud-based biometrics applications, including remote systems, in Institute test facilities;

(C) establish reference use cases for biometric identification technologies and performance criteria for assessing each use case, including accuracy, efficacy, and bias metrics;

(D) produce public-facing reports of the findings from such testing for a general audience;

(E) develop policies and procedures accounting for the legal and social implications of activities under this paragraph when working with a foreign entity of concern (as such term is defined in section 19221 of this title);

(F) establish procedures to prioritize testing of biometrics identification technologies developed by entities headquartered in the United States; and

(G) conduct such other activities as determined necessary by the Director.

(c) GAO report to Congress

Not later than 18 months after August 9, 2022, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a detailed report to Congress on the impact of biometric identification technologies on historically marginalized communities, including low-income communities and minority religious, racial, and ethnic groups. Such report should be made publicly available on an internet website.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10226, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1479.)

§18935. Dissemination of resources for research institutions

(a) Dissemination of resources for research institutions

(1) In general

Not later than one year after August 9, 2022, the Director shall, using the authorities of the Director under subsections (c)(15) and (e)(1)(A)(ix) of section 272 of title 15, disseminate and make publicly available tailored resources to help qualifying institutions identify, assess, manage, and reduce their cybersecurity risk related to conducting research.

(2) Requirements

The Director shall ensure that the resources disseminated pursuant to paragraph (1)—

(A) are generally applicable and usable by a wide range of qualifying institutions;

(B) vary with the nature and size of the qualifying institutions, and the nature and sensitivity of the data collected or stored on the information systems or devices of the qualifying institutions;

(C) include elements that promote awareness of simple, basic controls, a workplace cybersecurity culture, and third-party stakeholder relationships, to assist qualifying institutions in mitigating common cybersecurity risks;

(D) include case studies, examples, and scenarios of practical application;

(E) are outcomes-based and can be implemented using a variety of technologies that are commercial and off-the-shelf; and

(F) to the extent practicable, are based on international technical standards.

(3) National cybersecurity awareness and education program

The Director shall ensure that the resources disseminated under paragraph (1) are consistent with the efforts of the Director under section 7443 of title 15.

(4) Updates

The Director shall review periodically and update the resources under paragraph (1) as the Director determines appropriate.

(5) Voluntary resources

The use of the resources disseminated under paragraph (1) shall be considered voluntary.

(b) Other Federal cybersecurity requirements

Nothing in this section may be construed to supersede, alter, or otherwise affect any cybersecurity requirements applicable to Federal agencies.

(c) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Qualifying institutions

The term "qualifying institutions" means institutions of higher education that are awarded in excess of $50,000,000 per year in total Federal research funding.

(2) Resources

The term "resources" means guidelines, tools, best practices, technical standards, methodologies, and other ways of providing information.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10229, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1481.)

§18936. Neutron scattering

(a) Strategic plan for the Institute neutron reactor

The Director shall develop a strategic plan for the future of the NIST Center for Neutron Research after the current neutron reactor is decommissioned, including—

(1) a succession plan for the reactor, including a roadmap with timeline and milestones;

(2) conceptual design of a new reactor and accompanying facilities, as appropriate; and

(3) a plan to minimize disruptions to the user community during the transition.

(b) Coordination with the Department of Energy

The Secretary, acting through the Director, shall coordinate with the Secretary of Energy on issues related to Federal support for neutron science, including estimation of long-term needs for research using neutron sources, and planning efforts for future facilities to meet such needs.

(c) Report to Congress

Not later than 30 months after August 9, 2022, the Director shall submit to Congress the plan required under subsection (a), and shall notify Congress of any substantial updates to such plan in subsequent years.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10231, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1483.)

§18937. Artificial intelligence

The Director shall continue to support the development of artificial intelligence and data science, and carry out the activities of the National Artificial Intelligence Initiative Act of 2020 authorized in division E of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 (Public Law 116–283), including through—

(1) expanding the Institute's capabilities, including scientific staff and research infrastructure;

(2) supporting measurement research and development for advanced computer chips and hardware designed for artificial intelligence systems;

(3) supporting the development of technical standards and guidelines that promote safe and trustworthy artificial intelligence systems, such as enhancing the accuracy, explainability, privacy, reliability, robustness, safety, security, and mitigation of harmful bias in artificial intelligence systems;

(4) creating a framework for managing risks associated with artificial intelligence systems; and

(5) developing and publishing cybersecurity tools, encryption methods, and best practices for artificial intelligence and data science.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10232(a), Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1484.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The National Artificial Intelligence Initiative Act of 2020, referred to in introductory provisions of subsec. (a), is div. E of Pub. L. 116–283, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4523, which is classified principally to chapter 119 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of div. E to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9401 of Title 15 and Tables.

Division E of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, referred to in introductory provisions of subsec. (a), is div. E of Pub. L. 116–283, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3388, also known as the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

§18938. Sustainable chemistry research and education

In accordance with section 9303 of title 15, the Director shall carry out activities in support of sustainable chemistry, including coordinating and partnering with academia, industry, nonprofit organizations, and other entities in activities to support clean, safe, and economic alternatives, technologies, and methodologies to traditional chemical products and processes.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10233, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1484.)

§18939. Premise plumbing research

(a) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Director, shall create a program, in consultation with the Environmental Protection Agency, for premise plumbing research, including to—

(1) conduct metrology research on premise plumbing in relation to water safety, security, efficiency, sustainability, and resilience; and

(2) coordinate research activities with academia, the private sector, nonprofit organizations, and other Federal agencies.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the term "premise plumbing" means the water distribution system located within the property lines of a property, including all buildings and permanent structures on such property. Such term includes building supply and distribution pipes, fixtures, fittings, water heaters, water-treating and water-using equipment, and all respective joints, connections, devices, and appurtenances.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10234, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1485.)

§18940. Dr. David Satcher Cybersecurity Education Grant Program

(a) Authorization of grants

(1) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Director shall carry out the Dr. David Satcher Cybersecurity Education Grant Program by—

(A) awarding grants to assist institutions of higher education that have an enrollment of needy students, historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges and Universities, and minority-serving institutions, to establish or expand cybersecurity programs, to build and upgrade institutional capacity to better support new or existing cybersecurity programs, including cybersecurity partnerships with public and private entities, and to support such institutions on the path to producing qualified entrants in the cybersecurity workforce or becoming a National Center of Academic Excellence in Cybersecurity; and

(B) awarding grants to build capacity at institutions of higher education that have an enrollment of needy students, historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges and Universities, and minority-serving institutions, to expand cybersecurity education opportunities, cybersecurity programs, cybersecurity research, and cybersecurity partnerships with public and private entities.

(2) Reservation

The Director shall award not less than 50 percent of the amount available for grants under this section to historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges and Universities, and minority-serving institutions.

(3) Coordination

The Director shall carry out this section in coordination with appropriate Federal agencies, including the Departments of Homeland Security, Education, and Labor.

(4) Sunset

The Director's authority to award grants under paragraph (1) shall terminate on the date that is 5 years after the date the Director first awards a grant under paragraph (1).

(b) Applications

An eligible institution seeking a grant under subsection (a) shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may reasonably require, including a statement of how the institution will use the funds awarded through the grant to expand cybersecurity education opportunities at the eligible institution.

(c) Activities

An eligible institution that receives a grant under this section may use the funds awarded through such grant for increasing research, education, technical, partnership, and innovation capacity, including for—

(1) building and upgrading institutional capacity to better support new or existing cybersecurity programs, including cybersecurity partnerships with public and private entities;

(2) building and upgrading institutional capacity to provide hands-on research and training experiences for undergraduate and graduate students; and

(3) outreach and recruitment to ensure students are aware of such new or existing cybersecurity programs, including cybersecurity partnerships with public and private entities.

(d) Reporting requirements

Not later than—

(1) one year after the effective date of this section, as provided in subsection (f), and annually thereafter until the Director submits the report under paragraph (2), the Director shall prepare and submit to Congress a report on the status and progress of implementation of the grant program under this section, including on the number and demographics of institutions participating, the number and nature of students served by cybersecurity programs at institutions receiving grants, as well as the number of certificates or degrees awarded through such cybersecurity programs, the level of funding provided to grant recipients, the types of activities being funded by the grants program, and plans for future implementation and development; and

(2) five years after the effective date of this section, as provided in subsection (f), the Director shall prepare and submit to Congress a report on the status of cybersecurity education programming and capacity-building at institutions receiving grants under this section, including changes in the scale and scope of these programs, associated facilities, or in accreditation status, and on the educational and employment outcomes of students participating in cybersecurity programs that have received support under this section.

(e) Performance metrics

The Director shall establish performance metrics for grants awarded under this section.

(f) Effective date

This section shall take effect 1 year after August 9, 2022.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10235, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1485.)

Part B—General Activities

§18951. International standards development

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that—

(1) the principles of openness, transparency, due process, balance of interests, appeals, and consensus in the development of international standards are critical;

(2) voluntary consensus standards, developed through an industry-led process, serve as the cornerstone of the United States standardization system and have become the basis of a sound national economy and the key to global market access;

(3) strengthening the unique United States public-private partnerships approach to standards development is critical to United States economic competitiveness; and

(4) the United States Government should ensure cooperation and coordination across Federal agencies to partner with and support private sector stakeholders to continue to shape international dialogues in regard to standards development for emerging technologies.

(b) International standards engagement

(1) In general

The Director shall lead information exchange and coordination among Federal agencies and communication from Federal agencies to the private sector of the United States to ensure effective Federal engagement in the development and use of international technical standards.

(2) Requirements

To support private sector-led engagement and ensure effective Federal engagement in the development and use of international technical standards, the Director shall consider—

(A) the role and needs of the Federal Government with respect to international technical standards;

(B) organizations developing international technical standards of interest to the United States, United States representation and influence in these organizations, and key contributors for technical and leadership expertise in these organizations;

(C) support for persons with domain subject matter expertise, especially from small businesses located in the United States, to influence and engage in technical standards leadership positions, working groups and meetings;

(D) opportunities for partnerships for supporting international technical standards from across the Federal Government, Federally funded research and development centers, university-affiliated research centers, institutions of higher education, industry, industry associations, nonprofit organizations, and other key contributors;

(E) support for activities to encourage the adoption of technical standards developed in the United States to be adopted by international standards organizations; and

(F) other activities determined by the Director to be necessary to support United States participation in international standards development, economic competitiveness, and national security in the development and use of international technical standards.

(c) Capacity building guidance

The Director shall support education and workforce development efforts to promote United States participation in international standards organizations. The Director shall—

(1) identify and create, as appropriate, technical standards education and training resources for interested businesses, industry associations, academia, nonprofit organizations, Federal agencies, and other relevant standards contributors, including activities targeted at integrating standards content into undergraduate and graduate curricula in science, engineering, business, public policy, and law;

(2) conduct outreach, including to private sector leaders, to support engagement by more United States stakeholders in international technical standards development; and

(3) other activities determined necessary by the Director to support increased engagement, influence, and leadership of United States organizations in the development of international technical standards.

(d) Capacity building pilot program

(1) In general

The Director, in coordination with the Director of the National Science Foundation, and the heads of other relevant Federal agencies, as appropriate, shall establish or enter into cooperative agreements with appropriate nongovernmental organizations to establish a 5-year pilot program to award grants, on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis, to private sector entities, institutions of higher education, or nonprofit institutions based in the United States to support increased participation and leadership by small business and academic interests in international standards organizations.

(2) Use of funds

Grants awarded to eligible entities under this subsection may be used to cover reasonable costs, up to a specified ceiling set by the Director, of activities to support increased engagement and leadership of eligible entity employees in international standards organizations, which may include costs associated with—

(A) travel;

(B) education and training;

(C) dues or fees related to participation in technical standards development activities; and

(D) other such costs that the Director determines may reasonably support participation of the eligible entity in international standards organizations.

(3) Award criteria

The Director shall ensure that award decisions made under this subsection take into account the extent to which the eligible entity—

(A) employs full-time an individual or individuals who demonstrate deep technical standards expertise;

(B) employs full-time an individual or individuals who demonstrate knowledge with the processes of the standards development organization in which the eligible entity intends to engage using grant funds;

(C) proposes a feasible set of standard deliverables to be completed over the period of the grant;

(D) explains how the eligible entity will fund additional standards-related activities necessary to achieve the deliverables referred to in subparagraph (C) if the grant funds are insufficient to cover all costs of such activities;

(E) commits personnel with appropriate expertise to regularly engage in relevant international organizations responsible for developing technical standards over the period of the grant; and

(F) identifies a clearly defined current or anticipated market need or gap that would be addressed by their standards development proposal.

(4) Eligibility

A small business concern (as such term is defined in section 632 of title 15 based in the United States, an institution of higher education, or a nonprofit institution (as such term is defined in section 3703 of title 15) shall be eligible to receive grants under this program.

(5) Guidance on application and award process

The Director shall develop, and periodically update, guidance, including eligibility, applicant disclosure requirements, grant amount and duration, the merit review process, priority areas for standards development, and any additional requirements for how grants are awarded under this subsection.

(6) Merit review process

The Director shall ensure that grants under this subsection are awarded based on a competitive, merit review process including the use of merit review panels that may include experts from both government, the private sector, and, as appropriate, academic, nonprofit, or other organizations as the Director determines appropriate.

(7) Consultation

In carrying out the pilot program established under this subsection, the Director shall consult with other Federal agencies, private sector organizations, institutions of higher education, and nonprofit organizations to help inform the pilot program, including the guidance developed under paragraph (5).

(8) Report to Congress

The Director shall brief Congress after the second year of the pilot program and each year following that includes the following:

(A) An assessment of the effectiveness of the pilot program for improving the participation of United States small businesses, United States institutions of higher education, or other nonprofit research institutions in international standards organizations, including—

(i) the type of activities supported, including leadership roles;

(ii) the international standards organizations participated in; and

(iii) the technical areas covered by the activities.


(B) If determined effective, a plan for permanent implementation of the pilot program.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10245, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1488.)

§18952. Standards development organization grants

(a) Nongovernmental standards development organization defined

In this section, the term "nongovernmental standards development organization" means a nongovernmental standards development organization (as defined in section 2(e) of the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–119 (relating to Federal participation in the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in conformity assessment activities), or any successor document) that adheres to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Essential Requirements for Due Process for American National Standards.

(b) Grant authority

The Secretary of Commerce, acting through the Director, shall establish a competitive program of grants for nongovernmental standards development organizations for the purposes described in subsection (c).

(c) Purposes

A grant awarded under subsection (b) shall be used to develop, approve, disseminate, maintain, and review forensic science voluntary consensus standards and best practices that shall be available to the public free of charge.

(d) Additional requirements

The Director may promulgate such requirements, guidelines, and procedures as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2022 through 2026.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10248, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1495.)

Part C—Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership

§18961. National Supply Chain Database

(a) Establishment of National Supply Chain Database

The Director shall establish a voluntary National Supply Chain Database, subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) Purpose

The purpose of the voluntary National Supply Chain Database shall be to assist the Federal Government and industry sectors in minimizing disruptions to the United States supply chain by having an assessment of United States manufacturers' capabilities.

(c) Study on National Supply Chain Database

In establishing the National Supply Chain Database, the Director shall consider the findings and recommendations from the study authorized pursuant to section 9413 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 (Public Law 116–283), including measures to secure and protect the Database from adversarial attacks and vulnerabilities.

(d) Database and Manufacturing Extension Partnership

(1) In general

The Director shall establish the infrastructure for the National Supply Chain Database through the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership, established pursuant to section 278k of title 15, by connecting information from the Centers (as such term is defined in such section) through the Database.

(2) National view

The Director shall ensure that connections under paragraph (1)—

(A) provide a national overview of the networks of supply chains of the United States; and

(B) support understanding of whether there is a need for some manufacturers to retool in some critical areas to meet the urgent need for key products.

(3) Individual Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership Center databases

(A) In general

The Director shall ensure that—

(i) each Center is connected to the National Supply Chain Database; and

(ii) each supply chain database maintained by a Center is interoperable with the Database.

(B) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section may be construed to require a State or territory of the United States to establish a new supply chain database through the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership program.

(e) Maintenance of National Supply Chain Database

The Director, acting through the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership program or a designee of the program—

(1) shall maintain the National Supply Chain Database as an integration of State-level databases from the Center of each State or territory of the United States;

(2) may populate the Database with information from past or current clients of Centers; and

(3) may include in the Database information voluntarily provided by non-client private sector entities based and operating in the United States, as applicable and appropriate.

(f) Database content

The National Supply Chain Database may include the following:

(1) Basic private sector entity information.

(2) An overview of capabilities, accreditations, and products.

(3) Proprietary information.

(g) Standard classification system

The National Supply Chain Database may, where applicable, use the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Codes as follows:

(1) Sector 31-33 – Manufacturing.

(2) Sector 54 – Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services.

(3) Sector 48-49 – Transportation and Warehousing.

(h) Levels

The National Supply Chain Database shall be multi-leveled as agreed to under terms of mutual disclosure as follows:

(1) Level 1 shall have the capability to provide basic private sector entity information and shall be available to the public.

(2) Level 2 shall have the capability to provide a deeper, nonproprietary overview into capabilities, products, and accreditations and shall be available to all companies that contribute to the Database.

(3) Level 3 shall have the capability to hold proprietary information.

(i) Matters relating to disclosure and access

(1) FOIA exemption

The National Supply Chain Database, and any information contained therein that is not publicly released by the Institute, shall be exempt from public disclosure under section 552(b)(3) of title 5.

(2) Limitation on access to content

Access to a contributing private sector entity's nonpublic content in the National Supply Chain Database shall be limited to—

(A) the contributing private sector entity, the Institute, and staff from a Center who sign a nondisclosure agreement, and

(B) other Federal departments and agencies,


as the Director considers appropriate.

(3) Aggregated information

The Director may make aggregated, de-identified information available to contributing companies, Centers, or the public, as the Director considers appropriate, in support of the purposes of this section.

(j) Coordination with National Technology and Industrial Base Council

The Director, acting through the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership program, may work with the National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council established under section 4812 of title 10 as the Director considers appropriate, to include in the National Supply Chain Database information regarding the defense manufacturing supply chain.

(k) Protections

(1) In general

Supply chain information that is voluntarily and lawfully submitted to the National Supply Chain Database by a private sector entity and accompanied by an express statement described in paragraph (2)—

(A) shall be exempt from disclosure under section 552(b)(3) of title 5;

(B) may not be made available pursuant to any Federal, State, local, or Tribal authority pursuant to any Federal, State, local, or Tribal law requiring public disclosure of information or records; and

(C) may not, without the written consent of the private sector entity submitting such information, be used directly by the Director, or any other Federal, State, or local authority in any civil enforcement action brought by a Federal, State, Tribal, or local authority.

(2) Express statement

The express statement described in this paragraph, with respect to information or records, is—

(A) in the case of written information or records, a written marking on the information or records substantially similar to the following: "This information is voluntarily submitted to the Federal Government in expectation of protection from disclosure as provided by the provisions of section 10253(k) of the Research and Development, Competition, and Innovation Act."; or

(B) in the case of oral information, a written statement similar to the statement described in subparagraph (A) submitted within a reasonable period following the oral communication.

(l) Rules of construction

(1) Private entities

Nothing in this section may be construed to require any private sector entity to share data, including proprietary information, with the Director or the National Supply Chain Database.

(2) Prohibition on new regulatory authority

Nothing in this section may be construed to grant the Director, or the head of any other Federal agency, any authority to promulgate regulations or set standards on manufacturers, based on data within the National Supply Chain Database, that was not in effect on the day before August 9, 2022.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10253, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1500.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 9413 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, referred to in subsec. (c), is section 9413 of Pub. L. 116–283, div. H, title XCIV, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4819, also known as the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. Section 9413 of the Act is not classified to the Code.

Section 10253(k) of the Research and Development, Competition, and Innovation Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(2)(A), is section 10253(k) of Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1500, which is classified to subsec. (k) of this section.

Part D—Manufacturing USA Program

§18971. Expanding opportunities through the Manufacturing USA Program

(a) In general

The Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of such other Federal agencies as the Secretary of Commerce considers relevant, shall coordinate with existing and new Manufacturing USA institutes to integrate covered entities as active members of the Manufacturing USA institutes, including through the development of preferences in selection criteria for proposals to create new Manufacturing USA institutes or renew existing Manufacturing USA institutes that include one or more covered entities.

(b) Covered entities

For purposes of this subsection, a covered entity is—

(1) an historically Black college and university;

(2) a Tribal College or University;

(3) a minority-serving institution;

(4) a minority business enterprise (as such term is defined in section 1400.2 of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, or successor regulation); or

(5) a rural-serving institution of higher education (as such term is defined in section 1161q of title 20).

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10262, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1504.)

§18972. Promoting domestic production of technologies developed under Manufacturing USA Program

(a) Department of Commerce policies to promote domestic production of technologies developed under Manufacturing USA Network

(1) Policies

(A) In general

Each agency head (as such term is defined in section 278s(a) of title 15) and the Secretary of Defense shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, establish policies to promote the domestic production of technologies developed by the Manufacturing USA Network.

(B) Elements

The policies established under subparagraph (A) shall include the following:

(i) Measures to partner domestic developers of goods, services, or technologies by Manufacturing USA Network activities with domestic manufacturers and sources of financing.

(ii) Measures to develop and provide incentives to promote transfer of intellectual property and goods, services, or technologies developed by Manufacturing USA Network activities to domestic manufacturers.

(iii) Measures to assist with supplier scouting and other supply chain development, including the use of the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership under section 278k of title 15 to carry out such measures.

(iv) A process to review and approve or deny membership in a Manufacturing USA institute by foreign-owned entities, especially from countries of concern, including the People's Republic of China.

(v) Measures to prioritize Federal procurement of goods, services, or technologies developed by the Manufacturing USA Network activities from domestic sources, as appropriate.

(C) Processes for waivers

The policies established under this paragraph shall include processes to permit waivers, on a case by case basis, for policies that promote domestic production based on cost, availability, severity of technical and mission requirements, emergency requirements, operational needs, other legal or international treaty obligations, or other factors determined important to the success of the Manufacturing USA Program.

(2) Prohibition

(A) In general

A company of the People's Republic of China may not participate in the Manufacturing USA Program without a waiver, as described in paragraph (1)(C).

(B) Company defined

In this paragraph, the term "company" has the meaning given such term in section 847(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (Public Law 116–92; 10 U.S.C. 4819 note).

(b) to (d) Omitted

(e) Advice from the United States Manufacturing Council

The Secretary shall seek advice from the United States Manufacturing Council of the International Trade Administration of the Department of Commerce on matters concerning investment in and support of the manufacturing workforce within the Manufacturing USA Program.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title II, §10263, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1504.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10263 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsecs. (b) to (d) of section 10263 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 278s of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

SUBCHAPTER III—NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION FOR THE FUTURE

Part A—Preliminary Matters

§18981. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Board

The term "Board" means the National Science Board.

(2) Director

The term "Director" means the Director of the National Science Foundation.

(3) NSF INCLUDES

The term "NSF INCLUDES" means the initiative carried out under section 19012 of this title.

(4) STEM ecosystem

The term "STEM ecosystem" means a local, regional, or statewide network, consortium, or multi-sector partnership, which may be led or co-led by a nonprofit organizational entity, that is operating in the United States with the goal of supporting participation in STEM study, activities, and career pathways as defined in the CoSTEM Annual Progress Report of 2020 with a broad range of non-Federal partners.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10302, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1506.)

Part B—STEM Education

§18991. PreK–12 STEM education

(a) National Academies study

Not later than 120 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall enter into an agreement with the National Academies to conduct a study to—

(1) review the research literature and identify research gaps regarding the interconnected factors that foster and hinder successful implementation of promising, evidence-based PreK–12 STEM education innovations at the local, regional, and national level;

(2) present a compendium of promising, evidence-based PreK–12 STEM education practices, models, programs, and technologies;

(3) identify barriers to widespread and sustained implementation of such innovations; and

(4) make recommendations to the Foundation, the Department of Education, the National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education, State and local educational agencies, and other relevant stakeholders on measures to address such barriers.

(b) Omitted

(c) [Log 907 S2522] 1 National STEM Teacher Corps pilot

(1) Purpose

It is the purpose of this subsection to elevate the profession of STEM teaching by establishing a National STEM Teacher Corps pilot program to recognize outstanding STEM teachers in our Nation's classrooms, rewards 2 them for their accomplishments, elevates 3 their public profile, and creates 4 rewarding career paths to which all STEM teachers can aspire, both to prepare future STEM researchers and to create a scientifically literate public.

(2) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the National STEM Teacher Corps.

(B) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(i) an institution of higher education; or

(ii) a consortium consisting of an institution of higher education and one or more of the following:

(I) A State educational agency (as defined in section 7801 of title 20).

(II) A local educational agency (as defined in section 7801 of title 20).

(III) An education nonprofit Association.

(IV) A cross sector 5 STEM organization.

(V) A private entity, including a STEM-related business.

(C) High-need school

The term "high-need school" has the meaning given the term in section 6631(b) of title 20.

(D) Professional development

The term "professional Development" 6 has the meaning given the term in section 7801 of title 20.

(E) Corps Alliance

The term "Corps Alliance" means a regionally or topically based award under this subsection.

(F) National STEM Teacher Corps Advisory Board

The term "National STEM Teacher Corps Advisory Board" means the Advisory Board for the National STEM Teacher Corps established under paragraph (5).

(3) Establishment of National STEM Teacher Corps

The Director may, subject to the availability of appropriations, establish within the Foundation, a National STEM Teacher Corps 10-year pilot program to be administered by the Administrator, who shall be appointed by the Director. As appropriate, the Director may use existing NSF programs to establish and execute this program.

(4) Duties of the Administrator

The Administrator shall—

(A) create a process and standards for selection of eligible applicants to become members of the National STEM Teacher Corps, including—

(i) uniform selection criteria that includes 7

(I) deep knowledge of STEM content and pedagogy;

(II) a passion for STEM subjects and dedication to teaching, evidence of leadership skills, and potential for continued career growth as an educator; and

(III) demonstrated experience increasing STEM student achievement and STEM participation rates for all students, particularly those from rural and high-need schools; and


(ii) a uniform selection process, including a comprehensive application that includes recommendations and other relevant professional information;


(B) promote the National STEM Teacher Corps and elevate best practices that emerge from the National STEM Teacher Corps to a national audience;

(C) evaluate the operation and effectiveness of the Corps alliances; and

(D) evaluate the overall and long-term impact of the National STEM Teacher Corps by—

(i) documenting, monitoring, and assessing the program outcomes or impact on the STEM careers of participants; and

(ii) documenting, monitoring, and assessing the program outcomes for the STEM education profession nationwide, particularly for rural and high-need schools.

(5) National STEM Teacher Corps Advisory Board

(A) Establishment

There is established a National STEM Teacher Corps Advisory Board to advise the Director on matters pertaining to the National STEM Teacher Corps for the length of the pilot program.

(B) Composition

(i) In general

The membership of the National STEM Teacher Corps Advisory Board shall—

(I) be appointed by the Director;

(II) include a representative from each of the following: School leaders, STEM researchers, STEM education researchers, Business leaders, PreK–12 STEM educators, and Students pursuing a postsecondary STEM degree; and

(III) be geographically diverse.

(ii) Existing committee

The Director may assign the duties of the National STEM Teacher Corps Advisory Board to another advisory committee of the Foundation.

(6) Duties of the Corps alliances

Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the Administrator may make awards on a competitive, merit-review basis, to establish Corps alliances at eligible entities. Activities carried out by such alliances shall include—

(A) engaging local partners, which may include local educational agencies, institutions of higher education, STEM organizations, or education nonprofit organizations, to—

(i) develop and serve the community of National STEM Teacher Corps members within the region or topic area, in coordination with local partners to carry out day-to-day activities;

(ii) coordinate professional development activities, including activities led by National STEM Teacher Corps members;

(iii) connect National STEM Teacher Corps members with existing educator professional development programs and coordinate members' involvement as cooperating teachers or mentors;

(iv) seek opportunities to involve teachers who are not members of the National STEM Teacher Corps to participate in National STEM Teacher Corps activities; and

(v) build partnerships with existing education organizations and other efforts by State educational agencies and local educational agencies that operate programs relevant to the National STEM Teacher Corps and its activities;


(B) recruiting eligible applicants, with a focus on recruiting diverse STEM educators to advance equity based on race, ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, age, disability status, geography, and language ability;

(C) screening, interviewing, and selecting members of the National STEM Teacher Corps using procedures and standards provided by the Administrator;

(D) coordinating the online network that supports all National STEM Teacher Corps members in the region or topic area;

(E) convening occasional meetings of National STEM Teacher Corps members in a region or topic area;

(F) creating opportunities for the professional growth of National STEM Teacher Corps members, with a focus on increasing STEM student achievement and STEM participation rates for all students, particularly those from rural and high-need schools; and

(G) supporting the retention and success of National STEM Teacher Corps members in the region or topic area.

(7) Duties of members of the National STEM Teacher Corps

An applicant that is selected by a Corps alliance to be a member of the National STEM Teacher Corps shall—

(A) serve a 4-year term with a possibility of reappointment;

(B) receive an annual stipend in an amount not less than $10,000; and

(C) have substantial responsibilities, including—

(i) working with other members of the National STEM Teacher Corps to develop and improve innovative teaching practices, including practices such as inquiry-based learning;

(ii) participating in professional development in innovative teaching methodology and mentorship; and

(iii) continuing to excel in teaching the member's own students, with a focus on advancing equity by spending additional time teaching and coaching underserved students to increase STEM student achievement and STEM participation rates for students from rural and high-need schools.

(8) Evaluation

The Director, acting through the Administrator, shall submit a report to Congress after the third year of the pilot program that includes—

(A) an assessment, drawing on the evaluations the Administrator shall conduct under subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (4), and other sources of information, of the effectiveness of the pilot program in recruiting and retaining high-quality STEM teachers in the selected regions or topic areas, particularly in high-need and rural schools; and

(B) if deemed effective, a proposal to Congress for permanent implementation of the pilot program.

(9) Sunset

The authority to carry out this subsection shall terminate on the date that is 15 years after August 9, 2022.

(10) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $60,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2032 to carry out this subsection.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10311, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1510.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10311 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsec. (b) of section 10311 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 1862q of this title.

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be "reward".

3 So in original. Probably should be "elevate".

4 So in original. Probably should be "create".

5 So in original. Probably should be "cross-sector".

6 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

7 So in original. Probably should be "include".

§18992. Undergraduate STEM education

(a) Research on STEM education and workforce needs

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to four-year institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research and development activities to—

(1) encourage greater collaboration and coordination between institutions of higher education and industry to enhance education, foster hands-on learn experiences, and improve alignment with workforce needs;

(2) understand the current composition of the STEM workforce and the factors that influence growth, retention, and development of that workforce;

(3) increase the size, diversity, capability, and flexibility of the STEM workforce; and

(4) increase dissemination and widespread adoption of effective practices in undergraduate education and workforce development.

(b) Omitted

(c) Innovations in STEM education at community colleges

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to advance research on the nature of learning and teaching at community colleges and to improve outcomes for students who enter the workforce upon completion of their STEM degree or credential or transfer to 4-year institutions, including by—

(A) examining how to scale up successful programs at community colleges that are improving student outcomes in foundational STEM courses;

(B) supporting research on effective STEM teaching practices in community college settings;

(C) designing and developing new STEM curricula;

(D) providing STEM students with hands-on training and research experiences, internships, and other experiential learning opportunities;

(E) increasing access to high quality STEM education through new technologies;

(F) re-skilling or up-skilling incumbent workers for new STEM jobs;

(G) building STEM career and seamless transfer pathways; and

(H) developing novel mechanisms to identify and recruit talent into STEM programs, in particular talent from groups historically underrepresented in STEM.

(2) Partnerships

In carrying out activities under this subsection, the Director shall encourage applications to develop, enhance, or expand cooperative STEM education and training partnerships between institutions of higher education, industry, and labor organizations.

(d) Improving access to STEM education at career and technical education institutions

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education (including postsecondary vocational institutions) to support career and technical education in STEM and computer science related fields.

(2) Priority

In making awards under this subsection, the Director shall give priority to institutions that demonstrate effective strategies to recruit and provide career and technical education to veterans and members of the Armed Forces transitioning to the private sector workforce.

(3) Career and technical education defined

In this subsection, the term "career and technical education" has the meaning given that term in section 2302 of title 20.

(e) Course-based undergraduate research experiences

(1) In general

The Director shall carry out a 4-year pilot program under which the Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education and nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to establish a total of not fewer than five Centers to develop and scale up successful models for providing undergraduate students with hands-on, course-based research experiences.

(2) Use of funds

Awards made under this paragraph shall be used to—

(A) develop, assess, and disseminate models for providing undergraduate students with course-based research experiences across STEM disciplines and education levels;

(B) identify and address opportunities and challenges in facilitating implementation across a broad range of institution types, including historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, minority serving institutions and community colleges;

(C) identify and develop best practices to address barriers for faculty, including institutional culture, resources, and incentive structures;

(D) identify and address factors that may facilitate or discourage participation by students from all backgrounds;

(E) provide faculty with curriculum, professional development, training, networking opportunities, and other support to enable the development, adaptation, or expansion of a course-based research experience; and

(F) collect data and carry out research to evaluate the impacts of course-based undergraduate research experiences on the STEM workforce.

(3) Partnerships

In making awards under this paragraph, the Director shall consider the extent to which the proposed Center will establish partnerships among multiple types of academic institutions, including community colleges, emerging research institutions, EPSCoR institutions, historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, and minority-serving institutions, the private sector, and other relevant stakeholders in supporting programs and activities to facilitate faculty training and the widespread and sustained implementation of promising, evidence-based practices, models, programs, and curriculum.

(4) Report

Not later than 180 days after the date on which the pilot program is completed, the Director shall submit to Congress a report that includes—

(A) an assessment, that includes feedback from the research community, of the effectiveness of the pilot program in increasing the number, diversity, and workforce readiness of STEM graduates; and

(B) if determined to be effective, a plan for permanent implementation of the pilot program.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10312, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1516.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10312 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsec. (b) of section 10312 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 1862i of this title. Subsec. (f) of section 10312 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167 amended sections 1862h, 1862i, and 1862j of this title.

§18993. Graduate STEM education

(a) Mentoring and professional development

(1) Mentoring plans

(A) Omitted

(B) Evaluation

Not later than 120 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall enter into an agreement with a qualified independent organization to evaluate the effectiveness of the postdoctoral mentoring plan requirement for improving mentoring for Foundation-supported postdoctoral researchers.

(2) Career exploration

(A) In general

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education and nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to develop innovative approaches for facilitating career exploration of academic and nonacademic career options and for providing opportunity-broadening experiences, including work-integrated opportunities, for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars that can then be considered, adopted, or adapted by other institutions and to carry out research on the impact and outcomes of such activities.

(B) Review of proposals

In selecting award recipients under this subparagraph, the Director shall consider, at a minimum—

(i) the extent to which the administrators of the institution are committed to making the proposed activity a priority; and

(ii) the likelihood that the institution or organization will sustain or expand the proposed activity effort beyond the period of the award.

(3) Development plans

The Director shall require that annual project reports for awards that support graduate students and postdoctoral scholars include certification by the principal investigator that each graduate student and postdoctoral scholar receiving substantial support from such award, as determined by 1 has developed and annually updated an individual development plan to map educational goals, career exploration, and professional development.

(4) Professional development supplement

The Director shall carry out a five-year pilot initiative to award up to 2,500 administrative supplements of up to $2,000 to existing research awards annually, on a competitive basis, to support professional development experiences for graduate students and postdoctoral researchers who receive a substantial portion of their support under such award, as determined by the Director. Not more than 10 percent of supplements awarded under this subparagraph 2 may be used to support professional development experiences for postdoctoral researchers.

(5) Graduate education research

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research on the graduate education system and outcomes of various interventions and policies, including—

(A) the effects of traineeships, fellowships, internships, and teaching and research assistantships on outcomes for graduate students;

(B) the effects of graduate education and mentoring policies and procedures on degree completion, including differences by—

(i) sex, race and ethnicity, and citizenship; and

(ii) student debt load;


(C) the development and assessment of new or adapted interventions, including approaches that improve mentoring relationships, develop conflict management skills, and promote healthy research teams; and

(D) research, data collection, and assessment of the state of graduate student mental health and wellbeing, factors contributing to and consequences of poor graduate student mental health, and the development, adaptation, and assessment of evidence-based strategies and policies to support emotional wellbeing and mental health.

(b) Graduate Research Fellowship Program update

(1) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that the Foundation should increase the number of new graduate research fellows supported annually over the next 5 years to no fewer than 3,000 fellows.

(2) Omitted

(3) Cybersecurity scholarships and graduate fellowships

The Director shall ensure that students pursuing master's degrees and doctoral degrees in fields relating to cybersecurity are eligible to apply for scholarships and graduate fellowships under the Graduate Research Fellowship Program under section 1869 of this title.

(c) Study on graduate student funding

(1) In general

Not later than 120 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall enter into an agreement with a qualified independent organization to evaluate—

(A) the role of the Foundation in supporting graduate student education and training through fellowships, traineeships, and other funding models; and

(B) the impact of different funding mechanisms on graduate student experiences and outcomes, including whether such mechanisms have differential impacts on subsets of the student population.

(2) Report

Not later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, the Director shall publish the results of the evaluation carried out under paragraph (1), including a recommendation for the appropriate balance between fellowships, traineeships, and other funding models.

(d) [LOG 165 H10304(g)/S2208] 1 AI scholarship-for-service

(1) Definition of executive agency

In this subsection, the term "executive agency" has the meaning given the term "Executive agency" in section 105 of title 5.

(2) AI scholarship-for-service initiative report

Not later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, the Director, in coordination with the Office of Personnel Management, shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, and the Committee on Oversight and Reform of the House of Representatives a report on the need and feasibility, and if appropriate, plans to implement a program to recruit and train the next generation of artificial intelligence professionals to meet the needs of Federal, State, local, and Tribal governments. The report shall include—

(A) recent statistical data on the size, composition, and educational requirements of the Federal AI workforce, including an assessment of current and future demand for additional AI professionals across the Federal Government;

(B) an assessment of the capacity of institutions of higher education to produce graduates with degrees, certifications, and relevant skills related to artificial intelligence that meet the current and future needs of the Federal workforce; and

(C) an evaluation of the need for and feasibility of establishing a scholarship-for-service program to recruit and train the next generation of artificial intelligence professionals to meet the needs of Federal, State, local, and Tribal governments, including opportunities for leveraging existing processes and resources for administering the Federal Cyber Scholarship-for-Service Program established under section 7442 of title 15 in standing up such a program.

(3) Program establishment

Upon submitting the report required in paragraph (2), the Director, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the heads of other agencies with appropriate scientific knowledge, is authorized to establish a Federal artificial intelligence scholarship-for-service program (referred to in this section as the Federal AI Scholarship-for-Service Program) to recruit and train artificial intelligence professionals to lead and support the application of artificial intelligence to the missions of Federal, State, local, and Tribal governments.

(4) Qualified institution of higher education

The Director, in coordination with the heads of other agencies with appropriate scientific knowledge, shall establish criteria to designate qualified institutions of higher education that shall be eligible to participate in the Federal AI Scholarship-for-Service program. Such criteria shall include—

(A) measures of the institution's demonstrated excellence in the education of students in the field of artificial intelligence; and

(B) measures of the institution's ability to attract and retain a diverse and nontraditional student population in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, which may include the ability to attract women, minorities, and individuals with disabilities.

(5) Program description and components

The Federal AI Scholarship-for-Service Program shall—

(A) provide scholarships through qualified institutions of higher education to students who are enrolled in programs of study at institutions of higher education leading to degrees or concentrations in or related to the artificial intelligence field;

(B) provide the scholarship recipients with summer internship opportunities or other meaningful temporary appointments in the Federal workforce focusing on AI projects or research;

(C) prioritize the employment placement of scholarship recipients in executive agencies;

(D) identify opportunities to promote multi-disciplinary programs of study that integrate basic or advanced AI training with other fields of study, including those that address the social, economic, legal, and ethical implications of human interaction with AI systems;

(E) support capacity-building education research programs that will enable postsecondary educational institutions to expand their ability to train the next-generation AI workforce, including AI researchers and practitioners;

(F) create courses or training programs in technology ethics for students receiving scholarships; and

(G) award fellowships to masters and doctoral students who are pursuing degrees or research in artificial intelligence and related fields, including in the field of technology ethics.

(6) Scholarship amounts

Each scholarship under paragraph (5) shall be in an amount that covers the student's tuition and fees at the institution for not more than 3 years and provides the student with an additional stipend.

(7) Post-award employment obligations

Each scholarship recipient, as a condition of receiving a scholarship under the program, shall enter into an agreement under which the recipient agrees to work for a period equal to the length of the scholarship, following receipt of the student's degree, in the AI mission of—

(A) an executive agency;

(B) Congress, including any agency, entity, office, or commission established in the legislative branch;

(C) an interstate agency;

(D) a State, local, or Tribal government, which may include instruction in AI-related skill sets in a public school system; or

(E) a State, local, or Tribal government-affiliated nonprofit entity that is considered to be critical infrastructure (as defined in section 5195c(e) of this title).

(8) Hiring authority

(A) Appointment in excepted service

Notwithstanding any provision of chapter 33 of title 5, governing appointments in the competitive service, an executive agency may appoint an individual who has completed the eligible degree program for which a scholarship was awarded to a position in the excepted service in the executive agency.

(B) Noncompetitive conversion

Except as provided in subparagraph (D), upon fulfillment of the service term, an employee appointed under subparagraph (A) may be converted noncompetitively to term, career-conditional, or career appointment.

(C) Timing of conversion

An executive agency may noncompetitively convert a term employee appointed under subparagraph (B) to a career-conditional or career appointment before the term appointment expires.

(D) Authority to decline conversion

An executive agency may decline to make the noncompetitive conversion or appointment under subparagraph (B) for cause.

(9) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a scholarship under this section, an individual shall—

(A) be a citizen or lawful permanent resident of the United States;

(B) demonstrate a commitment to a career in advancing the field of AI;

(C) be—

(i) a full-time student in an eligible degree program at a qualified institution of higher education, as determined by the Director;

(ii) a student pursuing a degree on a less than full-time basis, but not less than half-time basis; or

(iii) an AI faculty member on sabbatical to advance knowledge in the field; and


(D) accept the terms of a scholarship under this section.

(10) Conditions of support

(A) In general

As a condition of receiving a scholarship under this section, a recipient shall agree to provide the qualified institution of higher education with annual verifiable documentation of post-award employment and up-to-date contact information.

(B) Terms

A scholarship recipient under this section shall be liable to the United States as provided in paragraph (12) if the individual—

(i) fails to maintain an acceptable level of academic standing at the applicable institution of higher education, as determined by the Director;

(ii) is dismissed from the applicable institution of higher education for disciplinary reasons;

(iii) withdraws from the eligible degree program before completing the program;

(iv) declares that the individual does not intend to fulfill the post-award employment obligation under this section; or

(v) fails to fulfill the post-award employment obligation of the individual under this section.

(11) Monitoring compliance

As a condition of participating in the program, a qualified institution of higher education shall—

(A) enter into an agreement with the Director to monitor the compliance of scholarship recipients with respect to their post-award employment obligations; and

(B) provide to the Director, on an annual basis, the post-award employment documentation required under paragraph (10) for scholarship recipients through the completion of their post-award employment obligations.

(12) Amount of repayment

(A) Less than 1 year of service

If a circumstance described in paragraph (10) occurs before the completion of 1 year of a post-award employment obligation under this section, the total amount of scholarship awards received by the individual under this section shall—

(i) be repaid; or

(ii) be treated as a loan to be repaid in accordance with paragraph (13).

(B) 1 or more years of service

If a circumstance described in clause (iv) or (v) of paragraph (10)(B) occurs after the completion of 1 or more years of a post-award employment obligation under this section, the total amount of scholarship awards received by the individual under this section, reduced by the ratio of the number of years of service completed divided by the number of years of service required, shall—

(i) be repaid; or

(ii) be treated as a loan to be repaid in accordance with paragraph (13).

(13) Repayments

A loan described in paragraph (12) shall—

(A) be treated as a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan under part D of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087a et seq.); and

(B) be subject to repayment, together with interest thereon accruing from the date of the scholarship award, in accordance with terms and conditions specified by the Director (in consultation with the Secretary of Education).

(14) Collection of repayment

(A) In general

In the event that a scholarship recipient is required to repay the scholarship award under this section, the qualified institution of higher education providing the scholarship shall—

(i) determine the repayment amounts and notify the recipient and the Director of the amounts owed; and

(ii) collect the repayment amounts within a period of time as determined by the Director, or the repayment amounts shall be treated as a loan in accordance with paragraph (13).

(B) Returned to Treasury

Except as provided in subparagraph (C), any repayment under this subsection shall be returned to the Treasury of the United States.

(C) Retain percentage

A qualified institution of higher education may retain a percentage of any repayment the institution collects under this subsection to defray administrative costs associated with the collection. The Director shall establish a fixed percentage that will apply to all eligible entities, and may update this percentage as needed, in the determination of the Director.

(15) Exceptions

The Director may provide for the partial or total waiver or suspension of any service or payment obligation by an individual under this section whenever compliance by the individual with the obligation is impossible or would involve extreme hardship to the individual, or if enforcement of such obligation with respect to the individual would be unconscionable.

(16) Public information

(A) Evaluation

The Director, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, shall annually evaluate and make public, in a manner that protects the personally identifiable information of scholarship recipients, information on the success of recruiting individuals for scholarships under this section and on hiring and retaining those individuals in the public sector AI workforce, including information on—

(i) placement rates;

(ii) where students are placed, including job titles and descriptions;

(iii) salary ranges for students not released from obligations under this section;

(iv) how long after graduation students are placed;

(v) how long students stay in the positions they enter upon graduation;

(vi) how many students are released from obligations; and

(vii) what, if any, remedial training is required.

(B) Reports

The Director, in coordination with the Office of Personnel Management, shall submit, not less frequently than once every 3 years, to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Oversight and Reform of the House of Representatives a report, including the results of the evaluation under subparagraph (A) and any recent statistics regarding the size, composition, and educational requirements of the Federal AI workforce.

(C) Resources

The Director, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, shall provide consolidated and user-friendly online resources for prospective scholarship recipients, including, to the extent practicable—

(i) searchable, up-to-date, and accurate information about participating institutions of higher education and job opportunities related to the AI field; and

(ii) a modernized description of AI careers.

(17) Refresh

Not less than once every 2 years, the Director, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, shall review and update the Federal AI Scholarship-for-Service Program to reflect advances in technology.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10313, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1522.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (d)(13)(A), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219. Part D of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part D (§1087a et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1 of Pub. L. 89–329, set out as a Short Title note under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10313 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsecs. (a)(1)(A) and (b)(2) of section 10313 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167 amended sections 1862o and 1869 of this title, respectively.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

Committee on Oversight and Reform of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Oversight and Accountability of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Eighteenth Congress, Jan. 9, 2023.

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be "paragraph".

§18994. STEM workforce data

(a) Skilled technical workforce portfolio review

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, the Director shall conduct a full portfolio analysis of the Foundation's skilled technical workforce investments across all Directorates in the areas of education, research, infrastructure, data collection, and analysis.

(2) Report

Not later than 180 days after the date of the review under paragraph (1) is complete, the Director shall submit to Congress and make widely available to the public a summary report of the portfolio review.

(b) Survey data

(1) Rotating topic modules

To meet evolving needs for data on the state of the science and engineering workforce, the Director shall assess, through coordination with other Federal statistical agencies and drawing on input from relevant stakeholders, the feasibility and benefits of incorporating questions or topic modules to existing National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics surveys that would vary from cycle to cycle.

(2) New data

Not later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, the Director shall submit to Congress and the Board the results of an assessment, carried out in coordination with other Federal agencies and with input from relevant stakeholders, of the feasibility and benefits of incorporating new questions or topic modules to existing National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics surveys on—

(A) the skilled technical workforce;

(B) working conditions and work-life balance;

(C) harassment and discrimination;

(D) immigration and emigration; and

(E) any other topics at the discretion of the Director.

(3) Longitudinal design

The Director shall continue and accelerate efforts to enhance the usefulness of National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics survey data for longitudinal research and analysis.

(4) Government Accountability Office review

Not later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a report to Congress that—

(A) evaluates Foundation processes for ensuring the data and analysis produced by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics meets current and future needs; and

(B) includes such recommendations as the Comptroller General determines are appropriate to improve such processes.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10314, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1529.)

§18995. Cyber workforce development research and development

(a) In general

The Director shall make awards on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to carry out research on the cyber workforce.

(b) Research

In carrying out research pursuant to subsection (a), the Director shall support research and development activities to—

(1) understand the current state of the cyber workforce, including factors that influence growth, retention, and development of that workforce;

(2) examine paths to entry and re-entry into the cyber workforce;

(3) understand trends of the cyber workforce, including demographic representation, educational and professional backgrounds present, competencies available, and factors that shape employee recruitment, development, and retention and how to increase the size, diversity, and capability of the cyber workforce;

(4) examine and evaluate training practices, models, programs, and technologies; and

(5) other closely related topics as the Director determines appropriate.

(c) Requirements

In carrying out the activities described in subsection (b), the Director shall—

(1) collaborate with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, including the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the Office of Personnel Management, and other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate;

(2) align with or build on the National Initiative on Cybersecurity Education Cybersecurity Workforce Framework wherever practicable and applicable;

(3) leverage the collective body of knowledge from existing cyber workforce development research and education activities; and

(4) engage with other Federal departments and agencies, research communities, and potential users of information produced under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10315, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1530.)

§18996. Cybersecurity workforce data initiative

The Director, acting through the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics established in section 1862p of this title and in coordination with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and other appropriate Federal statistical agencies, shall establish a cybersecurity workforce data initiative that—

(1) assesses the feasibility of providing nationally representative estimates and statistical information on the cybersecurity workforce;

(2) utilizes the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) Cybersecurity Workforce Framework (NIST Special Publication 800–181), or other frameworks, as appropriate, to enable a consistent measurement of the cybersecurity workforce;

(3) utilizes and complements existing data on employer requirements and unfilled positions in the cybersecurity workforce;

(4) consults key stakeholders and the broader community of practice in cybersecurity workforce development to determine data requirements needed to strengthen the cybersecurity workforce;

(5) evaluates existing Federal survey data for information pertinent to developing national estimates of the cybersecurity workforce;

(6) evaluates administrative data and other supplementary data sources, as available, to describe and measure the cybersecurity workforce; and

(7) collects statistical data, to the greatest extent practicable, on credential attainment and employment outcomes information for the cybersecurity workforce.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10317, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1531.)

§18997. Microelectronics workforce development activities

(a) Creating helpful initiatives to produce personnel in needed growth industries

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards to institutions of higher education, non-profit organizations, or consortia thereof, for research, development, and related activities to advance innovative approaches to developing, improving, and expanding evidence-based education and workforce development activities and learning experiences at all levels of education in fields and disciplines related to microelectronics.

(2) Purposes

Activities carried out under this section shall be for the purpose of supporting the growth, retention, and development of a diverse and sustainable microelectronics workforce to meet the requirements of the programs established in section 4656(c)(2)(C) of title 15 in support of the evolving needs of industry, academia, government, and Federal laboratories.

(3) Uses of funds

Awards made under this section shall be used to support activities, such as—

(A) development of industry-oriented curricula and teaching modules for topics relevant to microelectronics, including those that provide meaningful hands-on learning experiences;

(B) dissemination of materials developed in subparagraph (A), including through the creation and maintenance of a publicly-accessible database and online portal;

(C) development and implementation of training, research, and professional development programs for teachers, including innovative pre-service and in-service programs, in microelectronics and related fields;

(D) support for learning activities and experiences that provide physical, simulated, or remote access to training facilities and industry-standard processes and tools, including equipment and software for the design, development, manufacturing, and testing of microelectronics;

(E) increasing the integration of microelectronics content into STEM curricula at all education levels;

(F) Growing 1 academic research capacity in microelectronics by incentivizing the hiring of faculty in fields critical to microelectronics;

(G) support for innovative industry pathway programs that connect high school, vocational, military, college, and graduate programs; and

(H) providing informal hands-on microelectronics learning opportunities for PreK-12 students in different learning environments, including competitions.

(4) Advanced microelectronics traineeships

(A) In general

The Director shall make awards to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions and organizations) to establish traineeship programs for graduate students who pursue microelectronics research leading to a masters or doctorate degree by providing funding and other assistance, and by providing graduate students with opportunities for research experiences in government or industry related to the students' microelectronics studies.

(B) Use of funds

Institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions and organizations) shall use award funds provided under subparagraph (A) for the purposes of—

(i) paying tuition and fees, and providing stipends, for students receiving traineeships who are citizens, nationals, or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence;

(ii) facilitating opportunities for scientific internship programs for students receiving traineeships in microelectronics at private industry, nonprofit research institutions, or Federal laboratories; and

(iii) such other costs associated with the administration of the program.

(5) Microelectronics skilled technical workforce programs

The Director shall make awards under the Scientific and Advanced-Technology Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 1862h-j) to support programs for skilled technical workers in STEM disciplines that are aligned with skilled workforce needs of the microelectronics industry and lead to an associate's degree, or equivalent certification, by providing funding and other assistance, including opportunities for internships and other hands-on experiences in industry related to the students' microelectronics studies.

(6) Microelectronics research experiences through existing programs

The Director shall seek to increase opportunities for microelectronics research for students and trainees at all levels by encouraging proposals in microelectronics through existing programs including—

(A) research experiences for undergraduates pursuant to section 1862p–6 of this title;

(B) postdoctoral fellowship programs established pursuant to section 1862p–11 of this title;

(C) graduate fellowships established pursuant to section 1869 of this title;

(D) informal STEM education programs established pursuant to section 1862q of this title;

(E) the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program established pursuant to section 1862n–1 of this title;

(F) major research instrumentation programs established pursuant to section 1862o–14 of this title; and

(G) low-income 2 scholarship program established pursuant to section 1869c of this title.

(7) Industry partnerships

In carrying out the activities under this section, the Director shall encourage awardees to partner with industry and other private sector organizations to facilitate the expansion of workforce pipelines and enable access to industry-standard equipment and software for use in undergraduate and graduate microelectronics education programs.

(8) Interagency coordination

In carrying out activities under this section, the Director shall collaborate with the Subcommittee on Microelectronics Leadership of the National Science and Technology Council, established in subsection (a) of section 4656 of title 15 and the National Semiconductor Technology Center established in subsection (c) of section 4656 of title 15, and other relevant Federal agencies to maintain the effectiveness of microelectronics workforce development activities across the agencies.

(b) National Network for Microelectronics Education

(1) In general

The Director, in coordination with the Secretary of Commerce, shall on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, make awards to institutions of higher education and non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions and organizations) to establish partnerships to enhance and broaden participation in microelectronics education.

(2) Activities

Awards made under this subsection shall be used for the following:

(A) To conduct training and education activities funded by awards under paragraph (1) and in coordination with the Network Coordination Hub established in paragraph (3), including curricula design, development, dissemination, and assessment, and the sharing of information and best practices across the network of awardees.

(B) To develop regional partnerships among associate-degree-granting colleges, bachelor-degree-granting institutions, workforce development programs, labor organizations, and industry to create a diverse national technical workforce trained in microelectronics and ensure education and training is meeting the evolving needs of industry.

(C) To develop local workforce pipelines that align with capacity investments made by industry and the Federal government, including vocational and high school training programs, community college degrees and certificates, veteran post service opportunities, and mentoring.

(D) To facilitate partnerships with employers, employer consortia or other private sector organizations that offer apprenticeships, internships, or applied learning experiences in the field of microelectronics.

(E) To develop shared infrastructure available to institutions of higher education, two-year colleges, and private organizations to enable experiential learning activities and provide physical or digital access to training facilities and industry-standard tools and processes.

(F) To create and disseminate public outreach to support awareness of microelectronics education and career opportunities, including through outreach to PreK–12 schools and STEM-related organizations.

(G) To collaborate and coordinate with industry and existing public and private organizations conducting microelectronics education and workforce development activities, as practicable.

(3) Network coordination hub

The Director shall make an award on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis to an institution of higher education or nonprofit organization (or a consortium thereof) to establish a national network of partnerships (referred to in this section as the "National Network for Microelectronics Education") to coordinate activities, best practice sharing, and access to facilities across the partnerships established in accordance with paragraph (1).

(4) Incentivizing participation

To the extent practicable, the Director shall encourage participation in the National Network for Microelectronics Education through the coordination of activities and distribution of awards described in subsection (a).

(5) Partnerships

The Director shall encourage the submission of proposals that are led by historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, and minority-serving institutions or that include partnerships with or among such institutions to increase the recruitment of students from groups historically underrepresented in STEM to pursue graduate studies in microelectronics.

(6) Outreach

In addition to any other requirements as determined appropriate by the Director, the Director shall require that proposals for awards under this section shall include a description of how the applicant will develop and implement outreach activities to increase the participation of women and other students from groups historically underrepresented in STEM.

(7) Coordination across foundation programs

In carrying out the activities under this section, the Director shall ensure awardees coordinate with, and avoid unnecessary duplication of, the activities carried out under this Section 1 with the activities of the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (Public Law 108–153), the National Quantum Initiative Act (Public Law 115–368), and Division E of the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, and other related programs, as appropriate.

(8) Interagency coordination

In carrying out activities under this section, the Director shall collaborate with the Subcommittee on Microelectronics Leadership of the National Science and Technology Council, established in subsection (a) of section 4656 of title 15 and the National Semiconductor Technology Center established in subsection (c) of section 4656 of title 15.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10318, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1532.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Scientific and Advanced-Technology Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (a)(5), is Pub. L. 102–476, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2297, which enacted sections 1862h to 1862j of this title and amended section 1862 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1992 Amendment note set out under section 1861 of this title and Tables.

Section 1862p–11 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(B), was in the original "section 522 of the America COMPETES Act of 2010", and was translated as meaning section 522 of Pub. L. 111–358, the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

The 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(7), is Pub. L. 108–153, Dec. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 1923, which is classified generally to chapter 101 (§7501 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7501 of Title 15 and Tables.

The National Quantum Initiative Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(7), is Pub. L. 115–368, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5092, which is classified generally to chapter 114 (§8801 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8801 of Title 15 and Tables.

The William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, referred to in subsec. (b)(7), is Pub. L. 116–283, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3388. Division E (§§5001–5501) of the Act, also known as the National Artificial Intelligence Initiative Act of 2020, is classified principally to chapter 119 (§9401 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9401 of Title 15 and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

2 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "the".

§18998. Mandatory cost-sharing

(a) Waiver

The cost-sharing requirements under section 1862o-14(c) of this title for the Major Research Instrumentation Program and under section 1862n-1a(i) of this title for teaching fellowships administered within the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program are waived for a period of 5 years following August 9, 2022.

(b) Assessment

Not later than 5 years following August 9, 2022, the Director shall submit to Congress an assessment, that includes feedback from the research community, of the impacts of the waivers provided under subsection (a), including—

(1) programmatic and scientific goals;

(2) institutional commitment and stewardship of Federal resources;

(3) institutional strategic planning and administrative burden;

(4) equity among recipient institutions; and

(5) recommendations for or against extending or making permanent such waivers.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10320, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1536.)

§18999. Programs to address the STEM workforce

(a) In general

The Director shall issue undergraduate scholarships, including at community colleges, graduate fellowships and traineeships, postdoctoral awards, and, as appropriate, other awards, to address STEM workforce gaps, including for programs that recruit, retain, and advance students to a bachelor's degree in a STEM discipline concurrent with a secondary school diploma, such as through existing and new partnerships with State educational agencies.

(b) Postdoctoral professional development

In carrying out this section, the Director shall encourage innovation in postdoctoral professional development, support the development and diversity of the STEM workforce, and study the impacts of such innovation and support. To do so, the Director may use postdoctoral awards established under subsection (a) or leveraged under subsection (d)(1) for fellowships or other temporary rotational postings of not more than 2 years. Such fellowships or temporary rotational postings shall be awarded—

(1) to qualified individuals who have a doctoral degree and received such degree not earlier than 5 years before the date that the fellowship or temporary rotational posting begins; and

(2) to carry out research at Federal, State, local, and Tribal government research facilities.

(c) Direct hire authority

(1) In general

The head of any Federal agency may appoint, without regard to the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 33 of title 5, other than sections 3303 and 3328 of that title, a qualified candidate described in paragraph (2) directly to a position in the competitive service with the Federal agency for which the candidate meets Office of Personnel Management qualification standards.

(2) Fellowship or temporary rotational posting

Paragraph (1) applies with respect to a former recipient of an award under this subsection who—

(A) earned a doctoral degree in a STEM field from an institution of higher education; and

(B) successfully fulfilled the requirements of the fellowship or temporary rotational posting within a Federal agency.

(3) Limitation

The direct hire authority under this subsection shall be exercised with respect to a specific qualified candidate not later than 2 years after the date that the candidate completed the requirements related to the fellowship or temporary rotational posting described under this subsection.

(d) Existing programs

In carrying out this section, the Director may leverage existing programs, including programs that issue—

(1) postdoctoral awards;

(2) graduate fellowships and traineeships, inclusive of the NSF Research Traineeships and fellowships awarded under the Graduate Research Fellowship Program;

(3) scholarships, research experiences, and internships, including—

(A) scholarships to attend community colleges; and

(B) research experiences and internships under sections 1862p–5, 1862p–6, and 1862p–7 of this title; and


(4) awards to institutions of higher education to enable the institutions to fund innovation in undergraduate and graduate education, increased educational capacity, and the development and establishment of new or specialized programs of study for graduate, undergraduate, or technical college students, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programs of study.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10321, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1537.)

Part C—Broadening Participation

§19011. Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship program update

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that over the next five years the Foundation should increase the number of scholarships awarded under the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship program established under section 1862n–1 of this title by 50 percent.

(b) Outreach

To increase the diversity of participants, the Director shall support symposia, forums, conferences, and other activities to expand and enhance outreach to—

(1) historically Black colleges and universities;

(2) Tribal Colleges or Universities;

(3) minority-serving institutions;

(4) institutions of higher education that are located near or serve rural communities, including EPSCoR institutions;

(5) labor organizations;

(6) emerging research institutions; and

(7) higher education programs that serve or support veterans.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10322, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1538.)

§19012. NSF Eddie Bernice Johnson INCLUDES Initiative

(a) In general

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to carry out a comprehensive national initiative to facilitate the development of networks and partnerships to build on and scale up effective practices in broadening participation in STEM studies and careers of groups historically underrepresented in such studies and careers.

(b) Change of name

The initiative under subsection (a) shall be known as the "Eddie Bernice Johnson Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science Initiative" or the "Eddie Bernice Johnson INCLUDES Initiative".

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10323, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1539.)

§19013. Broadening participation on major facilities awards

The Director shall require organizations seeking a cooperative agreement for the management of the operations and maintenance of a Foundation project to demonstrate prior experience and current capabilities in or to have a plan for employing best practices in broadening participation in science and engineering and ensure implementation of such practices is considered in oversight of the award.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10324, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1539.)

§19014. Expanding geographic and institutional diversity in research

(a) Continuing support for EPSCoR

(1) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that—

(A) because maintaining the Nation's scientific and economic leadership requires the participation of talented individuals nationwide, EPSCoR investments into State research and education capacities are in the Federal interest and should be sustained;

(B) EPSCoR should maintain its experimental component by supporting innovative methods for improving research capacity and competitiveness; and

(C) the Director should carry out this subsection while maintaining or increasing proposal success rates at emerging research institutions throughout the United States and without precluding access to awards for such institutions.

(2) Omitted

(3) Geographic diversity and inclusion

(A) In general

To the maximum extent practicable, not less than—

(i) 15.5 percent in fiscal year 2023,

(ii) 16 percent in fiscal year 2024,

(iii) 16.5 percent in fiscal year 2025,

(iv) 17 percent in fiscal year 2026,

(v) 18 percent in fiscal year 2027,

(vi) 19 percent in fiscal year 2028, and

(vii) 20 percent in fiscal year 2029,


of the amounts appropriated to the Foundation for research and related activities, and science, mathematics, and engineering education and human resources programs and activities, excluding those amounts made available for polar research and operations support (and operations and maintenance of research facilities), shall be awarded to EPSCoR institutions.

(B) Scholarships

To the maximum extent practicable, not less than—

(i) 16 percent in fiscal year 2023,

(ii) 18 percent in fiscal year 2024, and

(iii) 20 percent in each of fiscal years 2025 through 2029,


of the amounts appropriated to the Foundation for scholarships (including at community colleges), graduate fellowships and traineeships, and postdoctoral awards shall be used to support EPSCoR institutions.

(C) Considerations

The Director shall consider prioritizing funding and activities that enable sustainable growth in the competitiveness of EPSCoR jurisdictions, including—

(i) infrastructure investments to build research capacity in EPSCoR jurisdictions;

(ii) scholarships, fellowships, and traineeships within new and existing programs, to promote the development of sustainable research and academic personnel;

(iii) partnerships between eligible organizations in EPSCoR and non-EPSCoR jurisdictions, to develop administrative, grant management, and proposal writing capabilities in EPSCoR jurisdictions;

(iv) capacity building activities for emerging research institutions, historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, and minority serving institutions, consistent with this section and section 19183 of this title; and

(v) leveraging the Partnerships for Innovation program, as well as the Foundation coordination role in the Department of Commerce technology and innovation hub program under section 3722a of title 15 as added by section 10621, to build sustainable innovation ecosystems in EPSCoR jurisdictions.

(D) Merit review

The Director shall achieve the percentages specified in this paragraph to the maximum extent practicable, consistent with the National Science Foundation merit review process.

(E) Consortia

In the case of an award to a consortium, the Director may count the entire award toward meeting the funding requirements of subparagraph (A) if the lead entity of the consortium is located in an EPSCoR institution

(F) Annual reporting

Beginning with the fiscal year 2023, the Director shall submit to Congress a report describing—

(i) the Foundation's implementation of this paragraph;

(ii) progress in building research capacity, including both infrastructure and personnel, in EPSCoR jurisdictions, including at historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, minority-serving institutions, and emerging research institutions; and

(iii) if the Foundation does not meet the requirement described in subparagraph (A), an explanation relating thereto and a plan for compliance in the following fiscal year and remediation.

(G) Analysis and sustainability report

Not later than December 31, 2026, the Director shall submit to Congress a report containing an analysis of the impacts of the requirements under subparagraphs (A) and (B). The report shall include—

(i) an analysis of how the requirements under this paragraph affected the balance of total funding awarded by the Foundation to states and territories across the United States;

(ii) an analysis of any changes in award success and total funding awarded to Historically black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, minority-serving institutions, and emerging research institutions between August 9, 2022, and December 31, 2026;

(iii) an analysis of the gains in academic research capacity, quality, and competitiveness and in science and technology human resource development in EPSCoR jurisdictions made between August 9, 2022, and December 31, 2026;

(iv) an assessment of EPSCoR eligibility criteria and determination on whether new eligibility criteria should be developed based on the findings from clauses (i), (ii), and (iii); and

(v) a plan to sustain and grow improvements in research capacity and competitiveness in EPSCoR jurisdictions.

(H) EPSCoR eligibility

(i) In general

The Director shall ensure eligibility for current EPSCoR jurisdictions for five years from August 9, 2022, after which the Director shall determine whether new eligibility criteria should be developed based on the findings in the report required under subparagraph (G).

(ii) Report

Not later than December 31, 2028, the Director shall report to Congress regarding any new eligibility criteria determined under clause (i), any changes to jurisdictional eligibility based on such criteria, and the necessity and practicality of continuing or modifying the requirement under subparagraph (A) given any such changes to eligibility. The report shall include an analysis of options to support regions in non-EPSCoR jurisdictions, adjacent to EPSCoR jurisdictions, that historically receive disproportionately low levels of funding from the Foundation, including, if appropriate, options to expand the EPSCoR program or to establish new programs.

(b) Fostering STEM research diversity and capacity program

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis to eligible institutions to implement and study innovative approaches for building research capacity in order to engage and retain students from a range of institutions and diverse backgrounds in STEM.

(2) Eligible institution defined

In this subsection the term "eligible institution" means an institution of higher education that, according to the data published by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, is not, on average, among the top 100 institutions in Federal research and development expenditures during the 3-year period prior to the year of the award.

(3) Purpose

The activities under this subsection shall be focused on achieving simultaneous impacts at the student, faculty, and institutional levels by increasing the research capacity at eligible institutions and the number of undergraduate and graduate students pursuing STEM degrees from eligible institutions.

(4) Requirements

In carrying out this program, the Director shall—

(A) require eligible institutions seeking funding under this subsection to submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, containing such information and assurances as the Director may require. The application shall include, at a minimum a description of how the eligible institution plans to sustain the proposed activities beyond the duration of the award;

(B) require applicants to identify disciplines and focus areas in which the eligible institution can excel, and explain how the applicant will use the award to build capacity to bolster the institutional research competitiveness of eligible entities to support awards made by the Foundation and increase regional and national capacity in STEM;

(C) require the awards funded under this subsection to support research and related activities, which may include—

(i) development or expansion of research programs in disciplines and focus areas in subparagraph (B);

(ii) faculty recruitment and professional development in disciplines and focus areas in subparagraph (B), including for early-career researchers;

(iii) stipends for undergraduate and graduate students participating in research in disciplines and focus areas in subparagraph (B);

(iv) acquisition of instrumentation necessary to build research capacity at an eligible institution in disciplines and focus areas in subparagraph (B);

(v) an assessment of capacity-building and research infrastructure needs;

(vi) administrative research development support; and

(vii) other activities necessary to build research capacity; and


(D) require that no eligible institution should receive more than $10,000,000 in any single year of funds made available under this section.

(5) Additional considerations

In making awards under this subsection, the Director may also consider—

(A) the extent to which the applicant will support students from diverse backgrounds, including first-generation undergraduate students;

(B) the geographic and institutional diversity of the applying institutions; and

(C) how the applicants can leverage public-private partnerships and existing partnerships with Federal Research Agencies.

(6) Duplication

The Director shall ensure the awards made under this subsection are complementary and not duplicative of existing programs.

(7) Report

The Director shall submit a report to Congress after the third year of the program that includes—

(A) an assessment of the effectiveness of the program for growing the geographic and institutional diversity of institutions of higher education receiving research awards from the Foundation;

(B) an assessment of the quality, quantity, and geographic and institutional diversity of institutions of higher education conducting Foundation-sponsored research since the establishment of the program in this subsection;

(C) an assessment of the quantity and diversity of undergraduate and graduate students graduating from eligible institutions with STEM degrees; and

(D) statistical summary data on the program, including the geographic and institutional allocation of award funding, the number and diversity of supported graduate and undergraduate students, and how it contributes to capacity building at eligible entities.

(8) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Director $150,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2023 through 2027 to carry out the activities under this subsection.

(c) Partnerships with emerging research institutions

(1) In general

The Director shall establish a five-year pilot program for awards to research partnerships that involve emerging research institutions and may involve institutions classified as very high research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education at the time of application.

(2) Requirements

In carrying out this program, the Director shall—

(A) require that each proposal submitted by a multi-institution collaboration for an award, including those under part G of this subchapter, that exceeds $1,000,000, as appropriate, specify how the applicants will support substantive, meaningful, sustainable, and mutually beneficial partnerships with one or more emerging research institutions;

(B) require recipients funded under this subsection to direct no less than 35 percent of the total award to one or more emerging research institutions;

(C) require recipients funded under this subsection to report on the partnership activities as part of the annual reporting requirements of the Foundation; and

(D) solicit feedback on the partnership directly from partner emerging research institutions, in such form as the Director deems appropriate.

(3) Capacity building

Funds awarded to emerging research institutions under this subsection may be used to build research capacity, including through support for faculty salaries and training, field and laboratory research experiences for undergraduate and graduate students, and maintenance and repair of research equipment and instrumentation.

(4) Report

The Director shall submit a report to Congress after the third year of the pilot program that includes—

(A) an assessment, drawing on feedback from the research community and other sources of information, of the effectiveness of the pilot program for improving the quality of partnerships with emerging research institutions; and

(B) if deemed effective, a plan for permanent implementation of the pilot program.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10325, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1539.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 10621, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(C)(v), is section 10621 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, which enacted sections 3722a and 3722b of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, amended section 3723 of Title 15, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 3722a and 3722b of Title 15.

August 9, 2022, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(G)(ii), (iii), was in the original "the date of enactment" in cl. (ii) and "the enactment of this Act" in cl. (iii), and both instances were translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 117–167, which was approved Aug. 9, 2022.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10325 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsec. (a)(2) of section 10325 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 1862p–9 of this title.

§19015. Diversity in tech research

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support basic, applied, and use-inspired research that yields a scientific evidence base for improving the design and emergence, development and deployment, and management and ultimate effectiveness of entities involved in technology research, including research related to diversity and inclusion in the technology sector.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10326, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1544.)

§19016. Chief Diversity Officer of the NSF

(a) Chief Diversity Officer

(1) Appointment

The Director shall appoint a senior agency official within the Office of the Director as a Chief Diversity Officer.

(2) Qualifications

The Chief Diversity Officer shall have significant experience, within the Federal Government and the science community, with diversity- and inclusion-related matters, including—

(A) civil rights compliance;

(B) harassment policy, reviews, and investigations;

(C) equal employment opportunity; and

(D) disability policy.

(b) Duties

The Chief Diversity Officer is responsible for providing advice on policy, oversight, guidance, and coordination with respect to matters of the Foundation related to diversity and inclusion, including ensuring the geographic diversity of the Foundation programs. Other duties may include—

(1) establishing and maintaining a strategic plan that publicly states a diversity definition, vision, and goals for the Foundation;

(2) defining a set of strategic metrics that are—

(A) directly linked to key organizational priorities and goals;

(B) actionable; and

(C) actively used to implement the strategic plan under paragraph (1);


(3) advising in the establishment of a strategic plan for diverse participation by individuals and institutions of higher education, including community colleges, historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, minority serving institutions, institutions of higher education with an established STEM capacity building program focused on Native Hawaiians or Alaska Natives, and EPSCoR institutions); 1

(4) advising in the establishment of a strategic plan for outreach to, and recruiting from, untapped locations and underrepresented populations;

(5) advising on a diversity and inclusion strategy for the Foundation's portfolio of PreK–12 STEM education focused programs and activities, including goals for addressing barriers to participation;

(6) advising on the application of the Foundation's broader impacts review criterion; and

(7) performing such additional duties and exercise such powers as the Director may prescribe.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

To carry out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10327, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1544.)

1 So in original. The closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

§19017. Research and dissemination to increase the participation of women and underrepresented minorities in STEM fields

(a) In general

The Director shall make awards on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations), to enable such entities to increase the participation of women and underrepresented minorities in STEM studies and careers.

(b) Use of funds

An eligible entity that receives an award under this subsection shall use such award funds to carry out one or more of the following activities designed to increase the participation of women or minorities historically underrepresented in STEM, or both:

(1) Research to analyze the record-level data collected under sections 19152 and 19154 of this title, consistent with policies to ensure the privacy of individuals identifiable by such data.

(2) Research to study best practices for work-life accommodation.

(3) Research to study the impact of policies and practices that are implemented or are otherwise consistent with the purposes of this section.

(4) Mentoring programs that facilitate engagement of STEM professionals with students.

(5) Research experiences for undergraduate and graduate students in STEM fields.

(6) Outreach to elementary school and secondary school students to provide opportunities to increase their exposure to STEM fields.

(c) Dissemination activities

The Director shall carry out dissemination activities consistent with the purposes of this section, including—

(1) collaboration with other Federal research agencies and professional associations to exchange best practices, harmonize work-life accommodation policies and practices, and overcoming common barriers to work-life accommodation; and

(2) collaboration with institutions of higher education in order to clarify and catalyze the adoption of a coherent and consistent set of work-life accommodation policies and practices.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023, 2024, 2025, 2026, and 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10328, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1545.)

§19018. Intramural emerging research institutions pilot program

(a) Establishment

The Director may conduct multiple pilot programs, including through existing programs or other programs authorized in this division or division A, within the Foundation to expand the number of institutions of higher education (including such institutions that are community colleges), and other eligible entities that the Director determines appropriate, that are able to successfully compete for Foundation awards.

(b) Components

Pilot programs under this section may include—

(1) a mentorship program;

(2) award application writing technical assistance;

(3) targeted outreach, including to a historically Black college or university, a Tribal college or university, or a minority-serving institution (including a Hispanic-serving institution or an institution of higher education with an established STEM capacity building program focused on Native Hawaiians or Alaska Natives);

(4) programmatic support or solutions for institutions or entities that do not have an experienced award management office;

(5) an increase in the number of award proposal reviewers from institutions of higher education that have not traditionally received funds from the Foundation; or

(6) an increase of the term and funding, for a period of 3 years or less, as appropriate, for awards with a first-time principal investigator, when paired with regular mentoring on the administrative aspects of award management.

(c) Limitation

As appropriate, each pilot program under this section shall work to reduce administrative burdens for recipients and award personnel.

(d) Agency-wide programs

Not later than 5 years after August 9, 2022, the Director shall—

(1) review the results of the pilot programs under this section; and

(2) develop agencywide best practices from the pilot programs for implementation across the Foundation, in order to fulfill the requirement under section 1862(e) of this title.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10330, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1550.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This division, referred to in subsec. (a), is div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1399, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of div. B to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18901 of this title and Tables.

Division A, referred to in subsec. (a), is div. A of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1372, known as the CHIPS Act of 2022. For complete classification of div. A to the Code, see Short Title of 2022 Amendment note set out under section 4651 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and Tables.

Part D—NSF Research Security

§19031. Office of Research Security and Policy

The Director shall maintain a Research Security and Policy office within the Office of the Director with not fewer than four full-time equivalent positions, in addition to the Chief of Research Security established pursuant to section 19032 of this title. The functions of the Research Security and Policy office shall be to coordinate all research security policy issues across the Foundation, including by—

(1) consulting and coordinating with the Foundation Office of Inspector General, with other Federal research agencies, and intelligence and law enforcement agencies, and the National Science and Technology Council, as appropriate, in accordance with the authority provided under section 1746 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (Public Law 116–92; 42 U.S.C. 6601 note), to identify and address potential security risks that threaten research integrity and other risks to the research enterprise and to develop research security policy and best practices, taking into account the policy guidelines to be issued by the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy under section 19231 of this title;

(2) serving as a resource at the Foundation for all issues related to the security and integrity of the conduct of Foundation-supported research;

(3) conducting outreach and education activities for recipients on research policies and potential security risks and on policies and activities to protect intellectual property and information about critical technologies relevant to national security, consistent with the controls relevant to the grant or award;

(4) educating Foundation program managers and other directorate staff on evaluating Foundation awards and recipients for potential security risks;

(5) communicating reporting and disclosure requirements to recipients and applicants for funding;

(6) performing risk assessments, in consultation, as appropriate, with other Federal agencies, of Foundation proposals and awards using analytical tools to assess nondisclosures of required information;

(7) establishing policies and procedures for identifying, communicating, and addressing security risks that threaten the integrity of Foundation-supported research and development, working in consultation, as appropriate, with other Federal agencies, to ensure compliance with National Security Presidential Memorandum–33 (relating to strengthening protections of United States Government-supported research and development against foreign government interference and exploitation) or a successor policy document; and

(8) in accordance with relevant policies of the agency, conducting or facilitating due diligence with regard to applications for research and development awards from the Foundation prior to making such awards.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10331, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1551.)

§19032. Chief of Research Security

The Director shall appoint a senior agency official within the Office of the Director as a Chief of Research Security, whose primary responsibility shall be to manage the office established under section 19031 of this title.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10332, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1552.)

§19033. Reporting to Congress

(a) Report on resource needs

Not later than 180 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall provide a report to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate on the resources and the number of full time 1 employees needed to carry out the functions of the office established in section 19031 of this title.

(b) Annual report on Office activities

(1) In general

Not later than one year after August 9, 2022, and annually thereafter, the Director shall submit to Congress a report on the activities carried out by the Office of Research Security, detailing—

(A) a description of the activities conducted by the Office, including administrative actions taken;

(B) such recommendations as the Director may have for legislative or administrative action relating to improving research security;

(C) identification and discussion of the gaps in legal authorities that need to be improved to enhance the security of institutions of higher education performing research supported by the Foundation; and

(D) information on Foundation Inspector General cases, as appropriate, relating to undue influence and security threats to research and development activities funded by the Foundation, including theft of property or intellectual property relating to a project funded by the Foundation at an institution of higher education.

(2) Form

The report submitted under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in both unclassified and classified formats, as appropriate.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10333, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1552.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "full-time".

§19034. Online resource

The Director shall develop an online resource hosted on the Foundation's website containing up-to-date information, tailored for institutions and individual researchers, including—

(1) an explanation of Foundation research security policies;

(2) unclassified guidance on potential security risks that threaten research integrity and other risks to the research enterprise;

(3) examples of beneficial international collaborations and how such collaborations differ from foreign government interference efforts that threaten research integrity;

(4) best practices for mitigating security risks that threaten research integrity; and

(5) additional reference materials, including tools that assist organizations seeking Foundation funding and awardees in information disclosure to the Foundation.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10334, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1552.)

§19035. Research awards

The Director shall continue to make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research on the conduct of research and the research environment, including research on research misconduct or breaches of research integrity and detrimental research practices.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10335, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1553.)

§19036. Authorities

In addition to existing authorities for preventing waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement of Federal funds, the Director, acting through the Office of Research Security and Policy and in coordination with the Foundation's Office of Inspector General, shall have the authority to conduct risk assessments, including through the use of open-source analysis and analytical tools, of research and development award applications and disclosures to the Foundation.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10336, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1553.)

§19037. Research security and integrity information sharing analysis organization

(a) Establishment

The Director shall enter into an agreement with a qualified independent organization to establish a research security and integrity information sharing analysis organization (referred to in this section as the "RSI-ISAO"), which shall include members described in subsection (d) and carry out the duties described in subsection (b).

(b) Duties

The RSI-ISAO shall—

(1) serve as a clearinghouse for information to help enable the members and other entities in the research community to understand the context of their research and identify improper or illegal efforts by foreign entities to obtain research results, know how, materials, and intellectual property;

(2) develop a set of standard risk assessment frameworks and best practices, relevant to the research community, to assess research security risks in different contexts;

(3) share information concerning security threats and lessons learned from protection and response efforts through forums and other forms of communication;

(4) provide timely reports on research security risks to provide situational awareness tailored to the research and STEM education community;

(5) provide training and support, including through webinars, for relevant faculty and staff employed by institutions of higher education on topics relevant to research security risks and response;

(6) enable standardized information gathering and data compilation, storage, and analysis for compiled incident reports;

(7) support analysis of patterns of risk and identification of bad actors and enhance the ability of members to prevent and respond to research security risks; and

(8) take other appropriate steps to enhance research security.

(c) Funding

The Foundation may provide initial funds toward the RSI-ISAO but shall seek to have the fees authorized in subsection (d)(2) cover the costs of operations at the earliest practicable time.

(d) Membership

(1) In general

The RSI-ISAO shall serve and include members representing institutions of higher education, nonprofit research institutions, and small and medium-sized businesses.

(2) Fees

As soon as practicable, members of the RSI-ISAO shall be charged an annual rate to enable the RSI-ISAO to cover its costs. Rates shall be set on a sliding scale based on research and development expenditures to ensure that membership is accessible to a diverse community of stakeholders and ensure broad participation. The RSI-ISAO shall develop a plan to sustain the RSI-ISAO without Federal funding, as practicable.

(e) Board of directors

The RSI-ISAO may establish a board of directors to provide guidance for policies, legal issues, and plans and strategies of the entity's operations. The board shall include a diverse group of stakeholders representing the research community, including academia, industry, and experienced research security administrators.

(f) Stakeholder engagement

In establishing the RSI-ISAO under this section, the Director shall take necessary steps to ensure the services provided are aligned with the needs of the research community, including by—

(1) convening a series of workshops or other multi-stakeholder events; or

(2) publishing a description of the services the RSI-ISAO intends to provide and the requirements for membership in the Federal Register and provide an opportunity for submission of public comments for a period of not less than 60 days.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10338, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1553.)

§19038. Plan with respect to controlled information and background screening

(a) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 9, 2022, the Director, in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence and, as appropriate, other Federal agencies, shall develop a plan to—

(1) identify research areas supported by the Foundation, including in the key technology focus areas, that may involve access to controlled unclassified or classified information, including in the key technology focus areas; and

(2) exercise due diligence in granting access, as appropriate, to the CUI or classified information identified under paragraph (1) to individuals working on such research who are employees of the Foundation or covered individuals on research and development awards funded by the Foundation.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Classified information

The term "classified information" means any information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order 13526, any predecessor or successor order, or sections 1-274, 275-321, and 1001-3115 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011-2021, 2022-2286i, 2296a-2297h-131 to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and that is so designated.

(2) Controlled unclassified information

The term "controlled unclassified information" or "CUI" means information described as "Controlled Unclassified Information" under Executive Order 13556 or any successor order, to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and that is so designated.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10339, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1554.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Executive Order 13526, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is set out as a note under section 3161 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of this title. Some of the Code sections referred to in subsec. (b)(1) are not part of the Act, and some of the Code sections that are part of the Act have been repealed. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Executive Order 13556, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is set out as a note under section 3501 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.

1 See References in Text note below.

§19039. Foundation funding to institutions hosting or supporting Confucius Institutes

(a) Confucius Institute defined

In this section the term "Confucius Institute" means a cultural institute established as a partnership between a United States institution of higher education and a Chinese institution of higher education to promote and teach Chinese language and culture that is funded, directly or indirectly, by the Government of the People's Republic of China.

(b) Restrictions of Confucius Institutes

Except as provided in subsection (d), none of the funds made available to the Foundation under this division or division A, or an amendment made by this division or division A, may be obligated or expended to an institution of higher education that maintains a contract or agreement between the institution and a Confucius Institute, unless the Director, after consultation with the National Academies, determines such a waiver is appropriate in accordance with subsection (c).

(c) Waiver

The Director, after consultation with the National Academies, may issue a waiver for an institution of higher education that maintains a contract or agreement between the institution and a Confucius Institute if such contract or agreement includes clear provisions that—

(1) protect academic freedom at the institution;

(2) prohibit the application of any foreign law on any campus of the institution;

(3) grant full managerial authority of the Confucius Institute to the institution, including full control over what is being taught, the activities carried out, the research awards that are made, and who is employed at the Confucius Institute; and

(4) prohibit co-location with the institution's Chinese language, history, and cultural programs and require separate promotional materials.

(d) Special rule

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, this section shall not apply to an institution of higher education if that institution has fulfilled the requirements for a waiver from the Department of Defense as described under section 1062 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 (Public Law 116–283).

(2) Exception

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the prohibition under subsection (b) shall not apply to amounts provided to students as educational assistance.

(e) Effective date

The limitation under subsection (b) shall apply with respect to the first fiscal year that begins after the date that is two years after August 9, 2022, and to any subsequent fiscal year subject to subsection (f).

(f) Sunset

This section shall cease to be effective on the date that is five years after August 9, 2022.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10339A, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1555.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This division, referred to in subsec. (b), is div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1399, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of div. B to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18901 of this title and Tables.

Division A, referred to in subsec. (b), is div. A of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1372, known as the CHIPS Act of 2022. For complete classification of div. A to the Code, see Short Title of 2022 Amendment note set out under section 4651 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and Tables.

Section 1062 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), probably means section 1062 of Pub. L. 116–283, known as the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, which is set out as a note under section 2241 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§19040. Foreign financial support

(a) In general

The Director shall request, on an annual basis, from a recipient institution of higher education a disclosure, in the form of a summary document, from the institution, a foundation of the institution, and related entities such as any educational, cultural, or language entity, of the current financial support, the value of which is $50,000 or more, including gifts and contracts, received directly or indirectly from a foreign source (as such term is defined in section 1011f(h)(2) of title 20) associated with a foreign country of concern.

(b) Records

Each disclosure to the Director under this section shall be made on the condition that the institution will maintain a true copy of the relevant records subject to the disclosure requirement until the latest of—

(1) the date that is four years after the date of the agreement;

(2) the date on which the agreement terminates; or

(3) the last day of any period that applicable State public record law requires a true copy of such agreement to be maintained.

(c) Documentation

Upon review of the disclosures under this section, the Director may request that a recipient institution provide true copies of any contracts, agreements, or documentation of financial transactions associated with disclosures made under this section.

(d) Office of the Inspector General

The Director, acting through the Office of Research Security and Policy in coordination with the Foundation's Office of Inspector General and in consultation with the recipient institution, may reduce the award funding amount or suspend or terminate the award if the Director determines—

(1) such institution fails to comply with the records retention requirement in subsection (b) or fails to provide information requested under this section; or

(2) the Chief of Research Security determines the disclosures under this section indicate a threat to research security.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10339B, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1556.)

Part E—Fundamental Research

§19051. Broader impacts

(a) Assessment

Not later than 120 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall enter into an agreement with a qualified independent organization to assess how the Broader Impacts review criterion is applied across the Foundation and make recommendations for improving the effectiveness for meeting the goals established in section 1862p–14 of this title.

(b) Activities

The Director shall make awards on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support activities to increase the efficiency, effectiveness, and availability of resources for implementing the Broader Impacts review criterion, including—

(1) training and workshops for program officers, merit review panelists, award office administrators, faculty, and students to improve understanding of the goals and the full range of potential broader impacts available to researchers to satisfy this criterion;

(2) repositories and clearinghouses for sharing best practices and facilitating collaboration; and

(3) tools for evaluating and documenting societal impacts of research.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10341, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1557.)

§19052. Research ethics

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that—

(1) a number of emerging areas of research have potential ethical, social, safety, and security implications that might be apparent as early as the basic research stage;

(2) the incorporation of ethical, social, safety, and security considerations into the research design and review process for Federal awards, may help mitigate potential harms before they happen;

(3) the Foundation's agreement with the National Academies to conduct a study and make recommendations with respect to governance of research in emerging technologies is a positive step toward accomplishing this goal; and

(4) the Foundation should continue to work with stakeholders to promote best practices for governance of research in emerging technologies at every stage of research.

(b) Incorporation of ethics considerations

Drawing on stakeholder input, not later than 24 months after August 9, 2022, the Director shall revise proposal instructions to require that ethical and societal considerations are to be included as part of a proposal for funding prior to making the award, where such considerations are applicable. Such considerations shall be evaluated by the Director in the review of proposals, taking into account any relevant input from the peer-reviewers for the proposal, and shall factor into award decisions, as deemed necessary by the Director. When incorporating such considerations, proposers may include, as appropriate—

(1)(A) any readily foreseeable or quantifiable risks to society, including how the research could enable products, technologies, or other outcomes that could intentionally or unintentionally cause significant societal harm; or

(B) an assertion that no readily foreseeable potential ethical, social, safety, or security implications are apparent;

(2) how technical or social solutions can mitigate such risks and, as appropriate, a plan to implement such mitigation measures; and

(3) how partnerships and collaborations in the research can help mitigate potential harm and amplify potential societal benefits.

(c) Guidance

The Director shall solicit stakeholder input to develop clear guidance on what constitutes a readily foreseeable or quantifiable risk as described in subsection (b)(1), and to the extent practicable harmonize this policy with existing ethical policies or related requirements for human subjects.

(d) Research

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support—

(1) research to assess the potential ethical and societal implications of Foundation-supported research and products or technologies enabled by such research, including the benefits and risks identified pursuant to subsection (b)(1); and

(2) the development and verification of approaches to proactively mitigate foreseeable risks to society, including the technical and social solutions identified pursuant to subsection (b)(1).

(e) Annual report

The Director shall encourage recipients to update their consideration of potential risks and benefits as appropriate as part of the annual reports required by all awardees under the award terms and conditions.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10343, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1557.)

§19053. Research reproducibility and replicability

(a) In general

Consistent with existing Federal law for privacy, intellectual property, and security, the Director shall facilitate public access to research products, including data, software, and code, developed as part of Foundation-supported projects.

(b) Data management plans

(1) In general

The Director shall require that every proposal for funding for research include a machine-readable data management plan that includes a description of how the awardee will archive and preserve public access to data, software, and code developed as part of the proposed project.

(2) Requirements

In carrying out the requirement in paragraph (1), the Director shall—

(A) provide necessary resources, including trainings and workshops, to educate researchers and students on how to develop and review high quality data management plans;

(B) ensure program officers and merit review panels are equipped with the resources and training necessary to review the quality of data management plans; and

(C) ensure program officers and merit review panels treat data management plans as essential elements of award proposals, where appropriate.

(c) Open repositories

The Director shall—

(1) consult with the heads of other Federal research agencies, as appropriate, and solicit input from the scientific community, to develop and widely disseminate a set of criteria for trusted open repositories to be used by Foundation-funded researchers, accounting for discipline-specific needs and necessary protections for sensitive information;

(2) work with stakeholders to identify significant gaps in available repositories meeting the criteria developed under paragraph (1) and options for supporting the development of additional or enhanced repositories;

(3) make awards on a competitive basis to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) for the development, upgrades, and maintenance of open data repositories that meet the criteria developed under paragraph (1);

(4) work with stakeholders and build on existing models, where appropriate, to establish a single, public, web-based point of access to help users locate repositories storing data, software, and code resulting from or used in Foundation-supported projects;

(5) work with stakeholders to establish the necessary policies and procedures and allocate the necessary resources to ensure, as practicable, data underlying published findings resulting from Foundation-supported projects are deposited in repositories meeting the criteria developed under paragraph (1) at the time of publication;

(6) incentivize the deposition of data, software, and code into repositories that meet the criteria developed under paragraph (1); and

(7) coordinate with the scientific publishing community and the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies to support the development of voluntary consensus standards around data archiving and sharing.

(d) Research, development, and education

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to—

(1) support research and development of open source, sustainable, usable tools and infrastructure that support reproducibility for a broad range of studies across different disciplines;

(2) support research on computational reproducibility, including the limits of reproducibility and the consistency of computational results in the development of new computation hardware, tools, and methods; and

(3) support the education and training of students, faculty, and researchers on computational methods, tools, and techniques to improve the quality and sharing of data, code, and supporting metadata to produce reproducible research.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10344, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1558.)

§19054. Climate change research

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research to improve our understanding of the climate system and related human and environmental systems.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10345, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1560.)

§19055. Social, behavioral, and economic sciences

The Director shall—

(1) actively communicate opportunities and solicit proposals for social, behavioral, and economic science researchers to participate in cross-cutting and interdisciplinary programs, including the Convergence Accelerator and agency priority activities, and the Mid-Scale Research Infrastructure program; and

(2) ensure social, behavioral, and economic science researchers are represented on relevant merit review panels for such activities.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10346, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1560.)

§19056. Measuring impacts of Federally funded research and development

The Director shall make awards on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research and development of data, models, indicators, and associated analytical tools to improve our understanding of the impacts of Federally funded research on society, the economy, and the workforce, including domestic job creation.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10347, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1560.)

§19057. Food-energy-water research

The Director shall make awards on a competitive basis to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to—

(1) support research to significantly advance our understanding of the food-energy-water system through quantitative and computational modeling, including support for relevant cyberinfrastructure;

(2) develop real-time, cyber-enabled interfaces that improve understanding of the behavior of food-energy-water systems and increase decision support capability;

(3) support research that will lead to innovative solutions to critical food-energy-water system problems; and

(4) grow the scientific workforce capable of studying and managing the food-energy-water system, through education and other professional development.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10348, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1560.)

§19058. Biological field stations and marine laboratories

The Director shall continue to support enhancing, repairing and maintaining research instrumentation, laboratories, telecommunications and housing at biological field stations and marine laboratories.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10349, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1560.)

§19059. Sustainable chemistry research and education

In accordance with section 9303 of title 15, the Director shall carry out activities in support of sustainable chemistry, including—

(1) establishing a program to make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support—

(A) individual investigators and teams of investigators, including to the extent practicable, early career investigators for research and development;

(B) collaborative research and development partnerships among universities, industry, and non-profit organizations;

(C) integrating sustainable chemistry principles into elementary, secondary, undergraduate, and graduate chemistry and chemical engineering curriculum and research training, as appropriate to that level of education and training; and


(2) incorporating sustainable chemistry into existing Foundation research and development programs.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10350, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1560.)

§19060. Risk and resilience research

The Director shall make awards on a competitive basis to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to advance knowledge of risk assessment and predictability and to support the creation of tools and technologies, including advancing data analytics and utilization of artificial intelligence, for increased resilience through—

(1) improvements in our ability to understand, model, and predict extreme events and natural hazards;

(2) the creation of novel engineered systems solutions for resilient complex infrastructures, particularly those that address critical interdependence among infrastructures and leverage the growing infusion of cyber-physical-social components into the infrastructures;

(3) development of equipment and instrumentation for innovation in resilient engineered infrastructures;

(4) multidisciplinary research on the behaviors individuals and communities engage in to detect, perceive, understand, predict, assess, mitigate, and prevent risks and to improve and increase resilience; and

(5) advancements in multidisciplinary wildfire science, including those related to air quality impacts, human behavior, and early detection and warning.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10351, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1561.)

§19061. Unmanned aircraft systems technologies

In coordination with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Director shall carry out a program of research and related activities related to unmanned aircraft system technologies, which may include a prize competition pursuant to section 3719 of title 15 and support for undergraduate and graduate curriculum development.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10352, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1561.)

§19062. Accelerating unmanned maritime systems technologies

(a) In general

In order to support advances in marine science, maritime domain awareness, and national security the Director, in consultation with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and the Commandant of the Coast Guard, shall issue awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research that will accelerate innovation to advance unmanned maritime systems for the purpose of providing greater maritime domain awareness to the Nation.

(b) Coordination

In implementing this section, the Director shall coordinate with the Coast Guard, the Department of Defense, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other Federal agencies, including those established under the Commercial Engagement Through Ocean Technology Act of 2018 (Public Law 115–394) [33 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10353, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1561.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Commercial Engagement Through Ocean Technology Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 115–394, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5281, also known as the CENOTE Act of 2018, which is classified generally to chapter 54 (§4101 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short title note set out under section 4101 of Title 33 and Tables.

§19063. Leveraging international expertise in research

The Director shall explore and advance opportunities for leveraging international capabilities and resources that align with the Foundation and United States research community priorities and have the potential to benefit United States prosperity, security, health, and well-being, including through binational research and development organizations and foundations and by sending teams of Foundation scientific staff for site visits of scientific facilities and agencies in other countries. The Director shall establish and implement policies, including through any research security training requirements, to mitigate the potential risks of such interactions, including risks to the protection of intellectual property and the risk of undue foreign influence on research.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10354, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1562.)

§19064. Biological research collections

(a) In general

The Director shall continue to support databases, tools, methods, and other activities that secure and improve existing physical and digital biological research collections, improve the accessibility of collections and collection-related data for research and educational purposes, develop capacity for curation and collection management, and to transfer ownership of collections that are significant to the biological research community, including to museums and universities.

(b) Specimen management plan

In consultation with other relevant Federal research agencies, and as the Director determines is appropriate, the Director shall require that proposals submitted to the Foundation for funding for research that involves collecting or generating specimens include, as part of the data management plan under section 19053 of this title, a description of how the specimens and associated data will be accessioned into and maintained in an established biological collection.

(c) Action Center for Biological Collections

In coordination with other relevant Federal research agencies, as appropriate, the Director shall make awards on a competitive basis to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to facilitate coordination and data sharing among communities of practice for research, education, workforce training, evaluation, and business model development, including by establishing an Action Center for Biological Collections.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10355, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1562.)

§19065. Clean water research and technology acceleration

The Director shall make awards on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis to institutions of higher education or non-profit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to—

(1) support transdisciplinary research to significantly advance our understanding of water availability, quality, and dynamics and the impact of human activity and a changing climate on urban and rural water and wastewater systems, including in low-income, underserved, and disadvantaged communities;

(2) develop, pilot, and deploy innovative technologies, systems, and other approaches to identifying and addressing challenges that affect water availability, quality, and security, including through direct engagement with affected communities and partnerships with the private sector, State, territorial, Tribal, and local governments, non-profit organizations and water management professionals; and

(3) grow the scientific workforce capable of studying and managing water and wastewater systems and of conducting wastewater surveillance, through education, training, and other professional development.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10356, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1563.)

§19066. Technology and behavioral science research

(a) In general

The Director shall make awards on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis for research and development to—

(1) increase understanding of social media and consumer technology access and use patterns and related mental health, behavioral, and substance use disorder issues, particularly for children and adolescents; and

(2) explore the role of social media and consumer technology in rising rates of mental health and substance use disorder issues, including within communities experiencing long-term economic distress.

(b) Coordination to avoid duplication

In making awards under this subsection, the Director shall, for purposes of avoiding duplication of activities and research, consult, collaborate, and coordinate with the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies, including the Department of Health and Human Services.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10357, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1563.)

§19067. Critical minerals mining research and development

(a) Critical minerals mining research and development at the Foundation

(1) In general

In order to support supply chain resiliency, the Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support basic research that will accelerate innovation to advance critical minerals mining strategies and technologies for the purpose of making better use of domestic resources and eliminating national reliance on minerals and mineral materials that are subject to supply disruptions.

(2) Use of funds

Activities funded by an award under this section may include—

(A) advancing mining research and development activities to develop new mapping and mining technologies and techniques, including advanced critical mineral extraction and production, separation, alloying, or processing techniques and technologies that can decrease energy intensity to improve existing or to develop new supply chains of critical minerals, and to yield more efficient, economical, and environmentally benign mining practices;

(B) advancing critical mineral processing research activities to improve separation, alloying, manufacturing, or recycling techniques and technologies that can decrease the energy intensity, waste, potential environmental impact, and costs of those activities;

(C) conducting long-term earth observation of reclaimed mine sites, including the study of the evolution of microbial diversity at such sites;

(D) examining the application of artificial intelligence for geological exploration of critical minerals, including what size and diversity of data sets would be required;

(E) examining the application of machine learning for detection and sorting of critical minerals, including what size and diversity of data sets would be required;

(F) conducting detailed isotope studies of critical minerals and the development of more refined geologic models;

(G) improved understanding of the geological and geochemical processes through which critical minerals form and are concentrated into economically viable deposits; or

(H) providing training and research opportunities to undergraduate and graduate students to prepare the next generation of mining engineers and researchers.

(3) Existing programs

The Director shall ensure awards made under this subsection are complementary and not duplicative of existing programs across the Foundation and Federal Government.

(b) Critical Materials Interagency Subcommittee

(1) In general

The Critical Minerals Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (referred to in this section as the "Subcommittee"), shall coordinate Federal science and technology efforts to ensure secure, reliable, and environmentally sustainable supplies of critical materials to the United States.

(2) Purposes

The purposes of the Subcommittee shall be—

(A) to advise and assist the National Science and Technology Council, including the Committee on Homeland and National Security, on United States policies, procedures, and plans as it relates to critical materials, including—

(i) Federal research, development, and commercial application efforts to minimize the environmental impacts of methods for extractions, concentration, separation and purification of conventional, secondary, and unconventional sources of critical materials;

(ii) efficient use, substitution, and reuse of critical materials;

(iii) the critical materials workforce of the United States; and

(iv) United States private industry investments in innovation and technology transfer from federally funded science and technology;


(B) to identify emerging opportunities, stimulate international cooperation, and foster the development of secure and reliable supply chains of critical materials and establish scenario modeling systems for supply problems of critical materials and energy critical materials;

(C) to ensure the transparency of information and data related to critical materials; and

(D) to provide recommendations on coordination and collaboration among the research, development, and deployment programs and activities of Federal agencies to promote a secure and reliable supply of critical materials necessary to maintain national security, economic well-being, public health, and industrial production.

(3) Responsibilities

In carrying out this subsection, the Subcommittee may, taking into account the findings and recommendations of relevant advisory committees—

(A) provide recommendations on how Federal agencies may improve the topographic, geologic, and geophysical mapping of the United States and improve the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of the resulting and existing data, to the extent permitted by law and subject to appropriate limitation for purposes of privacy and security;

(B) assess the progress towards developing critical materials recycling and reprocessing technologies, and technological alternatives to critical materials;

(C) establish a mechanism for the coordination and evaluation of Federal programs with critical material needs, including Federal programs involving research and development, in a manner that complements related efforts carried out by the private sector and other domestic and international agencies and organizations;

(D) examine options for accessing and developing critical materials through investment and trade with our allies and partners and provide recommendations;

(E) evaluate and provide recommendations to incentivize the development and use of advances in science and technology in the private industry;

(F) assess the need for and make recommendations to address the challenges the United States critical materials supply chain workforce faces, including aging and retiring personnel and faculty, and foreign competition for United States talent;

(G) develop, and update as necessary, a strategic plan to guide Federal programs and activities to enhance scientific and technical capabilities across critical material supply chains, including a roadmap that identifies key research and development needs and coordinates on-going activities for source diversification, more efficient use, recycling, and substitution for critical materials; as well as cross-cutting mining science, data science techniques, materials science, manufacturing science and engineering, computational modeling, and environmental health and safety research and development;

(H) assess the need for, and make recommendations concerning, the availability and adequacy of the supply of technically trained personnel necessary for critical materials research, development, extraction, and industrial production, with a particular focus on the problem of attracting and maintaining high-quality professionals for maintaining an adequate supply of energy critical materials; and

(I) report to the appropriate Congressional committees on activities and findings under this section.

(c) Definitions of critical mineral and critical mineral or metal

In this section, the terms "critical mineral" and "critical mineral or metal" include any host mineral of a critical mineral (within the meaning of those terms in section 1606 of title 30).

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10359, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1564.)

§19068. Advancing IoT for Precision Agriculture Capabilities Act

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "Advancing IoT for Precision Agriculture Act of 2021".

(b) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to promote scientific research and development opportunities for connected technologies that advance precision agriculture capabilities.

(c) Foundation directive on agricultural sensor research

In making awards under the sensor systems and networked systems programs of the Foundation, the Director shall include in consideration of portfolio balance research and development on sensor connectivity in environments of intermittent connectivity and intermittent computation—

(1) to improve the reliable use of advance sensing systems in rural and agricultural areas; and

(2) that considers—

(A) direct gateway access for locally stored data;

(B) attenuation of signal transmission;

(C) loss of signal transmission; and

(D) at-scale performance for wireless power.

(d) Omitted

(e) GAO review

Not later than 18 months after August 9, 2022, the Comptroller General of the United States shall provide—

(1) a technology assessment of precision agriculture technologies, such as the existing use of—

(A) sensors, scanners, radio-frequency identification, and related technologies that can monitor soil properties, irrigation conditions, and plant physiology;

(B) sensors, scanners, radio-frequency identification, and related technologies that can monitor livestock activity and health;

(C) network connectivity and wireless communications that can securely support digital agriculture technologies in rural and remote areas;

(D) aerial imagery generated by satellites or unmanned aerial vehicles;

(E) ground-based robotics;

(F) control systems design and connectivity, such as smart irrigation control systems;

(G) Global Positioning System-based applications; and

(H) data management software and advanced analytics that can assist decision making and improve agricultural outcomes; and


(2) a review of Federal programs that provide support for precision agriculture research, development, adoption, education, or training, in existence on August 9, 2022.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10361, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1567.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10361 of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsec. (d) of section 10361 of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 1862i of this title.

§19069. Astronomy and satellite constellations

The Director shall support research into and the design, development, and testing of mitigation measures to address the potential impact of satellite constellations on Foundation scientific programs by—

(1) making awards on a competitive basis to support study of the potential impacts of satellite constellations on ground-based optical, infrared, and radio astronomy, including through existing programs such Spectrum and Wireless Innovation enabled by Future Technologies (SWIFT) and the Spectrum Innovation Initiative;

(2) supporting research on potential satellite impacts and benefits and mitigation strategies to be carried out at one or more Foundation supported Federally Funded Research and Development Centers or major multiuser research facilities as defined in section 1862s–2(g) of this title, as appropriate; and

(3) supporting workshops related to the potential impact of satellite constellations on scientific research and how those constellations could be used to improve scientific research.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10362, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1568.)

§19070. Research on the impact of inflation

(a) In general

The Director may make awards, on a competitive merit-reviewed basis, to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research to improve our understanding of the impact of inflation.

(b) Use of funds

Activities funded by an award under this section may include—

(1) measuring the economic impact of inflation on the American people, including an analysis of cost-of-living and wage impacts;

(2) considering the impact of inflation on American international competitiveness;

(3) evaluating the impact of inflation on rural and underserved communities throughout the country;

(4) assessing the ways inflation could impact future American generations; and

(5) evaluating the impact of policymaking on inflation, including the impact of further Government spending.

(c) Coordination to avoid duplication

In making awards under this section, the Director shall, for purposes of avoiding duplication of activities and research, consult, collaborate, and coordinate with the programs and policies of other relevant Federal agencies.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10363, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1568.)

§19071. Microgravity utilization policy

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that space technology and the utilization of the microgravity environment for science, engineering, and technology development is critical to long-term competitiveness with near-peer competitors, including China.

(b) Policy

To the extent appropriate during an award period, the Foundation shall facilitate access by recipients of Foundation awards to the microgravity environment, including in private sector platforms, for the development of science, engineering, and technology relevant to the award.

(c) Report

Not later than 180 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall provide to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the Foundation's plan for facilitating awardee access to the microgravity environment.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10364, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1569.)

Part F—Research Infrastructure

§19081. Facility operation and maintenance

(a) In general

The Director shall continue the Facility Operation Transition pilot program for a total of 5 years.

(b) Cost sharing

The Facility Operation Transition program shall provide funding for 10 to 50 percent of the operations and maintenance costs for major research facilities that are within the first five years of operation, where the share is determined based on—

(1) the operations and maintenance costs of the major research facility; and

(2) the capacity of the managing directorate or division to absorb such costs.

(c) Report

After the fifth year of the pilot program, the Director shall transmit a report to Congress that includes—

(1) an assessment, that includes feedback from the research community, of the effectiveness of the pilot program for—

(A) supporting research directorates and divisions in balancing investments in research grants and funding for the initial operation and maintenance of major facilities;

(B) incentivizing the development of new world-class facilities;

(C) facilitating interagency and international partnerships;

(D) funding core elements of multi-disciplinary facilities; and

(E) supporting facility divestment costs; and


(2) if deemed effective, a plan for permanent implementation of the pilot program.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10371, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1570.)

§19082. Reviews

The Director shall periodically carry out reviews within each of the directorates and divisions to assess the cost and benefits of extending the operations of research facilities that have exceeded their planned operational lifespan.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10372, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1571.)

§19083. Helium conservation

(a) Major research instrumentation support

(1) In general

The Director shall support, through the Major Research Instrumentation program, proposal requests that include the purchase, installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment and instrumentation to reduce consumption of helium.

(2) Cost sharing

The Director may waive the cost-sharing requirement for helium conservation measures for non-Ph.D.-granting institutions of higher education and Ph.D.-granting institutions of higher education that are not ranked among the top 100 institutions receiving Federal research and development funding, as documented by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics.

(b) Annual report

No later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, and annually for the subsequent two years, the Director shall submit an annual report to Congress on the use of funding awarded by the Foundation for the purchase and conservation of helium. The report should include—

(1) the volume and price of helium purchased;

(2) changes in pricing and availability of helium; and

(3) any supply disruptions impacting a substantial number of institutions.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10373, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1571.)

§19084. Advanced computing

(a) Computing needs

To gather information about the computational needs of Foundation-funded projects, the Director shall require award proposals submitted to the Foundation, as appropriate, to include estimates of computational resource needs for projects that require use of advanced computing. The Director shall encourage and provide access to tools that facilitate the inclusion of these measures, including those identified in the 2016 National Academies report entitled "Future Directions for NSF Advanced Computing Infrastructure to Support U.S. Science and Engineering in 2017–2020".

(b) Reports

The Director shall document and publish every two years a summary of the amount and types of advanced computing capabilities that are needed to fully meet the Foundation's project needs as identified under subsection (a).

(c) Roadmap

To set priorities and guide strategic decisions regarding investments in advanced computing capabilities, the Director shall develop, publish, and regularly update a 5-year advanced computing roadmap that—

(1) describes the advanced computing resources and capabilities that would fully meet anticipated project needs, including through investments in the Mid-Scale Research Infrastructure program and the Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction account;

(2) draws on community input, information contained in research proposals, allocation requests, insights from Foundation-funded cyber-infrastructure operators, and Foundation-wide information gathering regarding community needs;

(3) considers computational needs of planned major facilities;

(4) reflects anticipated technology trends;

(5) informs users and potential partners about future facilities and services;

(6) addresses the needs of groups historically underrepresented in STEM and geographic regions with low availability and high demand for advanced computing resources;

(7) considers how Foundation-supported advanced computing capabilities can be leveraged for activities through the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships; and

(8) provides an update to Congress about the level of funding necessary to fully meet computational resource needs for the research community.

(d) Securing American research from cyber theft

(1) Omitted

(2) Computing enclave pilot program

(A) In general

The Director, in consultation with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Secretary of Energy, and the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies, shall establish a pilot program to make awards to ensure the security of federally supported research data and to assist regional institutions of higher education and their researchers in compliance with regulations regarding the safeguarding of sensitive information and other relevant regulations and Federal guidelines.

(B) Structure

In carrying out the pilot program established pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Director shall select, for the development, installation, maintenance, or sustainment of secure computing enclaves, three institutions of higher education that have an established graduate student program and a demonstrated history of working with secure information, consistent with appropriate security protocols.

(C) Regionalization

(i) In general

In selecting universities pursuant to subparagraph (B), the Director shall give preference to institutions of higher education with the capability of serving other regional universities.

(ii) Geographic dispersal

The enclaves should be geographically dispersed to better meet the needs of regional interests.

(D) Program elements

The Director shall work with institutions of higher education selected pursuant to subparagraph (B) to—

(i) develop an approved design blueprint for compliance with Federal data protection protocols;

(ii) develop a comprehensive and confidential list, or a bill of materials, of each binary component of the software, firmware, or product that is required to deploy additional secure computing enclaves;

(iii) develop templates for all policies and procedures required to operate the secure computing enclave in a research setting;

(iv) develop a system security plan template; and

(v) develop a process for managing a plan of action and milestones for the secure computing enclave.

(E) Sustainability

In reviewing applications for awards, the Director shall review and consider plans and prospects of the applicant institution of higher education to ensure long-term sustainability of the computing enclave, beyond the availability of Federal funds.

(F) Duration

Subject to other availability of appropriations, the pilot program established pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall operate for not less than 3 years.

(G) Report

(i) In general

The Director shall report to Congress not later than 6 months after the completion of the pilot program under subparagraph (A).

(ii) Contents

The report required under clause (i) shall include—

(I) an assessment of the pilot program under subparagraph (A), including an assessment of the security benefits provided by such secure computing enclaves;

(II) recommendations related to the value of expanding the network of secure computing enclaves; and

(III) recommendations on the efficacy of the use of secure computing enclaves by other Federal agencies in a broader effort to expand security of Federal research.

(H) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Director, $38,000,000 for fiscal years 2023 through 2025, to carry out the activities outlined in this paragraph.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10374, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1571.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10374 of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsec. (d)(1) of section 10374 of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 5511 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

§19085. National secure data service

(a) In general

The Director, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the interagency committee established under section 9413 of title 15, shall establish a demonstration project to develop, refine, and test models to inform the full implementation of the Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking recommendation for a governmentwide data linkage and access infrastructure for statistical activities conducted for statistical purposes, as defined in chapter 35 of title 44.

(b) Establishment

Not later than one year after August 9, 2022, the Director shall establish a National Secure Data Service demonstration project. The National Secure Data Service demonstration project shall be—

(1) aligned with the principles, best practices, and priority actions recommended by the Advisory Committee on Data for Evidence Building, to the extent feasible; and

(2) operated directly by or via a contract that is managed by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics.

(c) Data

In carrying out this section, the Director shall engage with Federal and State agencies to collect, acquire, analyze, report, and disseminate statistical data in the United States and other nations to support governmentwide evidence-building activities consistent with the Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act of 2018.

(d) Voluntary participation

Participation in the National Secure Data Service demonstration project by Federal and State agencies shall be voluntary.

(e) Privacy and confidentiality protections

If the Director issues a management contract under subsection (b), the recipient shall be designated as an "agent" under subchapter III of chapter 35 of title 44 with all requirements and obligations for protecting confidential information delineated in the Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2018 and the Privacy Act of 1974.

(f) Technology and privacy standards

In carrying out this subsection, the Director shall—

(1) consider application and use only of systems and technologies that incorporate protection measures to reasonably ensure confidential data and statistical products are protected in accordance with obligations under subchapter III of chapter 35 of title 44, including systems and technologies that ensure—

(A) raw data and other sensitive inputs are not accessible to recipients of statistical outputs from the National Secure Data Service demonstration project;

(B) no individual entity's data or information is revealed by the National Secure Data Service demonstration project platform to any other party in an identifiable form;

(C) no information about the data assets used in the National Secure Data Service demonstration project is revealed to any other party, except as incorporated into the final statistical output;

(D) the National Secure Data Service demonstration project permits only authorized analysts to perform statistical queries necessary to answer approved project questions, and prohibits any other queries; and

(E) the National Secure Data Service demonstration project conducts privacy risk assessments to minimize the privacy risks to individual entities whose data has been made available by a reporting entity, including those privacy risks that could result from data breaches of any system operated by the reporting entity, as well as for determining approved project questions under subparagraph (D) to minimize the privacy risks to individuals affected by uses of the statistical output; and


(2) the National Secure Data Service demonstration project shall implement reasonable measures commensurate with the risks to individuals' privacy to achieve the outcomes under subparagraphs (A) through (E) of paragraph (1), which may include the appropriate application of privacy-enhancing technologies and appropriate measures to minimize or prevent reidentification risks consistent with any applicable guidance or regulations issued under subchapter III of chapter 35 of title 44.

(g) Transparency

The National Secure Data Service established under subsection (b) shall maintain a public website with up-to-date information on supported projects.

(h) Report

Not later than 2 years after August 9, 2022, the National Secure Data Service demonstration project established under subsection (b) shall submit a report to Congress that includes—

(1) a description of policies for protecting data, consistent with applicable Federal law;

(2) a comprehensive description of all completed or active data linkage activities and projects;

(3) an assessment of the effectiveness of the demonstration project for mitigating risks and removing barriers to a sustained implementation of the National Secure Data Service as recommended by the Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking; and

(4) if deemed effective by the Director, a plan for scaling up the demonstration project to facilitate data access for evidence building while ensuring transparency and privacy.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director to carry out this subsection $9,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10375, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1574.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 115–435, Jan. 14, 2019, 132 Stat. 5529. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2019 Amendment note set out under section 101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and Tables.

The Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (e), is title III of Pub. L. 115–435, Jan. 14, 2019, 132 Stat. 5544. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2019 Amendment note set out under section 101 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, and Tables.

The Privacy Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 93–579, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1896, which enacted section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and provisions set out as notes under section 552a of Title 5. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 552a of Title 5 and Tables.

Part G—Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships

§19101. Establishment

There is established within the Foundation the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships to advance research and development, technology development, and related solutions to address United States societal, national, and geostrategic challenges, for the benefit of all Americans.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10381, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1576.)

§19102. Purposes

The purposes of the Directorate established under section 19101 of this title are to—

(1) support use-inspired and translational research and accelerate the development and use of federally funded research;

(2) strengthen United States competitiveness by accelerating the development of key technologies; and

(3) grow the domestic workforce in key technology focus areas, and expand the participation of United States students and researchers in areas of societal, national, and geostrategic importance, at all levels of education.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10382, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1576.)

§19103. Activities

Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the Director shall achieve the purposes described in section 19102 of this title by making awards through the Directorate that—

(1) support transformational advances in use-inspired and translational research and technology development, including through diverse funding mechanisms and models at different scales, to include convergence accelerators and projects designed to achieve specific technology metrics or objectives;

(2) encourage the translation of research into innovations, processes, and products, including by—

(A) engaging researchers on topics relevant to United States societal, national, and geostrategic challenges, including by educating researchers on engaging with end users and the public;

(B) advancing novel approaches and reducing barriers to technology transfer, including through intellectual property frameworks between academia and industry, nonprofit entities, venture capital communities, and approaches to technology transfer for applications with public benefit that may not rely on traditional commercialization tools; and

(C) establishing partnerships that connect researchers and research products to businesses, accelerators, and incubators that enable research uptake, prototype development and scaling, entrepreneurial education, and the formation and growth of new companies;


(3) develop mutually-beneficial research and technology development partnerships and collaborations among institutions of higher education, including historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, minority-serving institutions, emerging research institutions, EPSCoR institutions, and nonprofit organizations, labor organizations, businesses and other for-profit entities, Federal or State agencies, local or Tribal governments, civil society organizations, other Foundation directorates, national labs, field stations and marine laboratories, and, as appropriate, international entities and binational research and development foundations and funds, excluding foreign entities of concern;

(4) partner with other directorates and offices of the Foundation for specific projects or research areas including—

(A) to pursue basic questions about natural, human, and physical phenomena that could enable advances in the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title;

(B) to study questions that could affect the design (including human interfaces), safety, security, operation, deployment, or the social and ethical consequences of technologies and innovations in the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title, including the development of technologies and innovations that complement or enhance the abilities of workers and impact of specific innovations on domestic jobs and equitable opportunity; and

(C) to further the creation of a domestic workforce capable of advancing, using, and adapting to the key technology focus areas;


(5) build capacity and infrastructure for use-inspired and translational research at institutions of higher education across the United States, including by making awards to support administrative activities that advance development, operation, integration, deployment, and sharing of innovation;

(6) support the education, mentoring, and training of undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers, to both advance use-inspired and translational research and to address workforce challenges, through scholarships, fellowships, and traineeships; and

(7) identify social, behavioral, and economic drivers and consequences of technological innovations that could enable advances in the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10383, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1576.)

§19104. Requirements

In carrying out the activities under the Directorate, the Director shall ensure the programmatic work of the Directorate and Foundation—

(1) utilizes the full potential of the United States workforce by avoiding undue geographic concentration of research and development and education funding across the United States, and encourages broader participation in the key technology focus area workforce by populations historically underrepresented in STEM; and

(2) incorporates a worker perspective through participation by labor organizations and workforce training organizations.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10384, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1577.)

§19105. Assistant Director

(a) In general

The Director shall appoint an Assistant Director responsible for the management of the Directorate established under this part, in the same manner as other Assistant Directors of the Foundation are appointed.

(b) Qualifications

The Assistant Director shall be an individual, who by reason of professional background and experience, is specially qualified to—

(1) advise the Director on all matters pertaining to use-inspired and translational research, development, and commercialization at the Foundation, including partnership with the private sector and other users of Foundation funded research; and

(2) develop and implement the necessary policies and procedures to promote a culture of use-inspired and translational research within the Directorate and across the Foundation and carry out the responsibilities under subsection (c).

(c) Responsibilities

The responsibilities of the Assistant Director shall include—

(1) advising the Director on all matters pertaining to use-inspired and translational research and development activities at the Foundation, including effective practices for convergence research, and the potential impact of Foundation research on United States societal, national and geostrategic challenges;

(2) identifying opportunities for and facilitating coordination and collaboration, where appropriate, on use-inspired and translational research, development, adoption, and commercialization—

(A) among the offices, directorates, and divisions within the Foundation; and

(B) between the Foundation and stakeholders in academia, the private sector, including non-profit entities, labor organizations, Federal or State agencies, and international entities, as appropriate;


(3) ensuring that the activities carried out under this part do not substantially and unnecessarily duplicate activities supported by other parts of the Foundation or other relevant Federal agencies;

(4) approving all new programs within the Directorate;

(5) developing and testing diverse merit-review models and mechanisms for selecting and providing awards for use-inspired and translational research and development at different scales, from individual investigator awards to large multi-institution collaborations;

(6) assessing the success of programs;

(7) administering awards to achieve the purposes described in section 19102 of this title; and

(8) performing other such duties pertaining to the purposes in section 19102 of this title as are required by the Director.

(d) Relationship to the Director

The Assistant Director shall report to the Director.

(e) Relationship to other programs

No other directorate within the Foundation shall report to the Assistant Director.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10385, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1577.)

§19106. Advisory committee

(a) In general

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) 1 the Director shall establish an advisory committee to assess, and make recommendations regarding, the activities carried out under this part.

(b) Membership

The advisory committee members shall—

(1) be individuals with relevant experience or expertise, including individuals from industry and national labs, educators, academic subject matter experts, including individuals with knowledge of key technology focus areas and their impact on United States national security and geostrategic leadership, the technical and social dimensions of science and technology, technology transfer experts, labor organizations, representatives of civil society, and other nongovernmental organizations; and

(2) consist of at least 10 members broadly representative of stakeholders, including no less than 3 members from the private sector, none of whom shall be an employee of the Federal Government, and no less than 1 member with significant expertise in United States national security and economic competitiveness.

(c) Responsibilities

The Committee's responsibilities shall include—

(1) reviewing and advising on activities carried out under this part;

(2) proposing strategies for fulfilling the purposes in section 19102 of this title;

(3) proposing potential areas of research, particularly as relevant to United States societal, national, and geostrategic challenges; and

(4) other relevant issues as determined by the Director.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10386, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1578.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which was set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and was substantially repealed and restated in chapter 10 (§1001 et seq.) of Title 5 by Pub. L. 117–286, §§3(a), 7, Dec. 27, 2022, 136 Stat. 4197, 4361. For disposition of sections of the Act into chapter 10 of Title 5, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of Title 5.

1 See References in Text note below.

§19107. Challenges and focus areas

(a) In general

In consultation with the Assistant Director, the Board, and the interagency working group established under part D of subchapter VI, the Director shall identify, and annually review and update as appropriate, a list of—

(1) not more than 5 United States societal, national, and geostrategic challenges that may be addressed by technology to guide activities under this part; and

(2) not more than 10 key technology focus areas to guide activities under this part.

(b) Initial list of societal, national, and geostrategic challenges

The initial list of societal, national, and geostrategic challenges are the following:

(1) United States national security.

(2) United States manufacturing and industrial productivity.

(3) United States workforce development and skills gaps.

(4) Climate change and environmental sustainability.

(5) Inequitable access to education, opportunity, or other services.

(c) Initial list of key technology focus areas

The initial list of key technology focus areas are the following:

(1) Artificial intelligence, machine learning, autonomy, and related advances.

(2) High performance computing, semiconductors, and advanced computer hardware and software.

(3) Quantum information science and technology.

(4) Robotics, automation, and advanced manufacturing.

(5) Natural and anthropogenic disaster prevention or mitigation.

(6) Advanced communications technology and immersive technology.

(7) Biotechnology, medical technology, genomics, and synthetic biology.

(8) Data storage, data management, distributed ledger technologies, and cybersecurity, including biometrics.

(9) Advanced energy and industrial efficiency technologies, such as batteries and advanced nuclear technologies, including but not limited to for the purposes of electric generation (consistent with section 1874 of this title.

(10) Advanced materials science, including composites 2D materials, other next-generation materials, and related manufacturing technologies.

(d) Relationship between United States societal, national, and geostrategic challenges and key technology focus areas

(1) In updating the list under subsection (a)(1), the Director shall evaluate national and global technology trends.

(2) In updating the list under subsection (a)(2), the Director shall consider the impact of the selected technologies on United States societal, national, and geostrategic challenges.

(3) The list under subsection (a)(2) may, but is not required to, align directly with the list under subsection (a)(1).

(4) Nothing under this section shall prevent the Director from making limited investments in technologies or areas not identified in subsection (a)(1) or subsection (a)(2).

(e) Review and updates

The Director, in coordination with the interagency working group established under part D of subchapter VI and in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, shall annually review and update as appropriate, the list of key technology focus areas for purposes of this division. As part of the annual review, the Director—

(1) shall consider input from relevant industries and stakeholders;

(2) may consider the challenges and recommendations identified in the reports required by sections 6615 and 6615b of this title, as added by section 10611 and 10613 of this division and in other relevant reports, such as technology and global trend reports from the defense and intelligence communities;

(3) shall consider the potential impact of the key technology focus areas on addressing societal, national, and geostrategic challenges; and

(4) subject to the limitation under subsection (a), may add or delete key technology focus areas in light of shifting national needs or competitive threats to the United States (including for reasons of the United States or other countries having advanced or fallen behind in a technological area).

(f) Reporting

At the conclusion of the annual review and update process required by subsection (e), the Director, in consultation with other Federal research agencies, as appropriate, shall deliver a report to Congress detailing—

(1) the key technology focus areas and rationale for their selection;

(2) the societal, national, and geostrategic challenges and rationale for their selection;

(3) the role of the Foundation in advancing the key technology focus areas;

(4) the impact, including to the academic research community, of any changes to the key technology focus areas; and

(5) the activities and partnerships between the Directorate and the private sector.

(g) Detailed description

The National Science Foundation shall, in coordination with the Office of Management and Budget, submit as part of their annual budget requests to Congress, a detailed description of the activities to be funded under this part, including an explanation of how the requested funding is complementary and not redundant of programs, efforts, and infrastructure undertaken or supported by other relevant Federal agencies.

(h) National Academies

Not later than 5 years after August 9, 2022, the Director shall contract with the National Academies to conduct a review of the key technology focus areas and the societal, national, and geostrategic challenges, including—

(1) an assessment of their selection process;

(2) an assessment of their relevance to the purposes of the Directorate, including to solving challenges with social, economic, health, scientific, and national security implications;

(3) a review of whether Federal investment in the key technology focus areas have resulted in new domestic manufacturing capacity and job creation;

(4) an assessment of any critical, new emerging areas;

(5) an assessment of Federal investments in education and workforce development to support the key technology focus areas; and

(6) an assessment of relative balance in leadership in addressing the key technology focus areas between the United States, allied and partner countries, and the People's Republic of China.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10387, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1579.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This division, referred to in subsec. (e), is div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1399, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of div. B to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18901 of this title and Tables.

Sections 10611 and 10613 of this division, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), are sections 10611 and 10613 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, which, respectively, generally amended section 6615 of this title and enacted section 6615b of this title.

§19108. Regional Innovation Engines

(a) In general

From amounts made available to the Directorate, the Director shall make awards to eligible entities for the planning, establishment, and support of Regional Innovation Engines.

(b) Purpose

The purpose of the Regional Innovation Engines shall be to—

(1) advance multidisciplinary, collaborative, use-inspired and translational research, technology development, in key technology focus areas;

(2) address regional, national, societal, or geostrategic challenges;

(3) leverage the expertise of multi-disciplinary and multi-sector partners, including partners from private industry, nonprofit organizations, and civil society organizations; and

(4) support the development of scientific, innovation, entrepreneurial, and STEM educational capacity within the region of the Regional Innovation Engine to grow and sustain regional innovation.

(c) Uses of funds

Funds awarded under this section may be used by a Regional Innovation Engine to—

(1) conduct use-inspired and translational research and technology development to advance innovation in at least one of the key technology focus areas and to help solve a compelling regional, national, societal, or geostrategic challenge;

(2) further the development, adoption, and commercialization of innovations in key technology focus areas, including through support for proof-of-concept development, and through partnership with other Federal agencies and Federal laboratories, industry, including startup companies, labor organizations, civil society organizations, and State, territorial, local, and Tribal governments;

(3) develop and manage, or facilitate access to, test beds and instrumentation, which may include fabrication facilities and cyberinfrastructure, to advance the development, integration, and demonstration of new, innovative technologies, including hardware or software;

(4) establish traineeship programs for graduate students who pursue degrees and research related to the key technology focus areas leading to a masters or doctorate degree by providing funding and other assistance, and opportunities for research experiences in government or industry related to the students' studies;

(5) engage in outreach and engagement in the region to broaden participation in the activities of the Regional Innovation Engine; and

(6) reimburse, in part or in whole, the cost of instrumentation, technology transfer, and commercialization activities, including patenting and licensing, and for operations and staff, as the Director determines appropriate.

(d) Selection process

In making awards under this part, the Director shall consider, in addition to the scientific and technical merit of the proposal, the extent to which the activities and locations proposed—

(1) have the potential to create an innovation ecosystem, or enhance existing ecosystems and contribute to job creation in a region;

(2) demonstrate a capacity to engage and partner with multiple types of institutions of higher education, industry, labor, nonprofit organizations, civil society organizations, other Federal agencies, Federal laboratories, State, local, and Tribal governments, and other appropriate organizations, including to inform research directions and account for ethical, societal, safety, and security implications relevant to the potential applications of the research;

(3) demonstrate a capacity to broaden participation of populations historically underrepresented in STEM in the activities of the Regional Innovation Engine; and

(4) demonstrate a plan and capability to prevent the inappropriate use or dissemination of the research and technology, including research results, data, and intellectual property, as appropriate and consistent with the requirements of the relevant award.

(e) Requirements

(1) Eligibility

For the purposes of this section, an "eligible entity" means an institution of higher education, a nonprofit organization, a private sector entity, or a consortium thereof.

(2) Partnerships

To be eligible for an award under this section an eligible entity—

(A) shall include in its proposal partnership with 1 or more institution that is—

(i) a historically Black college or university;

(ii) a Tribal College or University;

(iii) a minority-serving institution;

(iv) an EPSCoR institution;

(v) an emerging research institution; or

(vi) a community college;


(B) may include partnership with 1 or more—

(i) additional entities described in paragraph (2)(A);

(ii) industry entities, including startups, small businesses, and public-private partnerships;

(iii) economic development organizations or venture development organizations, as such terms are defined in section 3722a(a) of title 15, as added by section 10621 of this division;

(iv) National Laboratories;

(v) Federal laboratories, as defined in section 3703 of title 15;

(vi) Federal research facilities;

(vii) labor organizations;

(viii) entities described in paragraph (1) or (2) from allied or partner countries;

(ix) other entities to be vital to the success of the program, as determined by the Director;

(x) binational research and development foundations and funds, excluding those affiliated with foreign entities of concern, as defined in section 19221 of this title; and

(xi) Engineer Research and Development Center laboratories of the Army Corps of Engineers; and


(C) shall include as part of its proposal a plan for—

(i) establishing a sustained partnership that is jointly developed and managed, draws from the capacities of each institution, and is mutually beneficial; and

(ii) documents governance and management plans, financial contributions from non-Federal sources, and plans for ownership and use of any intellectual property.

(3) Promoting partnerships

In making awards under this section, the Director shall encourage applicants for a Regional Innovation Engine that include multiple regional partners as described in subsection (e)(2).

(4) Geographic distribution

In making awards under this section, the Director shall take into consideration the extent to which the proposals expand the geographic distribution of the Regional Innovation Engines, including by giving special consideration to rural-serving institutions of higher education.

(5) Resource availability

The Director shall ensure that any eligible entity receiving an award under this section shall—

(A) provide information on relevant currently existing resources available to the proposing team from all internal and external sources, including all partner organizations; and

(B) include letters of collaboration from partner organizations that include information on resource contributions committed by such partners.

(f) Collaboration with regional technology hubs

Each Regional Innovation Engine established under this section may collaborate and participate in, as appropriate, the activities of any regional technology hub designated under section 3722a of title 15, as added by section 10621.

(g) Duration

(1) Initial period

An award under this section shall be for an initial period of 5 years.

(2) Renewal

An established Regional Innovation Engine may apply for, and the Director may award, extended funding for periods of 5 years on a merit-reviewed basis.

(h) Competitive, merit-review

In making awards under this section, the Director shall—

(1) use a competitive, merit review process that includes peer review by a diverse group of individuals with relevant expertise from both the private and public sectors; and

(2) ensure the focus areas of the Regional Innovation Engines do not substantially and unnecessarily duplicate the efforts of any other Regional Innovation Engine or any other similar effort at another Federal agency.

(i) Collaboration

In making awards under this section, the Director may collaborate with Federal departments and agencies whose missions contribute to or are affected by the technology focus area of the institute.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10388, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1581.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 10621 of this division and section 10621, referred to in subsecs. (e)(2)(B)(iii) and (f), mean section 10621 of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167.

§19109. Translation Accelerator

(a) In general

The Director shall establish Translation Accelerators to further the research, development, and commercialization of innovation in the key technology focus areas.

(b) Partnerships

(1) In general

Each Translation Accelerator shall be comprised of a partnership including 2 or more of the following entities:

(A) An institution of higher education.

(B) A for-profit company.

(C) A nonprofit organization.

(D) A Federal agency.

(E) Another entity, if that entity is determined by the Director to be vital to the success of the program.

(2) Institutional or organizational level

The Director shall work to ensure that such partnerships exist at the institutional or organization level, rather than solely at the principal investigator level.

(3) Cost share

Not less than 25 percent of the funding for an institute shall be provided by non-Federal entities.

(4) Number of centers and institutes established

The Director shall endeavor to establish a balance in the number of Regional Innovation Engines and Translation Accelerators.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

From within funds authorized for the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships, there are authorized to carry out the activities under this section and section 19108 of this title $6,500,000,000 for fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10389, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1584.)

§19110. Test beds

(a) Program authorized

(1) In general

From amounts made available for the Directorate, the Director, in coordination with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Secretary of Energy, and other Federal agencies, as determined appropriate by the Director, shall establish a program in the Directorate to make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education, nonprofit organizations, or consortia thereof to establish and operate test beds, which may include fabrication facilities and cyberinfrastructure, to advance the development, operation, integration, deployment, and, as appropriate, demonstration of new, innovative critical technologies, which may include hardware or software.

(2) Coordination

In establishing new test beds under this section, the Director shall ensure coordination with other test beds supported by the Foundation or other Federal agencies to avoid duplication and maximize the use of Federal resources.

(b) Proposals

An applicant for an award under this section shall submit a proposal to the Director, at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may reasonably require. The proposal shall, at a minimum, describe—

(1) the technology or technologies that will be the focus of the test bed;

(2) the goals of the work to be done at the test bed;

(3) how the applicant will assemble a workforce with the skills needed to operate the test bed;

(4) how the applicant will ensure broad access to the test bed;

(5) how the applicant will collaborate with firms in critical technologies, including through coordinated research and development and funding, to ensure that work in the test bed will contribute to the commercial viability of any technologies and will include collaboration from industry and labor organizations;

(6) how the applicant will encourage the participation of inventors and entrepreneurs and the development of new businesses;

(7) how the applicant will increase participation by populations that are underrepresented in STEM;

(8) how the applicant will demonstrate that the commercial viability of any new technologies will support the creation of high-quality domestic jobs;

(9) how the test bed will operate after Federal funding has ended;

(10) how the test bed will disseminate lessons and other technical information to United States entities or allied or partner country entities in the United States; and

(11) how the applicant plans to take measures to prevent the inappropriate use of research results, data, and intellectual property, as applicable and consistent with the requirements of the award.

(c) Authorized use of funds

A recipient of an award under this section may, consistent with the purposes of this section, use the award for the purchase of equipment and for the support of students, faculty and staff, and postdoctoral researchers.

(d) Geographic diversity

In selecting award recipients under this section, the Director shall consider the extent to which proposals would expand the geographic diversity of test beds.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10390, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1585.)

§19111. Planning and capacity building awards

(a) In general

Under the program established in section 1862p–2 of this title and the activities authorized under this section, from amounts made available to the Directorate, the Director, in coordination with other Federal agencies as determined appropriate by the Director, shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities to advance the development, adoption, and commercialization of technologies, consistent with the purposes of the Directorate under section 19102 of this title.

(b) Eligible entity

To be eligible to receive an award under this section, an entity shall be—

(1) an institution of higher education, which may be a community college (or a consortium of such institutions);

(2) a nonprofit organization that is either affiliated with an institution of higher education or designed to support technology development or entrepreneurship; or

(3) a consortium that includes—

(A) an entity described in paragraph (1) or (2) as the lead award recipient; and

(B) one or more additional individuals or entities, which shall be—

(i) an economic development organization or similar entity that is focused primarily on improving science, technology, innovation, or entrepreneurship;

(ii) an industry organization or firm in a relevant technology or innovation sector;

(iii) an industry-experienced executive with entrepreneurship experience that is focused primarily on de-risking technologies from both a scientific and a business perspective; or

(iv) an individual or entity with industry and startup expertise, including a mentor network, across relevant technology or innovation sectors.

(c) Use of funds

In addition to activities listed under section 19103 of this title, an eligible entity receiving an award under this section may use funds to—

(1) identify academic research with the potential for technology transfer and commercialization, particularly as relevant to the purposes of the Directorate under section 19102 of this title;

(2) ensure the availability of staff, including technology transfer professionals, entrepreneurs in residence, and other mentors as required to accomplish the purpose of this section;

(3) help offset the costs of patenting and licensing research products, both domestically and internationally;

(4) revise institution policies, including policies related to intellectual property and faculty entrepreneurship, and taking other necessary steps to implement relevant best practices for academic technology transfer;

(5) develop local, regional, and national partnerships among institutions of higher education and between institutions of higher education and private sector entities and other relevant organizations, including investors, with the purpose of building networks, expertise, and other capacity to identify promising research that may have potential market value and enable researchers to pursue further development and transfer of their ideas into possible commercial or other use;

(6) develop seminars, courses, and other educational opportunities for students, post-doctoral researchers, faculty, and other relevant staff at institutions of higher education to increase awareness and understanding of entrepreneurship, patenting, business planning, research security, and other areas relevant to technology transfer, and connect students and researchers to relevant resources, including mentors in the private sector; and

(7) create, support, or fund entities or competitions to allow entrepreneurial students and faculty to illustrate the commercialization potential of their ideas, including through venture funds of institution of higher education.

(d) Limitations on funding

(1) Awards made under this section shall be at least 3 years in duration and shall not exceed $1,000,000 per fiscal year.

(2) Awards made under this section shall not support the development or operation of capital investment funds.

(e) Application

An eligible entity seeking funding under this section shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information and assurances as such Director may require. The application shall include, at a minimum, a description of—

(1) how the eligible entity submitting an application plans to sustain the proposed activities beyond the duration of the award;

(2) the steps the applicant will take to enable technology transfer and adoption and why such steps are likely to be effective;

(3) how the applicant will encourage the training and participation of students and potential entrepreneurs and the transition of research results to practice, including the development of new businesses;

(4) as relevant, potential steps to drive economic growth in a particular region, by collaborating with industry, venture capital entities, non-profit organizations, and State and local governments within that region; and

(5) background information that the Director determines is relevant to demonstrate the success of the innovation and entrepreneurship support models proposed by the applicant to commercialize technologies.

(f) Collaborative innovation resource center program

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards under this section to eligible entities to establish collaborative innovation resource centers that promote regional technology transfer and technology development activities available to more than one institution of higher education and to other entities in a region.

(2) Use of funds

An eligible entity that receives an award under this subsection shall use award funds to carry out one or more of the following activities, to the benefit of the region in which the center is located:

(A) Providing start-ups and small business concerns (as defined in section 632 of title 15) within the region with access to facilities, scientific infrastructure, personnel, and other assets as required for technology maturation.

(B) Supporting entrepreneurial training for start-up and small business personnel.


(3) 1 Providing engineering and entrepreneurial experiences and hands-on training for students enrolled in participating institutions of higher education.

(g) Reporting on commercialization metrics

The Director shall establish—

(1) metrics related to commercialization for an award under this section; and

(2) a reporting schedule for recipients of such awards that takes into account both short- and long-term goals of the programs under this section.

(h) Geographic diversity

The Director shall ensure regional and geographic diversity in issuing awards under this section.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

From within funds authorized for the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships, there are authorized to carry out the activities under this section $3,100,000,000 for fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10391, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1586.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "(C)".

§19112. Entrepreneurial fellowships

(a) In general

The Director, acting through the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships, shall award fellowships to scientists and engineers to help develop leaders capable of maturing promising ideas and technologies from lab to market or other use and forge connections between academic research and the government, industry, financial sectors, and other end users.

(b) Application

An applicant for a fellowship under this section shall submit to the Director an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require. At a minimum, the Director shall require that applicants—

(1) have completed a doctoral degree in a STEM field no more than 5 years prior to the date of the application, or have otherwise demonstrated significant postbaccalaureate scientific research experience and are considered early career, according to requirements established by the Director; and

(2) have included in the application a proposal for how the fellow will be embedded in a host institution's research environment.

(c) Outreach

The Director shall conduct program outreach to recruit fellowship applicants—

(1) from diverse research institutions;

(2) from all regions of the country; and

(3) from groups historically underrepresented in STEM fields.

(d) Administration agreements

The Director may enter into an agreement with a qualified third-party entity to administer the fellowships, subject to the provisions of this section.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director a total of $125,000,000 for fiscal years 2023 through 2027, to carry out the activities outlined in this section.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10392, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1588.)

§19113. Scholarships and fellowships

(a) In general

The Director, acting through the Directorate, shall fund undergraduate scholarships (including at community colleges), graduate fellowships and traineeships, and postdoctoral awards in the key technology focus areas.

(b) Implementation

The Director may carry out subsection (a) by making awards—

(1) directly to students; and

(2) to institutions of higher education or consortia of institutions of higher education, including those institutions or consortia involved in operating Regional Innovation Engines established under section 19108 of this title.

(c) Broadening participation

In carrying out this section, the Director shall take steps to increase the participation of populations that are underrepresented in STEM, which may include—

(1) establishing or augmenting programs targeted at populations that are underrepresented in STEM;

(2) supporting traineeships or other relevant programs at historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, and minority-serving institutions;

(3) enabling low-income populations to pursue associate, undergraduate, or graduate level degrees in STEM;

(4) addressing current and expected gaps in the availability or skills of the STEM workforce, or addressing needs of the STEM workforce, including by increasing educational capacity at institutions and by prioritizing awards to United States citizens, permanent residents, and individuals that will grow the domestic workforce; and

(5) addressing geographic diversity in the STEM workforce.

(d) Encouraging innovation

In carrying out this section, the Director shall encourage innovation in graduate education, including through encouraging institutions of higher education to offer graduate students opportunities to gain experience in industry or Government as part of their graduate training, and through support for students in professional master's programs related to the key technology focus areas or to the societal, national, and geostrategic challenges.

(e) Areas of funding support

Subject to the availability of funds to carry out this section, the Director shall—

(1) issue—

(A) postdoctoral awards,

(B) graduate fellowships and traineeships, inclusive of the NSF Research Traineeships and fellowships awarded under the Graduate Research Fellowship Program; and

(C) scholarships, including undergraduate scholarships, research experiences, and internships, including—

(i) scholarships to attend community colleges; and

(ii) research experiences and internships under sections 1862p–5, 1862p–6, and 1862p–7 of this title;


(2) ensure that not less than 10 percent of the funds made available to carry out this section are used to support additional awards that focus on community college training, education, and teaching programs that increase the participation of populations that are historically underrepresented in STEM, including technical programs through programs such as the Advanced Technological Education program; and

(3) if funds remain after carrying out paragraphs (1) and (2) make awards to institutions of higher education to enable the institutions to fund the development and establishment of new or specialized programs of study for graduate, undergraduate, or technical college students and the evaluation of the effectiveness of those programs of study.

(f) Low-income scholarship program

(1) In general

The Director shall award scholarships to low-income individuals to enable such individuals to pursue associate, undergraduate, or graduate level degrees in STEM fields.

(2) Eligibility

(A) In general

To be eligible to receive a scholarship under this subsection, an individual—

(i) must be a citizen of the United States, a national of the United States (as defined in section 1101(a) of title 8), an alien admitted as a refugee under section 1157 of title 8, or an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence;

(ii) shall prepare and submit to the Director an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require; and

(iii) shall certify to the Director that the individual intends to use amounts received under the scholarship to enroll or continue enrollment at an institution of higher education (as defined in section 1001(a) of title 20) in order to pursue an associate, undergraduate, or graduate level degree in STEM fields designated by the Director.

(B) Ability

Awards of scholarships under this subsection shall be made by the Director solely on the basis of the ability of the applicant, except that in any case in which 2 or more applicants for scholarships are deemed by the Director to be possessed of substantially equal ability, and there are not sufficient scholarships available to award one to each of such applicants, the available scholarship or scholarships shall be awarded to the applicants in a manner that will tend to result in a geographically wide distribution throughout the United States recipients' places of permanent residence.

(3) Omitted

(4) Authorization

Of amounts authorized for the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships, $100,000,000 shall be authorized to carry out this subsection.

(g) Existing programs

The Director may use or augment existing STEM education programs of the Foundation and leverage education or entrepreneurial partners to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10393, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1589.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1101(a) of title 8 and section 1157 of title 8, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(A)(i), were so in the original, but probably should have been references to sections 101(a) and 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, which are classified to sections 1101(a) and 1157 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Section 1001(a) of title 20, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(A)(iii), was so in the original, but probably should have been a reference to section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965, Pub. L. 89–329, which is classified to section 1001(a) of Title 20, Education.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10393 of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsec. (f)(3) of section 10393 of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 1869c of this title.

§19114. Research and development awards

(a) In general

From amounts made available for the Directorate, the Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, for research and technology development within the key technology focus areas, including investments that advance solutions to the challenges under section 19107 of this title.

(b) Purpose

The purpose of the awards under this section shall be to accelerate technological advances and technology adoption in the key technology focus areas.

(c) Recipients

Recipients of funds under this section may include institutions of higher education, research institutions, non-profit organizations, private sector entities, consortia, or other entities as defined by the Director.

(d) Metrics

The Director may set metrics, including goals and deadlines, for the development and demonstration of technology as determined in the terms of the award, and may use such metrics to determine whether an award recipient shall be eligible for continued or follow-on funding.

(e) Short term technology deployment

The Director shall also make awards, including through the SBIR and STTR programs (as defined in section 638(e) of title 15), to expedite short-term technology deployment within a period of no longer than 24 months.

(f) Selection criteria

In selecting recipients for an award under this section, the Director shall consider, at a minimum—

(1) the relevance of the project to the challenges and the key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title, and the potential of the project to result in transformational advances for such challenges and the key technology focus areas;

(2) the current status of similar technology, the limits of current practice, and the novelty and risks of the proposed project;

(3) the ethical, societal, safety, and security implications relevant to the application of the technology;

(4) the appropriateness of quantitative goals and metrics for evaluating the project and a plan for evaluating those metrics; and

(5) the path for developing and, as appropriate, commercializing the technology into products and processes in the United States.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

From within funds authorized for the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships, there are authorized to carry out the activities under this section $1,000,000,000 for fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10394, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1591.)

§19115. Scaling innovations in PreK–12 STEM education

(a) In general

Taking into consideration the recommendations under section 18991(a)(4) of this title, the Director shall make awards, on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, to establish multidisciplinary Centers for Transformative Education Research and Translation (in this section referred to as "Centers") to support research and development on widespread and sustained implementation of STEM education innovations.

(b) Eligibility

The entity seeking an award for a Center under this section must be an institution of higher education, a nonprofit organization, or a consortium of such institutions or organizations, which may include a STEM ecosystem.

(c) Application

An eligible entity under subsection (b) seeking an award under this section shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require. The application shall include, at a minimum, a description of how the proposed Center will be used to—

(1) establish partnerships among academic institutions, local or State educational agencies, and other relevant stakeholders in supporting programs and activities to facilitate the widespread and sustained implementation of promising, evidence-based STEM education practices, models, programs, curriculum, and technologies;

(2) support enhanced STEM education infrastructure, including cyberlearning technologies, to facilitate the widespread adoption of promising, evidence-based practices;

(3) support research and development on scaling practices, partnerships, and alternative models to current approaches, including approaches sensitive to the unique combinations of capabilities, resources, and needs of varying localities, educators, and learners;

(4) include a focus on the learning needs of under-resourced schools and learners in low-resource or underachieving local educational agencies in urban and rural communities and the development of high-quality curriculum that engages these learners in the knowledge and practices of STEM fields;

(5) include a focus on the learning needs and unique challenges facing students with disabilities;

(6) support research, development, or education on one or more of the key technology focus areas;

(7) support research and development on scaling practices and models to support and sustain highly-qualified STEM educators in urban and rural communities; and

(8) at the discretion of the Director, any other requirements recommended in the study commissioned under section 18991(a) of this title.

(d) Additional considerations

In making an award under this section, the Director may also consider the extent to which the proposed Center will—

(1) leverage existing collaborations, tools, and strategies supported by the Foundation, including NSF INCLUDES and the Convergence Accelerators;

(2) support research on and the development and scaling of innovative approaches to distance learning and education for various student populations;

(3) support education innovations that leverage new technologies or deepen understanding of the impact of technology on educational systems; and

(4) include a commitment from local or State education administrators to making the proposed reforms and activities a priority.

(e) Partnership

In carrying out the program under this section, the Director shall explore opportunities to partner with the Department of Education, including through jointly funding activities under this section.

(f) Duration

Each award made under this section shall be for a duration of no more than 5 years.

(g) Annual meeting

The Director shall encourage and facilitate an annual meeting of the Centers, as appropriate, to foster collaboration among the Centers and to further disseminate the results of the Centers' supported activities.

(h) Existing programs

The Director may use existing NSF programs to establish and execute this section.

(i) Report

Not later than 5 years after August 9, 2022, the Director shall submit to Congress and make widely available to the public a report that includes—

(1) a description of the focus and proposed goals of each Center;

(2) an assessment, based on a common set of benchmarks and tools, of the Centers' success in helping to promote scalable solutions in PreK–12 STEM education; and

(3) any recommendations for administrative and legislative action that could optimize the effectiveness of the Centers established under this section.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10395, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1591.)

§19116. Authorities

In addition to existing authorities available to the Foundation, the Director may exercise the following authorities in carrying out the activities under this part:

(1) Awards

In carrying out this part, the Director may provide awards in the form of grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, cash prizes, and other transactions.

(2) Program directors

(A) Designation

The Director may designate individuals to serve as program directors for the programs established within the Directorate pursuant to the responsibilities established under subparagraph (B). The Director shall ensure that program directors—

(i) have expertise in one or more of the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title; and

(ii) come from a variety of backgrounds, including industry, and from a variety of institutions of higher education.

(B) Responsibilities

A program director of a program of the Directorate, in consultation with the Assistant Director, shall be responsible for—

(i) establishing research and development goals for the program, including through the convening of workshops, conferring with a broad range of stakeholders and outside experts, taking into account relevant expert reports, and publicizing the goals of the program to the public and private sectors;

(ii) surveying a wide range of institutions of higher education, nonprofit organizations, and private entities to identify emerging trends in the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title, and, as appropriate, soliciting proposals from such entities to conduct research in areas of particular promise that the private sector is the not likely to undertake independently.

(iii) facilitating research collaborations in the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title, including connecting academic researchers with potential end-users of technology, including industry, labor organizations, nonprofit organizations, civil society organizations, and other relevant organizations;

(iv) reviewing applications for projects submitted under section 19114 of this title according to the Merit Review Criteria established by the Director for such projects and described in the Foundation's Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide, and any such additional criteria as determined by the Director; and

(v) monitoring the progress of projects supported under the program and taking into account input from relevant experts and stakeholders, recommending program updates as needed.

(C) Selection criteria

Program directors may use diverse merit review models for selection of award recipients under section 19114 of this title, including internal review and different models that use peer review.

(D) Terms

Program directors of the Directorate may be appointed by the Director for a limited term, renewable at the discretion of the Director.

(3) Experts in science and engineering

(A) Program authorized

The Foundation may carry out a program of personnel management authority provided under subparagraph (B) in order to facilitate recruitment of eminent experts in science or engineering for research and development projects and to enhance the administration and management of the Foundation.

(B) Personnel management authority

Under the program under subparagraph (A), the Foundation may—

(i) without regard to any provision of title 5 governing the appointment of employees in the competitive service, appoint individuals to a total of not more than 70 positions in the Foundation, of which not more than 5 such positions may be positions of administration or management of the Foundation;

(ii) prescribe the rates of basic pay for positions to which employees are appointed under clause (i)—

(I) in the case of employees appointed pursuant to clause (i) to any of 5 positions designated by the Foundation for purposes of this clause, at rates not in excess of a rate equal to 150 percent of the maximum rate of basic pay authorized for positions at level I of the Executive Schedule under section 5312 of title 5; and

(II) in the case of any other employee appointed pursuant to clause (i), at rates not in excess of the maximum rate of basic pay authorized for senior-level positions under section 5376 of title 5; and


(iii) pay any employee appointed under subparagraph (A), other than an employee appointed to a position designated as described in clause (ii)(I), payments in addition to basic pay within the limit applicable to the employee under subparagraph (D).

(C) Limitation on term of appointment

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the service of an employee under an appointment under subparagraph (B)(i) may not exceed 4 years.

(ii) Extension

The Director may, in the case of a particular employee under the program under subparagraph (A), extend the period to which service is limited under clause (i) by up to 2 years if the Director determines that such action is necessary to promote the efficiency of the Foundation.

(D) Maximum amount of additional payments payable

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection or section 5307 of title 5, no additional payments may be paid to an employee under subparagraph (B)(iii) in any calendar year if, or to the extent that, the employee's total annual compensation in such calendar year will exceed the maximum amount of total annual compensation payable at the salary set in accordance with section 104 of title 3.

(4) Highly qualified experts in needed occupations

(A) In general

The Foundation may carry out a program using the authority provided in subparagraph (B) in order to attract highly qualified experts in needed occupations, as determined by the Foundation. Individuals hired by the Director through such authority may include individuals with expertise in business creativity, innovation management, design thinking, entrepreneurship, venture capital, and related fields.

(B) Authority

Under the program, the Foundation may—

(i) appoint personnel from outside the civil service and uniformed services (as such terms are defined in section 2101 of title 5) to positions in the Foundation without regard to any provision of title 5 governing the appointment of employees in the competitive service;

(ii) prescribe the rates of basic pay for positions to which employees are appointed under clause (i) at rates not in excess of the maximum rate of basic pay authorized for senior-level positions under section 5376 of title 5; and

(iii) pay any employee appointed under clause (i) payments in addition to basic pay within the limits applicable to the employee under subparagraph (D).

(C) Limitation on term of appointment

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the service of an employee under an appointment made pursuant to this subsection may not exceed 5 years.

(ii) Extension

The Foundation may, in the case of a particular employee, extend the period to which service is limited under clause (i) by up to 1 additional year if the Foundation determines that such action is necessary to promote the Foundation's national security missions.

(D) Limitations on additional payments

(i) Total amount

The total amount of the additional payments paid to an employee under this subsection for any 12-month period may not exceed the maximum amount of total compensation payable at the salary set in accordance with section 104 of title.1

(ii) Eligibility for payments

An employee appointed under this subsection is not eligible for any bonus, monetary award, or other monetary incentive for service, except for payments authorized under this subsection.

(E) Limitation on number of highly qualified experts

The number of highly qualified experts appointed and retained by the Foundation under sub 2 (B)(i) shall not exceed 70 at any time.

(F) Savings provisions

In the event that the Foundation terminates the program under this paragraph, in the case of an employee who, on the day before the termination of the program, is serving in a position pursuant to an appointment under this paragraph—

(i) the termination of the program does not terminate the employee's employment in that position before the expiration of the lesser of—

(I) the period for which the employee was appointed; or

(II) the period to which the employee's service is limited under subparagraph (C), including any extension made under this paragraph before the termination of the program; and


(ii) the rate of basic pay prescribed for the position under this paragraph may not be reduced as long as the employee continues to serve at an acceptable level of performance in the position without a break in service.

(5) Additional hiring authority

To the extent needed to carry out the duties under paragraph (1)(A), the Director is authorized to utilize hiring authorities under section 3372 of title 5 to staff the Foundation with employees from other Federal agencies, State and local governments, Indian Tribes and Tribal organizations, institutions of higher education, and other organizations, as described in that section, in the same manner and subject to the same conditions, that apply to such individuals utilized to accomplish other missions of the Foundation.

(6) National Academy of Public Administration

(A) Study

Not later than 30 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall contract with the National Academy of Public Administration to conduct a study on the organizational and management structure of the Foundation, to—

(i) evaluate and make recommendations to efficiently and effectively implement the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships; and

(ii) evaluate and make recommendations to ensure coordination of the Directorate for Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships with other directorates and offices of the Foundation and other Federal agencies.

(B) Review

Upon completion of the study under subparagraph (A), the Foundation shall review the recommendations from the National Academy of Public Administration and provide a briefing to Congress on the plans of the Foundation to implement any such recommendations.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10396, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1593.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10396 of Pub. L. 117–167. Par. (7) of section 10396 of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 1870 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section 104 of title 3".

2 So in original. Probably should be "subparagraph".

§19117. Coordination of activities

(a) In general

In carrying out the activities of the Directorate, the Director shall coordinate and collaborate as appropriate with the Secretary of Energy, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the heads of other Federal research agencies, as appropriate, to further the goals of this part.

(b) Avoid duplication

The Director shall ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, that activities carried out by the Directorate are not duplicative of activities supported by other parts of the Foundation or other relevant Federal agencies. In carrying out the activities prescribed by this division, the Director shall coordinate with the interagency working group established under part D of subchapter VI and heads of other Federal research agencies to ensure these activities enhance and complement, but do not constitute unnecessary duplication of effort and to ensure the responsible stewardship of funds.

(c) Emerging technologies

After completion of the studies regarding emerging technologies conducted by the Secretary of Commerce under title XV of division FF of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (Public Law 116–260), the Director shall consider the results of such studies in carrying out the activities of the Directorate.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10397, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1597.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This division, referred to in subsec. (b), is div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1399, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of div. B to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18901 of this title and Tables.

Title XV of division FF of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, referred to in subsec. (c), is title XV of Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3276, known as the American Competitiveness Of a More Productive Emerging Tech Economy Act, and also known as the American COMPETE Act, which is not classified to the Code.

§19118. Ethical, legal, and societal considerations

The Director shall engage, as appropriate, experts in the social dimensions of science and technology and set up formal avenues for public input, as appropriate, to ensure that ethical, legal, and societal considerations are taken into account in the priorities and activities of the Directorate, including in the selection of the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title and the award-making process, and throughout all stages of supported projects.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10398, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1597.)

§19119. Reports and roadmaps

(a) Annual report

The Director shall provide to the relevant authorizing and appropriations committees of Congress an annual report describing projects supported by the Directorate during the previous year.

(b) Roadmap

Not later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, the Director shall provide to the relevant authorizing and appropriations committees of Congress a roadmap describing the strategic vision that the Directorate will use to guide investment decisions over the following 3 years.

(c) Reports

Not later than 1 year after August 9, 2022, and every 3 years thereafter, the Director, in consultation with the heads of relevant Federal agencies, shall prepare and submit to Congress—

(1) a strategic vision for the next 5 years for the Directorate, including a description of how the Foundation will increase funding for research and education for populations underrepresented in STEM and geographic areas; and

(2) a description of the planned activities of the Directorate to secure federally funded science and technology pursuant to section 1746 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (Public Law 116–92; 42 U.S.C. 6601 note) and section 6605 of this title and the requirements under part D of this subchapter and subtitle E of title VI.

(d) Selection criteria report

Not later than 24 months after the establishment of the Directorate, the Director shall prepare and submit a report to Congress regarding the use of alternative methods for the selection of award recipients and the distribution of funding to recipients, as compared to the traditional peer review process.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10399, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1598.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Subtitle E of title VI, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is subtitle E (§§10641–10649) of title VI of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1672, known as the Coastal and Ocean Acidification Research and Innovation Act of 2021. For complete classification of subtitle E to the Code, see Short Title of 2022 Amendment note set out under section 3701 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and Tables.

§19120. Evaluation

(a) In general

After the Directorate has been in operation for 6 years, the Director shall enter into an agreement with the National Academies to provide an evaluation of how well the Directorate is achieving the purposes identified in section 19102 of this title.

(b) Inclusions

The evaluation shall include—

(1) an assessment of the impact of Directorate activities on the Foundation's primary science mission;

(2) an assessment of the Directorate's impact on the challenges and key technology focus areas under section 19107 of this title;

(3) an assessment of efforts to ensure coordination between the Directorate and other Federal agencies, and with external entities;

(4) a description of lessons learned from operation of the Directorate; and

(5) recommended funding levels for the Directorate;

(c) Availability

On completion of the evaluation, the evaluation shall be made available to Congress and the public.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title III, §10399A, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1598.)

SUBCHAPTER IV—BIOECONOMY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

§19131. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Initiative

The term "Initiative" means the National Engineering Biology Research and Development Initiative established under section 19132 of this title.

(2) Omics

The term "omics" refers to the collective technologies used to explore the roles, relationships, and actions of the various types of molecules that make up the cells and systems of an organism and the systems level analysis of their functions.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title IV, §10401, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1599.)


Executive Documents

Ex. Ord. No. 14081. Advancing Biotechnology and Biomanufacturing Innovation for a Sustainable, Safe, and Secure American Bioeconomy

Ex. Ord. No. 14081, Sept. 12, 2022, 87 F.R. 56849, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of my Administration to coordinate a whole-of-government approach to advance biotechnology and biomanufacturing towards innovative solutions in health, climate change, energy, food security, agriculture, supply chain resilience, and national and economic security. Central to this policy and its outcomes are principles of equity, ethics, safety, and security that enable access to technologies, processes, and products in a manner that benefits all Americans and the global community and that maintains United States technological leadership and economic competitiveness.

Biotechnology harnesses the power of biology to create new services and products, which provide opportunities to grow the United States economy and workforce and improve the quality of our lives and the environment. The economic activity derived from biotechnology and biomanufacturing is referred to as "the bioeconomy." The COVID–19 pandemic has demonstrated the vital role of biotechnology and biomanufacturing in developing and producing life-saving diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines that protect Americans and the world. Although the power of these technologies is most vivid at the moment in the context of human health, biotechnology and biomanufacturing can also be used to achieve our climate and energy goals, improve food security and sustainability, secure our supply chains, and grow the economy across all of America.

For biotechnology and biomanufacturing to help us achieve our societal goals, the United States needs to invest in foundational scientific capabilities. We need to develop genetic engineering technologies and techniques to be able to write circuitry for cells and predictably program biology in the same way in which we write software and program computers; unlock the power of biological data, including through computing tools and artificial intelligence; and advance the science of scale-up production while reducing the obstacles for commercialization so that innovative technologies and products can reach markets faster.

Simultaneously, we must take concrete steps to reduce biological risks associated with advances in biotechnology. We need to invest in and promote biosafety and biosecurity to ensure that biotechnology is developed and deployed in ways that align with United States principles and values and international best practices, and not in ways that lead to accidental or deliberate harm to people, animals, or the environment. In addition, we must safeguard the United States bioeconomy, as foreign adversaries and strategic competitors alike use legal and illegal means to acquire United States technologies and data, including biological data, and proprietary or precompetitive information, which threatens United States economic competitiveness and national security.

We also must ensure that uses of biotechnology and biomanufacturing are ethical and responsible; are centered on a foundation of equity and public good, consistent with Executive Order 13985 of January 20, 2021 (Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities Through the Federal Government) [5 U.S.C. 601 note]; and are consistent with respect for human rights. Resources should be invested justly and equitably so that biotechnology and biomanufacturing technologies benefit all Americans, especially those in underserved communities, as well as the broader global community.

To achieve these objectives, it is the policy of my Administration to:

(a) bolster and coordinate Federal investment in key research and development (R&D) areas of biotechnology and biomanufacturing in order to further societal goals;

(b) foster a biological data ecosystem that advances biotechnology and biomanufacturing innovation, while adhering to principles of security, privacy, and responsible conduct of research;

(c) improve and expand domestic biomanufacturing production capacity and processes, while also increasing piloting and prototyping efforts in biotechnology and biomanufacturing to accelerate the translation of basic research results into practice;

(d) boost sustainable biomass production and create climate-smart incentives for American agricultural producers and forest landowners;

(e) expand market opportunities for bioenergy and biobased products and services;

(f) train and support a diverse, skilled workforce and a next generation of leaders from diverse groups to advance biotechnology and biomanufacturing;

(g) clarify and streamline regulations in service of a science- and risk-based, predictable, efficient, and transparent system to support the safe use of products of biotechnology;

(h) elevate biological risk management as a cornerstone of the life cycle of biotechnology and biomanufacturing R&D, including by providing for research and investment in applied biosafety and biosecurity innovation;

(i) promote standards, establish metrics, and develop systems to grow and assess the state of the bioeconomy; to better inform policy, decision-making, and investments in the bioeconomy; and to ensure equitable and ethical development of the bioeconomy;

(j) secure and protect the United States bioeconomy by adopting a forward-looking, proactive approach to assessing and anticipating threats, risks, and potential vulnerabilities (including digital intrusion, manipulation, and exfiltration efforts by foreign adversaries), and by partnering with the private sector and other relevant stakeholders to jointly mitigate risks to protect technology leadership and economic competitiveness; and

(k) engage the international community to enhance biotechnology R&D cooperation in a way that is consistent with United States principles and values and that promotes best practices for safe and secure biotechnology and biomanufacturing research, innovation, and product development and use.

The efforts undertaken pursuant to this order to further these policies shall be referred to collectively as the National Biotechnology and Biomanufacturing Initiative.

Sec. 2. Coordination. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy (APEP) and the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), shall coordinate the executive branch actions necessary to implement this order through the interagency process described in National Security Memorandum 2 of February 4, 2021 (Renewing the National Security Council System) (NSM–2 process). In implementing this order, heads of agencies (as defined in section 13 of this order) shall, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, consult outside stakeholders, such as those in industry; academia; nongovernmental organizations; communities; labor unions; and State, local, Tribal, and territorial governments to advance the policies described in section 1 of this order.

Sec. 3. Harnessing Biotechnology and Biomanufacturing R&D to Further Societal Goals. (a) Within 180 days of the date of this order [Sept. 12, 2022], the heads of agencies specified in subsections (a)(i)–(v) of this section shall submit the following reports on biotechnology and biomanufacturing to further societal goals related to health, climate change and energy, food and agricultural innovation, resilient supply chains, and cross-cutting scientific advances. The reports shall be submitted to the President through the APNSA, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the APEP, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy (APDP), and the Director of OSTP.

(i) The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), in consultation with the heads of appropriate agencies as determined by the Secretary, shall submit a report assessing how to use biotechnology and biomanufacturing to achieve medical breakthroughs, reduce the overall burden of disease, and improve health outcomes.

(ii) The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the heads of appropriate agencies as determined by the Secretary, shall submit a report assessing how to use biotechnology, biomanufacturing, bioenergy, and biobased products to address the causes and adapt to and mitigate the impacts of climate change, including by sequestering carbon and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

(iii) The Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the heads of appropriate agencies as determined by the Secretary, shall submit a report assessing how to use biotechnology and biomanufacturing for food and agriculture innovation, including by improving sustainability and land conservation; increasing food quality and nutrition; increasing and protecting agricultural yields; protecting against plant and animal pests and diseases; and cultivating alternative food sources.

(iv) The Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of HHS, and the heads of other appropriate agencies as determined by the Secretary of Commerce, shall submit a report assessing how to use biotechnology and biomanufacturing to strengthen the resilience of United States supply chains.

(v) The Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), in consultation with the heads of appropriate agencies as determined by the Director, shall submit a report identifying high-priority fundamental and use-inspired basic research goals to advance biotechnology and biomanufacturing and to address the societal goals identified in this section.

(b) Each report specified in subsection (a) of this section shall identify high-priority basic research and technology development needs to achieve the overall objectives described in subsection (a) of this section, as well as opportunities for public-private collaboration. Each of these reports shall also include recommendations for actions to enhance biosafety and biosecurity to reduce risk throughout the biotechnology R&D and biomanufacturing lifecycles.

(c) Within 100 days of receiving the reports required under subsection (a) of this section, the Director of OSTP, in coordination with the Director of OMB, the APNSA, the APEP, the APDP, and the heads of appropriate agencies as determined through the NSM–2 process, shall develop a plan (implementation plan) to implement the recommendations in the reports. The development of this implementation plan shall also include the solicitation of input from external experts regarding potential ethical implications or other societal impacts, including environmental sustainability and environmental justice, of the recommendations contained in the reports required under subsection (a) of this section. The implementation plan shall include assessments and make recommendations regarding any such implications or impacts.

(d) Within 90 days of the date of this order, the Director of OMB, in consultation with the heads of appropriate agencies as determined throughthe NSM–2 process, shall perform a budget crosscut to identify existing levels of agency spending on biotechnology- and biomanufacturing-related activities to inform the development of the implementation plan described in subsection (c) of this section.

(e) The APNSA, in coordination with the Director of OMB, the APEP, the APDP, and the Director of OSTP, shall review the reports required under subsection (a) of this section and shall submit the reports to the President in an unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(f) The APNSA, in coordination with the Director of OMB, the APEP, the APDP, and the Director of OSTP, shall include a cover memorandum for the reports submitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, along with the implementation plan required under subsection (c) of this section, in which they make any additional overall recommendations for advancing biotechnology and biomanufacturing.

(g) Within 2 years of the date of this order, agencies at which recommendations are directed in the implementation plan required under subsection (c) of this section shall report to the Director of OMB, the APNSA, the APEP, the APDP, and the Director of OSTP on measures taken and resources allocated to enhance biotechnology and biomanufacturing, consistent with the implementation plan described in subsection (c) of this section.

(h) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology shall submit to the President and make publicly available a report on the bioeconomy that provides recommendations on how to maintain United States competitiveness in the global bioeconomy.

Sec. 4. Data for the Bioeconomy. (a) In order to facilitate development of the United States bioeconomy, my Administration shall establish a Data for the Bioeconomy Initiative (Data Initiative) that will ensure that high-quality, wide-ranging, easily accessible, and secure biological data sets can drive breakthroughs for the United States bioeconomy. To assist in the development of the Data Initiative, the Director of OSTP, in coordination with the Director of OMB and the heads of appropriate agencies as determined by the Director of OSTP, and in consultation with external stakeholders, shall issue a report within 240 days of the date of this order that:

(i) identifies the data types and sources, to include genomic and multiomic information, that are most critical to drive advances in health, climate, energy, food, agriculture, and biomanufacturing, as well as other bioeconomy-related R&D, along with any data gaps;

(ii) sets forth a plan to fill any data gaps and make new and existing public data findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable in ways that are equitable, standardized, secure, and transparent, and that are integrated with platforms that enable the use of advanced computing tools;

(iii) identifies—based on the data types and sources described in subsection (a)(i) of this section—security, privacy, and other risks (such as malicious misuses, manipulation, exfiltration, and deletion), and provides a data-protection plan to mitigate these risks; and

(iv) outlines the Federal resources, legal authorities, and actions needed to support the Data Initiative and achieve the goals outlined in this subsection, with a timeline for action.

(b) The Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce (acting through the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)), the Secretary of HHS, the Secretary of Energy, and the Director of OMB, shall identify and recommend relevant cybersecurity best practices for biological data stored on Federal Government information systems, consistent with applicable law and Executive Order 14028 of May 12, 2021 (Improving the Nation's Cybersecurity) [44 U.S.C. 3551 note].

(c) The Secretary of Commerce, acting through the Director of NIST and in coordination with the Secretary of HHS, shall consider bio-related software, including software for laboratory equipment, instrumentation, and data management, in establishing baseline security standards for the development of software sold to the United States Government, consistent with section 4 of Executive Order 14028.

Sec. 5. Building a Vibrant Domestic Biomanufacturing Ecosystem. (a) Within 180 days of the date of this order [Sept. 12, 2022], the APNSA and the APEP, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of HHS, the Secretary of Energy, the Director of NSF, and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), shall develop a strategy that identifies policy recommendations to expand domestic biomanufacturing capacity for products spanning the health, energy, agriculture, and industrial sectors, with a focus on advancing equity, improving biomanufacturing processes, and connecting relevant infrastructure. Additionally, this strategy shall identify actions to mitigate risks posed by foreign adversary involvement in the biomanufacturing supply chain and to enhance biosafety, biosecurity, and cybersecurity in new and existing infrastructure.

(b) Agencies identified in subsections (b)(i)–(iv) of this section shall direct resources, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, towards the creation or expansion of programs that support a vibrant domestic biomanufacturing ecosystem, as informed by the strategy developed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section:

(i) the NSF shall expand its existing Regional Innovation Engine program to advance emerging technologies, including biotechnology;

(ii) the Department of Commerce shall address challenges in biomanufacturing supply chains and related biotechnology development infrastructure;

(iii) the Department of Defense shall incentivize the expansion of domestic, flexible industrial biomanufacturing capacity for a wide range of materials that can be used to make a diversity of products for the defense supply chain; and

(iv) the Department of Energy shall support research to accelerate bioenergy and bioproduct science advances, to accelerate biotechnology and bioinformatics tool development, and to reduce the hurdles to commercialization, including through incentivizing the engineering scale-up of promising biotechnologies and the expansion of biomanufacturing capacity.

(c) Within 1 year of the date of this order, the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the heads of appropriate agencies as determined by the Secretary, shall submit a plan to the President, through the APNSA and the APEP, to support the resilience of the United States biomass supply chain for domestic biomanufacturing and biobased product manufacturing, while also advancing food security, environmental sustainability, and the needs of underserved communities. This plan shall include programs to encourage climate-smart production and use of domestic biomass, along with budget estimates, including accounting for funds appropriated for Fiscal Year (FY) 2022 and proposed in the President's FY 2023 Budget.

(d) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of appropriate agencies as determined by the Secretary, shall:

(i) provide the APNSA with vulnerability assessments of the critical infrastructure and national critical functions associated with the bioeconomy, including cyber, physical, and systemic risks, and recommendations to secure and make resilient these components of our infrastructure and economy; and

(ii) enhance coordination with industry on threat information sharing, vulnerability disclosure, and risk mitigation for cybersecurity and infrastructure risks to the United States bioeconomy, including risks to biological data and related physical and digital infrastructure and devices. This coordination shall be informed in part by the assessments described in subsection (d)(i) of this section.

Sec. 6. Biobased Products Procurement. (a) Consistent with the requirements of 7 U.S.C. 8102, within 1 year of the date of this order, procuring agencies as defined in 7 U.S.C. 8102(a)(1)(A) that have not yet established a biobased procurement program as described in 7 U.S.C. 8102(a)(2) shall establish such a program.

(b) Procuring agencies shall require that, within 2 years of the date of this order, all appropriate staff (including contracting officers, purchase card managers, and purchase card holders) complete training on biobased product purchasing. The Office of Federal Procurement Policy, within OMB, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall provide training materials for procuring agencies.

(c) Within 180 days of the date of this order and annually thereafter, procuring agencies shall report previous fiscal year spending to the Director of OMB on the following:

(i) the number and dollar value of contracts entered into during the previous fiscal year that include the direct procurement of biobased products;

(ii) the number of service and construction (including renovations) contracts entered into during the previous fiscal year that include language on the use of biobased products; and

(iii) the types and dollar values of biobased products actually used by contractors in carrying out service and construction (including renovations) contracts during the previous fiscal year.

(d) The requirements in subsection (c) of this section shall not apply to purchase card transactions and other "[a]ctions not reported" to the Federal Procurement Data System pursuant to 48 CFR 4.606(c).

(e) Within 1 year of the date of this order and annually thereafter, the Director of OMB shall publish information on biobased procurement resulting from the data collected under subsection (c) of this section and information reported under 7 U.S.C. 8102, along with other related information, and shall use scorecards or similar systems to encourage increased biobased purchasing.

(f) Within 1 year of the date of this order and annually thereafter, procuring agencies shall report to the Secretary of Agriculture specific categories of biobased products that are unavailable to meet their procurement needs, along with desired performance standards for currently unavailable products and other relevant specifications. The Secretary of Agriculture shall publish this information annually. When new categories of biobased products become commercially available, the Secretary of Agriculture shall designate new product categories for preferred Federal procurement, as prescribed by 7 U.S.C. 8102.

(g) Procuring agencies shall strive to increase by 2025 the amount of biobased product obligations or the number or dollar value of biobased-only contracts, as reflected in the information described in subsection (c) of this section, and as appropriate and consistent with applicable law.

Sec. 7. Biotechnology and Biomanufacturing Workforce. (a) The United States Government shall expand training and education opportunities for all Americans in biotechnology and biomanufacturing. To support this objective, within 200 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Education, the APDP, the Director of OSTP, and the Director of NSF shall produce and make publicly available a plan to coordinate and use relevant Federal education and training programs, while also recommending new efforts to promote multi-disciplinary education programs. This plan shall promote the implementation of formal and informal education and training (such as opportunities at technical schools and certificate programs), career and technical education, and expanded career pathways into existing degree programs for biotechnology and biomanufacturing. This plan shall also include a focused discussion of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tribal Colleges and Universities, and Minority Serving Institutions and the extent to which agencies can use existing statutory authorities to promote racial and gender equity and support underserved communities, consistent with the policy established in Executive Order 13985. Finally, this plan shall account for funds appropriated for FY 2022 and proposed in the President's FY 2023 Budget.

(b) Within 2 years of the date of this order, agencies that support relevant Federal education and training programs as described in subsection (a) of this section shall report to the President through the APNSA, in coordination with the Director of OMB, the ADPD, and the Director of OSTP, on measures taken and resources allocated to enhance workforce development pursuant to the plan described in subsection (a) of this section.

Sec. 8. Biotechnology Regulation Clarity and Efficiency. Advances in biotechnology are rapidly altering the product landscape. The complexity of the current regulatory system for biotechnology products can be confusing and create challenges for businesses to navigate. To improve the clarity and efficiency of the regulatory process for biotechnology products, and to enable products that further the societal goals identified in section 3 of this order, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, in coordination with the Director of OMB, the ADPD, and the Director of OSTP, shall:

(a) within 180 days of the date of this order, identify areas of ambiguity, gaps, or uncertainties in the January 2017 Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology or in the policy changes made pursuant to Executive Order 13874 of June 11, 2019 (Modernizing the Regulatory Framework for Agricultural Biotechnology Products) [7 U.S.C. 3121 note], including by engaging with developers and external stakeholders, and through horizon scanning for novel products of biotechnology;

(b) within 100 days of completing the task in subsection (a) of this section, provide to the general public plain-language information regarding the regulatory roles, responsibilities, and processes of each agency, including which agency or agencies are responsible for oversight of different types of products developed with biotechnology, with case studies, as appropriate;

(c) within 280 days of the date of this order, provide a plan to the Director of OMB, the ADPD, and the Director of OSTP with processes and timelines to implement regulatory reform, including identification of the regulations and guidance documents that can be updated, streamlined, or clarified; and identification of potential new guidance or regulations, where needed;

(d) within 1 year of the date of this order, build on the Unified website for Biotechnology Regulation developed pursuant to Executive Order 13874 by including on the website the information developed under subsection (b) of this section, and by enabling developers of biotechnology products to submit inquiries about a particular product and promptly receive a single, coordinated response that provides, to the extent practicable, information and, when appropriate, informal guidance regarding the process that the developers must follow for Federal regulatory review; and

(e) within 1 year of the date of this order, and annually thereafter for a period of 3 years, provide an update regarding progress in implementing this section to the Director of OMB, the United States Trade Representative (USTR), the APNSA, the ADPD, and the Director of OSTP. Each 1-year update shall identify any gaps in statutory authority that should be addressed to improve the clarity and efficiency of the regulatory process for biotechnology products, and shall recommend additional executive actions and legislative proposals to achieve such goals.

Sec. 9. Reducing Risk by Advancing Biosafety and Biosecurity. (a) The United States Government shall launch a Biosafety and Biosecurity Innovation Initiative, which shall seek to reduce biological risks associated with advances in biotechnology, biomanufacturing, and the bioeconomy. Through the Biosafety and Biosecurity Innovation Initiative—which shall be established by the Secretary of HHS, in coordination with the heads of other relevant agencies as determined by the Secretary—agencies that fund, conduct, or sponsor life sciences research shall implement the following actions, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law:

(i) support, as a priority, investments in applied biosafety research and innovations in biosecurity to reduce biological risk throughout the biotechnology R&D and biomanufacturing lifecycles; and

(ii) use Federal investments in biotechnology and biomanufacturing to incentivize and enhance biosafety and biosecurity practices and best practices throughout the United States and international research enterprises.

(b) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of HHS and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with agencies that fund, conduct, or sponsor life sciences research, shall produce a plan for biosafety and biosecurity for the bioeconomy, including recommendations to:

(i) enhance applied biosafety research and bolster innovations in biosecurity to reduce risk throughout the biotechnology R&D and biomanufacturing lifecycles; and

(ii) use Federal investments in biological sciences, biotechnology, and biomanufacturing to enhance biosafety and biosecurity best practices throughout the bioeconomy R&D enterprise.

(c) Within 1 year of the date of this order, agencies that fund, conduct, or sponsor life sciences research shall report to the APNSA, through the Assistant to the President and Homeland Security Advisor, on efforts to achieve the objectives described in subsection (a) of this section.

Sec. 10. Measuring the Bioeconomy. (a) Within 90 days of the date of this order [Sept. 12, 2022], the Secretary of Commerce, through the Director of NIST, shall, in consultation with other agencies as determined by the Director, industry, and other stakeholders, as appropriate, create and make publicly available a lexicon for the bioeconomy, with consideration of relevant domestic and international definitions and with the goal of assisting in the development of measurements and measurement methods for the bioeconomy that support uses such as economic measurement, risk assessments, and the application of machine learning and other artificial intelligence tools.

(b) The Chief Statistician of the United States, in coordination with the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Director of NSF, and the heads of other appropriate agencies as determined by the Chief Statistician, shall improve and enhance Federal statistical data collection designed to characterize the economic value of the United States bioeconomy, with a focus on the contribution of biotechnology to the bioeconomy. This effort shall include:

(i) within 180 days of the date of this order, assessing, through the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis, the feasibility, scope, and costs of developing a national measurement of the economic contributions of the bioeconomy, and, in particular, the contributions of biotechnology to the bioeconomy, including recommendations and a plan for next steps regarding whether development of such a measurement should be pursued; and

(ii) within 120 days of the date of this order, establishing an Interagency Technical Working Group (ITWG), chaired by the Chief Statistician of the United States, which shall include representatives of the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, OSTP, the NSF, and other appropriate agencies as determined by the Chief Statistician of the United States.

(A) Within 1 year of the date of this order, the ITWG shall recommend bioeconomy-related revisions to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and the North American Product Classification System (NAPCS) to the Economic Classification Policy Committee. In 2026, the ITWG shall initiate a review process of the 2023 recommendations and update the recommendations, as appropriate, to provide input to the 2027 NAICS and NAPCS revision processes.

(B) Within 18 months of the date of this order, the ITWG shall provide a report to the Chief Statistician of the United States describing the Federal statistical collections of information that take advantage of bioeconomy-related NAICS and NAPCS codes, and shall include recommendations to implement any bioeconomy-related changes as part of the 2022 revisions of the NAICS and NAPCS. As part of its work, the ITWG shall consult with external stakeholders.

Sec. 11. Assessing Threats to the United States Bioeconomy. (a) The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) shall lead a comprehensive interagency assessment of ongoing, emerging, and future threats to United States national security from foreign adversaries against the bioeconomy and from foreign adversary development and application of biotechnology and biomanufacturing, including acquisition of United States capabilities, technologies, and biological data. As part of this effort, the DNI shall work closely with the Department of Defense to assess technical applications of biotechnology and biomanufacturing that could be misused by a foreign adversary for military purposes or that could otherwise pose a risk to the United States. In support of these objectives, the DNI shall identify elements of the bioeconomy of highest concern and establish processes to support ongoing threat identification and impact assessments.

(b) Within 240 days of the date of this order, the DNI shall provide classified assessments to the APNSA related to:

(i) threats to United States national and economic security posed by foreign adversary development and application of biomanufacturing; and

(ii) foreign adversary means of, and intended usages related to, acquisition of United States biotechnologies, biological data, and proprietary or precompetitive information.

(c) Within 120 days of receiving the DNI's assessments, the APNSA shall coordinate with the heads of relevant agencies as determined through the NSM–2 process to develop and finalize a plan to mitigate risks to the United States bioeconomy, based upon the threat identification and impact assessments described in subsection (a) of this section, the vulnerability assessments described in section 5(d) of this order, and other relevant assessments or information. The plan shall identify where executive action, regulatory action, technology protection, or statutory authorities are needed to mitigate these risks in order to support the technology leadership and economic competitiveness of the United States bioeconomy.

(d) The United States Government contracts with a variety of providers to support its functioning, including by contracting for services related to the bioeconomy. It is important that these contracts are awarded according to full and open competition, as consistent with the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–369, 98 Stat. 1175) [see Tables for classification]. In accordance with these objectives, and within 1 year of the date of this order, the Director of OSTP, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of HHS, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the DNI, the Administrator of NASA, and the Administrator of General Services, shall review the national security implications of existing requirements related to Federal procurement—including requirements contained in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement—and shall recommend updates to those requirements to the FAR Council, the Director of OMB, and the heads of other appropriate agencies as determined through the NSM–2 process. The recommendations shall aim to standardize pre-award data collection to enable due diligence review of conflict of interest; conflict of commitment; foreign ownership, control, or influence; or other potential national security concerns. The recommendations shall also include legislative proposals, as relevant.

(e) The Director of OMB shall issue a management memorandum to agencies, or take other appropriate action, to provide generalized guidance based on the recommendations received pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

Sec. 12. International Engagement. (a) The Department of State and other agencies that engage with international partners as part of their missions shall undertake the following actions with foreign partners, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law—with a specific focus on developing countries, international organizations, and nongovernmental entities—to promote and protect both the United States and global bioeconomies:

(i) enhance cooperation, including joint research projects and expert exchanges, on biotechnology R&D, especially in genomics;

(ii) encourage regulatory cooperation and the adoption of best practices to evaluate and promote innovative products, with an emphasis on those practices and products that support sustainability and climate objectives;

(iii) develop joint training arrangements and initiatives to support bioeconomy jobs in the United States;

(iv) work to promote the open sharing of scientific data, including genetic sequence data, to the greatest extent possible in accordance with applicable law and policy, while seeking to ensure that any applicable access and benefit-sharing mechanisms do not hinder the rapid and sustainable development of innovative products and biotechnologies;

(v) conduct horizon scanning to anticipate threats to the global bioeconomy, including national security threats from foreign adversaries acquiring sensitive technologies or data, or disrupting essential bio-related supply chains, and to identify opportunities to address those threats;

(vi) engage allies and partners to address shared national security threats;

(vii) develop, and work to promote and implement, biosafety and biosecurity best practices, tools, and resources bilaterally and multilaterally to facilitate appropriate oversight for life sciences, dual-use research of concern, and research involving potentially pandemic and other high-consequence pathogens, and to enhance sound risk management of biotechnology- and biomanufacturing-related R&D globally; and

(viii) explore how to align international classifications of biomanufactured products, as appropriate, to measure the value of those products to both the United States and global bioeconomies.

(b) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of State, in coordination with the USTR and the heads of other agencies as determined by the Secretary, as appropriate, shall submit to the APNSA a plan to support the objectives described in subsection (a) of this section with foreign partners, international organizations, and nongovernmental entities.

Sec. 13. Definitions. For purposes of this order:

(a) The term "agency" has the meaning given that term by 44 U.S.C. 3502(1).

(b) The term "biotechnology" means technology that applies to or is enabled by life sciences innovation or product development.

(c) The term "biomanufacturing" means the use of biological systems to develop products, tools, and processes at commercial scale.

(d) The term "bioeconomy" means economic activity derived from the life sciences, particularly in the areas of biotechnology and biomanufacturing, and includes industries, products, services, and the workforce.

(e) The term "biological data" means the information, including associated descriptors, derived from the structure, function, or process of a biological system(s) that is measured, collected, or aggregated for analysis.

(f) The term "biomass" means any material of biological origin that is available on a renewable or recurring basis. Examples of biomass include plants, trees, algae, and waste material such as crop residue, wood waste, animal waste and byproducts, food waste, and yard waste.

(g) The term "biobased product" has the meaning given that term in 7 U.S.C. 8101(4).

(h) The term "bioenergy" means energy derived in whole or in significant part from biomass.

(i) The term "multiomic information" refers to combined information derived from data, analysis, and interpretation of multiple omics measurement technologies to identify or analyze the roles, relationships, and functions of biomolecules (including nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites) that make up a cell or cellular system. Omics are disciplines in biology that include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics.

(j) The term "key R&D areas" includes fundamental R&D of emerging biotechnologies, including engineering biology; predictive engineering of complex biological systems, including the designing, building, testing, and modeling of entire living cells, cell components, or cellular systems; quantitative and theory-driven multi-disciplinary research to maximize convergence with other enabling technologies; and regulatory science, including the development of new information, criteria, tools, models, and approaches to inform and assist regulatory decision-making. These R&D priorities should be coupled with advances in predictive modeling, data analytics, artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, high-performance and other advanced computing systems, metrology and data-driven standards, and other non-life science enabling technologies.

(k) The terms "equity" and "underserved communities" have the meanings given those terms by sections 2(a) and 2(b) of Executive Order 13985 [5 U.S.C. 601 note].

(l) The term "Tribal Colleges and Universities" has the meaning given that term by section 5(e) of Executive Order 14049 of October 11, 2021 (White House Initiative on Advancing Educational Equity, Excellence, and Economic Opportunity for Native Americans and Strengthening Tribal Colleges and Universities) [20 U.S.C. 7401 note].

(m) The term "Historically Black Colleges and Universities" has the meaning given that term by section 4(b) of Executive Order 14041 of September 3, 2021 (White House Initiative on Advancing Educational Equity, Excellence, and Economic Opportunity Through Historically Black Colleges and Universities) [20 U.S.C. 1060 note].

(n) The term "minority serving institution" has the meaning given that term by 38 U.S.C. 3698(f)(4).

(o) The term "foreign adversary" has the meaning given that term by section 3(b) of Executive Order 14034 of June 9, 2021 (Protecting Americans' Sensitive Data From Foreign Adversaries) [listed in a table under 50 U.S.C. 1701].

(p) The term "life sciences" means all sciences that study or use living organisms, viruses, or their products, including all disciplines of biology and all applications of the biological sciences (including biotechnology, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and pharmaceutical and biomedical research and techniques), but excluding scientific studies associated with radioactive materials or toxic chemicals that are not of biological origin or synthetic analogues of toxins.

Sec. 14. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of OMB relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

J.R. Biden, Jr.      

§19132. National Engineering Biology Research and Development Initiative

(a) In general

The President, acting through the Office of Science and Technology Policy, shall implement a National Engineering Biology Research and Development Initiative to advance societal well-being, national security, sustainability, and economic productivity and competitiveness through the following:

(1) Advancing areas of research at the intersection of the biological, physical, chemical, data, and computational and information sciences and engineering to accelerate scientific understanding and technological innovation in engineering biology.

(2) Advancing areas of biomanufacturing research to optimize, standardize, scale, and deliver new products and solutions.

(3) Supporting social and behavioral sciences and economics research that advances the field of engineering biology and contributes to the development and public understanding of new products, processes, and technologies.

(4) Improving the understanding of engineering biology of the scientific and lay public and supporting greater evidence-based public discourse about its benefits and risks.

(5) Supporting research relating to the risks and benefits of engineering biology, including under subsection (d).

(6) Supporting the development of novel tools and technologies to accelerate scientific understanding and technological innovation in engineering biology.

(7) Expanding the number of researchers, educators, and students and a retooled workforce with engineering biology training, including from traditionally underrepresented and underserved populations.

(8) Accelerating the translation and commercialization of engineering biology and biomanufacturing research and development by the private sector.

(9) Improving the interagency planning and coordination of Federal Government activities related to engineering biology.

(b) Initiative activities

The activities of the Initiative shall include the following:

(1) Sustained support for engineering biology research and development through the following:

(A) Grants to fund the work of individual investigators and teams of investigators, including interdisciplinary teams.

(B) Projects funded under joint solicitations by a collaboration of not fewer than two agencies participating in the Initiative.

(C) Interdisciplinary research centers that are organized to investigate basic research questions, carry out technology development and demonstration activities, and increase understanding of how to scale up engineering biology processes, including biomanufacturing.


(2) Sustained support for databases and related tools, including the following:

(A) Support for the establishment, curation, and maintenance of curated genomics, epigenomics, and other relevant omics databases, including plant, animal, and microbial databases, that are available to researchers to carry out engineering biology research in a manner that does not compromise national security or the privacy or security of information within such databases.

(B) Development of standards for such databases, including for curation, interoperability, and protection of privacy and security.

(C) Support for the development of computational tools, including artificial intelligence tools, that can accelerate research and innovation using such databases.

(D) An inventory and assessment of all Federal government omics databases to identify opportunities to improve the utility of such databases, as appropriate and in a manner that does not compromise national security or the privacy and security of information within such databases, and inform investment in such databases as critical infrastructure for the engineering biology research enterprise.


(3) Sustained support for the development, optimization, and validation of novel tools and technologies to enable the dynamic study of molecular processes in situ, including through the following:

(A) Research conducted at Federal laboratories.

(B) Grants to fund the work of investigators at institutions of higher education and other nonprofit research institutions.

(C) Incentivized development of retooled industrial sites across the country that foster a pivot to modernized engineering biology initiatives.

(D) Awards under the Small Business Innovation Research Program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Program (as described in section 638 of title 15).


(4) Support for education and training of undergraduate and graduate students in engineering biology, biomanufacturing, bioprocess engineering, and computational science applied to engineering biology and in the related ethical, legal, environmental, safety, security, and other societal domains.

(5) Support for a national network of testbeds based on open standards, interfaces, and processes, including by repurposing existing facilities such as those specified in paragraph (3)(C), that would enable scale up of laboratory engineering biology research.

(6) Activities to develop robust mechanisms for documenting and quantifying the outputs and economic benefits of engineering biology.

(7) Activities to accelerate the translation and commercialization of new products, processes, and technologies by carrying out the following:

(A) Identifying precompetitive research opportunities.

(B) Facilitating public-private partnerships in engineering biology research and development, including to address barriers to scaling up innovations in engineering biology.

(C) Connecting researchers, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows with entrepreneurship education and training opportunities.

(D) Supporting proof of concept activities and the formation of startup companies including through programs such as the Small Business Innovation Research Program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Program.

(c) Expanding participation

The Initiative shall include, to the maximum extent practicable, outreach to primarily undergraduate and historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, and minority-serving institutions about Initiative opportunities, and shall encourage the development of research collaborations between research-intensive universities and primarily undergraduate and historically Black colleges and universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, and minority-serving institutions.

(d) Ethical, legal, environmental, safety, security, and societal issues

Initiative activities shall take into account ethical, legal, environmental, safety, security, and other appropriate societal issues by carrying out the following:

(1) Supporting research, including in the social sciences, and other activities addressing ethical, legal, environmental, and other appropriate societal issues related to engineering biology, including integrating research on such topics with the research and development in engineering biology, and encouraging the dissemination of the results of such research, including through interdisciplinary engineering biology research centers described in subsection (b)(1)(C).

(2) Supporting research and other activities related to the safety and security implications of engineering biology, including outreach to increase awareness among Federal researchers and federally-funded researchers at institutions of higher education about potential safety and security implications of engineering biology research, as appropriate.

(3) Ensuring that input from Federal and non-Federal experts on the ethical, legal, environmental, safety, security, and other appropriate societal issues related to engineering biology is integrated into the Initiative.

(4) Ensuring, through the agencies and departments that participate in the Initiative, that public input and outreach are integrated into the Initiative by the convening of regular and ongoing public discussions through mechanisms such as workshops, consensus conferences, and educational events, as appropriate.

(5) Complying with all applicable provisions of Federal law.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title IV, §10402, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1599.)

§19133. Initiative coordination

(a) Interagency committee

The President, acting through the Office of Science and Technology Policy, shall designate an interagency committee to coordinate activities of the Initiative as appropriate, which shall be co-chaired by the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall select an additional co-chairperson from among the members of the interagency committee. The interagency committee shall oversee the planning, management, and coordination of the Initiative. The interagency committee shall carry out the following:

(1) Provide for interagency coordination of Federal engineering biology research, development, and other activities undertaken pursuant to the Initiative.

(2) Establish and periodically update goals and priorities for the Initiative.

(3) Develop, not later than 12 months after August 9, 2022, and update every five years thereafter, a strategic plan submitted to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, the Committee on Agriculture, and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate that—

(A) guides the activities of the Initiative for purposes of meeting the goals and priorities established under (and updated pursuant to) paragraph (2); and

(B) describes—

(i) the Initiative's support for long-term funding for interdisciplinary engineering biology research and development;

(ii) the Initiative's support for education and public outreach activities;

(iii) the Initiative's support for research and other activities on ethical, legal, environmental, safety, security, and other appropriate societal issues related to engineering biology, including—

(I) an applied biorisk management research plan;

(II) recommendations for integrating security into biological data access and international reciprocity agreements;

(III) recommendations for manufacturing restructuring to support engineering biology research, development, and scaling-up initiatives; and

(IV) an evaluation of existing biosecurity governance policies, guidance, and directives for the purposes of creating an adaptable, evidence-based framework to respond to emerging biosecurity challenges created by advances in engineering biology;


(iv) how the Initiative will contribute to moving results out of the laboratory and into application for the benefit of society and United States competitiveness; and

(v) how the Initiative will measure and track the contributions of engineering biology to United States economic growth and other societal indicators.


(4) Develop a national genomic sequencing strategy to ensure engineering biology research fully leverages plant, animal, and microbe biodiversity, as appropriate and in a manner that does not compromise economic competitiveness, national security, or the privacy or security of human genetic information, to enhance long-term innovation and competitiveness in engineering biology in the United States.

(5) Develop a plan to utilize Federal programs, such as the Small Business Innovation Research Program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Program (as described in section 638 of title 15), in support of the activities described in section 19132(b)(3) of this title.

(6) In carrying out this section, take into consideration the recommendations of the advisory committee established under section 19134 of this title, the results of the workshop convened under section 19132 of this title, existing reports on related topics, and the views of academic, State, industry, and other appropriate groups.

(b) Quinquennial report

Beginning with fiscal year 2023 and every five years thereafter for ten years, the interagency committee shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, the Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that includes the following:

(1) A summarized agency budget in support of the Initiative for the current fiscal year, including a breakout of spending for each agency participating in the Program, and for the development and acquisition of any research facilities and instrumentation.

(2) An assessment of how Federal agencies are implementing the plan described in subsection (a)(3), including the following:

(A) A description of the amount and number of awards made under the Small Business Innovation Research Program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Program (as described in section 638 of title 15) in support of the Initiative.

(B) A description of the amount and number of projects funded under joint solicitations by a collaboration of not fewer than two agencies participating in the Initiative.

(C) A description of effects of newly-funded projects by the Initiative.

(c) Initiative Coordination Office

(1) In general

The President shall establish an Initiative Coordination Office, with a Director and full-time staff, which shall—

(A) provide technical and administrative support to the interagency committee and the advisory committee established under subsection (a) and section 19134 of this title;

(B) serve as the point of contact on Federal engineering biology activities for government organizations, academia, industry, professional societies, State governments, interested citizen groups, and others to exchange technical and programmatic information;

(C) oversee interagency coordination of the Initiative, including by encouraging and supporting joint agency solicitation and selection of applications for funding of activities under the Initiative, as appropriate;

(D) conduct public outreach, including dissemination of findings and recommendations of the advisory committee, as appropriate;

(E) serve as the coordinator of ethical, legal, environmental, safety, security, and other appropriate societal input; and

(F) promote access to, and early application of, the technologies, innovations, and expertise derived from Initiative activities to agency missions and systems across the Federal Government, and to United States industry, including startup companies.

(2) Funding

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, in coordination with each participating Federal department and agency, as appropriate, shall develop and annually update an estimate of the funds necessary to carry out the activities of the Initiative Coordination Office and submit such estimate with an agreed summary of contributions from each agency to Congress as part of the President's annual budget request to Congress.

(3) Termination

The Initiative Coordination Office established under this subsection shall terminate on the date that is 10 years after August 9, 2022.

(d) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section may be construed to alter the policies, processes, or practices of individual Federal agencies in effect on the day before August 9, 2022, relating to the conduct of biomedical research and advanced development, including the solicitation and review of extramural research proposals.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title IV, §10403, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1602.)

§19134. Advisory committee on engineering biology research and development

(a) In general

The agency co-chair of the interagency committee established under section 19133 of this title shall, in consultation with the Office of Science and Technology Policy, designate or establish an advisory committee on engineering biology research and development (in this section referred to as the "advisory committee") to be composed of not fewer than 12 members, including representatives of research and academic institutions, industry, and nongovernmental entities, who are qualified to provide advice on the Initiative.

(b) Assessment

The advisory committee shall assess the following:

(1) The current state of United States competitiveness in engineering biology, including the scope and scale of United States investments in engineering biology research and development in the international context.

(2) Current market barriers to commercialization of engineering biology products, processes, and tools in the United States.

(3) Progress made in implementing the Initiative.

(4) The need to revise the Initiative.

(5) The balance of activities and funding across the Initiative.

(6) Whether the strategic plan developed or updated by the interagency committee established under section 19133 of this title is helping to maintain United States leadership in engineering biology.

(7) Whether ethical, legal, environmental, safety, security, and other appropriate societal issues are adequately addressed by the Initiative.

(c) Reports

Beginning not later than two years after August 9, 2022, and not less frequently than once every five years thereafter, the advisory committee shall submit to the President, the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, the Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, a report on the following:

(1) The findings of the advisory committee's assessment under subsection (b).

(2) The advisory committee's recommendations for ways to improve the Initiative.

(d) Application of Federal Advisory Committee Act

Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) 1 shall not apply to the advisory committee.

(e) Termination

The advisory committee established under subsection (a) shall terminate on the date that is 10 years after August 9, 2022.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title IV, §10404, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1605.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, which was set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and was repealed and restated as section 1013 of Title 5 by Pub. L. 117–286, §§3(a), 7, Dec. 27, 2022, 136 Stat. 4204, 4361.

1 See References in Text note below.

§19135. Agency activities

(a) National Science Foundation

As part of the Initiative, the National Science Foundation shall carry out the following:

(1) Support research in engineering biology and biomanufacturing through individual grants, collaborative grants, and through interdisciplinary research centers.

(2) Support research on the environmental, legal, ethical, and social implications of engineering biology.

(3) Provide support for research instrumentation, equipment, and cyberinfrastructure for engineering biology disciplines, including support for research, development, optimization, and validation of novel technologies to enable the dynamic study of molecular processes in situ.

(4) Support curriculum development and research experiences for secondary, undergraduate, and graduate students in engineering biology and biomanufacturing, including through support for graduate fellowships and traineeships in engineering biology.

(5) Award grants, on a competitive basis, to enable institutions to support graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who perform some of their engineering biology research in an industry setting.

(b) Department of Commerce

(1) National Institute of Standards and Technology

As part of the Initiative, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall carry out the following:

(A) Advance the development of standard reference materials and measurements, including to promote interoperability between new component technologies and processes for engineering biology and biomanufacturing discovery, innovation, and production processes.

(B) Establish new data tools, techniques, and processes necessary to advance engineering biology and biomanufacturing.

(C) Provide access to user facilities with advanced or unique equipment, services, materials, and other resources to industry, institutions of higher education, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies to perform research and testing.

(D) Provide technical expertise to inform the potential development of guidelines or safeguards for new products, processes, and systems of engineering biology.

(2) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

As part of the initiative, the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall carry out the following:

(A) Conduct and support research in omics and associated bioinformatic sciences and develop tools and products to improve ecosystem stewardship, monitoring, management, assessments. and forecasts, consistent with the mission of the agency.

(B) Collaborate with other agencies to understand potential environmental threats and safeguards related to engineering biology.

(c) Department of Energy

As part of the Initiative, the Secretary of Energy shall carry out the following:

(1) Conduct and support research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities in engineering biology, including in the areas of synthetic biology, advanced biofuel and bioproduct development, biobased materials, and environmental remediation.

(2) Support the development, optimization and validation of novel, scalable tools and technologies to enable the dynamic study of molecular processes in situ.

(3) Provide access to user facilities with advanced or unique equipment, services, materials, and other resources, including secure access to high-performance computing, as appropriate, to industry, institutions of higher education, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies to perform research and testing;.1

(4) Strengthen collaboration between the Office of Science and the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office to help transfer fundamental research results to industry and accelerate commercial applications.

(d) Department of Defense

As part of the Initiative, the Secretary of Defense shall carry out the following:

(1) Conduct and support research and development in engineering biology and associated data and information sciences.

(2) Support curriculum development and research experiences in engineering biology and associated data and information sciences across the military education system, including the service academies, professional military education, and military graduate education.

(3) Assess risks of potential national security and economic security threats relating to engineering biology.

(e) National Aeronautics and Space Administration

As part of the Initiative, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall carry out the following:

(1) Conduct and support research in engineering biology, including in synthetic biology, and related to Earth and space sciences, aeronautics, space technology, and space exploration and experimentation, consistent with the priorities established in the National Academies' decadal surveys.

(2) Award grants, on a competitive basis, that enable institutions to support graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who perform some of their engineering biology research in an industry setting.

(f) Department of Agriculture

As part of the Initiative, the Secretary of Agriculture shall support research and development in engineering biology through the Agricultural Research Service, the National Institute of Food and Agriculture programs and grants, and the Office of the Chief Scientist.

(g) Environmental Protection Agency

As part of the Initiative, the Environmental Protection Agency shall support research on how products, processes, and systems of engineering biology will affect or can protect the environment.

(h) Department of Health and Human Services

As part of the Initiative, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as appropriate and consistent with activities of the Department of Health and Human Services in effect on the day before August 9, 2022, shall carry out the following:

(1) Support research and development to advance the understanding and application of engineering biology for human health.

(2) Support relevant interdisciplinary research and coordination.

(3) Support activities necessary to facilitate oversight of relevant emerging biotechnologies.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title IV, §10406, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1606.)

1 So in original. The semicolon preceding the period probably should not appear.

§19136. Rule of construction

Nothing in this subchapter may be construed to require public disclosure of information that is exempt from mandatory disclosure under section 552 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title IV, §10407, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1609.)

SUBCHAPTER V—BROADENING PARTICIPATION IN SCIENCE

Part A—STEM Opportunities

§19151. Federal research agency policies for caregivers

(a) OSTP guidance

Not later than 12 months after August 9, 2022, the Director, in consultation with the heads of relevant agencies, shall provide guidance to each Federal research agency to establish policies that—

(1) apply to all—

(A) research awards granted by such agency; and

(B) principal investigators of such research and their trainees, including postdoctoral researchers and graduate students, who have caregiving responsibilities, including care for a newborn or newly adopted child and care for an immediate family member who has a disability or a serious health condition; and


(2) provide, to the extent feasible—

(A) flexibility in timing for the initiation of approved research awards granted by such agency;

(B) no-cost extensions of such research awards;

(C) award supplements, as appropriate, to research awards to sustain research activities conducted under such awards; and

(D) any other appropriate accommodations at the discretion of the director of each such agency.

(b) Uniformity of guidance

In providing guidance under subsection (a), the Director shall encourage uniformity, to the extent practicable, and consistency in the policies established pursuant to such guidance across all Federal research agencies.

(c) Establishment of policies

Consistent, to the extent practicable, with the guidance under subsection (a), Federal research agencies shall—

(1) maintain or develop and implement policies for individuals described in paragraph (1)(B) of such subsection; and

(2) broadly disseminate in easily accessible formats such policies to current and potential award recipients.

(d) Data on usage

Federal research agencies shall consider—

(1) collecting data, including demographic data that can be disaggregated by sex, geographic location, and socioeconomic indicators, which may include employment status, occupation, educational attainment, parental education, and income, on the usage of the policies under subsection (c), at both institutions of higher education and Federal laboratories; and

(2) reporting such data on an annual basis to the Director in such form as required by the Director.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10501, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1609.)

§19152. Collection and reporting of data on Federal research awards

(a) Collection of data

(1) In general

Each Federal research agency shall collect, as practicable, with respect to all applications for merit-reviewed research and development awards made by such agency, standardized record-level annual information on demographics, primary field, award type, institution type, review rating, budget request, funding outcome, and awarded budget.

(2) Uniformity and standardization

The Director, in consultation with the heads of each Federal research agency, shall establish, and update as necessary, a policy to ensure uniformity and standardization of the data collection required under paragraph (1).

(3) Record-level data

(A) Requirement

Beginning not later than two years after the issuance of the policy under paragraph (2) to Federal research agencies, and on an annual basis thereafter, each Federal research agency shall submit to the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics record-level data collected under paragraph (1) in the form required by the Director of the National Science Foundation.

(B) Previous data

As part of the first submission under subparagraph (A), each Federal research agency, to the extent practicable, shall also submit comparable record-level data, if it is available to the agency, for the five years preceding the date of such submission, or an analysis for why such data cannot be provided.

(b) Reporting of data

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall publish statistical summary data, as practicable, collected under this section, disaggregated and cross-tabulated by race, ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic indicators, which may include employment status, occupation, educational attainment, parental education, and income, geographic location, and years since completion of doctoral degree, including in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's report required by section 1885d of this title.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10502, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1610.)

§19153. Policies for review of Federal research awards

(a) Assessment of policies

Federal research agencies shall regularly assess, and update as necessary, policies, and practices to remove or reduce cultural and institutional barriers limiting the recruitment, retention, and success of groups historically underrepresented in STEM research careers, including policies and practices relevant to the unbiased review of Federal research applications.

(b) Considerations and activities

In carrying out the requirements under subsection (a), Federal research agencies shall—

(1) review current levels of participation of groups historically underrepresented in STEM in peer-review panels and consider approaches for expanding their participation;

(2) analyze the data collected under section 19152 of this title, including funding rates of proposals from all groups, including those historically underrepresented in STEM;

(3) collect and disseminate best practices to remove or reduce cultural and institutional barriers limiting the recruitment, retention, and success of groups historically underrepresented in STEM research careers; and

(4) implement evidence-based policies and practices to achieve the goals of this section.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10503, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1610.)

§19154. Collection of data on demographics of faculty

(a) Collection of data

(1) In general

Not later than 5 years after August 9, 2022, and at least every five years thereafter, the Director of the National Science Foundation shall carry out a survey to collect data from award recipients on the demographics of STEM faculty, by broad fields of STEM, at different types of institutions of higher education that receive Federal research funding.

(2) Survey considerations

To the extent practicable, the Director of the National Science Foundation shall survey, by sex, race, socioeconomic indicators, which may include employment status, occupation, educational attainment, parental education, and income, geographic location, ethnicity, citizenship status, and years since completion of doctoral degree—

(A) the number and percentage of faculty;

(B) the number and percentage of faculty at each rank;

(C) the number and percentage of faculty who are in nontenure-track positions, including teaching and research;

(D) the number and percentage of faculty who are reviewed for promotion, including tenure, and the percentage of that number who are promoted, including being awarded tenure;

(E) faculty years in rank;

(F) the number and percentage of faculty to leave tenure-track positions;

(G) the number and percentage of faculty hired, by rank; and

(H) the number and percentage of faculty in leadership positions.

(b) Existing surveys

The Director of the National Science Foundation, may, in modifying or expanding existing Federal surveys of higher education (as necessary)—

(1) take into account the considerations under subsection (a)(2) by collaborating with statistical centers at other Federal agencies; or

(2) make an award to an institution of higher education or nonprofit organization (or consortia thereof) to take such considerations into account.

(c) Reporting data

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall publish statistical summary data collected under this section, including as part of the National Science Foundation's report required by section 1885d of this title.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director of the National Science Foundation $4,000,000 in each of fiscal years 2023 through 2025 to develop and carry out the initial survey required under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10504, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1611.)

§19155. Cultural and institutional barriers to expanding the academic and Federal STEM workforce

(a) Best practices

(1) Development of guidance

Not later than 12 months after August 9, 2022, the Director, in consultation with the interagency working group on inclusion in STEM and utilizing existing guidance already developed by Federal research agencies where applicable, shall broadly disseminate to entities that receive Federal research funding best practices for—

(A) conducting periodic climate surveys of STEM departments and divisions, with a particular focus on identifying and addressing any cultural or institutional barriers to the recruitment, retention, or advancement of groups historically underrepresented in STEM studies and careers; and

(B) providing educational opportunities, including workshops, for STEM professionals to learn about current research on effective practices for unbiased recruitment, evaluation, and promotion of undergraduate and graduate students and research personnel.

(2) Establishment of policies

Consistent with the guidance developed under paragraph (1)—

(A) The Director of the National Science Foundation, in consultation with the heads of Federal research agencies, shall develop a policy that—

(i) applies to, at a minimum, doctoral degree granting institutions that receive Federal research funding; and

(ii) requires each such institution, not later than 3 years after August 9, 2022, and to the extent practicable, to report to the Director of the National Science Foundation on activities and policies developed and implemented based on the guidance disseminated under paragraph (1); and


(B) each Federal research agency with a Federal laboratory shall maintain or develop and implement practices and policies for the purposes described in paragraph (1) for such laboratory and, not later than three years after August 9, 2022, each Federal laboratory shall report to the head of such agency on such practices and policies.

(b) Report to Congress

Not later than four years after August 9, 2022, the Director of the National Science Foundation shall submit a report to Congress that includes a summary and analysis of the types and frequency of activities and policies developed and carried out under subsection (a) based on the reports submitted under paragraph (2) of such subsection.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10505, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1612.)

§19156. Existing activities

A Federal research agency may satisfy requirements under this part through activities and programs in existence as of August 9, 2022.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10506, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1612.)

§19157. Merit review

Nothing in this part may be construed as altering any intellectual or broader impacts criteria at Federal research agencies for evaluating award applications.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10508, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1613.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle A (§§10501–10510) of title V of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1609, which is classified principally to this part. For complete classification of subtitle A to the Code, see Tables.

§19158. Definition

In this part, the term "Director" means the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10510, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1613.)

Part B—Rural STEM Education Research

§19171. Definition

In this part, the term "Director" means the Director of the National Science Foundation.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10511, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1613.)

§19172. National Science Foundation rural STEM activities

(a) Preparing rural STEM educators

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or a consortium thereof) for research and development activities to advance innovative approaches to support and sustain high-quality STEM teaching in rural schools.

(2) Use of funds

(A) In general

Awards made under this subsection shall be used for the research and development activities referred to in paragraph (1), which may include—

(i) engaging rural educators, principals, or other school leaders of students in prekindergarten through grade 12 in professional learning opportunities to enhance STEM knowledge, including computer science, and develop best practices;

(ii) supporting research on effective STEM teaching and school leadership practices in rural settings, including the use of rubrics and mastery- based grading practices to assess student performance when employing the transdisciplinary teaching approach for STEM disciplines;

(iii) designing and developing pre-service and in-service training resources to assist such rural educators, principals, and other school leaders in adopting transdisciplinary teaching practices across STEM courses;

(iv) coordinating with local partners to adapt STEM teaching practices to leverage local, natural, and community assets in order to support in-place learning in rural areas;

(v) providing hands-on training and research opportunities for rural educators described in clause (i) at Federal laboratories or institutions of higher education, or in industry;

(vi) developing training and best practices for educators who teach multiple grade levels within a STEM discipline;

(vii) designing and implementing professional development courses and experiences, including mentoring, for rural educators, principals, and other school leaders described in clause (i) that combine face-to-face and online experiences; and

(viii) any other activity the Director determines will accomplish the goals of this paragraph.

(B) Rural stem collaborative

The Director shall establish a pilot program of regional cohorts in rural areas that will provide peer support, mentoring, and hands-on research experiences for rural STEM educators, principals, and other school leaders of students in prekindergarten through grade 12, in order to build an ecosystem of cooperation among educators, principals, other school leaders, researchers, academia, and local industry.

(b) Broadening participation of rural students in STEM

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or a consortium thereof) for—

(A) research and development of programming to identify the barriers rural students face in accessing high-quality STEM education; and

(B) development of innovative solutions to improve the participation and advancement of rural students in prekindergarten through grade 12 in STEM studies.

(2) Use of funds

(A) In general

Awards made under this subsection shall be used for the research and development activities referred to in paragraph (1), which may include—

(i) developing partnerships with community colleges to offer advanced STEM course work, including computer science, to rural high school students;

(ii) supporting research on effective STEM practices in rural settings;

(iii) implementing a school-wide STEM approach, including preparation and support for principals and other school leaders;

(iv) improving the Foundation's Advanced Technology Education program's coordination and engagement with rural communities;

(v) collaborating with existing community partners and networks, such as the Cooperative Extension System services and extramural research programs of the Department of Agriculture and youth serving organizations like 4-H, after school STEM programs, and summer STEM programs, to leverage community resources and develop place-based programming;

(vi) connecting rural school districts and institutions of higher education, to improve precollegiate STEM education and engagement;

(vii) supporting partnerships that offer hands-on inquiry-based science activities, including coding, and access to lab resources for students studying STEM in prekindergarten through grade 12 in a rural area;

(viii) evaluating the role of broadband connectivity and its associated impact on the STEM and technology literacy of rural students;

(ix) building capacity to support extracurricular STEM programs in rural schools, including mentor-led engagement programs, STEM programs held during non-school hours, STEM networks, makerspaces, coding activities, and competitions;

(x) creating partnerships with local industries and local educational agencies to tailor STEM curricula and educational experiences to the needs of a particular local or regional economy; and

(xi) any other activity the Director determines will accomplish the goals of this paragraph.

(c) Application

An applicant seeking an award under subsection (a) or (b) shall submit an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require. The application may include the following:

(1) A description of the target population to be served by the research activity or activities for which such award is sought.

(2) A description of the process for recruitment and selection of students, educators, principals, and other school leaders, or schools from rural areas to participate in such activity or activities.

(3) A description of how such activity or activities may inform efforts to promote the engagement and achievement of rural students in prekindergarten through grade 12 in STEM studies.

(4) In the case of a proposal consisting of a partnership or partnerships with one or more rural schools and one or more researchers, a plan for establishing a sustained partnership that is jointly developed and managed, draws from the capacities of each partner, and is mutually beneficial.

(d) Partnerships

In making awards under subsection (a) or (b), the Director shall—

(1) encourage applicants which, for the purpose of the activity or activities funded through the award, include or partner with a nonprofit organization or an institution of higher education (or a consortium thereof) that has extensive experience and expertise in increasing the participation of rural students in prekindergarten through grade 12 in STEM;

(2) encourage applicants which, for the purpose of the activity or activities funded through the award, include or partner with a consortium of rural schools or rural school districts; and

(3) encourage applications which, for the purpose of the activity or activities funded through the award, include commitments from school principals, other school leaders, and administrators to making reforms and activities proposed by the applicant a priority.

(e) Evaluations

All proposals for awards under subsections (a) and (b) shall include an evaluation plan that includes the use of outcome-oriented measures to assess the impact and efficacy of the award. Each recipient of an award under this subsection shall include results from these evaluative activities in annual and final projects.

(f) Accountability and dissemination

(1) Evaluation required

The Director shall evaluate the portfolio of awards made under subsections (a) and (b). Such evaluation shall—

(A) use a common set of benchmarks and tools to assess the results of research conducted under such awards and identify best practices; and

(B) to the extent practicable, integrate the findings of research resulting from the activity or activities funded through such awards with the findings of other research on rural students' pursuit of degrees or careers in STEM.

(2) Report on evaluations

Not later than 180 days after the completion of the evaluation under paragraph (1), the Director shall submit to Congress and make widely available to the public a report that includes—

(A) the results of the evaluation; and

(B) any recommendations for administrative and legislative action that could optimize the effectiveness of the awards made under this subsection.

(g) Report by Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering

As part of the first report required by section 1885c(e) of this title transmitted to Congress after August 9, 2022, the Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering, in consultation with the Chief Diversity Officer of the National Science Foundation, shall include—

(1) a description of past and present policies and activities of the Foundation to encourage full participation of students in rural communities in science, mathematics, engineering, and computer science fields;

(2) an assessment of trends in participation of rural students in prekindergarten through grade 12 in Foundation activities; and

(3) an assessment of the policies and activities of the Foundation, along with proposals for new strategies or the broadening of existing successful strategies towards facilitating the goal of increasing participation of rural students in prekindergarten through grade 12 in Foundation activities.

(h) Coordination

In carrying out this subsection, the Director shall, for purposes of enhancing program effectiveness and avoiding duplication of activities, consult, cooperate, and coordinate with the programs and policies of other relevant Federal agencies.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director—

(1) $8,000,000 to carry out the activities under subsection (a) for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2027; and

(2) $12,000,000 to carry out the activities under subsection (b) for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2027.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10512, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1613.)

§19173. Opportunities for online education

(a) In general

The Director shall make competitive awards to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or a consortium thereof, which may include a private sector partner) to conduct research on online STEM education courses for rural communities.

(b) Research areas

The research areas eligible for funding under this subsection shall include—

(1) evaluating the learning and achievement of rural students in prekindergarten through grade 12 in STEM subjects;

(2) understanding how computer-based and online professional development courses and mentor experiences can be integrated to meet the needs of educators, principals, and other school leaders of rural students in prekindergarten through grade 12;

(3) combining computer-based and online STEM education and training with mentoring and other applied learning arrangements;

(4) leveraging online programs to supplement STEM studies for rural students that need physical and academic accommodation; and

(5) any other activity the Director determines will accomplish the goals of this subsection.

(c) Evaluations

All proposals for awards under this section shall include an evaluation plan that includes the use of outcome-oriented measures to assess the impact and efficacy of the award. Each recipient of an award under this subsection shall include results from these evaluative activities in annual and final projects.

(d) Accountability and dissemination

(1) Evaluation required

The Director shall evaluate the portfolio of awards made under this subsection. Such evaluation shall—

(A) use a common set of benchmarks and tools to assess the results of research conducted under such awards and identify best practices; and

(B) to the extent practicable, integrate findings from activities carried out pursuant to research conducted under this section, with respect to the pursuit of careers and degrees in STEM, with those activities carried out pursuant to other research on serving rural students and communities.

(2) Report on evaluations

Not later than 180 days after the completion of the evaluation under paragraph (1), the Director shall submit to Congress and make widely available to the public a report that includes—

(A) the results of the evaluation; and

(B) any recommendations for administrative and legislative action that could optimize the effectiveness of the awards made under this section.

(e) Coordination

In carrying out this section, the Director shall, for purposes of enhancing program effectiveness and avoiding duplication of activities, consult, cooperate, and coordinate with the programs and policies of other relevant Federal agencies.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10513, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1617.)

§19174. NIST engagement with rural communities

(a) Prize competition

Pursuant to section 3719 of title 15, the Secretary of Commerce shall carry out a program to award prizes competitively to stimulate research and development of creative technologies to support the deployment of affordable and reliable broadband connectivity in rural communities, including unserved rural communities.

(b) Plan for deployment in rural communities

Each proposal submitted pursuant to subsection (a) shall include a proposed plan for deployment of the technology that is the subject of such proposal.

(c) Prize amount

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary may award not more than a total of $5,000,000 to one or more winners of the prize competition.

(d) Report

Not later than 60 days after the date on which a prize is awarded under the prize competition, the Secretary shall submit to the relevant committees of Congress a report that describes the winning proposal of the prize competition.

(e) Consultation

In carrying out the program under this section, the Secretary shall consult with the Federal Communications Commission and the heads of relevant departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10516, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1619.)

Part C—MSI STEM Achievement

§19181. Agency responsibilities

(a) In general

In consultation with outside stakeholders and the heads of Federal research agencies and the Interagency Working Group on Inclusion in STEM, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall develop a uniform set of policy guidelines for Federal research agencies to carry out a sustained program of outreach activities to increase clarity, transparency, and accountability for Federal research agency investments in STEM education and research activities at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs, including such institutions in rural areas.

(b) Outreach activities

In developing policy guidelines under subsection (a) the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall include guidelines that require each Federal research agency—

(1) to designate a liaison for HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs responsible for—

(A) enhancing direct communication with HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to increase the Federal research agency's understanding of the capacity and needs of such institutions and to raise awareness of available Federal funding opportunities at such institutions;

(B) coordinating programs, activities, and initiatives while accounting for the capacity and needs of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs;

(C) tracking Federal research agency investments in and engagement with HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs; and

(D) reporting progress toward increasing participation of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs in award programs;


(2) to the extent practicable, to produce an annual summary of funding opportunities and proposal deadlines targeted at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs, including for grants, contracts, subcontracts, and cooperative agreements;

(3) to the extent practicable, identifying in annual budget requests potential areas for collaboration with HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs in the relevant fiscal year, including relating to potential meetings and workshops;

(4) to investigate proposal structures that support broader participation by emerging research institutions, including HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs;

(5) to conduct on-site reviews of research facilities at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs, as practicable, and make recommendations regarding strategies for becoming more competitive in research;

(6) to hold geographically accessible or virtual workshops on research priorities of the Federal research agency and on how to write competitive award proposals and how to bolster award management capacity for the entire award lifecycle, from application to completion;

(7) to ensure opportunities for HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to directly communicate with Federal research agency officials responsible for managing competitive award programs in order to receive feedback on research ideas and proposals, including guidance on the Federal research agency's merit review process; and

(8) to foster mutually beneficial public-private collaboration among Federal research agencies, industry, Federal laboratories, academia, and nonprofit organizations to—

(A) identify alternative sources of funding for STEM education and research at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs;

(B) provide access to high-quality, relevant research experiences for students and faculty of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs;

(C) expand the professional networks of students and faculty of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs;

(D) broaden STEM educational opportunities for students and faculty of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs; and

(E) support the transition of students of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs into the STEM workforce;

(c) Strategic plan

(1) In general

Not later than one year after August 9, 2022, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, in collaboration with the head of each Federal research agency, shall submit to Congress a report containing a strategic plan which reflects the plans of each Federal research agency to increase the capacity of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to compete effectively for grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements and to encourage HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to participate in Federal programs.

(2) Considerations

In developing a strategic plan under paragraph (1), the Director and the head of each Federal research agency shall consider the following:

(A) Issuing new or expanding existing funding opportunities targeted to HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs.

(B) Modifying existing research and development program solicitations to incentivize effective partnerships with HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs.

(C) Offering planning grants for HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to develop or equip grant offices with the requisite depth of knowledge to submit competitive grant proposals and manage awarded grants.

(D) Offering additional training programs, including individualized and timely guidance to grant officers, faculty, and postdoctoral researchers at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to ensure their understanding of the requirements for an effective grant proposal.

(E) Other approaches for making current competitive funding models more accessible for underresourced HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs.

(d) Report on policy guidelines

Not later than two years after August 9, 2022, and every five years thereafter, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall report to Congress on the implementation by Federal research agencies of the policy guidelines developed under this section.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10522, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1620.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10522 of Pub. L. 117–167. Subsec. (e) of section 10522 of Pub. L. 117–167 amended section 6621 of this title.

§19182. Research at the National Science Foundation

(a) In general

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia thereof) to—

(1) conduct research described in subsection (b) with respect to HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs; and

(2) identify and broadly disseminate effective models for programs and practices at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs that promote the education and workforce preparation of minority students pursuing STEM studies and careers in which such students are underrepresented.

(b) Research

Research described in this subsection is research on the contribution of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to the education and training of underrepresented minority students in STEM fields and to the meeting of national STEM workforce needs, including relating to the following:

(1) The diversity with respect to local context, cultural differences, and institutional structure among HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs and any associated impact on education and research endeavors.

(2) Effective practices at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs and associated outcomes on student recruitment, retention, and advancement in STEM fields, including the ability for students to compete for fellowships, employment, and advancement in the workforce.

(3) Contributions made by HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to local, regional, and national workforces.

(4) The challenges and opportunities for HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs in attaining the resources needed for integrating effective practices in STEM education, including providing research experiences for underrepresented minority students.

(5) The access of students at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to STEM infrastructure and any associated outcomes for STEM competency.

(6) Models of STEM curriculum, learning, and teaching successful at HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs for increasing participation, retention, and success of underrepresented minority students.

(7) Successful or promising partnerships between HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs and other institutions of higher education, private sector and nonprofit organizations, Federal laboratories, and international research institutions.

(c) Research experiences

Awards under this section may fund the development or expansion of opportunities for the exchange of students and faculty to conduct research, facilitate professional development, and provide mentorship, including through partnerships with institutions of higher education that are not HBCUs, TCUs, or MSIs, private sector and nonprofit organizations, Federal laboratories, and international research institutions.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10523, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1622.)

§19183. Capacity-building program for developing universities

(a) Awards

(1) In general

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to eligible institutions described in subsection (b) to support the mission of the Foundation and to build institutional research capacity at eligible institutions.

(2) Administration

The Director may administer separate competitions for each category of eligible institution described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of subsection (b)(1) in order to ensure fair competition for institutions with significantly different research capacities.

(b) Eligible institutions

To be eligible to receive an award under this subsection, an entity—

(1) shall be—

(A) a historically Black college or university;

(B) a Tribal College or University;

(C) a minority-serving institution;

(D) an institution of higher education with an established STEM capacity-building program focused on Native Hawaiians and Alaska Natives; or

(E) consortia thereof;


(2) shall—

(A) have not more than $50,000,000 in annual federally financed research and development expenditures for science and engineering as reported through the National Science Foundation Higher Education Research and Development Survey; or

(B) not be an institution classified as having very high research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.

(c) Partnerships

In making awards under this section, the Director shall—

(1) encourage entities that are consortia of eligible institutions to submit proposals and require such proposals to include a plan for establishing a sustained partnership that is jointly developed and managed, draws from the capacities of each institution, and is mutually beneficial;

(2) encourage proposals submitted in partnership with the private sector, nonprofit organizations, Federal laboratories, and international research institutions, as appropriate;

(3) require proposals described in paragraphs (1) and (2) to include a plan to strengthen the administrative and research capacity of the partnering HBCUs, TCUs, or MSIs to lead future proposals.

(d) Very high research activity status Historically Black Colleges and Universities program

Awards under this section may be used to enable HBCUs which have high research activity status to achieve very high research activity status, as classified under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, by enabling—

(1) faculty professional development;

(2) stipends for graduate and undergraduate students, and postdoctoral scholars;

(3) acquisition of laboratory equipment and instrumentation; and

(4) other activities as necessary to build research capacity.

(e) Proposals

To receive an award under this subsection, an eligible institution shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require, including—

(1) a plan that describes how the eligible institution will establish or expand research office capacity and how such award would be used to—

(A) conduct an assessment of capacity-building and research infrastructure needs of an eligible institution;

(B) enhance institutional resources to provide administrative research development support to faculty at an eligible institution;

(C) bolster the institutional research competitiveness of an eligible institution to support awards made by the Foundation;

(D) support the acquisition of instrumentation necessary to build research capacity at an eligible institution in research areas directly associated with the Foundation;

(E) increase capability of an eligible institution to move technology into the marketplace;

(F) increase engagement with industry to execute research through the SBIR and STTR programs (as such terms are defined in section 638(e) of title 15) and direct contracts at an eligible institution;

(G) enhance STEM curriculum and research training opportunities at the undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral levels at an eligible institution;

(H) further faculty development initiatives and strengthen institutional research training infrastructure, capacity, and competitiveness of an eligible institution;

(I) address plans and prospects for long-term sustainability of institutional enhancements at an eligible institution resulting from the award including, if applicable, how the award may be leveraged by an eligible institution to build a broader base of support; and

(J) develop and implement mechanisms for institutions of higher education to partner with HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs on STEM education, including the facilitation of student exchanges, course and resource sharing, collaboration, and matriculation of students to either institution's graduate programs, mentoring programs for students and junior faculty, joint research projects, and student access to graduate education; and


(2) as relevant, a plan, which shall be updated every three years, that describes the institution's strategy to achieve very high research activity status, including making investments with institutional and non-Federal funds, to achieve that status within a decade of the grant award, to the extent practicable.

(f) MSI Centers of Innovation

Awards under this section may fund the establishment of not more than five MSI Centers of Innovation to leverage successes of HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs in STEM education and research training of underrepresented minority students as models for other institutions, including both HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs and institutions of higher education that are not HBCUs, TCUs, or MSIs. Such centers will be located on campuses of selected HBCUs, TCUs, or MSIs, and serve as incubators to allow institutions of higher education to experiment, pilot, evaluate, and scale up promising practices.

(g) Awards

Awards made under this subsection shall be for periods of three years and may be extended for periods of not more than five years.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2023 and $250,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2024 through 2027 to carry out the activities in this section and section 19182 of this title.

(i) Report on improving the research capacity at high research activity Historically Black Colleges and Universities

(1) In general

Not later than one year after August 9, 2022, the National Science and Technology Council shall prepare and submit a report that—

(A) identifies challenges and barriers to Federal research and development awards for high research activity status HBCUs; and

(B) identifies recommendations for Federal research agencies to sustainably boost the research capacity of high research activity status HBCUs through awards-making authorities.

(2) Report submission

The National Science and Technology Council shall transmit the report required under paragraph (1) to the Director, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the heads of other such agencies as determined relevant by the National Science and Technology Council.

(3) Information from Federal agencies

The National Science and Technology Council may secure directly from a Federal department or agency such information as the National Science and Technology Council considers necessary to prepare the report required under paragraph (1). Upon a request from the National Science and Technology Council, the head of a Federal department or agency shall furnish such information as is requested to the National Science and Technology Council.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10524, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1623.)

§19184. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Director

The term "Director" means the Director of the National Science Foundation.

(2) HBCU

The term "HBCU" has the meaning given the term "part B institution" in section 1061 of title 20.

(3) Minority serving institution

The term "minority serving institution" or "MSI" means Hispanic-Serving Institutions as defined in section 1101a) of title 20; Alaska Native Serving Institutions and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions as defined in section 1059d of title 20; and Predominantly Black Institutions, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions, and Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions as defined in section 1067q of title 20.

(4) TCU

The term "TCU" has the meaning given the term "Tribal College or University" in section 1059c of title 20.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10526, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1627.)

Part D—Combating Sexual Harassment in Science

§19191. Findings

Congress makes the following findings:

(1) According to the report issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 2018 entitled "Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine"—

(A) sexual harassment is pervasive in institutions of higher education;

(B) the most common type of sexual harassment is gender harassment;

(C) 58 percent of individuals in the academic workplace experience sexual harassment, the second highest rate when compared to the military, the private sector, and Federal, State, and local government;

(D) women who are members of racial or ethnic minority groups are more likely to experience sexual harassment and to feel unsafe at work than White women, White men, or men who are members of such groups;

(E) the training for each individual who has a Doctor of Philosophy in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields is estimated to cost approximately $500,000; and

(F) attrition of an individual so trained results in a loss of talent and money.


(2) According to a 2017 University of Illinois study, among astronomers and planetary scientists, 18 percent of women who are members of racial or ethnic minority groups and 12 percent of White women skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending.

(3) Reporting procedures with respect to sexual harassment are inconsistent among Federal research agencies and have varying degrees of accessibility.

(4) There is not adequate communication among Federal research agencies and between such agencies and recipients regarding reports of sexual harassment, which has resulted in harassers receiving Federal funding after moving to a different institution.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10531, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1627.)

§19192. Purpose

The purpose of this part is to increase understanding of the causes and consequences of sex-based and sexual harassment, as discussed in the report issued by the National Academies in 2018 entitled "Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine", and to advance evidence-based approaches to reduce the prevalence and negative impact of such harassment.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10532, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1628.)

§19193. Definition

In this part, the term "Director" means the Director of the National Science Foundation.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10533, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1628.)

§19194. Research awards

(a) In general

The Director shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations)—

(1) to expand research efforts to better understand the factors contributing to, and consequences of, sex-based and sexual harassment affecting individuals in the STEM workforce, including students and trainees; and

(2) to examine approaches to reduce the incidence and negative consequences of such harassment.

(b) Use of funds

Activities funded by an award under this section may include—

(1) research on the sex-based and sexual harassment experiences of individuals, including in racial and ethnic minority groups, disabled individuals, foreign nationals, sexual-minority individuals, and others;

(2) development and assessment of policies, procedures, trainings, and interventions, with respect to sex-based and sexual harassment, conflict management, and ways to foster respectful and inclusive climates;

(3) research on approaches for remediating the negative impacts and outcomes of such harassment on individuals experiencing such harassment;

(4) support for institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations to develop, adapt, implement, and assess the impact of innovative, evidence-based strategies, policies, and approaches to policy implementation to prevent and address sex-based and sexual harassment;

(5) research on alternatives to the power dynamics, hierarchical, and dependent relationships, including but not limited to the mentor-mentee relationship, in academia that have been shown to create higher levels of risk for and lower levels of reporting of sex- based and sexual harassment; and

(6) establishing a center for the ongoing compilation, management, and analysis of organizational climate survey data.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10534, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1628.)

§19195. Interagency working group

(a) In general

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, acting through the National Science and Technology Council, shall establish or designate an interagency working group for the purpose of coordinating Federal research agency efforts to reduce the prevalence of sex-based and sexual harassment involving award personnel. In coordination with the working group on inclusion in STEM fields established under section 6626 of this title and the Safe Inclusive Research Environments Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council, and in consultation with representatives from each Federal research agency, the Office for Civil Rights at the Department of Health and Human Services, the Office for Civil Rights at the Department of Education, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the working group shall—

(1) not later than 90 days after August 9, 2022, submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, the Committee on Education and Labor, and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate an inventory of Federal research agency policies, procedures, and resources dedicated to preventing and responding to reports of sex-based and sexual harassment;

(2) not later than 6 months after the date on which the inventory is submitted under paragraph (1)—

(A) in consultation with outside stakeholders, develop a consistent set of policy guidelines for Federal research agencies; and

(B) submit a report to the committees referred to in paragraph (1) containing such guidelines;


(3) encourage and monitor efforts of Federal research agencies to develop or maintain and implement policies based on the guidelines developed under paragraph (2);

(4) not later than 1 year after the date on which the inventory under paragraph (1) is submitted, and every 5 years thereafter, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall report to Congress on the implementation by Federal research agencies of the policy guidelines developed under paragraph (2); and

(5) update such policy guidelines as needed.

(b) Requirements

In developing policy guidelines under subsection (a)(2), the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall include guidelines that require, to the extent practicable—

(1) recipients to submit to the Federal research agency or agencies from which the recipients receive funding reports relating to—

(A) any decision made to launch a formal investigation of sex-based or sexual harassment, including bullying, retaliation, or hostile working conditions by, or of, award personnel;

(B) administrative action, related to an allegation against award personnel of any such harassment, as set forth in organizational policies or codes of conduct, statutes, regulations, or executive orders, that affects the ability of award personnel or their trainees to carry out the activities of the award;

(C) the total number of investigations with no findings or determinations of misconduct including such harassment;

(D) findings or determinations of such harassment, as set forth in organizational policies or codes of conduct, statutes, regulations, or Executive orders by, or of, award personnel, including the final disposition of a matter involving a violation of organizational policies and processes, to include the exhaustion of permissible appeals, or a determination of a sexual offense in a court of law, or any other disciplinary action taken;


(2) the sharing, updating, and archiving of reports of sex- based and sexual harassment from recipients submitted under paragraph (1) with relevant Federal research agencies, on a yearly basis and by agency request; and

(3) consistency among Federal research agencies with regard to the policies and procedures for receiving reports submitted pursuant to paragraph (1).

(4) FERPA

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall ensure that such guidelines and requirements are consistent with the requirements of section 1232g of title 20 (commonly referred to as the "Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974").

(5) Privacy protections

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall ensure that such guidelines and requirements—

(A) do not infringe upon the privacy rights of individuals associated with reports submitted to Federal research agencies; and

(B) do not require recipients to provide interim reports to Federal research agencies.

(c) Considerations

In carrying out subsection (a)(2), the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall consider issuing guidelines that require or incent—

(1) recipients to periodically assess their organizational climate, which may include the use of climate surveys, focus groups, or exit interviews;

(2) recipients to publish on a publicly available internet website the results of assessments conducted pursuant to paragraph (1), disaggregated by sex and, if practicable, race, ethnicity, disability status, and sexual orientation, and in a manner that does not include personally identifiable information;

(3) recipients to make public on an annual basis the number of reports of sex-based and sexual harassment at that institution or organization;

(4) recipients to regularly assess and improve policies, procedures, and interventions to reduce the prevalence of and improve the reporting of sex-based and sexual harassment;

(5) each entity applying for a research and development award certify that a code of conduct is in place for maintaining a healthy and welcoming workplace for award personnel and posted on their public website;

(6) each recipient and Federal research agency to have in place mechanisms for addressing the needs of individuals who have experienced sex-based and sexual harassment, including those individuals seeking to reintegrate at the recipient entity; and

(7) recipients to work to create a climate intolerant of sex-based and sexual harassment and that values and promotes diversity and inclusion.

(d) Federal research agency implementation

Not later than 270 days after receiving the guidelines under paragraph (a)(2), each Federal research agency shall—

(1) develop or maintain and implement policies with respect to sex-based and sexual harassment that are consistent with policy guidelines under subsection (a)(2) and that protect the privacy of all parties involved in any report and investigation of sex-based or sexual harassment, to the maximum extent practicable; and

(2) broadly disseminate such policies to current and potential recipients of research and development awards made by such agency.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title V, §10536, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1629.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

Committee on Education and Labor of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Education and the Workforce of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Eighteenth Congress, Jan. 9, 2023.

SUBCHAPTER VI—MISCELLANEOUS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROVISIONS

Part A—Supporting Early-Career Researchers

§19211. Early-career research fellowship program

(a) In general

The Director of the National Science Foundation may establish a 2-year pilot program to make awards to highly qualified early-career investigators to carry out an independent research program at the institution of higher education or participating Federal research facility chosen by such investigator, to last for a period not greater than two years.

(b) Selection process

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall select recipients under subsection (a) from among citizens, nationals, and lawfully admitted permanent resident aliens of the United States.

(c) Outreach

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall conduct program outreach to recruit fellowship applicants—

(1) from all regions of the country;

(2) from historically underrepresented populations in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; and

(3) who graduate from or intend to carry out research at a variety of types of institutions of higher education, including—

(A) historically Black colleges and universities;

(B) Tribal Colleges and Universities;

(C) minority-serving institutions;

(D) institutions of higher education that are not among the top 50 institutions in annual Federal funding for research; and

(E) EPSCoR institutions.

(d) Special consideration

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall give special consideration and priority to an application from an individual who graduated from or is intending to carry out research at an institution of the type specified in subsection (c)(3).

(e) Reports from fellows

Not later than 180 days after the end of the pilot program under this section, each early-career investigator who receives an award under the pilot program shall submit to the Director of the National Science Foundation a report that describes how the early-career investigator used the award funds.

(f) Report from the Director

Not later than 90 days after the conclusion of the second year of the pilot program, the Director of the National Science Foundation shall submit to Congress a report that includes the following:

(1) A summary of the uses of award funds under this section and the impact of the pilot program under this section.

(2) Statistical summary data on fellowship awardees disaggregated by race, ethnicity, sex, geography, age, years since completion of doctoral degree, and institution type.

(3) If determined effective, a plan for permanent implementation of the pilot program.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10601, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1632.)

Part B—National Science and Technology Strategy

§19221. Strategy and report on the nation's economic security, science, research, and innovation to support the national security strategy

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Foreign country of concern

The term "foreign country of concern" means the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, the Islamic Republic of Iran, or any other country determined to be a country of concern by the Department of State.

(2) Foreign entity of concern

The term "foreign entity of concern" means a foreign entity that is—

(A) designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the Secretary of State under section 1189(a) of title 8;

(B) included on the list of specially designated nationals and blocked persons maintained by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the Department of the Treasury (commonly known as the SDN list);

(C) owned by, controlled by, or subject to the jurisdiction or direction of a government of a foreign country that is a covered nation (as such term is defined in section 4872 of title 10);

(D) alleged by the Attorney General to have been involved in activities for which a conviction was obtained under—

(i) chapter 37 of title 18 (commonly known as the Espionage Act);

(ii) section 951 or 1030 of title 18;

(iii) chapter 90 of title 18 (commonly known as the Economic Espionage Act of 1996);

(iv) the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.);

(v) section 2274, 2275, 2276, 2277, or 2284 of this title;

(vi) the Export Control Reform Act of 2018 (50 U.S.C. 4801 et seq.); or

(vii) the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.); or


(E) determined by the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence, to be engaged in unauthorized conduct that is detrimental to the national security or foreign policy of the United States.

(3) National security strategy

The term "national security strategy" means the national security strategy required under section 3043 of title 50.

(b) Strategy and report

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after the transmission of each national security strategy under section 3043(a) of title 50, the President, acting through the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, shall, in coordination with the National Science and Technology Council, the National Security Council, the Director of the National Economic Council, and the heads of such other relevant Federal agencies as the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy considers appropriate and in consultation with such nongovernmental partners as the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy considers appropriate—

(A) review such strategy, including the national defense strategy under subsection (g) of section 113 of title 10 and the national science and technology strategy under section 6615 of this title, programs, and resources as the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy determines pertain to United States' national competitiveness in science, technology, research, innovation, and technology transfer activities, including patenting and licensing, that support the national security strategy;

(B) develop or revise a national strategy to improve the national competitiveness of United States science, technology, research, and innovation to support the national security strategy; and

(C) submit to Congress—

(i) a report on the findings of the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy with respect to the review conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A); and

(ii) the strategy developed or revised pursuant to subparagraph (B).

(2) Termination

This subsection terminates on the date that is 5 years after August 9, 2022.

(c) Elements

(1) Report

Each report submitted under subsection (b)(1)(C)(i) shall include the following:

(A) An assessment of the efforts of the United States Government to preserve United States leadership in key emerging technologies and prevent United States strategic competitors from leveraging advanced technologies to gain strategic military or economic advantages over the United States.

(B) An assessment of public and private investment in science and technology relevant to national security purposes, and the implications of such for the geostrategic position of the United States.

(C) A description of the prioritized economic security interests and objectives.

(D) An assessment of global trends in science and technology, including potential threats to the national security of the United States in science and technology.

(E) An assessment of the national debt and its implications for the economic and national security of the United States.

(F) An assessment of how regional innovation capacity efforts in STEM fields are contributing and could contribute to the national security the United States, including programs run by State and local governments.

(G) An assessment of the following:

(i) Workforce needs for competitiveness in technology areas identified in the national security strategy.

(ii) Any efforts needed to expand pathways into technology fields to achieve the goals of the national security strategy.


(H) An assessment of barriers to the development, evolution, or competitiveness of start-ups, small and mid-sized business entities, and industries that are critical to national security.

(I) An assessment of the effectiveness of the Federal Government, federally funded research and development centers, and national laboratories in supporting and promoting the technology commercialization and technology transfer of technologies critical to national security.

(J) An assessment of manufacturing capacity, logistics, and supply chain dynamics of major export sectors that are critical to national security, including access to a skilled workforce, physical infrastructure, and broadband network infrastructure.

(K) An assessment of how the Federal Government is increasing the participation of underrepresented populations in science, research, innovation, and manufacturing.

(L) An assessment of public-private partnerships in technology commercialization in support of national security, including—

(i) the structure of current defense technology research and commercialization arrangements with regard to public-private partnerships; and

(ii) the extent to which intellectual property developed with Federal defense funding—

(I) is being used to manufacture in the United States rather than in other countries; and

(II) is being used by foreign business entities that are majority owned or controlled (as such term is defined in section 800.208 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations, or a successor regulation), or minority owned greater than 25 percent by—

(aa) any governmental organization of a foreign country of concern; or

(bb) any other entity that is—

(AA) known to be owned or controlled by any governmental organization of a foreign country of concern; or

(BB) organized under, or otherwise subject to, the laws of a foreign country of concern.


(M) Recommendations to enhance the ability of the Federal Government to recruit into Federal service and retain in such service individuals with critical skills relevant to national security.

(N) Recommendations for policies to protect United States leadership and the allies of the United States in critical areas relevant to national security through targeted export controls, investment screening, and counterintelligence activities.

(O) Informed by the interagency process established under section 1758 of the Export Control Reform Act of 2018 [50 U.S.C. 4817], a technology annex, which may be classified, describing an integrated and enduring approach to the identification, prioritization, development, and fielding of emerging technologies relevant to national security.

(2) Strategy

Each strategy submitted under subsection (b)(1)(C)(ii) shall, to the extent practicable, include the following:

(A) A plan to utilize available tools to address or minimize the leading threats and challenges and to take advantage of the leading opportunities, particularly in regards to technologies central to international competition in science and technology relevant to national security purposes, including the following:

(i) Specific objectives, tasks, metrics, and milestones for each relevant Federal agency.

(ii) Strategic objectives and priorities necessary to maintain the leadership of the United States in science and technology relevant to national security purposes, including near-term, medium-term, and long-term research priorities.

(iii) Specific plans to safeguard research and technology funded, as appropriate, in whole or in part, by the Federal Government, including in technologies critical to national security, from theft or exfiltration by foreign entities of concern.

(iv) Specific plans to support public and private sector investment in research, technology development, education and workforce development, and domestic manufacturing supportive of the national security of the United States and to foster the use of public-private partnerships.

(v) A description of the following:

(I) How the strategy submitted under subsection (b)(1)(C)(ii) supports the national security strategy.

(II) How the strategy submitted under such subsection is integrated and coordinated with the most recent—

(aa) national defense strategy under subsection (g) of section 113 of title 10; and

(bb) national science and technology strategy under section 6615 of this title.


(vi) A plan to encourage the governments of countries that are allies or partners of the United States to cooperate with the execution of such strategy, where appropriate.

(vii) A plan for strengthening the industrial base of the United States.

(viii) A plan to remove or update overly burdensome or outdated Federal regulations, as appropriate.

(ix) A plan—

(I) to further incentivize industry participation in public-private partnerships for the purposes of accelerating technology research and commercialization in support of national security, including alternate ways of accounting for in-kind contributions and valuing partially manufactured products;

(II) to ensure that intellectual property developed with Federal funding is commercialized in the United States; and

(III) to ensure, to the maximum appropriate extent, that intellectual property developed with Federal funding is not being used by foreign business entities that are majority owned or controlled (as such term is defined in section 800.208 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations, or a successor regulation), or minority owned greater than 25 percent by—

(aa) any governmental organization of a foreign country of concern; or

(bb) any other entity that is—

(AA) known to be owned or controlled by any governmental organization of a foreign country of concern; or

(BB) organized under, or otherwise subject to, the laws of a foreign country of concern.


(x) An identification of additional resources, administrative action, or legislative action recommended to assist with the implementation of such strategy.

(d) Research and development funding

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall, as the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy considers necessary, consult with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and with the heads of such other elements of the Executive Office of the President as the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy considers appropriate to ensure the recommendations and priorities with respect to research and development funding relevant to national security, as expressed in the most recent report and strategy submitted under subsection (b)(1)(C) are incorporated into the development of annual budget requests for Federal research agencies.

(e) Publication

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall, consistent with the protection of national security and other sensitive matters and to the maximum extent practicable, make each report submitted under subsection (b)(1)(C)(i) publicly available on an internet website of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Each such report may include a classified annex if the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy determines such is appropriate.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10612, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1635.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(D)(iv), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of Title 22 and Tables.

The Export Control Reform Act of 2018, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(D)(vi), is subtitle B (§§1741–1781) of title XVII of div. A of Pub. L. 115–232, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2208, which is classified principally to chapter 58 (§4801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4801 of Title 50 and Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(D)(vii), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

§19222. National research and development strategy for distributed ledger technology

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Director

Except as otherwise expressly provided, the term "Director" means the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

(2) Distributed ledger

The term "distributed ledger" means a ledger that—

(A) is shared across a set of distributed nodes, which are devices or processes, that participate in a network and store a complete or partial replica of the ledger;

(B) is synchronized between the nodes;

(C) has data appended to it by following the ledger's specified consensus mechanism;

(D) may be accessible to anyone (public) or restricted to a subset of participants (private); and

(E) may require participants to have authorization to perform certain actions (engaging) or require no authorization (permissionless).

(3) Distributed ledger technology

The term "distributed ledger technology" means technology that enables the operation and use of distributed ledgers.

(4) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001 of title 20.

(5) Relevant congressional committees

The term "relevant congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives.

(6) Smart contract

The term "smart contract" means a computer program stored in a distributed ledger system that is executed when certain predefined conditions are satisfied and wherein the outcome of any execution of the program may be recorded on the distributed ledger.

(b) National distributed ledger technology research and development strategy

(1) In general

The Director, or a designee of the Director, shall, in coordination with the National Science and Technology Council, and the heads of such other relevant Federal agencies and entities as the Director considers appropriate, which may include the National Academies, and in consultation with such nongovernmental entities as the Director considers appropriate, develop a national strategy for the research and development of distributed ledger technologies and their applications, including applications of public and permissionless distributed ledgers. In developing the national strategy, the Director shall consider the following:

(A) Current efforts and coordination by Federal agencies to invest in the research and development of distributed ledger technologies and their applications, including through programs like the Small Business Innovation Research program, the Small Business Technology Transfer program, and the National Science Foundation's Innovation Corps programs.

(B)(i) The potential benefits and risks of applications of distributed ledger technologies across different industry sectors, including their potential to—

(I) lower transactions costs and facilitate new types of commercial transactions;

(II) protect privacy and increase individuals' data sovereignty;

(III) reduce friction to the interoperability of digital systems;

(IV) increase the accessibility, auditability, security, efficiency, and transparency of digital services;

(V) increase market competition in the provision of digital services;

(VI) enable dynamic contracting and contract execution through smart contracts;

(VII) enable participants to collaborate in trustless and disintermediated environments;

(VIII) enable the operations and governance of distributed organizations;

(IX) create new ownership models for digital items; and

(X) increase participation of populations historically underrepresented in the technology, business, and financial sectors.


(ii) In consideration of the potential risks of applications of distributed ledger technologies under clause (i), the Director shall take into account, where applicable—

(I) additional risks that may emerge from distributed ledger technologies, as identified in reports submitted to the President pursuant to Executive Order 14067, that may be addressed by research and development;

(II) software vulnerabilities in distributed ledger technologies and smart contracts;

(III) limited consumer literacy on engaging with applications of distributed ledger technologies in a secure way;

(IV) the use of distributed ledger technologies in illicit finance and their use in combating illicit finance;

(V) manipulative, deceptive, and fraudulent practices that harm consumers engaging with applications of distributed ledger technologies;

(VI) the implications of different consensus mechanisms for digital ledgers and governance and accountability mechanisms for applications of distributed ledger technologies, which may include decentralized networks;

(VII) foreign activities in the development and deployment of distributed ledger technologies and their associated tools and infrastructure; and

(VIII) environmental, sustainability, and economic impacts of the computational resources required for distributed ledger technologies.


(C) Potential uses for distributed ledger technologies that could improve the operations and delivery of services by Federal agencies, taking into account the potential of digital ledger technologies to—

(i) improve the efficiency and effectiveness of privacy-preserving data sharing among Federal agencies and with State, local, territorial, and Tribal governments;

(ii) promote government transparency by improving data sharing with the public;

(iii) introduce or mitigate risks that may threaten individuals' rights or broad access to Federal services;

(iv) automate and modernize processes for assessing and ensuring regulatory compliance; and

(v) facilitate broad access to financial services for underserved and underbanked populations.


(D) Ways to support public and private sector dialogue on areas of research that could enhance the efficiency, scalability, interoperability, security, and privacy of applications using distributed ledger technologies.

(E) The need for increased coordination of the public and private sectors on the development of voluntary standards in order to promote research and development, including standards regarding security, smart contracts, cryptographic protocols, virtual routing and forwarding, interoperability, zero-knowledge proofs, and privacy, for distributed ledger technologies and their applications.

(F) Applications of distributed ledger technologies that could positively benefit society but that receive relatively little private sector investment.

(G) The United States position in global leadership and competitiveness across research, development, and deployment of distributed ledger technologies.

(2) Consultation

(A) In general

In carrying out the Director's duties under this subsection, the Director shall consult with the following:

(i) Private industry.

(ii) Institutions of higher education, including minority-serving institutions.

(iii) Nonprofit organizations, including foundations dedicated to supporting distributed ledger technologies and their applications.

(iv) State governments.

(v) Such other persons as the Director considers appropriate.

(B) Representation

The Director shall ensure consultations with the following:

(i) Rural and urban stakeholders from across the Nation.

(ii) Small, medium, and large businesses.

(iii) Subject matter experts representing multiple industrial sectors.

(iv) A demographically diverse set of stakeholders.

(3) Coordination

In carrying out this subsection, the Director shall, for purposes of avoiding duplication of activities, consult, cooperate, and coordinate with the programs and policies of other relevant Federal agencies, including the interagency process outlined in section 3 of Executive Order 14067 (87 Fed. Reg. 14143; relating ensuring responsible development of digital assets).

(4) National strategy

Not later than 1 year after December 23, 2022, the Director shall submit to the relevant congressional committees and the President a national strategy that includes the following:

(A) Priorities for the research and development of distributed ledger technologies and their applications.

(B) Plans to support public and private sector investment and partnerships in research and technology development for societally beneficial applications of distributed ledger technologies.

(C) Plans to mitigate the risks of distributed ledger technologies and their applications.

(D) An identification of additional resources, administrative action, or legislative action recommended to assist with the implementation of such strategy.

(5) Research and development funding

The Director shall, as the Director considers necessary, consult with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and with the heads of such other elements of the Executive Office of the President as the Director considers appropriate, to ensure that the recommendations and priorities with respect to research and development funding, as expressed in the national strategy developed under this subsection, are incorporated in the development of annual budget requests for Federal research agencies.

(c) Distributed ledger technology research

(1) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Director of the National Science Foundation shall make awards, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education, including minority-serving institutions, or nonprofit organizations (or consortia of such institutions or organizations) to support research, including interdisciplinary research, on distributed ledger technologies, their applications, and other issues that impact or are caused by distributed ledger technologies, which may include research on—

(A) the implications on trust, transparency, privacy, accessibility, accountability, and energy consumption of different consensus mechanisms and hardware choices, and approaches for addressing these implications;

(B) approaches for improving the security, privacy, resiliency, interoperability, performance, and scalability of distributed ledger technologies and their applications, which may include decentralized networks;

(C) approaches for identifying and addressing vulnerabilities and improving the performance and expressive power of smart contracts;

(D) the implications of quantum computing on applications of distributed ledger technologies, including long-term protection of sensitive information (such as medical or digital property), and techniques to address them;

(E) game theory, mechanism design, and economics underpinning and facilitating the operations and governance of decentralized networks enabled by distributed ledger technologies;

(F) the social behaviors of participants in decentralized networks enabled by distributed ledger technologies;

(G) human-centric design approaches to make distributed ledger technologies and their applications more usable and accessible;

(H) use cases for distributed ledger technologies across various industry sectors and government, including applications pertaining to—

(i) digital identity, including trusted identity and identity management;

(ii) digital property rights;

(iii) delivery of public services;

(iv) supply chain transparency;

(v) medical information management;

(vi) inclusive financial services;

(vii) community governance;

(viii) charitable giving;

(ix) public goods funding;

(x) digital credentials;

(xi) regulatory compliance;

(xii) infrastructure resilience, including against natural disasters; and

(xiii) peer-to-peer transactions; and

(I) the social, behavioral, and economic implications associated with the growth of applications of distributed ledger technologies, including decentralization in business, financial, and economic systems.

(2) Accelerating innovation

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall consider continuing to support startups that are in need of funding, would develop in and contribute to the economy of the United States, leverage distributed ledger technologies, have the potential to positively benefit society, and have the potential for commercial viability, through programs like the Small Business Innovation Research program, the Small Business Technology Transfer program, and, as appropriate, other programs that promote broad and diverse participation.

(3) Consideration of national distributed ledger technology research and development strategy

In making awards under paragraph (1), the Director of the National Science Foundation shall take into account the national strategy, as described in subsection (b)(4).

(4) Fundamental research

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall consider continuing to make awards supporting fundamental research in areas related to distributed ledger technologies and their applications, such as applied cryptography and distributed systems.

(d) Distributed ledger technology applied research project

(1) Applied research project

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, may carry out an applied research project to study and demonstrate the potential benefits and unique capabilities of distributed ledger technologies.

(2) Activities

In carrying out the applied research project, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall—

(A) identify potential applications of distributed ledger technologies, including those that could benefit activities at the Department of Commerce or at other Federal agencies, considering applications that could—

(i) improve the privacy and interoperability of digital identity and access management solutions;

(ii) increase the integrity and transparency of supply chains through the secure and limited sharing of relevant supplier information;

(iii) facilitate broader participation in distributed ledger technologies of populations historically underrepresented in technology, business, and financial sectors; or

(iv) be of benefit to the public or private sectors, as determined by the Director in consultation with relevant stakeholders;


(B) solicit and provide the opportunity for public comment relevant to potential projects;

(C) consider, in the selection of a project, whether the project addresses a pressing need not already addressed by another organization or Federal agency;

(D) establish plans to mitigate potential risks, including those outlined in subsection (b)(1)(B)(ii), if applicable, of potential projects;

(E) produce an example solution leveraging distributed ledger technologies for 1 of the applications identified in subparagraph (A);

(F) hold a competitive process to select private sector partners, if they are engaged, to support the implementation of the example solution;

(G) consider hosting the project at the National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence; and

(H) ensure that cybersecurity best practices consistent with the Cybersecurity Frame work of the National Institute of Standards and Technology are demonstrated in the project.

(3) Briefings to Congress

Not later than 1 year after December 23, 2022, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall offer a briefing to the relevant congressional committees on the progress and current findings from the project under this subsection.

(4) Public report

Not later than 12 months after the completion of the project under this subsection, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall make public a report on the results and findings from the project.

(Pub. L. 117–263, div. E, title LIX, §5913, Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 3443.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Executive Order 14067, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii)(I), (3), is Ex. Ord. No. 14067, Mar. 9, 2022, 87 F.R. 14143, which is set out as a note preceding section 5101 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the James M. Inhofe National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2023, and not as part of the Research and Development, Competition, and Innovation Act which in part comprises this chapter.

Part C—Research Security

§19231. Requirements for foreign talent recruitment programs

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this part is to direct actions to prohibit participation in any foreign talent recruitment program by personnel of Federal research agencies and to prohibit participation in a malign foreign talent recruitment program by covered individuals involved with research and development awards from those agencies.

(b) Guidance

Not later than 180 days after August 9, 2022, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, in coordination with the interagency working group established under section 1746 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (42 U.S.C. 6601 note; Public Law 116–92), shall publish and widely distribute a uniform set of guidelines for Federal research agencies regarding foreign talent recruitment programs. Such policy guidelines shall—

(1) prohibit all personnel of each Federal research agency, including Federal employees, contract employees, independent contractors, individuals serving under the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. 4701 et seq 1 ), Visiting Scientist, Engineering, and Educator appointments, and special government employees other than peer reviewers, from participating in a foreign talent recruitment program;

(2) as part of the requirements under section 6605 of this title, require covered individuals to disclose if such individuals are a party to a foreign talent recruitment program contract, agreement, or other arrangement;

(3) prohibit research and development awards from being made for any proposal in which a covered individual is participating in a malign foreign talent recruitment program; and

(4) to the extent practicable, require recipient institutions to prohibit covered individuals participating in malign foreign talent recruitment programs from working on projects supported by research and development awards.

(c) Definition of foreign talent recruitment programs

As part of the guidance under subsection (b), the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall define and describe the characteristics of a foreign talent recruitment program.

(d) Implementation

Not later than one year after August 9, 2022, each Federal research agency shall issue a policy utilizing the guidelines under subsection (b).

(e) Consistency

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall ensure that the policies issued by the Federal research agencies under subsection (d) are consistent to the greatest extent practicable.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10631, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1664.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 91–648, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1909, which is classified principally to chapter 62 (§4701 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4701 of this title and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§19232. Malign foreign talent recruitment program prohibition

(a) In general

Not later than 24 months after August 9, 2022, each Federal research agency shall establish a policy that, as part of a proposal for a research and development award from the agency—

(1) each covered individual listed in such proposal certify that each such individual is not a party to a malign foreign talent recruitment program in the proposal submission of each such individual and annually thereafter for the duration of the award; and

(2) each institution of higher education or other organization applying for such an award certify that each covered individual who is employed by such institution of higher education or other organization has been made aware of the requirements under this section and complied with the requirement under paragraph (1).

(b) Stakeholder input

In establishing a policy under subsection (a), Federal research agencies shall publish a description of the proposed policy in the Federal Register and provide an opportunity for submission of public comment for a period of not more than 60 days.

(c) Compliance with existing law

Each Federal research agency and recipient shall comply with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) in the establishment of policies pursuant to under 1 subsection (a).

(d) International collaboration

Each policy developed under subsection (a) shall not prohibit, unless such activities are funded, organized, or managed by an academic institution or a foreign talent recruitment program on the lists developed under paragraphs (8) and (9) of section 1286(c) of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (10 U.S.C. 4001 note; Public Law 115–232)—

(1) making scholarly presentations and publishing written materials regarding scientific information not otherwise controlled under current law;

(2) participation in international conferences or other international exchanges, research projects or programs that involve open and reciprocal exchange of scientific information, and which are aimed at advancing international scientific understanding and not otherwise controlled under current law;

(3) advising a foreign student enrolled at an institution of higher education or writing a recommendation for such a student, at such student's request; and

(4) other international activities determined appropriate by the Federal research agency head or designee.

(e) Limitation

The certifications required under subsection (a) shall not apply retroactively to research and development awards made or applied for prior to the establishment of the policy by the Federal research agency.

(f) Training

Each Federal research agency shall ensure that, as a requirement of an award from each such agency, recipient institutions provide training on the risks of malign foreign talent recruitment programs to covered individuals employed at such institutions, including those individuals who are participating in activities described in subsection (d).

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10632, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1665.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

1 So in original.

§19233. Review of contracts and agreements

(a) In general

In addition to existing authorities for preventing waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement of Federal funds, each Federal research agency shall have the authority to—

(1) require, upon request, the submission to such agency, by an institution of higher education or other organization applying for a research and development award, of supporting documentation, including copies of contracts, grants, or any other agreement specific to foreign appointments, employment with a foreign institution, participation in a foreign talent recruitment program and other information reported as current and pending support for all covered individuals in a research and development award application;

(2) require such institution of higher education or other organization to review any documents requested under paragraph (1) for compliance with the Federal research agency's award terms and conditions, including guidance on conflicts of interest and conflicts of commitment; and

(3) upon receipt and review of the information provided under paragraph (1) and in consultation with the institution of higher education or other organization submitting such information, initiate the substitution or removal of a covered individual from a research and development award, reduce the award funding amount, or suspend or terminate the award if the agency head determines such contracts, grants, or agreements include obligations that—

(A) interfere with the capacity for agency-supported activities to be carried out; or

(B) create duplication with agency-supported activities.

(b) Limitations

In exercising the authorities under subsection (a), each Federal research agency shall—

(1) take necessary steps, as practicable, to protect the privacy of all covered individuals and other parties specified in the documentation submitted under paragraph (1) of such subsection;

(2) endeavor to provide justification for requests for supporting documentation made under such paragraph;

(3) require that allegations be proven by a preponderance of evidence; and

(4) as practicable, afford subjects an opportunity to provide comments and rebuttal and an opportunity to appeal before final administrative action is taken.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10633, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1666.)

§19234. Research security training requirement for Federal research award personnel

(a) Annual training requirement

(1) In general

Not later than 12 months after August 9, 2022, each Federal research agency shall establish a requirement that, as part of an application for a research and development award from the agency—

(A) each covered individual listed on the application for a research and development award certify that each such individual has completed within one year of such application research security training that meets the guidelines developed under subsection (b); and

(B) each institution of higher education or other organization applying for such an award certify that each covered individual who is employed by such institution or organization and listed on the application has completed such training.

(2) Consistency

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall ensure that the training requirements established by Federal research agencies pursuant to paragraph (1) are consistent.

(b) Training guidelines

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, acting through the National Science and Technology Council and in accordance with the authority provided under section 1746(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (Public Law 116–92; 42 U.S.C. 6601 note), shall, taking into consideration stakeholder input, develop guidelines for institutions of higher education and other organizations receiving Federal research and development funds to use in developing their own training programs to address the unique needs, challenges, and risk profiles of such institutions and other organizations, including adoption of security training modules developed under subsection (c), to ensure compliance with National Security Presidential Memorandum–33 (relating to strengthening protections of the United States Government-supported research and development against foreign government interference and exploitation) or any successor documents.

(c) Security training modules

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 9, 2022, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, in coordination with the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Director of the National Institutes of Health, the Secretary of Energy, and the Secretary of Defense, and in consultation with the heads of relevant Federal research agencies, shall enter into an agreement or contract with a qualified entity for the development of online research security training modules for the research community and participants in the United States research and development enterprise to ensure compliance with National Security Presidential Memorandum–33 or successor documents, including modules—

(A) focused on cybersecurity, international collaboration and international travel, foreign interference, and rules for proper use of funds, disclosure, conflict of commitment, and conflict of interest; and

(B) tailored to the unique needs of—

(i) covered individuals;

(ii) undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers; and

(iii) applicants for awards under the SBIR and STTR programs (as such terms are defined in section 638(e) of title 15.

(2) Stakeholder input

Prior to entering into the agreement under paragraph (1), the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall seek input from academic, private sector, intelligence, and law enforcement stakeholders regarding the scope and content of security training modules, including the diversity of needs across institutions of higher education and other recipients of different sizes and types, and recommendations for minimizing administrative burden on recipients and researchers.

(3) Development

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall ensure that the entity referred to in paragraph (1)—

(A) develops security training modules that can be adapted and utilized across Federal research agencies; and

(B) develops and implements a plan for regularly updating such modules as needed.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10634, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1667.)

§19235. Person or entity of concern prohibition

No person published on the list under section 1237(b) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (Public Law 105–261; 50 U.S.C. 1701 note) or entity identified under section 1260h 1 of the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 (10 U.S.C. 113 note; Public Law 116–283) may receive or participate in any grant, award, program, support, or other activity under—

(1) the Directorate established in part G of subchapter III of this chapter;

(2) section 3722a(b)(1) of title 15, as added by section 10621; or

(3) the Manufacturing USA Program, as improved and expanded under part D of subchapter II of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10636, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1669.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 10621, referred to in par. (2), means section 10621 of Pub. L. 117–167.

Part D of subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in par. (3), was in the original "subtitle E of title II of this division", meaning subtitle E (§§10261–10263) of title II of div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, which is classified principally to part D of subchapter II of this chapter. For complete classification of subtitle E to the Code, see Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be "1260H".

§19236. Nondiscrimination

In carrying out requirements under this part, each Federal research agency shall ensure that policies and activities developed and implemented pursuant to this part are carried out in a manner that does not target, stigmatize, or discriminate against individuals on the basis of race, ethnicity, or national origin, consistent with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.).

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10637, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1669.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

§19237. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Covered individual

The term "covered individual" means an individual who—

(A) contributes in a substantive, meaningful way to the scientific development or execution of a research and development project proposed to be carried out with a research and development award from a Federal research agency; and

(B) is designated as a covered individual by the Federal research agency concerned.

(2) Foreign country of concern

The term "foreign country of concern" means the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, the Islamic Republic of Iran, or any other country determined to be a country of concern by the Secretary of State.

(3) Foreign entity of concern

The term "foreign entity of concern" means a foreign entity that is—

(A) designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the Secretary of State under section 1189(a) of title 8;

(B) included on the list of specially designated nationals and blocked persons maintained by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the Department of the Treasury (commonly known as the SDN list);

(C) owned by, controlled by, or subject to the jurisdiction or direction of a government of a foreign country that is a covered nation (as such term is defined in section 4872 of title 10);

(D) alleged by the Attorney General to have been involved in activities for which a conviction was obtained under—

(i) chapter 37 of title 18 (commonly known as the Espionage Act);

(ii) section 951 or 1030 of title 18;

(iii) chapter 90 of title 18 (commonly known as the Economic Espionage Act of 1996);

(iv) the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.);

(v) section 2274, 2275, 2276, 2277, or 2284 of title 42;

(vi) the Export Control Reform Act of 2018 (50 U.S.C. 4801 et seq.); or

(vii) the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.); or


(E) determined by the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence, to be engaged in unauthorized conduct that is detrimental to the national security or foreign policy of the United States.

(4) Malign foreign talent recruitment program

The term "malign foreign talent recruitment program" means—

(A) any program, position, or activity that includes compensation in the form of cash, in-kind compensation, including research funding, promised future compensation, complimentary foreign travel, things of non de minimis value, honorific titles, career advancement opportunities, or other types of remuneration or consideration directly provided by a foreign country at any level (national, provincial, or local) or their designee, or an entity based in, funded by, or affiliated with a foreign country, whether or not directly sponsored by the foreign country, to the targeted individual, whether directly or indirectly stated in the arrangement, contract, or other documentation at issue, in exchange for the individual—

(i) engaging in the unauthorized transfer of intellectual property, materials, data products, or other nonpublic information owned by a United States entity or developed with a Federal research and development award to the government of a foreign country or an entity based in, funded by, or affiliated with a foreign country regardless of whether that government or entity provided support for the development of the intellectual property, materials, or data products;

(ii) being required to recruit trainees or researchers to enroll in such program, position, or activity;

(iii) establishing a laboratory or company, accepting a faculty position, or undertaking any other employment or appointment in a foreign country or with an entity based in, funded by, or affiliated with a foreign country if such activities are in violation of the standard terms and conditions of a Federal research and development award;

(iv) being unable to terminate the foreign talent recruitment program contract or agreement except in extraordinary circumstances;

(v) through funding or effort related to the foreign talent recruitment program, being limited in the capacity to carry out a research and development award or required to engage in work that would result in substantial overlap or duplication with a Federal research and development award;

(vi) being required to apply for and successfully receive funding from the sponsoring foreign government's funding agencies with the sponsoring foreign organization as the recipient;

(vii) being required to omit acknowledgment of the recipient institution with which the individual is affiliated, or the Federal research agency sponsoring the research and development award, contrary to the institutional policies or standard terms and conditions of the Federal research and development award;

(viii) being required to not disclose to the Federal research agency or employing institution the participation of such individual in such program, position, or activity; or

(ix) having a conflict of interest or conflict of commitment contrary to the standard terms and conditions of the Federal research and development award; and


(B) a program that is sponsored by—

(i) a foreign country of concern or an entity based in a foreign country of concern, whether or not directly sponsored by the foreign country of concern;

(ii) an academic institution on the list developed under section 1286(c)(8) of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (10 U.S.C. 2358 note1 Public Law 115–232); or

(iii) a foreign talent recruitment program on the list developed under section 1286(c)(9) of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (10 U.S.C. 2358 note1 Public Law 115–232).

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10638, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1669.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in par. (3)(D)(iv), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of Title 22 and Tables.

The Export Control Reform Act of 2018, referred to in par. (3)(D)(vi), is subtitle B (§§1741–1781) of title XVII of div. A of Pub. L. 115–232, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2208, which is classified principally to chapter 58 (§4801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4801 of Title 50 and Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in (3)(D)(vii), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

Section 1286 of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, referred to in par. (4)(B)(ii), (iii), is section 1286 of Pub. L. 115–232, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2358 of Title 10, Armed Forces, prior to transfer and is now set out as a note under section 4001 of Title 10.

1 See References in Text note below.

Part D—Interagency Working Group

§19251. Interagency working group

(a) Establishment

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, acting through the National Science and Technology Council, shall establish or designate an interagency working group to coordinate the activities specified in subsection (c).

(b) Composition

The interagency working group shall be composed of the following members (or their designees), who may be organized into subcommittees, as appropriate:

(1) The Secretary of Commerce.

(2) The Director of the National Science Foundation.

(3) The Secretary of Energy.

(4) The Secretary of Defense.

(5) The Director of the National Economic Council.

(6) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(7) The Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(8) The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

(9) The Secretary of Agriculture.

(10) The Director of National Intelligence.

(11) The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(12) Such other Federal officials as the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy considers appropriate, including members of the National Science and Technology Council Committee on Technology.

(c) Coordination

The interagency working group shall seek to ensure that the activities of different Federal agencies enhance and complement, but, as appropriate, do not duplicate, efforts being carried out by another Federal agency, with a focus on the following:

(1) The activities of the National Science Foundation Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships Directorate in the key technology focus areas, such as within the Regional Innovation Engines under section 19108 of this title and test beds under section 19110 of this title.

(2) The activities of the Department of Commerce under this division, including regional technology hubs under section 3722a of title 15, as added by section 10621, the Manufacturing USA Program established under section 278s(b)(1) of title 15, and the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (15 U.S.C. 278k).

(3) The activities of the Department of Energy in the key technology focus areas, including at the national laboratories, and at Federal laboratories, as defined in section 3703 of title 15, and facilities and user facilities operated in partnership with such national laboratories or the Department of Energy.

(4) Any other program that the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy determines involves research and development with respect to the key technology focus areas.

(d) Report

The interagency working group shall—

(1) by not later than 180 days after August 9, 2022—

(A) conduct an initial review of Federal programs and resources with respect to the key technology focus areas identified pursuant to section 19107(a)(2) of this title, in order to—

(i) assess current level of efforts and characterize existing research infrastructure, as of the date of the review;

(ii) identify potential areas of overlap or duplication with respect to the key technology focus areas; and

(iii) identify potential cross-agency collaborations and joint funding opportunities; and 1


(B) submit a report regarding the review described in subparagraph (A) to Congress; and

(C) seek stakeholder input and recommendations in the course of such review; and


(2) shall 2 carry out the annual reviews and updates required under section 19107(e) of this title.

(e) Conflicts

If any conflicts between Federal agencies arise while carrying out the activities under this section, the President shall make the final decision regarding resolution of the conflict.

(Pub. L. 117–167, div. B, title VI, §10651, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1682.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This division, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is div. B of Pub. L. 117–167, Aug. 9, 2022, 136 Stat. 1399, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of div. B to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18901 of this title and Tables.

Section 10621, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), means section 10621 of Pub. L. 117–167.

1 So in original. The word "and" probably should not appear.

2 So in original. The word "shall" probably should not appear.

Part E—Quantum Networking and Communications

§19261. Quantum networking and communications

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Director

The term "Director" means the Director of the National Science Foundation.

(2) Appropriate committees of Congress

The term "appropriate committees of Congress" has the meaning given such term in section 8801 of title 15.

(3) Q2work Program

The term "Q2Work Program" means the Q2Work Program supported by the Foundation.

(b), (c) Omitted

(d) Quantum information science workforce evaluation and acceleration

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 9, 2022, the Director shall enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to conduct a study to evaluate and make recommendations for the quantum information science workforce. The study shall—

(A) characterize the quantum information science workforce, including by—

(i) describing what constitutes a quantum information science qualified worker across sectors, including academia, the Federal Government, and industry; and

(ii) describing the size and makeup of the quantum information science workforce, including an assessment of current and future trends;


(B) identify near- and long-term quantum information science workforce needs across government, academia, and industry sectors, including identifying the cross-disciplinary academic degrees or academic courses necessary to—

(i) prepare students for multiple career pathways in quantum information sciences and related fields;

(ii) ensure the United States is competitive in the field of quantum information science while preserving national security; and

(iii) support the development of quantum applications;


(C) assess the state of quantum information science education and skills training at all education levels and identify gaps in meeting current and future workforce needs, including with respect to—

(i) elementary, middle, and high-school student access to foundational courses, age-appropriate quantum concepts, and hands-on learning opportunities;

(ii) elementary, middle, and high-school teacher professional development and access to resources, materials, lesson plans, modules, and curricula;

(iii) career pivot and skills training opportunities, including professional certificates and internships; and

(iv) higher education curricula, laboratory experiences in academia, the Federal Government, and industry settings, and cross-discipline degree programs aligned with workforce needs; and


(D) make recommendations for developing a diverse, flexible, and sustainable quantum information science workforce that meets the evolving needs of academia, the Federal Government, and industry.

(2) Report

Not later than two years after August 9, 2022, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine shall submit to Congress and the Director a report containing the results of the study conducted pursuant to paragraph (1).

(e) Omitted

(f) Quantum Education Pilot Program

(1) In general

Not later than one year after August 9, 2022, the Director, building on the National Science Foundation's role in the National Q–12 Education Partnership and programs such as Q2Work Program, shall make awards to institutions of higher education, non-profit organizations, or consortia thereof to carry out a pilot program, to be known as the "Next Generation Quantum Leaders Pilot Program" (in this subsection referred to as the "Program"), for the education and training of the next generation of students and teachers in the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics.

(2) Requirements

(A) In general

In carrying out the Program, the Director shall—

(i) encourage awardees to coordinate with educational service agencies (as such term "educational service agency" is defined in section 1401(5) of title 20), associations that support STEM educators or local educational agencies, and partnerships through the Q–12 Education Partnership, to encourage elementary schools, middle schools, and secondary schools, and State educational agencies to participate in the Program; 1

(ii) require that awardees partner with elementary schools, middle schools, or secondary schools, or consortia thereof, and State educational agencies, to carry out activities under the Program; 2

(B) Use of funds

In carrying out the Program, the Director shall make competitive, merit-reviewed awards to—

(i) support testing, evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of age-appropriate quantum information sciences curricula and resources, including the integration of quantum information science and engineering into the STEM curriculum pursuant to subsection (d) of section 8841 of title 15, as added by subsection (e);

(ii) support opportunities for informal education on quantum concepts, including informal hands-on learning opportunities;

(iii) support opportunities for students to further explore quantum information science education and related careers;

(iv) develop and implement training, research, and professional development programs for teachers, including innovative pre-service and in-service programs, in quantum information science and related fields; and

(v) carry out such other activities as the Director determines appropriate.

(C) Distribution

In carrying out the Program and to the extent practicable, the Director shall ensure there is a wide, equitable distribution of Program participants across diverse geographic areas and that the Program includes a diverse representation of students, including students from groups historically underrepresented in STEM.

(3) Consultation

The Director shall carry out the Program in consultation with the QIS Workforce Working Group of the Subcommittee on Quantum Information Science of the National Science and Technology Council and the Advancing Informal STEM Learning Program.

(4) Reporting

Not later than four years after August 9, 2022, the Director shall submit to Congress a report that