[USC02] 42 USC Ch. 13: SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAMS
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

42 USC Ch. 13: SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAMS
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 13—SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAMS

Sec.
1751.
Congressional declaration of policy.
1752.
Authorization of appropriations; "Secretary" defined.
1753.
Apportionments to States.
1754.
Nutrition promotion.
1755.
Direct expenditures for agricultural commodities and other foods.
1755a.
Whole grain products.
1755b.
Pulse crop products.
1756.
Payments to States.
1757.
State disbursement to schools.
1758.
Program requirements.
1758a.
State performance on enrolling children receiving program benefits for free school meals.
1758b.
Local school wellness policy.
1759.
Direct disbursement to schools by Secretary.
1759a.
Special assistance funds.
1760.
Miscellaneous provisions.
1761.
Summer food service program for children.
1762.
Repealed.
1762a.
Commodity distribution program.
1763, 1764. Repealed.
1765.
Election to receive cash payments.
1766.
Child and adult care food program.
1766a.
Meal supplements for children in afterschool care.
1766b to 1768. Repealed.
1769.
Pilot projects.
1769a.
Fresh fruit and vegetable program.
1769b.
Department of Defense overseas dependents' schools.
1769b–1.
Training, technical assistance, and food service management institute.
1769c.
Compliance and accountability.
1769d.
Childhood hunger research.
1769e.
State childhood hunger challenge grants.
1769f.
Duties of Secretary relating to nonprocurement debarment.
1769g.
Information clearinghouse.
1769h.
Repealed.
1769i.
Program evaluation.
1769j.
Ensuring safety of school meals.

        

§1751. Congressional declaration of policy

It is declared to be the policy of Congress, as a measure of national security, to safeguard the health and well-being of the Nation's children and to encourage the domestic consumption of nutritious agricultural commodities and other food, by assisting the States, through grants-in-aid and other means, in providing an adequate supply of foods and other facilities for the establishment, maintenance, operation, and expansion of nonprofit school lunch programs.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §2, 60 Stat. 230; Pub. L. 101–147, title III, §312(1), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 916.)

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–147 substituted "school lunch" for "school-lunch".

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–296, title IV, §445, Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3266, provided that: "Except as otherwise specifically provided in this Act [see Short Title of 2010 Amendment note below] or any of the amendments made by this Act, this Act and the amendments made by this Act take effect on October 1, 2010."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–147, §2, Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 878, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1989 Amendment note below] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1989]."

Short Title of 2020 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–127, div. B, title I, §2101, Mar. 18, 2020, 134 Stat. 184, provided that: "This title [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1760 of this title] may be cited as the 'Maintaining Essential Access to Lunch for Students Act' or the 'MEALS Act'."

Pub. L. 116–127, div. B, title II, §2201, Mar. 18, 2020, 134 Stat. 185, provided that: "This title [enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1760 and 1786 of this title] may be cited as the 'COVID–19 Child Nutrition Response Act'."

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–296, §1(a), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3183, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1758b, 1769d, 1769e, 1769j, and 1793 of this title and sections 2036a and 3179 of Title 7, Agriculture, amending sections 1396a, 1753, 1755, 1758, 1759a, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1769, 1769b–1, 1769c, 1769g, 1769i, 1776, 1779, and 1786 of this title, sections 2013 and 2020 of Title 7, and section 1232g of Title 20, Education, repealing section 1769h of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1396a, 1758, and 1766 of this title and section 3179 of Title 7, and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'."

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–265, §1(a), June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 729, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1754 and 1769i of this title, amending sections 1396a, 1758, 1759a, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1769, 1769b–1, 1769c, 1769g, 1773, 1776, 1786, and 1788 of this title and section 2020 of Title 7, Agriculture, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1754, 1758, 1766, 1769c, 1773, and 1786 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 612c of Title 7] may be cited as the 'Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–336, §1(a), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3143, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 1755, 1758, 1759a to 1761, 1762a, 1765 to 1766a, 1769, 1769b–1, 1769c, 1769f to 1769h, 1773, 1776, 1784, 1786, and 1788 of this title, repealing section 1766b of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1755, 1761, and 1786 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 1769 of this title and section 612c of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the 'William F. Goodling Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–149, §1, May 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 1379, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1758 of this title] may be cited as the 'Healthy Meals for Children Act'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–448, §1(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4699, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1766b and 1769f to 1769h of this title, amending sections 280c–6, 1396a, 1755, 1756, 1758, 1759a, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1769, 1769a, 1769b–1, 1769c, 1773, 1776, 1779, 1786, and 1788 of this title, section 2018 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 1484a of Title 20, Education, and section 3803 of Title 31, Money and Finance, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1755, 1758, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1769f, and 1786 of this title, amending provisions set out as notes under section 1786 of this title and section 612c of Title 7, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1786 of this title] may be cited as the 'Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–342, §1, Aug. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 911, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1790 of this title, amending sections 1766, 1769, and 1786 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1769 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 612c of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the 'Child Nutrition Amendments of 1992'."

Short Title of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–147, §1(a), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 877, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1766a, 1769b–1, 1769c, 1769d, and 1769e of this title, amending this section and sections 1753, 1755–1758, 1759a, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1765, 1766, 1769–1769b, 1772, 1773, 1776, 1779, 1783, 1784, 1786, and 1788 of this title, repealing sections 1762 and 1763 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1755, 1758, 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1766a, 1769, 1769c, 1773, 1776, and 1786 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1766 of this title] may be cited as the 'Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 1989'."

Short Title of 1986 Amendments

Pub. L. 99–661, §4001(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4070, provided that: "This division [div. D (§§4001–4503) of Pub. L. 99–661, amending sections 1752, 1755, 1758, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1769 to 1769b, 1772, 1773, 1776, 1784, 1786, 1788, and 1789 of this title, repealing sections 1767, 1768, and 1769c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1758, 1760, 1766, 1772, 1773, and 1786 of this title and section 1431e of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the 'Child Nutrition Amendments of 1986'."

Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §301(a), Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–359, and Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §301(a), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–362, provided that: "This title [amending sections 1752, 1755, 1758, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1769 to 1769b, 1772, 1773, 1776, 1784, 1786, 1788, and 1789 of this title and section 1929a of Title 7, Agriculture, repealing sections 1767, 1768, and 1769c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1758, 1760, 1766, 1772, 1773, and 1786 of this title and sections 1431e and 1929a of Title 7] may be cited as the 'School Lunch and Child Nutrition Amendments of 1986'."

Short Title of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–627, §1, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3603, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 1769c of this title, amending sections 1755, 1757, 1758, 1759a to 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1769, 1772 to 1774, 1776, 1784, and 1786 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1755, 1773 and 1786 of this title] may be cited as the 'Child Nutrition Amendments of 1978'."

Short Title of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–166, §1, Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1325, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 1769, 1769a, and 1788 of this title, amending sections 1754 to 1758, 1759a, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1763, 1766, 1772 to 1774, 1776, 1779, 1784, and 1786 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1755 and 1772 of this title] may be cited as the 'National School Lunch Act and Child Nutrition Amendments of 1977'."

Short Title of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–105, §1, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 511, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 1765, 1766, 1767, 1768, and 1787 of this title, amending sections 1752, 1755, 1756, 1758, 1759, 1759a, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1784, and 1786 of this title, repealing section 1764 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1758, 1760, 1761, and 1786 of this title] may be cited as the 'National School Lunch Act and Child Nutrition Act of 1966 Amendments of 1975'."

Short Title of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–326, §1, June 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 286, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 1762a of this title and amending sections 1752, 1755, 1758, 1763, 1774, and 1786 of this title] may be cited as the 'National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Act Amendments of 1974'."

Short Title of 1973 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–150, §1, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 560, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 1753, 1755, 1757, 1758, 1759, 1759a, 1763, 1772, 1773, and 1786 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 240 of Title 20, Education] may be cited as the 'National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Act Amendments of 1973'."

Short Title

Act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §1, 60 Stat. 230, as amended by Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §752(a), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1169, provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act'."

Emergency Costs for Child Nutrition Programs During COVID–19 Pandemic

Pub. L. 116–260, div. N, title VII, §722, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2097, provided that:

"(a) Use of Certain Appropriations to Cover Emergency Operational Costs Under School Meal Programs.—

"(1) In general.—

"(A) Required allotments.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall allocate to each State that participates in the reimbursement program under paragraph (3) such amounts as may be necessary to carry out reimbursements under such paragraph for each reimbursement month, including, subject to paragraph (5)(B), administrative expenses necessary to make such reimbursements.

"(B) Guidance with respect to program.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this section [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary shall issue guidance with respect to the reimbursement program under paragraph (3).

"(2) Reimbursement program application.—To participate in the reimbursement program under paragraph (3), not later than 30 days after the date described in paragraph (1)(B), a State shall submit an application to the Secretary that includes a plan to calculate and disburse reimbursements under the reimbursement program under paragraph (3).

"(3) Reimbursement program.—Subject to paragraphs (4) and (5)(D), using the amounts allocated under paragraph (1)(A), a State participating in the reimbursement program under this paragraph shall make reimbursements for emergency operational costs for each reimbursement month as follows:

"(A) For each new school food authority in the State for the reimbursement month, an amount equal to 55 percent of the amount equal to—

"(i) the average monthly amount such new school food authority was reimbursed under the reimbursement sections for meals and supplements served by such new school food authority during the alternate period; minus

"(ii) the amount such new school food authority was reimbursed under the reimbursement sections for meals and supplements served by such new school food authority during such reimbursement month.

"(B) For each school food authority not described in subparagraph (A) in the State for the reimbursement month, an amount equal to 55 percent of—

"(i) the amount such school food authority was reimbursed under the reimbursement sections for meals and supplements served by such school food authority for the month beginning one year before such reimbursement month; minus

"(ii) the amount such school food authority was reimbursed under the reimbursement sections for meals and supplements served by such school food authority during such reimbursement month.

"(4) Special rules relating to reimbursement calculation.—

"(A) Effect of negative number.—If a subtraction performed under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3) results in a negative number, the reimbursement amount calculated under such subparagraph shall equal zero.

"(B) Special treatment of march, 2020.—In the case of a reimbursement under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3) for the reimbursement month of March, 2020, the reimbursement amount shall be equal to the amount determined under such a subparagraph for such month, divided by 2.

"(5) Treatment of funds.—

"(A) Availability.—Funds allocated to a State under paragraph (1)(A) shall remain available until September 30, 2021.

"(B) Administrative expenses.—A State may reserve not more than 1 percent of the funds allocated under paragraph (1)(A) for administrative expenses to carry out this subsection.

"(C) Unexpended balance.—On March 31, 2022, any amounts allocated to a State under paragraph (1)(A) or reimbursed to a school food authority or new school food authority under paragraph (3) that are unexpended by such State, school food authority, or new school food authority shall revert to the Secretary.

"(D) Limitation on use of funds.—Funds allocated to a State under paragraph (1)(A) may only be made available to a school food authority or new school food authority that—

"(i) submits a claim to such State for meals, supplements, or administrative costs with respect to a month occurring during the period beginning September 1, 2020 and ending December 31, 2020; or

"(ii) provides an assurance to such State that the school food authority or new school food authority will submit a claim to such State for meals, supplements, or administrative costs with respect to a month occurring during the first full semester (or equivalent term) after the conclusion of the public health emergency, as determined by such State.

"(6) Reports.—Each State that carries out a reimbursement program under paragraph (3) shall, not later than March 31, 2022, submit a report to the Secretary that includes a summary of the use of such funds by the State and each school food authority and new school food authority in such State.

"(b) Use of Certain Appropriations to Cover Child and Adult Care Food Program Child Care Operational Emergency Costs During COVID–19 Pandemic.—

"(1) In general.—

"(A) Required allotments.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall allocate to each State that participates in the reimbursement program under paragraph (3) such amounts as may be necessary to carry out reimbursements under such paragraph for each reimbursement month, including, subject to paragraph (5)(C), administrative expenses necessary to make such reimbursements.

"(B) Guidance with respect to program.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this section [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary shall issue guidance with respect to the reimbursement program under paragraph (3).

"(2) Reimbursement program application.—To participate in the reimbursement program under paragraph (3), not later than 30 days after the date described in paragraph (1)(B), a State shall submit an application to the Secretary that includes a plan to calculate and disburse reimbursements under the reimbursement program under paragraph (3).

"(3) Reimbursement amount.—Subject to paragraphs (4) and (5)(E), using the amounts allocated under paragraph (1)(A), a State participating in the reimbursement program under this paragraph shall make reimbursements for child care operational emergency costs for each reimbursement month as follows:

"(A) For each new covered institution in the State for the reimbursement month, an amount equal to 55 percent of—

"(i) the average monthly amount such new covered institution was reimbursed under subsection (c) and subsection (f) of section 17 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766) for meals and supplements served by such new covered institution during the alternate period; minus

"(ii) the amount such new covered institution was reimbursed under such section for meals and supplements served by such new covered institution during such reimbursement month.

"(B) For each covered institution not described in subparagraph (A) in the State for the reimbursement month, an amount equal to 55 percent of—

"(i) the amount such covered institution was reimbursed under subsection (c) and subsection (f) of section 17 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766) for meals and supplements served by such covered institution during the month beginning one year before such reimbursement month; minus

"(ii) the amount such covered institution was reimbursed under such section for meals and supplements served by such covered institution during such reimbursement month.

"(C) For each new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home in the State for the reimbursement month, an amount equal to 55 percent of—

"(i) the average monthly amount such new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home was reimbursed under section 17(f)(3)(B) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766(f)(3)(B)) for administrative funds for the alternate period; minus

"(ii) the amount such new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home was reimbursed under such section for administrative funds for the reimbursement month.

"(D) For each sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home not described in subparagraph (C) in the State for the reimbursement month, an amount equal to 55 percent of—

"(i) the amount such sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home was reimbursed under section 17(f)(3)(B) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766(f)(3)(B)) for administrative funds for the month beginning one year before such reimbursement month; minus

"(ii) the amount such sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home was reimbursed under such section for administrative funds for such reimbursement month.

"(4) Special rules relating to reimbursement calculation.—

"(A) Effect of negative number.—If a subtraction performed under subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (3) results in a negative number, the reimbursement amount calculated under such subparagraph shall equal zero.

"(B) Special treatment of march, 2020.—In the case of a reimbursement under subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (3) for the reimbursement month of March, 2020, the reimbursement amount shall be equal to the amount determined under such a subparagraph for such month, divided by 2.

"(5) Treatment of funds.—

"(A) Availability.—Funds allocated to a State under paragraph (1)(A) shall remain available until September 30, 2021.

"(B) Unaffiliated center.—In the case of a covered institution or a new covered institution that is an unaffiliated center that is sponsored by a sponsoring organization and receives funds for a reimbursement month under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3), such unaffiliated center shall provide to such sponsoring organization an amount of such funds as agreed to by the sponsoring organization and the unaffiliated center, except such amount may not be greater be than 15 percent of such funds.

"(C) Administrative expenses.—A State may reserve not more than 1 percent of the funds allocated under paragraph (1)(A) for administrative expenses to carry out this subsection.

"(D) Unexpended balance.—On March 31, 2022, any amounts allocated to a State under paragraph (1)(A) or reimbursed to a new covered institution, covered institution, new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, or sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home that are unexpended by such State, new covered institution, covered institution, new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, or sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, shall revert to the Secretary.

"(E) Limitation on use of funds.—Funds allocated to a State under paragraph (1)(A) may only be made available to a new covered institution, covered institution, new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, or sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home that—

"(i) submits a claim to such State for meals, supplements, or administrative costs with respect to a month occurring during the period beginning September 1, 2020 and ending December 31, 2020; or

"(ii) provides an assurance to such State that the new covered institution, covered institution, new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, or sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home will submit a claim to such State for meals, supplements, or administrative costs with respect to a month occurring within 90 days after the conclusion of the public health emergency.

"(6) Reports.—Each State that carries out a reimbursement program under paragraph (3) shall, not later than March 31, 2022, submit a report to the Secretary that includes a summary of the use of such funds by the State and each new covered institution, covered institution, new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, or sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home.

"(c) Funding.—There are appropriated to the Secretary, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Alternate period.—The term 'alternate period' means the period beginning January 1, 2020 and ending February 29, 2020.

"(2) Emergency operational costs.—The term 'emergency operational costs' means the costs incurred by a school food authority or new school food authority—

"(A) during a public health emergency;

"(B) that are related to the ongoing operation, modified operation, or temporary suspension of operation (including administrative costs) of such school food authority or new school food authority; and

"(C) except as provided under subsection (a), that are not reimbursed under a Federal grant.

"(3) Child care operational emergency costs.—The term 'child care operational emergency costs' means the costs under the child and adult care food program under section 17 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766) incurred by a new covered institution, covered institution, new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, or sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home—

"(A) during a public health emergency;

"(B) that are related to the ongoing operation, modified operation, or temporary suspension of operation (including administrative costs) of such new covered institution, covered institution, new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home, or sponsoring organization of an unaffiliated center; and

"(C) except as provided under subsection (b), that are not reimbursed under a Federal grant.

"(4) Covered institution.—The term 'covered institution' means—

"(A) an institution (as defined in section 17(a)(2) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766(a)(2))); and

"(B) a family or group day care home.

"(5) New covered institution.—The term 'new covered institution' means a covered institution for which no reimbursements were made for meals and supplements under section 17(c) or (f) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766[(c), (f)]) with respect to the previous reimbursement period.

"(6) New school food authority.—The term 'new school food authority' means a school food authority for which no reimbursements were made under the reimbursement sections with respect to the previous reimbursement period.

"(7) New sponsoring organization of a family or group day care.—The term 'new sponsoring organization of a family or group day care' means a sponsoring organization of a family or group day care home for which no reimbursements for administrative funds were made under section 17(f)(3)(B) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766(f)(3)(B)) for the previous reimbursement period.

"(8) Previous reimbursement period.—The term 'previous reimbursement period' means the period beginning March 1, 2019 and ending June 30, 2019.

"(9) Public health emergency.—The term 'public health emergency' means a public health emergency declared pursuant to section 319 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 247d) resulting from the COVID–19 pandemic or any renewal of such declaration pursuant to such section 319.

"(10) Reimbursement month.—The term 'reimbursement month' means March 2020, April 2020, May 2020, and June 2020.

"(11) Reimbursement sections.—The term 'reimbursement sections' means—

"(A) section 4(b), section 11(a)(2), section 13, and section 17A(c) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1753(b); 42 U.S.C. 1759a(a)(2); 42 U.S.C. 1761; 42 U.S.C. 1766a(c)); and

"(B) section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act (42 U.S.C. 1773).

"(12) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Agriculture.

"(13) State.— The term 'State' has the meaning given such term in section 12(d)(8) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(d)(8))."

Indirect Costs

Pub. L. 111–296, title III, §307, Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3245, provided that:

"(a) Guidance on Indirect Costs Rules.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 2010], the Secretary [of Agriculture] shall issue guidance to school food authorities participating in the school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) and the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) covering program rules pertaining to indirect costs, including allowable indirect costs that may be charged to the nonprofit school food service account.

"(b) Indirect Cost Study.—The Secretary shall—

"(1) conduct a study to assess the extent to which school food authorities participating in the school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) and the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) pay indirect costs, including assessments of—

"(A) the allocation of indirect costs to, and the methodologies used to establish indirect cost rates for, school food authorities participating in the school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) and the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773);

"(B) the impact of indirect costs charged to the nonprofit school food service account;

"(C) the types and amounts of indirect costs charged and recovered by school districts;

"(D) whether the indirect costs charged or recovered are consistent with requirements for the allocation of indirect costs and school food service operations; and

"(E) the types and amounts of indirect costs that could be charged or recovered under requirements for the allocation of indirect costs and school food service operations but are not charged or recovered; and

"(2) after completing the study required under paragraph (1), issue additional guidance relating to the types of costs that are reasonable and necessary to provide meals under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).

"(c) Regulations.—After conducting the study under subsection (b)(1) and identifying costs under subsection (b)(2), the Secretary may promulgate regulations to address—

"(1) any identified deficiencies in the allocation of indirect costs; and

"(2) the authority of school food authorities to reimburse only those costs identified by the Secretary as reasonable and necessary under subsection (b)(2).

"(d) Report.—Not later than October 1, 2013, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that describes the results of the study under subsection (b).

"(e) Funding.—

"(1) In general.—On October 1, 2010, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Secretary to carry out this section $2,000,000, to remain available until expended.

"(2) Receipt and acceptance.—The Secretary shall be entitled to receive, shall accept, and shall use to carry out this section the funds transferred under paragraph (1), without further appropriation."

Local Wellness Policy

Pub. L. 108–265, title II, §204, June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 780, as amended by Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, §776, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2161, which related to establishment of local school wellness policies for schools under local educational agencies, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–296, title II, §204(b), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3218.

Coordination of School Lunch, School Breakfast, and Summer Food Service Programs

Pub. L. 104–193, title VII, §741, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2307, as amended by Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §752(b)(6), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1169, provided that:

"(a) Coordination.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall develop proposed changes to the regulations under the school lunch program under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.), the summer food service program under section 13 of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1761), and the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773), for the purpose of simplifying and coordinating those programs into a comprehensive meal program.

"(2) Consultation.—In developing proposed changes to the regulations under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Agriculture shall consult with local, State, and regional administrators of the programs described in such paragraph.

"(b) Report.—Not later than November 1, 1997, the Secretary of Agriculture shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate and the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities of the House of Representatives a report containing the proposed changes developed under subsection (a)."

Supplemental Nutrition Programs; Congressional Statement of Findings

Pub. L. 103–448, §2, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4700, as amended by Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §752(b)(15), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1170, provided that: "Congress finds that—

"(1) undernutrition can permanently retard physical growth, brain development, and cognitive functioning of children;

"(2) the longer a child's nutritional, emotional, and educational needs go unmet, the greater the likelihood of cognitive impairment;

"(3) low-income children who attend school hungry score significantly lower on standardized tests than non-hungry low-income children; and

"(4) supplemental nutrition programs under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) can help to offset threats posed to a child's capacity to learn and perform in school that result from inadequate nutrient intake."

Study of Adulteration of Juice Products Sold to School Meal Programs

Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §125, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4734, directed Comptroller General of the United States, not later than 1 year after Nov. 2, 1994, to conduct study and to submit a report to Congress on costs and problems associated with sale of adulterated fruit juice and juice products to the school lunch program under this chapter and school breakfast program under section 1773 of this title.

Consolidation of School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program Into Comprehensive Meal Program

Pub. L. 103–448, title III, §301, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4749, as amended by Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §752(b)(15), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1170, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any provision of [the] Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), except as otherwise provided in this section, the Secretary of Agriculture shall, not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 1994], develop and implement regulations to consolidate the school lunch program under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) and the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) into a comprehensive meal program.

"(b) Requirements.—In establishing the comprehensive meal program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall meet the following requirements:

"(1) The Secretary shall ensure that the program continues to serve children who are eligible for free and reduced price meals. The meals shall meet the nutritional requirements of section 9(a)(1) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1758(a)(1)) and section 4(e)(1) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773(e)(1)).

"(2) The Secretary shall continue to make breakfast assistance payments in accordance with section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) and food assistance payments in accordance with the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.).

"(3) The Secretary may not consolidate any aspect of the school lunch program or the school breakfast program with respect to any matter described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (N) of section 12(l)(4) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)(4)).

"(c) Plan and Recommendations.—

"(1) Plan for consolidation and simplification.—Not later than 180 days prior to implementing the regulations described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a plan for the consolidation and simplification of the school lunch program and the school breakfast program.

"(2) Recommendations with respect to change in payment amounts.—If the Secretary proposes to change the amount of the breakfast assistance payment or the food assistance payment under the comprehensive meal program, the Secretary shall not include the change in the consolidation and shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Education and Labor, and the Committee on Agriculture, of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate recommendations for legislation to effect the change."

Study and Report Relating to Use of Private Food Establishments and Caterers Under School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program

Pub. L. 103–448, title III, §302, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4750, directed Comptroller General of the United States, in conjunction with the Director of the Office of Technology Assessment, to conduct a study and submit a report to Congress, not later than Sept. 1, 1996, on the use of private food establishments and caterers by schools that participate in the school lunch program under this chapter or the school breakfast program under section 1773 of this title.

School Lunch Studies

Pub. L. 101–624, title XVII, §1779, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3816, directed Secretary of Agriculture to determine the quantity of bonus commodities lost, by State, since the 1987–88 school year, the amount that school food service authorities charged students for non-free or reduced price meals, and the trends in school participation and student participation, by State and for the United States, and directed Secretary also to determine the cost to produce school lunches and breakfasts, including indirect and local administrative costs, the reasons why schools choose not to participate in the National school lunch program, the State costs incurred to administer the school programs, and the reasons why children eligible for free or reduced price meals do not apply for benefits or participate, with Secretary to submit to Congress a final report on results of the studies not later than Oct. 1, 1993.

Comprehensive Study of Benefits of Programs; Report to Congress

Pub. L. 93–150, §10, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 564, directed Secretary of Agriculture to carry out a comprehensive study to determine if the benefits of the National School Lunch Act and the Child Nutrition Act are accruing to the maximum extent possible to all of the nation's school children, and to determine if regional cost differentials exist in Alaska and other States so as to require additional reimbursement, such report with recommendations to be submitted to Congress no later than June 30, 1974.

§1752. Authorization of appropriations; "Secretary" defined

For each fiscal year, there is authorized to be appropriated, out of money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to enable the Secretary of Agriculture (hereinafter referred to as "the Secretary") to carry out the provisions of this chapter, other than sections 1761 and 1766 of this title. Appropriations to carry out the provisions of this chapter and of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.] for any fiscal year are authorized to be made a year in advance of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the funds will become available for disbursement to the States. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any funds appropriated to carry out the provisions of this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 shall remain available for the purposes of the Act for which appropriated until expended.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §3, 60 Stat. 230; Pub. L. 87–823, §1, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 90–302, §1, May 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 91–248, §1(a), May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 93–326, §7, June 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 287; Pub. L. 94–105, §24, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 529; Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §371(a)(2), Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–368, and Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §371(a)(2), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–371; Pub. L. 99–661, div. D, title V, §4501(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4080.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661, which identically directed amendment of section by substituting "sections 1761 and 1766" for "sections 1761, 1766, and 1768" were executed making the substitution for "sections 1761, 1766 and 1768" as the probable intent of Congress.

1975Pub. L. 94–105 substituted "sections 1761, 1766 and 1768" for "section 1761".

1974Pub. L. 93–326 substituted "other than section 1761 of this title" for "other than sections 1759a and 1761 of this title".

1970Pub. L. 91–248 provided that appropriations for child food service programs may be made a year in advance of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the funds become available and that funds appropriated for such programs remain available until expended.

1968Pub. L. 90–302 inserted section 1761 to enumeration of sections excepted from application of this section.

1962Pub. L. 87–823 struck out ", beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947," after "fiscal year" and inserted ", other than section 1759a of this title."

Appropriations as Functions of Health and Human Services

Pub. L. 90–302, §1, May 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 117, as amended by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, provided in part that: "Appropriations shall be considered Health and Human Services functions for budget purposes rather than functions of Agriculture."

§1753. Apportionments to States

(a) The sums appropriated for any fiscal year pursuant to the authorizations contained in section 1752 of this title shall be available to the Secretary for supplying agricultural commodities and other food for the program in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(b)(1) The Secretary shall make food assistance payments to each State educational agency each fiscal year, at such times as the Secretary may determine, from the sums appropriated for such purpose, in a total amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying—

(A) the number of lunches (consisting of a combination of foods which meet the minimum nutritional requirements prescribed by the Secretary under section 1758(a) of this title) served during such fiscal year in schools in such State which participate in the school lunch program under this chapter under agreements with such State educational agency; by

(B) the national average lunch payment prescribed in paragraph (2) of this subsection.


(2) The national average lunch payment for each lunch served shall be 10.5 cents (as adjusted pursuant to section 1759a(a) of this title) except that for each lunch served in school food authorities in which 60 percent or more of the lunches served in the school lunch program during the second preceding school year were served free or at a reduced price, the national average lunch payment shall be 2 cents more.

(3) Additional reimbursement.—

(A) Regulations.—

(i) Proposed regulations.—Notwithstanding section 1758(f) of this title, not later than 18 months after December 13, 2010, the Secretary shall promulgate proposed regulations to update the meal patterns and nutrition standards for the school lunch program authorized under this chapter and the school breakfast program established by section 1773 of this title based on recommendations made by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.

(ii) Interim or final regulations.—

(I) In general.—Not later than 18 months after promulgation of the proposed regulations under clause (i), the Secretary shall promulgate interim or final regulations.

(II) Date of required compliance.—The Secretary shall establish in the interim or final regulations a date by which all school food authorities participating in the school lunch program authorized under this Act and the school breakfast program established by section 1773 of this title are required to comply with the meal pattern and nutrition standards established in the interim or final regulations.


(iii) Report to congress.—Not later than 90 days after December 13, 2010, and each 90 days thereafter until the Secretary has promulgated interim or final regulations under clause (ii), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a quarterly report on progress made toward promulgation of the regulations described in this subparagraph.


(B) Performance-based reimbursement rate increase.—Beginning on the later of the date of promulgation of the implementing regulations described in subparagraph (A)(ii), December 13, 2010, or October 1, 2012, the Secretary shall provide additional reimbursement for each lunch served in school food authorities determined to be eligible under subparagraph (D).

(C) Additional reimbursement.—

(i) In general.—Each lunch served in school food authorities determined to be eligible under subparagraph (D) shall receive an additional 6 cents, adjusted in accordance with section 1759a(a)(3) of this title, to the national lunch average payment for each lunch served.

(ii) Disbursement.—The State agency shall disburse funds made available under this paragraph to school food authorities eligible to receive additional reimbursement.


(D) Eligible school food authority.—To be eligible to receive an additional reimbursement described in this paragraph, a school food authority shall be certified by the State to be in compliance with the interim or final regulations described in subparagraph (A)(ii).

(E) Failure to comply.—Beginning on the later of the date described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(II), December 13, 2010, or October 1, 2012, school food authorities found to be out of compliance with the meal patterns or nutrition standards established by the implementing regulations shall not receive the additional reimbursement for each lunch served described in this paragraph.

(F) Administrative costs.—

(i) In general.—Subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), the Secretary shall make funds available to States for State activities related to training, technical assistance, certification, and oversight activities of this paragraph.

(ii) Provision of funds.—The Secretary shall provide funds described in clause (i) to States administering a school lunch program in a manner proportional to the administrative expense allocation of each State during the preceding fiscal year.

(iii) Funding.—

(I) In general.—In the later of the fiscal year in which the implementing regulations described in subparagraph (A)(ii) are promulgated or the fiscal year in which this paragraph is enacted, and in the subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall use not more than $50,000,000 of funds made available under section 1752 of this title to make payments to States described in clause (i).

(II) Reservation.—In providing funds to States under clause (i), the Secretary may reserve not more than $3,000,000 per fiscal year to support Federal administrative activities to carry out this paragraph.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §4, 60 Stat. 230; July 12, 1952, ch. 699, §1(a), 66 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 87–688, §3(a), Sept. 25, 1962, 76 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 87–823, §2, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 92–433, §4(c), Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 93–150, §2(a), Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 560; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §§801(a), 819(g), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 521, 533; Pub. L. 101–147, title III, §§301, 312(2), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 913, 916; Pub. L. 111–296, title II, §201, Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3214.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–296 added par. (3).

1989Pub. L. 101–147, §301, inserted "Apportionments to States" as section catchline.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–147, §312(2), substituted "reduced price" for "reduced-price".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §§801(a)(1), (2), 819(g), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), struck out exclusion of sum specified in section 1754 of this title, and struck out provisions relating to food assistance payments.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §801(a)(3), added subsec. (b).

1973Pub. L. 93–150 increased national average food assistance payments from 8 to 10 cents per lunch.

1972Pub. L. 92–433 substituted new formula for food assistance payments to State educational agencies by taking into account the number of lunches served during the year, the children in the schools in such State participating in the school lunch program, and the national average payment per lunch set up by the Secretary, with certain limitations, for apportionment formula limiting the apportionable funds to 75 per cent of the available funds for such year, and taking into account the participation rate for the State, the need rate for the State, and providing for a method of apportionment, special provisions for disposal of excess or unused funds and for fiscal years beginning July 1, 1962, July 1, 1963, July 1, 1964 and fixing the funds for American Samoa at $25,000 for each year for the five fiscal years beginning July 1, 1962.

1962Pub. L. 87–823 amended section generally, and, among other changes, substituted as factors for apportionment of funds among the States "(1) the participation rate for the State, and (2) the assistance need rate for the State" for "(1) the number of school children in the State and (2) the need for assistance in the State as indicated by the relation of the per capita income of the United States to the per capita income in the State"; inserted, in provision for determination of amount of apportionment in clause designated "second", "(exclusive of American Samoa for periods ending before July 1, 1967)"; inserted provisions for use of transitional formulas in apportionment of funds for fiscal years beginning in 1962, 1963, and 1964 and apportioning to American Samoa $25,000 annually for five fiscal years in period beginning July 1, 1962 and ending June 30, 1967; and struck out apportionment formula for Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands, which limited apportionments to 3 per centum of the total fund to be apportioned but required the apportionment to each to be not less than an amount which would result in an allotment per child of school age equal to that for the State with the lowest per capita income, definition of school (incorporated in section 1760(d)(7) of this title), provision for use of latest per capita income figures certified by the Department of Commerce (incorporated in section 1760(d)(6)(ii) of this title), and definition of school children which provided that the number of school children should be the number between ages of five and seventeen.

Pub. L. 87–688 inserted "American Samoa," after "Guam," in two places and "the apportionment for American Samoa," after "the apportionment for Guam,".

1952—Act July 12, 1952, removed Alaska and Hawaii from 3 percent limitation imposed on Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, made limitation applicable to Guam, and modified effects of 3 percent limitation.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–296 effective Oct. 1, 2010, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 445 of Pub. L. 111–296, set out as a note under section 1751 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §820(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 534, provided that: "The provisions of this title shall take effect as follows:

"(1) The amendments made by the following sections shall take effect on the first day of the month following the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981] or on September 1, 1981, whichever is earlier:

"(A) section 801 [amending this section and sections 1759a and 1773 of this title];

"(B) that portion of the amendment made by section 810(c) [amending section 1766 of this title] pertaining to the reimbursement rate for supplements;

"(C) that portion of the amendment made by section 810(d)(1) [amending section 1766 of this title] pertaining to the limitation on the number of meals for which reimbursement may be made under the child care food program;

"(D) that portion of the amendment made by section 810(d)(3) [amending section 1766 of this title] which reduces the meal reimbursement factor by 10 percent; and

"(E) section 811 [amending section 1758 of this title].

"(2) The amendments made by sections 802 and 804 [amending sections 1755 and 1756 of this title] shall take effect on July 1, 1981.

"(3) The amendments made by sections 807 [amending section 1772 of this title], 808 [amending sections 1760 and 1784 of this title], and 810(a)(2) [amending section 1766 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the second month following the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981].

"(4) The amendments made by the following sections shall take effect October 1, 1981: sections 805 [repealing sections 1754 and 1774 of this title], 806 [amending section 1788 of this title], 809 [amending section 1761 of this title], 810(a)(1) [amending section 1766 of this title], 810(f) [amending section 1766 of this title], 810(g) [amending section 1766 of this title], 812 [amending section 1759a of this title], 814 [amending section 1776 of this title], 817 [enacting section 1774 of this title and amending sections 1759, 1761, 1766, 1773, and 1788 of this title], and 819 [amending this section and sections 1755, 1757, 1759a, 1760, 1762a, 1763, 1766, 1773, 1776, and 1780 of this title].

"(5) The amendments made by section 813 [amending sections 1759a, 1760, 1762a, and 1772 of this title] shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981].

"(6) The amendments made by the following provisions shall take effect January 1, 1982: subsections (b), (c), (d), and (e) of section 810 [amending section 1766 of this title], except that—

"(A) the amendment made by section 810(c) pertaining to the reimbursement rate for supplements shall take effect as provided under paragraph (1) of this subsection;

"(B) the amendment made by section 810(d)(1) pertaining to the limitation on the number of meals for which reimbursement may be made shall take effect as provided under paragraph (1) of this subsection; and

"(C) the amendment made by section 810(d)(3) which reduces the meal reimbursement factor by 10 percent shall take effect as provided under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

"(7) The following provisions shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981]:

"(A) the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending section 1758 of this title] of section 803 and the provisions of subsections (c) and (d) [amending provisions set out as notes under section 1758 of this title] of section 803;

"(B) the amendment made by section 815 [amending section 1786 of this title];

"(C) the amendment made by section 816 [amending section 1785 of this title]; and

"(D) the provisions of section 818."

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–433, §4(c), Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 726, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective after the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–688, §3(b), Sept. 25, 1962, 76 Stat. 587, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1754 and 1760 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to funds appropriated after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 25, 1962]."

Effective Date of 1952 Amendment

Act July 12, 1952, ch. 699, §1(d), 66 Stat. 591, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sections 1754 and 1760 of this title] shall be effective only with respect to funds appropriated after the date on which this Act is enacted [July 12, 1952]."

Promulgation of Regulations

Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §820(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 535, provided that: "Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981], the Secretary of Agriculture shall promulgate regulations to implement the amendments made by this title [see Tables for classification]."

Reduction in General Reimbursement for Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1981

Pub. L. 96–499, title II, §201(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2599, provided that the national average payment per lunch under this chapter shall be reduced by 2½ cents for certain school food authorities for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1981, and that the amount of reimbursements under section 1776 of this title for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1983, and the amount of State revenues appropriated or used for meeting the requirements under section 1756 of this title for the school year ending June 30, 1982, shall not be reduced because of a reduction in the amount of Federal funds expended, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §820(b)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 535, effective Sept. 1, 1981, or the first day of the first month following Aug. 1981, whichever is earlier.

Use of Funds Appropriated Under Section 612c of Title 7 for Implementing This Section and Reimbursement of Such Funds

Pub. L. 92–433, §4(a), Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 725, authorized Secretary of Agriculture to use so much of the funds appropriated by section 612(c) of title 7, as may be necessary, to carry out the purposes of this section and provide an average rate of reimbursement of not less than 8 cents per meal within each State during the fiscal year 1973 and provided for reimbursement of funds so used.

Additional Funds for Apportionment to States and for Special Assistance; Consultation With Child Nutrition Council; Reimbursement of Separate Fund From Supplemental Appropriation

Pub. L. 92–153, §1, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 419, provided: "That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture shall until such time as a supplemental appropriation may provide additional funds for such purpose use so much of the funds appropriated by section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 612c), as may be necessary, in addition to the funds now available therefor, to carry out the purposes of section 11 of the [Richard B. Russell] National School Lunch Act [section 1759a of this title] and provide a rate of reimbursement which will assure every needy child of free or reduced price lunches during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, and to carry out the purposes of section 4 of the [Richard B. Russell] National School Lunch Act [this section] and provide an average rate of reimbursement of 6 cents per meal within each State. In determining the amount of funds needed and the requirements of the various States therefor, the Secretary shall consult with the National Advisory Council on Child Nutrition and interested parties. Funds expended under the foregoing provisions of this resolution shall be reimbursed out of any supplemental appropriation hereafter enacted [on and after Nov. 5, 1971] for the purpose of carrying out section 4 [this section] and section 11 of the [Richard B. Russell] National School Lunch Act [section 1759a of this title], and such reimbursements shall be deposited into the fund established pursuant to section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 [section 612c of Title 7, Agriculture], to be available for the purposes of said section 32 [section 612c of Title 7]."

Apportionment of Additional Funds to States

Pub. L. 92–433, §4(b), Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 726, provided that: "Funds made available pursuant to this section shall be apportioned to the States in such manner as will best enable schools to meet their obligations with respect to the service of free and reduced-price lunches and to meet the objective of this section with respect to providing a minimum rate of reimbursement under section 4 of the [Richard B. Russell] National School Lunch Act [this section], and such funds shall be apportioned and paid as expeditiously as may be practicable."

Pub. L. 92–153, §2, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 420, provided that: "Funds made available by this joint resolution [amending sections 1758 and 1759a of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1758 and 1773 of this title] shall be apportioned to the States in such manner as will best enable schools to meet their obligations with respect to the service of free and reduced price lunches and to meet the objective of this joint resolution [amending sections 1758 and 1759a of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1758 and 1773 of this title] with respect to providing a minimum rate of reimbursement under section 4 of the [Richard B. Russell] National School Lunch Act [this section], and such funds shall be apportioned and paid as expeditiously as may be practicable."

§1754. Nutrition promotion

(a) In general

Subject to the availability of funds made available under subsection (g), the Secretary shall make payments to State agencies for each fiscal year, in accordance with this section, to promote nutrition in food service programs under this chapter and the school breakfast program established under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).

(b) Total amount for each fiscal year

The total amount of funds available for a fiscal year for payments under this section shall equal not more than the product obtained by multiplying—

(1) ½ cent; by

(2) the number of lunches reimbursed through food service programs under this chapter during the second preceding fiscal year in schools, institutions, and service institutions that participate in the food service programs.

(c) Payments to States

(1) Allocation

Subject to paragraph (2), from the amount of funds available under subsection (g) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allocate to each State agency an amount equal to the greater of—

(A) a uniform base amount established by the Secretary; or

(B) an amount determined by the Secretary, based on the ratio that—

(i) the number of lunches reimbursed through food service programs under this chapter in schools, institutions, and service institutions in the State that participate in the food service programs; bears to

(ii) the number of lunches reimbursed through the food service programs in schools, institutions, and service institutions in all States that participate in the food service programs.

(2) Reductions

The Secretary shall reduce allocations to State agencies qualifying for an allocation under paragraph (1)(B), in a manner determined by the Secretary, to the extent necessary to ensure that the total amount of funds allocated under paragraph (1) is not greater than the amount appropriated under subsection (g).

(d) Use of payments

(1) Use by State agencies

A State agency may reserve, to support dissemination and use of nutrition messages and material developed by the Secretary, up to—

(A) 5 percent of the payment received by the State for a fiscal year under subsection (c); or

(B) in the case of a small State (as determined by the Secretary), a higher percentage (as determined by the Secretary) of the payment.

(2) Disbursement to schools and institutions

Subject to paragraph (3), the State agency shall disburse any remaining amount of the payment to school food authorities and institutions participating in food service programs described in subsection (a) to disseminate and use nutrition messages and material developed by the Secretary.

(3) Summer food service program for children

In addition to any amounts reserved under paragraph (1), in the case of the summer food service program for children established under section 1761 of this title, the State agency may—

(A) retain a portion of the funds made available under subsection (c) (as determined by the Secretary); and

(B) use the funds, in connection with the program, to disseminate and use nutrition messages and material developed by the Secretary.

(e) Documentation

A State agency, school food authority, and institution receiving funds under this section shall maintain documentation of nutrition promotion activities conducted under this section.

(f) Reallocation

The Secretary may reallocate, to carry out this section, any amounts made available to carry out this section that are not obligated or expended, as determined by the Secretary.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section, to remain available until expended.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §5, as added Pub. L. 108–265, title I, §101, June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 730.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1754, acts June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §5, 60 Stat. 231; July 12, 1952, ch. 699, §1(b), 66 Stat. 591; Sept. 25, 1962, Pub. L. 87–688, §3(a), 76 Stat. 587; Oct. 15, 1962, Pub. L. 87–823, §3(a), 76 Stat. 945; Nov. 10, 1977, Pub. L. 95–166, §3, 91 Stat. 1332, related to amount, apportionment, etc., for food service equipment assistance, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §§805(a), 820(a)(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 527, 534, effective Oct. 1, 1981.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–265, title V, §502, June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 789, as amended by Pub. L. 108–447, div. A, title VII, §788(f), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2851, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note set out under section 1751 of this title], this Act and the amendments made by this Act take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [June 30, 2004].

"(b) Special Effective Dates.—

"(1) July 1, 2004.—The amendments made by sections 106, 107, 126(c), and 201 [amending sections 1758, 1773, and 1776 of this title] take effect on July 1, 2004.

"(2) October 1, 2004.—The amendments made by sections 119(c), 119(g), 202(a), 203(a), 203(b), 203(c)(1), 203(c)(5), 203(e)(8), 203(e)(10), 203(e)(13), 203(f), 203(h)(1), and 203(h)(2) [amending sections 1766, 1776, and 1786 of this title] take effect on October 1, 2004.

"(3) January 1, 2005.—The amendments made by sections 116(f)(1) and 116(f)(3) [amending section 1769 of this title] take effect on January 1, 2005.

"(4) July 1, 2005.—The amendments made by sections 102, 104 (other than section 104(a)(1)), 105, 111, and 126(b) [amending sections 1396a, 1758, 1759a, and 1769c of this title and section 2020 of Title 7, Agriculture] take effect on July 1, 2005.

"(5) October 1, 2005.—The amendments made by sections 116(d) and 203(e)(9) [amending sections 1761 and 1786 of this title] take effect on October 1, 2005."

§1755. Direct expenditures for agricultural commodities and other foods

(a) Administrative expenses; nutritional education; pilot projects; cash-in-lieu of commodities study; refusal of commodities and receipt of other commodities available to the State in lieu of the refused commodities

The funds provided by appropriation or transfer from other accounts for any fiscal year for carrying out the provisions of this chapter, and for carrying out the provisions of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.], other than section 3 thereof [42 U.S.C. 1772] less

(1) not to exceed 3½ per centum thereof which per centum is hereby made available to the Secretary for the Secretary's administrative expenses under this chapter and under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.];

(2) the amount apportioned by the Secretary pursuant to section 1753 of this title and the amount appropriated pursuant to sections 1759a and 1761 of this title and sections 4 and 7 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1773 and 1776]; and

(3) not to exceed 1 per centum of the funds provided for carrying out the programs under this chapter and the programs under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.], other than section 3 [42 U.S.C. 1772], which per centum is hereby made available to the Secretary to supplement the nutritional benefits of these programs through grants to States and other means for nutritional training and education for workers, cooperators, and participants in these programs, for pilot projects and the cash-in-lieu of commodities study required to be carried out under section 1769 of this title, and for necessary surveys and studies of requirements for food service programs in furtherance of the purposes expressed in section 1751 of this title, and section 2 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771],


shall be available to the Secretary during such year for direct expenditure by the Secretary for agricultural commodities and other foods to be distributed among the States and schools and service institutions participating in the food service programs under this chapter and under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.] in accordance with the needs as determined by the local school and service institution authorities. Except as provided in the next 2 sentences, any school participating in food service programs under this chapter may refuse to accept delivery of not more than 20 percent of the total value of agricultural commodities and other foods tendered to it in any school year; and if a school so refuses, that school may receive, in lieu of the refused commodities, other commodities to the extent that other commodities are available to the State during that year. Any school food authority may refuse some or all of the fresh fruits and vegetables offered to the school food authority in any school year and shall receive, in lieu of the offered fruits and vegetables, other more desirable fresh fruits and vegetables that are at least equal in value to the fresh fruits and vegetables refused by the school food authority. The value of any fresh fruits and vegetables refused by a school under the preceding sentence for a school year shall not be used to determine the 20 percent of the total value of agricultural commodities and other foods tendered to the school food authority in the school year under the second sentence. The provisions of law contained in the proviso of section 713c of title 15, facilitating operations with respect to the purchase and disposition of surplus agricultural commodities under section 612c of title 7, shall, to the extent not inconsistent with the provision of this chapter, also be applicable to expenditures of funds by the Secretary under this chapter. In making purchases of such agricultural commodities and other foods, the Secretary shall not issue specifications which restrict participation of local producers unless such specifications will result in significant advantages to the food service programs authorized by this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966.

(b) Delivery of commodities

The Secretary shall deliver, to each State participating in the school lunch program under this chapter, commodities valued at the total level of assistance authorized under subsection (c) 1 for each school year for the school lunch program in the State, not later than September 30 of the following school year.

(c) Level of commodity assistance; computation of index; calculation of total assistance to each State; emphasis on high protein foods; per meal value of donated foods

(1)(A) The national average value of donated foods, or cash payments in lieu thereof, shall be 11 cents, adjusted on July 1, 1982, and each July 1 thereafter to reflect changes in the Price Index for Food Used in Schools and Institutions. The Index shall be computed using 5 major food components in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Producer Price Index (cereal and bakery products, meats, poultry and fish, dairy products, processed fruits and vegetables, and fats and oils). Each component shall be weighed using the same relative weight as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

(B) The value of food assistance for each meal shall be adjusted each July 1 by the annual percentage change in a 3-month average value of the Price Index for Foods Used in Schools and Institutions for March, April, and May each year. Such adjustment shall be computed to the nearest ¼ cent.

(C) For each school year, the total commodity assistance or cash in lieu thereof available to a State for the school lunch program shall be calculated by multiplying the number of lunches served in the preceding school year by the rate established by subparagraph (B). After the end of each school year, the Secretary shall reconcile the number of lunches served by schools in each State with the number of lunches served by schools in each State during the preceding school year and increase or reduce subsequent commodity assistance or cash in lieu thereof provided to each State based on such reconciliation.

(D) Among those commodities delivered under this section, the Secretary shall give special emphasis to high protein foods, meat, and meat alternates (which may include domestic seafood commodities and their products).

(E) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, not less than 75 percent of the assistance provided under this subsection shall be in the form of donated foods for the school lunch program.

(2) To the maximum extent feasible, each State agency shall offer to each school food authority under its jurisdiction that participates in the school lunch program and receives commodities, agricultural commodities and their products, the per meal value of which is not less than the national average value of donated foods established under paragraph (1). Each such offer shall include the full range of such commodities and products that are available from the Secretary to the extent that quantities requested are sufficient to allow efficient delivery to and within the State.

(d) Termination of commodity assistance based upon school breakfast program

Beginning with the school year ending June 30, 1981, the Secretary shall not offer commodity assistance based upon the number of breakfasts served to children under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1773].

(e) Minimum percentage of commodity assistance

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), in each school year the Secretary shall ensure that not less than 12 percent of the assistance provided under section 1753 of this title, this section, and section 1759a of this title shall be in the form of—

(A) commodity assistance provided under this section, including cash in lieu of commodities and administrative costs for procurement of commodities under this section; or

(B) during the period beginning October 1, 2003, and ending September 30, 2018, commodities provided by the Secretary under any provision of law.


(2) If amounts available to carry out the requirements of the sections described in paragraph (1) are insufficient to meet the requirement contained in paragraph (1) for a school year, the Secretary shall, to the extent necessary, use the authority provided under section 1762a(a) of this title to meet the requirement for the school year.

(f) Pilot project for procurement of unprocessed fruits and vegetables

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct a pilot project under which the Secretary shall facilitate the procurement of unprocessed fruits and vegetables in not more than 8 States receiving funds under this chapter.

(2) Purpose

The purpose of the pilot project required by this subsection is to provide selected States flexibility for the procurement of unprocessed fruits and vegetables by permitting each State—

(A) to utilize multiple suppliers and products established and qualified by the Secretary; and

(B) to allow geographic preference, if desired, in the procurement of the products under the pilot project.

(3) Selection and participation

(A) In general

The Secretary shall select States for participation in the pilot project in accordance with criteria established by the Secretary and terms and conditions established for participation.

(B) Requirement

The Secretary shall ensure that at least 1 project is located in a State in each of—

(i) the Pacific Northwest Region;

(ii) the Northeast Region;

(iii) the Western Region;

(iv) the Midwest Region; and

(v) the Southern Region.

(4) Priority

In selecting States for participation in the pilot project, the Secretary shall prioritize applications based on—

(A) the quantity and variety of growers of local fruits and vegetables in the States on a per capita basis;

(B) the demonstrated commitment of the States to farm-to-school efforts, as evidenced by prior efforts to increase and promote farm-to-school programs in the States; and

(C) whether the States contain a sufficient quantity of local educational agencies, various population sizes, and geographical locations.

(5) Recordkeeping and reporting requirements

(A) Recordkeeping requirement

States selected to participate in the pilot project, and participating school food authorities within those States, shall keep records of the fruits and vegetables received under the pilot project in such manner and form as requested by the Secretary.

(B) Reporting requirement

Each participating State shall submit to the Secretary a report on the success of the pilot project in the State, including information on—

(i) the quantity and cost of each type of fruit and vegetable received by the State under the pilot project; and

(ii) the benefit provided by those procurements in conducting school food service in the State, including meeting school meal requirements.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §6, 60 Stat. 231; Pub. L. 87–823, §3(b), Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 90–302, §2(a), May 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 91–248, §3, May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 209; Pub. L. 93–13, §2, Mar. 30, 1973, 87 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 93–150, §5, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 562; Pub. L. 93–326, §3, June 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 286; Pub. L. 94–105, §§4, 11, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 511, 515; Pub. L. 95–166, §§5, 7, 10(1), 19(a), Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1334–1336, 1345; Pub. L. 95–627, §§5(b), 12(a), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3619, 3625; Pub. L. 96–499, title II, §202(b), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2600; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §§802, 819(h), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 524, 533; Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §§321, 371(c)(2), Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–360, 1783-369, and Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §§321, 371(c)(2), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–364, 3341-372; Pub. L. 99–661, div. D, title II, §4201, title V, §4501(c)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4071, 4080; Pub. L. 100–237, §3(j), Jan. 8, 1988, 101 Stat. 1738; Pub. L. 101–147, title I, §131(a), title III, §302, Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 906, 913; Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §§101–103, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4700, 4701; Pub. L. 105–336, title I, §101(a), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3144; Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §411, Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1917; Pub. L. 106–224, title II, §241(b), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 410; Pub. L. 107–171, title IV, §4301(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 111–80, title VII, §749(a), Oct. 21, 2009, 123 Stat. 2131; Pub. L. 111–296, title IV, §401, Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3259; Pub. L. 113–79, title IV, §4202, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 116–6, div. B, title VII, §775, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 90.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of this title and Tables.

Subsection (c), referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed and subsec. (e) was redesignated (c) by Pub. L. 105–336, title I, §101(a), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3144.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 116–6 substituted "September 30, 2018" for "September 30, 2020".

2014—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–79 added subsec. (f).

2010—Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–296 substituted "2020" for "2010".

2009—Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–80 substituted "2010" for "2009".

2002—Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–171 substituted "2003" for "2001".

2000—Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 106–224 substituted "2001" for "2000".

1999—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 106–170 designated existing provisions as introductory provisions and subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1998—Subsecs. (c) to (g). Pub. L. 105–336 redesignated subsecs. (e) to (g) as (c) to (e), respectively, and struck out former subsecs. (c) and (d) which read as follows:

"(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary, until such time as a supplemental appropriation may provide additional funds for the purpose of subsection (b) of this section, shall use funds appropriated by section 612c of title 7 to make any payments to States authorized under such subsection. Any section 612c of title 7 funds utilized to make such payments shall be reimbursed out of any supplemental appropriation hereafter enacted for the purpose of carrying out subsection (b) of this section and such reimbursement shall be deposited into the fund established pursuant to section 612c of title 7 to be available for the purpose of said section 612c of title 7.

"(d) Any funds made available under subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall not be subject to the State matching provisions of section 1756 of this title."

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–448, §101, substituted in second sentence "Except as provided in the next 2 sentences, any school" for "Any school" and inserted after second sentence "Any school food authority may refuse some or all of the fresh fruits and vegetables offered to the school food authority in any school year and shall receive, in lieu of the offered fruits and vegetables, other more desirable fresh fruits and vegetables that are at least equal in value to the fresh fruits and vegetables refused by the school food authority. The value of any fresh fruits and vegetables refused by a school under the preceding sentence for a school year shall not be used to determine the 20 percent of the total value of agricultural commodities and other foods tendered to the school food authority in the school year under the second sentence."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–448, §102, amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to cash donations in lieu of commodity donations during school year for school food service programs and withholding of funds for States administered by Secretary for disbursement to participating schools to be used to purchase commodities and other food for their food service programs.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–448, §103, added subsec. (g).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–147, §302, substituted "the Secretary's" for "his" in par. (1), substituted "the Secretary" for "him" in par. (2), and, in concluding provisions, substituted "expenditure by the Secretary" for "expenditure by him" and made technical amendments to the references to section 713c of title 15 and section 612c of title 7 involving underlying provisions of original act and requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–147, §131(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "The national average value of donated foods, or cash payments in lieu thereof, shall be 11 cents, adjusted on July 1, 1982, and each July 1 thereafter to reflect changes in the Price Index for Food Used in Schools and Institutions. The Index shall be computed using five major food components in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Producer Price Index (cereal and bakery products, meats, poultry and fish, dairy products, processed fruits and vegetables, and fats and oils). Each component shall be weighted using the same relative weight as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The value of food assistance for each meal shall be adjusted each July 1 by the annual percentage change in a three-month simple average value of the Price Index for Foods Used in Schools and Institutions for March, April, and May each year. Such adjustment shall be computed to the nearest one-fourth cent. Among those commodities delivered under this section, the Secretary shall give special emphasis to high protein foods, meat, and meat alternates (which may include domestic seafood commodities and their products). Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, not less than 75 per centum of the assistance provided under this subsection (e) shall be in the form of donated foods for the school lunch program."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–147, §131(a)(2), substituted "To the maximum extent feasible, each State agency" for "Each State agency".

1988—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–237 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1986—Subsecs. (a)(3), (b). Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661, amended section identically, in subsec. (a)(3), making technical amendment to reference to section 1769 of this title to reflect renumbering of corresponding section of original act and, in subsec. (b), substituting "June 1" for "May 15" and "July 1" for "June 15".

1981—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, §819(h), struck out references to section 1754 of this title, and section 5 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–35, §802, substituted provisions requiring value to be set at 11 cents, as adjusted on July 1, 1982, and each July 1, thereafter, for provisions requiring value to be set at not less than 10 cents, as adjusted on an annual basis each school year after June 30, 1975.

1980—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–499 added subsec. (f).

1978—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–627, §5(b), substituted provision relating to Price Index for Food Used in Schools and Institutions for provision relating to Consumer Price Index.

Pub. L. 95–627, §12(a), which provided for inserting "(which may include domestic seafood commodities and their products)" after "alternatives" was executed by inserting that parenthetical after "alternates" as the probable intent of Congress.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–166, §§7, 10(1), inserted provision which authorized refusal of commodities and receipt of other commodities available to State, in lieu of refused commodities, and in cl. (3) authorized grants for pilot projects and cash-in-lieu of commodities study required to be carried out under section 1769 of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–166, §5, in revising subsec. (b), changed commodity distribution program to a school year from a fiscal year basis, and among other changes, extended deadline for estimated valuation and payment to May 15 and June 15 from February 15 and March 15, and struck out provision respecting apportionment among State educational agencies on basis of meals served in all the States during the fiscal year and specific reference to regulations of the Department of Agriculture under title 7, subtitle (b), chapter II, subchapter (a), parts 210 and 220.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–166, §19(a), substituted "school years" and "school year after June 30, 1975" for "fiscal years" and "fiscal year after June 30, 1975", respectively.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–105, §11(a), inserted provision prohibiting issuance of specifications in purchase of agricultural commodities and other foods unless such specifications result in significant advantages to the authorized food service programs.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–105, §4, substituted references to all schools of States for references to only nonprofit private schools of States in provisions covering Secretary's direct administration of school food service programs.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–105, §11(b), inserted provision mandating that not less than 75 per centum of assistance under this subsection shall be in form of donated foods for the school lunch program.

1974—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–326 added subsec. (e).

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–13 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–150, in revising text to make provisions applicable each fiscal year rather than only for fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, substituted in: first sentence, "As of February 15 of each fiscal year" and "during that fiscal year" for "As of March 15, 1973" and "during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973"; second sentence, "for that fiscal year", "March 15 of that fiscal year", and "as of February 15 of such fiscal year" for "for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973", "April 15, 1973", and "as of March 15, 1973"; third sentence, "during the preceding fiscal year" for "during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972"; and proviso of third sentence, "during that fiscal year" for "during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972,".

Pub. L. 93–13 added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–150 reenacted provisions without change.

Pub. L. 93–13 added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–150 reenacted provisions without change.

Pub. L. 93–13 added subsec. (d).

1970Pub. L. 91–248 increased amount authorized for administrative expenses by 3½ percent of the amount appropriated to carry out this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966, other than section 1772 of this title, made such amount available for the Secretary's administrative expenses, authorized use of up to 1 percent of the funds appropriated for this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966, other than section 1772 of this title, for nutritional training and education and studies of food service requirements in connection with those programs, reduced, to the extent funds were used for administrative expenses other than for this chapter or nutritional training or education or studies, the share of this chapter's appropriations which may be used for direct expenditure by the Secretary for agricultural commodities and other foods, and authorized distribution of such foods to schools and service institutions participating in food service programs under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966.

1968Pub. L. 90–302 inserted "except section 1761 of this title" after "The funds appropriated for any fiscal year for carrying out the provisions of this chapter,".

1962Pub. L. 87–823 substituted ", less the amount apportioned by him pursuant to sections 1753, 1754, and 1759 of this title, and less the amount appropriated pursuant to section 1759a of this title" for "and less the amount apportioned to him pursuant to sections 1753, 1754, and 1759 of this title".

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–296 effective Oct. 1, 2010, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 445 of Pub. L. 111–296, set out as a note under section 1751 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–171, title IV, §4301(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 330, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] takes effect on the date of enactment of this Act [May 13, 2002]."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–336, title IV, §401, Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3170, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1998 Amendment note set out under section 1751 of this title], this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on October 1, 1998."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–448, title IV, §401, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4751, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 1751 of this title], this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall become effective on October 1, 1994."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–147, title I, §131(c), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 907, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1766 of this title] shall become effective on July 1, 1989."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by sections 802 and 819(h) of Pub. L. 97–35 effective July 1, 1981, and Oct. 1, 1981, respectively, see section 820(a)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–627, §14, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3625, provided that: "The provisions of this Act [enacting section 1769c of this title, amending this section and sections 1757, 1760, 1761, 1762a, 1766, 1769, 1773, 1774, 1776, 1784, and 1786 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1751, 1773, and 1786 of this title], except sections 4, 5, and 8, shall become effective October 1, 1978. The provisions of section 4 of this Act [amending section 1759a of this title] shall become effective Jan[u]ary 1, 1979. The provisions of sections 5 [amending this section and sections 1759a, 1761, and 1772 of this title] and 8 [amending section 1758 of this title] of this Act shall become effective July 1, 1979, except that the Secretary may make the necessary changes in the income poverty guidelines for the special supplemental food program under section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [section 1786 of this title] not earlier than October 1, 1978, and not later than July 1, 1979."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–166, §19, Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1345, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective July 1, 1977.

Reduction in Commodity Assistance for Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1981

Pub. L. 96–499, title II, §202(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2600, provided that for the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1981, the national average value of donated foods or cash payments in lieu thereof, as determined under subsec. (e) of this section, shall be reduced by 2 cents, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §820(b)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 535, effective July 1, 1981.

Congressional Findings and Declaration of Purpose

Pub. L. 93–13, §1, Mar. 30, 1973, 87 Stat. 9, provided that: "The Congress finds that the volume and variety of Federal food donations to the school lunch and child nutrition programs are significantly below the amounts programed and budgeted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, and that schools participating in these programs are confronted with serious financial problems in obtaining sufficient supplies of the foods required to meet the nutritional standards established by law for these programs. It is, therefore, the purpose of this Act [amending this section] to provide an effective and immediate solution to this nutritional crisis."

1 See References in Text note below.

§1755a. Whole grain products

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to encourage greater awareness and interest in the number and variety of whole grain products available to schoolchildren, as recommended by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

(b) Definition of eligible whole grains and whole grain products

In this section, the terms "whole grains" and "whole grain products" have the meaning given the terms by the Food and Nutrition Service in the HealthierUS School Challenge.

(c) Purchase of whole grains and whole grain products

In addition to the commodities delivered under section 6 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1755), the Secretary shall purchase whole grains and whole grain products for use in—

(1) the school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.); and

(2) the school breakfast program established by section 1773 of this title.

(d) Evaluation

Not later than September 30, 2011, the Secretary shall conduct an evaluation of the activities conducted under subsection (c) that includes—

(1) an evaluation of whether children participating in the school lunch and breakfast programs increased their consumption of whole grains;

(2) an evaluation of which whole grains and whole grain products are most acceptable for use in the school lunch and breakfast programs;

(3) any recommendations of the Secretary regarding the integration of whole grain products in the school lunch and breakfast programs; and

(4) an evaluation of any other outcomes determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.

(e) Report

As soon as practicable after the completion of the evaluation under subsection (d), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate and the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representative a report describing the results of the evaluation.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4305, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1131; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4305, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1892.)

References in Text

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical sections. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Section was enacted as part of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, and not as part of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Enactment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Section effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date of 2008 Amendment note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Definition of "Secretary"

"Secretary" as meaning the Secretary of Agriculture, see section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

§1755b. Pulse crop products

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to encourage greater awareness and interest in the number and variety of pulse crop products available to schoolchildren, as recommended by the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans published under section 5341 of title 7.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Eligible pulse crop

The term "eligible pulse crop" means dry beans, dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas.

(2) Pulse crop product

The term "pulse crop product" means a food product derived in whole or in part from an eligible pulse crop.

(c) Purchase of pulse crops and pulse crop products

In addition to the commodities delivered under section 6 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1755), subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall purchase eligible pulse crops and pulse crop products for use in—

(1) the school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.); and

(2) the school breakfast program established by section 1773 of this title.

(d) Evaluation

Not later than September 30, 2016, the Secretary shall conduct an evaluation of the activities conducted under subsection (c), including—

(1) an evaluation of whether children participating in the school lunch and breakfast programs described in subsection (c) increased overall consumption of eligible pulse crops as a result of the activities;

(2) an evaluation of which eligible pulse crops and pulse crop products are most acceptable for use in the school lunch and breakfast programs;

(3) any recommendations of the Secretary regarding the integration of the use of pulse crop products in carrying out the school lunch and breakfast programs;

(4) an evaluation of any change in the nutrient composition in the school lunch and breakfast programs due to the activities; and

(5) an evaluation of any other outcomes determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.

(e) Report

As soon as practicable after the completion of the evaluation under subsection (d), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representative a report describing the results of the evaluation.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $10,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 113–79, title IV, §4213, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 830.)

References in Text

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Agricultural Act of 2014, and not as part of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act which comprises this chapter.

Definition of "Secretary"

"Secretary" as meaning the Secretary of Agriculture, see section 9001 of Title 7, Agriculture.

§1756. Payments to States

(a) State revenue matching requirements; special provisions for lower than average income per capita States

(1) Funds appropriated to carry out section 1753 of this title during any fiscal year shall be available for payment to the States for disbursement by State educational agencies in accordance with such agreements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter, as may be entered into by the Secretary and such State educational agencies for the purpose of assisting schools within the States in obtaining agricultural commodities and other foods for consumption by children in furtherance of the school lunch program authorized under this chapter. For any school year, such payments shall be made to a State only if, during such school year, the amount of the State revenues (excluding State revenues derived from the operation of the program) appropriated or used specifically for program purposes (other than any State revenues expended for salaries and administrative expenses of the program at the State level) is not less than 30 percent of the funds made available to such State under section 1753 of this title for the school year beginning July 1, 1980.

(2) If, for any school year, the per capita income of a State is less than the average per capita income of all the States, the amount required to be expended by a State under paragraph (1) for such year shall be an amount bearing the same ratio to the amount equal to 30 percent of the funds made available to such State under section 1753 of this title for the school year beginning July 1, 1980, as the per capita income of such State bears to the average per capita income of all the States.

(b) Disbursements; private schools

The State revenues provided by any State to meet the requirement of subsection (a) shall, to the extent the State deems practicable, be disbursed to schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter. No State in which the State educational agency is prohibited by law from disbursing State appropriated funds to private schools shall be required to match Federal funds made available for meals served in such schools, or to disburse, to such schools, any of the State revenues required to meet the requirements of subsection (a).

(c) Certification of payments by Secretary

The Secretary shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury, from time to time, the amounts to be paid to any State under this section and shall specify when such payments are to be made. The Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to the State, at the time or times fixed by the Secretary, the amounts so certified.

(d) Combined Federal and State commodity purchases

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may enter into an agreement with a State agency, acting on the request of a school food service authority, under which funds payable to the State under section 1753 or 1759a of this title may be used by the Secretary for the purpose of purchasing commodities for use by the school food service authority in meals served under the school lunch program under this chapter.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §7, 60 Stat. 232; Pub. L. 91–248, §4, May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 209; Pub. L. 92–433, §10, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 94–105, §5, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 95–166, §19(b), Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1345; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §804, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 101–147, title III, §303, Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 913; Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §104, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4701.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–448 added subsec. (d).

1989Pub. L. 101–147, §303(a), inserted "Payments to States" as section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–147, §303(b), substituted "the" for "the the" before "school year beginning".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and substituted provisions relating to funds appropriated to carry out section 1753 of this title during any fiscal year, for provisions relating to funds appropriated to carry out sections 1753 and 1754 of this title during any fiscal year.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 97–35 added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1977Pub. L. 95–166, among other changes, substituted in first sentence "Funds appropriated to carry out" and "food service equipment assistance" for "Funds apportioned to any State pursuant to" and "nonfood assistance"; substituted in third sentence "fiscal or school year thereafter" for "fiscal year thereafter"; substituted in fourth sentence "fiscal or school year" for "fiscal year"; and substituted sixth sentence "For the school year beginning in 1976, State revenue (other than revenues derived from the program) appropriated or used specifically for program purposes (other than salaries and administrative expenses at the State, as distinguished from local, level) shall constitute at least 8 percent of the matching requirement for the preceding school year, or, at the discretion of the Secretary, fiscal year, and for each school year thereafter, at least 10 percent of the matching requirement for the preceding school year" for "For the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1971, and the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1972, State revenue (other than revenues derived from the program) appropriated or utilized specifically for program purposes (other than salaries and administrative expenses at the State, as distinguished from local, level) shall constitute at least 4 per centum of the matching requirement for the preceding fiscal year; for each of the two succeeding fiscal years, at least 6 per centum of the matching requirement for the preceding fiscal year; for each of the subsequent two fiscal years, at least 8 per centum of the matching requirement for the preceding fiscal year; and for each fiscal year thereafter at least 10 per centum of the matching requirement for the preceding fiscal year".

1975Pub. L. 94–105 made requirements of section that each dollar of Federal assistance be matched by $3 from sources within the State inapplicable with respect to the payments made to participating schools under section 1753 of this title, with the proviso that such inapplicability not affect the level of State matching required by the sixth sentence of the section.

1972Pub. L. 92–433 substituted "per centum of the matching requirement for the preceding fiscal year" for "per centum of the matching requirement" in four places.

1970Pub. L. 91–248 inserted provision requiring that State revenues represent a prescribed minimum of the local funds required to match Federal funds apportioned under this chapter, required that amounts derived by the State from the program, or expended by it for salaries or administrative expenses at the State level, would not count toward meeting the State revenue share of the matching requirement, and required State funds disbursed to each school, to the extent practicable, on the basis of its share of the funds apportioned for the regular school lunch program, the special assistance program to schools to assure lunches for low-income children, the school breakfast program for needy children, and the nonfood assistance program for schools drawing from poor economic areas.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–448 effective Oct. 1, 1994, see section 401 of Pub. L. 103–448, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective July 1, 1981, see section 820(a)(2) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–166, §19, Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1345, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective July 1, 1977.

§1757. State disbursement to schools

(a) Disbursement by State educational agency

Funds paid to any State during any fiscal year pursuant to section 1753 of this title shall be disbursed by the State educational agency, in accordance with such agreements approved by the Secretary, as may be entered into by such State agency and the schools in the State, to those schools in the State which the State educational agency, taking into account need and attendance, determines are eligible to participate in the school lunch program.

(b) Permanent, amendable agreements

The agreements described in subsection (a) shall be permanent agreements that may be amended as necessary.

(c) Suspension or termination of agreements

The State educational agency may suspend or terminate any such agreement in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Use of funds

Use of funds paid to States may include, in addition to the purchase price of agricultural commodities and other foods, the cost of processing, distributing, transporting, storing or handling thereof.

(e) Limitation

In no event shall such disbursement for food to any school for any fiscal year exceed an amount determined by multiplying the number of lunches served in the school in the school lunch program under this chapter during such year by the maximum per meal reimbursement rate for the State, for the type of lunch served, as prescribed by the Secretary.

(f) Increase in meal reimbursement

In any fiscal year in which the national average payment per lunch determined under section 1753 of this title is increased above the amount prescribed in the previous fiscal year, the maximum per meal reimbursement rate, for the type of lunch served, shall be increased by a like amount.

(g) In advance or as reimbursement

Lunch assistance disbursements to schools under this section and under section 1759a of this title may be made in advance or by way of reimbursement in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Secretary.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §8, 60 Stat. 232; Pub. L. 92–433, §8, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 93–150, §2(b), Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 560; Pub. L. 95–166, §3, Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1332; Pub. L. 95–627, §10(d)(1), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3624; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §819(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 533; Pub. L. 101–147, title II, §201, title III, §§304, 312(1), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 908, 914, 916; Pub. L. 104–193, title VII, §701(a), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2287.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–193 designated first and second sentences as subsecs. (a) and (b), respectively, substituted "in subsection (a)" for "in the preceding sentence" in subsec. (b), designated third sentence as subsec. (c) and substituted "The State educational agency may" for "Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to limit the ability of the State educational agency to", struck out fourth and fifth sentences, designated sixth sentence as subsec. (d) and substituted "Use of funds paid to States" for "Such food costs", and designated seventh to ninth sentences as subsecs. (e) to (g), respectively. Prior to amendment, fourth and fifth sentences read as follows: "Such disbursement to any school shall be made only for the purpose of assisting it to obtain agricultural commodities and other foods for consumption by children in the school lunch program. The terms 'child' and 'children' as used in this chapter shall be deemed to include individuals regardless of age who are determined by the State educational agency, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to have 1 or more mental or physical handicaps and who are attending any child care institution as defined in section 1766 of this title or any nonresidential public or nonprofit private school of high school grade or under for the purpose of participating in a school program established for individuals with mental or physical handicaps: Provided, That no institution that is not otherwise eligible to participate in the program under section 1766 of this title shall be deemed so eligible because of this sentence."

1989Pub. L. 101–147, §312(1), substituted "school lunch" for "school-lunch" in three places.

Pub. L. 101–147, §304, which directed the amendment of subsec. (d) by substituting "individuals" for "persons", "to have 1 or more mental or physical handicaps" for "to be mentally or physically handicapped", and "for individuals with mental or physical handicaps" for "for mentally or physically handicapped", was executed by making the substitutions in the undesignated text before the proviso as the probable intent of Congress because the section contains no subsection designations.

Pub. L. 101–147, §201, inserted after first sentence "The agreements described in the preceding sentence shall be permanent agreements that may be amended as necessary. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to limit the ability of the State educational agency to suspend or terminate any such agreement in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary."

1981Pub. L. 97–35 substituted references to per meal reimbursement rate, for references to Federal food-cost contribution rate wherever appearing, and struck out reference to section 1754 of this title, and food service equipment assistance.

1978Pub. L. 95–627 inserted provision relating to definition of "child" and "children".

1977Pub. L. 95–166 substituted "food service equipment assistance" for "nonfood assistance".

1973Pub. L. 93–150 provided that in any fiscal year in which the national average payment per lunch determined under section 1753 of this title is increased above the amount prescribed in the previous fiscal year, the maximum Federal food-cost contribution rate, for the type of lunch served, shall be increased by a like amount.

1972Pub. L. 92–433 substituted provision that disbursement to schools be made for the purpose of assisting them to finance the costs of agricultural commodities, for provision that such disbursement be made for the purpose of reimbursing them for such costs and inserted provision that lunch assistance disbursements to schools under this section and section 1759a of this title may be made in advance or by way of reimbursement according to procedure prescribed by the Secretary.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 820(a)(4) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–627 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 14 of Pub. L. 95–627, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

§1758. Program requirements

(a) Nutritional requirements

(1)(A) Lunches served by schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter shall meet minimum nutritional requirements prescribed by the Secretary on the basis of tested nutritional research, except that the minimum nutritional requirements—

(i) shall not be construed to prohibit the substitution of foods to accommodate the medical or other special dietary needs of individual students; and

(ii) shall, at a minimum, be based on the weekly average of the nutrient content of school lunches.


(B) The Secretary shall provide technical assistance and training, including technical assistance and training in the preparation of lower-fat versions of foods commonly used in the school lunch program under this chapter, to schools participating in the school lunch program to assist the schools in complying with the nutritional requirements prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to subparagraph (A) and in providing appropriate meals to children with medically certified special dietary needs. The Secretary shall provide additional technical assistance to schools that are having difficulty maintaining compliance with the requirements.

(2) Fluid milk.—

(A) In general.—Lunches served by schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter—

(i) shall offer students a variety of fluid milk. Such milk shall be consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans published under section 5341 of title 7;

(ii) may offer students flavored and unflavored fluid milk and lactose-free fluid milk; and

(iii) shall provide a substitute for fluid milk for students whose disability restricts their diet, on receipt of a written statement from a licensed physician that identifies the disability that restricts the student's diet and that specifies the substitute for fluid milk.


(B) Substitutes.—

(i) Standards for substitution.—A school may substitute for the fluid milk provided under subparagraph (A), a nondairy beverage that is nutritionally equivalent to fluid milk and meets nutritional standards established by the Secretary (which shall, among other requirements to be determined by the Secretary, include fortification of calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D to levels found in cow's milk) for students who cannot consume fluid milk because of a medical or other special dietary need other than a disability described in subparagraph (A)(iii).

(ii) Notice.—The substitutions may be made if the school notifies the State agency that the school is implementing a variation allowed under this subparagraph, and if the substitution is requested by written statement of a medical authority or by a student's parent or legal guardian that identifies the medical or other special dietary need that restricts the student's diet, except that the school shall not be required to provide beverages other than beverages the school has identified as acceptable substitutes.

(iii) Excess expenses borne by school food authority.—Expenses incurred in providing substitutions under this subparagraph that are in excess of expenses covered by reimbursements under this chapter shall be paid by the school food authority.


(C) Restrictions on sale of milk prohibited.—A school that participates in the school lunch program under this chapter shall not directly or indirectly restrict the sale or marketing of fluid milk products by the school (or by a person approved by the school) at any time or any place—

(i) on the school premises; or

(ii) at any school-sponsored event.


(3) Students in senior high schools that participate in the school lunch program under this chapter (and, when approved by the local school district or nonprofit private schools, students in any other grade level) shall not be required to accept offered foods they do not intend to consume, and any such failure to accept offered foods shall not affect the full charge to the student for a lunch meeting the requirements of this subsection or the amount of payments made under this chapter to any such school for such lunch.

(4) Provision of information.—

(A) Guidance.—Prior to the beginning of the school year beginning July 2004, the Secretary shall issue guidance to States and school food authorities to increase the consumption of foods and food ingredients that are recommended for increased serving consumption in the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans published under section 5341 of title 7.

(B) Rules.—Not later than 2 years after June 30, 2004, the Secretary shall promulgate rules, based on the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, that reflect specific recommendations, expressed in serving recommendations, for increased consumption of foods and food ingredients offered in school nutrition programs under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).

(C) Procurement and processing of food service products and commodities.—The Secretary shall—

(i) identify, develop, and disseminate to State departments of agriculture and education, school food authorities, local educational agencies, and local processing entities, model product specifications and practices for foods offered in school nutrition programs under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) to ensure that the foods reflect the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans published under section 5341 of title 7;

(ii) not later than 1 year after December 13, 2010—

(I) carry out a study to analyze the quantity and quality of nutritional information available to school food authorities about food service products and commodities; and

(II) submit to Congress a report on the results of the study that contains such legislative recommendations as the Secretary considers necessary to ensure that school food authorities have access to the nutritional information needed for menu planning and compliance assessments; and


(iii) to the maximum extent practicable, in purchasing and processing commodities for use in school nutrition programs under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), purchase the widest variety of healthful foods that reflect the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans.


(5) Water.—Schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter shall make available to children free of charge, as nutritionally appropriate, potable water for consumption in the place where meals are served during meal service.

(b) Eligibility

(1)(A) Not later than June 1 of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall prescribe income guidelines for determining eligibility for free and reduced price lunches during the 12-month period beginning July 1 of such fiscal year and ending June 30 of the following fiscal year. The income guidelines for determining eligibility for free lunches shall be 130 percent of the applicable family size income levels contained in the nonfarm income poverty guidelines prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget, as adjusted annually in accordance with subparagraph (B). The income guidelines for determining eligibility for reduced price lunches for any school year shall be 185 percent of the applicable family size income levels contained in the nonfarm income poverty guidelines prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget, as adjusted annually in accordance with subparagraph (B). The Office of Management and Budget guidelines shall be revised at annual intervals, or at any shorter interval deemed feasible and desirable.

(B) The revision required by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall be made by multiplying—

(i) the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget); by

(ii) the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index during the annual or other interval immediately preceding the time at which the adjustment is made.


Revisions under this subparagraph shall be made not more than 30 days after the date on which the consumer price index data required to compute the adjustment becomes available.

(2)(A) Following the determination by the Secretary under paragraph (1) of this subsection of the income eligibility guidelines for each school year, each State educational agency shall announce the income eligibility guidelines, by family size, to be used by schools in the State in making determinations of eligibility for free and reduced price lunches. Local school authorities shall, each year, publicly announce the income eligibility guidelines for free and reduced price lunches on or before the opening of school.

(B) Applications and descriptive material.—

(i) In general.—Applications for free and reduced price lunches, in such form as the Secretary may prescribe or approve, and any descriptive material, shall be distributed to the parents or guardians of children in attendance at the school, and shall contain only the family size income levels for reduced price meal eligibility with the explanation that households with incomes less than or equal to these values would be eligible for free or reduced price lunches.

(ii) Income eligibility guidelines.—Forms and descriptive material distributed in accordance with clause (i) may not contain the income eligibility guidelines for free lunches.

(iii) Contents of descriptive material.—

(I) In general.—Descriptive material distributed in accordance with clause (i) shall contain a notification that—

(aa) participants in the programs listed in subclause (II) may be eligible for free or reduced price meals; and

(bb) documentation may be requested for verification of eligibility for free or reduced price meals.


(II) Programs.—The programs referred to in subclause (I)(aa) are—

(aa) the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children established by section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1786);

(bb) the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.);

(cc) the food distribution program on Indian reservations established under section 4(b) of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2013(b)); and

(dd) a State program funded under the program of block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families established under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).


(3) Household applications.—

(A) Definition of household application.—In this paragraph, the term "household application" means an application for a child of a household to receive free or reduced price school lunches under this chapter, or free or reduced price school breakfasts under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), for which an eligibility determination is made other than under paragraph (4) or (5).

(B) Eligibility determination.—

(i) In general.—An eligibility determination shall be made on the basis of a complete household application executed by an adult member of the household or in accordance with guidance issued by the Secretary.

(ii) Electronic signatures and applications.—A household application may be executed using an electronic signature if—

(I) the application is submitted electronically; and

(II) the electronic application filing system meets confidentiality standards established by the Secretary.


(C) Children in household.—

(i) In general.—The household application shall identify the names of each child in the household for whom meal benefits are requested.

(ii) Separate applications.—A State educational agency or local educational agency may not request a separate application for each child in the household that attends schools under the same local educational agency.


(D) Verification of sample.—

(i) Definitions.—In this subparagraph:

(I) Error prone application.—The term "error prone application" means an approved household application that—

(aa) indicates monthly income that is within $100, or an annual income that is within $1,200, of the income eligibility limitation for free or reduced price meals; or

(bb) in lieu of the criteria established under item (aa), meets criteria established by the Secretary.


(II) Non-response rate.—The term "non-response rate" means (in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary) the percentage of approved household applications for which verification information has not been obtained by a local educational agency after attempted verification under subparagraphs (F) and (G).


(ii) Verification of sample.—Each school year, a local educational agency shall verify eligibility of the children in a sample of household applications approved for the school year by the local educational agency, as determined by the Secretary in accordance with this subsection.

(iii) Sample size.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the sample for a local educational agency for a school year shall equal the lesser of—

(I) 3 percent of all applications approved by the local educational agency for the school year, as of October 1 of the school year, selected from error prone applications; or

(II) 3,000 error prone applications approved by the local educational agency for the school year, as of October 1 of the school year.


(iv) Alternative sample size.—

(I) In general.—If the conditions described in subclause (IV) are met, the verification sample size for a local educational agency shall be the sample size described in subclause (II) or (III), as determined by the local educational agency.

(II) 3,000/3 percent option.—The sample size described in this subclause shall be the lesser of 3,000, or 3 percent of, applications selected at random from applications approved by the local educational agency for the school year, as of October 1 of the school year.

(III) 1,000/1 percent plus option.—

(aa) In general.—The sample size described in this subclause shall be the sum of—

(AA) the lesser of 1,000, or 1 percent of, all applications approved by the local educational agency for the school year, as of October 1 of the school year, selected from error prone applications; and

(BB) the lesser of 500, or ½ of 1 percent of, applications approved by the local educational agency for the school year, as of October 1 of the school year, that provide a case number (in lieu of income information) showing participation in a program described in item (bb) selected from those approved applications that provide a case number (in lieu of income information) verifying the participation.


(bb) Programs.—The programs described in this item are—

(AA) the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.);

(BB) the food distribution program on Indian reservations established under section 4(b) of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2013(b)); and

(CC) a State program funded under the program of block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families established under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995.


(IV) Conditions.—The conditions referred to in subclause (I) shall be met for a local educational agency for a school year if—

(aa) the nonresponse rate for the local educational agency for the preceding school year is less than 20 percent; or

(bb) the local educational agency has more than 20,000 children approved by application by the local educational agency as eligible for free or reduced price meals for the school year, as of October 1 of the school year, and—

(AA) the nonresponse rate for the preceding school year is at least 10 percent below the nonresponse rate for the second preceding school year; or

(BB) in the case of the school year beginning July 2005, the local educational agency attempts to verify all approved household applications selected for verification through use of public agency records from at least 2 of the programs or sources of information described in subparagraph (F)(i).


(v) Additional selected applications.—A sample for a local educational agency for a school year under clauses (iii) and (iv)(III)(AA) shall include the number of additional randomly selected approved household applications that are required to comply with the sample size requirements in those clauses.


(E) Preliminary review.—

(i) Review for accuracy.—

(I) In general.—Prior to conducting any other verification activity for approved household applications selected for verification, the local educational agency shall ensure that the initial eligibility determination for each approved household application is reviewed for accuracy by an individual other than the individual making the initial eligibility determination, unless otherwise determined by the Secretary.

(II) Waiver.—The requirements of subclause (I) shall be waived for a local educational agency if the local educational agency is using a technology-based solution that demonstrates a high level of accuracy, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, in processing an initial eligibility determination in accordance with the income eligibility guidelines of the school lunch program.


(ii) Correct eligibility determination.—If the review indicates that the initial eligibility determination is correct, the local educational agency shall verify the approved household application.

(iii) Incorrect eligibility determination.—If the review indicates that the initial eligibility determination is incorrect, the local educational agency shall (as determined by the Secretary)—

(I) correct the eligibility status of the household;

(II) notify the household of the change;

(III) in any case in which the review indicates that the household is not eligible for free or reduced-price meals, notify the household of the reason for the ineligibility and that the household may reapply with income documentation for free or reduced-price meals; and

(IV) in any case in which the review indicates that the household is eligible for free or reduced-price meals, verify the approved household application.


(F) Direct verification.—

(i) In general.—Subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), to verify eligibility for free or reduced price meals for approved household applications selected for verification, the local educational agency may (in accordance with criteria established by the Secretary) first obtain and use income and program participation information from a public agency administering—

(I) the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.);

(II) the food distribution program on Indian reservations established under section 4(b) of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2013(b));

(III) the temporary assistance for needy families program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.);

(IV) the State medicaid program under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.); or

(V) a similar income-tested program or other source of information, as determined by the Secretary.


(ii) Free meals.—Public agency records that may be obtained and used under clause (i) to verify eligibility for free meals for approved household applications selected for verification shall include the most recent available information (other than information reflecting program participation or income before the 180-day period ending on the date of application for free meals) that is relied on to administer—

(I) a program or source of information described in clause (i) (other than clause (i)(IV)); or

(II) the State plan for medical assistance under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.) in—

(aa) a State in which the income eligibility limit applied under section 1902(l)(2)(C) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1396a(l)(2)(C)) is not more than 133 percent of the official poverty line described in section 1902(l)(2)(A) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1396a(l)(2)(A)); or

(bb) a State that otherwise identifies households that have income that is not more than 133 percent of the official poverty line described in section 1902(l)(2)(A) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1396a(l)(2)(A)).


(iii) Reduced price meals.—Public agency records that may be obtained and used under clause (i) to verify eligibility for reduced price meals for approved household applications selected for verification shall include the most recent available information (other than information reflecting program participation or income before the 180-day period ending on the date of application for reduced price meals) that is relied on to administer—

(I) a program or source of information described in clause (i) (other than clause (i)(IV)); or

(II) the State plan for medical assistance under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.) in—

(aa) a State in which the income eligibility limit applied under section 1902(l)(2)(C) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1396a(l)(2)(C)) is not more than 185 percent of the official poverty line described in section 1902(l)(2)(A) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1396a(l)(2)(A)); or

(bb) a State that otherwise identifies households that have income that is not more than 185 percent of the official poverty line described in section 1902(l)(2)(A) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1396a(l)(2)(A)).


(iv) Evaluation.—Not later than 3 years after June 30, 2004, the Secretary shall complete an evaluation of—

(I) the effectiveness of direct verification carried out under this subparagraph in decreasing the portion of the verification sample that must be verified under subparagraph (G) while ensuring that adequate verification information is obtained; and

(II) the feasibility of direct verification by State agencies and local educational agencies.


(v) Expanded use of direct verification.—If the Secretary determines that direct verification significantly decreases the portion of the verification sample that must be verified under subparagraph (G), while ensuring that adequate verification information is obtained, and can be conducted by most State agencies and local educational agencies, the Secretary may require a State agency or local educational agency to implement direct verification through 1 or more of the programs described in clause (i), as determined by the Secretary, unless the State agency or local educational agency demonstrates (under criteria established by the Secretary) that the State agency or local educational agency lacks the capacity to conduct, or is unable to implement, direct verification.


(G) Household verification.—

(i) In general.—If an approved household application is not verified through the use of public agency records, a local educational agency shall provide to the household written notice that—

(I) the approved household application has been selected for verification; and

(II) the household is required to submit verification information to confirm eligibility for free or reduced price meals.


(ii) Phone number.—The written notice in clause (i) shall include a toll-free phone number that parents and legal guardians in households selected for verification can call for assistance with the verification process.

(iii) Followup activities.—If a household does not respond to a verification request, a local educational agency shall make at least 1 attempt to obtain the necessary verification from the household in accordance with guidelines and regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(iv) Contract authority for school food authorities.—A local educational agency may contract (under standards established by the Secretary) with a third party to assist the local educational agency in carrying out clause (iii).


(H) Verification deadline.—

(i) General deadline.—

(I) In general.—Subject to subclause (II), not later than November 15 of each school year, a local educational agency shall complete the verification activities required for the school year (including followup activities).

(II) Extension.—Under criteria established by the Secretary, a State may extend the deadline established under subclause (I) for a school year for a local educational agency to December 15 of the school year.


(ii) Eligibility changes.—Based on the verification activities, the local educational agency shall make appropriate modifications to the eligibility determinations made for household applications in accordance with criteria established by the Secretary.


(I) Local conditions.—In the case of a natural disaster, civil disorder, strike, or other local condition (as determined by the Secretary), the Secretary may substitute alternatives for—

(i) the sample size and sample selection criteria established under subparagraph (D); and

(ii) the verification deadline established under subparagraph (H).


(J) Individual review.—In accordance with criteria established by the Secretary, the local educational agency may, on individual review—

(i) decline to verify no more than 5 percent of approved household applications selected under subparagraph (D); and

(ii) replace the approved household applications with other approved household applications to be verified.


(K) Feasibility study.—

(i) In general.—The Secretary shall conduct a study of the feasibility of using computer technology (including data mining) to reduce—

(I) overcertification errors in the school lunch program under this chapter;

(II) waste, fraud, and abuse in connection with this paragraph; and

(III) errors, waste, fraud, and abuse in other nutrition programs, as determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.


(ii) Report.—Not later than 180 days after June 30, 2004, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report describing—

(I) the results of the feasibility study conducted under this subsection;

(II) how a computer system using technology described in clause (i) could be implemented;

(III) a plan for implementation; and

(IV) proposed legislation, if necessary, to implement the system.


(4) Direct certification for children in supplemental nutrition assistance program households.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (D), each State agency shall enter into an agreement with the State agency conducting eligibility determinations for the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.).

(B) Procedures.—Subject to paragraph (6), the agreement shall establish procedures under which a child who is a member of a household receiving assistance under the supplemental nutrition assistance program shall be certified as eligible for free lunches under this chapter and free breakfasts under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), without further application.

(C) Certification.—Subject to paragraph (6), under the agreement, the local educational agency conducting eligibility determinations for a school lunch program under this chapter and a school breakfast program under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) shall certify a child who is a member of a household receiving assistance under the supplemental nutrition assistance program as eligible for free lunches under this chapter and free breakfasts under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), without further application.

(D) Applicability.—This paragraph applies to—

(i) in the case of the school year beginning July 2006, a school district that had an enrollment of 25,000 students or more in the preceding school year;

(ii) in the case of the school year beginning July 2007, a school district that had an enrollment of 10,000 students or more in the preceding school year; and

(iii) in the case of the school year beginning July 2008 and each subsequent school year, each local educational agency.


(E) Performance awards.—

(i) In general.—Effective for each of the school years beginning July 1, 2011, July 1, 2012, and July 1, 2013, the Secretary shall offer performance awards to States to encourage the States to ensure that all children eligible for direct certification under this paragraph are certified in accordance with this paragraph.

(ii) Requirements.—For each school year described in clause (i), the Secretary shall—

(I) consider State data from the prior school year, including estimates contained in the report required under section 1758a of this title; and

(II) make performance awards to not more than 15 States that demonstrate, as determined by the Secretary—

(aa) outstanding performance; and

(bb) substantial improvement.


(iii) Use of funds.—A State agency that receives a performance award under clause (i)—

(I) shall treat the funds as program income; and

(II) may transfer the funds to school food authorities for use in carrying out the program.


(iv) Funding.—

(I) In general.—On October 1, 2011, and each subsequent October 1 through October 1, 2013, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Secretary—

(aa) $2,000,000 to carry out clause (ii)(II)(aa); and

(bb) $2,000,000 to carry out clause (ii)(II)(bb).


(II) Receipt and acceptance.—The Secretary shall be entitled to receive, shall accept, and shall use to carry out this clause the funds transferred under subclause (I), without further appropriation.


(v) Payments not subject to judicial review.—A determination by the Secretary whether, and in what amount, to make a performance award under this subparagraph shall not be subject to administrative or judicial review.


(F) Continuous improvement plans.—

(i) Definition of required percentage.—In this subparagraph, the term "required percentage" means—

(I) for the school year beginning July 1, 2011, 80 percent;

(II) for the school year beginning July 1, 2012, 90 percent; and

(III) for the school year beginning July 1, 2013, and each school year thereafter, 95 percent.


(ii) Requirements.—Each school year, the Secretary shall—

(I) identify, using data from the prior year, including estimates contained in the report required under section 1758a of this title, States that directly certify less than the required percentage of the total number of children in the State who are eligible for direct certification under this paragraph;

(II) require the States identified under subclause (I) to implement a continuous improvement plan to fully meet the requirements of this paragraph, which shall include a plan to improve direct certification for the following school year; and

(III) assist the States identified under subclause (I) to develop and implement a continuous improvement plan in accordance with subclause (II).


(iii) Failure to meet performance standard.—

(I) In general.—A State that is required to develop and implement a continuous improvement plan under clause (ii)(II) shall be required to submit the continuous improvement plan to the Secretary, for the approval of the Secretary.

(II) Requirements.—At a minimum, a continuous improvement plan under subclause (I) shall include—

(aa) specific measures that the State will use to identify more children who are eligible for direct certification, including improvements or modifications to technology, information systems, or databases;

(bb) a timeline for the State to implement those measures; and

(cc) goals for the State to improve direct certification results.


(G) Without further application.—

(i) In general.—In this paragraph, the term "without further application" means that no action is required by the household of the child.

(ii) Clarification.—A requirement that a household return a letter notifying the household of eligibility for direct certification or eligibility for free school meals does not meet the requirements of clause (i).


(5) Discretionary certification.—Subject to paragraph (6), any local educational agency may certify any child as eligible for free lunches or breakfasts, without further application, by directly communicating with the appropriate State or local agency to obtain documentation of the status of the child as—

(A) a member of a family that is receiving assistance under the temporary assistance for needy families program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995;

(B) a homeless child or youth (defined as 1 of the individuals described in section 11434a(2) of this title);

(C) served by the runaway and homeless youth grant program established under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (42 U.S.C. 5701 et seq.); 1

(D) a migratory child (as defined in section 6399 of title 20); or

(E)(i) a foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of an agency that administers a State plan under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.]; or

(ii) a foster child who a court has placed with a caretaker household.


(6) Use or disclosure of information.—

(A) In general.—The use or disclosure of any information obtained from an application for free or reduced price meals, or from a State or local agency referred to in paragraph (3)(F), (4), or (5), shall be limited to—

(i) a person directly connected with the administration or enforcement of this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) (including a regulation promulgated under either this chapter or that Act);

(ii) a person directly connected with the administration or enforcement of—

(I) a Federal education program;

(II) a State health or education program administered by the State or local educational agency (other than a program carried out under title XIX or XXI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 1397aa et seq.)); or

(III) a Federal, State, or local means-tested nutrition program with eligibility standards comparable to the school lunch program under this chapter;


(iii)(I) the Comptroller General of the United States for audit and examination authorized by any other provision of law; and

(II) notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Federal, State, or local law enforcement official for the purpose of investigating an alleged violation of any program covered by this paragraph or paragraph (3)(F), (4), or (5);

(iv) a person directly connected with the administration of the State medicaid program under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.) or the State children's health insurance program under title XXI of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1397aa et seq.) solely for the purposes of—

(I) identifying children eligible for benefits under, and enrolling children in, those programs, except that this subclause shall apply only to the extent that the State and the local educational agency or school food authority so elect; and

(II) verifying the eligibility of children for programs under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.); and


(v) a third party contractor described in paragraph (3)(G)(iv).


(B) Limitation on information provided.—Information provided under clause (ii) or (v) of subparagraph (A) shall be limited to the income eligibility status of the child for whom application for free or reduced price meal benefits is made or for whom eligibility information is provided under paragraph (3)(F), (4), or (5), unless the consent of the parent or guardian of the child for whom application for benefits was made is obtained.

(C) Criminal penalty.—A person described in subparagraph (A) who publishes, divulges, discloses, or makes known in any manner, or to any extent not authorized by Federal law (including a regulation), any information obtained under this subsection shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both.

(D) Requirements for waiver of confidentiality.—A State that elects to exercise the option described in subparagraph (A)(iv)(I) shall ensure that any local educational agency or school food authority acting in accordance with that option—

(i) has a written agreement with 1 or more State or local agencies administering health programs for children under titles XIX and XXI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq. and 1397aa et seq.) that requires the health agencies to use the information obtained under subparagraph (A) to seek to enroll children in those health programs; and

(ii)(I) notifies each household, the information of which shall be disclosed under subparagraph (A), that the information disclosed will be used only to enroll children in health programs referred to in subparagraph (A)(iv); and

(II) provides each parent or guardian of a child in the household with an opportunity to elect not to have the information disclosed.


(E) Use of disclosed information.—A person to which information is disclosed under subparagraph (A)(iv)(I) shall use or disclose the information only as necessary for the purpose of enrolling children in health programs referred to in subparagraph (A)(iv).


(7) Free and reduced price policy statement.—

(A) In general.—After the initial submission, a local educational agency shall not be required to submit a free and reduced price policy statement to a State educational agency under this chapter unless there is a substantive change in the free and reduced price policy of the local educational agency.

(B) Routine change.—A routine change in the policy of a local educational agency (such as an annual adjustment of the income eligibility guidelines for free and reduced price meals) shall not be sufficient cause for requiring the local educational agency to submit a policy statement.


(8) Communications.—

(A) In general.—Any communication with a household under this subsection or subsection (d) shall be in an understandable and uniform format and, to the maximum extent practicable, in a language that parents and legal guardians can understand.

(B) Electronic availability.—In addition to the distribution of applications and descriptive material in paper form as provided for in this paragraph, the applications and material may be made available electronically via the Internet.


(9) Eligibility for free and reduced price lunches.—

(A) Free lunches.—Any child who is a member of a household whose income, at the time the application is submitted, is at an annual rate which does not exceed the applicable family size income level of the income eligibility guidelines for free lunches, as determined under paragraph (1), shall be served a free lunch.

(B) Reduced price lunches.—

(i) In general.—Any child who is a member of a household whose income, at the time the application is submitted, is at an annual rate greater than the applicable family size income level of the income eligibility guidelines for free lunches, as determined under paragraph (1), but less than or equal to the applicable family size income level of the income eligibility guidelines for reduced price lunches, as determined under paragraph (1), shall be served a reduced price lunch.

(ii) Maximum price.—The price charged for a reduced price lunch shall not exceed 40 cents.


(C) Duration.—Except as otherwise specified in paragraph (3)(E), (3)(H)(ii), and section 1759a(a) of this title, eligibility for free or reduced price meals for any school year shall remain in effect—

(i) beginning on the date of eligibility approval for the current school year; and

(ii) ending on a date during the subsequent school year determined by the Secretary.


(10) No physical segregation of or other discrimination against any child eligible for a free lunch or a reduced price lunch under this subsection shall be made by the school nor shall there by 2 any overt identification of any child by special tokens or tickets, announced or published lists of names, or by other means.

(11) Any child who has a parent or guardian who (A) is responsible for the principal support of such child and (B) is unemployed shall be served a free or reduced price lunch, respectively, during any period (i) in which such child's parent or guardian continues to be unemployed and (ii) the income of the child's parents or guardians during such period of unemployment falls within the income eligibility criteria for free lunches or reduced price lunches, respectively, based on the current rate of income of such parents or guardians. Local educational agencies shall publicly announce that such children are eligible for a free or reduced price lunch, and shall make determinations with respect to the status of any parent or guardian of any child under clauses (A) and (B) of the preceding sentence on the basis of a statement executed in such form as the Secretary may prescribe by such parent or guardian. No physical segregation of, or other discrimination against, any child eligible for a free or reduced price lunch under this paragraph shall be made by the school nor shall there be any overt identification of any such child by special tokens or tickets, announced or published lists of names, or by any other means.

(12)(A) A child shall be considered automatically eligible for a free lunch and breakfast under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), respectively, without further application or eligibility determination, if the child is—

(i) a member of a household receiving assistance under the supplemental nutrition assistance program authorized under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.);

(ii) a member of a family (under the State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)) that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995;

(iii) enrolled as a participant in a Head Start program authorized under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.), on the basis of a determination that the child meets the eligibility criteria prescribed under section 645(a)(1)(B) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9840(a)(1)(B));

(iv) a homeless child or youth (defined as 1 of the individuals described in section 11434a(2) of this title);

(v) served by the runaway and homeless youth grant program established under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (42 U.S.C. 5701 et seq.); 1

(vi) a migratory child (as defined in section 6399 of title 20); or

(vii)(I) a foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of an agency that administers a State plan under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.]; or

(II) a foster child who a court has placed with a caretaker household.


(B) Proof of receipt of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits or assistance under the State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995, or of enrollment or participation in a Head Start program on the basis described in subparagraph (A)(iii), shall be sufficient to satisfy any verification requirement imposed under this subsection.

(13) Exclusion of certain military housing allowances.—The amount of a basic allowance provided under section 403 of title 37 on behalf of a member of a uniformed service for housing that is acquired or constructed under subchapter IV of chapter 169 of title 10, or any related provision of law, shall not be considered to be income for the purpose of determining the eligibility of a child who is a member of the household of the member of a uniformed service for free or reduced price lunches under this chapter.

(14) Combat pay.—

(A) Definition of combat pay.—In this paragraph, the term "combat pay" means any additional payment under chapter 5 of title 37, or otherwise designated by the Secretary to be appropriate for exclusion under this paragraph, that is received by or from a member of the United States Armed Forces deployed to a designated combat zone, if the additional pay—

(i) is the result of deployment to or service in a combat zone; and

(ii) was not received immediately prior to serving in a combat zone.


(B) Exclusion.—Combat pay shall not be considered to be income for the purpose of determining the eligibility for free or reduced price meals of a child who is a member of the household of a member of the United States Armed Forces.


(15) Direct certification for children receiving medicaid benefits.—

(A) Definitions.—In this paragraph:

(i) Eligible child.—The term "eligible child" means a child—

(I)(aa) who is eligible for and receiving medical assistance under the Medicaid program; and

(bb) who is a member of a family with an income as measured by the Medicaid program before the application of any expense, block, or other income disregard, that does not exceed 133 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 9902(2) of this title, including any revision required by such section)applicable to a family of the size used for purposes of determining eligibility for the Medicaid program; or

(II) who is a member of a household (as that term is defined in section 245.2 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations) 3 with a child described in subclause (I).


(ii) Medicaid program.—The term "Medicaid program" means the program of medical assistance established under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.).


(B) Demonstration project.—

(i) In general.—The Secretary, acting through the Administrator of the Food and Nutrition Service and in cooperation with selected State agencies, shall conduct a demonstration project in selected local educational agencies to determine whether direct certification of eligible children is an effective method of certifying children for free lunches and breakfasts under subsection (b)(1)(A) and section 4(e)(1)(A) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773(e)(1)(A)).

(ii) Scope of project.—The Secretary shall carry out the demonstration project under this subparagraph—

(I) for the school year beginning July 1, 2012, in selected local educational agencies that collectively serve 2.5 percent of students certified for free and reduced price meals nationwide, based on the most recent available data;

(II) for the school year beginning July 1, 2013, in selected local educational agencies that collectively serve 5 percent of students certified for free and reduced price meals nationwide, based on the most recent available data; and

(III) for the school year beginning July 1, 2014, and each subsequent school year, in selected local educational agencies that collectively serve 10 percent of students certified for free and reduced price meals nationwide, based on the most recent available data.


(iii) Purposes of the project.—At a minimum, the purposes of the demonstration project shall be—

(I) to determine the potential of direct certification with the Medicaid program to reach children who are eligible for free meals but not certified to receive the meals;

(II) to determine the potential of direct certification with the Medicaid program to directly certify children who are enrolled for free meals based on a household application; and

(III) to provide an estimate of the effect on Federal costs and on participation in the school lunch program under this chapter and the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) of direct certification with the Medicaid program.


(iv) Cost estimate.—For each of 2 school years of the demonstration project, the Secretary shall estimate the cost of the direct certification of eligible children for free school meals through data derived from—

(I) the school meal programs authorized under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.);

(II) the Medicaid program; and

(III) interviews with a statistically representative sample of households.


(C) Agreement.—

(i) In general.—Not later than July 1 of the first school year during which a State agency will participate in the demonstration project, the State agency shall enter into an agreement with the 1 or more State agencies conducting eligibility determinations for the Medicaid program.

(ii) Without further application.—Subject to paragraph (6), the agreement described in subparagraph (D) shall establish procedures under which an eligible child shall be certified for free lunches under this chapter and free breakfasts under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773), without further application (as defined in paragraph (4)(G)).


(D) Certification.—For the school year beginning on July 1, 2012, and each subsequent school year, subject to paragraph (6), the local educational agencies participating in the demonstration project shall certify an eligible child as eligible for free lunches under this chapter and free breakfasts under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), without further application (as defined in paragraph (4)(G)).

(E) Site selection.—

(i) In general.—To be eligible to participate in the demonstration project under this subsection, a State agency shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

(ii) Considerations.—In selecting States and local educational agencies for participation in the demonstration project, the Secretary may take into consideration such factors as the Secretary considers to be appropriate, which may include—

(I) the rate of direct certification;

(II) the share of individuals who are eligible for benefits under the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) who participate in the program, as determined by the Secretary;

(III) the income eligibility limit for the Medicaid program;

(IV) the feasibility of matching data between local educational agencies and the Medicaid program;

(V) the socioeconomic profile of the State or local educational agencies; and

(VI) the willingness of the State and local educational agencies to comply with the requirements of the demonstration project.


(F) Access to data.—For purposes of conducting the demonstration project under this paragraph, the Secretary shall have access to—

(i) educational and other records of State and local educational and other agencies and institutions receiving funding or providing benefits for 1 or more programs authorized under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.); and

(ii) income and program participation information from public agencies administering the Medicaid program.


(G) Report to congress.—

(i) In general.—Not later than October 1, 2014, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, an interim report that describes the results of the demonstration project required under this paragraph.

(ii) Final report.—Not later than October 1, 2015, the Secretary shall submit a final report to the committees described in clause (i).


(H) Funding.—

(i) In general.—On October 1, 2010, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Secretary to carry out subparagraph (G) $5,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(ii) Receipt and acceptance.—The Secretary shall be entitled to receive, shall accept, and shall use to carry out subparagraph (G) the funds transferred under clause (i), without further appropriation.

(c) Operation on nonprofit basis; donation of agricultural commodities

School lunch programs under this chapter shall be operated on a nonprofit basis. Commodities purchased under the authority of section 612c of title 7, may be donated by the Secretary to schools, in accordance with the needs as determined by local school authorities, for utilization in the school lunch program under this chapter as well as to other schools carrying out nonprofit school lunch programs and institutions authorized to receive such commodities. The requirements of this section relating to the service of meals without cost or at a reduced cost shall apply to the lunch program of any school utilizing commodities donated under any provision of law.

(d) Social Security numbers and other documentation required as condition of eligibility

(1) The Secretary shall require as a condition of eligibility for receipt of free or reduced price lunches that the member of the household who executes the application furnish the last 4 digits of the social security account number of the parent or guardian who is the primary wage earner responsible for the care of the child for whom the application is made, or that of another appropriate adult member of the child's household, as determined by the Secretary.

(2) No member of a household may be provided a free or reduced price lunch under this chapter unless—

(A) appropriate documentation relating to the income of such household (as prescribed by the Secretary) has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency so that the local educational agency may calculate the total income of such household;

(B) documentation showing that the household is participating in the supplemental nutrition assistance program under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency;

(C) documentation has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency showing that the family is receiving assistance under the State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995;

(D) documentation has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency showing that the child meets the criteria specified in clauses (iv) or (v) of subsection (b)(12)(A);

(E) documentation has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency showing the status of the child as a migratory child (as defined in section 6399 of title 20);

(F)(i) documentation has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency showing the status of the child as a foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of an agency that administers a State plan under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.]; or

(ii) documentation has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency showing the status of the child as a foster child who a court has placed with a caretaker household; or

(G) documentation has been provided to the appropriate local educational agency showing the status of the child as an eligible child (as defined in subsection (b)(15)(A)).

(e) Limitation on meal contracting

A school or school food authority participating in a program under this chapter may not contract with a food service company to provide a la carte food service unless the company agrees to offer free, reduced price, and full-price reimbursable meals to all eligible children.

(f) Nutritional requirements

(1) In general.—Schools that are participating in the school lunch program or school breakfast program shall serve lunches and breakfasts that—

(A) are consistent with the goals of the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans published under section 5341 of title 7; and

(B) consider the nutrient needs of children who may be at risk for inadequate food intake and food insecurity.


(2) To assist schools in meeting the requirements of this subsection, the Secretary—

(A) shall—

(i) develop, and provide to schools, standardized recipes, menu cycles, and food product specification and preparation techniques; and

(ii) provide to schools information regarding nutrient standard menu planning, assisted nutrient standard menu planning, and food-based menu systems; and


(B) may provide to schools information regarding other approaches, as determined by the Secretary.


(3) Use of any reasonable approach.—

(A) In general.—A school food service authority may use any reasonable approach, within guidelines established by the Secretary in a timely manner, to meet the requirements of this subsection, including—

(i) using the school nutrition meal pattern in effect for the 1994–1995 school year; and

(ii) using any of the approaches described in paragraph (3).


(B) Nutrient analysis.—The Secretary may not require a school to conduct or use a nutrient analysis to meet the requirements of this subsection.


(4) Waiver of requirement for weighted averages for nutrient analysis.—During the period ending on September 30, 2010, the Secretary shall not require the use of weighted averages for nutrient analysis of menu items and foods offered or served as part of a meal offered or served under the school lunch program under this chapter or the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773).

(g) Justification of production records; paperwork reduction

Not later than 1 year after November 2, 1994, the Secretary shall provide a notification to Congress that justifies the need for production records required under section 210.10(b) of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations, and describes how the Secretary has reduced paperwork relating to the school lunch and school breakfast programs.

(h) Food safety

(1) In general

A school participating in the school lunch program under this chapter or the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) shall—

(A) at least twice during each school year, obtain a food safety inspection conducted by a State or local governmental agency responsible for food safety inspections;

(B) post in a publicly visible location a report on the most recent inspection conducted under subparagraph (A); and

(C) on request, provide a copy of the report to a member of the public.

(2) State and local government inspections

Nothing in paragraph (1) prevents any State or local government from adopting or enforcing any requirement for more frequent food safety inspections of schools.

(3) Audits and reports by States

For fiscal year 2021, each State shall annually—

(A) audit food safety inspections of schools conducted under paragraphs (1) and (2); and

(B) submit to the Secretary a report of the results of the audit.

(4) Audit by the Secretary

For fiscal year 2021, the Secretary shall annually audit State reports of food safety inspections of schools submitted under paragraph (3).

(5) School food safety program

(A) In general

Each school food authority shall implement a school food safety program, in the preparation and service of each meal served to children, that complies with any hazard analysis and critical control point system established by the Secretary.

(B) Applicability

Subparagraph (A) shall apply to any facility or part of a facility in which food is stored, prepared, or served for the purposes of the school nutrition programs under this chapter or section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773).

(i) Single permanent agreement between State agency and school food authority; common claims form

(1) In general

If a single State agency administers any combination of the school lunch program under this chapter, the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773), the summer food service program for children under section 1761 of this title, or the child and adult care food program under section 1766 of this title, the agency shall—

(A) require each school food authority to submit to the State agency a single agreement with respect to the operation by the authority of the programs administered by the State agency; and

(B) use a common claims form with respect to meals and supplements served under the programs administered by the State agency.

(2) Additional requirement

The agreement described in paragraph (1)(A) shall be a permanent agreement that may be amended as necessary.

(j) Purchases of locally produced foods

The Secretary shall—

(1) encourage institutions receiving funds under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) to purchase unprocessed agricultural products, both locally grown and locally raised, to the maximum extent practicable and appropriate;

(2) advise institutions participating in a program described in paragraph (1) of the policy described in that paragraph and paragraph (3) and post information concerning the policy on the website maintained by the Secretary; and

(3) allow institutions receiving funds under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), including the Department of Defense Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program, to use a geographic preference for the procurement of unprocessed agricultural products, both locally grown and locally raised.

(k) Information on the school nutrition environment

(1) In general

The Secretary shall—

(A) establish requirements for local educational agencies participating in the school lunch program under this chapter and the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) to report information about the school nutrition environment, for all schools under the jurisdiction of the local educational agencies, to the Secretary and to the public in the State on a periodic basis; and

(B) provide training and technical assistance to States and local educational agencies on the assessment and reporting of the school nutrition environment, including the use of any assessment materials developed by the Secretary.

(2) Requirements

In establishing the requirements for reporting on the school nutrition environment under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) include information pertaining to food safety inspections, local wellness policies, meal program participation, the nutritional quality of program meals, and other information as determined by the Secretary; and

(B) ensure that information is made available to the public by local educational agencies in an accessible, easily understood manner in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015.

(l) Food donation program

(1) In general

Each school and local educational agency participating in the school lunch program under this chapter may donate any food not consumed under such program to eligible local food banks or charitable organizations.

(2) Guidance

(A) In general

Not later than 180 days after November 18, 2011, the Secretary shall develop and publish guidance to schools and local educational agencies participating in the school lunch program under this chapter to assist such schools and local educational agencies in donating food under this subsection.

(B) Updates

The Secretary shall update such guidance as necessary.

(3) Liability

Any school or local educational agency making donations pursuant to this subsection shall be exempt from civil and criminal liability to the extent provided under section 1791 of this title.

(4) Definition

In this subsection, the term "eligible local food banks or charitable organizations" means any food bank or charitable organization which is exempt from tax under section 501(c)(3) of title 26.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §9, 60 Stat. 233; Pub. L. 90–302, §2(b), May 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 91–248, §6(a), (b), (d), (e), May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 210; Pub. L. 92–153, §5, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 420; Pub. L. 92–433, §5, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 93–150, §9, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 564; Pub. L. 93–326, §4, June 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 286; Pub. L. 94–105, §6, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 95–166, §8, Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 95–627, §8, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3622; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §§803(a), (b), 811, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 524, 525, 529; Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §§322–324, Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–361, and Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §§322–324, Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–364; Pub. L. 99–661, div. D, title II, §§4202–4204, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4072; Pub. L. 100–356, §1, June 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 669; Pub. L. 101–147, title I, §101, title II, §202(a)(1), (2)(A), (b), title III, §§305, 312(1), (2), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 878, 908, 914, 916; Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §§105(a), 106–109(a), 110, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4701–4705; Pub. L. 104–149, §2, May 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 1379; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §109(g), title VII, §§702, 703, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2170, 2288, 2289; Pub. L. 105–336, title I, §102, Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3144; Pub. L. 106–224, title II, §242(a), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 107–171, title IV, §§4302(a), 4303, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 330, 331; Pub. L. 108–134, §1, Nov. 22, 2003, 117 Stat. 1389; Pub. L. 108–211, §1, Mar. 31, 2004, 118 Stat. 566; Pub. L. 108–265, title I, §§102–104(b)(1), (d)(1), (2), 105(a), 106–108(a), 109–112, June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 731–734, 737, 738, 745-747; Pub. L. 108–447, div. A, title VII, §788(a), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2851; Pub. L. 110–134, §29(c)(1), Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1449; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (E), (2)(Z), 4302, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1095–1097, 1125; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (E), (2)(Z), 4302, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859, 1887; Pub. L. 111–80, title VII, §§734(a), 749(b), (c), Oct. 21, 2009, 123 Stat. 2125, 2131; Pub. L. 111–296, title I, §§101—103(b), title II, §§202, 203, 209, 242, title III, §§301, 302, title IV, §§402, 441(a)(1), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3185–3191, 3216, 3222, 3236, 3240, 3259, 3261; Pub. L. 112–55, div. A, title VII, §734, Nov. 18, 2011, 125 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 115–31, div. A, title IV, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 115–141, div. A, title IV, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 373; Pub. L. 116–6, div. B, title IV, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 67; Pub. L. 116–94, div. B, title IV, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 2635; Pub. L. 116–260, div. A, title IV, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 1209.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of this title and Tables.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in text, is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Parts A, B, and E of title IV, title XIX, and title XXI of the Act are classified generally to parts A (§601 et seq.), B (§620 et seq.), and E (§670 et seq.) of subchapter IV, subchapter XIX (§1396 et seq.), and subchapter XXI (§1397aa et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(5)(C), (12)(A)(v), is title III of Pub. L. 93–415, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1129, which was classified generally to subchapter III (§5701 et seq.) of chapter 72 of this title, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as subchapter III (§11201 et seq.) of chapter 111 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1974 Act note set out under section 10101 of Title 34 and Tables.

The Head Start Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(12)(A)(iii), is subchapter B (§§635–657) of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§9831 et seq.) of chapter 105 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9801 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 116–260 substituted "For fiscal year 2021" for "For fiscal year 2020" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 116–260 substituted "For fiscal year 2021" for "For fiscal year 2020".

2019—Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 116–94 substituted "For fiscal year 2020" for "For fiscal year 2019" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 116–6, which directed substitution of "For fiscal year 2019" for "For fiscal year 2018", was executed by making the substitution for "for fiscal year 2018" in introductory provisions, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 116–94 substituted "For fiscal year 2020" for "For fiscal year 2019".

Pub. L. 116–6, which directed substitution of "For fiscal year 2019" for "For fiscal year 2018", was executed by making the substitution for "for fiscal year 2018", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2018—Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 115–141, substituted "for fiscal year 2018" for "for fiscal year 2017" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 115–141, substituted "for fiscal year 2018" for "for fiscal year 2017".

2017—Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 115–31, which directed substitution of "for fiscal year 2017" for "for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015", was executed by making the substitution for "For each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015" in introductory provisions, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 115–31, which directed substitution of "for fiscal year 2017" for "for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015", was executed by making the substitution for "For each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2011—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 112–55 added subsec. (l).

2010—Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 111–296, §202, added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "shall offer students fluid milk in a variety of fat contents;".

Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 111–296, §242, added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 111–296, §203, added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 111–296, §101(a)(1), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program" for "food stamp" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(4)(E). Pub. L. 111–296, §101(a)(2), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b)(4)(F). Pub. L. 111–296, §101(b), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (b)(4)(G). Pub. L. 111–296, §101(c), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (b)(5)(E). Pub. L. 111–296, §102(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b)(12)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 111–296, §102(b)(1), inserted closing parenthesis before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(12)(A)(vii). Pub. L. 111–296, §102(b)(2)–(4), added cl. (vii).

Subsec. (b)(15). Pub. L. 111–296, §103(a), added par. (15).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 111–296, §301, inserted "the last 4 digits of" before "the social security account number" in first sentence and struck out second sentence which read as follows: "The Secretary shall require that social security account numbers of all adult members of the household be provided if verification of the data contained in the application is sought under subsection (b)(3)(G) of this section."

Subsec. (d)(2)(F). Pub. L. 111–296, §102(c), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (d)(2)(G). Pub. L. 111–296, §103(b), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–296, §441(a)(1), inserted subsec. heading, added par. (1), redesignated former pars. (3) to (5) as (2) to (4), respectively, and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which related to nutritional requirements and grants of waivers from such requirements by State educational agencies.

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 111–296, §402(1), substituted "2011 through 2015" for "2006 through 2010" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 111–296, §402(2), substituted "2011 through 2015" for "2006 through 2010".

Subsec. (h)(5). Pub. L. 111–296, §302, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 111–296, §209, added subsec. (k).

2009—Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 111–80, §734(a), added par. (14).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 111–80, §749(b), substituted "2010" for "2009".

Subsec. (h)(3), (4). Pub. L. 111–80, §749(c), substituted "2010" for "2009".

2008—Subsec. (b)(2)–(4). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(Z), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program" for "food stamp program" wherever appearing and "Food and Nutrition Act of 2008" for "Food Stamp Act of 1977" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(12)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(Z), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program" for "food stamp program" and "Food and Nutrition Act of 2008" for "Food Stamp Act of 1977".

Subsec. (b)(12)(B). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(E), (2)(Z), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits" for "food stamps".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(Z), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program" for "food stamp program" and "Food and Nutrition Act of 2008" for "Food Stamp Act of 1977".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–246, §4302, amended subsec. (j) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (j) related to encouragement of purchases of locally produced foods, provision of startup grants, and authorization of appropriations.

2007—Subsec. (b)(12)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 110–134 substituted "the child meets the eligibility criteria prescribed under section 645(a)(1)(B) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9840(a)(1)(B))" for "the child is a member of a family that meets the low-income criteria prescribed under section 645(a)(1)(A) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9840(a)(1)(A))".

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–265, §102, added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Lunches served by schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter—

"(A) shall offer students fluid milk; and

"(B) shall offer students a variety of fluid milk consistent with prior year preferences unless the prior year preference for any such variety of fluid milk is less than 1 percent of the total milk consumed at the school."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 108–265, §103, added par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(2)(A), inserted subpar. heading, designated first and second sentences as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and inserted headings, in cl. (ii) substituted "Forms and descriptive material distributed in accordance with clause (i)" for "Such forms and descriptive material", and added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (2)(C)(i) as par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(ii) to (vii), (D). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(2)(C), struck out subpars. (C)(ii) to (vii) and (D), which related to direct certification of children in households receiving other assistance, disclosure of eligibility information, limitations, sanction for wrongful disclosure, waiver of confidentiality, use of disclosed information, and submission of price policy statement by school food authority.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 108–265, §105(a), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "Except as provided in clause (ii), each eligibility determination shall be made on the basis of a complete application executed by an adult member of the household. The Secretary, State, or local food authority may verify any data contained in such application. A local school food authority shall undertake such verification of information contained in any such application as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe and, in accordance with such regulations, shall make appropriate changes in the eligibility determination with respect to such application on the basis of such verification."

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (2)(C)(i) as par. (3).

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (3) as (9).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(2)(C), added par. (4).

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (4) as (10).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(d)(1), struck out "(A) In general.—" before "Subject to paragraph (6)", redesignated cls. (i) to (iv) as subpars. (A) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, text of subpar. (B) read as follows: "Subject to paragraph (6), any local educational agency may certify any child as eligible for free lunches or breakfasts, without further application, by directly communicating with the appropriate State or local agency to obtain documentation of the status of the child as a member of a household that is receiving food stamps under the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.)."

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(b)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 108–447, added par. (5).

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (5) as (11).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(b)(1), added par. (6).

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (6) as (12).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(b)(1), added par. (7).

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (13).

Pub. L. 108–211 substituted "June 30, 2004" for "March 31, 2004".

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(b)(1), added par. (8).

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 108–265, §106, inserted par. heading, designated existing provisions as subpars. (A) and (B), inserted subpar. headings, in subpar. (B) designated existing provisions as cls. (i) and (ii) and inserted cl. headings, and added subpar. (C).

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (3) as (9).

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (4) as (10).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 108–265, §108(a)(1), substituted "Local educational agencies" for "Local school authorities" in second sentence.

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (5) as (11).

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (6) as (12).

Subsec. (b)(12)(A)(iv) to (vi). Pub. L. 108–265, §107(a), added cls. (iv) to (vi).

Subsec. (b)(12)(B). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(d)(2)(A), substituted "this subsection" for "paragraph (2)(C)".

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 108–265, §109, substituted "The" for "For each of fiscal years 2002 and 2003 and through June 30, 2004, the".

Pub. L. 108–265, §104(a)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (13).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(d)(2)(B), substituted "subsection (b)(3)(G)" for "subsection (b)(2)(C)" in second sentence.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–265, §108(a)(2), substituted "appropriate local educational agency" for "appropriate local school food authority" and "the local educational agency" for "such authority".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 108–265, §108(a)(2)(A), substituted "local educational agency" for "local school food authority".

Subsec. (d)(2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 108–265, §107(b), added subpars. (D) and (E).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 108–265, §110, substituted "September 30, 2009" for "September 30, 2003".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 108–265, §111(1), struck out "inspections" after "safety" in heading.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 108–265, §111(2), substituted "A school" for "Except as provided in paragraph (2), a school", inserted subpar. (A) designation, substituted "at least twice" for "at least once", and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (h)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 108–265, §111(3), added pars. (2) to (5) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: "Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a school if a food safety inspection of the school is required by a State or local governmental agency responsible for food safety inspections."

Subsec. (j)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–265, §112, substituted "2009" for "2007".

2003—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 108–134 inserted "and through March 31, 2004" after "and 2003".

2002—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 107–171, §4302(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 107–171, §4303, added subsec. (j).

2000—Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(iii)(IV). Pub. L. 106–224, §242(a)(1), added subcl. (IV).

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(vi), (vii). Pub. L. 106–224, §242(a)(2), added cls. (vi) and (vii).

1998—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 105–336, §102(a)(1), substituted "paragraph (1)" for "subparagraph (A)".

Subsec. (f)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–336, §102(a)(2), substituted "this subsection" for "this paragraph" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 105–336, §102(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–336, §102(c), added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–336, §102(d), added subsec. (i).

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(a)(1), redesignated par. (2)(A) as (2) and cls. (i) and (ii) of former subpar. (A) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows:

"(B)(i) The Secretary shall purchase in each calendar year to carry out the school lunch program under this chapter, and the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773), lowfat cheese on a bid basis in a quantity that is the milkfat equivalent of the quantity of milkfat the Secretary estimates the Commodity Credit Corporation will purchase each calendar year as a result of the elimination of the requirement that schools offer students fluid whole milk and fluid unflavored lowfat milk, based on data provided by the Director of Office of Management and Budget.

"(ii) Not later than 30 days after the Secretary provides an estimate required under clause (i), the Director of the Congressional Budget Office shall provide to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on whether the Director concurs with the estimate of the Secretary.

"(iii) The quantity of lowfat cheese that is purchased under this subparagraph shall be in addition to the quantity of cheese that is historically purchased by the Secretary to carry out school feeding programs. The Secretary shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that purchases under this subparagraph shall not displace commercial purchases of cheese by schools."

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "The Secretary shall establish, in cooperation with State educational agencies, administrative procedures, which shall include local educational agency and student participation, designed to diminish waste of foods which are served by schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter without endangering the nutritional integrity of the lunches served by such schools."

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 104–193, §109(g)(1)(A), substituted "State program funded" for "program for aid to families with dependent children" and inserted before period at end "that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104–193, §703, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(6)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104–193, §109(g)(1)(B)(i), substituted "a family (under the State program funded" for "an AFDC assistance unit (under the aid to families with dependent children program authorized" and "that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995" for ", in a State where the standard of eligibility for the assistance does not exceed 130 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 9902(2) of this title)".

Subsec. (b)(6)(B). Pub. L. 104–193, §109(g)(1)(B)(ii), substituted "assistance under the State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995" for "aid to families with dependent children".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(b)(2), struck out "Each school shall, insofar as practicable, utilize in its lunch program commodities designated from time to time by the Secretary as being in abundance, either nationally or in the school area or commodities donated by the Secretary." after "operated on a nonprofit basis.", "The Secretary is authorized to prescribe terms and conditions respecting the use of commodities donated under such section 612c of title 7, under section 1431 of title 7 and under section 1446a–1 of title 7, as will maximize the nutritional and financial contributions of such donated commodities in such schools and institutions." after "authorized to receive such commodities.", and "None of the requirements of this section in respect to the amount for 'reduced cost' meals and to eligibility for meals without cost shall apply to schools (as defined in section 1760(d)(6) of this title which are private and nonprofit as defined in the last sentence of section 1760(d)(6) of this title) which participate in the school lunch program under this chapter until such time as the State educational agency, or in the case of such schools which participate under the provisions of section 1759 of this title the Secretary certifies that sufficient funds from sources other than children's payments are available to enable such schools to meet these requirements." at end.

Pub. L. 104–193, §702(b)(1), substituted "provision of law" for "of the provisions of law referred to in the preceding sentence" in fifth sentence.

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–193, §109(g)(2), substituted "State program funded" for "program for aid to families with dependent children" and inserted before period at end "that the Secretary determines complies with standards established by the Secretary that ensure that the standards under the State program are comparable to or more restrictive than those in effect on June 1, 1995".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(c)(1)–(3), struck out "(2)" designation before "(A) Except as provided", redesignated subpars. (A) to (D) as pars. (1) to (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "Not later than the first day of the 1996–97 school year, the Secretary, State educational agencies, schools, and school food service authorities shall, to the maximum extent practicable, inform students who participate in the school lunch and school breakfast programs, and parents and guardians of the students, of—

"(A) the nutritional content of the lunches and breakfasts that are served under the programs; and

"(B) the consistency of the lunches and breakfasts with the guidelines contained in the most recent 'Dietary Guidelines for Americans' that is published under section 5341 of title 7 (referred to in this subsection as the 'Guidelines'), including the consistency of the lunches and breakfasts with the guideline for fat content."

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(c)(4), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1), as redesignated by Pub. L. 104–193, §702(c)(3), which read as follows: "Except as provided in subparagraph (B), not later than the first day of the 1996–97 school year, schools that are participating in the school lunch or school breakfast program shall serve lunches and breakfasts under the programs that are consistent with the Guidelines (as measured in accordance with subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii) of this section and section 4(e)(1))."

Subsec. (f)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104–149 added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "Schools may use any of the approaches described in subparagraph (C) to meet the requirements of this paragraph. In the case of schools that elect to use food-based menu systems to meet the requirements of this paragraph, the Secretary may not require the schools to conduct or use nutrient analysis."

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(c)(5), redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and subcls. (I) and (II) of subpar. (A) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(c)(6), redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, in subpar. (A), redesignated subcls. (I) and (II) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and in subpar. (A)(ii), substituted "paragraph (3)" for "subparagraph (C)".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–193, §702(d), struck out subsec. (h) which read as follows: "In carrying out this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), a State educational agency may use resources provided through the nutrition education and training program authorized under section 19 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1788) for training aimed at improving the quality and acceptance of school meals."

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–448, §§105(a), 106(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and cl. (i) of subpar. (A) and added cl. (ii) of subpar. (A) and subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–448, §107, amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Lunches served by schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter shall offer students fluid whole milk and fluid unflavored lowfat milk."

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(iii) to (v). Pub. L. 103–448, §108, added cls. (iii) to (v) and struck out former cl. (iii), which read as follows: "School food service authorities shall only use information obtained under clause (ii) for the purpose of determining eligibility for participation in programs under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966."

Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 103–448, §109(a)(1), struck out "a member of" after "if the child is" in introductory provisions, inserted "a member of" after "(i)" and "(ii)", and added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(6)(B). Pub. L. 103–448, §109(a)(2), inserted ", or of enrollment or participation in a Head Start program on the basis described in subparagraph (A)(iii)," after "aid to families with dependent children".

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 103–448, §§106(b), (c), 110, added subsecs. (f) to (h).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–147, §101(a), amended subsec. (a), as amended identically by Pub. L. 99–500 and 99–591, §322, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4202, to read as if only the amendment by Pub. L. 99–661 was enacted, resulting in no change in text, see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–147, §312(1), substituted "school lunch" for "school-lunch".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–147, §101(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "In addition to such other forms of milk as the Secretary may determine, the lunches shall offer whole milk as a beverage."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–147, §§305(b)(1), 312(2), substituted "reduced price" for "reduced-price" and "family size" for "family-size" wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–147, §202(a)(1), (2)(A), amended subsec. (b), as amended identically by Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §323, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4203, and as amended by Pub. L. 100–356, §1, to read as if only the amendment by Pub. L. 99–661 was enacted, and further amended subsec. (b) identically to the amendments that were made by Pub. L. 100–356, §1, resulting in no change in text, see 1986 and 1988 Amendment notes below.

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–147, §202(b)(1), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "Eligibility determinations shall be made on the basis of a complete application executed by an adult member of the household. The Secretary, States, and local school food authorities may seek verification of the data contained in the application. Local school food authorities shall undertake such verification of the information contained in these applications as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe and, in accordance with such regulations, make appropriate changes in the eligibility determinations on the basis of such verification."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–147, §§305(b)(2), 312(1), substituted "School lunch" for "School-lunch", substituted "school lunch" for "school-lunch" wherever appearing, and made technical amendments to the references to sections 612c, 1431, and 1446a–1 of title 7 involving underlying provisions of original act and requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–147, §§202(b)(2)(A), 312(2), substituted "reduced price" for "reduced-price" and "number of the parent or guardian who is the primary wage earner responsible for the care of the child for whom the application is made, or that of another appropriate adult member of the child's household, as determined by the Secretary. The Secretary shall require that social security account numbers of all adult members of the household be provided if verification of the data contained in the application is sought under subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section." for "numbers of all adult members of the household of which such person is a member."

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 101–147, §312(2), substituted "reduced price" for "reduced-price".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–147, §202(b)(2)(B)(i), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "appropriate documentation, as prescribed by the Secretary, of the income of such household has been provided to the appropriate local school food authority; or".

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–147, §202(b)(2)(B)(ii), (iii), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–147, §312(2), substituted "reduced price" for "reduced-price".

Pub. L. 101–147, §305(a), amended subsec. (e), as amended identically by Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §324, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4204, to read as if only the amendment by Pub. L. 99–661 was enacted, resulting in no change in text, see 1986 Amendment note below.

1988—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–356 substituted "The" for "For the school years ending June 30, 1982, and June 30, 1983, the" in second sentence and struck out provisions which equated income guidelines for determining eligibility for free lunches with gross income eligibility standards for participation in food stamp program.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §322, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4202, amended subsec. (a) identically, designating existing provisions as pars. (1), (3), and (4) and adding par. (2).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §323, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4203, amended subsec. (b) identically, adding par. (6).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §324, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4204, amended section identically, adding subsec. (e).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §811, struck out "in any junior high school or middle school" after "grade level".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §803(a), in par. (1) substituted provisions relating to income eligibility guidelines, for provisions relating to income poverty guidelines, redesignated former par. (2) as (5) and, as so redesignated, struck out "solely" after "sentence", and added pars. (2) to (4).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–35, §803(b), added subsec. (d).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–627 substituted guidelines prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget for the Consumer Price Index for purposes of determining the income poverty guidelines.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–166 inserted parenthetical text authorizing students in any grade level in any junior high school or middle school, when approved by local school district or nonprofit private school, to refuse to accept offered foods they do not intend to consume.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–105, §6(a), directed Secretary to establish administrative procedures designed to diminish food waste in school lunch programs and made provision for senior high school students to refuse food which they do not intend to consume without affecting lunch charges or payments to schools for lunches served.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–105, §6(b), designated existing provisions as subsec. (b)(1), struck out "if a school elects to serve reduced-price lunches" after "reduced price not to exceed 20 cents", inserted provision for a reduced price lunch for any child eligible under reduced price lunch income guidelines, established income guidelines for reduced price lunches, beginning with fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, at 95 per centum above applicable family size income levels in income poverty guidelines, and provided for a reduced price lunch not to exceed 20 cents to any child belonging to a household whose income falls between guidelines for a free lunch and 95 per centum above income levels in the income poverty guidelines.

Pub. L. 94–105, §6(c), substituted provision adjusting income poverty guidelines that take effect July 1 of each year according to percentage change in Consumer Price Index for 12-month period ending in April of that year, except that the first adjustment, effective July 1, 1976, shall be made according to percentage change between average Consumer Price Index for 1974, on which the 1975–1976 guidelines are based, and Consumer Price Index for April 1976 for provision basing the guidelines on average Consumer Price Index for previous calendar year.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94–105, §6(d), added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–105, §6(e), substituted "schools (as defined in section 1760(d)(6) of this title which are private and nonprofit as defined in the last sentence of section 1760(d)(6) of this title)" for "nonprofit private schools".

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–326 substituted "beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974" for "for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974" in provision authorizing State educational agencies to establish income guidelines for reduced price lunches at not more than 75 per centum above applicable family size income levels in income poverty guidelines as prescribed by Secretary.

1973—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–150 inserted proviso relating to income guidelines for reduced price lunches.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–433, §5(a), designated first sentence as subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–433, §5(b), designated second through seventh sentences of existing provisions as subsec. (b), separated provisions relating to free and reduced price lunches, substituted May 15 of each year for July 1 of each year as the date by which the Secretary is required to prescribe an income poverty guideline, prescribed free lunch for children of households below the guideline instead of prior provision requiring free lunch or lunch at reduced price, authorized State educational agencies to set up family-size income levels for free and reduced price lunches to be within certain percentage limitations of the guideline prescribed by the Secretary, and provided for continuation until July 1, 1973 of higher guidelines established prior to July 1, 1972.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–433, §5(c), designated eighth through thirteenth sentences as subsec. (c) and in last sentence inserted provision that requirements of this section are not applicable to nonprofit private schools which participate in the school lunch program under this chapter until the State educational agency certifies about the funds.

1971Pub. L. 92–153 inserted provisions for consideration of income poverty guidelines during fiscal year 1972 as a national minimum standard of eligibility and for reimbursement of State agencies during such fiscal year pursuant to eligibility standards established by State agencies prior to Oct. 1, 1971.

1970Pub. L. 91–248 placed a ceiling of 20 cents on any reduced price meal offered under the school lunch program, provided for determination of ability to pay the full cost of lunch based on a publicly announced policy the minimum criteria of which includes family income and the number of school children in the family unit as well as the size of the family unit in general, but, under which, by Jan. 1, 1971, such determination shall be based on the income poverty guidelines with first priority given to providing free meals to the neediest children, provided that there be no overt identification of those children who receive free and reduced price meals, authorized the Secretary to prescribe such terms and conditions for food service in the non-national School Lunch Act schools as well as schools under this Act which are receiving Federal assistance in the form of commodities, and excepted from requirements of this section with respect to amount for reduced cost meals and eligibility for meals without cost nonprofit private schools which participate in the school lunch program under the provisions of section 1759 of this title until the Secretary certifies that sufficient funds are available to enable such schools to meet the requirements of this section.

1968Pub. L. 90–302 provided that minimum nutritional requirements prescribed by the Secretary on basis of tested nutritional research which lunches served by participating schools must meet could not be construed to prohibit substitution of foods to accommodate medical or other special dietary needs of individual students.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–296 effective Oct. 1, 2010, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 445 of Pub. L. 111–296, set out as a note under section 1751 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by sections 4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (E), (2)(Z), and 4302 of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by sections 102, 104(a)(2), (b)(1), (d)(1), (2), 105(a), and 111 of Pub. L. 108–265 effective July 1, 2005, see section 502(b)(4) of Pub. L. 108–265, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1754 of this title.

Amendment by sections 103, 104(a)(1), 108(a), 109, 110, and 112 of Pub. L. 108–265 effective June 30, 2004, except as otherwise provided, see section 502(a) of Pub. L. 108–265, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1754 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–265, title I, §104(d)(1), June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 737, provided that the amendment made by section 104(d)(1) is effective July 1, 2008.

Amendment by sections 106 and 107 of Pub. L. 108–265 effective July 1, 2004, see section 502(b)(1) of Pub. L. 108–265, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1754 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–171, title IV, §4302(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 331, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] takes effect on the date of enactment of this Act [May 13, 2002]."

Amendment by section 4303 of Pub. L. 107–171 effective Oct. 1, 2002, except as otherwise provided, see section 4405 of Pub. L. 107–171, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–224, title II, §242(c), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 413, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1760 and 1786 of this title] take effect on October 1, 2000."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–336 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 401 of Pub. L. 105–336, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 109(g) of Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 105(a) and 106 to 108 of Pub. L. 103–448 effective Oct. 1, 1994, see section 401 of Pub. L. 103–448, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §109(c), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4705, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1766 of this title] shall become effective on September 25, 1995."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–147, title II, §202(a)(2)(B), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 908, provided that: "The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if such amendments had been effective on June 28, 1988."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §§322–324, Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–361, Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §§322–324, Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–364, and Pub. L. 99–661, div. D, title II, §§4202–4204, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4072, provided that the amendments made by those sections are effective July 1, 1986.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by sections 803(a), (b) and 811 of Pub. L. 97–35 effective Aug. 13, 1981, and Sept. 1, 1981, respectively, see section 820(a)(1)(E), (7)(A) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–627 effective July 1, 1979, except as specifically provided, see section 14 of Pub. L. 95–627, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–105, §6(c), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 512, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1976.

Regulations

Pub. L. 108–265, title V, §501, June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 789, provided that:

"(a) Guidance.—As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [June 30, 2004], the Secretary of Agriculture shall issue guidance to implement the amendments made by sections 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 116, 119(c), 119(g), 120, 126(b), 126(c), 201, 203(a)(3), 203(b), 203(c)(5), 203(e)(3), 203(e)(4), 203(e)(5), 203(e)(6), 203(e)(7), 203(e)(10), and 203(h)(1) [amending this section, sections 1396a, 1759a, 1761, 1766, 1769, 1769c, 1773, 1776, and 1786 of this title, and section 2020 of Title 7, Agriculture].

"(b) Interim Final Regulations.—The Secretary may promulgate interim final regulations to implement the amendments described in subsection (a).

"(c) Regulations.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [June 30, 2004], the Secretary shall promulgate final regulations to implement the amendments described in subsection (a)."

Pub. L. 101–147, title II, §202(c), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 909, provided that: "Not later than July 1, 1990, the Secretary of Agriculture shall issue final regulations to implement the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section]."

Review of Local Policies on Meal Charges and Provision of Alternate Meals

Pub. L. 111–296, title I, §143, Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3213, provided that:

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Review.—The Secretary [of Agriculture], in conjunction with States and participating local educational agencies, shall examine the current policies and practices of States and local educational agencies regarding extending credit to children to pay the cost to the children of reimbursable school lunches and breakfasts.

"(2) Scope.—The examination under paragraph (1) shall include the policies and practices in effect as of the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 2010] relating to providing to children who are without funds a meal other than the reimbursable meals.

"(3) Feasibility.—In carrying out the examination under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

"(A) prepare a report on the feasibility of establishing national standards for meal charges and the provision of alternate meals; and

"(B) provide recommendations for implementing those standards.

"(b) Followup Actions.—

"(1) In general.—Based on the findings and recommendations under subsection (a), the Secretary may—

"(A) implement standards described in paragraph (3) of that subsection through regulation;

"(B) test recommendations through demonstration projects; or

"(C) study further the feasibility of recommendations.

"(2) Factors for consideration.—In determining how best to implement recommendations described in subsection (a)(3), the Secretary shall consider such factors as—

"(A) the impact of overt identification on children;

"(B) the manner in which the affected households will be provided with assistance in establishing eligibility for free or reduced price school meals; and

"(C) the potential financial impact on local educational agencies."

Income Eligibility Guidelines

Pub. L. 96–499, title II, §203(a)–(c), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2600, as amended by Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §820(b)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 535, provided that:

"(a), (b) [Repealed].

"(c) For the school year ending June 30, 1981, the Secretary may prescribe procedures for implementing the revisions in the income poverty guidelines for free and reduced price lunches contained in this section that may allow school food authorities to (1) use applications distributed at the beginning of the school year when making eligibility determinations based on the revised income poverty guidelines or (2) distribute new applications containing the revised income poverty guidelines and make eligibility determinations using the new applications."

Verification of Eligibility Data Submitted on a Sample of Applications for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §803(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 525, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct a pilot study to verify the data submitted on a sample of applications for free and reduced-price meals. In conducting the pilot study, the Secretary may require households included in the study to furnish social security numbers of all household members and such other information as the Secretary may require, including, but not limited to, pay stubs, documentation of the current status of household members who are recipients of public assistance, unemployment insurance documents, and written statements from employers, as a condition for receipt of free or reduced-price meals."

Procedures for Implementing New Income Eligibility Guidelines for Free and Reduced-Price Lunches

Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §803(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 526, provided that for school year ending June 30, 1982, Secretary could prescribe procedures for implementing the revisions made by section 803 of Pub. L. 97–35, amending this section, to the income eligibility guidelines for free and reduced-price lunches under this section, and that such procedures could allow school food authorities to use applications distributed at beginning of school year when making eligibility determinations or to distribute new applications.

Lowering Minimum Standard of Eligibility and Reduction in Number of Children Served, Fiscal Year 1972

Pub. L. 92–153, §6, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 420, provided that: "The Secretary shall not lower minimum standards of eligibility for free and reduced price meals nor require a reduction in the number of children served in any school district during a fiscal year to be effective for that fiscal year. This section shall apply to fiscal year 1972."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "be".

3 So in original. Another closing parenthesis probably should appear.

§1758a. State performance on enrolling children receiving program benefits for free school meals

(a) In general

Not later than December 31, 2008 and June 30 of each year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Agriculture and Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that assesses the effectiveness of each State in enrolling school-aged children in households receiving program benefits under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) (referred to in this section as "program benefits") for free school meals using direct certification.

(b) Specific measures

The assessment of the Secretary of the performance of each State shall include—

(1) an estimate of the number of school-aged children, by State, who were members of a household receiving program benefits at any time in July, August, or September of the prior year;

(2) an estimate of the number of school-aged children, by State, who were directly certified as eligible for free lunches under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.), based on receipt of program benefits, as of October 1 of the prior year; and

(3) an estimate of the number of school-aged children, by State, who were members of a household receiving program benefits at any time in July, August, or September of the prior year who were not candidates for direct certification because on October 1 of the prior year the children attended a school operating under the special assistance provisions of section 11(a)(1) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1759a(a)(1)) that is not operating in a base year.

(c) Performance innovations

The report of the Secretary shall describe best practices from States with the best performance or the most improved performance from the previous year.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4301, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1125; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4301, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1886.)

References in Text

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical sections. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Section was enacted as part of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, and not as part of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Enactment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Section effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date of 2008 Amendment note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Definition of "Secretary"

"Secretary" as meaning the Secretary of Agriculture, see section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

§1758b. Local school wellness policy

(a) In general

Each local educational agency participating in a program authorized by this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) shall establish a local school wellness policy for all schools under the jurisdiction of the local educational agency.

(b) Guidelines

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations that provide the framework and guidelines for local educational agencies to establish local school wellness policies, including, at a minimum,—

(1) goals for nutrition promotion and education, physical activity, and other school-based activities that promote student wellness;

(2) for all foods available on each school campus under the jurisdiction of the local educational agency during the school day, nutrition guidelines that—

(A) are consistent with sections 1758 and 1766 of this title, and sections 4 and 10 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773, 1779); and

(B) promote student health and reduce childhood obesity;


(3) a requirement that the local educational agency permit parents, students, representatives of the school food authority, teachers of physical education, school health professionals, the school board, school administrators, and the general public to participate in the development, implementation, and periodic review and update of the local school wellness policy;

(4) a requirement that the local educational agency inform and update the public (including parents, students, and others in the community) about the content and implementation of the local school wellness policy; and

(5) a requirement that the local educational agency—

(A) periodically measure and make available to the public an assessment on the implementation of the local school wellness policy, including—

(i) the extent to which schools under the jurisdiction of the local educational agency are in compliance with the local school wellness policy;

(ii) the extent to which the local school wellness policy of the local educational agency compares to model local school wellness policies; and

(iii) a description of the progress made in attaining the goals of the local school wellness policy; and


(B) designate 1 or more local educational agency officials or school officials, as appropriate, to ensure that each school complies with the local school wellness policy.

(c) Local discretion

The local educational agency shall use the guidelines promulgated by the Secretary under subsection (b) to determine specific policies appropriate for the schools under the jurisdiction of the local educational agency.

(d) Technical assistance and best practices

(1) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shall provide information and technical assistance to local educational agencies, school food authorities, and State educational agencies for use in establishing healthy school environments that are intended to promote student health and wellness.

(2) Content

The Secretary shall provide technical assistance that—

(A) includes resources and training on designing, implementing, promoting, disseminating, and evaluating local school wellness policies and overcoming barriers to the adoption of local school wellness policies;

(B) includes model local school wellness policies and best practices recommended by Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernmental organizations;

(C) includes such other technical assistance as is required to promote sound nutrition and establish healthy school nutrition environments; and

(D) is consistent with the specific needs and requirements of local educational agencies.

(3) Study and report

(A) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary, in conjunction with the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shall prepare a report on the implementation, strength, and effectiveness of the local school wellness policies carried out in accordance with this section.

(B) Study of local school wellness policies

The study described in subparagraph (A) shall include—

(i) an analysis of the strength and weaknesses of local school wellness policies and how the policies compare with model local wellness policies recommended under paragraph (2)(B); and

(ii) an assessment of the impact of the local school wellness policies in addressing the requirements of subsection (b).

(C) Report

Not later than January 1, 2014, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that describes the findings of the study.

(D) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this paragraph $3,000,000 for fiscal year 2011, to remain available until expended.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §9A, as added Pub. L. 111–296, title II, §204(a), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3216.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2010, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 445 of Pub. L. 111–296, set out as an Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note under section 1751 of this title.

§1759. Direct disbursement to schools by Secretary

(a) The Secretary shall withhold funds payable to a State under this chapter and disburse the funds directly to schools, institutions, or service institutions within the State for the purposes authorized by this chapter to the extent that the Secretary has so withheld and disbursed such funds continuously since October 1, 1980, but only to such extent (except as otherwise required by subsection (b)). Any funds so withheld and disbursed by the Secretary shall be used for the same purposes, and shall be subject to the same conditions, as applicable to a State disbursing funds made available under this chapter. If the Secretary is administering (in whole or in part) any program authorized under this chapter, the State in which the Secretary is administering the program may, upon request to the Secretary, assume administration of that program.

(b) If a State educational agency is not permitted by law to disburse the funds paid to it under this chapter to any of the nonpublic schools in the State, the Secretary shall disburse the funds directly to such schools within the State for the same purposes and subject to the same conditions as are authorized or required with respect to the disbursements to public schools within the State by the State educational agency.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §10, 60 Stat. 233; Pub. L. 87–823, §4, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 91–248, §1(b), May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 93–433, §4(d), Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 93–150, §3(b), Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 562; Pub. L. 94–105, §7, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §817(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 531.)

Amendments

1981Pub. L. 97–35 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted provisions relating to disbursement of funds directly to schools, institutions, or service institutions for the purposes authorized by this chapter, for provisions relating to disbursement of funds directly to schools for the purposes and subject to conditions authorized or required for disbursements to schools within the State by the State educational agency, and added subsec. (b).

1975Pub. L. 94–105 altered provisions of section to accommodate authorization of direct payments to private nonprofit schools and institutions in conformity with revised allocation method for school lunch funds and expanded definition of "school" to include any public or licensed nonprofit residential child care institution, including but not limited to, orphanages and homes for the mentally retarded.

1973Pub. L. 93–150 inserted in proviso reference to section 1759a of this title.

1972Pub. L. 92–433 inserted proviso that beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, the Secretary shall make payments directly to the nonprofit private schools for the purpose of section 1753 of this title under the same conditions as are prescribed for State educational agencies.

1970Pub. L. 91–248 provided that data upon which State apportionments are calculated is the program year completed two years immediately prior to the fiscal year for which the appropriation is requested.

1962Pub. L. 87–823 substituted "an amount which bears the same ratio to such funds as the number of lunches, consisting of a combination of foods and meeting the minimum requirements prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to section 1758 of this title, served in the preceding fiscal year by all nonprofit private schools participating in the program under this chapter within the State, as determined by the Secretary, bears to the participation rate for the State" for "the same proportion of the funds as the number of children between the ages of 5 and 17, inclusive, attending nonprofit private schools within the State, is of the total number of persons of those ages within the State attending school".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 820(a)(4) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

§1759a. Special assistance funds

(a) Formula for computation of payments; computation for lunches to eligible children in schools funding service to ineligible children from non-Federal sources; special assistance factors; annual adjustments

(1)(A) Except as provided in section 1759 of this title, in each fiscal year each State educational agency shall receive special assistance payments in an amount equal to the sum of the product obtained by multiplying the number of lunches (consisting of a combination of foods which meet the minimum nutritional requirements prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to section 1758(a) of this title) served free to children eligible for such lunches in schools within that State during such fiscal year by the special assistance factor for free lunches prescribed by the Secretary for such fiscal year and the product obtained by multiplying the number of lunches served at a reduced price to children eligible for such reduced price lunches in schools within that State during such fiscal year by the special assistance factor for reduced price lunches prescribed by the Secretary for such fiscal year.

(B) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), (D), (E), or (F), in the case of any school which determines that at least 80 percent of the children in attendance during a school year (hereinafter in this sentence referred to as the "first school year") are eligible for free lunches or reduced price lunches, special assistance payments shall be paid to the State educational agency with respect to that school, if that school so requests for the school year following the first school year, on the basis of the number of free lunches or reduced price lunches, as the case may be, that are served by that school during the school year for which the request is made, to those children who were determined to be so eligible in the first school year and the number of free lunches and reduced price lunches served during that year to other children determined for that year to be eligible for such lunches.

(C)(i) Except as provided in subparagraph (D), in the case of any school or school district that—

(I) elects to serve all children in the school or school district free lunches under the school lunch program during any period of 4 successive school years, or in the case of a school or school district that serves both lunches and breakfasts, elects to serve all children in the school or school district free lunches and free breakfasts under the school lunch program and the school breakfast program established under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773) during any period of 4 successive school years; and

(II) pays, from sources other than Federal funds, for the costs of serving the lunches or breakfasts that are in excess of the value of assistance received under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) with respect to the number of lunches or breakfasts served during the period;


special assistance payments shall be paid to the State educational agency with respect to the school or school district during the period on the basis of the number of lunches or breakfasts determined under clause (ii) or (iii).

(ii) For purposes of making special assistance payments under clause (i), except as provided in clause (iii), the number of lunches or breakfasts served by a school or school district to children who are eligible for free lunches or breakfasts or reduced price lunches or breakfasts during each school year of the 4-school-year period shall be considered to be equal to the number of lunches or breakfasts served by the school or school district to children eligible for free lunches or breakfasts or reduced price lunches or breakfasts during the first school year of the period.

(iii) For purposes of computing the amount of the payments, a school or school district may elect to determine on a more frequent basis the number of children who are eligible for free or reduced price lunches or breakfasts who are served lunches or breakfasts during the 4-school-year period.

(D)(i) In the case of any school or school district that is receiving special assistance payments under this paragraph for a 4-school-year period described in subparagraph (C), the State may grant, at the end of the 4-school-year period, an extension of the period for an additional 4 school years, if the State determines, through available socioeconomic data approved by the Secretary, that the income level of the population of the school or school district has remained stable.

(ii) A school or school district described in clause (i) may reapply to the State at the end of the 4-school-year period, and at the end of each 4-school-year period thereafter for which the school or school district receives special assistance payments under this paragraph, for the purpose of continuing to receive the payments for a subsequent 4-school-year period.

(iii) If the Secretary determines after considering the best available socioeconomic data that the income level of families of children enrolled in a school or school district has not remained stable, the Secretary may require the submission of applications for free and reduced price lunches, or for free and reduced price lunches and breakfasts, in the first school year of any 4-school-year period for which the school or school district receives special assistance payments under this paragraph, for the purpose of calculating the special assistance payments.

(iv) For the purpose of updating information and reimbursement levels, a school or school district described in clause (i) that carries out a school lunch or school breakfast program may at any time require submission of applications for free and reduced price lunches or for free and reduced price lunches and breakfasts.

(E)(i) In the case of any school or school district that—

(I) elects to serve all children in the school or school district free lunches under the school lunch program during any period of 4 successive school years, or in the case of a school or school district that serves both lunches and breakfasts, elects to serve all children in the school or school district free lunches and free breakfasts under the school lunch program and the school breakfast program during any period of 4 successive school years; and

(II) pays, from sources other than Federal funds, for the costs of serving the lunches or breakfasts that are in excess of the value of assistance received under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) with respect to the number of lunches or breakfasts served during the period;


total Federal cash reimbursements and total commodity assistance shall be provided to the State educational agency with respect to the school or school district at a level that is equal to the total Federal cash reimbursements and total commodity assistance received by the school or school district in the last school year for which the school or school district accepted applications under the school lunch or school breakfast program, adjusted annually for inflation in accordance with paragraph (3)(B) and for changes in enrollment, to carry out the school lunch or school breakfast program.

(ii) A school or school district described in clause (i) may reapply to the State at the end of the 4-school-year period described in clause (i), and at the end of each 4-school-year period thereafter for which the school or school district receives reimbursements and assistance under this subparagraph, for the purpose of continuing to receive the reimbursements and assistance for a subsequent 4-school-year period. The State may approve an application under this clause if the State determines, through available socioeconomic data approved by the Secretary, that the income level of the population of the school or school district has remained consistent with the income level of the population of the school or school district in the last school year for which the school or school district accepted the applications described in clause (i).

(F) Universal meal service in high poverty areas.—

(i) Definition of identified students.—The term "identified students" means students certified based on documentation of benefit receipt or categorical eligibility as described in section 245.6a(c)(2) of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations).

(ii) Election of special assistance payments.—

(I) In general.—A local educational agency may, for all schools in the district or on behalf of certain schools in the district, elect to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph in lieu of special assistance payments otherwise made available under this paragraph based on applications for free and reduced price lunches if—

(aa) during a period of 4 successive school years, the local educational agency elects to serve all children in the applicable schools free lunches and breakfasts under the school lunch program under this chapter and the school breakfast program established under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773);

(bb) the local educational agency pays, from sources other than Federal funds, the costs of serving the lunches or breakfasts that are in excess of the value of assistance received under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.);

(cc) the local educational agency is not a residential child care institution (as that term is used in section 210.2 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations)); and

(dd) during the school year prior to the first year of the period for which the local educational agency elects to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph, the local educational agency or school had a percentage of enrolled students who were identified students that meets or exceeds the threshold described in clause (viii).


(II) Election to stop receiving payments.—A local educational agency may, for all schools in the district or on behalf of certain schools in the district, elect to stop receiving special assistance payments under this subparagraph for the following school year by notifying the State agency not later than June 30 of the current school year of the intention to stop receiving special assistance payments under this subparagraph.


(iii) First year of option.—

(I) Special assistance payment.—For each month of the first school year of the 4-year period during which a school or local educational agency elects to receive payments under this subparagraph, special assistance payments at the rate for free meals shall be made under this subparagraph for a percentage of all reimbursable meals served in an amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying—

(aa) the multiplier described in clause (vii); by

(bb) the percentage of identified students at the school or local educational agency as of April 1 of the prior school year, up to a maximum of 100 percent.


(II) Payment for other meals.—The percentage of meals served that is not described in subclause (I) shall be reimbursed at the rate provided under section 1753 of this title.


(iv) Second, third, or fourth year of option.—

(I) Special assistance payment.—For each month of the second, third, or fourth school year of the 4-year period during which a school or local educational agency elects to receive payments under this subparagraph, special assistance payments at the rate for free meals shall be made under this subparagraph for a percentage of all reimbursable meals served in an amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying—

(aa) the multiplier described in clause (vii); by

(bb) the higher of the percentage of identified students at the school or local educational agency as of April 1 of the prior school year or the percentage of identified students at the school or local educational agency as of April 1 of the school year prior to the first year that the school or local educational agency elected to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph, up to a maximum of 100 percent.


(II) Payment for other meals.—The percentage of meals served that is not described in subclause (I) shall be reimbursed at the rate provided under section 1753 of this title.


(v) Grace year.—

(I) In general.—If, not later than April 1 of the fourth year of a 4-year period described in clause (ii)(I), a school or local educational agency has a percentage of enrolled students who are identified students that meets or exceeds a percentage that is 10 percentage points lower than the threshold described in clause (viii), the school or local educational agency may elect to receive special assistance payments under subclause (II) for an additional grace year.

(II) Special assistance payment.—For each month of a grace year, special assistance payments at the rate for free meals shall be made under this subparagraph for a percentage of all reimbursable meals served in an amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying—

(aa) the multiplier described in clause (vii); by

(bb) the percentage of identified students at the school or local educational agency as of April 1 of the prior school year, up to a maximum of 100 percent.


(III) Payment for other meals.—The percentage of meals served that is not described in subclause (II) shall be reimbursed at the rate provided under section 1753 of this title.


(vi) Applications.—A school or local educational agency that receives special assistance payments under this subparagraph may not be required to collect applications for free and reduced price lunches.

(vii) Multiplier.—

(I) Phase-in.—For each school year beginning on or before July 1, 2013, the multiplier shall be 1.6.

(II) Full implementation.—For each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2014, the Secretary may use, as determined by the Secretary—

(aa) a multiplier between 1.3 and 1.6; and

(bb) subject to item (aa), a different multiplier for different schools or local educational agencies.


(viii) Threshold.—

(I) Phase-in.—For each school year beginning on or before July 1, 2013, the threshold shall be 40 percent.

(II) Full implementation.—For each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2014, the Secretary may use a threshold that is less than 40 percent.


(ix) Phase-in.—

(I) In general.—In selecting States for participation during the phase-in period, the Secretary shall select States with an adequate number and variety of schools and local educational agencies that could benefit from the option under this subparagraph, as determined by the Secretary.

(II) Limitation.—The Secretary may not approve additional schools and local educational agencies to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph after the Secretary has approved schools and local educational agencies in—

(aa) for the school year beginning on July 1, 2011, 3 States; and

(bb) for each of the school years beginning July 1, 2012 and July 1, 2013, an additional 4 States per school year.


(x) Election of option.—

(I) In general.—For each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2014, any local educational agency eligible to make the election described in clause (ii) for all schools in the district or on behalf of certain schools in the district may elect to receive special assistance payments under clause (iii) for the next school year if, not later than June 30 of the current school year, the local educational agency submits to the State agency the percentage of identified students at the school or local educational agency.

(II) State agency notification.—Not later than May 1 of each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2011, each State agency with schools or local educational agencies that may be eligible to elect to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph shall notify—

(aa) each local educational agency that meets or exceeds the threshold described in clause (viii) that the local educational agency is eligible to elect to receive special assistance payments under clause (iii) for the next 4 school years, of the blended reimbursement rate the local educational agency would receive under clause (iii), and of the procedures for the local educational agency to make the election;

(bb) each local educational agency that receives special assistance payments under clause (iii) of the blended reimbursement rate the local educational agency would receive under clause (iv);

(cc) each local educational agency in the fourth year of electing to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph that meets or exceeds a percentage that is 10 percentage points lower than the threshold described in clause (viii) and that receives special assistance payments under clause (iv), that the local educational agency may continue to receive such payments for the next school year, of the blended reimbursement rate the local educational agency would receive under clause (v), and of the procedures for the local educational agency to make the election; and

(dd) each local educational agency that meets or exceeds a percentage that is 10 percentage points lower than the threshold described in clause (viii) that the local educational agency may be eligible to elect to receive special assistance payments under clause (iii) if the threshold described in clause (viii) is met by April 1 of the school year or if the threshold is met for a subsequent school year.


(III) Public notification of local educational agencies.—Not later than May 1 of each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2011, each State agency with 1 or more schools or local educational agencies eligible to elect to receive special assistance payments under clause (iii) shall submit to the Secretary, and the Secretary shall publish, lists of the local educational agencies receiving notices under subclause (II).

(IV) Public notification of schools.—Not later than May 1 of each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2011, each local educational agency in a State with 1 or more schools eligible to elect to receive special assistance payments under clause (iii) shall submit to the State agency, and the State agency shall publish—

(aa) a list of the schools that meet or exceed the threshold described in clause (viii);

(bb) a list of the schools that meet or exceed a percentage that is 10 percentage points lower than the threshold described in clause (viii) and that are in the fourth year of receiving special assistance payments under clause (iv); and

(cc) a list of the schools that meet or exceed a percentage that is 10 percentage points lower than the threshold described in clause (viii).


(xi) Implementation.—

(I) Guidance.—Not later than 90 days after December 13, 2010, the Secretary shall issue guidance to implement this subparagraph.

(II) Regulations.—Not later than December 31, 2013, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations that establish procedures for State agencies, local educational agencies, and schools to meet the requirements of this subparagraph, including exercising the option described in this subparagraph.

(III) Publication.—If the Secretary uses the authority provided in clause (vii)(II)(bb) to use a different multiplier for different schools or local educational agencies, for each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2014, not later than April 1, 2014, the Secretary shall publish on the website of the Secretary a table that indicates—

(aa) each local educational agency that may elect to receive special assistance payments under clause (ii);

(bb) the blended reimbursement rate that each local educational agency would receive; and

(cc) an explanation of the methodology used to calculate the multiplier or threshold for each school or local educational agency.


(xii) Report.—Not later than December 31, 2013, the Secretary shall publish a report that describes—

(I) an estimate of the number of schools and local educational agencies eligible to elect to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph that do not elect to receive the payments;

(II) for schools and local educational agencies described in subclause (I)—

(aa) barriers to participation in the special assistance option under this subparagraph, as described by the nonparticipating schools and local educational agencies; and

(bb) changes to the special assistance option under this subparagraph that would make eligible schools and local educational agencies more likely to elect to receive special assistance payments;


(III) for schools and local educational agencies that elect to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph—

(aa) the number of schools and local educational agencies;

(bb) an estimate of the percentage of identified students and the percentage of enrolled students who were certified to receive free or reduced price meals in the school year prior to the election to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph, and a description of how the ratio between those percentages compares to 1.6;

(cc) an estimate of the number and share of schools and local educational agencies in which more than 80 percent of students are certified for free or reduced price meals that elect to receive special assistance payments under that clause; and

(dd) whether any of the schools or local educational agencies stopped electing to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph;


(IV) the impact of electing to receive special assistance payments under this subparagraph on—

(aa) program integrity;

(bb) whether a breakfast program is offered;

(cc) the type of breakfast program offered;

(dd) the nutritional quality of school meals; and

(ee) program participation; and


(V) the multiplier and threshold, as described in clauses (vii) and (viii) respectively, that the Secretary will use for each school year beginning on or after July 1, 2014 and the rationale for any change in the multiplier or threshold.


(xiii) Funding.—

(I) In general.—On October 1, 2010, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Secretary to carry out clause (xii) $5,000,000, to remain available until September 30, 2014.

(II) Receipt and acceptance.—The Secretary shall be entitled to receive, shall accept, and shall use to carry out clause (xii) the funds transferred under subclause (I), without further appropriation.

(2) The special assistance factor prescribed by the Secretary for free lunches shall be 98.75 cents and the special assistance factor for reduced price lunches shall be 40 cents less than the special assistance factor for free lunches.

(3)(A) The Secretary shall prescribe on July 1, 1982, and on each subsequent July 1, an annual adjustment in the following:

(i) The national average payment rates for lunches (as established under section 1753 of this title).

(ii) The special assistance factor for lunches (as established under paragraph (2) of this subsection).

(iii) The national average payment rates for breakfasts (as established under section 4(b) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1773 (b)]).

(iv) The national average payment rates for supplements (as established under section 1766(c) of this title).


(B) Computation of adjustment.—

(i) In general.—The annual adjustment under this paragraph shall reflect changes in the cost of operating meal programs under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.], as indicated by the change in the series for food away from home of the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor.

(ii) Basis.—Each annual adjustment shall reflect the changes in the series for food away from home for the most recent 12-month period for which such data are available.

(iii) Rounding.—On July 1, 1999, and on each subsequent July 1, the national average payment rates for meals and supplements shall be adjusted to the nearest lower cent increment and shall be based on the unrounded amounts for the preceding 12-month period.

(b) Financing cost of free and reduced price lunches on basis of need of school for special assistance; maximum per lunch amount

Except as provided in section 10 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1779], the special assistance payments made to each State agency during each fiscal year under the provisions of this section shall be used by such State agency to assist schools of that State in providing free and reduced price lunches served to children pursuant to section 1758(b) of this title. The amount of such special assistance funds that a school shall from time to time receive, within a maximum per lunch amount established by the Secretary for all States, shall be based on the need of the school for such special assistance. Such maximum per lunch amount established by the Secretary shall not be less than 60 cents.

(c) Payments to States

Special assistance payments to any State under this section shall be made as provided in the last sentence of section 1756 of this title.

(d) Report of school to State educational agency, contents; report of State educational agency to Secretary, contents

(1) The Secretary, when appropriate, may request each school participating in the school lunch program under this chapter to report monthly to the State educational agency the average number of children in the school who received free lunches and the average number of children who received reduced price lunches during the immediately preceding month.

(2) On request of the Secretary, the State educational agency of each State shall report to the Secretary the average number of children in the State who received free lunches and the average number of children in the State who received reduced price lunches during the immediately preceding month.

(e) Eligibility of commodity only schools for special assistance payments; free and reduced price meals; discrimination and identification prohibited

Commodity only schools shall also be eligible for special assistance payments under this section. Such schools shall serve meals free to children who meet the eligibility requirements for free meals under section 1758(b) of this title, and shall serve meals at a reduced price, not exceeding the price specified in section 1758(b)(9) of this title, to children meeting the eligibility requirements for reduced price meals under such section. No physical segregation of, or other discrimination against, any child eligible for a free or reduced-priced 1 lunch shall be made by the school, nor shall there be any overt identification of any such child by any means.

(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 111–296, title IV, §441(a)(3), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3261

(g) Universal meal service through Census data

(1) In general

To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall identify alternatives to—

(A) the daily counting by category of meals provided by school lunch programs under this chapter and the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773); and

(B) the use of annual applications as the basis for eligibility to receive free meals or reduced price meals under this chapter.

(2) Recommendations

(A) Considerations

(i) In general

In identifying alternatives under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall consider the recommendations of the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences relating to use of the American Community Survey of the Bureau of the Census and other data sources.

(ii) Socioeconomic survey

The Secretary shall consider use of a periodic socioeconomic survey of households of children attending school in the school food authority in not more than 3 school food authorities participating in the school lunch program under this chapter.

(iii) Survey parameters

The Secretary shall establish requirements for the use of a socioeconomic survey under clause (ii), which shall—

(I) include criteria for survey design, sample frame validity, minimum level of statistical precision, minimum survey response rates, frequency of data collection, and other criteria as determined by the Secretary;

(II) be consistent with the Standards and Guidelines for Statistical Surveys, as published by the Office of Management and Budget;

(III) be consistent with standards and requirements that ensure proper use of Federal funds; and

(IV) specify that the socioeconomic survey be conducted at least once every 4 years.

(B) Use of alternatives

Alternatives described in subparagraph (A) that provide accurate and effective means of providing meal reimbursement consistent with the eligibility status of students may be—

(i) implemented for use in schools or by school food authorities that agree—

(I) to serve all breakfasts and lunches to students at no cost in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary; and

(II) to pay, from sources other than Federal funds, the costs of serving any lunches and breakfasts that are in excess of the value of assistance received under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) with respect to the number of lunches and breakfasts served during the applicable period; or


(ii) further tested through demonstration projects carried out by the Secretary in accordance with subparagraph (C).

(C) Demonstration projects

(i) In general

For the purpose of carrying out demonstration projects described in subparagraph (B), the Secretary may waive any requirement of this chapter relating to—

(I) counting of meals provided by school lunch or breakfast programs;

(II) applications for eligibility for free or reduced priced meals; or

(III) required direct certification under section 1758(b)(4) of this title.

(ii) Number of projects

The Secretary shall carry out demonstration projects under this paragraph in not more than 5 local educational agencies for each alternative model that is being tested.

(iii) Limitation

A demonstration project carried out under this paragraph shall have a duration of not more than 3 years.

(iv) Evaluation

The Secretary shall evaluate each demonstration project carried out under this paragraph in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary.

(v) Requirement

In carrying out evaluations under clause (iv), the Secretary shall evaluate, using comparisons with local educational agencies with similar demographic characteristics—

(I) the accuracy of the 1 or more methodologies adopted as compared to the daily counting by category of meals provided by school meal programs under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) and the use of annual applications as the basis for eligibility to receive free or reduced price meals under those Acts;

(II) the effect of the 1 or more methodologies adopted on participation in programs under those Acts;

(III) the effect of the 1 or more methodologies adopted on administration of programs under those Acts; and

(IV) such other matters as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §11, as added Pub. L. 87–823, §6, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 946; amended Pub. L. 91–248, §7, May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 92–153, §4, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 420; Pub. L. 93–150, §3(a), Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 561; Pub. L. 94–105, §8, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 95–166, §9, Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1336; Pub. L. 95–627, §§4, 5(c), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3619, 3620; Pub. L. 96–499, title II, §204(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2601; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §§801(b), 812, 813(b), 819(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 522, 530, 533; Pub. L. 101–147, title II, §203, title III, §312(2), (3), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 909, 916; Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §111, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4706; Pub. L. 104–193, title VII, §704(a), (b)(1), (c), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2289, 2290; Pub. L. 105–336, title I, §103(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3145, 3146; Pub. L. 107–76, title VII, §766, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 744; Pub. L. 108–265, title I, §§104(d)(3), 113, June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 738, 747; Pub. L. 111–296, title I, §104, title IV, §441(a)(2), (3), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3193, 3261.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(C)(i)(II), (E)(i)(II), (F)(ii)(I)(bb), (3)(B)(i), and (g)(2)(B)(i)(II), (C)(v)(I), is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of that Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of this title and Tables.

Those Acts, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(C)(v)(I) to (III), mean the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, which was in the original "this Act" and was translated to read "this chapter", and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966. See above.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–296, §104(a)(2), substituted "(E), or (F)" for "or (E)".

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 111–296, §104(a)(1), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 111–296, §441(a)(2), struck out designations and headings of subcls. (I) and (II) and text of subcl. (I). Text of former subcl. (I) read as follows: "For the period ending June 30, 1999, the adjustments made under this paragraph shall be computed to the nearest one-fourth cent, except that adjustments to payment rates for meals and supplements served to individuals not determined to be eligible for free or reduced price meals and supplements shall be computed to the nearest lower cent increment and based on the unrounded amount for the preceding 12-month period."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–296, §441(a)(3), struck out subsec. (f) which related to information and assistance concerning reimbursement options.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–296, §104(b), added subsec. (g).

2004—Subsec. (a)(1)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 108–265, §113, inserted "or school district" after "school" wherever appearing other than as part of "school year", "school years", "school lunch", "school breakfast", and "4-school-year period".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–265, §104(d)(3), substituted "section 1758(b)(9)" for "section 1758(b)(3)".

2001—Subsec. (f)(1)(E). Pub. L. 107–76, §766(1), substituted "2003" for "2001".

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–76, §766(2)(A), added subpar. (A) and struck out heading and text of former subpar. (A). Text read as follows: "Not later than January 1, 2002, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry of the Senate a report on the activities of the State agencies receiving grants under this subsection."

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–76, §766(2)(B), substituted "reports" for "report" in introductory provisions.

1998—Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(i)(I). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(a)(1)(A), substituted "4" for "3" before "successive school years" in two places.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(a)(1)(B), substituted "4-" for "3-" before "school-year period".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(i). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(a)(2)(A), substituted "4-" for "3-" before "school-year period" in two places and "4" for "2" before "school years".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(a)(2)(B), struck out first sentence which read "A school described in clause (i) may reapply to the State at the end of the 2-school-year period described in clause (i) for the purpose of continuing to receive special assistance payments, as determined in accordance with this paragraph, for a subsequent 5-school-year period.", substituted "A school described in clause (i)" for "The school", and substituted "4-" for "5-" before "school-year period" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(a)(2)(C), substituted "4-" for "5-" before "school-year period".

Subsec. (a)(1)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(a)(3), struck out cl. (iii) which read as follows: "Not later than 1 year after November 2, 1994, the Secretary shall evaluate the effects of this subparagraph and notify the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate of the results of the evaluation."

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(b)(1), inserted subpar. heading, designated first two sentences as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and inserted headings, and designated last sentence as subcl. (I) of cl. (iii), inserted headings, substituted "For the period ending June 30, 1999, the adjustments" for "The adjustments", and added subcl. (II).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–336, §103(c)(1), added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(i). Pub. L. 104–193, §704(a), struck out ", on November 2, 1994," after "any school that".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 104–193, §704(b)(1), inserted before period at end ", except that adjustments to payment rates for meals and supplements served to individuals not determined to be eligible for free or reduced price meals and supplements shall be computed to the nearest lower cent increment and based on the unrounded amount for the preceding 12-month period".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–193, §704(c)(1), (3) redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: "In carrying out this section, the terms and conditions governing the operation of the school lunch program set forth in other sections of this chapter, including those applicable to funds apportioned or paid pursuant to section 1753 of this title but excluding the provisions of section 1756 of this title relating to matching, shall be applicable to the extent they are not inconsistent with the express requirements of this section."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–193, §704(c)(3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §704(c)(2), substituted "On request of the Secretary, the State educational agency" for "The State educational agency" and struck out "each month" after "report to the Secretary".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–193, §704(c)(3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e).

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–448 designated first sentence as subpar. (A) and second sentence as subpar. (B), substituted "Except as provided in subparagraph (C), (D), or (E), in the case of" for "In the case of" in subpar. (B), added subpars. (C) to (E), and struck out at end "In the case of any school that (A) elects to serve all children in that school free lunches under the school lunch program during any period of three successive school years and (B) pays, from sources other than Federal funds, for the costs of serving such lunches which are in excess of the value of assistance received under this chapter with respect to the number of lunches served during that period, special assistance payments shall be paid to the State educational agency with respect to that school during that period on the basis of the number of lunches determined under the succeeding sentence. For purposes of making special assistance payments in accordance with the preceding sentence, the number of lunches served by a school to children eligible for free lunches and reduced price lunches during each school year of the three-school-year period shall be deemed to be the number of lunches served by that school to children eligible for free lunches and reduced price lunches during the first school year of such period, unless that school elects, for purposes of computing the amount of such payments, to determine on a more frequent basis the number of children eligible for free and reduced price lunches who are served lunches during such period."

1989—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 101–147, §312(2), (3), substituted "reduced price" for "reduced-price" and "special assistance" for "special-assistance" wherever appearing in pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (a) and first sentence of subsec. (b).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–147, §203, substituted "The Secretary, when appropriate, may request each school participating in the school lunch program under this chapter to report monthly to the State educational agency" for "Each school participating in the school lunch program under this chapter shall report each month to its State educational agency".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–147, §312(2), (3), substituted "reduced price" for "reduced-price" and "special assistance" for "special-assistance".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §801(b), redesignated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "(A)" for "(1)" and "(B)" for "(2)", and struck out provisions relating to special assistance factors, adjustments, etc., for funds for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1973, and after, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §819(a)(1), struck out "financing the cost of" before "providing free".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–35, §819(a)(2), struck out reference to section 1754 of this title.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–35, §812, struck out par. (1) which related to submission of State plan for child nutrition operations. Former pars. (2) and (3) were redesignated as (1) and (2), respectively, and in such pars. as so redesignated, struck out requirement respecting estimation of eligible children by participating State.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–35, §813(b), added subsec. (f).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–499 struck out provision that if in any State all schools charged students a uniform price for reduced-price lunches, and such price was less than twenty cents, the special assistance factor prescribed for reduced-price lunches in such State was to be equal to the special assistance factor for free lunches reduced by either ten cents or the price charged for reduced-price lunches in such State, whichever was greater.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–627 substituted "20 cents" for "10 cents" after "which shall be", inserted "for All Urban Consumers" after "Consumer Price Index", and inserted provision relating to the special assistance factor prescribed for reduced-price lunches in any State in which all schools charge students a uniform price for lunches.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–166 provided for special-assistance payments to the State educational agency where 80 percent of children in attendance during the school year are eligible for free lunches or reduced-price lunches and for determination of number of lunches served to children eligible for free lunches and reduced-price lunches where the school serves all students, eligible and noneligible, and funds for noneligible students are from other than Federal funds.

1975—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 94–105 substituted "Each year by not later than a date specified by the Secretary" for "Not later than January 1 of each year", and "following school year" for "following fiscal year".

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–150 added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) provisions relating to appropriations authorization for fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, and succeeding fiscal years of such sums as may be necessary to provide special assistance to assure access to the school lunch program under this chapter by children of low-income families.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–150 added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) provisions relating to formula for apportionment of funds and need for additional funds.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–150 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c), substituted "Special assistance payments to any State" for "Payment of the funds apportioned to any State", and struck out former subsec. (c) provisions relating to basis for apportionment among States and need for additional funds.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–150 redesignated subsec. (g) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–150 redesignated subsec. (h) as (e) struck out former subsec. (e) provisions relating to State disbursement to schools for financing operating costs of the school lunch program and basis for determination of amount of funds. Subject matter was covered by subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–150 struck out subsec. (f) provisions relating to withholding of funds from State educational agencies not permitted to disburse funds to nonprofit private schools and direct disbursement to nonprofit private schools, and conditions thereof.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 93–150 redesignated subsecs. (g) and (h) as (d) and (e), respectively.

1971—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–153 established a reimbursement rate as amount of funds to be disbursed to schools in a State, provided for receipt of a greater amount or reimbursement per meal if the school established financial inability to support service of meals, and prescribed maximum per meal amount and higher maximum per meal amount for especially needy schools.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–248 authorized for fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, and for each succeeding fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to provide assistance to assure access to school lunch program by children of low-income families.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–248 substituted formula for apportionment of funds among Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa based on the ratio of the number of children aged three to seventeen, inclusive, in such State as compared to the total number of such children in all such States, for a ratio based on the number of free or reduced price lunches served in the preceding fiscal year in such State as compared to the number of such lunches served in all such States in the preceding fiscal year.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–248 struck out provision requiring that not less than 50 percent of the remaining sums appropriated be apportioned among the States other than Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa, substituted formula for apportionment of special assistance funds among the States based on the total number of children aged three to seventeen, inclusive, in households with incomes of less than $4,000 per annum, for a formula based on the number of free or reduced price lunches served in the preceding fiscal year and the assistance need rate, and provided that further apportionment be made on the same basis as the initial apportionment to any State which justifies the need for additional funds.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–248 substituted provision requiring that funds disbursed by the State be used to assist schools in financing all or part of the operating costs of the school lunch program, for requirement that disbursed funds be used to assist schools in the purchase of agricultural commodities and other foods, struck out provision relating to the selection of schools to receive funds, and substituted as a basis for determination of the amount of funds to go to each school the need of that school for assistance in meeting the requirements of section 1758 of this title, for such factors as economic condition of area from which school draws attendance, the percentages of free and reduced price lunches being served in such schools, the price of lunches in such schools compared with the average prevailing price of lunches served in the State under this chapter and the need of such schools for assistance as reflected by the financial position of the school's lunch programs.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–248 substituted "in the fiscal year beginning two years immediately prior to the fiscal year for which the funds are appropriated" for "in the preceding fiscal year".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 91–248 added subsec. (h).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–296 effective Oct. 1, 2010, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 445 of Pub. L. 111–296, set out as a note under section 1751 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(d)(3) of Pub. L. 108–265 effective July 1, 2005, and amendment by section 113 of Pub. L. 108–265 effective June 30, 2004, see section 502(a), (b)(4) of Pub. L. 108–265, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1754 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–336 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 401 of Pub. L. 105–336, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–193, title VII, §704(b)(2), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2290, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall become effective on July 1, 1997."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–448 effective Oct. 1, 1994, see section 401 of Pub. L. 103–448, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 801 of Pub. L. 97–35 effective Sept. 1, 1981, amendment by sections 812 and 819 of Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, and amendment by section 813 of Pub. L. 97–35 effective 90 days after Aug. 13, 1981, see section 820(a)(1)(A), (4), (5) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by sections 4 and 5(c) of Pub. L. 95–627 effective Jan. 1, 1979, and July 1, 1979, respectively, see section 14 of Pub. L. 95–627, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Semiannual Adjustments Reflecting the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers During Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1981

Pub. L. 96–499, title II, §204(b), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2601, related to annual and semiannual adjustments required under the former sixth sentence of subsec. (a) of this section during the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1981.

Additional Funds for Food Service Programs for Children; Apportionment to States Special Assistance; Consultation With Child Nutrition Council; Reimbursement From Supplemental Appropriation

Additional funds for food service programs for children from appropriations under section 612(c) of Title 7, Agriculture, apportionment to States, special assistance programs, consultation with National Advisory Council on Child Nutrition, and reimbursement from supplemental appropriation, see section 1 of Pub. L. 92–153, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "reduced price".

§1760. Miscellaneous provisions

(a) Accounts and records

States, State educational agencies, and schools participating in the school lunch program under this chapter shall keep such accounts and records as may be necessary to enable the Secretary to determine whether the provisions of this chapter are being complied with. Such accounts and records shall be available at any reasonable time for inspection and audit by representatives of the Secretary and shall be preserved for such period of time, not in excess of five years, as the Secretary determines is necessary.

(b) Agreements

(1) In general

The Secretary shall incorporate, in the agreement of the Secretary with the State agencies administering programs authorized under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), the express requirements with respect to the operation of the programs to the extent applicable and such other provisions as in the opinion of the Secretary are reasonably necessary or appropriate to effectuate the purposes of this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).

(2) Expectations for use of funds

Agreements described in paragraph (1) shall include a provision that—

(A) supports full use of Federal funds provided to State agencies for the administration of programs authorized under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.); and

(B) excludes the Federal funds from State budget restrictions or limitations including, at a minimum—

(i) hiring freezes;

(ii) work furloughs; and

(iii) travel restrictions.

(c) Requirements with respect to teaching personnel, curriculum, instruction, etc.

In carrying out the provisions of this chapter, the Secretary shall not impose any requirement with respect to teaching personnel, curriculum, instruction, methods of instruction, and materials of instruction in any school.

(d) Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter—

(1) Child.—

(A) In general.—The term "child" includes an individual, regardless of age, who—

(i) is determined by a State educational agency, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to have one or more disabilities; and

(ii) is attending any institution, as defined in section 1766(a) of this title, or any nonresidential public or nonprofit private school of high school grade or under, for the purpose of participating in a school program established for individuals with disabilities.


(B) Relationship to child and adult care food program.—No institution that is not otherwise eligible to participate in the program under section 1766 of this title shall be considered eligible because of this paragraph.


(2) "Commodity only schools" means schools that do not participate in the school lunch program under this chapter, but which receive commodities made available by the Secretary for use by such schools in nonprofit lunch programs.

(3) Disability.—The term "disability" has the meaning given the term in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 for purposes of title II of that Act (29 U.S.C 760 et seq.).

(4) Local educational agency.—

(A) In general.—The term "local educational agency" has the meaning given the term in section 7801 of title 20.

(B) Inclusion.—The term "local educational agency" includes, in the case of a private nonprofit school, an appropriate entity determined by the Secretary.


(5) "School" means (A) any public or nonprofit private school of high school grade or under, and (B) any public or licensed nonprofit private residential child care institution (including, but not limited to, orphanages and homes for the mentally retarded, but excluding Job Corps Centers funded by the Department of Labor). For purposes of this paragraph, the term "nonprofit", when applied to any such private school or institution, means any such school or institution which is exempt from tax under section 501(c)(3) of title 26.

(6) "School year" means the annual period from July 1 through June 30.

(7) "Secretary" means the Secretary of Agriculture.

(8) "State" means any of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(9) "State educational agency" means, as the State legislature may determine, (A) the chief State school officer (such as the State superintendent of public instruction, commissioner of education, or similar officer), or (B) a board of education controlling the State department of education.

(e) Value of assistance as income or resources under Federal or State laws

The value of assistance to children under this chapter shall not be considered to be income or resources for any purposes under any Federal or State laws, including laws relating to taxation and welfare and public assistance programs.

(f) Adjustment of national average payment rate for Alaska, Hawaii, territories and possessions, etc.

In providing assistance for breakfasts, lunches, suppers, and supplements served in Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Secretary may establish appropriate adjustments for each such State to the national average payment rates prescribed under sections 1753, 1759a, 1761, and 1766 of this title and section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1773], to reflect the differences between the costs of providing meals and supplements in those States and the costs of providing meals and supplements in all other States.

(g) Criminal penalties

Whoever embezzles, willfully misapplies, steals, or obtains by fraud any funds, assets, or property that are the subject of a grant or other form of assistance under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.], whether received directly or indirectly from the United States Department of Agriculture, or whoever receives, conceals, or retains such funds, assets, or property to personal use or gain, knowing such funds, assets, or property have been embezzled, willfully misapplied, stolen, or obtained by fraud shall, if such funds, assets, or property are of the value of $100 or more, be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, or, if such funds, assets, or property are of a value of less than $100, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(h) Combined allocation for breakfast and lunch

No provision of this chapter or of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.] shall require any school receiving funds under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to account separately for the cost incurred in the school lunch and school breakfast programs.

(i) Use of school lunch facilities for elderly programs

Facilities, equipment, and personnel provided to a school food authority for a program authorized under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.] may be used, as determined by a local educational agency, to support a nonprofit nutrition program for the elderly, including a program funded under the Older Americans Act of 1965 [42 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.].

(j) Reimbursement for final claims

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary may provide reimbursements for final claims for service of meals, supplements, and milk submitted to State agencies by eligible schools, summer camps, family day care homes, institutions, and service institutions only if—

(A) the claims have been submitted to the State agencies not later than 60 days after the last day of the month for which the reimbursement is claimed; and

(B) the final program operations report for the month is submitted to the Secretary not later than 90 days after the last day of the month.


(2) The Secretary may waive the requirements of paragraph (1) at the discretion of the Secretary.

(k) Repealed. Pub. L. 111–296, title IV, §441(a)(4), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3261

(l) Waiver of statutory and regulatory requirements

(1)(A) Except as provided in paragraph (4), the Secretary may waive any requirement under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), or any regulation issued under either this chapter or such Act, for a State or eligible service provider that requests a waiver if—

(i) the Secretary determines that the waiver of the requirement would facilitate the ability of the State or eligible service provider to carry out the purpose of the program;

(ii) the State or eligible service provider has provided notice and information to the public regarding the proposed waiver; and

(iii) the State or eligible service provider demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the waiver will not increase the overall cost of the program to the Federal Government, and, if the waiver does increase the overall cost to the Federal Government, the cost will be paid from non-Federal funds.


(B) The notice and information referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be provided in the same manner in which the State or eligible service provider customarily provides similar notices and information to the public.

(2)(A) To request a waiver under paragraph (1), a State or eligible service provider (through the appropriate administering State agency) shall submit an application to the Secretary that—

(i) identifies the statutory or regulatory requirements that are requested to be waived;

(ii) in the case of a State requesting a waiver, describes actions, if any, that the State has undertaken to remove State statutory or regulatory barriers;

(iii) describes the goal of the waiver to improve services under the program and the expected outcomes if the waiver is granted; and

(iv) includes a description of the impediments to the efficient operation and administration of the program.


(B) An application described in subparagraph (A) shall be developed by the State or eligible service provider and shall be submitted to the Secretary by the State.

(3) The Secretary shall act promptly on a waiver request contained in an application submitted under paragraph (2) and shall either grant or deny the request. The Secretary shall state in writing the reasons for granting or denying the request.

(4) The Secretary may not grant a waiver under this subsection that increases Federal costs or that relates to—

(A) the nutritional content of meals served;

(B) Federal reimbursement rates;

(C) the provision of free and reduced price meals;

(D) limits on the price charged for a reduced price meal;

(E) maintenance of effort;

(F) equitable participation of children in private schools;

(G) distribution of funds to State and local school food service authorities and service institutions participating in a program under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.);

(H) the disclosure of information relating to students receiving free or reduced price meals and other recipients of benefits;

(I) prohibiting the operation of a profit producing program;

(J) the sale of competitive foods;

(K) the commodity distribution program under section 1762a of this title;

(L) the special supplemental nutrition program authorized under section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1786); or

(M) enforcement of any constitutional or statutory right of an individual, including any right under—

(i) title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.);

(ii) section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794);

(iii) title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.);

(iv) the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.);

(v) the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.); and

(vi) the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.).


(5) The Secretary shall periodically review the performance of any State or eligible service provider for which the Secretary has granted a waiver under this subsection and shall terminate the waiver if the performance of the State or service provider has been inadequate to justify a continuation of the waiver. The Secretary shall terminate the waiver if, after periodic review, the Secretary determines that the waiver has resulted in an increase in the overall cost of the program to the Federal Government and the increase has not been paid for in accordance with paragraph (1)(A)(iii).

(6) The Secretary shall annually submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, a report—

(A) summarizing the use of waivers by the State and eligible service providers;

(B) describing whether the waivers resulted in improved services to children;

(C) describing the impact of the waivers on providing nutritional meals to participants; and

(D) describing how the waivers reduced the quantity of paperwork necessary to administer the program.


(7) As used in this subsection, the term "eligible service provider" means—

(A) a local school food service authority;

(B) a service institution or private nonprofit organization described in section 1761 of this title; or

(C) a family or group day care home sponsoring organization described in section 1766 of this title.

(m) Procurement training

(1) In general

Subject to the availability of funds made available under paragraph (4), the Secretary shall provide technical assistance and training to States, State agencies, schools, and school food authorities in the procurement of goods and services for programs under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) (other than section 17 of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1786)).

(2) Buy American training

Activities carried out under paragraph (1) shall include technical assistance and training to ensure compliance with subsection (n).

(3) Procuring safe foods

Activities carried out under paragraph (1) shall include technical assistance and training on procuring safe foods, including the use of model specifications for procuring safe foods.

(4) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2010 through 2015, to remain available until expended.

(n) Buy American

(1) Definition of domestic commodity or product

In this subsection, the term "domestic commodity or product" means—

(A) an agricultural commodity that is produced in the United States; and

(B) a food product that is processed in the United States substantially using agricultural commodities that are produced in the United States.

(2) Requirement

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall require that a school food authority purchase, to the maximum extent practicable, domestic commodities or products.

(B) Limitations

Subparagraph (A) shall apply only to—

(i) a school food authority located in the contiguous United States; and

(ii) a purchase of a domestic commodity or product for the school lunch program under this chapter or the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773).

(3) Applicability to Hawaii

Paragraph (2)(A) shall apply to a school food authority in Hawaii with respect to domestic commodities or products that are produced in Hawaii in sufficient quantities to meet the needs of meals provided under the school lunch program under this chapter or the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773).

(4) Applicability to Puerto Rico

Paragraph (2)(A) shall apply to a school food authority in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico with respect to domestic commodities or products that are produced in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in sufficient quantities to meet the needs of meals provided under the school lunch program under this chapter or the school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773).

(o) Procurement contracts

In acquiring a good or service for programs under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) (other than section 17 of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1786)), a State, State agency, school, or school food authority may enter into a contract with a person that has provided specification information to the State, State agency, school, or school food authority for use in developing contract specifications for acquiring such good or service.

(p) Price for a paid lunch

(1) Definition of paid lunch

In this subsection, the term "paid lunch" means a reimbursable lunch served to students who are not certified to receive free or reduced price meals.

(2) Requirement

(A) In general

For each school year beginning July 1, 2011, each school food authority shall establish a price for paid lunches in accordance with this subsection.

(B) Lower price

(i) In general

In the case of a school food authority that established a price for a paid lunch in the previous school year that was less than the difference between the total Federal reimbursement for a free lunch and the total Federal reimbursement for a paid lunch, the school food authority shall establish an average price for a paid lunch that is not less than the price charged in the previous school year, as adjusted by a percentage equal to the sum obtained by adding—

(I) 2 percent; and

(II) the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (food away from home index) used to increase the Federal reimbursement rate under section 1759a of this title for the most recent school year for which data are available, as published in the Federal Register.

(ii) Rounding

A school food authority may round the adjusted price for a paid lunch under clause (i) down to the nearest 5 cents.

(iii) Maximum required price increase

(I) In general

The maximum annual average price increase required to meet the requirements of this subparagraph shall not exceed 10 cents for any school food authority.

(II) Discretionary increase

A school food authority may increase the average price for a paid lunch for a school year by more than 10 cents.

(C) Equal or greater price

(i) In general

In the case of a school food authority that established an average price for a paid lunch in the previous school year that was equal to or greater than the difference between the total Federal reimbursement for a free lunch and the total Federal reimbursement for a paid lunch, the school food authority shall establish an average price for a paid lunch that is not less than the difference between the total Federal reimbursement for a free lunch and the total Federal reimbursement for a paid lunch.

(ii) Rounding

A school food authority may round the adjusted price for a paid lunch under clause (i) down to the nearest 5 cents.

(3) Exceptions

(A) Reduction in price

A school food authority may reduce the average price of a paid lunch established under this subsection if the State agency ensures that funding from non-Federal sources (other than in-kind contributions) is added to the nonprofit school food service account of the school food authority in an amount estimated to be equal to at least the difference between—

(i) the average price required of the school food authority for the paid lunches under paragraph (2); and

(ii) the average price charged by the school food authority for the paid lunches.

(B) Non-Federal sources

For the purposes of subparagraph (A), non-Federal sources does not include revenue from the sale of foods sold in competition with meals served under the school lunch program authorized under this chapter or the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773).

(C) Other programs

This subsection shall not apply to lunches provided under section 1766 of this title.

(4) Regulations

The Secretary shall establish procedures to carry out this subsection, including collecting and publishing the prices that school food authorities charge for paid meals on an annual basis and procedures that allow school food authorities to average the pricing of paid lunches at schools throughout the jurisdiction of the school food authority.

(q) Nonprogram food sales

(1) Definition of nonprogram food

In this subsection:

(A) In general

The term "nonprogram food" means food that is—

(i) sold in a participating school other than a reimbursable meal provided under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.); and

(ii) purchased using funds from the nonprofit school food service account of the school food authority of the school.

(B) Inclusion

The term "nonprogram food" includes food that is sold in competition with a program established under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).

(2) Revenues

(A) In general

The proportion of total school food service revenue provided by the sale of nonprogram foods to the total revenue of the school food service account shall be equal to or greater than the proportion of total food costs associated with obtaining nonprogram foods to the total costs associated with obtaining program and nonprogram foods from the account.

(B) Accrual

All revenue from the sale of nonprogram foods shall accrue to the nonprofit school food service account of a participating school food authority.

(C) Effective date

This subsection shall be effective beginning on July 1, 2011.

(r) Disqualified schools, institutions, and individuals

Any school, institution, service institution, facility, or individual that has been terminated from any program authorized under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) and is on a list of disqualified institutions and individuals under section 1761 of this title or section 1766(d)(5)(E) of this title may not be approved to participate in or administer any program authorized under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).

(June 4, 1946, ch. 281, §12, formerly §11, 60 Stat. 233; July 12, 1952, ch. 699, §1(c), 66 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 87–688, §3(a), Sept. 25, 1962, 76 Stat. 587; renumbered §12 and amended Pub. L. 87–823, §5, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 91–248, §1(b), May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 94–105, §9, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 95–166, §§3, 19(c), Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1332, 1345; Pub. L. 95–627, §§6(a), 10(a), (b), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3620, 3623; Pub. L. 96–499, title II, §205, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2601; Pub. L. 97–35, title VIII, §§808(a), 813(d), 819(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 527, 530, 533; Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §§325(a), 326, 373(a), Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–361, 1783-369, and Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §§325(a), 326, 373(a), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–364, 3341-365, 3341-372; Pub. L. 99–661, div. D, title II, §§4205(a), 4206, title V, §4503(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4072, 4073, 4081; Pub. L. 100–71, title I, §101(a), July 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 429; Pub. L. 101–147, title III, §§306, 312(1), Nov. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 914, 916; Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §§112(a)(1), (b)–(d), 113, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4708–4712; Pub. L. 104–193, title VII, §§701(b), 705, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2288, 2290; Pub. L. 105–336, title I, §§104, 107(j)(3)(A), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3147, 3153; Pub. L. 106–224, title II, §242(b)(3), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 412; Pub. L. 107–171, title IV, §4304, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 331; Pub. L. 108–265, title I, §§108(b), 114, 115, title II, §203(i)(2), June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 746, 748, 780; Pub. L. 111–296, title II, §§205, 206, title III, §§361, 362, title IV, §§403, 441(a)(4), Dec. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 3218, 3220, 3258, 3259, 3261; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(nnn), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2188.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of this title and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§701 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§760 et seq.) of chapter 16 of Title 29. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Older Americans Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (i), is Pub. L. 89–73, July 14, 1965, 79 Stat. 218, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§3001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of this title and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (l)(4)(M)(i), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

The Education Amendments of 1972, referred to in subsec. (l)(4)(M)(iii), is Pub. L. 92–318, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 235, as amended. Title IX of the Act, known as the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, is classified principally to chapter 38 (§1681 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1681 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Age Discrimination Act of 1975, referred to in subsec. (l)(4)(M)(iv), is title III of Pub. L. 94–135, Nov. 28, 1975, 89 Stat. 728, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 76 (§6101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6101 of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (l)(4)(M)(v), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of this title and Tables.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (l)(4)(M)(vi), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (d)(4)(A). Pub. L. 114–95 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 7801 of title 20.

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–296, §361, added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary shall incorporate, in the Secretary's agreements with the State educational agencies, the express requirements under this chapter with respect to the operation of the school lunch program under this chapter insofar as they may be applicable and such other provisions as in the Secretary's opinion are reasonably necessary or appropriate to effectuate the purposes of this chapter."

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 111–296, §441(a)(4), struck out subsec. (k) which related to expedited rulemaking.

Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 111–296, §403, substituted "2010 through 2015" for "2005 through 2009".

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 111–296, §205, added subsec. (p).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 111–296, §206, added subsec. (q).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 111–296, §362, added subsec. (r).

2004—Subsec. (d)(3) to (9). Pub. L. 108–265, §108(b), redesignated par. (8) as (3), added par. (4), and redesignated former pars. (3) to (7) as (5) to (9), respectively.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 108–265, §115, added subsec. (m).

Pub. L. 108–265, §114, struck out subsec. (m), which related to grants for food and nutrition projects for each of fiscal years 1995 through 2003.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 108–265, §203(i)(2), struck out subsec. (p), which authorized grants for carrying out the demonstration project under section 1786(r) of this title and directed the Secretary to conduct an evaluation of such project and grant program.

2002—Subsec. (n)(4). Pub. L. 107–171 added par. (4).

2000—Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 106–224 added subsec. (p).

1998—Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 105–336, §107(j)(3)(A)(i), struck out "mental or physical" before "disabilities".

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 105–336, §107(j)(3)(A)(ii), added par. (8).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–336, §104(a), substituted "breakfasts, lunches, suppers, and supplements" for "school breakfasts and lunches", substituted "sections 1753, 1759a, 1761, and 1766" for "sections 1753 and 1759a", and substituted "meals and supplements" for "lunches and breakfasts" in two places.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–336, §104(b), substituted "$25,000" for "$10,000".

Subsec. (m)(3), (5). Pub. L. 105–336, §104(c), substituted "2003" for "1998".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 105–336, §104(d), added subsec. (n).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 105–336, §104(e), added subsec. (o).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(a), substituted "be available at any reasonable time" for "at all times be available".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(b), substituted "the Secretary shall not" for "neither the Secretary nor the State shall".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(3), redesignated par. (9) as (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (6).

Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(1), substituted "the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands" for "the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(3), redesignated par. (7) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(2), (3), redesignated par. (5) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: " 'Participation rate' for a State means a number equal to the number of lunches, consisting of a combination of foods and meeting the minimum requirements prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to section 1758 of this title, served in the fiscal year beginning two years immediately prior to the fiscal year for which the Federal funds are appropriated by schools participating in the program under this chapter in the State, as determined by the Secretary."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(2), (3), redesignated par. (6) as (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: " 'Assistance need rate' (A) in the case of any State having an average annual per capita income equal to or greater than the average annual per capita income for all the States, shall be 5; and (B) in the case of any State having an average annual per capita income less than the average annual per capita income for all the States, shall be the product of 5 and the quotient obtained by dividing the average annual per capita income for all the States by the average annual per capita income for such State, except that such product may not exceed 9 for any such State. For the purposes of this paragraph (i) the average annual per capita income for any State and for all the States shall be determined by the Secretary on the basis of the average annual per capita income for each State and for all the States for the three most recent years for which such data are available and certified to the Secretary by the Department of Commerce; and (ii) the average annual per capita income for American Samoa shall be disregarded in determining the average annual per capita income for all the States for periods ending before July 1, 1967."

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(3), redesignated par. (8) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (d)(6), (7). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(3), redesignated pars. (1) and (2) as (6) and (7), respectively. Former pars. (6) and (7) redesignated (4) and (2), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(3), redesignated par. (8) as (5).

Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(c)(3), redesignated par. (9) as (1).

Pub. L. 104–193, §701(b), added par. (9).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(d), struck out "the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands," after "the Virgin Islands of the United States,".

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(e)(3), substituted "with the guidelines contained in the most recent 'Dietary Guidelines for Americans' that is published under section 5341 of title 7" for "with the Guidelines" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 104–193, §705(e)(1), (2), redesignated par. (3) as (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "Prior to the publication of final regulations that implement changes that are intended to bring the meal pattern requirements of the school lunch and breakfast programs into conformance with the guidelines contained in the most recent 'Dietary Guidelines for Americans' that is published under section 5341 of title 7 (referred to in this subsection as the 'Guidelines'), the Secretary shall issue proposed regulations permitting the use of food-based menu systems."

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(e)(1), (2), redesignated par. (4) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Notwithstanding chapter 5 of title 5, not later than 45 days after the publication of the proposed regulations permitting the use of food-based menu systems, the Secretary shall publish notice in the Federal Register of, and hold, a public meeting with—

"(A) representatives of affected parties, such as Federal, State, and local administrators, school food service administrators, other school food service personnel, parents, and teachers; and

"(B) organizations representing affected parties, such as public interest antihunger organizations, doctors specializing in pediatric nutrition, health and consumer groups, commodity groups, food manufacturers and vendors, and nutritionists involved with the implementation and operation of programs under this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.);

to discuss and obtain public comments on the proposed rule."

Subsec. (k)(3), (4). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(e)(2), redesignated pars. (3) and (4) as (1) and (2), respectively.

Subsec. (k)(5). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(e)(1), struck out par. (5) which read as follows: "The final regulations shall reflect comments made at each phase of the proposed rulemaking process, including the public meeting required under paragraph (2)."

Subsec. (l)(2)(A)(iii) to (vii). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(1), struck out "and" at end of cl. (iii), substituted period for semicolon at end of cl. (iv), and struck out cls. (v) to (vii) which read as follows:

"(v) describes the management goals to be achieved, such as fewer hours devoted to, or fewer number of personnel involved in, the administration of the program;

"(vi) provides a timetable for implementing the waiver; and

"(vii) describes the process the State or eligible service provider will use to monitor the progress in implementing the waiver, including the process for monitoring the cost implications of the waiver to the Federal Government."

Subsec. (l)(3). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(2), designated subpar. (A) as par. (3) and struck out subpars. (B) to (D) which read as follows:

"(B) If the Secretary grants a waiver request, the Secretary shall state in writing the expected outcome of granting the waiver.

"(C) The result of the decision of the Secretary shall be disseminated by the State or eligible service provider through normal means of communication.

"(D)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), a waiver granted by the Secretary under this subsection shall be for a period not to exceed 3 years.

"(ii) The Secretary may extend the period if the Secretary determines that the waiver has been effective in enabling the State or eligible service provider to carry out the purposes of the program."

Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(3)(A), substituted "that increases Federal costs or that relates to" for "of any requirement relating to" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (l)(4)(D) to (K). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(3)(B), (C), redesignated subpars. (E) to (L) as (D) to (K), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "offer versus serve provisions;".

Subsec. (l)(4)(L). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(3)(D), substituted "or" for "and" at end.

Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(3)(C), redesignated subpar. (M) as (L). Former subpar. (L) redesignated (K).

Subsec. (l)(4)(M), (N). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(3)(C), redesignated subpar. (N) as (M). Former subpar. (M) redesignated (L).

Subsec. (l)(6). Pub. L. 104–193, §705(f)(4), struck out subpar. (A) and designation of subpar. (B) and redesignated cls. (i) to (iv) of former subpar. (B) as subpars. (A) to (D). Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows:

"(A)(i) An eligible service provider that receives a waiver under this subsection shall annually submit to the State a report that—

"(I) describes the use of the waiver by the eligible service provider; and

"(II) evaluates how the waiver contributed to improved services to children served by the program for which the waiver was requested.

"(ii) The State shall annually submit to the Secretary a report that summarizes all reports received by the State from eligible service providers."

1994—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 103–448, §112(a)(1), in first sentence struck out cl. (C) which read as follows: "with respect to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, nonprofit child care centers certified as such by the Governor of Puerto Rico" and in second sentence struck out "of clauses (A) and (B)" after "For purposes".

Subsecs. (j) to (m). Pub. L. 103–448, §§112(b)–(d), 113, added subsecs. (j) to (m).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–147, §312(1), substituted "school lunch" for "school-lunch".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–147, §§306(b)(1), 312(1), substituted "the Secretary's" for "his" in two places and "school lunch" for "school-lunch".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 101–147, §306(b)(2), substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 101–147, §306(a)(1), amended par. (8), as amended identically by Pub. L. 99–500 and 99–591, §373(a), and Pub. L. 99–661, §4503(a), to read as if only the amendment by Pub. L. 99–661 was enacted, resulting in no change in text, see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–147, §306(b)(3), substituted "personal" for "his" before "use".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–147, §306(b)(4), struck out "(42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.)" after "Child Nutrition Act of 1966" and "(42 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.)" after "Older Americans Act of 1965".

Pub. L. 101–147, §306(a)(2), amended subsec. (i), as amended identically by Pub. L. 99–500 and 99–591, §326, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4206, to read as if only the amendment by Pub. L. 99–661 was enacted, resulting in no change in text, see 1986 Amendment note below.

1987—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 100–71 amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: " 'School' means (A) any public or nonprofit private school of high school grade or under, (B) any public or licensed nonprofit private residential child care institution (including, but not limited to, orphanages and homes for the mentally retarded, but excluding Job Corps Centers funded by the Department of Labor), and (C) with respect to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, nonprofit child care centers certified as such by the Governor of Puerto Rico. For purposes of clauses (A) and (B) of this paragraph, the term 'nonprofit', when applied to any such private school or institution, means any such school or institution which is exempt from tax under section 501(c)(3) of title 26. On July 1, 1988, and each July 1 thereafter, the Secretary shall adjust the tuition limitation amount prescribed in clause (A) of the first sentence of this paragraph to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers during the most recent 12-month period for which the data is available."

1986—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 99–661, §4205(a)(2), inserted "On July 1, 1988, and each July 1 thereafter, the Secretary shall adjust the tuition limitation amount prescribed in clause (A) of the first sentence of this paragraph to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers during the most recent 12-month period for which the data is available."

Subsec. (d)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §325(a), which directed the amendment of subpar. (A) by striking out "except private schools whose average yearly tuition exceeds $1,500 per child," after "grade or under," was executed by striking out "except private schools whose average yearly tuition exceeds $2,000 per child," after "grade or under," to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening amendment of subpar. (A) by Pub. L. 99–661, §4205(a)(1). See below.

Pub. L. 99–661, §4205(a)(1), substituted "$2,000" for "$1,500".

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §373(a), and Pub. L. 99–661, §4503(a), amended subsec. (d) identically, adding par. (8).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §326, and Pub. L. 99–661, §4206, amended section identically, adding subsec. (i).

1981—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–35, §819(c)(1), struck out par. (3) which defined "food service equipment assistance", and redesignated pars. (4) to (8) as (3) to (7), respectively.

Pub. L. 97–35, §808(a), inserted reference to private schools in par. (6).

Pub. L. 97–35, §813(d), added par. (8).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–35, §819(c)(2), struck out provisions relating to net cost of operating limitation.

1980—Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 96–499 inserted ", but excluding Job Corps Centers funded by the Department of Labor".

1978—Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 95–627, §10(b), substituted "from July 1 through June 30" for "determined in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary".

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 95–627, §10(a), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–627, §6(a), added subsec. (h).

1977—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–166, §3, substituted "food service equipment assistance" for "nonfood assistance".

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 95–166, §19(c), added par. (7).

1975—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–105, §9(b), inserted reference to Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

Subsec. (d)(3) to (7). Pub. L. 94–105, §9(a), (c), struck out par. (3) defining "Nonprofit private schools", redesignated pars. (4) to (7) as (3) to (6), respectively, and in par. (6), as so redesignated, expanded definition of "school" to include any public or licensed nonprofit private residential child care institution, including, but not limited to, orphanages and homes for the mentally retarded, and inserted provision defining "nonprofit" as any school or institution exempt under section 501(c)(3) of title 26.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–105, §9(d), added subsec. (e).

1970—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 91–248 provided that data upon which State apportionments are calculated is program year completed two years immediately prior to fiscal year for which appropriation is requested.

1962—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–823 struck out requirement of just and equitable distribution of funds in States maintaining separate schools for minority and majority races.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–823 redefined "State" in par. (1) to recognize Hawaiian and Alaskan statehood and to include American Samoa; "State educational agency" in par. (2) to exclude an exception applicable to the District of Columbia and language which was effective by its terms only through June 30, 1948; "nonprofit private school" in par. (3), substituting "section 501(c)(3) of title 26" for "section 101(6) of title 26"; and "nonfood assistance" in par. (4), substituting "used by schools" for "used on school premises"; and added pars. (5) to (7).

Pub. L. 87–688 inserted "American Samoa," after "Guam".

1952—Subsec. (d)(1). Act July 12, 1952, included Guam within definition of State.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–296 effective Oct. 1, 2010, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 445 of Pub. L. 111–296, set out as a note under section 1751 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–171 effective Oct. 1, 2002, except as otherwise provided, see section 4405 of Pub. L. 107–171, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–224 effective Oct. 1, 2000, see section 242(c) of Pub. L. 106–224, set out as a note under section 1758 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–336 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 401 of Pub. L. 105–336, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–448, title I, §112(a)(2), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4708, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall become effective on October 1, 1995."

Amendment by sections 112(b)–(d) and 113 of Pub. L. 103–448 effective Oct. 1, 1994, see section 401 of Pub. L. 103–448, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–71, title I, §101(c), July 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 430, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending sections 1760 and 1784 of this title] shall take effect on July 1, 1987."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Pub. L. 99–661, div. D, title II, §4205(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4073, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1) [amending sections 1760 and 1784 of this title] shall apply for the fiscal year beginning on October 1, 1986, and each school year thereafter.

"(2) The amendments made by subsections (a)(2) and (b)(2) [amending sections 1760 and 1784 of this title] shall apply for the school year beginning on July 1, 1988, and each school year thereafter."

Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §325(c), Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–361, and Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §325(c), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–365, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending sections 1760 and 1784 of this title] shall take effect July 1, 1987."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by sections 808 and 819 of Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, and amendment by section 813 of Pub. L. 97–35 effective 90 days after Aug. 13, 1981, see section 820(a)(3)–(5) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–627 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 14 of Pub. L. 95–627, set out as a note under section 1755 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–166, §19, Nov. 10, 1977, 91 Stat. 1345, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective July 1, 1977.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–688 applicable only with respect to funds appropriated after Sept. 25, 1962, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 87–688, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1952 Amendment

Amendment by act July 12, 1952, effective only with respect to funds appropriated after July 12, 1952, see section 1(d) of act July 12, 1952, set out as a note under section 1753 of this title.

Waiver Exception for School Closures Due to COVID–19

Pub. L. 116–127, div. B, title I, §2102, Mar. 18, 2020, 134 Stat. 184, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The requirements under section 12(l)(1)(A)(iii) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)(1)(A)(iii)) shall not apply to a qualified COVID–19 waiver.

"(b) Allowable Increase in Federal Costs.—Notwithstanding paragraph (4) of section 12(l) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)), the Secretary of Agriculture may grant a qualified COVID–19 waiver that increases Federal costs.

"(c) Termination After Periodic Review.—The requirements under section 12(l)(5) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)(5)) shall not apply to a qualified COVID–19 waiver.

"(d) Qualified COVID–19 Waiver.—In this section, the term 'qualified COVID–19 waiver' means a waiver—

"(1) requested by a State (as defined in section 12(d)(8) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(d)(8))) or eligible service provider under section 12(l) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)); and

"(2) to waive any requirement under such Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), or any regulation issued under either such Act, for purposes of providing meals and meal supplements under such Acts during a school closure due to COVID–19."

National School Lunch Program Requirement Waivers Addressing COVID–19

Pub. L. 116–127, div. B, title II, §2202, Mar. 18, 2020, 134 Stat. 185, as amended by Pub. L. 116–159, div. D, title VI, §4602(a), Oct. 1, 2020, 134 Stat. 745, provided that:

"(a) Nationwide Waiver.—

"(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may establish a waiver for all States under section 12(l) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)), for purposes of—

"(A) providing meals and meal supplements under a qualified program; and

"(B) carrying out subparagraph (A) with appropriate safety measures with respect to COVID–19, as determined by the Secretary.

"(2) State election.—A waiver established under paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) notwithstanding paragraph (2) of section 12(l) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)), apply automatically to any State that elects to be subject to the waiver without further application; and

"(B) not be subject to the requirements under paragraph (3) of such section.

"(b) Child and Adult Care Food Program Waiver.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may grant a waiver under section 12(l) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)) to allow non-congregate feeding under a child and adult care food program under section 17 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766) if such waiver is for the purposes of—

"(1) providing meals and meal supplements under such child and adult care food program; and

"(2) carrying out paragraph (1) with appropriate safety measures with respect to COVID–19, as determined by the Secretary.

"(c) Meal Pattern Waiver.—Notwithstanding paragraph (4)(A) of section 12(l) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(l)) the Secretary may grant a waiver under such section that relates to the nutritional content of meals served if the Secretary determines that—

"(1) such waiver is necessary to provide meals and meal supplements under a qualified program; and

"(2) there is a supply chain disruption with respect to foods served under such a qualified program and such disruption is due to COVID–19.

"(d) Reports.—Each State that receives a waiver under subsection (a), (b), or (c), shall, not later than 1 year after the date such State received such waiver, submit a report to the Secretary that includes the following:

"(1) A summary of the use of such waiver by the State and eligible service providers.

"(2) A description of whether such waiver resulted in improved services to children.

"(e) Sunset.—The authority of the Secretary to establish or grant a waiver under this section shall expire on September 30, 2021.

"(f) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Qualified program.—The term 'qualified program' means the following:

"(A) The school lunch program under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.).

"(B) The school breakfast program under section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773).

"(C) The child and adult care food program under section 17 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1766).

"(D) The summer food service program for children under section 13 of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1761).

"(2) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Agriculture.

"(3) State.—The term 'State' has the meaning given such term in section 12(d)(8) of the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1760(d)(8))."

Buy American Requirements

Pub. L. 115–334, title IV, §4207, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4666,