[USC05] 12 USC Ch. 23: FARM CREDIT SYSTEM
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

12 USC Ch. 23: FARM CREDIT SYSTEM
From Title 12—BANKS AND BANKING

CHAPTER 23—FARM CREDIT SYSTEM

Sec.
2001.
Congressional declaration of policy and objectives.
2002.
Farm Credit System.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—FARM CREDIT BANKS

2011.
Establishment, charters, titles, branches.
2012.
Board of directors.
2013.
General corporate powers.
2014.
Farm Credit Bank capitalization.
2015.
Lending authority.
2016.
Interest rates and other charges.
2017.
Eligibility.
2018.
Security; terms.
2019.
Purposes for extensions of credit.
2020.
Related services.
2021.
Loans through associations or agents.
2022.
Liens on stock.
2023.
Taxation.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—FARM CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS

Part A—Production Credit Associations

2071.
Organization and charters.
2072.
Board of directors.
2073.
General corporate powers.
2074.
Production credit association capitalization.
2075.
Short- and intermediate-term loans; participation; other financial assistance; terms; conditions; interest; security.
2076.
Other services.
2076a.
Liens on stock.
2077.
Taxation.

        

Part B—Federal Land Bank Associations

2091.
Organizations; articles; charters; powers of the Farm Credit Administration.
2092.
Board of directors.
2093.
General corporate powers.
2094.
Federal land bank association capitalization.
2095.
Repealed.
2096.
Agreements for sharing gains or losses.
2097.
Liens on stock.
2098.
Taxation.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—BANKS FOR COOPERATIVES

Part A—Banks for Cooperatives

2121.
Establishment; titles; branches.
2122.
Corporate existence; general corporate powers.
2123.
Board of directors.
2124.
Stock of banks for cooperatives.
2125.
Dividends.
2126.
Retirement of stock.
2127.
Guaranty fund subscriptions in lieu of stock.
2128.
Loans, commitments, and technical and financial assistance.
2129.
Eligibility.
2130.
Ownership of stock by borrowers.
2131.
Loans.
2132.
Earnings and reserves; application of savings.
2133.
Distribution of assets on liquidation or dissolution.
2134.
Taxation.

        

Part B—National Banks for Cooperatives

2141.
Charter, powers, and operation.
2142.
Repealed.
2143.
Credit delivery office.
2144.
Consolidation of functions.
2145.
Exchange of ownership interests.
2146.
Capitalization.
2147.
Patronage pools.
2148.
Transactions to accomplish merger.
2149.
Lending limits.
2149a.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO TWO OR MORE CLASSES OF INSTITUTIONS OF THE SYSTEM

Part A—Funding

2151.
Repealed.
2152.
Repealed.
2153.
Power to borrow; issuance of notes, bonds, debentures, and other obligations.
2154.
Capital adequacy of banks and institutions.
2154a.
Capitalization of System institutions.
2155.
Liability of banks; United States not liable.
2156.
Repealed.
2157.
Bonds as investments.
2158.
Purchase and sale by Federal Reserve System.
2159.
Purchase and sale of obligations.
2160.
Federal Farm Credit Banks Funding Corporation.
2161.
Repealed.
2162.
Protection of borrower stock.

        

Part B—Dissolution

2181, 2182.
Repealed.
2183.
Dissolution; voluntary or involuntary liquidation; mergers; receiverships or conservators.
2184.
Communications with stockholders.

        

Part C—Rights of Borrowers; Loan Restructuring

2199.
Disclosure.
2200.
Access to documents and information.
2201.
Notice of action on application.
2202.
Reconsideration of actions.
2202a.
Restructuring distressed loans.
2202b.
Effect of restructuring on borrower stock.
2202c.
Repealed.
2202d.
Protection of borrowers who meet all loan obligations.
2202e.
Waiver of mediation rights by borrowers.

        

Part D—Activities of Institutions of the System

2203.
Nomination of association directors; representative selection of nominees.
2204.
Repealed.
2205.
Interest rates.
2206.
Participation loans.
2206a.
Authority of Farm Credit Banks and direct lender associations to participate in loans to similar entities for risk management purposes.
2207.
Young, beginning, and small farmers and ranchers.
2208.
Prohibition against use of signed ballots.
2209.
Repealed.

        

Part E—Service Organizations

2211.
Establishment.
2212.
Powers of Farm Credit Administration.
2213.
Regulation and examination.
2214.
State laws.
2214a.
"Bank" defined.

        

Part D1—Farm Credit System Capital Corporation

2216 to 2216k.
Repealed.

        

Part F—Sale of Insurance

2218.
Lines of insurance.

        

Part G—Miscellaneous

2219.
Limitation on separate sale.
2219a.
Right of first refusal.
2219b.
Application of uninsured accounts.
2219c.
Affirmative action.
2219d.
Encouragement of conservation practices.
2219e.
Liability for making criminal referrals.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION

Part A—District Organization

2221 to 2227.
Transferred or Repealed.

        

Part B—Farm Credit Administration Organization

2241.
Farm Credit Administration.
2242.
Farm Credit Administration Board.
2243.
Powers of Board.
2244.
Chairman; responsibilities; governing standards.
2245.
Organization of Farm Credit Administration.
2246.
Advisory committees.
2247.
Repealed.
2248.
Seal of the Farm Credit Administration.
2249.
Administrative expenses.
2250.
Farm Credit Administration operating expenses fund.
2251.
Quarters and facilities for the Farm Credit Administration.
2252.
Powers and duties.
2253.
Repealed.
2254.
Examinations.
2255.
Conditions of other banks and lending institutions.
2256.
Consent to the availability of reports and to examinations.
2257.
Reports on conditions of institutions receiving loans or deposits.
2257a.
Uniform financial reporting instructions.
2258.
Jurisdiction.
2259.
State legislation.
2260.
Transferred.

        

Part C—Enforcement Powers of Farm Credit Administration

2261.
Cease and desist proceedings.
2262.
Temporary cease and desist orders.
2263.
Enforcement of temporary cease and desist orders.
2264.
Suspension or removal of director or officer.
2265.
Suspension or removal of director or officer charged with felony.
2265a.
Removal and prohibition authority; industry-wide prohibition.
2266.
Hearings and judicial review.
2267.
Jurisdiction and enforcement.
2267a.
Jurisdiction over institution-affiliated parties.
2268.
Penalty.
2269.
Further penalties.
2270.
Replacement of suspended or removed directors.
2271.
Definitions.
2272.
Notice of service.
2273.
Ancillary provisions; subpena power; etc.
2274.
Power to remove directors and officers.

        

Part D—Miscellaneous

2275.
Repealed.
2275a.
Transition rules relating to amendment of certain FCA approval authorities.
2276.
Access to and examination by Comptroller General of books, documents, etc., of farm credit system banks and institutions.

        

Part E—Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation

2277a.
Definitions.
2277a–1.
Establishment of Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.
2277a–2.
Board of Directors.
2277a–3.
Commencement of insurance.
2277a–4.
Premiums.
2277a–5.
Certification of premiums.
2277a–6.
Overpayment and underpayment of premiums; remedies.
2277a–7.
General corporate powers.
2277a–8.
Conduct of corporate affairs; examination of System institutions.
2277a–9.
Insurance Fund.
2277a–10.
Powers of Corporation with respect to troubled insured System banks.
2277a–10a.
Oversight actions by Corporation.
2277a–10b.
Authority to regulate golden parachute and indemnification payments.
2277a–10c.
Corporation as conservator or receiver; certain other powers.
2277a–11.
Investment of funds.
2277a–12.
Exemption from taxation.
2277a–13.
Omitted.
2277a–14.
Prohibitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—ASSISTANCE TO FARM CREDIT SYSTEM

2278a to 2278b–11. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—RESTRUCTURING OF SYSTEM INSTITUTIONS

Part A—Merger of Banks Within a District

2279a.
Power to merge.
2279a–1.
Board of directors.
2279a–2.
Powers of merged banks.
2279a–3.
Capitalization.
2279a–4, 2279a–5. Repealed or Transferred.

        

Part B—Mergers, Transfers of Assets, and Powers of Associations Within a District

subpart 1—transfers by federal land banks to federal land bank associations

2279b.
Transfer of lending authority.
2279c.
Equalization of loan-making powers of certain district associations.

        

subpart 2—merger of like and unlike associations

2279c–1.
Merger of associations.

        

subpart 3—reconsideration

2279c–2.
Reconsideration.

        

subpart 4—termination and dissolution of institutions

2279d.
Termination of System institution status.

        

Part C—Approval of Disclosure Information and Issuance of Charters by the Farm Credit Administration Board

2279e.
Approval of disclosure information and issuance of charters.

        

Part D—Mergers of Like Entities

2279f.
Merger of similar banks.
2279f–1.
Merger of similar associations.

        

Part E—Taxation of Merger Transactions

2279g.
Transactions to accomplish mergers exempt from certain State taxes.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE SECONDARY MARKET

2279aa.
Definitions.

        

Part A—Establishment and Activities of Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation

2279aa–1.
Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation.
2279aa–2.
Board of directors.
2279aa–3.
Powers and duties of Corporation and Board.
2279aa–4.
Stock issuance.
2279aa–5.
Certification of agricultural mortgage marketing facilities.
2279aa–6.
Guarantee of qualified loans.
2279aa–7.
Repealed.
2279aa–8.
Standards for qualified loans.
2279aa–9.
Exemption from restructuring and borrowers rights provisions for pooled loans.
2279aa–10.
Funding for guarantee; reserves of Corporation.
2279aa–11.
Supervision, examination, and report of condition.
2279aa–12.
Securities in credit enhanced pools.
2279aa–13.
Authority to issue obligations to cover guarantee losses of Corporation.
2279aa–14.
Federal jurisdiction.

        

Part B—Regulation of Financial Safety and Soundness of Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation

2279bb.
Definitions.
2279bb–1.
Risk-based capital levels.
2279bb–2.
Minimum capital level.
2279bb–3.
Critical capital level.
2279bb–4.
Enforcement levels.
2279bb–5.
Mandatory actions applicable to level II.
2279bb–6.
Supervisory actions applicable to level III.
2279bb–7.
Repealed.

        

Part C—Receivership, Conservatorship, and Liquidation of Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation

2279cc.
Conservatorship; liquidation; receivership.

        

§2001. Congressional declaration of policy and objectives

(a) It is declared to be the policy of the Congress, recognizing that a prosperous, productive agriculture is essential to a free nation and recognizing the growing need for credit in rural areas, that the farmer-owned cooperative Farm Credit System be designed to accomplish the objective of improving the income and well-being of American farmers and ranchers by furnishing sound, adequate, and constructive credit and closely related services to them, their cooperatives, and to selected farm-related businesses necessary for efficient farm operations.

(b) It is the objective of this chapter to continue to encourage farmer- and rancher-borrowers participation in the management, control, and ownership of a permanent system of credit for agriculture which will be responsive to the credit needs of all types of agricultural producers having a basis for credit, and to modernize and improve the authorizations and means for furnishing such credit and credit for housing in rural areas made available through the institutions constituting the Farm Credit System as herein provided.

(c) It is declared to be the policy of Congress that the credit needs of farmers, ranchers, and their cooperatives are best served if the institutions of the Farm Credit System provide equitable and competitive interest rates to eligible borrowers, taking into consideration the creditworthiness and access to alternative sources of credit for borrowers, the cost of funds, the operating costs of the institution, including the costs of any loan loss amortization under section 2254(b)1 of this title, the cost of servicing loans, the need to retain earnings to protect borrowers' stock, and the volume of net new borrowing. Further, it is declared to be the policy of Congress that Farm Credit System institutions take action in accordance with the Farm Credit Act Amendments of 1986 in such manner that borrowers from the institutions derive the greatest benefit practicable from that Act: Provided, That in no case is any borrower to be charged a rate of interest that is below competitive market rates for similar loans made by private lenders to borrowers of equivalent creditworthiness and access to alternative credit.

(Pub. L. 92–181, §1.1, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 583; Pub. L. 99–509, title I, §1032, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1877; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(1), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4679.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 2254(b) of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was amended by Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(31)(B)(ii)(II), (iii), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4683. Section 5411(31)(B)(ii)(II) of Pub. L. 115–334 amended section 2254(b) of this title by striking out the third sentence of par. (1), which read as follows: "Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding sentence and any other provision of this chapter, for the period July 1, 1986, through December 31, 1988, the institutions of the Farm Credit System may, on the prior approval of the Farm Credit Administration and subject to such conditions as it may establish, capitalize annually their provision for losses that is in excess of one-half of 1 percent of loans outstanding and amortize such capitalized amounts over a period not to exceed 20 years." Section 5411(31)(B)(iii) of Pub. L. 115–334 amended section 2254(b) of this title in part by striking out par. (2), which read as follows: "In accordance with the regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, for the period ending December 31, 1992, System institutions are authorized to use the authorities contained in the third sentence of paragraph (1) except as otherwise provided in section 2278a–6 of this title."

The Farm Credit Act Amendments of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c), is subtitle D of Pub. L. 99–509, title I, §§1031–1037, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1877, which amended sections 2001, 2015, 2075, 2131, 2159, 2205, 2252, and 2254 of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note below. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note below and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–334 struck out "including any costs of defeasance under section 2159(b) of this title," after "the cost of funds," in first sentence.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–509 added subsec. (c).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–205, title IV, §401, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1709, provided that: "The provisions of titles I, II, III, and VI of this Act [enacting sections 2152, 2161, 2199, 2200, 2216 to 2216k, 2219, 2219a, 2253, 2261 to 2273 of this title and provisions set out as notes under section 2001 of this title, amending sections 2002, 2012, 2013, 2031, 2033, 2034, 2051, 2052, 2054, 2072 to 2074, 2077, 2078, 2091, 2093 to 2096, 2098, 2122 to 2126, 2132 to 2134, 2151, 2153 to 2156, 2182, 2183, 2201, 2202, 2205, 2206, 2211 to 2213, 2221 to 2223, 2227, 2241 to 2246, 2248 to 2252, and 2254 of this title, and repealing sections 2152, 2247, and 2253 of this title] shall become effective thirty days after enactment [Dec. 23, 1985]."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–105, §1(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 162, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 2214a, 2219e, 2277a–10a, 2277a–10b, 2279bb–7, and 2279cc of this title, amending sections 2013, 2018, 2020, 2129, 2154a, 2199, 2202a, 2252, 2254, 2277a, 2277a–2, 2277a–4, 2277a–5, 2277a–7, 2277a–8, 2277a–10, 2279aa, 2279aa–1, 2279aa–3, 2279aa–5, 2279aa–6, 2279aa–8, 2279aa–9, 2279aa–11 to 2279aa–13, 2279bb–1 to 2279bb–4 of this title, sections 5314 and 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 1999 of Title 7, Agriculture, repealing section 2279aa–7 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 2013 and 2252 of this title] may be cited as the 'Farm Credit System Reform Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–376, §1, Oct. 19, 1994, 108 Stat. 3497, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 2206a of this title and amending sections 2122, 2128, and 2129 of this title] may be cited as the 'Farm Credit System Agricultural Export and Risk Management Act'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–552, §1(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4102, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Farm Credit Banks and Associations Safety and Soundness Act of 1992'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–399, §1, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 989, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Credit Technical Corrections Act of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–233, §1(a), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1568, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Credit Act of 1987'."

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–509, title I, §1031, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1877, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle D (§§1031–1037) of title I of Pub. L. 99–509, amending sections 2001, 2015, 2075, 2131, 2159, 2205, 2252, and 2254 of this title] may be cited as the 'Farm Credit Act Amendments of 1986'."

Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–205, §1, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1678, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 2152, 2161, 2199, 2200, 2216 to 2216k, 2219, 2219a, 2253, 2261 to 2273 of this title and provisions set out as notes under this section and section 2241 of this title, amending sections 2002, 2012, 2013, 2031, 2033, 2034, 2051, 2052, 2054, 2072 to 2074, 2077, 2078, 2091, 2093 to 2096, 2098, 2122 to 2126, 2132 to 2134, 2151, 2153 to 2156, 2182, 2183, 2201, 2202, 2205, 2206, 2211 to 2213, 2221 to 2223, 2227, 2241 to 2246, 2248 to 2252, and 2254 of this title, and repealing sections 2152, 2247, and 2253 of this title] may be cited as the 'Farm Credit Amendments Act of 1985'."

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–592, §1, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3437, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 2205 to 2208, 2211 to 2214, 2218, and 2260 of this title and amending sections 1141b, 2012 to 2020, 2033, 2034, 2051 to 2054, 2072 to 2077, 2091, 2093, 2094, 2096, 2097, 2122, 2124, 2126, 2128 to 2132, 2156, 2181, 2221, 2223, 2242, 2244, 2249, 2251, and 2252 of this title and section 3802 of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the 'Farm Credit Act Amendments of 1980'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 92–181, §1, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 583, provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter and provisions set out as notes under this section, amending sections 5314 and 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 393 of this title, and repealing section 636 et seq. of this title] may be cited as the 'Farm Credit Act of 1971'."

Regulations

Pub. L. 104–105, title III, §301, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 185, provided that: "The Secretary of Agriculture and the Farm Credit Administration shall promulgate regulations and take other required actions to implement the provisions of this Act [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note above] not later than 90 days after the effective date of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996]."

Pub. L. 100–233, title IX, §901, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1717, as amended by Pub. L. 100–399, title VIII, §801, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1006, provided that:

"(a) Issuance of Regulations.—

"(1) Authority.—The Farm Credit Administration Board shall issue such regulations as the Board considers necessary for the orderly and efficient implementation of the provisions of, and the amendments made by, this Act [see Tables for classification] relating to the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.).

"(2) Timing.—To the extent the Farm Credit Administration is required to issue regulations to implement this Act and the amendments made by this Act, the Farm Credit Administration shall issue such regulations as expeditiously as possible, and, except as otherwise provided in this Act, not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 1988].

"(b) Temporary Retention of Certain Regulations.—

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the regulations issued by the Farm Credit Administration before the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 1988] under provisions amended by this Act shall remain in effect, notwithstanding such amendments, until the Farm Credit Administration issues regulations to implement such amendments, but in no event later than 180 days after such date of enactment.

"(2) Certain regulations relating to borrowers' rights.—The regulations implementing, interpreting, or applying part C of title IV (12 U.S.C. 2201 et seq.) [12 U.S.C. 2199 et seq.] (other than section 4.13(a) [12 U.S.C. 2199(a)]) (in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act), to the extent that such regulations are not contrary to this Act and the amendments made by this Act, shall remain in effect until January 1, 1989.

"(3) Regulations relating to disclosure by banks and associations.—Any regulation issued or approved by the Farm Credit Administration that implements, interprets, or applies section 4.13(a) (12 U.S.C. 2201(a) [12 U.S.C. 2199(a)]) (in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act) shall remain in effect for 120 days after such date of enactment."

Repeals

Pub. L. 92–181, which enacted this chapter, represents a complete rewriting of the farm credit laws and a fundamental reworking of the statutory basis for the farm credit system. In connection with such reworking of material, the existing statutory provisions covering this area were repealed and their substance revised, reenacted, and expanded by Pub. L. 92–181.

The repealed provisions constituted the bulk of chapter 7 of this title. Pub. L. 92–181, §5.40(a), formerly §5.26(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 624, renumbered §5.40(a), by Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703, enumerated the repealed statutes as follows: The Federal Farm Loan Act, as amended; section 2 of the Act of March 10, 1924 (Public Numbered 35, Sixty-eighth Congress, 43 Stat. 17), as amended; section 6 of the Act of January 23, 1932 (Public Numbered 3, Seventy-second Congress, 47 Stat. 14), as amended; the Farm Credit Act of 1933, as amended; sections 29 and 40 of the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act of 1933; Act of June 18, 1934 (Public Numbered 381, Seventy-third Congress, 48 Stat. 983); Act of June 4, 1936 (Public Numbered 644, Seventy-fourth Congress, 49 Stat. 1461), as amended; sections 5, 6, 20, 25(b) and 39 of the Farm Credit Act of 1937, as amended; sections 601 and 602 of the Act of September 21, 1944 (Public Law 425, Seventy-eighth Congress, 58 Stat. 740, 741), as amended; sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 16, and 17(b) of the Farm Credit Act of 1953, as amended; sections 2, 101, and 201(b) of the Farm Credit Act of 1956.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 92–181, §5.40(b), formerly §5.26(b), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 625, renumbered §5.40(b), Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703, provided that: "All regulations of the Farm Credit Administration or the institutions of the System and all charters, bylaws, resolutions, stock classifications, and policy directives issued or approved by the Farm Credit Administration, and all elections held and appointments made under the Acts repealed by subsection (a) of this section [see Repeals note above] shall be continuing and remain valid until superseded, modified, or replaced under the authority of this Act [this chapter]. All stock, notes, bonds, debentures, and other obligations issued under the repealed acts shall be valid and enforceable upon the terms and conditions under which they were issued, including the pledge of collateral against which they were issued, and all loans made and security or collateral therefor held by, and all contracts entered into by, institutions of the System shall remain enforceable according to their terms unless and until modified in accordance with the provisions of this Act; it being the purpose of this subsection to avoid disruption in the effective operation of the System by reason of said repeals."

Separability

Pub. 92–181, §5.42, formerly §5.28, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 625, renumbered §5.42, Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [this chapter], or the application thereof to any persons or in any circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of this Act and the application of such provision to other persons or in other circumstances shall not be affected thereby."

References to Earlier Farm Credit Acts

Pub. L. 92–181, §5.40(a), formerly §5.26(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 624, renumbered §5.40(a), Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703, provided in part that: "All references in other legislation, State or Federal, rules and regulations of any agency, stock, contracts, deeds, security instruments, bonds, debentures, notes, mortgages and other documents of the institutions of the System, to the Acts repealed hereby [see Repeals note above], shall be deemed to refer to comparable provisions of this Act [this chapter]."

Reservation of Right To Amend or Repeal

Pub. 92–181, §5.43, formerly §5.29, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 625, renumbered §5.43, Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703, provided that: "The right to alter, amend, or repeal any provision or all of this Act [this chapter] is expressly reserved."

Study on Demand for and Availability of Credit in Rural Areas for Agriculture, Housing, and Rural Development

Pub. L. 104–127, title VI, §650, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1105, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct a study and report to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate on the demand for and availability of credit in rural areas for agriculture, housing, and rural development.

"(b) Purpose.—The purpose of the study shall be to ensure that Congress has current and comprehensive information to consider as Congress deliberates on rural credit needs and the availability of credit to satisfy the needs of rural areas of the United States.

"(c) Items in Study.—In conducting the study, the Secretary shall base the study on the most current available data and analyze—

"(1) rural demand for credit from the Farm Credit System, the ability of the Farm Credit System to meet the demand, and the extent to which the Farm Credit System provides loans to satisfy the demand;

"(2) rural demand for credit from the United States banking system, the ability of banks to meet the demand, and the extent to which banks provide loans to satisfy the demand;

"(3) rural demand for credit from the Secretary, the ability of the Secretary to meet the demand, and the extent to which the Secretary provides loans to satisfy the demand;

"(4) rural demand for credit from other Federal agencies, the ability of the agencies to meet the demand, and the extent to which the agencies provide loans to satisfy the demand;

"(5) what measure or measures exist to gauge the overall demand for rural credit, the extent to which rural demand for credit is satisfied, and what the measures have demonstrated;

"(6) a comparison of the interest rates and terms charged by the Farm Credit System Farm Credit Banks, production credit associations, and banks for cooperatives with the rates and terms charged by the banks of the United States for credit of comparable risk and maturity;

"(7) the advantages and disadvantages of the modernization and expansion proposals of the Farm Credit System on the Farm Credit System, the United States banking system, rural users of credit, local rural communities, and the Federal Government, including—

"(A) any added risk to the safety and soundness of the Farm Credit System that may result from approval of a proposal; and

"(B) any positive or adverse impacts on competition between the Farm Credit System and the banks of the United States in providing credit to rural users;

"(8) the nature and extent of the unsatisfied rural credit need that the Farm Credit System proposals are supposed to address and what aspects of the present Farm Credit System prevent the Farm Credit System from meeting the need;

"(9) the advantages and disadvantages of the proposal by commercial bankers to allow banks access to the Farm Credit System as a funding source on the Farm Credit System, the United States banking system, rural users of credit, local rural communities, and the Federal Government, including—

"(A) any added risk to the safety and soundness of the Farm Credit System that may result from approval of the proposal; and

"(B) any positive or adverse impacts on competition between the Farm Credit System and the banks of the United States in providing credit to rural users; and

"(10) problems that commercial banks have in obtaining capital for lending in rural areas, how access to Farm Credit System funds would improve the availability of capital in rural areas in ways that cannot be achieved in the system in existence on the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 4, 1996], and the possible effects on the viability of the Farm Credit System of granting banks access to Farm Credit System funds.

"(d) Interagency Task Force.—In completing the study, the Secretary shall use, among other things, data and information obtained by the interagency task force on rural credit."

GAO Study of Rural Credit Cost and Availability

Pub. L. 101–624, title XVIII, §1842, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3835, directed Comptroller General of the United States to conduct a study relating to cost and availability of credit in rural America and, not later than 2 years after Nov. 28, 1990, submit a report to Committee on Agriculture of House of Representatives and Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of Senate.

Authorization of Appropriations for National Commission on Agricultural Finance and National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy

Pub. L. 100–71, title V, §519(b), July 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 475, authorized and appropriated (1) for National Commission on Agricultural Finance established under section 501 of Pub. L. 99–205, $100,000, to remain available until expended, and (2) for National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development [Policy] established under section 5002 of this title, $100,000, to remain available until expended.

Loan Review by Local Lending Institutions

Pub. L. 99–205, title III, §307, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1709, required each local lending institution of Farm Credit System established under this chapter to (1) review each loan that had been placed in non-accrual status by such institution to determine whether such loan could be restructured based on changes in circumstances of such institution as the result of this Act and the amendments made by this Act, and (2) notify in writing borrower of each such loan of provisions of this section.

National Commission on Agricultural Finance

Pub. L. 99–205, title V, §501, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1710, directed President to appoint a National Commission on Agricultural Finance, comprised of 15 members, representing the financial community, the agricultural sector, and government, to conduct a study of methods to ensure availability of adequate credit to agricultural producers and agribusiness, taking into account long-term financing needs of agricultural economy, roles of commercial banks, Farm Credit System, and Farmers Home Administration in meeting those financial needs, with the Commission, in conducting such study, to (1) evaluate financial circumstances relative to both lenders and borrowers of farm credit, (2) evaluate structure, performance, and conduct of private lenders—commercial bankers and Farm Credit System—and public lenders, (3) explore need for long-term assistance in stabilizing value of agricultural assets, and (4) evaluate effect on suppliers, producers, processors, and local communities when financial institutions fail, and not later than Dec. 23, 1986, to submit to Congress a report containing results of study, together with comments and recommendations for legislation providing for a sound, reasonable, and primarily self-supporting credit program for farmers and ranchers as Commission considers appropriate.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2002. Farm Credit System

(a) Composition

The Farm Credit System shall include the Farm Credit Banks, the bank for cooperatives, Agricultural Credit Banks, the Federal Land Bank Associations, the Federal Land Credit Associations, the Production Credit Associations, the agricultural credit associations, the Federal Farm Credit Banks Funding Corporation, the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation, service corporations established pursuant to section 2211 of this title, and such other institutions as may be made a part of the Farm Credit System, all of which shall be chartered by and subject to regulation by the Farm Credit Administration.

(b) Farm credit districts

There shall be not more than twelve farm credit districts in the United States, which may be designated by number, one of which districts shall include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and one of which districts may, if authorized by the Farm Credit Administration, include the Virgin Islands of the United States: Provided, That the extension of credit and other services authorized by this chapter in the Virgin Islands of the United States shall be undertaken only if determined to be feasible under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration. The boundaries of the twelve farm credit districts existing on December 10, 1971, may be readjusted from time to time by the Farm Credit Administration, with the concurrence of the boards of the banks in each district involved. Two or more districts may be merged as provided in section 2252(a)(2) of this title.

(Pub. L. 92–181, §1.2, formerly §§1.2, 5.0, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 583, 614; Pub. L. 96–592, title V, §501, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3448; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(c), (g)(1), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703, 1706; Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §434, title VIII, §805(a), (v), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1662, 1715, 1716; Pub. L. 100–399, title IX, §901(q)–(s), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1008; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(2), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4679.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Pub. L. 100–399, §901(r), transferred section 5.0 of Pub. L. 92–181, which was classified to section 2221 of this title, to subsec. (b) of this section.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–334 added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Farm Credit System shall include the the Farm Credit Banks, the Federal land bank associations, the production credit associations, the banks for cooperatives, and such other institutions as may be made a part of the System, all of which shall be chartered by and subject to regulation by the Farm Credit Administration."

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–399, §901(s), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and substituted "regulation" for "the regulation".

Pub. L. 100–233, §434, amended provisions generally. Prior to amendment, provisions read as follows: "The Farm Credit System shall include the Federal land banks, the Federal land bank associations, the Federal intermediate credit banks, the production credit associations, the banks for cooperatives, and such other institutions as may be made a part of the System, all of which shall be chartered by and subject to regulation by the Farm Credit Administration."

Pub. L. 100–233, §805(a), substituted "subject to regulation" for "subject to the regulation".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–399, §901(q), (r), designated section 2221 of this title as subsec. (b), inserted heading, and substituted "boards of the banks in each district" for "district boards".

Pub. L. 100–233, §805(v), substituted "section 2252(a)(2) of this title" for "section 2252(2) of this title".

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–205, §205(c), substituted "regulation by" for "supervision of".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–205, §205(g)(1), substituted "Farm Credit Administration" for "Federal Farm Credit Board" in first and second sentences, and made a technical amendment to reference to section 2252(2) of this title to reflect the renumbering of the corresponding section of the original act.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–592 inserted provisions relating to Virgin Islands of the United States.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–399, title X, §1001, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1008, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if enacted immediately after the enactment of the 1987 Act [Pub. L. 100–233, which was enacted Jan. 6, 1988].

"(b) Exceptions.—The amendments made by sections 102(b), 102(f), 102(g), 102(h), 201(q), 302(c), 302(d), 302(e), 401, 402(b), 409(d), 411, 414, and 901 (other than by subsections (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), and (g) thereof) of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect immediately after the amendment made by section 401 of the 1987 Act takes effect [section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988]."

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §434, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1662, provided in part that the amendment of this section by section 434 of Pub. L. 100–233 is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–205 effective thirty days after Dec. 23, 1985, see section 401 of Pub. L. 99–205, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

Consolidation of District Farm Credit Banks

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §412, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1638, as amended by Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §404, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999, provided that:

"(a) Submission of Proposal.—

"(1) Special committee.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988], a special committee shall be selected pursuant to regulations of the Farm Credit Administration for the purpose of developing a proposal for the consolidation of Farm Credit System districts.

"(B) Composition.—The special committee selected under subparagraph (A) shall be composed of one representative from each Farm Credit Bank board and the members of the Board of Directors of the Assistance Board.

"(2) Development of proposal.—Not later than 6 months after the formation of the special committee, the committee shall develop a proposal to consolidate the Farm Credit Banks into no less than six financially viable Farm Credit Banks through inter-district mergers.

"(3) Report.—Not later than the end of each calendar quarter beginning at least 6 months after the selection of the special committee, such committee shall prepare and submit, to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, a report on the progress of the committee in developing a proposal under this subsection.

"(b) Prerequisites to Consolidation.—

"(1) FCA review of proposal.—Prior to the submission of the proposal developed under subsection (a)(2) to the stockholders under paragraph (3), the proposal together with all information to be presented to the stockholders, shall be submitted to the Farm Credit Administration for approval.

"(2) Prerequisites.—The proposal developed under subsection (a)(2) shall not be submitted to stockholders under paragraph (3) unless the proposal is approved by—

"(A) a majority of the members of the Board of Directors of the Assistance Board; and

"(B) the members of the special committee that represent the districts affected by the terms of the proposal.

"(3) Submission to stockholders.—Not later than the end of the 18-month period after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 1988], each Farm Credit Bank involved, in consultation with the special committee, shall submit the proposed merger affecting such bank to the voting stockholders of each such bank.

"(4) Stockholder vote.—Each association shall be entitled to cast a number of votes equal to the number of voting stockholders of such association."

[For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in section 412(a)(3) of Pub. L. 100–233, set out above, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 166 of House Document No. 103–7.]

Applicability of Laws Enacted After January 1, 1960

Pub. L. 86–168, title II, §203(b), Aug. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 390, provided that: "Any Act of Congress enacted after the effective date of this title [Jan. 1, 1960] and which states that it shall be applicable to agencies or instrumentalities of the United States or to corporations controlled or owned, in whole or in part, by the United States, or to officers and employees of the United States or such agencies or instrumentalities or corporations, shall not be applicable to a Federal land bank, Federal intermediate credit bank, or bank for cooperatives, or to its directors, officers, or employees unless such Act specifically so provides by naming such banks."

SUBCHAPTER I—FARM CREDIT BANKS


Editorial Notes

Codification

Title I of the Farm Credit Act of 1971, comprising this subchapter, was originally enacted by Pub. L. 92–181, title I, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 583, and amended by Pub. L. 96–592, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3437; Pub. L. 99–205, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 99–509, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 100–233, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1568. Such title is shown herein, however, as having been added by Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, without reference to such intervening amendments because of the extensive revision of the title's provisions by Pub. L. 100–233.

§2011. Establishment, charters, titles, branches

(a) Establishment

The banks established pursuant to the merger of each District Federal Intermediate Credit Bank and Federal Land Bank (hereinafter referred to in this subchapter as "Farm Credit Banks"), as provided in section 410 of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987, shall be Federally chartered instrumentalities of the United States.

(b) Charters

The Farm Credit Administration shall, consistent with this chapter, issue charters for, and approve amendments to charters of, the Farm Credit Banks.

(c) Title

Each Farm Credit Bank may include in its title the name of the city in which it is located or other geographical designation.

(d) Branches

Each Farm Credit Bank may establish such branches or other offices as may be appropriate for the effective operation of its business.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.3, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(a), (b), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 995.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 410 of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987, referred to in subsec. (a), is section 410 of Pub. L. 100–233, which is set out as a note below.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2011, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.3, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 583; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(a), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1710, related to establishment, title, and branches of Federal land banks prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(a), inserted ", as provided in section 410 of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987," before "shall".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "The charters or organization certificates of Farm Credit Banks may be modified from time to time by the Farm Credit Administration Board, not inconsistent with the provisions of this subchapter, as may be necessary or expedient to implement this chapter."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

Long-Term Lending Authority of Farm Credit Bank of Texas With Respect to States of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi

Pub. L. 102–552, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4128, as amended by Pub. L. 110–234, title V, §5407(c)(3), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1160; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title V, §5407(c)(3), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1922, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law (except section 7.7 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2279c]), the Farm Credit Bank of Texas may act in accordance with the exclusive charter of the bank, as amended by the Farm Credit Administration on February 7, 1989, and effective February 9, 1989 (except to the extent that the charter may be further amended by the Farm Credit Administration in accordance with its general authorities under the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.).

"(2) Effective date.—Paragraph (1) shall take effect as if such paragraph had become law on February 7, 1989."

Mandatory Merger of System Institutions

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §410, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1637, as amended by Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §402, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999; Pub. L. 102–552, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4116; Pub. L. 110–234, title V, §5407(c)(2), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1160; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title V, §5407(c)(2), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1922, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988], the Federal land bank and the Federal intermediate credit bank of each Farm Credit System district shall merge into a Farm Credit Bank in such district pursuant to a plan of merger agreed on by the Boards of Directors of such banks and approved by the Farm Credit Administration, or if such banks fail to agree, a plan of merger prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration. The mergers required by this section shall be implemented without regard to title VII [enacting sections 2279aa to 2279aa–14 of this title, amending sections 2012, 2033, 2072, and 2093 of this title, section 1988 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 9105 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2279aa of this title and section 1988 of Title 7].

"(b) Capital Stock.—Notwithstanding section 1.6 (as added by section 401 of this Act) [12 U.S.C. 2014], the number of shares of capital stock issued by a Farm Credit Bank to stockholders and other owners of the institution involved in the merger, and the rights and privileges of such shares (including voting power, redemption rights, preferences on liquidation, and the right to dividends) shall be determined by the plan of merger adopted by the merging banks, and shall be consistent with section 4.3A [12 U.S.C. 2154a] and the regulations issued by the Farm Credit Administration.

"(c) Assistance.—The Assistance Board established under section 6.0 [12 U.S.C. 2278a] shall direct the Financial Assistance Corporation established under section 6.20 [former 12 U.S.C. 2278b] to provide any Farm Credit Bank with that amount of financial assistance as is necessary to ensure that the stock of the Farm Credit Bank, upon implementation of the merger, has a book value equal to 75 percent of par, and such Farm Credit Bank shall be subject to all of the requirements of title VI of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2278a et seq.].

"(d) Initial Board.—Notwithstanding section 1.4 (as added by section 401 of this Act) [12 U.S.C. 2012], the initial board of each Farm Credit Bank shall be composed of the members of the district board (which is dissolved upon the creation of such bank) elected by the production credit associations, Federal land bank associations, and stockholders at large. Such initial board shall operate for such term as is agreed to by the members of the board, except that such period shall not exceed two years. Thereafter the board shall be elected and serve in accordance with the provisions of section 1.4 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2012].

"(e) Clarification of Authority Regarding Remaining Federal Intermediate Credit Bank.—

"(1) Negotiated merger.—

"(A) Requirement.—

"(i) In general.—Not later than June 30, 1993, except as provided in subparagraph (C), the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson (as chartered on the date of enactment of this subsection [Oct. 28, 1992]) shall merge with a Farm Credit Bank pursuant to the procedures prescribed by section 7.12 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2279f).

"(ii) Merger of entire bank.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (B), or any other provision of law, the Farm Credit Administration shall approve a merger of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson only if the Bank (as chartered on the date of enactment of this subsection [Oct. 28, 1992], except as provided in subparagraph (B)(ii)(II)(bb)) merges in its entirety with a Farm Credit Bank.

"(iii) Limited lending authority.—Notwithstanding any provision of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) (except section 7.7 of that Act [12 U.S.C. 2279c]), the Farm Credit Bank resulting from a merger under this subsection shall have only the lending authorities in the States of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi that the constituent banks exercised in such States immediately prior to the merger, except as may be provided in section 5.17(a)(2) of such Act (12 U.S.C. 2252(a)(2)).

"(B) Operating and merger authority.—

"(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson may operate subject to such provisions of part A of title II of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2071 et seq.] (as in effect immediately before the amendment made by section 401 took effect) and such provisions of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) (as in effect after the amendment), as the Farm Credit Administration deems appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection and such Act. This subparagraph shall take effect as if it had become law at the same time as the amendment made by section 401 and shall remain in effect until the Bank's merger with a Farm Credit Bank under this subsection, or July 1, 1994, whichever is sooner.

"(ii) Limitation on operating authority.—

     "(I) In general.—Notwithstanding clause (i) and subparagraph (A)(ii), the authority of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson to operate as provided under clause (i) shall expire, and the Farm Credit Administration shall revoke the Bank's charter, immediately on the Bank's merger with a Farm Credit Bank under this subsection, or July 1, 1994, whichever is sooner.

     "(II) District boundary modification.—Notwithstanding clause (i), the authority of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson shall not include the authority for the Bank to modify, nor shall the Farm Credit Administration approve such a modification to, the boundaries of the Fifth Farm Credit District to reaffiliate any portion of the District with another Farm Credit Bank, except—

"(aa) in the case of the merger of the entire Bank as an entity with a Farm Credit Bank such that the entire chartered territory of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson (except as provided in item (bb)) is merged with the Farm Credit Bank; and

"(bb) in the case of the reaffiliation of the Northwest Louisiana Production Credit Association with another farm credit district pursuant to the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations under such Act.

"(iii) Limitation on authority to merge.—

     "(I) In general.—Notwithstanding clause (i), the authority of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson to merge with a Farm Credit Bank as provided under clause (i) shall expire, and the Farm Credit Administration shall revoke the Bank's charter, immediately on the Bank's merger with a Farm Credit Bank under this subsection, or July 1, 1994, whichever is sooner.

     "(II) Bank integrity.—Notwithstanding clause (i), the authority of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson to merge with a Farm Credit Bank shall be limited to a merger of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson (as chartered on the date of enactment of this subsection [Oct. 28, 1992] to include the territory in the States of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, except as provided in clause (ii)(II)(bb)) as a whole entity such that the entire chartered territory of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson is merged with the Farm Credit Bank.

     "(III) Limitation.—Beginning on the date of an order issued by the Farm Credit Administration under subparagraph (D), the authority of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson to merge with a Farm Credit Bank shall be limited to the arbitrated merger provided for in paragraph (2).

"(C) Extension.—

"(i) Letter of intent.—If no later than June 30, 1993, the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson delivers to the Farm Credit Administration a letter of intent to merge with a Farm Credit Bank, summarizing the terms and conditions of the merger (including, but not limited to, board composition, capital structure, exchange, or transfer of equities, and termination) signed by the chief executive officer and the members of the boards of directors of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson and the Farm Credit Bank, the Farm Credit Administration shall, on its determination that the letter of intent represents a bona fide good faith agreement in principle between the two banks to merge, and that there is at least a reasonable prospect that the merger will be completed in an expeditious manner, grant a one-time extension, until a date certain not later than October 31, 1993, of the requirement under subparagraph (A). Any extension provided under this subparagraph may be conditioned on such terms and conditions as the Farm Credit Administration determines necessary to ensure that the merger described in the letter of intent is completed by the closing date of the extension.

"(ii) Compliance.—If the Farm Credit Administration grants an extension under clause (i), it shall issue an order under subparagraph (D) immediately if—

     "(I) the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson, or the Farm Credit Bank that is a signatory to the letter of intent under clause (i), provides written notification to the Farm Credit Administration that the bank does not intend to complete the merger described in the letter of intent;

     "(II) the Farm Credit Administration determines that the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson is not complying with any term or condition on which an extension under clause (i) was conditioned; or

     "(III) the Farm Credit Administration determines that the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson is not pursuing in good faith the merger provided for in the letter of intent.

 If the Farm Credit Administration issues an order under subparagraph (D) pursuant to this clause, the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson shall be deemed to have failed to comply with the requirements of subparagraph (A).

"(D) Failure to merge; issuance of order.—If the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson fails to comply, or notifies the Farm Credit Administration in writing that it does not intend to comply, with the requirements of subparagraph (A), the Farm Credit Administration shall, within 5 days after the date specified in subparagraph (A), or such other date specified by the Farm Credit Administration under subparagraph (C), issue, notwithstanding any other provision of law, an order requiring the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson to merge with the Farm Credit Bank of Texas in accordance with paragraph (2).

"(2) Arbitrated merger.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 30 days after the issuance of an order by the Farm Credit Administration under paragraph (1)(D), an arbitrator (or panel of arbitrators) shall be named by the American Arbitration Association in accordance with the Commercial Arbitration Rules of the American Arbitration Association to serve as the arbitrator referred to in this paragraph.

"(B) Duties.—The arbitrator shall determine the terms and conditions of the merger required under an order issued under paragraph (1)(D), such that the terms and conditions are fair and equitable to the two banks, their affiliated associations, the stockholders and borrowers of the associations, and the other institutions of the Farm Credit System, and are designed to protect or enhance the safety and soundness of the Farm Credit System. The arbitrator shall have the authority to hire staff and secure the services of consultants as necessary to discharge the duties of the arbitrator under this paragraph.

"(C) Expenses.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the compensation and expenses of the arbitrator, the fees and expenses of the American Arbitration Association, and any expenses associated with the referendum required under subparagraph (F) shall be paid from the Farm Credit Assistance Fund established under section 6.25 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2278b–5).

"(D) Development of merger plans.—

"(i) In general.—Not later than 100 days after the issuance of an order by the Farm Credit Administration under paragraph (1)(D), the arbitrator shall develop and submit for certification to the Farm Credit Administration a plan specifying the terms and conditions of the merger of the two banks required under this paragraph, such that the terms and conditions are fair and equitable to the two banks, their affiliated associations, the stockholders or farmer-borrowers of the associations, and the other institutions of the Farm Credit System, and are designed to protect or enhance the safety and soundness of the Farm Credit System. In devising the plan, the arbitrator shall, to the extent practicable, achieve the following objectives:

     "(I) Implementation of the preferences expressed by the affected and interested parties in submissions under clause (ii).

     "(II) Valuation of assets fairly, equitably, and consistently for all parties involved.

     "(III) Establishment of capitalization and funding terms in a manner that treats farmer-borrowers and stockholders in the two involved farm credit districts equitably and takes account of risk.

     "(IV) Ensure the viability of the resulting Farm Credit Bank and associations of the bank and the ability of the resulting bank and associations of the bank to lend to eligible borrowers at reasonable and competitive rates of interest.

"(ii) Submission of views and information.—The arbitrator shall receive from affected and interested parties written submissions, in accordance with fair and reasonable procedures established by the arbitrator, regarding the terms and conditions of an appropriate plan for the merger of the two banks required under this paragraph. The Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson, the Farm Credit Bank of Texas, and their affiliated associations shall make available all books, records, financial information, and other material that the arbitrator determines is necessary to the development of the plan or the fulfillment of any other requirement under this paragraph. A copy of any submission or information provided to the arbitrator by any party under this paragraph shall be furnished to the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson or the Farm Credit Bank of Texas on the written request of the bank and at the bank's expense. The arbitrator shall provide both banks with a reasonable opportunity to review and respond to any submission or information provided by any party.

"(iii) Content of plan; farm credit bank.—The plan developed and submitted under clause (i) shall include provisions regarding the following matters:

     "(I) The initial composition, following the merger, of the board of directors of the resulting Farm Credit Bank (which shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

     "(II) The valuation, for purposes of the merger, of the assets and liabilities of the merging banks.

     "(III) The terms and conditions on which the shares of capital stock of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson and, if necessary, the Farm Credit Bank of Texas, will be converted into shares of the resulting Farm Credit Bank.

     "(IV) The capital structure and capitalization levels of the resulting Farm Credit Bank and the affiliated associations of the Farm Credit Bank in the States of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi as the arbitrator determines necessary to carry out the purposes of this paragraph (which shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

     "(V) The terms of financing agreements between any production credit associations or agricultural credit associations described in clause (iv), and the resulting Farm Credit Bank (which shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

     "(VI) Any other terms and conditions or other matters that the arbitrator considers necessary.

"(iv) Content of plan; agricultural credit associations.—If the arbitrator determines that the chartering of agricultural credit associations in the States of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi will be in the best interests of the farmers, ranchers, and aquatic producers eligible to borrow from Farm Credit System associations, the plan required under this subparagraph shall also include, based on submissions from the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson and the Farm Credit Bank of Texas, provisions for the establishment of agricultural credit associations to operate in the States, subject to approval in the referendum under subparagraph (F). Such provisions shall include provisions regarding the following matters:

     "(I) A proposal for the establishment of an agricultural credit association in each of the geographic areas specified in subparagraph (F)(iii) (the charters of which, if validly issued under subparagraph (G)(i) pursuant to approval in the referendum under subparagraph (F), shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

     "(II) The initial composition, if the proposal for the establishment of agricultural credit associations is approved, of the board of directors of each such agricultural credit association (which shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

     "(III) The valuation, for purposes of the proposed merger of the production credit association and the Federal land bank association in each of the geographic areas specified in subparagraph (F)(iii), of the assets and liabilities of the associations.

     "(IV) The terms and conditions on which the shares of capital stock of any associations that may merge under the plan to form agricultural credit associations will be converted into shares of the resulting agricultural credit associations.

     "(V) The capital structure and capitalization levels of the resulting Farm Credit Bank and such affiliated associations of the Farm Credit Bank in the States of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi as the arbitrator determines necessary to carry out the purposes of this paragraph (which capital structure and capitalization levels shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

     "(VI) The terms of financing agreements between any agricultural credit associations and the resulting Farm Credit Bank (which shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

     "(VII) Any other terms and conditions or other matters that the arbitrator considers necessary.

"(v) Consultation with insurance corporation.—The arbitrator shall consult with the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation regarding the valuation of the assets and liabilities under the plan of merger, the capitalization of the Farm Credit System institutions resulting under the plan, and any other matters relevant to the assistance to be provided by the Insurance Corporation to facilitate the merger under subparagraph (H).

"(E) Certification of plan.—Not later than 30 days after the receipt of the plan developed by the arbitrator, the Farm Credit Administration shall—

"(i) certify; or

"(ii) recommend to the arbitrator revisions to the plan that, if incorporated into the plan, will allow the Farm Credit Administration to certify,

  that the resulting bank and any resulting associations are proposed to be organized in such a fashion that they will, on implementation of the plan, operate in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The arbitrator and the Farm Credit Administration shall work cooperatively to ensure the expeditious issuance of the certification. If the Farm Credit Administration recommends to the arbitrator revisions to the plan that, if incorporated into the plan, will allow the Farm Credit Administration to certify the plan, the arbitrator shall, not later than 15 days after receipt of the recommended revisions, incorporate the revisions into the plan as the arbitrator deems appropriate to secure the certification.

"(F) Referendum on association structure.—

"(i) In general.—Not later than 170 days after the issuance of an order by the Farm Credit Administration under paragraph (1)(D), the American Arbitration Association shall conduct, and compile and forward to the Farm Credit Administration the results of, a vote of current farmer-borrowers of the production credit associations and the Federal land bank associations in the States of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, in accordance with the Election Rules of the American Arbitration Association, to determine whether the farmer-borrowers of each association in the geographic areas described in clause (iii) prefer to have credit delivered—

     "(I) in the case of production credit association farmer-borrowers, through a production credit association or through an agricultural credit association as proposed in the plan; and

     "(II) in the case of Federal land bank association farmer-borrowers, through a Federal land bank association or through an agricultural credit association as proposed in the plan.

 Each farmer-borrower shall be entitled to one vote. The arbitrator shall establish record dates and other procedures for conducting the referendum. The Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson, the Farm Credit Bank of Texas, and their affiliated associations shall cooperate in the conduct of the referendum, as determined necessary by the Arbitrator.

"(ii) Disclosure.—The arbitrator shall send to farmer-borrowers eligible to vote under this subparagraph, with their ballot, a statement describing the potential consequences to the farmer-borrowers, and to the associations from which they borrow, of voting to charter an agricultural credit association and setting forth factors that farmer-borrowers should consider relevant to the choice between credit delivery through the current association structure and the chartering of an agricultural credit association. The arbitrator shall develop the disclosure materials in cooperation with the Farm Credit Administration and ensure that the materials are not inconsistent with applicable laws and regulations.

"(iii) Tabulation of results.—The results of the vote under this subparagraph shall be compiled separately for production credit association farmer-borrowers and Federal land bank association farmer-borrowers in each of the following seven geographic areas:

     "(I) The area served by the Federal Land Bank Association of South Mississippi.

     "(II) The area served by the Federal Land Bank Association of North Mississippi.

     "(III) The area served by the Federal Land Bank Association of South Alabama.

     "(IV) The area served by the Federal Land Bank Association of North Alabama.

     "(V) The area served by the Federal Land Bank Association of South Louisiana.

     "(VI) The area served by both the Federal Land Bank Association of North Louisiana and the First South Production Credit Association.

     "(VII) The area served by both the Federal Land Bank Association of North Louisiana and the Northwest Louisiana Production Credit Association.

"(iv) Publication of results.—The results of the vote under this subparagraph, as tabulated by the American Arbitration Association, shall be made promptly available to the public in a manner determined appropriate by the Farm Credit Administration.

"(G) Implementation.—Not later than 10 days after the date of the receipt of the results of the referendum conducted under subparagraph (F), the Farm Credit Administration shall issue such charters or charter amendments and take such other regulatory actions as may be necessary to implement the merger or mergers as provided for under the certified plan. In this regard, the Farm Credit Administration shall—

"(i) issue a charter or charter amendment and take any such other regulatory actions as may be necessary to provide for the establishment of an agricultural credit association in each of the geographic areas described in subparagraph (F)(iii) where a majority of the farmer-borrowers of both the production credit association and the Federal land bank association voted under subparagraph (F)(i) that they preferred to have credit delivered through an agricultural credit association (which charter shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations); and

"(ii) not issue a charter or charter amendment or take any such other regulatory action to provide for the establishment of an agricultural credit association in any of the geographic areas described in subparagraph (F)(iii) where less than a majority of the farmer-borrowers of the production credit association or the Federal land bank association voted in the referendum under subparagraph (F)(i) that they preferred to have credit delivered through an agricultural credit association (provided that the charter of any remaining association in such geographic area shall be subject to change thereafter in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and any applicable regulations).

"(H) Facilitation.—

"(i) In general.—Beginning on the date of the issuance of an order by the Farm Credit Administration under paragraph (1)(D), the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation shall expend amounts from the Farm Credit Insurance Fund to the extent necessary to facilitate the merger prescribed in the plan.

"(ii) Maintenance of book value.—Assistance provided by the Corporation under this subparagraph shall be in amounts not to exceed that required to maintain book value per share of stockholders' equity at the same value reflected on the most recent audited financial statements of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson and the Farm Credit Bank of Texas prior to or effective with the date of the merger.

"(iii) Other assistance.—Until the expiration of 5 years from the effective date of a merger authorized by this subsection, or the final resolution of any litigation against the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson or any of its stockholders pending on the date of the enactment of this subsection [Oct. 28, 1992], whichever is later, the Corporation shall guarantee prompt payment of any loss experienced by the merged bank, which loss is caused by the failure of any association-stockholder of the merged bank that was a stockholder of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson immediately prior to the merger, or any successor to the association, to pay when due any obligation of principal or interest owed by the association or its successor to the resulting bank.

"(iv) Terms and conditions.—Assistance provided by the Corporation under this subparagraph shall be on such terms and conditions as the Corporation deems appropriate to facilitate the merger.

"(I) Safety and soundness.—

"(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), if at any time prior to the completion of the merger required under this subsection the Farm Credit Administration determines that the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson is being operated in an unsafe or unsound manner (as determined in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.)), the Farm Credit Administration, after consultation with the respective boards of directors of the affected banks and taking into consideration the purposes of this subsection, may require the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson to merge with a Farm Credit Bank, subject to such terms and conditions as the Farm Credit Administration may prescribe. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation shall expend amounts in the Farm Credit Insurance Fund to the extent necessary to facilitate the merger prescribed under this subparagraph, including the provision of assistance as provided in section 5.61(a)(2)(A)(iii) of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2277a–10(a)(2)(A)(iii)), on such terms and conditions as the Corporation deems appropriate.

"(ii) Arbitrated merger.—If at any time after the Farm Credit Administration issues an order under paragraph (1)(D), but prior to the completion of the merger required under this subsection, the Farm Credit Administration determines that the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson is being operated in an unsafe or unsound manner (as determined in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.)), the Farm Credit Administration shall, after consultation with the boards of directors of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson and the Farm Credit Bank of Texas, take such action as it deems necessary pursuant to the authorities provided under the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) to return the operation of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson to a safe and sound condition, pending the completion of the merger under paragraph (2).

"(J) Merger plan for agricultural credit associations.—In any of the States of Alabama, Louisiana, or Mississippi where all of the associations are chartered as agricultural credit associations, the boards of directors of each such association in each State are encouraged to submit to the farmer-borrowers of each such association for their approval a plan for merging the associations into one statewide agricultural credit association, in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.).

"(K) Definitions.—As used in this paragraph:

"(i) Agricultural credit association.—The term 'agricultural credit association' means an association having the same authorities, attributes, and obligations as, and for all purposes an agricultural credit association resulting from the implementation of the plan under this paragraph shall be deemed to be, an association resulting from the merger of a production credit association and a Federal land bank association under section 7.8 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2279c–1).

"(ii) Farmer-borrower.—The term 'farmer-borrower' means a borrower from a Farm Credit System association in the State of Alabama, Louisiana, or Mississippi who holds voting stock, or is eligible to hold voting stock, in the association or a stockholder in any such association.

"(3) Review.—

"(A) In general.—Actions and determinations of the arbitrator, the Farm Credit Administration, or the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation pursuant to this subsection shall not be subject to judicial review except as provided in this paragraph, nor shall they be subject to the requirements of subchapter II of chapter 5 or chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code.

"(B) Agency determinations.—

"(i) In general.—Any petition for review of a determination or other action of the Farm Credit Administration or the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation under this subsection shall be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit not later than 10 days after the determination, or the petition shall be barred. The court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to determine the proceeding in accordance with standard procedures as supplemented by procedures hereinafter provided and no other district court or court of appeals of the United States shall have jurisdiction over any such challenge in any proceeding instituted prior to, on, or after the date of enactment of this subsection. The review of any determination or action of the Farm Credit Administration or the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation under this subsection shall be based on the examination of all of the information before the Farm Credit Administration or the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation, as the case may be, at the time the determination was made. The court reviewing the determination or action shall not enter a stay or order of mandamus unless the court has determined, after notice and a hearing before a panel of the court, that the agency action complained of was arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.

"(ii) Procedures.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court may set rules governing the procedures of any such proceeding that set page limits on briefs and time limits for filing briefs and motions and other actions that are shorter than the limits specified in the Federal Rules of Civil or Appellate Procedure.

"(iii) Expedited review.—Any such proceeding before the court shall be assigned for hearing and completed at the earliest possible date, and shall be expedited in every way. The court shall render its final decision relative to any challenge not later than 50 days from the date the challenge is brought unless the court determines that a longer period of time is required to satisfy the requirements of the Constitution.

"(C) Arbitrator determinations.—

"(i) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, any petition for review of a determination or other action of the arbitrator named under paragraph (2) shall be filed in accordance with the United States Arbitration Act (9 U.S.C. 1 et seq.). Such Act shall apply to the arbitration conducted pursuant to paragraph (2) to the same extent as if the arbitration were established in a contract evidencing a transaction in commerce between the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Jackson and the Farm Credit Bank of Texas.

"(ii) Procedures.—Notwithstanding the United States Arbitration Act (9 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), any petition for review of a determination or other action of the arbitrator under this subsection shall be filed not later than 10 days after the determination, or the petition shall be barred. The court specified under such Act shall have exclusive jurisdiction to determine the proceeding in accordance with the applicable procedures under such Act, as supplemented by procedures hereinafter provided, and no other district court shall have jurisdiction over any such challenge in any such proceeding. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court may set rules governing the procedures of any such proceeding that set page limits on briefs and time limits for filing briefs and motions and other actions that are shorter than the limits specified in the United States Arbitration Act or the Federal Rules of Civil or Appellate Procedure [28 U.S.C. App.].

"(iii) Expedited review.—Any such proceeding before the court shall be assigned for hearing and completed at the earliest possible date, and shall be expedited in every way. The court shall render its final decision relative to any challenge as soon as possible in accordance with the United States Arbitration Act (9 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), or not later than 30 days from the date the challenge is brought, whichever is sooner, unless the court determines that a longer period of time is required to satisfy the requirements of the Constitution."

§2012. Board of directors

Each Farm Credit Bank shall elect a board of directors of such number, for such term, in such manner, and with such qualifications, as may be required in its bylaws, except that, at least one member shall be elected by the other directors, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, or stockholder of a System institution.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.4, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(c), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 995.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2012, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.4, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 584; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §101, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3437; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(d)(1), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703; Pub. L. 100–233, title VII, §705(a), title VIII, §802(b), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1706, 1710; Pub. L. 100–399, title VI, §604, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1006, related to corporate existence and general corporate powers, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–399 struck out "from its voting stockholders" after "shall elect".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2013. General corporate powers

Each Farm Credit Bank shall be a body corporate and, subject to regulation by the Farm Credit Administration, shall have power to—

(1) adopt and use a corporate seal;

(2) have succession until dissolved under the provisions of this chapter or other Act of Congress;

(3) make contracts;

(4) sue and be sued;

(5) acquire, hold, dispose, and otherwise exercise all the usual incidents of ownership of real and personal property necessary or convenient to its business;

(6) make, participate in, and discount loans, make commitments for credit, accept advance payments, and provide services as authorized in this chapter, and charge fees for such;

(7) operate under the direction of its board of directors;

(8) provide by its board of directors for a president, one or more vice presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and provide for such other officers, employees, and agents as may be necessary, as provided in this chapter, define their duties, and require surety bonds or make other provision against losses occasioned by employees;

(9) prescribe, by its board of directors, its bylaws that shall be consistent with law, and that shall provide for—

(A) the classes of its stock and the manner in which such stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired; and

(B) the manner in which it is to—

(i) select officers, employees, and agents;

(ii) acquire, hold, and transfer property;

(iii) make loans and discounts;

(iv) conduct general business; and

(v) exercise and enjoy the privileges granted to it by law;


(10) borrow money and issue notes, bonds, debentures, or other obligations individually, or in concert with one or more other banks of the System, of such character, terms, conditions, and rates of interest as may be determined as provided for in this chapter;

(11) purchase nonvoting stock in, or pay in surplus to, and accept deposits of securities or funds from associations in its district, and pay interest on such funds;

(12) participate with—

(A) one or more other Farm Credit Banks in loans under this subchapter on such terms as may be agreed on among such banks;

(B) one or more other Farm Credit System institutions in loans made under this subchapter or other subchapters of this chapter on the basis prescribed in section 2206 of this title; and

(C) lenders that are not Farm Credit System institutions in loans that the bank is authorized to make under this subchapter;


(13) approve the salary scale of the officers and employees of the associations in its district and supervise the exercise by such associations of the functions vested in or delegated to them;

(14) deposit the securities and current funds of the bank with any member bank of the Federal Reserve System or any insured State nonmember bank (within the meaning of section 1813 of this title) and pay fees and receive interest on such as may be agreed, and when designated for that purpose by the Secretary of the Treasury, such bank—

(A) shall be a depository of public money, except receipts from customs, under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary;

(B) may be employed as a fiscal agent of the Government; and

(C) shall perform all such reasonable duties as a depository of public money or financial agent of the Government as may be required of such bank;


except that no Government funds deposited under the provisions of this paragraph shall be invested in loans or bonds or other obligations of the bank;

(15) buy and sell obligations of, or insured by, the United States or any agency thereof, or securities backed by the full faith and credit of any such agency, and make other investments as may be authorized under regulations issued by the Farm Credit Administration;

(16) sell to lenders that are not Farm Credit System institutions interests in loans, and buy from and sell to Farm Credit System institutions interests in loans and other extensions of credit, and nonvoting stock as may be authorized under regulations issued by the Farm Credit Administration;

(17) conduct studies and make and adopt standards for lending;

(18) delegate to associations such functions as the bank determines appropriate;

(19) amend and modify loan contracts, documents, and payment schedules, and release, subordinate, or substitute security for any of such items;

(20) for loans made by the bank, require associations to endorse notes and other obligations of borrowers from the bank;

(21) exercise through the board of directors or authorized officers, employees, or agents of the bank, all such incidental powers as may be necessary or expedient to carry on the business of the bank;

(22) accept contributions to the capital of the bank from associations and account for such in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except as may be authorized by the Farm Credit Administration;

(23) as may be authorized by the board of directors of the bank, agree with other Farm Credit System institutions to share loan and other losses, whether to protect against capital impairment or for any other purpose; and

(24) operate as an originator and become certified as a certified facility under subchapter VIII.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.5, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1623; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(d), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 995; Pub. L. 104–105, title II, §201, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 172.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2013, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.5, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §102, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3437; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(d)(2), (3), title VI, §601, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703, 1711; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(c), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1710, related to land bank stock, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1996—Par. (13). Pub. L. 104–105 struck out ", and the appointment and compensation of the chief executive officer thereof," after "in its district".

1988—Par. (9). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(1), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) read as follows: "prescribe by its board of directors—

"(A) the bylaws of such bank that shall not be inconsistent with law, providing for the classes of the stock of the bank and the manner in which such stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired;

"(B) the officers, employees, and agents of the bank as provided for;

"(C) the property of the bank acquired, held, and transferred;

"(D) the loans and discounts made by the bank;

"(E) the general business conducted by the bank; and

"(F) the privileges granted to the bank by law exercised and enjoyed;".

Par. (11). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(2), substituted "of securities or" for "or securities of".

Par. (12)(B), (C). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(3), struck out "participate with" before "one or more" in subpar. (B) and "participate with" before "lenders that" in subpar. (C).

Par. (14). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(4), substituted "(within the meaning of section 1813 of this title)" for "as defined in section 1813 of this title".

Par. (18). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(5), struck out "Federal land bank" after "delegate to".

Par. (22). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(6), substituted "in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except as may be authorized by the Farm Credit Administration;" for "as authorized by the Farm Credit Administration; and".

Par. (23). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(7), struck out "and approved by the Farm Credit Administration Board" after "of the bank" and substituted "purpose; and" for "purpose."

Par. (24). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(d)(8), added par. (24).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–105, title III, §302, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 185, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this Act, this Act [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 2001 of this title] and the amendments made by this Act shall become effective on the date of enactment [Feb. 10, 1996]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2014. Farm Credit Bank capitalization

In accordance with section 2154a of this title, the Farm Credit Banks shall provide, through bylaws and subject to Farm Credit Administration regulations, for the capitalization of the bank and the manner in which bank stock shall be issued, held, transferred, and retired and bank earnings distributed.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.6, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1624.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2014, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.6, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §103, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3438, related to real estate mortgage loans, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2015. Lending authority

(a) Real estate loans and related assistance

(1) Real estate loans

The Farm Credit Banks may make or participate with other lenders in long-term real estate mortgage loans in rural areas, as defined by the Farm Credit Administration, or to producers or harvesters of aquatic products, and make continuing commitments to make such loans under specified circumstances, for a term of not less than 5 nor more than 40 years.

(2) Financial assistance

The Farm Credit Banks may provide and extend financial assistance to, and discount for, or purchase from, a Federal land bank association any note, draft, or other obligation with the endorsement or guarantee of the association, the proceeds of which have been advanced to persons eligible and for purposes of financing by the association, as authorized under section 2279b(a) of this title.

(b) Intermediate credit

(1) In general

The Farm Credit Banks are authorized to make loans and extend other similar financial assistance to and to discount for or purchase from—

(A) any production credit association, or

(B) any national bank, State bank, trust company, agricultural credit corporation, incorporated livestock loan company, savings institution, credit union, or any association of agricultural producers engaged in the making of loans to farmers and ranchers, and any corporation engaged in the making of loans to producers or harvesters of aquatic products,


any note, draft, or other obligation with the institution's endorsement or guarantee, the proceeds of which note, draft, or other obligation have been advanced to persons and for purposes eligible for financing by production credit associations as authorized by this chapter.

(2) Participation with other entities

The Farm Credit Banks may participate with one or more production credit associations or other Farm Credit Banks in the making of loans to eligible borrowers and may participate with one or more other Farm Credit System institutions in loans made under this subchapter or other subchapters of this chapter on the basis prescribed in section 2206 of this title.

(3) Limitations on extension of financial services

(A) General rule

No paper shall be purchased from or discounted for, and no loans shall be made or other similar financial assistance extended by a Farm Credit Bank to any entity identified in paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection if the amount of such paper added to the aggregate liabilities of such entity, whether direct or contingent (other than bona fide deposit liabilities), exceeds ten times the paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus of such entity or the amount of such liabilities permitted under the laws of the jurisdiction creating such institution, whichever is the lesser.

(B) Limitation on national bank

It shall be unlawful for any national bank which is indebted to any Farm Credit Bank, on paper discounted or purchased under paragraph (1), to incur any additional indebtedness, if by virtue of such additional indebtedness its aggregate liabilities direct or contingent, will exceed the limitation described in subparagraph (A).

(4) FCA regulations

(A) In general

All of the loans, financial assistance, discounts and purchases authorized by this subsection shall be subject to regulations of the Farm Credit Administration and shall be secured by collateral, if any, as may be required in such regulations.

(B) Requirement of regulations

The regulations shall assure that such loans, financial assistance, discounts, and purchases are available on a reasonable basis to any financing institution authorized to receive such services under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, and that—

(i) is significantly involved in lending for agricultural or aquatic purposes;

(ii) demonstrates a continuing need for supplementary sources of funds to meet the credit requirements of its agricultural or aquatic borrowers;

(iii) has limited access to national or regional capital markets; and

(iv) does not use such services to expand its financing activities to persons and for purposes other than those authorized under subchapter II.

(C) Fees

The regulations may authorize a Farm Credit Bank to charge reasonable fees for any commitment to extend service under this section to such a financing institution.

(D) Subsidiaries and affiliates

For purposes of this subsection, a financing institution together with the subsidiaries and affiliates of such may be considered as one, but such determination to consider such institution together with the subsidiaries and affiliates of such as one shall be made in the first instance by the bank and in the event of a denial by the bank of its services to a financial institution, then by the Farm Credit Administration on a case-by-case basis with due regard to the total relationship of the financing institution, its subsidiaries, and affiliates.

(5) Effective date

Nothing in this section shall require termination of discount relationships in existence on December 24, 1980.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.7, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1625; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(e), (f), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 995, 996.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

In subsec. (b)(5), "December 24, 1980" substituted for "the effective date of the Farm Credit Act Amendments of 1980".

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2015, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.7, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §104, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3438; Pub. L. 99–509, title I, §1033(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1877, related to interest rates and other charges, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(e), inserted in heading "and related assistance" and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Farm Credit Banks are authorized to make or participate with other lenders in long-term real estate mortgage loans in rural areas, as defined by the Farm Credit Administration, or to producers or harvesters of aquatic products, and make continuing commitments to make such loans under specified circumstances, for a term of not less than 5 nor more than 40 years."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(f)(1), struck out provision that banks may own and lease or lease with an option to purchase to persons eligible for assistance under this subchapter, equipment needed in the operations of such persons.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(f)(2), substituted in heading "services" for "assistance" and in subpar. (B) "described in subparagraph (A)" for "herein contained".

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(f)(3), substituted "subsection" for "section".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2016. Interest rates and other charges

(a) In general

Loans and discounts made by a Farm Credit Bank shall bear such rate or rates of interest or discount, and be on such terms and conditions, as may be determined by the board of directors of the bank from time to time.

(b) Setting rates and charges

In setting rates and charges, it shall be the objective to provide the types of credit needed by eligible borrowers at the lowest reasonable costs on a sound business basis taking into consideration the cost of money to the bank, necessary reserve and expenses of the bank and associations, and providing services to members. The loan documents or discounting and financing agreements, may provide for the interest rate or rates to vary from time to time during the repayment period of the loan or agreement.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.8, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1626; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(g), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 996.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2016, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.8, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §105, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3438, related to eligibility, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–399 substituted "such rate or rates of interest or discount, and be" for "interest at a rate or rates, and".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2017. Eligibility

The credit and financial services authorized in this subchapter may be made available to persons who are or become stockholders or members of the bank or associations in the district, and who are—

(1) bona fide farmers, ranchers, or producers or harvesters of aquatic products;

(2) persons furnishing to farmers and ranchers farm-related services directly related to their on-farm operating needs; or

(3) owners of rural homes.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.9, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1626.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2017, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.9, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §106, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3438; Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §426, title VIII, §802(d), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1657, 1710; Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §412, title VII, §701, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1004, 1006, related to security, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2018. Security; terms

(a) Real estate loans

(1) Maximum level of loans

(A) In general

Real estate mortgage loans originated by a Farm Credit Bank, or in which a Farm Credit Bank participates in with a lender that is not a System institution, shall not exceed 85 percent of the appraised value of the real estate security, except as provided for in subparagraphs (C) and (D).

(B) Regulation

The Farm Credit Administration may, by regulation, require that loans not exceed 75 percent of the appraised value of the real estate security.

(C) Guaranteed loans

If the loan is guaranteed by Federal, State, or other governmental agencies, the loan may not exceed 97 percent of the appraised value of the real estate security, as may be authorized under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration.

(D) Private mortgage insurance

A loan on which private mortgage insurance is obtained may exceed 85 percent of the appraised value of the real estate security to the extent that the loan amount in excess of such 85 percent is covered by the insurance.

(2) Security

All loans originated or participated in by a bank under this section shall be secured by first liens on interests in real estate of such classes as may be prescribed by regulations of the Farm Credit Administration.

(3) Value of security

To adequately secure the loan, the value of security shall be determined by appraisal under standards prescribed by the bank in accordance with regulations of the Farm Credit Administration.

(4) Additional security

Additional security for any loan may be required by the bank to supplement real estate security. Credit factors, other than the ratio between the amount of the loan and the security value, shall be given due consideration.

(b) Intermediate credit

Loans, other than real estate loans, and discounts made under the provisions of this subchapter shall be repayable in not more than 7 years (15 years if made to producers or harvesters of aquatic products) from the time that such are made or discounted by the Farm Credit Bank, except that the Board of Directors, under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, may approve policies permitting loans, advances, or discounts (other than those made to producers or harvesters of aquatic products) to be repayable in not more than 10 years from the time that such are made or discounted by such bank.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.10, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1627; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(h), (i), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 104–105, title II, §§202, 203, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 172.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2018, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.10, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §107, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3438, related to purposes, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–105, §202(b), substituted "subparagraphs (C) and (D)" for "paragraphs (2) and (3)".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–105, §202(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–105, §203, struck out heading and text of par. (5). Text read as follows: "Each Farm Credit Bank shall require a financial statement from each borrower at least once every 3 years, or during such shorter period of time as may be required under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration."

1988—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(h)(1), substituted "prescribed by regulations of" for "approved by".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(h)(2), substituted "under standards" for "under appraisal standards" and "in accordance with regulations of" for "and approved by".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(i), substituted "harvesters of aquatic products) from" for "harvester of aquatic products) from".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2019. Purposes for extensions of credit

(a) Agricultural or aquatic purposes

(1) In general

Loans made by a Farm Credit Bank to farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products may be for any agricultural or aquatic purpose and other credit needs of the applicant, including financing for basic processing and marketing directly related to the applicant's operations and those of other eligible farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products, except that the operations of the applicant shall supply some portion of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended.

(2) Limitation on loans for basic processing and marketing operations

The aggregate of the financing provided by any Farm Credit Bank for basic processing and marketing directly related to the operations of farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products, if the operations of the applicant supply less than 20 percent of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended, shall not exceed 15 percent of the total of all outstanding loans of such bank.

(b) Rural housing financing

(1) In general

Loans and discounts may be made to rural residents for rural housing financing under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration.

(2) Limitations

Rural housing financed under this subchapter shall be for single-family, moderate-priced dwellings and their appurtenances not inconsistent with the general quality and standards of housing existing in, or planned or recommended for, the rural area where it is located, except that a Farm Credit Bank may not at any one time have a total amount of loans outstanding for such rural housing to persons other than farmers or ranchers in amounts exceeding 15 percent of the total of all loans outstanding in such bank.

(3) Rural areas

For rural housing purposes under this section the term "rural areas" shall not be defined to include any city or village having a population in excess of 2,500 inhabitants.

(c) Farm-related services

(1) In general

Loans to persons furnishing farm-related services to farmers and ranchers directly related to their on-farm operating needs may be made for the necessary capital structures and equipment and initial working capital for such services.

(2) Facilities

The banks may own and lease, or lease with option to purchase, to persons eligible for credit under this subchapter or subchapter II, equipment or facilities needed in the operations of such persons.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.11, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1627; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(j), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVIII, §1832(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3832; Pub. L. 102–237, title V, §502(a), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1868.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2019, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.11, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §108, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3438, related to services related to borrower's operations, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–237 made technical amendments to headings of subsec. (a) and pars. (1) and (2).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–624 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, substituted "some portion" for "at least 20 percent, or such larger percent as may be required by the board of directors of the bank under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration,", and added par. (2).

1988—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–399 substituted "this subchapter or subchapter II, equipment or facilities" for "this subchapter, facilities".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–237 effective as if included in the provision of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, to which the amendment relates, see section 1101(b)(4) of Pub. L. 102–237, set out as a note under section 1421 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2020. Related services

(a) In general

The Farm Credit Banks may provide technical assistance to borrowers, members, and applicants from the bank and associations in the district, including persons obligated on paper discounted by the bank, and may make available to them at their option such financial related services appropriate to their on-farm and aquatic operations as determined to be feasible by the board of directors of the bank, under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration.

(b) Authority to pass along cost of insurance premiums

(1) In general

Each Farm Credit Bank may assess each production credit association, other association making direct loans under the authority provided under section 2279b of this title, and other financing institution described in section 2015(b)(1)(B) of this title in the district in which the bank is located to cover the costs of making premium payments under part E of subchapter V.

(2) Computation

The assessment on any association or other financing institution described in paragraph (1) for any period shall be computed in an equitable manner, as determined by the Corporation.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.12, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1628; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(k), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 101–220, §6(b)(1), (2), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1880; Pub. L. 104–105, title II, §215(a)(2)(C), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 176; Pub. L. 107–171, title V, §5403(a)(2)(A), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 110–234, title V, §5401(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1154; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title V, §5401(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1915.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2020, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.12, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §109, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439, related to loans through associations or agents, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §5401(a), designated first sentence as par. (1), inserted heading, added par. (2), and struck out former second sentence which related to computation of the assessment on the same basis as is used to compute the premium payment and provided formula to calculate a maximum amount.

2002—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §5403(a)(2)(A)(i), inserted "and Government Sponsored Enterprise-guaranteed loans (as defined in section 2277a–4(a)(4) of this title) provided for in paragraph (4)" after "government-guaranteed loans (as defined in section 2277a–4(a)(3) of this title) provided for in paragraph (3)".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–171, §5403(a)(2)(A)(ii)–(iv), added par. (4).

1996Pub. L. 104–105, §215(a)(2)(C), which directed amendment of "section 1.12(b)", without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 112 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–105, §215(a)(2)(C)(i), inserted "(as defined in section 2277a–4(a)(3) of this title)" after "government-guaranteed loans".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–105, §215(a)(2)(C)(i), inserted "(as so defined)" after "government-guaranteed loans" in subpars. (A) and (B).

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–220, §6(b)(1), inserted ", other association making direct loans under the authority provided under section 2279b of this title," after "production credit association".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–220, §6(b)(2)(A), inserted "funded by or" before "discounted with" and "excluding the guaranteed portions of government-guaranteed loans provided for in paragraph (3)," and struck out "and" after "multiplied by 0.0015;".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–220, §6(b)(2)(B), inserted "funded by or" before "discounted with" and substituted "0.0025; and" for "0.0025.".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–220, §6(b)(2)(C), added par. (3).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–399 designated existing provision as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted "directors of the bank" for "directors of each district bank", and added subsec. (b).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–171, title V, §5403(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 351, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 2277a–4 and 2277a–5 of this title] shall apply with respect to determinations of premiums for calendar year 2002 and for any succeeding calendar year, and to certified statements with respect to such premiums."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–220, §6(c), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1880, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending sections 2020, 2277a–4, 2277a–8, and 2277a–10 of this title] shall be effective for insurance premiums due to the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation under the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) on or after January 1, 1990, based on the loan volume of each bank for each calendar year beginning with calendar year 1989, and shall be effective for the calculation of the initial premium payment required under section 5.56(c) of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 (12 U.S.C. 2277a–5(c))."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2021. Loans through associations or agents

(a) In general

The Farm Credit Banks shall, except as otherwise herein provided, make loans of the type authorized under section 2015(a) of this title through a Federal land bank association chartered to serve the territory in which the real estate of the borrower is located.

(b) No active association

If there is no active association chartered to serve territory where the real estate is located, the bank may make the loan directly or through such bank or trust company or savings or other financial institution as such bank may designate.

(c) Purchase of stock required

When the loan is not made through a Federal land bank association, the applicant shall purchase stock in the bank in accordance with the capitalization requirements provided for in the bylaws of the bank.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.13, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1628.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1.13 of Pub. L. 92–181 was classified to section 2031 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2022. Liens on stock

The Farm Credit Banks shall have a first lien on the stock or participation certificates it issues for the payment of any liability of the stockholders to the bank.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.14, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1629.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1.14 of Pub. L. 92–181 was classified to section 2032 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2023. Taxation

The Farm Credit Banks and the capital, reserves, and surplus thereof, and the income derived therefrom, shall be exempt from Federal, State, municipal, and local taxation, except taxes on real estate held by a Farm Credit Bank to the same extent, according to its value, as other similar property held by other persons is taxed. The mortgages held by the Farm Credit Banks and the notes, bonds, debentures, and other obligations issued by the banks shall be considered and held to be instrumentalities of the United States and, as such, they and the income therefrom shall be exempt from all Federal, State, municipal, and local taxation, other than Federal income tax liability of the holder thereof under the Public Debt Act of 1941 (31 U.S.C. 3124).

(Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.15, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1629; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(l), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 997.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1.15 of Pub. L. 92–181 was classified to section 2033 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2031, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.13, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(d)(4), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(e), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1710, related to organizations, articles, and charters of Federal land bank associations, and powers of Farm Credit Administration, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401. See section 2011 of this title.

A prior section 2032, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.14, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 587, related to board of directors, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401. See section 2012 of this title.

A prior section 2033, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.15, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §110, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(d)(5), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 100–233, title VII, §705(b), title VIII, §805(b), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1707, 1715; Pub. L. 100–399, title VI, §604, title VII, §702(a), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1006, related to general corporate powers, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401. See section 2013 of this title.

A prior section 2034, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.16, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §111, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 99–205, title III, §304(a), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1708, related to association stock, value of shares, voting, and purchase, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2051, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.17, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §112, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(d)(6), title VI, §602, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704, 1711; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(f), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1711, related to land bank reserves, dividends, and patronage refunds, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2052, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.18, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §113, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 99–205, title VI, §603, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1711; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(g), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1711, related to association reserves, dividends, and patronage refunds, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2053, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.19, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 590; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §114, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439, related to agreements for sharing gains or losses, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2054, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.20, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 590; Pub. L. 96–592, title I, §115, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(d)(7), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §805(c), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1715, related to liens on stock and participation certificates, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2055, Pub. L. 92–181, title I, §1.21, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 590; Pub. L. 100–399, title IX, §901(a), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1007, related to tax exempt status, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401. See section 2023 of this title.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–399 inserted a comma after "therefrom" and substituted "3124" for "742(a)".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

SUBCHAPTER II—FARM CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS


Editorial Notes

Codification

Title II of the Farm Credit Act of 1971, comprising this subchapter, was originally enacted by Pub. L. 92–181, title II, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 590, and amended by Pub. L. 95–443, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1066; Pub. L. 96–592, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3437; Pub. L. 99–205, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 99–509, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 100–233, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1568. Such title is shown herein, however, as having been added by Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, without reference to such intervening amendments because of the extensive revision of the title's provisions by Pub. L. 100–233.

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1629, substituted "Farm Credit Associations" for "Federal Intermediate Credit Banks and Production Credit Associations" as subchapter heading.

Part A—Production Credit Associations


Editorial Notes

Codification

1988Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1629, substituted "Production Credit Associations" for "Federal Intermediate Credit Banks" as part A heading.

§2071. Organization and charters

(a) Charter

Each production credit association shall continue as a Federally chartered instrumentality of the United States.

(b) Organization

(1) In general

Production credit associations may be organized by 10 or more farmers or ranchers or producers or harvesters of aquatic products desiring to borrow money under the provisions of this part.

(2) Articles of association

The proposed articles of association shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Bank for the district accompanied by an agreement to subscribe on behalf of the association for stock in the bank in such amounts as may be required by the bank.

(3) Contents of articles

The articles shall specify in general terms the—

(A) objects for which the association is formed;

(B) powers to be exercised by the association in carrying out the functions authorized by this part; and

(C) territory the association proposes to serve.

(4) Signatures

The articles shall be signed by persons desiring to form such an association and shall be accompanied by a statement signed by each such person establishing eligibility to borrow from the association in which such person will become a stockholder.

(5) Copy to FCA

A copy of the articles of association shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Administration with the recommendations of the bank concerning the need for such an association in order to adequately serve the credit needs of eligible persons in the proposed territory and whether that territory includes any area described in the charter of another production credit association.

(6) Denial of charter

The Farm Credit Administration for good cause shown may deny the charter.

(7) Approval of articles

On approval of the proposed articles by the Farm Credit Administration, and on the issuance of a charter, the association shall become as of such date a federally chartered body corporate and an instrumentality of the United States.

(8) Powers of FCA

The Farm Credit Administration shall have the power, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration or by prescribing in the terms of the charter, to—

(A) provide for the organization of the association;

(B) provide for the initial amount of stock of the association;

(C) provide for the territory within which the association's operations may be carried on; and

(D) approve amendments to the charter of the association.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.0, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1629; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(m), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 102–237, title V, §502(b), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1868.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2071, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.0, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 590; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(h), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1711, related to establishment and branches of Federal intermediate credit banks, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted "charter, to" for "charter to" in introductory provisions.

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(m)(1), substituted "this part" for "this subchapter".

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(m)(2), (3), struck out "the" before "powers" and substituted "this subtitle" for "this part", both of which for purposes of codification were translated as "this part", requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(m)(3), struck out "the" before "territory".

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(m)(4), struck out in introductory provision "or by approval of bylaws of the association" after "the charter" and amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: "direct at any time such changes in the charter as the Farm Credit Administration finds necessary for the accomplishment of the purposes of this chapter".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–237 effective as if included in the provision of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, to which the amendment relates, see section 1101(b)(4) of Pub. L. 102–237, set out as a note under section 1421 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

Merger of Production Credit Associations and Federal Land Bank Associations

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §411, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1638, as amended by Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §403, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999, provided that:

"(a) Submission of Proposal.—Not later than 6 months after the date of the merger of the Federal land bank and the Federal intermediate credit bank in a district, the Boards of Directors of each Federal land bank association and each production credit association in such district, that share substantially the same geographical territory with each other, shall submit to the voting stockholders of each such association for their approval, a plan, approved by the supervising bank and the Farm Credit Administration, for merging such associations.

"(b) Prerequisites to Merger.—

"(1) Stockholder vote.—The stockholder vote required for approval of a merger under subsection (a) shall be a majority of the voting stockholders of each association voting, in person or by written proxy, at a duly authorized stockholders meeting.

"(2) Submission to fca.—Not later than 60 days prior to the end of the 12-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988], the plan of merger under subsection (a), together with all information to be presented to the stockholders, shall be submitted to the Farm Credit Administration.

"(3) Expedited consideration by fca.—The Farm Credit Administration shall expedite its consideration of the plan and accompanying information submitted under paragraph (2) so that review and approval of such plan and information shall be completed by the Administration so as to enable a stockholder vote to occur within the 12-month period referred to in paragraph (2).

"(c) Direct Lenders.—On approval of a merger under this subsection, the resulting association shall be a direct lender in the same manner as applies to production credit associations."

Reassignment of Associations to Adjoining Districts

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §433, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1662, as amended by Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §417, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1004, provided that:

"(a) Petition of Bank.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, effective for the 12-month period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 1988], each Federal land bank association or production credit association, whose chartered territory adjoins the territory of another district, may petition the Farm Credit Administration to amend the charters of the association and the adjoining district bank to provide that the territory of the association is part of the adjoining district.

"(b) Requirements of Petition.—To be considered under this section, the petition must be signed by not less than 15 percent of the stockholders of the association. Only one such petition may be filed by an association under this section.

"(c) FCA Action.—The Farm Credit Administration shall take any action necessary—

"(1) to amend the charters of the association and the district bank; and

"(2) to incorporate the petitioning association into the adjoining district if the reassignment is approved by—

"(A) a majority of the stockholders of the association voting, in person or by proxy, at a duly authorized stockholders' meeting held for such purpose;

"(B) the board of directors of the adjoining district bank;

"(C) the Farm Credit System Assistance Board; and

"(D) the Farm Credit Administration Board."

§2072. Board of directors

Each production credit association shall elect from the voting members of such association, a board of directors of such number, for such terms, with such qualifications, and in such manner as may be required by the bylaws of the association, except that at least one member shall be elected by the other directors, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, stockholder, or agent of a System institution.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.1, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1630; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(n), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 102–237, title V, §502(c), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1868.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2072, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.1, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §201, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(1), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 100–233, title VII, §705(c), title VIII, §§802(i), 805(d), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1707, 1711, 1715; Pub. L. 100–399, title VI, §604, title IX, §901(b), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1006, 1007, related to corporate existence and general corporate powers, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–237 substituted "stockholder, or agent" for "or stockholder".

1988Pub. L. 100–399 struck out the comma after "except that".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided in part that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2073. General corporate powers

Each production credit association shall be a body corporate and, subject to supervision by the Farm Credit Bank for the district and regulation by the Farm Credit Administration, shall have the power to—

(1) have succession until terminated in accordance with this chapter or any other Act of Congress;

(2) adopt and use a corporate seal;

(3) make contracts;

(4) sue and be sued;

(5) acquire, hold, dispose, and otherwise exercise all of the usual incidents of ownership of real and personal property necessary or convenient to the business of the association;

(6) operate under the direction of the board of directors of the association in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

(7) subscribe to stock of the bank;

(8) purchase stock of the bank held by other production credit associations and stock of other production credit associations;

(9) contribute to the capital of the bank or other production credit associations;

(10) invest funds of the association as may be approved by the Farm Credit Bank under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration and deposit the current funds and securities of such with the Farm Credit Bank, a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, or any bank insured under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and may pay fees therefor and receive interest thereon as may be agreed;

(11) buy and sell obligations of or insured by the United States or of any agency thereof or of any banks of the Farm Credit System and buy from and sell to such banks, interests in loans and in other financial assistance extended and nonvoting stock, as may be authorized by the Farm Credit Bank in accordance with regulations of the Farm Credit Administration;

(12) borrow money from the Farm Credit Bank, and with the approval of such bank, borrow from and issue notes or other obligations to any commercial bank or other financial institution;

(13) make and participate in loans, accept advance payments, and provide services and other assistance as authorized in this part and charge fees therefor, and when authorized by the bank participate with one or more other Farm Credit System institutions in loans made under this subchapter or other subchapters of this chapter on the basis prescribed in section 2206 of this title;

(14) endorse and become liable on loans discounted or pledged to the Farm Credit Bank;

(15) as may be authorized by the Farm Credit Bank in accordance with regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, agree with other Farm Credit System institutions to share loan or other losses, whether to protect against capital impairment or for any other purpose;

(16) prescribe, by its board of directors, its bylaws that shall be consistent with law, and that shall provide for—

(A) the classes of its stock and the manner in which such stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired; and

(B) the manner in which it is to—

(i) select officers and employees;

(ii) acquire, hold, and transfer property;

(iii) conduct general business; and

(iv) exercise and enjoy the privileges granted to it by law;


(17) provide by its board of directors for a manager or other chief executive officer, and provide for such other officers or employees as may be necessary, including joint employees as provided in this chapter, define their duties, and require surety bonds or make other provisions against losses occasioned by employees, but no director shall, within one year after the date when such director ceases to be a member of the board, serve as a salaried employee of the association on the board of which he served;

(18) elect by the board of directors of the association a loan committee with power to approve applications for membership in the association and loans or participations or, with the approval of the bank, delegate the approval of applications for membership and loans or participations within specified limits to other committees or to authorized officers and employees of the association;

(19) perform any functions delegated to the association by the bank;

(20) exercise by the board of directors or authorized officers or employees of the association, all such incidental powers as may be necessary or expedient to carry on the business of the association; and

(21) operate as an originator and become certified as a certified facility under subchapter VIII.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.2, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1630; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(o), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 997.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2073, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.2, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 592; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §202, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3440; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(2)–(5), title VI, §604, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704, 1711; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §§802(j), 805(e), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1711, 1715, related to Federal intermediate credit bank stock, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988—Par. (16). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(o)(1), amended par. (16) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (16) read as follows: "prescribe by the board of directors of the association the bylaws not inconsistent with law providing for—

"(A) the classes of association stock and the manner in which the stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired;

"(B) the officers and employees elected or provided for;

"(C) the property acquired, held, and transferred by the association; and

"(D) the general business conducted, and the privileges granted to the association by law exercised and enjoyed;".

Par. (17). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(o)(2), substituted "provide by its board of directors for" for "elect by the board of directors of the association" and "serve as" for "be elected or designated".

Par. (21). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(o)(3)–(5), added par. (21).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided in part that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2074. Production credit association capitalization

(a) In general

In accordance with section 2154a of this title, each production credit association shall provide, through its bylaws and subject to Farm Credit Administration regulations, for its capitalization and the manner in which its stock shall be issued, held, transferred, and retired and, except as provided in subsection (b), its earnings distributed.

(b) Application of earnings

At the end of each fiscal year, each production credit association shall apply the amount of the earnings of the association for the fiscal year in excess of the operating expenses of the association (including provision for valuation reserves against loan assets in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles)—

(1) first, to the restoration of the impairment (if any) of capital; and

(2) second, to the establishment and maintenance of the surplus accounts, the minimum aggregate amount of which shall be prescribed by the Farm Credit Bank.

(c) Patronage

When the bylaws of an association so provide and subject to the general directions of the Farm Credit Administration, available net earnings at the end of any fiscal year may be distributed on a patronage basis in stock, participation certificates, or in cash. Any part of the earnings of the fiscal year in excess of the operating expenses for such year held in the surplus account may be allocated to patrons on a patronage basis.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.3, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1632; amended Pub. L. 102–552, title V, §501, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4129.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2074, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.3, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 593; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §203, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3440; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(6), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704, related to loans, discounts, participation, and leasing, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–552 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Each production credit association at the end of each fiscal year shall apply the amount of the earnings of the association for such year in excess of the operating expenses of the association (including provision for valuation reserves against loan assets in an amount equal to one-half of 1 percent of the loans outstanding at the end of the fiscal year to the extent that such earnings in such year in excess of other operating expenses permit, or in such greater amounts as are deemed necessary under generally accepted accounting principles, until such reserves equal or exceed 3½ percent of the loans outstanding at the end of the fiscal year, beyond which 3½ percent further additions to such reserves may be made, if deemed necessary under generally accepted accounting principles) first to the restoration of the impairment, if any, of capital, and second, to the establishment and maintenance of the surplus accounts, the minimum aggregate amount of which shall be prescribed by the Farm Credit Bank."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2075. Short- and intermediate-term loans; participation; other financial assistance; terms; conditions; interest; security

(a) Short- and intermediate-term loans

Each production credit association, under standards prescribed by the board of directors of the Farm Credit Bank of the district, may make, guarantee, or participate with other lenders in short- and intermediate-term loans and other similar financial assistance to—

(1) bona fide farmers and ranchers and the producers or harvesters of aquatic products, for agricultural or aquatic purposes and other requirements of such borrowers, including financing for basic processing and marketing directly related to the operations of the borrower and those of other eligible farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products, except that the operations of the borrower shall supply some portion of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended, except that the aggregate of the financing provided by any association for basic processing and marketing directly related to the operations of farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products, if the operations of the applicant supply less than 20 percent of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended, shall not exceed 15 percent of the total of all outstanding loans of all associations in the district at the end of its preceding fiscal year;

(2) rural residents for housing financing in rural areas, under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration; and

(3) persons furnishing to farmers and ranchers farm-related services directly related to their on-farm operating needs.

(b) Rural housing

(1) In general

Rural housing financed under this part shall be for single-family, moderate-priced dwellings and the appurtenances of such not inconsistent with the general quality and standards of housing existing in, or planned or recommended for, the rural area where it is located.

(2) Limitation

The aggregate of such housing loans in an association to persons other than farmers or ranchers shall not exceed 15 percent of the outstanding loans at the end of its preceding fiscal year except on prior approval by the Farm Credit Bank of the district. The aggregate of such housing loans in any farm credit district shall not exceed 15 percent of the outstanding loans of all associations in the district at the end of the preceding fiscal year.

(3) Rural areas

For rural housing purposes under this section the term "rural areas" shall not be defined to include any city or village having a population in excess of 2,500 inhabitants.

(4) Equipment

Each association may own and lease, or lease with option to purchase, to stockholders of the association equipment needed in the operations of the stockholder.

(c) Interest rates and charges

(1) In general

Loans authorized in subsection (a) shall bear such rate or rates of interest as are determined under standards prescribed by the board of the bank subject to the provisions of section 2205 of this title, and shall be made upon such terms, conditions, and upon such security, if any, as shall be authorized in such standards.

(2) Setting of rates

In setting rates and charges, it shall be the objective to provide the types of credit needed by eligible borrowers, at the lowest reasonable cost on a sound business basis, taking into account the cost of money to the association, necessary reserves and expenses of the association, and services provided to borrowers and members.

(3) Varying rates

The loan documents may provide for the interest rate or rates to vary from time to time during the repayment period of the loan in accordance with the rate or rates currently being charged by the association.

(4) Prior approval

Such standards may require prior approval of the bank on certain classes of loans, and may authorize a continuing commitment to a borrower of a line of credit.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.4, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1632; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(p), (q), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVIII, §1832(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3832; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(3), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4679.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2075, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.4, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 594; Pub. L. 95–443, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1066; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §204, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3441; Pub. L. 99–509, title I, §1033(b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1877, related to terms, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–334 struck out subsec. (d) which described a special rule for providing credit and technical assistance in a district containing only two production credit associations.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–624 substituted "some portion of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended, except that the aggregate of the financing provided by any association for basic processing and marketing directly related to the operations of farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products, if the operations of the applicant supply less than 20 percent of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended, shall not exceed 15 percent of the total of all outstanding loans of all associations in the district at the end of its preceding fiscal year" for "at least 20 percent, or such larger percent as is required by the supervising bank under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended".

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(p), substituted "this part" for "this subchapter" and substituted "or planned" for "planned".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(q), added subsec. (d).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2076. Other services

Each production credit association may provide technical assistance to borrowers, applicants, and members and may make available to them at their option such financial related services appropriate to their on-farm and aquatic operations as is determined feasible by the board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, under regulations prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.5, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1633.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2076, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.5, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 595; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §205, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3442; Pub. L. 100–233, title III, §305, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1621, related to services related to borrowers' operations, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2076a. Liens on stock

Except with regard to stock or participation certificates held by other Farm Credit System institutions, each production credit association shall have a first lien on stock and participation certificates the association issues, on allocated surplus, and on investments in equity reserve, for any indebtedness of the holder of the capital investments and, in the case of equity reserves, for charges for association losses in excess of reserves and surpluses.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.6, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XVIII, §1833(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3832.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2.6 of Pub. L. 92–181 was renumbered section 2.7 and is classified to section 2077 of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 7, 1988, see section 1861(d) of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 2001 of Title 7, Agriculture.

§2077. Taxation

Each production credit association and its obligations are instrumentalities of the United States and as such any and all notes, debentures, and other obligations issued by such associations shall be exempt, both as to principal and interest, from all taxation (except surtaxes, estate, inheritance, and gift taxes) now or hereafter imposed by the United States or any State, territorial, or local taxing authority, except that interest on such obligations shall be subject to Federal income taxation in the hands of the holder.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.7, formerly §2.6, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1633; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(r), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 998; renumbered §2.7, Pub. L. 101–624, title XVIII, §1833(1), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3832.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2077, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.6, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 595; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §206, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3442; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(7), (8), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §§802(k), 805(f), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1711, 1715, related to net earnings, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2078, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.7, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 597; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(9), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704, related to distribution of assets on liquidation, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2079, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.8, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 597; Pub. L. 100–399, title IX, §901(a), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1007, related to taxation, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–399 substituted "interest," for "interest" and inserted ", except that interest on such obligations shall be subject to Federal income taxation in the hands of the holder".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

Part B—Federal Land Bank Associations


Editorial Notes

Codification

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1634, substituted "Federal Land Bank Associations" for "Production Credit Associations" as part B heading.

§2091. Organizations; articles; charters; powers of the Farm Credit Administration

(a) Charter

Each Federal land bank association shall continue as a federally chartered instrumentality of the United States.

(b) Organization

(1) In general

A Federal land bank association may be organized by any group of 10 or more persons desiring to borrow money from a Farm Credit Bank under section 2015(a) of this title, including persons to whom the Farm Credit Bank has made a loan directly or through an agent and has taken as security real estate located in the territory proposed to be served by the association.

(2) Articles of association

(A) Description of territory

The articles of association shall describe the territory within which the association proposes to carry on its operations.

(B) Submission to FCB

Proposed articles shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Bank for the district, accompanied by an agreement to subscribe on behalf of the association for stock in accordance with the bylaws of the Farm Credit Bank.

(C) Stock purchase

Association stock may be paid for by surrendering for cancellation stock in the bank held by a borrower and the issuance of an equivalent amount of stock to such borrower in the association.

(D) Statement

The articles shall be accompanied by a statement signed by each of the members of the proposed association establishing—

(i) the individual's eligibility and request for a Farm Credit Bank loan;

(ii) that the real estate with respect to which the individual desires the loan for is not being served by another Federal land bank association; and

(iii) that the individual is or will become a stockholder in the proposed association.

(E) Submission to FCA

A copy of the articles of association shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Administration with the recommendations of the bank concerning the need for the proposed association in order to adequately serve the credit needs of eligible persons in the proposed territory and a statement as to whether or not the territory includes any territory described in the charter of another Federal land bank association.

(3) Denials of charters

The Farm Credit Administration for good cause shown may deny the charter applied for.

(4) Approval of articles

On the approval of the proposed articles by the Farm Credit Administration and the issuance of such charter, the association shall become as of such date a federally chartered body corporate and an instrumentality of the United States.

(c) FCA authority on organization

The Farm Credit Administration shall have power, in the terms of the charter, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration—

(1) to provide for the organization of the association;

(2) to provide for the initial amount of stock of the association;

(3) to provide for the territory within which the association may carry on its operations; and

(4) to approve amendments to the charter of such association.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.10, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1634; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(s), (t), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 998.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2091, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.10, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 597; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §207, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3442; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(10), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §§802(l), 805(g), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1711, 1715, related to organization and charters of production credit associations, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(s)(1), inserted "under section 2015(a) of this title" after "a Farm Credit Bank".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(s)(2), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "the individual's eligibility for, and request or need of the individual of a Farm Credit Bank loan;".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(t), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "The Farm Credit Administration shall have power, in the terms of the charter, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration or by approving the bylaws of the association, to provide for the—

"(1) organization of the association;

"(2) the initial amount of stock of such association;

"(3) the territory within which the operations of the association may be carried on; and

"(4) to direct at any time changes in the charter of such association as the Farm Credit Administration finds necessary in accomplishing the purposes of this chapter."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2092. Board of directors

Each Federal land bank association shall elect from its voting shareholders a board of directors of such number, for such terms, in such manner, and with such qualifications as may be required by its bylaws except that, at least one member shall be elected by the other directors, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, stockholder, or agent of a System institution.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.11, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1635; amended Pub. L. 102–237, title V, §502(d), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1868.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2092, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.11, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 598, related to board of directors, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–237 substituted "stockholder, or agent" for "or stockholder".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2093. General corporate powers

Each Federal land bank association shall be a body corporate and, subject to supervision of the Farm Credit Bank for the district and the regulation of the Farm Credit Administration, shall have the power to—

(1) adopt and use a corporate seal;

(2) have succession until dissolved under the provisions of this chapter or other Act of Congress;

(3) make contracts;

(4) sue and be sued;

(5) acquire, hold, dispose, and otherwise exercise all of the usual incidents of ownership of real estate and personal property necessary or convenient to the business of the association;

(6) operate under the direction of the board of directors of the association in accordance with this chapter;

(7) provide by its board of directors for a manager or other chief executive officer, and provide for such other officers or employees as may be necessary, including joint employees as provided in this chapter, define the duties of such, and require surety bonds or make other provision against losses occasioned by employees, except that no director shall, within one year after the date when such director ceases to be a member of the board, serve as a salaried employee of the association on the board of which such director served;

(8) prescribe, by its board of directors, its bylaws that shall be consistent with law, and that shall provide for—

(A) the classes of its stock and the manner in which such stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired; and

(B) the manner in which it is to—

(i) select officers and employees;

(ii) acquire, hold, and transfer property;

(iii) conduct general business; and

(iv) exercise and enjoy the privileges granted to it by law;


(9) accept applications for Farm Credit Bank loans and receive from such bank and disburse to the borrowers the proceeds of such loans;

(10) subscribe to stock of the Farm Credit Bank of the district;

(11) elect by its board of directors a loan committee with power to elect applicants for membership in the association and recommend loans to the Farm Credit Bank, or with the approval of the Farm Credit Bank, delegate the election of applicants for membership and the approval of loans within specified limits to other committees or to authorized employees of the association;

(12) on agreement with the bank, take such additional actions with respect to applications and loans and perform such functions as are vested by law in the Farm Credit Banks as may be agreed to by the association;

(13) endorse and become liable to the bank on loans it makes to association members;

(14) receive such compensation and deduct such sums from loan proceeds with respect to each loan as may be agreed between the association and the bank and make such other charges for services as may be approved by the bank;

(15) provide technical assistance to members, borrowers, applicants, and other eligible persons and make available to them, at their option, such financial related services appropriate to their operations as it determines, with Farm Credit Bank approval, are feasible, under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration;

(16) borrow money from the bank and, with the approval of such bank, borrow from and issue association notes or other obligations to any commercial bank or other financial institution;

(17) buy and sell obligations of or insured by the United States or any agency thereof or of any banks of the Farm Credit System;

(18) invest association funds in such obligations as may be authorized in regulations of the Farm Credit Administration and approved by the bank and deposit securities and current funds of the association with any member bank of the Federal Reserve System, with the Farm Credit Bank, or with any bank insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and pay fees therefor and receive interest thereon as may be agreed;

(19) perform such other function delegated to the association by the Farm Credit Bank of the district;

(20) exercise by its board of directors or authorized officers or agents all such incidental powers as may be necessary or expedient in the conduct of its business;

(21) contribute to the capital of the bank; and

(22) operate as an originator and become certified as a certified facility under subchapter VIII.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.12, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1635; amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(u), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 998.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2093, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.12, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 598; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §208, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3442; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(11), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 100–233, title VII, §705(d), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1707; Pub. L. 100–399, title VI, §604, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1006, related to general corporate powers, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

Amendments

1988—Par. (7). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(u)(1), substituted "provide by its board of directors for" for "elect by its board of directors" and "serve as" for "be elected or designated".

Par. (8). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(u)(2), amended par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (8) read as follows: "prescribe by its board of directors, association bylaws, not inconsistent with law, providing for the classes of association stock and the manner in which such stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired; the officers and employees of the association elected or provided for, the property of the association that is acquired, held, and transferred, the general business of the association conducted, and the privileges granted to the association by law exercised and enjoyed;".

Par. (12). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(u)(3), substituted "agreed to by" for "agreed to or delegated to".

Par. (22). Pub. L. 100–399, §401(u)(4)–(6), added par. (22).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2094. Federal land bank association capitalization

In accordance with section 2154a of this title, the Federal land bank association shall provide, through its bylaws and subject to Farm Credit Administration regulations, for its capitalization and the manner in which its stock shall be issued, held, transferred, and retired and its earnings distributed.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.13, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1636.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2094, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.13, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 599; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §209, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3442; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(12)–(14), title III, §304(b), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705, 1708; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §805(h), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1715, related to stock and participation certificates, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2095. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(v), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999

Section, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.14, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1636, provided that whenever any Federal land bank association was liquidated, a sum equal to its reserve account as required in this chapter was to be paid and become the property of the bank in which such association was a shareholder.

A prior section 2095, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.14, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 600; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(15), title VI, §605, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705, 1711, related to application of earnings, restoration of capital impairment, and surplus account, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Construction of Repeal

Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(v), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999, repealed this section and provided that this chapter be applied and administered as if this section had not been enacted.

§2096. Agreements for sharing gains or losses

Each Farm Credit Bank may enter into agreements with Federal land bank associations in its district for sharing the gain or losses on loans or on security held therefor or acquired in liquidation thereof, and associations are authorized to enter into any such agreements and also, subject to bank approval, agreements with other associations in the district for sharing the risk of loss on loans endorsed by each such association. As may be authorized by the bank in accordance with regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, associations also may enter into agreements with other Farm Credit System institutions to share loan and other losses, whether to protect against capital impairment or for any other purpose.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.14, formerly §2.15, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1636; renumbered §2.14, Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(w), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2096, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.15, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 601; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §210, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3442; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(b), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1703; Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §431(f), title VIII, §805(i), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1660, 1715; Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §415(b), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1004, related to short- and intermediate-term loans, participation, other financial assistance, terms, conditions, interest, and security, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2.14 of Pub. L. 92–181 was classified to section 2095 of this title and was repealed by Pub. L. 100–399, §401(v).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2097. Liens on stock

Each Federal land bank association shall have a first lien on the stock and participation certificates it issues, except on stock or participation certificates held by other Farm Credit System institutions, for the payment of any liability of the stockholder to the association or to the bank, or to both of them.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.15, formerly §2.16, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1637; renumbered §2.15, Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(w), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2097, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.16, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 602; Pub. L. 96–592, title II, §211, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3443, related to other services, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2.15 of Pub. L. 92–181 was renumbered section 2.14 and is classified to section 2096 of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

§2098. Taxation

Each Federal land bank association and the capital, reserves, and surplus thereof, and the income derived therefrom, shall be exempt from Federal, State, municipal, and local taxation, except taxes on real estate held by a Federal land bank association to the same extent, according to its value, as other similar property held by other persons is taxed. The mortgages held by the Federal land bank associations and the notes, bonds, debentures, and other obligations issued by the associations shall be considered and held to be instrumentalities of the United States and, as such, they and the income therefrom shall be exempt from all Federal, State, municipal, and local taxation, other than Federal income tax liability of the holder thereof under the Public Debt Act of 1941 (31 U.S.C. 3124).

(Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.16, formerly §2.17, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1637; renumbered §2.16 and amended Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §401(w), (x), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2098, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, §2.17, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 602; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(16), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §805(j), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1715, related to taxation, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, §401.

A prior section 2.16 of Pub. L. 92–181 was renumbered section 2.15 and is classified to section 2097 of this title.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–399, §401(x), substituted "derived therefrom, shall" for "derived therefrom shall", "by the associations" for "by the banks", and "3124" for "742(a)".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1622, provided that this section is effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988.

SUBCHAPTER III—BANKS FOR COOPERATIVES

Part A—Banks for Cooperatives


Editorial Notes

Codification

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §415(1), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1642, inserted part A heading.

§2121. Establishment; titles; branches

The banks for cooperatives established pursuant to sections 2 and 30 of the Farm Credit Act of 1933, as amended, shall continue as federally chartered instrumentalities of the United States. The Farm Credit Administration shall approve amendments consistent with this chapter to charters and organizational certificates of banks for cooperatives. Unless an existing bank for cooperatives is merged with another bank, there shall be a bank for cooperatives in each farm credit district. A bank for cooperatives may include in its title the name of the city in which it is located or other geographical designation. When authorized by the Farm Credit Administration each bank for cooperatives may establish such branches or other offices as may be appropriate for the effective operation of its business.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.0, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 602; Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §414(b), title VIII, §802(m), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1641, 1711; Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §406(b), title IX, §901(c), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1000, 1007; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(4), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4679.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Sections 2 and 30 of the Farm Credit Act of 1933, as amended, referred to in text, were classified to sections 1134 and 1134f, respectively, of this title prior to their repeal by section 5.26 of Pub. L. 92–181, which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–334 struck out "and a Central Bank for Cooperatives" after "each farm credit district" and "The Central Bank for Cooperatives may be located in such place as its board of directors may determine with the approval of the Farm Credit Administration." after "other geographical designation."

1988Pub. L. 100–399, §901(c), substituted "merged with another bank" for "merged with one or more other such banks under section 2181 of this title".

Pub. L. 100–233, §802(m), substituted "The Farm Credit Administration shall approve amendments consistent with this chapter to charters and organizational certificates of banks for cooperatives" for "Their charters or organization certificates may be modified from time to time by the Farm Credit Administration, not inconsistent with the provisions of this subchapter, as may be necessary or expedient to implement this chapter".

Pub. L. 100–233, §414(b), which designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsec. (b) reading "Each bank for cooperatives shall elect from its voting stockholders a board of directors of such number, for such term, in such manner, and with such qualifications as may be required in its bylaws, except that, at least one member shall be elected by the other directors, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, or stockholder of a System institution.", was repealed by section 406(b) of Pub. L. 100–399. See Construction of 1988 Amendment note below.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective as if enacted immediately after enactment of Pub. L. 100–233, which was approved Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(a) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Construction of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §406(b), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1000, provided that section 414(b) of Pub. L. 100–233, cited as a credit to this section, is repealed and that the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 (Pub. L. 100–233) and this chapter shall be applied and administered as if such section had not been enacted.

Voluntary Merger of Banks for Cooperatives

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §413, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1639, as amended by Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §405, Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1000, provided that:

"(a) Submission of Proposal.—

"(1) Special committee.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 15 days after the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988], a special committee shall be selected pursuant to subparagraph (B), for the purpose of developing a proposal for the voluntary merger of the banks for cooperatives.

"(B) Composition.—The special committee selected under subparagraph (A) shall be composed of—

"(i) one member of each district board elected by the voting stockholders of the bank for cooperatives in the district; and

"(ii) one member chosen from the board of directors of the Central Bank for Cooperatives by the board of such Bank.

"(C) Development of plan.—Not later than 75 days after the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988], the special committee shall develop a plan of merger for all such banks and the Central Bank for Cooperatives into a National Bank for Cooperatives.

"(2) Prerequisites to merger.—

"(A) Submission to fca.—On completion of the plan of merger pursuant to paragraph (1)(C), the special committee shall submit the proposed plan, together with all information that is to be distributed to the stockholders concerning such plan, to the Farm Credit Administration for approval.

"(B) Expedited review.—Not later than 30 days after the Farm Credit Administration receives the plan of merger, the Administration shall promptly review such plan and advise the special committee concerning any required changes that are necessary to the plan.

"(3) Submission to stockholders.—On approval of the plan by the Farm Credit Administration, the special committee shall, under such procedures as may be established by the committee, submit the plan and recommendations to all voting stockholders of the district banks for cooperatives and the Central Bank for Cooperatives.

"(b) Voting Requirements.—

"(1) Majority vote required.—An approval of the plan of merger developed and submitted under subsection (a) shall—

"(A) require a majority vote of the stockholders of each district bank for cooperatives voting, in person or by proxy, at a duly authorized stockholders' meeting, computed both—

"(i) in accordance with the requirement that, except as provided in section 3.3(d) [12 U.S.C. 2124(d)], each cooperative that is the holder of voting stock in the bank for cooperatives shall be entitled to cast one vote; and

"(ii) on the basis of the total equity interests in the bank (including allocated, but not unallocated, surplus and reserves) held by such stockholders;

"(B) require a majority vote of the voting stockholders of the Central Bank for Cooperatives voting on a one-bank-one-vote basis;

"(C) take place not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988]; and

"(D) take place prior to any other merger vote involving a bank for cooperatives.

"(2) Approval by all banks for cooperatives.—If the stockholders of all of the banks for cooperatives approve the merger, the merger shall take place.

"(3) Effect of lesser vote.—If the stockholders of more than one but fewer than all of the banks approve the plan, each such bank whose stockholders voted to approve the merger shall be merged into a single bank for cooperatives, as provided in paragraphs (4) or (5).

"(4) National bank for cooperatives.—

"(A) Creation.—If the stockholders of eight or more of the district banks for cooperatives approve the merger, such banks, and the Central Bank for Cooperatives, shall be merged into a single bank, which shall be referred to as the 'National Bank for Cooperatives'.

"(B) Services provided.—The National Bank for Cooperatives may offer credit and related services to eligible borrowers located within any territory that may be served by Farm Credit System institutions under section 5.0 [12 U.S.C. 2221], or to any borrower otherwise eligible under section 3.7(b) [12 U.S.C. 2128(b)].

"(5) United Bank for Cooperatives.—

"(A) Creation.—If the stockholders of more than one but fewer than eight of the district banks approve the plan, each such bank, and the Central Bank for Cooperatives (if approved by a numerical majority of its stockholders), shall be merged into a single bank, which shall be referred to as the 'United Bank for Cooperatives'.

"(B) Services provided.—The United Bank for Cooperatives shall offer credit and related services only in the territory included, as of the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988], within the boundaries of the districts that had been served by the constituent banks of the United Bank for Cooperatives, and to any borrower otherwise eligible under section 3.7(b) [12 U.S.C. 2128(b)].

"(6) Nonconsenting banks.—

"(A) In general.—

"(i) National bank for cooperatives.—Any of the district banks whose stockholders did not approve the plan of merger may offer credit and related services to any eligible borrowers within any territory or area that may be served by the National Bank.

"(ii) United bank for cooperatives.—Any of the district banks whose stockholders did not approve the plan of merger shall continue as district banks for cooperatives and shall continue to serve only the territory within the boundaries of the district that such banks served as of the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988].

"(B) Nondiscrimination.—Any district bank whose stockholders did not approve the plan of merger shall be entitled to the availability, from the National Bank for Cooperatives or the United Bank for Cooperatives, as the case may be, of the same credit and related services now provided by the Central Bank for Cooperatives as of the date of the enactment of this section [Jan. 6, 1988], regardless of the decision not to merge.

"(C) Subsequent mergers.—Any district bank referred to in subparagraph (A) may subsequently merge with the National Bank for Cooperatives or the United Bank for Cooperatives, as the case may be, on the approval of the voting stockholders of both banks proposing to merge based on the voting requirement of subsection (b)(1).

"(c) References.—References in this section to voting stockholders shall include subscribers to the guaranty fund."

Bank for Cooperatives Initial Board of Directors

Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §414(a), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1641, as amended by Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §406(a), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1000, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 3.2 [probably means section 3.2 of Pub. L. 92–181, 12 U.S.C. 2123], the initial board of each district bank for cooperatives shall be composed of the members of the district board (which is dissolved upon the creation of the district Farm Credit Bank) elected by the stockholders of the bank for cooperatives and one member elected by the other two members, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, or stockholder of a System institution. The initial board shall operate for such term as is agreed to by the members of the board, except that such period shall not exceed two years. Thereafter, the board shall be elected and serve in accordance with section 3.0 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2121]."

§2122. Corporate existence; general corporate powers

Each bank for cooperatives shall be a body corporate and, subject to regulation by the Farm Credit Administration, shall have power to—

(1) Adopt and use a corporate seal.

(2) Have succession until dissolved under the provisions of this chapter or other Act of Congress.

(3) Make contracts.

(4) Sue and be sued.

(5) Acquire, hold, dispose, and otherwise exercise all of the usual incidents of ownership of real and personal property necessary or convenient to its business.

(6) Make loans and commitments for credit, provide services and other assistance as authorized in this chapter, and charge fees therefor.

(7) Operate under the direction of its board of directors.

(8) Elect by its board of directors a president, any vice presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and provide for such other officers, employees, and agents as may be necessary, including joint employees as provided in this chapter, define their duties and require surety bonds or make other provisions against losses occasioned by employees.

(9) Prescribe by its board of directors its bylaws not inconsistent with law providing for the classes of its stock and the manner in which its stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired; its officers, employees, or agents elected or provided for; its property acquired, held, and transferred; its loans made; its general business conducted; and the privileges granted it by law exercised and enjoyed.

(10) Borrow money and issue notes, bonds, debentures, or other obligations individually or in concert with one or more other banks of the System, of such character, and such terms, conditions, and rates of interest as may be determined.

(11)(A) Participate in loans under this subchapter with one or more other banks for cooperatives and with commercial banks and other financial institutions upon such terms as may be agreed among them, and participate with one or more other Farm Credit System institutions in loans made under this subchapter or other subchapters of this chapter on the basis prescribed in section 2206 of this title.

(B)(i) Participate in any loan of a type otherwise authorized under this subchapter that is made to a similar entity by any institution in the business of extending credit, including purchases of participations in loans to finance international trade transactions involving the sale of agricultural commodities or the products thereof, except that—

(I) a bank for cooperatives may not participate in a loan—

(aa) if the participation would cause the total amount of all loan participations by the bank under this subparagraph involving a single credit risk to exceed 10 percent of the bank's total capital; or

(bb) if the participation by the bank will itself equal or exceed 50 percent of the principal of the loan or, when taken together with participations in the loan by other Farm Credit System institutions, will cause the cumulative amount of the participations by all Farm Credit System institutions in the loan to equal or exceed 50 percent of the principal of the loan;


(II) a bank for cooperatives may not participate in a loan to a similar entity under this subparagraph if the similar entity has a loan or loan commitment outstanding with a Farm Credit Bank or an association chartered under this chapter, unless agreed to by the Bank or association; and

(III) the cumulative amount of participations that a bank for cooperatives may have outstanding under this subparagraph at any time may not exceed 15 percent of the bank's total assets.


(ii) As used in this subparagraph, the term "similar entity" means an entity that, while not eligible for a loan under section 2129 of this title, is functionally similar to an entity eligible for a loan under section 2129 of this title in that it derives a majority of its income from, or has a majority of its assets invested in, the conduct of activities functionally similar to those conducted by the entity.

(iii) As used in this subparagraph, the term "participate" or "participation" refers to multilender transactions, including syndications, assignments, loan participations, subparticipations, or other forms of the purchase, sale, or transfer of interests in loans, other extensions of credit, or other technical and financial assistance.

(12) Deposit its securities and its current funds with any member bank of the Federal Reserve System or any insured State nonmember bank (within the meaning of section 1813 of this title) or, to the extent necessary to facilitate transactions which may be financed under section 2128(b) of this title, any other financial organization, domestic or foreign, as may be authorized by its board of directors, and pay fees therefor and receive interest thereon as may be agreed. When designated for that purpose by the Secretary of the Treasury, it shall be a depository of public money, except receipts from customs, under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary; may be employed as a fiscal agent of the Government, and shall perform all such reasonable duties as a depository of public money or financial agent of the Government as may be required of it. No Government funds deposited under the provisions of this subsection shall be invested in loans or bonds or other obligations of the bank.

(13)(A) Buy and sell obligations of or insured by the United States or of any agency thereof, or securities backed by the full faith and credit of any such agency and make such other investments as may be authorized under regulations issued by the Farm Credit Administration.

(B) As may be authorized by its board of directors, buy from and sell to Farm Credit System institutions interests in loans and in other financial assistance extended and nonvoting stock.

(C) As may be authorized by its board of directors, and solely for the purposes of obtaining credit information and other services needed to facilitate transactions which may be financed under section 2128(b) of this title, invest in ownership interests in foreign business entities that are principally engaged in providing credit information to and performing such servicing functions for their members in connection with the members' international activities.

(14) Conduct studies and adopt standards for lending.

(15) Amend and modify loan contracts, documents, and payment schedules, and release, subordinate, or substitute security for any of them.

(16) Exercise by its board of directors or authorized officers, employees, or agents all such incidental powers as may be necessary or expedient to carry on the business of the bank.

(17) As may be authorized by the board of directors, maintain credit balances and pay or receive fees or interest thereon, for the purpose of assisting in the transfer of funds to or from parties to transactions that may be financed under section 2128(b) of this title: Provided, however, That nothing herein shall authorize the banks for cooperatives to engage in the business of accepting domestic deposits.

(18) As may be authorized by its board of directors, agree with other Farm Credit System institutions to share loan or other losses, whether to protect against capital impairment or for any other purpose.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.1, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 602; Pub. L. 96–592, title III, §301, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3443; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(1), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(n), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1712; Pub. L. 100–399, title IX, §901(b), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1007; Pub. L. 102–552, title V, §502, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4130; Pub. L. 103–376, §§2, 6, Oct. 19, 1994, 108 Stat. 3497, 3500; Pub. L. 107–171, title V, §5401(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 349.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2002—Par. (11)(B)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 107–171 redesignated cl. (iv) as (iii) and struck out former cl. (iii) which read as follows: "With respect to similar entities that are eligible to borrow from a Farm Credit Bank or association under subchapter I or II of this chapter, the authority of a bank for cooperatives to participate in loans to the entities under this subparagraph shall be subject to the prior approval of the Farm Credit Bank or Banks in whose chartered territory the entity is eligible to borrow. The approval may be granted on an annual basis and under such terms and conditions as may be agreed on between the bank for cooperatives and the Farm Credit Bank or Banks that serve the territory."

1994—Par. (11)(B)(i)(I)(bb). Pub. L. 103–376, §6, substituted "other Farm Credit System institutions" for "the other banks for cooperatives under this subparagraph" and "all Farm Credit System institutions" for "all banks for cooperatives".

Par. (11)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 103–376, §2, added cl. (iv).

1992—Par. (11). Pub. L. 102–552 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1988—Par. (12). Pub. L. 100–399 substituted "(within the meaning of section 1813 of this title)" for "as defined in section 1812 of this title."

Pars. (12), (13)(B), (C), (17), (18). Pub. L. 100–233 struck out "and approved by the Farm Credit Administration" after "board of directors".

1985Pub. L. 99–205 substituted "regulation" for "supervision" in provision preceding par. (1).

Par. (13)(A). Pub. L. 99–205 inserted "under regulations issued" after "authorized".

Pars. (16) to (19). Pub. L. 99–205 struck out par. (16) respecting power of bank for cooperatives to perform any function delegated to it by the Farm Credit Administration, and redesignated pars. (17) to (19) as (16) to (18), respectively.

1980—Par. (11). Pub. L. 96–592, §301(1), inserted provisions respecting participation with one or more other Farm Credit System institutions in loans.

Par. (12). Pub. L. 96–592, §301(2), inserted applicability to any insured State nonmember bank and to other domestic or foreign financial organizations.

Par. (13). Pub. L. 96–592, §301(3), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Pars. (18), (19). Pub. L. 96–592, §301(4), added pars. (18) and (19).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective as if enacted immediately after enactment of Pub. L. 100–233, which was approved Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(a) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–205 effective thirty days after Dec. 23, 1985, see section 401 of Pub. L. 99–205, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

§2123. Board of directors

(a) In general

Each bank for cooperatives shall elect a board of directors of such number, for such term, in such manner, and with such qualifications as may be required in its bylaws, except that at least one member shall be elected by the other directors, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, or stockholder of a System institution.

(b) Nomination and election

(1) In general

If approved by the stockholders through a bylaw amendment, the nomination and election of one member from a bank for cooperatives shall be carried out with each voting stockholder of a bank for cooperatives having one vote, plus a number of votes (or fractional part thereof) equal to—

(A) the number of stockholders eligible to vote; multiplied by

(B) the percentage (or fractional part thereof) of the total equity interest (including allocated, but not unallocated, surplus and reserves) in the bank of all stockholders held by the individual voting stockholder at the close of the immediately preceding fiscal year of the bank.

(2) Number of votes

The total number of votes under this subsection shall be the number of voting stockholders of a bank for cooperatives multiplied by two.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.2, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 603; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705; Pub. L. 100–399, title IX, §901(d), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1007; Pub. L. 102–552, title V, §503, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4130; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(5), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4679.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–334, §5411(5)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (a)(1) as (a) and subsec. (a)(2) as (b), inserted headings, and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: "The board of directors of the Central Bank for Cooperatives shall consist of one member elected by the board of each bank for cooperatives, including the United Bank for Cooperatives if the Central Bank for Cooperatives is not merged into such bank, and one member appointed by the Farm Credit Administration."

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–334, §5411(5)(A)(i), struck out "not merged into the United Bank for Cooperatives or the National Bank for Cooperatives" after "Each bank for cooperatives".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–334, §5411(5)(A)(ii), struck out "(other than the National Bank for Cooperatives)" after "a bank for cooperatives" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–334, §5411(5)(C)(ii), (D)(ii), redesignated subsec. (a)(2)(A) and cls. (i) and (ii) thereof as subsec. (b)(1) and subpars. (A) and (B) thereof, respectively, inserted par. heading, and realigned margins.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–334, §5411(5)(D)(i), (E), redesignated subsec. (a)(2)(B) as subsec. (b)(2), inserted heading, and substituted "this subsection" for "this paragraph".

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–552 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–399 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "In the case of a district bank for cooperatives, the board of directors shall be the farm credit district board and in the case of the Central Bank for Cooperatives shall be a separate board of not more than thirteen members, one from each farm credit district and one at large. One district director of the Central Bank Board shall be elected by each district farm credit board and the member at large shall be appointed by the Farm Credit Administration."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–399 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "For the purposes of this section the provisions of sections 2222(b) and (c), 2225, 2226, and 2227 of this title shall apply to and shall be the authority of the Central Bank for Cooperatives the same as though it were a district bank."

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–205 substituted "Farm Credit Administration" for "Governor with the advice and consent of the Federal Farm Credit Board".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–399 effective immediately after amendment made by section 401 of Pub. L. 100–233, which was effective 6 months after Jan. 6, 1988, see section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100–399, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–205 effective thirty days after Dec. 23, 1985, see section 401 of Pub. L. 99–205, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

§2124. Stock of banks for cooperatives

(a) Amount

The Capital stock of each bank for cooperatives shall be in such amount as its board determines is required for the purpose of providing adequate capital to permit the bank to meet the credit needs of borrowers from the bank and such amounts may be increased or decreased from time to time in accordance with such needs.

(b) Value

The capital stock of each bank shall be divided into shares of par value of $100 each and may be of such classes as the board may determine. Such stock may be issued in fractional shares.

(c) Eligible holders of voting stock

Voting stock may be issued or transferred to and held only by (i) cooperative associations eligible to borrow from the banks 1 (ii) other categories of persons and entities described in sections 2128 and 2129 of this title eligible to borrow from the bank, as determined by the bank's board of directors; and (iii) other banks for cooperatives, and shall not be otherwise transferred, pledged, or hypothecated except as consented to by the issuing bank under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration.

(d) Entitlement to vote

Each holder of one or more shares of voting stock which is eligible to borrow from a bank for cooperatives shall be entitled only to one vote and only in the affairs of the bank in the district in which its principal office is located unless otherwise authorized under regulations issued by the Farm Credit Administration, except that if such holder has not been a borrower from the bank in which it holds such stock within a period of two years next preceding the date fixed by the Farm Credit Administration prior to the commencement of voting, it shall not be entitled to vote.

(e) Nonvoting investment stock

Nonvoting investment stock may be issued in such series and in such amounts as may be determined by the board and may be exchanged for voting stock or sold or transferred to any person subject to the approval of the issuing bank.

(f) Participation certificates

Participation certificates may be issued to parties to whom voting stock may not be issued.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.3, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 603; Pub. L. 96–592, title III, §302, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3443; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(3), (4), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §§802(o), 805(k), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1712, 1715; Pub. L. 110–234, title V, §§5402, 5403(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1154; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title V, §§5402, 5403(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1915.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §5402, which directed substitution of "par" for "per", could not be executed because "per" did not appear.

Subsec. (c)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 110–246, §5403(a), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–233, §802(o)(1), struck out ", with the approval of Farm Credit Administration," after "board determines".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–233, §802(o)(2), struck out "with the approval of the Farm Credit Administration" after "board may determine".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–233, §805(k), substituted "by" for "by by" after "regulations issued".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–233, §802(o)(3), struck out "and approved by the Farm Credit Administration" after "Board".

1985—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–205, §205(e)(3), inserted "under regulations issued by" after "authorized".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–205, §205(e)(4), struck out ", except for stock held by the Governor," before "may be exchanged".

1980—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–592 added subsec. (f).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–205 effective thirty days after Dec. 23, 1985, see section 401 of Pub. L. 99–205, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

1 So in original. There probably should be a semicolon after "banks".

§2125. Dividends

Dividends may be payable only on nonvoting investment stock, if declared by the board of directors of the bank, subject to the general direction of the Farm Credit Administration.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.4, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(5), title VI, §606, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705, 1711; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §805(l), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1715.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–233 struck out "other than stock held by the Farm Credit Administration," after "investment stock,".

1985Pub. L. 99–205 struck out "the Governor of" before "the Farm Credit Administration" and inserted ", subject to the general direction of the Farm Credit Administration".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–205 effective thirty days after Dec. 23, 1985, see section 401 of Pub. L. 99–205, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

§2126. Retirement of stock

Nonvoting investment stock and participation certificates may be called for retirement at par. With the approval of the issuing bank, the holder may elect not to have the called stock or participation certificates retired in response to a call, reserving the right to have such stock or participation certificates included in the next call for retirement. Voting stock may also be retired at par, on call or on such revolving basis as the board may determine with due regard for its total capital needs: Provided, however, That all equities in the banks issued or allocated with respect to 1971 and prior years shall be retired on a revolving basis according to the year of issue with the oldest outstanding equities being first retired. Equities issued for subsequent years shall not be called or retired until equities described in the preceding sentence of this proviso have been retired.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.5, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 96–592, title III, §303, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3444; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, §205(e)(6), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705; Pub. L. 100–233, title VIII, §802(p), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1712; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(6), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4679.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–334 struck out "district" before "banks issued or allocated".

1988Pub. L. 100–233 struck out "with approval of the Farm Credit Administration" after "board may determine".

1985Pub. L. 99–205 substituted "Nonvoting investment stock" for "Any nonvoting stock held by the Governor of the Farm Credit Administration shall be retired to the extent required by section 2151(b) of this title before any other outstanding voting or nonvoting stock or participation certificates shall be retired except as may be otherwise authorized by the Farm Credit Administration. When those requirements have been satisfied, nonvoting investment stock", and substituted "Voting" for "When the requirements of section 2151(b) of this title have been met, voting".

1980Pub. L. 96–592 inserted provisions respecting applicability to participation certificates and struck out provisions relating to maximum amount of fair book value at retirement.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–205 effective thirty days after Dec. 23, 1985, see section 401 of Pub. L. 99–205, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

§2127. Guaranty fund subscriptions in lieu of stock

If any cooperative association is not authorized under the laws of the State in which it is organized to take and hold stock in a bank for cooperatives, the bank shall, in lieu of any requirement for stock purchase, require the association to pay into or have on deposit in a guaranty fund, or the bank may retain out of the amount of the loan and credit to the guaranty fund account of the borrower, a sum equal to the amount of stock which the association would otherwise be required to own. Each reference to stock of the banks for cooperatives in this chapter shall include such guaranty fund equivalents. The holder of the guaranty fund equivalent and the bank shall each be entitled to the same rights and obligations with respect thereto as the rights and obligations associated with the class or classes of stock involved.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.6, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 604.)

§2128. Loans, commitments, and technical and financial assistance

(a) Authorities

The banks for cooperatives are authorized to make loans and commitments to eligible cooperative associations and to extend to them other technical and financial assistance at any time (whether or not they have a loan from the bank outstanding), including but not limited to discounting notes and other obligations, guarantees, currency exchange necessary to service individual transactions that may be financed under subsection (b) of this section, collateral custody, or participation with other banks for cooperatives and commercial banks or other financial institutions in loans to eligible cooperatives, under such terms and conditions as may be determined to be feasible by the board of directors of each bank for cooperatives under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration. Each bank may own and lease, or lease with option to purchase, to stockholders eligible to borrow from the bank equipment needed in the operations of the stockholder and may make or participate in loans or commitments and extend other technical and financial assistance to other domestic parties for the acquisition of equipment and facilities to be leased to such stockholders for use in their operations in the United States.

(b) Additional authorities

(1) A bank for cooperatives is authorized to make or participate in loans and commitments to, and to extend other technical and financial assistance to a domestic or foreign party with respect to its transactions with an association that is a voting stockholder of the bank for the import of agricultural commodities or products thereof, agricultural supplies, or aquatic products through purchases, sales or exchanges, if the bank for cooperatives determines, under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, that the voting stockholder will benefit substantially as a result of such loan, commitment, or assistance.

(2)(A) A bank for cooperatives may make or participate in loans and commitments to, and extend other technical and financial assistance to—

(i) any domestic or foreign party for the export, including (where applicable) the cost of freight, of agricultural commodities or products thereof, agricultural supplies, or aquatic products from the United States under policies and procedures established by the bank to ensure that the commodities, products, or supplies are originally sourced, where reasonably available, from one or more eligible cooperative associations described in section 2129(a) of this title on a priority basis, except that if the total amount of the balances outstanding on loans made by a bank under this clause that—

(I) are made to finance the export of commodities, products, or supplies that are not originally sourced from a cooperative, and

(II) are not guaranteed or insured, in an amount equal to at least 95 percent of the amount loaned, by a department, agency, bureau, board, commission, or establishment of the United States or a corporation wholly-owned directly or indirectly by the United States,


exceeds an amount that is equal to 50 percent of the bank's capital, then a sufficient interest in the loans shall be sold by the bank for cooperatives to commercial banks and other non-System lenders to reduce the total amount of such outstanding balances to an amount not greater than an amount equal to 50 percent of the bank's capital; and

(ii) except as provided in subparagraph (B), any domestic or foreign party in which an eligible cooperative association described in section 2129(a) of this title (including, for the purpose of facilitating its domestic business operations only, a cooperative or other entity described in section 2129(b)(1)(A) of this title) has an ownership interest, for the purpose of facilitating the domestic or foreign business operations of the association, except that if the ownership interest by an eligible cooperative association, or associations, is less than 50 percent, the financing shall be limited to the percentage held in the party by the association or associations.


(B) A bank for cooperatives shall not use the authority provided in subparagraph (A)(ii) to provide financial assistance to a party for the purpose of financing the relocation of a plant or facility from the United States to another country.

(3) A bank for cooperatives is authorized to provide such services as may be customary and normal in maintaining relationships with domestic or foreign entities to facilitate the activities specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), consistent with this chapter.

(4) Definition of agricultural supply.—In this subsection, the term "agricultural supply" includes—

(A) a farm supply; and

(B)(i) agriculture-related processing equipment;

(ii) agriculture-related machinery; and

(iii) other capital goods related to the storage or handling of agricultural commodities or products.

(c) Applicable policies

Loans, commitments, and assistance authorized by subsection (b) of this section shall be extended in accordance with policies adopted by the board of directors of the bank under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration.

(d) Regulatory limitations

The regulations of the Farm Credit Administration implementing subsection (b) of this section and other provisions of this subchapter relating to the authority under subsection (b) of this section may not confer upon the banks for cooperatives powers and authorities greater than those specified in this subchapter. The Farm Credit Administration shall, during the formulation of such regulations, closely consult on a continuing basis with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to insure that such regulations conform to national banking policies, objectives, and limitations.

(e) Speculative futures transactions

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the banks for cooperatives shall not make or participate in loans or commitments for the purpose of financing speculative futures transactions by eligible borrowers in foreign currencies.

(f) Installation, expansion, or improvement of water and waste disposal facilities

The banks for cooperatives may, for the purpose of installing, maintaining, expanding, improving, or operating water and waste disposal facilities in rural areas, make and participate in loans and commitments and extending other technical and financial assistance to—

(1) cooperatives formed specifically for the purpose of establishing or operating such facilities; and

(2) public and quasi-public agencies and bodies, and other public and private entities that, under authority of State or local law, establish or operate such facilities.


For purposes of this subsection, the term "rural area" means all territory of a State that is not within the outer boundary of any city or town having a population of more than 20,000 based on the latest decennial census of the United States.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.7, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 96–592, title III, §304, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3444; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXIII, §2323(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4013; Pub. L. 102–237, title V, §502(e)(1), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1868; Pub. L. 102–552, title V, §§504, 505, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4131; Pub. L. 103–376, §3, Oct. 19, 1994, 108 Stat. 3497; Pub. L. 107–171, title V, §5402, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(7), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4679.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–334 struck out "Such regulations may include provisions for avoiding duplication between the Central Bank and district banks for cooperatives." before "Each bank may own".

2002—Subsec. (b)(1), (2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–171, §5402(1), substituted "agricultural supplies" for "farm supplies".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–171, §5402(2), added par. (4).

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–376, §3(A), substituted "assistance to" for "assistance to (A)", "bank for the import" for "bank for the export or import", and "if the bank for cooperatives" for "and (B) a domestic or foreign party in which such an association has at least the minimum ownership interest approved under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration for the purpose of facilitating the association's export or import operations of the type described in subparagraph (A): Provided, That a".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–376, §3(B), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "A bank for cooperatives is authorized to make or participate in loans and commitments, and to extend other technical and financial assistance, to any domestic or foreign entity that is eligible for a guarantee or insurance as described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) with respect to transactions involving the Soviet Union (its successor entities or any of the individual republics of the Soviet Union) or an emerging democracy (as defined in section 1542(f) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5622 note)) for the export of agricultural commodities and products thereof from the United States, including (where applicable) the cost of freight, if in each case—

"(A) the loan involved is unconditionally guaranteed or insured by a department, agency, bureau, board, commission, or establishment of the United States or any corporation wholly owned directly or indirectly by the United States; and

"(B) the guarantee or insurance—

"(i) covers at least 95 percent of the amount loaned for the purchase of the commodities or products; and

"(ii) is issued on or before September 30, 1995."

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–552, §504, inserted "at any time (whether or not they have a loan from the bank outstanding)" after "assistance" in first sentence.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–552, §505, in introductory provisions, substituted "installing, maintaining, expanding, improving, or operating" for "the installation, expansion, or improvement of" and "extending" for "to extend".

1991—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–237 designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated cl. (1) as (A) and inserted "or products thereof" after "commodities", redesignated cl. (2) as (B) and substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "clause (1) of this subsection", and added pars. (2) and (3).

1990—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–624 added subsec. (f).

1980Pub. L. 96–592 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted provisions relating to currency exchanges and provisions relating to loans, etc., to domestic parties, and added subsecs. (b) to (e).

§2129. Eligibility

(a) Any association of farmers, producers or harvesters of aquatic products, or any federation of such associations, which is operated on a cooperative basis, and has the powers for processing, preparing for market, handling, or marketing farm or aquatic products; or for purchasing, testing, grading, processing, distributing, or furnishing farm or aquatic supplies or furnishing farm or aquatic business services or services to eligible cooperatives and conforms to either of the two following requirements:

(1) no member of the association is allowed more than one vote because of the amount of stock or membership capital he may own therein; or

(2) does not pay dividends on stock or membership capital in excess of such per centum per annum as may be approved under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration; and in any case

(3) does not deal in farm products or aquatic products, or products processed therefrom, farm or aquatic supplies, farm or aquatic business services, or services to eligible cooperatives with or for nonmembers in an amount greater in value than the total amount of such business transacted by it with or for members, excluding from the total of member and nonmember business transactions with the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof or services or supplies furnished as a public utility; and

(4) a percentage of the voting control of the association not less than 80 per centum (60 per centum (A) in the case of rural electric, telephone, public utility, and service cooperatives; (B) in the case of local farm supply cooperatives that have historically served needs of the community that would not adequately be served by other suppliers and have experienced a reduction in the percentage of farmer membership due to changed circumstances beyond their control such as, but not limited to, urbanization of the community; and (C) in the case of local farm supply cooperatives that provide or will provide needed services to a community and that are or will be in competition with a cooperative specified in paragraph (B)) or, with respect to any type of association or cooperative, such higher percentage as established by the bank board, is held by farmers, producers or harvesters of aquatic products, or eligible cooperative associations as defined herein;


shall be eligible to borrow from a bank for cooperatives. Any such association that has received a loan from a bank for cooperatives shall, without regard to the requirements of paragraphs (1) through (4), continue to be eligible for so long as more than 50 percent (or such higher percentage as is established by the bank board) of the voting control of the association is held by farmers, producers or harvesters of aquatic products, or eligible cooperative associations.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section:

(1) The following entities shall also be eligible to borrow from a bank for cooperatives:

(A) Cooperatives and other entities that have received a loan, loan commitment, or loan guarantee from the Rural Electrification Administration (or any successor agency), or that are eligible under the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 901 et seq.) for a loan, loan commitment, or loan guarantee from the Administration or the Bank (or a successor of the Administration or the Bank), and subsidiaries of such cooperatives or other entities.

(B) Any legal entity that (i) holds more than 50 percent of the voting control of an association or other entity that is eligible to borrow from a bank for cooperatives under subsection (a) or subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, and (ii) borrows for the purpose of making funds available to that association or entity, and makes funds available to that association or entity under the same terms and conditions that the funds are borrowed from a bank for cooperatives.

(C) Any cooperative or other entity described in subsection (b) or (f) of section 2128 of this title.

(D) Any creditworthy private entity that satisfies the requirements for a service cooperative under paragraphs (1), (2), and (4), or under the last sentence, of subsection (a) and subsidiaries of the entity, if the entity is organized to benefit agriculture in furtherance of the welfare of its farmer-members and is operated on a not-for-profit basis.


(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 2130 of this title, the board of directors of a bank for cooperatives may determine that, with respect to a loan to any borrower eligible to borrow from a bank under paragraph (1)(A) that is fully guaranteed by the United States, no stock purchase requirement shall apply, other than the requirement that a borrower eligible to own voting stock shall purchase one share of such stock.

(3) Each association and other entity eligible to borrow from a bank for cooperatives under this subsection, for purposes of section 2128(a) of this title, shall be treated as an eligible cooperative association and a stockholder eligible to borrow from the bank.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to adversely affect the eligibility, as it existed on January 6, 1988, of cooperatives and other entities for any other credit assistance under Federal law.

(Pub. L. 92–181, title III, §3.8, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 94–184, §1(a), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1060; Pub. L. 96–592, title III, §305, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3445; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIII, §1322, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1534; Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, §421, title VIII, §805(m), Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1654, 1715; Pub. L. 100–399, title IV, §410, title IX, §901(e), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 1003, 1007; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXIII, §2323(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4013; Pub. L. 102–237, title V, §502(e)(2), (f), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1869; Pub. L. 102–552, title V, §506, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4131; Pub. L. 103–376, §4, Oct. 19, 1994, 108 Stat. 3498; Pub. L. 104–105, title II, §§204, 205, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 172; Pub. L. 115–334, title V, §5411(8), title VI, §6602(b)(17), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4680, 4777.)


Editorial Notes