[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part F: Need Analysis
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

20 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part F: Need Analysis
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 28—HIGHER EDUCATION RESOURCES AND STUDENT ASSISTANCESUBCHAPTER IV—STUDENT ASSISTANCE

Part F—Need Analysis


Editorial Notes

Codification

Part F of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, Pub. L. 89–329, which comprises this part, was formerly classified to part E of this subchapter. See Codification note preceding section 1087a of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior part F, consisting of part G of title IV of Pub. L. 89–329, was redesignated part G of this subchapter.

§1087kk. Amount of need

Except as otherwise provided therein, the amount of need of any student for financial assistance under this subchapter (except subparts 1 1 or 2 of part A of this subchapter) is equal to—

(1) the cost of attendance of such student, minus

(2) the expected family contribution for such student, minus

(3) estimated financial assistance not received under this subchapter (as defined in section 1087vv(j) of this title).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §471, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1454; amended Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §480(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1732; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(a)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3138.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(a)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3138, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087kk. Amount of need

Except as otherwise provided therein, for award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, the amount of need of any student for financial assistance under this subchapter (except subpart 1 or 2 of part A) is equal to—

(1) the cost of attendance of such student, minus

(2) the student aid index (as defined in section 1087mm of this title) for such student, minus

(3) other financial assistance not received under this subchapter (as defined in section 1087vv(i) of this title).

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Except as otherwise provided therein, the amount of need of any student for financial assistance under this subchapter (except subparts 1 or 2 of part A of this subchapter) is equal to—

"(1) the cost of attendance of such student, minus

"(2) the expected family contribution for such student, minus

"(3) estimated financial assistance not received under this subchapter (as defined in section 1087vv(j) of this title)."

1998Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "or 2" for "or 4" in introductory provisions.

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "Except as otherwise provided therein, the amount of need of any student for financial assistance under this subchapter (except subparts 1 and 3 of part A of this subchapter) is equal to the cost of attendance of such student minus the expected family contribution for such student."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §480A, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1732, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by this part [part F (§§471–480A) of title IV of Pub. L. 105–244, amending this section and sections 1087ll to 1087tt and 1087vv of this title] are effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 7, 1998].

"(b) Provisions Effective for Academic Year 2000–2001, and Thereafter.—The amendments made by sections 472, 473, 474, and 475 [amending sections 1087nn to 1087qq of this title] shall apply with respect to determinations of need under part F of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [this part] for academic years beginning on or after July 1, 2000."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(b), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 609, provided that: "The changes made in part F of title IV of the Act [this part] by the amendment made by this section [amending sections 1087kk to 1087vv of this title] shall apply with respect to determinations of need under such part F for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(b)(1)–(3), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1475, as amended by Pub. L. 100–50, §22(e)(1), (3), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 361, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) through (4)—

"(A) part F of title IV of the Act [this part] shall apply with respect to determinations of need under such title for academic years beginning with academic year 1988–1989 and succeeding academic years; and

"(B) for any preceding academic year, determinations of need shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Education in accordance with the Student Financial Assistance Technical Amendments Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–301, see Short Title of 1982 Amendment note set out under section 1001 of this title].

"(2) With respect to an application filed after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986] for a loan under part B of such title [part B of this subchapter] for any academic year preceding academic year 1988–1989, any determination of expected family contribution shall be made using the system of financial need analysis approved by the Secretary of Education for use under subpart 2 of part A and parts C and E of such title [subpart 2 of part A of this subchapter and parts C and E of this subchapter].

"(3) For purposes of sections 413D(d)(2)(B) [now 413D(c)(2)(B)], 442(d)(2)(B) and 462(d)(2)(B) [20 U.S.C. 1070b–3(c)(2)(B), 1087–52(d)(2)(B), 1087bb(d)(2)(B)] for any academic year preceding academic year 1988–1989, the Secretary shall, in lieu of average expected family contribution, use the procedures for sampling expected family contribution within income categories that was employed for academic year 1986–1987, adjusted to reflect changes in data.

"(4) Section 479B of the Act [20 U.S.C. 1087uu] (as so added) shall apply with respect to financial assistance provided for any academic year beginning after such date of enactment [Oct. 17, 1986]."

[References to subpart 2 of part A of title IV of Pub. L. 89–329 deemed, after July 23, 1992, to refer to subpart 3 of such part, see section 402(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1070a–11 of this title.]

Special Study of Simplification of Need Analysis and Application for Title IV Aid

Pub. L. 108–199, div. E, title III, §305, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 263, provided that:

"(a) Study Required.—The Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance established by section 491 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1098), hereafter in this section referred to as 'the Advisory Committee', shall conduct a thorough study of the feasibility of simplifying the need analysis methodology for all Federal student financial assistance programs and the process of applying for such assistance.

"(b) Required Subjects of Study.—In performing the study, the Advisory Committee shall, at a minimum, examine the following:

"(1) whether the methodology used to calculate the expected family contribution can be simplified without significant adverse effects on program intent, costs, integrity, delivery, and distribution of awards;

"(2) whether the number of data elements, and, accordingly, the number and complexity of questions asked of students and families, used to calculate the expected family contribution can be reduced without such adverse effects;

"(3) whether the procedures for determining such data elements, including determining and updating offsets and allowances, is the most efficient, effective, and fair means to determine a family's available income and assets;

"(4) whether the methodology used to calculate the expected family contribution, specifically the consideration of income earned by a dependent student and its effect on Pell grant eligibility, is an effective and fair means to determine a family's available income and a student's need;

"(5) whether the nature and timing of the application required in section 483 (a)(1) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1090(a)(1)), eligibility and award determination, financial aid processing, and funds delivery can be streamlined further for students and families, institutions, and States;

"(6) whether it is feasible to allow students to complete only those limited sections of the financial aid application that apply to their specific circumstances and the State in which they reside;

"(7) whether a widely disseminated printed form, or the use of an Internet or other electronic means, can be developed to notify individuals of an estimation of their approximate eligibility for grant, work-study, and loan assistance upon completion and verification of the simplified application form;

"(8) whether information provided on other Federal forms (such as the form applying for supplemental security income under title XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.], the form for applying for food stamps under the Food Stamp Act of 1977 [now the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, 7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], and the schedule for applying for the earned income tax credit under section 32 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 32]) that are designed to determine eligibility for various Federal need-based assistance programs could be used to qualify potential students for the simplified needs test; and

"(9) whether any proposed changes to data elements collected, in addition to those used to calculate expected family contribution, or any proposed changes to the form's design or the process of applying for aid, may have adverse effects on program costs, integrity, delivery, or distribution of awards, as well as, application development or application processing.

"(c) Additional Considerations.—In conducting the feasibility study, the Advisory Committee's primary objective under this subsection shall be simplifying the financial aid application forms and process and obtaining a substantial reduction in the number of required data items. In carrying out that objective, the Advisory Committee shall pay special attention to the needs of low-income and moderate-income students and families.

"(d) Consultation.—

"(1) In general.—The Advisory Committee shall consult with a broad range of interested parties in higher education, including parents and students, high school guidance counselors, financial aid and other campus administrators, appropriate State administrators, administrators of intervention and outreach programs, and appropriate officials from the Department of Education.

"(2) Forms design expert.—With the goal of making significant changes to the form to make the questions more easily understandable, the Advisory Committee shall consult a forms design expert to ensure that its recommendations for revision of the application form would assist in making the form easily readable and understood by parents, students, and other members of the public.

"(3) Congressional consultation.—The Advisory Committee shall consult on a regular basis with the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate in carrying out the feasibility study required by this subsection.

"(4) Departmental consultation.—The Secretary of Education shall provide such assistance to the Advisory Committee as is requested and practicable in conducting the study required by this subsection.

"(e) Reports.—

"(1) Interim report.—The Advisory Committee shall, not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 23, 2004], prepare and submit an interim report containing any such legislative changes as the Advisory Committee recommends to reform and simplify the needs analysis under part F of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087kk et seq.) and forms and other requirements under such title to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, and the Secretary of Education.

"(2) Final report.—The Advisory Committee shall, not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, prepare and submit a full final report on the study, including recommendations for regulatory and administrative changes required by this section, to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, and the Secretary of Education.

"(f) Implementation.—The Secretary of Education shall consult with the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and shall subsequently initiate a redesign of the form required by section 483 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1090). Such redesign shall include the testing of alternative simplified versions of the free Federal form. The Secretary shall keep the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate fully and currently informed on the progress of these efforts.

"(g) Postponement of Tax Table Update Pending Report and Implementation.—The Secretary of Education shall not implement or enforce for the award year 2004–2005 the annual update to the allowances for State and other taxes in the tables used in the Federal needs analysis methodology, as prescribed by the Secretary on May 30, 2003 (68 Fed. Reg. 32473)."

1 So in original. Probably should be "subpart".

§1087ll. Cost of attendance

For the purpose of this subchapter, the term "cost of attendance" means—

(1) tuition and fees normally assessed a student carrying the same academic workload as determined by the institution, and including costs for rental or purchase of any equipment, materials, or supplies required of all students in the same course of study;

(2) an allowance for books, supplies, transportation, and miscellaneous personal expenses, including a reasonable allowance for the documented rental or purchase of a personal computer, for a student attending the institution on at least a half-time basis, as determined by the institution;

(3) an allowance (as determined by the institution) for room and board costs incurred by the student which—

(A) shall be an allowance determined by the institution for a student without dependents residing at home with parents;

(B) for students without dependents residing in institutionally owned or operated housing, shall be a standard allowance determined by the institution based on the amount normally assessed most of its residents for room and board;

(C) for students who live in housing located on a military base or for which a basic allowance is provided under section 403(b) of title 37, shall be an allowance based on the expenses reasonably incurred by such students for board but not for room; and

(D) for all other students shall be an allowance based on the expenses reasonably incurred by such students for room and board;


(4) for less than half-time students (as determined by the institution), tuition and fees and an allowance for only—

(A) books, supplies, and transportation (as determined by the institution);

(B) dependent care expenses (determined in accordance with paragraph (8)); and

(C) room and board costs (determined in accordance with paragraph (3)), except that a student may receive an allowance for such costs under this subparagraph for not more than 3 semesters or the equivalent, of which not more than 2 semesters or the equivalent may be consecutive;


(5) for a student engaged in a program of study by correspondence, only tuition and fees and, if required, books and supplies, travel, and room and board costs incurred specifically in fulfilling a required period of residential training;

(6) for incarcerated students only tuition and fees and, if required, books and supplies;

(7) for a student enrolled in an academic program in a program of study abroad approved for credit by the student's home institution, reasonable costs associated with such study (as determined by the institution at which such student is enrolled);

(8) for a student with one or more dependents, an allowance based on the estimated actual expenses incurred for such dependent care, based on the number and age of such dependents, except that—

(A) such allowance shall not exceed the reasonable cost in the community in which such student resides for the kind of care provided; and

(B) the period for which dependent care is required includes, but is not limited to, class-time, study-time, field work, internships, and commuting time;


(9) for a student with a disability, an allowance (as determined by the institution) for those expenses related to the student's disability, including special services, personal assistance, transportation, equipment, and supplies that are reasonably incurred and not provided for by other assisting agencies;

(10) for a student receiving all or part of the student's instruction by means of telecommunications technology, no distinction shall be made with respect to the mode of instruction in determining costs;

(11) for a student engaged in a work experience under a cooperative education program, an allowance for reasonable costs associated with such employment (as determined by the institution);

(12) for a student who receives a loan under this or any other Federal law, or, at the option of the institution, a conventional student loan incurred by the student to cover a student's cost of attendance at the institution, an allowance for the actual cost of any loan fee, origination fee, or insurance premium charged to such student or such parent on such loan, or the average cost of any such fee or premium charged by the Secretary, lender, or guaranty agency making or insuring such loan, as the case may be; and

(13) at the option of the institution, for a student in a program requiring professional licensure or certification, the one-time cost of obtaining the first professional credentials (as determined by the institution).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §472, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1454; amended Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(1), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2471; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §471, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1729; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8016, Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 172; Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, §471(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3269; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3138.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3138, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087ll. Cost of attendance

(a) In general

For the purpose of this subchapter, the term "cost of attendance" means—

(1) tuition and fees normally assessed a student carrying the same academic workload as determined by the institution;

(2) an allowance for books, course materials, supplies, and equipment, which shall include all such costs required of all such students in the same course of study, including a reasonable allowance for the documented rental or upfront purchase of a personal computer, as determined by the institution;

(3) an allowance for transportation, which may include transportation between campus, residences, and place of work, as determined by the institution;

(4) an allowance for miscellaneous personal expenses, for a student attending the institution on at least a half-time basis, as determined by the institution;

(5) an allowance for living expenses, including food and housing costs, to be incurred by the student attending the institution on at least a half-time basis, as determined by the institution, which shall include—

(A) for a student electing institutionally owned or operated food services, such as board or meal plans, a standard allowance for such services that provides the equivalent of three meals each day;

(B) for a student not electing institutionally owned or operated food services, such as board or meal plans, a standard allowance for purchasing food off campus that provides the equivalent of three meals each day;

(C) for a student without dependents residing in institutionally owned or operated housing, a standard allowance determined by the institution based on the average or median amount assessed to such residents for housing charges, whichever is greater;

(D) for a student with dependents residing in institutionally owned or operated housing, a standard allowance determined by the institution based on the average or median amount assessed to such residents for housing charges, whichever is greater;

(E) for a student living off campus, and not in institutionally owned or operated housing, a standard allowance for rent or other housing costs;

(F) for a dependent student residing at home with parents, a standard allowance that shall not be zero determined by the institution;

(G) for a student living in housing located on a military base or for which a basic allowance is provided under section 403(b) of title 37, a standard allowance for food based upon such student's choice of purchasing food on-campus or off-campus (determined respectively in accordance with subparagraph (A) or (B)), but not for housing costs; and

(H) for all other students, an allowance based on the expenses reasonably incurred by such students for housing and food;


(6) for a student engaged in a program of study by correspondence, only tuition and fees and, if required, books and supplies, travel, and housing and food costs incurred specifically in fulfilling a required period of residential training;

(7) for a confined or incarcerated student, only tuition, fees, books, course materials, supplies, equipment, and the cost of obtaining a license, certification, or a first professional credential in accordance with paragraph (14);

(8) for a student enrolled in an academic program in a program of study abroad approved for credit by the student's home institution, reasonable costs associated with such study (as determined by the institution at which such student is enrolled);

(9) for a student with one or more dependents, an allowance based on the estimated actual expenses incurred for such dependent care, based on the number and age of such dependents, except that—

(A) such allowance shall not exceed the reasonable cost in the community in which such student resides for the kind of care provided; and

(B) the period for which dependent care is required includes, but is not limited to, class-time, study-time, field work, internships, and commuting time;


(10) for a student with a disability, an allowance (as determined by the institution) for those expenses related to the student's disability, including special services, personal assistance, transportation, equipment, and supplies that are reasonably incurred and not provided for by other assisting agencies;

(11) for a student receiving all or part of the student's instruction by means of telecommunications technology, no distinction shall be made with respect to the mode of instruction in determining costs;

(12) for a student engaged in a work experience under a cooperative education program, an allowance for reasonable costs associated with such employment (as determined by the institution);

(13) for a student who receives a Federal student loan made under this subchapter or any other Federal law, to cover a student's cost of attendance at the institution, an allowance for the actual cost of any loan fee, origination fee, or insurance premium charged to such student or the parent of such student on such loan; and

(14) for a student in a program requiring professional licensure, certification, or a first professional credential, the cost of obtaining the license, certification, or a first professional credential.

(b) Special rule for living expenses for less-than-half-time students

For students attending an institution of higher education less than half-time, an institution of higher education may include an allowance for living expenses, including food and housing costs in accordance with subsection (a)(4) for up to three semesters, or the equivalent, with no more than two semesters being consecutive.

(c) Disclosure of cost of attendance elements

Each institution shall make publicly available on the institution's website a list of all the elements of cost of attendance described in paragraphs (1) through (14) of subsection (a), and shall disclose such elements on any portion of the website describing tuition and fees of the institution.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of pars. (1) to (13) which defined "cost of attendance".

2008—Par. (3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 110–315 added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

2006—Par. (4). Pub. L. 109–171, §8016(1), added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4), which read as follows: "for less than half-time students (as determined by the institution) tuition and fees and an allowance for only books, supplies, and transportation (as determined by the institution) and dependent care expenses (in accordance with paragraph (8));".

Par. (13). Pub. L. 109–171, §8016(2)–(4), added par. (13).

1998—Par. (2). Pub. L. 105–244, §471(1), inserted ", including a reasonable allowance for the documented rental or purchase of a personal computer," after "personal expenses".

Par. (3)(A). Pub. L. 105–244, §471(2)(A), substituted "determined by the institution" for "of not less than $1,500".

Par. (3)(C). Pub. L. 105–244, §471(2)(B), struck out ", except that the amount may not be less than $2,500" after "room and board".

Par. (10). Pub. L. 105–244, §471(3), substituted a semicolon for ", but this paragraph shall not be construed to permit including the cost of rental or purchase of equipment;".

Par. (11). Pub. L. 105–244, §471(4), substituted "engaged" for "placed".

1993—Par. (12). Pub. L. 103–208 added par. (12).

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) to (11) provisions formerly contained in pars. (1) to (9).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, §471(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3269, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2010."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective July 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, see section 8001(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 7, 1998, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

§1087mm. Family contribution

(a) In general

For the purpose of this subchapter, other than subpart 2 of part A, and except as provided in subsection (b), the term "family contribution" with respect to any student means the amount which the student and the student's family may be reasonably expected to contribute toward the student's postsecondary education for the academic year for which the determination is made, as determined in accordance with this part.

(b) Special rule

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the family contribution of each student described in paragraph (2) shall be deemed to be zero for the academic year for which the determination is made.

(2) Applicability

Paragraph (1) shall apply to any dependent or independent student with respect to determinations of need for academic year 2009–2010 (in the case of a student who meets the requirement of subparagraph (B)(i)), or academic year 2018–2019 (in the case of a student who meets the requirement of subparagraph (B)(ii)), and succeeding academic years—

(A) who is eligible to receive a Federal Pell Grant for the academic year for which the determination is made;

(B) whose parent or guardian was—

(i) a member of the Armed Forces of the United States and died as a result of performing military service in Iraq or Afghanistan after September 11, 2001; or

(ii) actively serving as a public safety officer and died in the line of duty while performing as a public safety officer; and


(C) who, at the time of the parent or guardian's death, was—

(i) less than 24 years of age; or

(ii) enrolled at an institution of higher education on a part-time or full-time basis.

(3) Information

(A) Armed Forces

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary of Defense, as appropriate, shall provide the Secretary of Education with information necessary to determine which students meet the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B)(i), and (C) of paragraph (2).

(B) Public safety officers

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, unless the Secretary establishes an alternate method to adjust the expected family contribution, for each student who meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B)(ii), and (C) of paragraph (2), a financial aid administrator shall—

(i) verify with the student that the student is eligible for the adjustment;

(ii) adjust the expected family contribution in accordance with this subsection; and

(iii) notify the Secretary of the adjustment and the student's eligibility for the adjustment.

(4) Treatment of Pell amount

Notwithstanding section 1212 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796d–1),1 in the case of a student who receives an increased Federal Pell Grant amount under this section, the total amount of such Federal Pell Grant, including the increase under this subsection, shall not be considered in calculating that student's educational assistance benefits under the Public Safety Officers' Benefits program under subpart 2 of part L of title I of such Act.

(5) Definition of public safety officer

For purposes of this subsection, the term "public safety officer" means—

(A) a public safety officer, as defined in section 1204 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796b); 1 or

(B) a fire police officer, defined as an individual who—

(i) is serving in accordance with State or local law as an officially recognized or designated member of a legally organized public safety agency;

(ii) is not a law enforcement officer, a firefighter, a chaplain, or a member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew; and

(iii) provides scene security or directs traffic—

(I) in response to any fire drill, fire call, or other fire, rescue, or police emergency; or

(II) at a planned special event.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §473, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1455; amended Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §480(b), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1732; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(a)(1), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 115–141, div. H, title III, §317, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 753; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3138.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3138, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087mm. Special rules for student aid index

(a) In general

For the purpose of this chapter, the term "student aid index" means, with respect to a student, an index that reflects an evaluation of a student's approximate financial resources to contribute toward the student's postsecondary education for the academic year, as determined in accordance with this part.

(b) Special rule for students eligible for the total maximum Pell Grant

The Secretary shall consider an applicant to automatically have a student aid index equal to zero if the applicant is eligible for the total maximum Federal Pell Grant under section 1070a(b)(1)(A) of this title, except that, if the applicant has a calculated student aid index of less than zero the Secretary shall consider the negative number as the student aid index for the applicant.

(c) Special rule for nonfilers

Notwithstanding subsection (b), for an applicant (or, as applicable, an applicant and spouse, or an applicant's parents) who is not required to file a Federal tax return for the second preceding tax year, the Secretary shall for the purposes of this subchapter consider the student aid index as equal to − $1,500 for the applicant.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 and such Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4), (5)(A), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197. Subpart 2 of part L of title I of the Act is classified to part B (§10301 et seq.) of subchapter XI of chapter 101 of subtitle I of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement. Sections 1204 and 1212 of the Act were classified to sections 3796b and 3796d–1, respectively, of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as sections 10284 and 10302, respectively, of Title 34. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of Title 34 and Tables.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section provided definition of family contribution with respect to any student for the purpose of this subchapter, other than subpart 2 of part A, and provided special rule related to family contribution.

2018—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §317(1)(A), inserted "(in the case of a student who meets the requirement of subparagraph (B)(i)), or academic year 2018–2019 (in the case of a student who meets the requirement of subparagraph (B)(ii))," after "academic year 2009–2010" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §317(1)(B), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "whose parent or guardian was a member of the Armed Forces of the United States and died as a result of performing military service in Iraq or Afghanistan after September 11, 2001; and".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–141, §317(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, substituted "subparagraphs (A), (B)(i), and (C) of paragraph (2)" for "paragraph (2)", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 115–141, §317(3), added pars. (4) and (5).

2009Pub. L. 111–39 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted "For the purpose of this subchapter, other than subpart 2 of part A, and except as provided in subsection (b)," for "For the purpose of this subchapter, except subpart 2 of part A,", and added subsec. (b).

1998Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "subpart 2" for "subpart 4".

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "For the purpose of this subchapter, except subparts 1 and 3 of part A, the term 'family contribution' with respect to any student means the amount which the student and his or her family may be reasonably expected to contribute toward his or her postsecondary education for the academic year for which the determination is made, as determined in accordance with this part."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(b), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1950, provided that: "The amendments made by—

"(1) paragraph (1) of subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2009; and

"(2) paragraph (4) of such subsection [amending section 1087ss of this title] shall be effective as if enacted as part of the amendments in section 602(a) of the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (Public Law 110–84), and shall take effect on July 1, 2009."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 7, 1998, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1087nn. Determination of expected family contribution; data elements

(a) General rule for determination of expected family contribution

The expected family contribution—

(1) for a dependent student shall be determined in accordance with section 1087oo of this title;

(2) for a single independent student or a married independent student without dependents (other than a spouse) shall be determined in accordance with section 1087pp of this title; and

(3) for an independent student with dependents other than a spouse shall be determined in accordance with section 1087qq of this title.

(b) Data elements

The following data elements are considered in determining the expected family contribution:

(1) the available income of (A) the student and the student's spouse, or (B) the student and the student's parents, in the case of a dependent student;

(2) the number of dependents in the family of the student;

(3) the number of dependents in the family of the student, excluding the student's parents, who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment, on at least a half-time basis, in a degree, certificate, or other program leading to a recognized educational credential at an institution of higher education that is an eligible institution in accordance with the provisions of section 1094 of this title and for whom the family may reasonably be expected to contribute to their postsecondary education;

(4) the net assets of (A) the student and the student's spouse, and (B) the student and the student's parents, in the case of a dependent student;

(5) the marital status of the student;

(6) the age of the older parent, in the case of a dependent student, and the student; and

(7) the additional expenses incurred (A) in the case of a dependent student, when both parents of the student are employed or when the family is headed by a single parent who is employed, or (B) in the case of an independent student, when the student is married and the student's spouse is employed, or when the employed student qualifies as a surviving spouse or as a head of a household under section 2 of title 26.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §474, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1456; amended Pub. L. 100–369, §7(c), July 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 837; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §472, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1729; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(c), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3141.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(c), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3141, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087nn. Determination of student aid index

The student aid index—

(1) for a dependent student shall be determined in accordance with section 1087oo of this title;

(2) for a single independent student or a married independent student without dependents (other than a spouse) shall be determined in accordance with section 1087pp of this title; and

(3) for an independent student with dependents other than a spouse shall be determined in accordance with section 1087qq of this title.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to determination of expected family contribution and the data elements to be considered.

1998—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–244 inserted ", excluding the student's parents," after "family of the student".

1992Pub. L. 102–325 substituted "Determination of expected family contribution; data elements" for "Data elements used in determining expected family contribution" in section catchline and amended text generally, adding subsec. (a), designating existing provisions as subsec. (b) and inserting heading, adding the age of the older parent, in the case of a dependent student, and the student as a data element and striking out consideration of any unusual medical and dental expenses and consideration of the number of dependent children other than the student enrolled in a private elementary or secondary institution and the unreimbursed tuition paid as data elements.

1988—Par. (8). Pub. L. 100–369 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244, effective Oct. 7, 1998, and applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for academic years beginning on or after July 1, 2000, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

§1087oo. Family contribution for dependent students

(a) Computation of expected family contribution

For each dependent student, the expected family contribution is equal to the sum of—

(1) the parents' contribution from adjusted available income (determined in accordance with subsection (b));

(2) the student contribution from available income (determined in accordance with subsection (g)); and

(3) the student contribution from assets (determined in accordance with subsection (h)).

(b) Parents' contribution from adjusted available income

The parents' contribution from adjusted available income is equal to the amount determined by—

(1) computing adjusted available income by adding—

(A) the parents' available income (determined in accordance with subsection (c)); and

(B) the parents' contribution from assets (determined in accordance with subsection (d));


(2) assessing such adjusted available income in accordance with the assessment schedule set forth in subsection (e); and

(3) dividing the assessment resulting under paragraph (2) by the number of the family members, excluding the student's parents, who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment, on at least a half-time basis, in a degree, certificate, or other program leading to a recognized educational credential at an institution of higher education that is an eligible institution in accordance with the provisions of section 1094 of this title during the award period for which assistance under this subchapter is requested;


except that the amount determined under this subsection shall not be less than zero.

(c) Parents' available income

(1) In general

The parents' available income is determined by deducting from total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title)—

(A) Federal income taxes;

(B) an allowance for State and other taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (2);

(C) an allowance for social security taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (3);

(D) an income protection allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (4);

(E) an employment expense allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (5); and

(F) the amount of any tax credit taken by the parents under section 25A of title 26.

(2) Allowance for State and other taxes

The allowance for State and other taxes is equal to an amount determined by multiplying total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title) by a percentage determined according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Percentages for Computation of State and Other Tax Allowance
If parents' State or territory of residence is—And parents' total income is—
less than $15,000 or$15,000 or more
 
(1)then the percentage is—
Alaska, Puerto Rico, Wyoming  3  2
American Samoa, Guam, Louisiana, Nevada, Texas, Trust Territory, Virgin Islands  4  3
Florida, South Dakota, Tennessee, New Mexico  5  4
North Dakota, Washington  6  5
Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, West Virginia  7  6
Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky  8  7
California, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Canada, Mexico  9  8
Maine, New Jersey 10  9
District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, Oregon, Rhode Island 11 10
Michigan, Minnesota 12 11
Wisconsin 13 12
New York 14 13
Other  9  8

(3) Allowance for social security taxes

The allowance for social security taxes is equal to the amount earned by each parent multiplied by the social security withholding rate appropriate to the tax year of the earnings, up to the maximum statutory social security tax withholding amount for that same tax year.

(4) Income protection allowance

The income protection allowance is determined by the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Income Protection Allowance
Family SizeNumber in College
(including student)12345For each

additional

subtract:

2 $10,520 $8,720       $1,790
3 13,100 11,310 $9,510
4 16,180 14,380 12,590 $10,790
5 19,090 17,290 15,500 13,700 $11,910
6 22,330 20,530 18,740 16,940 15,150
For each additional add:  2,520  2,520  2,520  2,520  2,520

(5) Employment expense allowance

The employment expense allowance is determined as follows (or using a successor provision prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

(A) If both parents were employed in the year for which their income is reported and both have their incomes reported in determining the expected family contribution, such allowance is equal to the lesser of $2,500 or 35 percent of the earned income of the parent with the lesser earned income.

(B) If a parent qualifies as a surviving spouse or as a head of household as defined in section 2 of title 26, such allowance is equal to the lesser of $2,500 or 35 percent of such parent's earned income.

(d) Parents' contribution from assets

(1) In general

The parents' contribution from assets is equal to—

(A) the parental net worth (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); minus

(B) the education savings and asset protection allowance (determined in accordance with paragraph (3)); multiplied by

(C) the asset conversion rate (determined in accordance with paragraph (4)), except that the result shall not be less than zero.

(2) Parental net worth

The parental net worth is calculated by adding—

(A) the current balance of checking and savings accounts and cash on hand;

(B) the net value of investments and real estate, excluding the net value of the principal place of residence; and

(C) the adjusted net worth of a business or farm, computed on the basis of the net worth of such business or farm (hereafter in this subsection referred to as "NW"), determined in accordance with the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title), except as provided under section 1087vv(f) of this title:

Adjusted Net Worth of a Business or Farm
If the net worth of a business or farm is—Then the adjusted net worth is:
Less than $1 $0
$1–$75,000 40 percent of NW
$75,001–$225,000 $30,000 plus 50 percent of NW over $75,000
$225,001–$375,000 $105,000 plus 60 percent of NW over $225,000
$375,001 or more $195,000 plus 100 percent of NW over $375,000

(3) Education savings and asset protection allowance

The education savings and asset protection allowance is calculated according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Education Savings and Asset Protection Allowances for Families and Students
If the age of the oldest parent is—And there are
two parentsone parent
 
(1)then the allowance is—
25 or less  $  0    $0
26  2,200  1,600
27  4,300  3,200
28  6,500  4,700
29  8,600  6,300
30 10,800  7,900
31 13,000  9,500
32 15,100 11,100
33 17,300 12,600
34 19,400 14,200
35 21,600 15,800
36 23,800 17,400
37 25,900 19,000
38 28,100 20,500
39 30,200 22,100
40 32,400 23,700
41 33,300 24,100
42 34,100 24,700
43 35,000 25,200
44 35,700 25,800
45 36,600 26,300
46 37,600 26,900
47 38,800 27,600
48 39,800 28,200
49 40,800 28,800
50 41,800 29,500
51 43,200 30,200
52 44,300 31,100
53 45,700 31,800
54 47,100 32,600
55 48,300 33,400
56 49,800 34,400
57 51,300 35,200
58 52,900 36,200
59 54,800 37,200
60 56,500 38,100
61 58,500 39,200
62 60,300 40,300
63 62,400 41,500
64 64,600 42,800
65 or more 66,800 44,000

(4) Asset conversion rate

The asset conversion rate is 12 percent.

(e) Assessment schedule

The adjusted available income (as determined under subsection (b)(1) and hereafter in this subsection referred to as "AAI") is assessed according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Parents' Assessment From Adjusted Available Income (AAI)
If AAI is—Then the assessment is—
Less than −$3,409 −$750
−$3,409 to $9,400 22% of AAI
$9,401 to $11,800 $2,068 + 25% of AAI over $9,400
$11,801 to $14,200 $2,668 + 29% of AAI over $11,800
$14,201 to $16,600 $3,364 + 34% of AAI over $14,200
$16,601 to $19,000 $4,180 + 40% of AAI over $16,600
$19,001 or more $5,140 + 47% of AAI over $19,000

(f) Computations in case of separation, divorce, remarriage, or death

(1) Divorced or separated parents

Parental income and assets for a student whose parents are divorced or separated is determined under the following procedures:

(A) Include only the income and assets of the parent with whom the student resided for the greater portion of the 12-month period preceding the date of the application.

(B) If the preceding criterion does not apply, include only the income and assets of the parent who provided the greater portion of the student's support for the 12-month period preceding the date of application.

(C) If neither of the preceding criteria apply, include only the income and assets of the parent who provided the greater support during the most recent calendar year for which parental support was provided.

(2) Death of a parent

Parental income and assets in the case of the death of any parent is determined as follows:

(A) If either of the parents has died, the student shall include only the income and assets of the surviving parent.

(B) If both parents have died, the student shall not report any parental income or assets.

(3) Remarried parents

If a parent whose income and assets are taken into account under paragraph (1) of this subsection, or if a parent who is a widow or widower and whose income is taken into account under paragraph (2) of this subsection, has remarried, the income of that parent's spouse shall be included in determining the parent's adjusted available income only if—

(A) the student's parent and the stepparent are married as of the date of application for the award year concerned; and

(B) the student is not an independent student.

(g) Student contribution from available income

(1) In general

The student contribution from available income is equal to—

(A) the student's total income (determined in accordance with section 1087vv of this title); minus

(B) the adjustment to student income (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); multiplied by

(C) the assessment rate as determined in paragraph (5);


except that the amount determined under this subsection shall not be less than zero.

(2) Adjustment to student income

The adjustment to student income is equal to the sum of—

(A) Federal income taxes of the student;

(B) an allowance for State and other income taxes (determined in accordance with paragraph (3));

(C) an allowance for social security taxes determined in accordance with paragraph (4);

(D) an income protection allowance of the following amount (or a successor amount prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title)—

(i) for academic year 2009–2010, $3,750;

(ii) for academic year 2010–2011, $4,500;

(iii) for academic year 2011–2012, $5,250; and

(iv) for academic year 2012–2013, $6,000;


(E) the amount of any tax credit taken by the student under section 25A of title 26; and

(F) an allowance for parents' negative available income, determined in accordance with paragraph (6).

(3) Allowance for State and other income taxes

The allowance for State and other income taxes is equal to an amount determined by multiplying total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title) by a percentage determined according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Percentages for Computation of State and Other Tax Allowance
If the students' State or territory of

residence is—

The percentage is—
Alaska, American Samoa, Florida, Guam, Nevada, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Trust Territory, Virgin Islands, Washington, Wyoming 0
Connecticut, Louisiana, Puerto Rico 1
Arizona, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota 2
Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Oklahoma 3
Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Canada, Mexico 4
California, Idaho, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Carolina 5
Hawaii, Maryland, Michigan, Wisconsin 6
Delaware, District of Columbia, Minnesota, Oregon 7
New York 8
Other 4

(4) Allowance for social security taxes

The allowance for social security taxes is equal to the amount earned by the student multiplied by the social security withholding rate appropriate to the tax year of the earnings, up to the maximum statutory social security tax withholding amount for that same tax year.

(5) Assessment of available income

The student's available income (determined in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection) is assessed at 50 percent.

(6) Allowance for parents' negative available income

The allowance for parents' negative available income is the amount, if any, by which the sum of the amounts deducted under subparagraphs (A) through (F) of subsection (c)(1) exceeds the sum of the parents' total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title) and the parents' contribution from assets (as determined in accordance with subsection (d)).

(h) Student contribution from assets

The student contribution from assets is determined by calculating the net assets of the student and multiplying such amount by 20 percent, except that the result shall not be less than zero.

(i) Adjustments to parents' contribution for enrollment periods other than 9 months for purposes other than subpart 2 of part A of this subchapter

For periods of enrollment other than 9 months, the parents' contribution from adjusted available income (as determined under subsection (b)) is determined as follows for purposes other than subpart 2 of part A of this subchapter:

(1) For periods of enrollment less than 9 months, the parents' contribution from adjusted available income is divided by 9 and the result multiplied by the number of months enrolled.

(2) For periods of enrollment greater than 9 months—

(A) the parents' adjusted available income (determined in accordance with subsection (b)(1)) is increased by the difference between the income protection allowance (determined in accordance with subsection (c)(4)) for a family of four and a family of five, each with one child in college;

(B) the resulting revised parents' adjusted available income is assessed according to subsection (e) and adjusted according to subsection (b)(3) to determine a revised parents' contribution from adjusted available income;

(C) the original parents' contribution from adjusted available income is subtracted from the revised parents' contribution from adjusted available income, and the result is divided by 12 to determine the monthly adjustment amount; and

(D) the original parents' contribution from adjusted available income is increased by the product of the monthly adjustment amount multiplied by the number of months greater than 9 for which the student will be enrolled.

(j) Adjustments to student's contribution for enrollment periods of less than nine months

For periods of enrollment of less than 9 months, the student's contribution from adjusted available income (as determined under subsection (g)) is determined, for purposes other than subpart 2 of part A, by dividing the amount determined under such subsection by 9, and multiplying the result by the number of months in the period of enrollment.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §475, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1456; amended Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1)–(12), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 349, 350; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(2)–(5), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2472; Pub. L. 105–78, title VI, §609(g), Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1523; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §473, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1729; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8017(a)(1), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §601(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 801; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(a)(2), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(d), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3141.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(d), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3141, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087oo. Student aid index for dependent students

(a) Computation of student aid index

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), for each dependent student, the student aid index is equal to the sum of—

(A) the assessment of the parents' adjusted available income (determined in accordance with subsection (b));

(B) the assessment of the student's available income (determined in accordance with subsection (g)); and

(C) the student's available assets (determined in accordance with subsection (h)).

(2) Exception

If the sum determined under paragraph (1) with respect to a dependent student is less than − $1,500, the student aid index for the dependent student shall be − $1,500.

(b) Assessment of parents' adjusted available income

The assessment of parents' adjusted available income is equal to the amount determined by—

(1) computing adjusted available income by adding—

(A) the parents' available income (determined in accordance with subsection (c)); and

(B) the parents' available assets (determined in accordance with subsection (d));


(2) assessing such adjusted available income in accordance with the assessment schedule set forth in subsection (e); and

(3) considering such assessment resulting under paragraph (2) as the amount determined under this subsection.

(c) Parents' available income

(1) In general

The parents' available income is determined by subtracting from total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title)—

(A) Federal income taxes;

(B) an allowance for payroll taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (2);

(C) an income protection allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (3); and

(D) an employment expense allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (4).

(2) Allowance for payroll taxes

The allowance for payroll taxes is equal to the sum of—

(A) the total amount earned by the parents, multiplied by the rate of tax under section 3101(b) of title 26; and

(B) the amount earned by the parents that does not exceed such contribution and benefit base (twice such contribution and benefit base, in the case of a joint return) for the year of the earnings, multiplied by the rate of tax applicable to such earnings under section 3101(a) of title 26.

(3) Income protection allowance

The income protection allowance shall equal the amount determined in the following table, as adjusted by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(b) of this title:

Income Protection Allowance (to be adjusted for 2023–2024 and succeeding years)
Family Size (including

student)

Amount
2 $23,330
3 $29,040
4 $35,870
5 $42,320
6 $49,500
For each additional add $5,590.

(4) Employment expense allowance

The employment expense allowance is equal to the lesser of $4,000 or 35 percent of the single parent's earned income or married parents' combined earned income (as adjusted by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(g) of this title).

(d) Parents' available assets

(1) In general

(A) Determination

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the parents' available assets are equal to—

(i) the difference between the parents' assets and the asset protection allowance (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); multiplied by

(ii) 12 percent.

(B) Not less than zero

The parents' available assets under this subsection shall not be less than zero.

(2) Asset protection allowance

The asset protection allowance is calculated based on the following table (as revised by the Secretary pursuant to section 10877rr(d) of this title):

Asset Protection Allowances for Parents of Dependent Students
If the age of the oldest parent is—And there are
two parentsone parent
 
(1)then the allowance is—
25 or less  $  0    $0
26  $400  $100
27  $700  $300
28  $1,100  $400
29  $1,500  $600
30  $1,800  $700
31  $2,200  $800
32  $2,600  $1,000
33  $2,900  $1,100
34  $3,300  $1,300
35  $3,700  $1,400
36  $4,000  $1,500
37  $4,400  $1,700
38  $4,800  $1,800
39  $5,100  $2,000
40  $5,500  $2,100
41  $5,600  $2,200
42  $5,700  $2,200
43  $5,900  $2,300
44  $6,000  $2,300
45  $6,200  $2,400
46  $6,300  $2,400
47  $6,500  $2,500
48  $6,600  $2,500
49  $6,800  $2,600
50  $7,000  $2,700
51  $7,100  $2,700
52  $7,300  $2,800
53  $7,500  $2,900
54  $7,700  $2,900
55  $7,900  $3,000
56  $8,100  $3,100
57  $8,400  $3,100
58  $8,600  $3,200
59  $8,800  $3,300
60  $9,100  $3,400
61  $9,300  $3,500
62  $9,600  $3,600
63  $9,900  $3,700
64 $10,200  $3,800
65 or more $10,500  $3,900.

(e) Assessment schedule

The assessment of the parents' adjusted available income (as determined under subsection (b)(1) and hereafter in this subsection referred to as "AAI") is calculated based on the following table (as revised by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(e) of this title):

Parents' Contribution From AAI
If the parents' AAI is—Then the parents' contribution from AAI is—
Less than − $6,820 − $1,500
− $6,820 to $17,400 22% of AAI
$17,401 to $21,800 $3,828 + 25% of AAI over $17,400
$21,801 to $26,200 $4,928 + 29% of AAI over $21,800
$26,201 to $30,700 $6,204 + 34% of AAI over $26,200
$30,701 to $35,100 $7,734 + 40% of AAI over $30,700
$35,101 or more $9,494 + 47% of AAI over $35,100.

(f) Consideration of parental income

(1) Parents who live together

Parental income and assets in the case of student whose parents are married and not separated, or who are unmarried but live together, shall include the income and assets of both parents.

(2) Divorced or separated parents

Parental income and assets for a student whose parents are divorced or separated, but not remarried, is determined by including only the income and assets of the parent who provides the greater portion of the student's financial support.

(3) Death of a parent

Parental income and assets in the case of the death of any parent is determined as follows:

(A) If either of the parents has died, the surviving parent shall be considered a single parent, until that parent has remarried.

(B) If both parents have died, the student shall not report any parental income or assets.

(4) Remarried parents

If a parent whose income and assets are taken into account under paragraph (2), or if a parent who is a widow or widower and whose income is taken into account under paragraph (3), has remarried, the income of that parent's spouse shall be included in determining the parent's assessment of adjusted available income if the student's parent and the stepparent are married as of the date of application for the award year concerned.

(5) Single parent who is not divorced or separated

Parental income and assets in the case of a student whose parent is not described in paragraph (1) and is a single parent who is not divorced, separated, or remarried, shall include the income and assets of such single parent.

(g) Student's available income

(1) In general

The student's available income is equal to—

(A) the difference between the student's total income (determined in accordance with section 1087vv of this title) and the adjustment to student income (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); multiplied by

(B) 50 percent.

(2) Adjustment to student income

The adjustment to student income is equal to the sum of—

(A) Federal income taxes;

(B) an allowance for payroll taxes determined in accordance with paragraph (3);

(C) an income protection allowance that is equal to $9,410, as adjusted pursuant to section 1087rr(b) of this title; and

(D) an allowance for parents' negative available income, determined in accordance with paragraph (4).

(3) Allowance for payroll taxes

The allowance for payroll taxes is equal to the sum of—

(A) the total amount earned by the student, multiplied by the rate of tax under section 3101(b) of title 26; and

(B) the amount earned by the student that does not exceed such contribution and benefit base for the year of the earnings, multiplied by the rate of tax applicable to such earnings under section 3101(a) of title 26.

(4) Allowance for parents' negative available income

The allowance for parents' negative available income is the amount, if any, by which the sum of the amounts deducted under subsection (c)(1) exceeds the sum of the parents' total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title) and the parents' available assets (as determined in accordance with subsection (d)).

(h) Student's assets

The student's assets are determined by calculating the assets of the student and multiplying such amount by 20 percent, except that the result shall not be less than zero.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to family contribution for dependent students.

2009—Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 111–39 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 2 of title 26.

2007—Subsec. (g)(2)(D). Pub. L. 110–84 amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: "an income protection allowance of $3,000 (or a successor amount prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title);".

2006—Subsec. (g)(2)(D). Pub. L. 109–171, §8017(a)(1)(A), substituted "$3,000" for "$2,200".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–171, §8017(a)(1)(B), substituted "20" for "35".

1998—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–244, §473(a), which directed insertion of ", excluding the student's parents," after "number of family members", was executed by making the insertion after "number of the family members" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (g)(2)(D). Pub. L. 105–244, §473(b)(1)(A), substituted "$2,200 (or a successor amount prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title);" for "$1,750; and".

Subsec. (g)(2)(F). Pub. L. 105–244, §473(b)(1)(B), (C), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (g)(6). Pub. L. 105–244, §473(b)(2), added par. (6).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–244, §473(c), added subsec. (j).

1997—Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 105–78, §609(g)(1), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (g)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–78, §609(g)(2), added subpar. (E).

1993—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(2), substituted "$9,510" for "9,510" in table.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(3), in introductory provisions, substituted "If a parent" for "Income in the case of a parent", "(1) of this subsection, or if a parent" for "(1) of this subsection, or a parent", and "the income" for "is determined as follows: The income".

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(4), inserted closing parenthesis after "paragraph (2)".

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(5), in table added last item relating to Other.

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, making minor changes in subsecs. (a) to (c) and (e) to (g), in subsec. (d) substituting provisions relating to parents' contribution from assets for provisions relating to parents' income supplemental amount from assets, in subsec. (h) substituting provisions relating to student contribution from assets for provisions relating to student and spouse income supplemental amount from assets, and in subsec. (i) substituting provisions relating to adjustments to parents' contribution for enrollment periods other than 9 months for purposes other than subpart 2 of part A of this subchapter for provisions relating to adjustments for enrollment periods other than 9 months.

1987—Subsec. (c)(2), (4). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), substituted "section 1087rr of this title" for "section 1087ss of this title".

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(2), struck out "National" before "Center".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(3), substituted "displaced homemaker" for "dislocated homemaker".

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), substituted "section 1087rr of this title" for "section 1087ss of this title".

Pub. L. 100–50, §14(4), added table after subpar. (C) and struck out former table which read as follows:

"Adjusted Net Worth of a Business or Farm
If the net worth of a business or farm is—Then the adjusted net worth is:
Less than $1 $0
$1–$65,000 40 percent of NW
$65,001–$195,000 $26,000 plus 50 percent of NW over $65,000
$195,001–$325,000 $91,000 plus 60 percent of NW over $195,000
$325,001 or more $169,000 plus 100 percent of NW over $325,000".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(5), substituted "$15,999" for "$15,000".

Subsec. (d)(4)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(6), substituted "$16,000" for "$15,000" in three places.

Subsec. (d)(4)(D). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(7), substituted "income is less than zero" for "income is equal to or less than zero".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(8), inserted a minus sign before "$3,409" in two places in table.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(9), substituted "paragraph (2)" for "paragraph (3)".

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(10), inserted "(or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title)" after "following table".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(11), added subsec. (h) and struck out former subsec. (h) which read as follows: "The student (and spouse) supplemental income amount from assets is determined by multiplying by 35 percent the sum of—

"(1) the current balance of checking and savings accounts and cash on hand; and

"(2) the net value of investments and real estate, including the net value in the principal place of residence except in the case of a dislocated worker (certified in accordance with title III of the Job Training Partnership Act) or a dislocated homemaker (as defined in section 1087vv(e) of this title)."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(12), added subsec. (i).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §601(e), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 804, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1087pp, 1087qq, and 1087rr of this title] shall be effective on July 1, 2009."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective July 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, see section 8001(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8017(a)(2), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 173, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to determinations of need for periods of enrollment beginning on or after July 1, 2007."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244, effective Oct. 7, 1998, and applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for academic years beginning on or after July 1, 2000, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–50 effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1087pp. Family contribution for independent students without dependents other than a spouse

(a) Computation of expected family contribution

For each independent student without dependents other than a spouse, the expected family contribution is determined by—

(1) adding—

(A) the family's contribution from available income (determined in accordance with subsection (b)); and

(B) the family's contribution from assets (determined in accordance with subsection (c));


(2) dividing the sum resulting under paragraph (1) by the number of students who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment, on at least a half-time basis, in a degree, certificate, or other program leading to a recognized educational credential at an institution of higher education that is an eligible institution in accordance with the provisions of section 1094 of this title during the award period for which assistance under this subchapter is requested; and

(3) for periods of enrollment of less than 9 months, for purposes other than subpart 2 of part A—

(A) dividing the quotient resulting under paragraph (2) by 9; and

(B) multiplying the result by the number of months in the period of enrollment;


except that the amount determined under this subsection shall not be less than zero.

(b) Family's contribution from available income

(1) In general

The family's contribution from income is determined by—

(A) deducting from total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title)—

(i) Federal income taxes;

(ii) an allowance for State and other taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (2);

(iii) an allowance for social security taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (3);

(iv) an income protection allowance of the following amount (or a successor amount prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title)—

(I) for single or separated students, or married students where both are enrolled pursuant to subsection (a)(2)—

(aa) for academic year 2009–2010, $7,000;

(bb) for academic year 2010–2011, $7,780;

(cc) for academic year 2011–2012, $8,550; and

(dd) for academic year 2012–2013, $9,330; and


(II) for married students where 1 is enrolled pursuant to subsection (a)(2)—

(aa) for academic year 2009–2010, $11,220;

(bb) for academic year 2010–2011, $12,460;

(cc) for academic year 2011–2012, $13,710; and

(dd) for academic year 2012–2013, $14,960;


(v) in the case where a spouse is present, an employment expense allowance, as determined in accordance with paragraph (4); and

(vi) the amount of any tax credit taken under section 25A of title 26; and


(B) assessing such available income in accordance with paragraph (5).

(2) Allowance for State and other taxes

The allowance for State and other taxes is equal to an amount determined by multiplying total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title) by a percentage determined according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Percentages for Computation of State and Other Tax Allowance
If the students' State or territory of

residence is—

The percentage is—
Alaska, American Samoa, Florida, Guam, Nevada, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Trust Territory, Virgin Islands, Washington, Wyoming 0
Connecticut, Louisiana, Puerto Rico 1
Arizona, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota 2
Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Oklahoma 3
Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Canada, Mexico 4
California, Idaho, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Carolina 5
Hawaii, Maryland, Michigan, Wisconsin 6
Delaware, District of Columbia, Minnesota, Oregon 7
New York 8
Other 4

(3) Allowance for social security taxes

The allowance for social security taxes is equal to the amount earned by the student (and spouse, if appropriate), multiplied by the social security withholding rate appropriate to the tax year preceding the award year, up to the maximum statutory social security tax withholding amount for that same tax year.

(4) Employment expenses allowance

The employment expense allowance is determined as follows (or using a successor provision prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

(A) If the student is married and the student's spouse is employed in the year for which income is reported, such allowance is equal to the lesser of $2,500 or 35 percent of the earned income of the student or spouse with the lesser earned income.

(B) If a student is not married, the employment expense allowance is zero.

(5) Assessment of available income

The family's available income (determined in accordance with paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection) is assessed at 50 percent.

(c) Family contribution from assets

(1) In general

The family's contribution from assets is equal to—

(A) the family's net worth (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); minus

(B) the asset protection allowance (determined in accordance with paragraph (3)); multiplied by

(C) the asset conversion rate (determined in accordance with paragraph (4));


except that the family's contribution from assets shall not be less than zero.

(2) Family's net worth

The family's net worth is calculated by adding—

(A) the current balance of checking and savings accounts and cash on hand;

(B) the net value of investments and real estate, excluding the net value in the principal place of residence; and

(C) the adjusted net worth of a business or farm, computed on the basis of the net worth of such business or farm (hereafter referred to as "NW"), determined in accordance with the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title), except as provided under section 1087vv(f) of this title:

Adjusted Net Worth of a Business or Farm
If the net worth of a business or farm is—Then the adjusted net worth is—
Less than $1 $0
$1–$75,000 40 percent of NW
$75,001–$225,000 $30,000 plus 50 percent of NW over $75,000
$225,001–$375,000 $105,000 plus 60 percent of NW over $225,000
$375,001 or more $195,000 plus 100 percent of NW over $375,000

(3) Asset protection allowance

The asset protection allowance is calculated according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Asset Protection Allowances for Families and Students
If the age of the student is—And the student is
marriedsingle
 
(1)then the allowance is—
25 or less  $  0    $0
26  2,200  1,600
27  4,300  3,200
28  6,500  4,700
29  8,600  6,300
30 10,800  7,900
31 13,000  9,500
32 15,100 11,100
33 17,300 12,600
34 19,400 14,200
35 21,600 15,800
36 23,800 17,400
37 25,900 19,000
38 28,100 20,500
39 30,200 22,100
40 32,400 23,700
41 33,300 24,100
42 34,100 24,700
43 35,000 25,200
44 35,700 25,800
45 36,600 26,300
46 37,600 26,900
47 38,800 27,600
48 39,800 28,200
49 40,800 28,800
50 41,800 29,500
51 43,200 30,200
52 44,300 31,100
53 45,700 31,800
54 47,100 32,600
55 48,300 33,400
56 49,800 34,400
57 51,300 35,200
58 52,900 36,200
59 54,800 37,200
60 56,500 38,100
61 58,500 39,200
62 60,300 40,300
63 62,400 41,500
64 64,600 42,800
65 or more 66,800 44,000

(4) Asset conversion rate

The asset conversion rate is 20 percent.

(d) Computations in case of separation, divorce, or death

In the case of a student who is divorced or separated, or whose spouse has died, the spouse's income and assets shall not be considered in determining the family's contribution from income or assets.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §476, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1463; amended Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), (3), (4), (13)–(17), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 349, 351; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 594; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(6), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2472; Pub. L. 105–78, title VI, §609(h), Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1524; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §474, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1730; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8017(b)(1), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §601(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 801; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(e), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3145.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(e), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3145, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087pp. Student aid index for independent students without dependents other than a spouse

(a) Computation of student aid index

(1) In general

For each independent student without dependents other than a spouse, the student aid index is equal to (except as provided in paragraph (2)) the sum of—

(A) the family's available income (determined in accordance with subsection (b)); and

(B) the family's available assets (determined in accordance with subsection (c)).

(2) Exception

If the sum determined under paragraph (1) with respect to an independent student without dependents other than a spouse is less than − $1,500, the student aid index for the independent student shall be − $1,500.

(b) Family's available income

(1) In general

The family's available income is determined by—

(A) deducting from total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title)—

(i) Federal income taxes;

(ii) an allowance for payroll taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (2);

(iii) an income protection allowance that is equal to—

(I) in the case of a single independent student without dependents, $14,630, as adjusted pursuant to section 1078rr(b) of this title; and

(II) in the case of a married independent student without dependents, $23,460, as adjusted pursuant to section 1078rr(b) of this title; and


(iv) in the case of a married independent student, an employment expense allowance, as determined in accordance with paragraph (3); and


(B) multiplying the amount determined under subparagraph (A) by 50 percent.

(2) Allowance for payroll taxes

The allowance for payroll taxes is equal to the sum of—

(A) the total amount earned by the student (and spouse, if appropriate), multiplied by the rate of tax under section 3101(b) of title 26; and

(B) the amount earned by the student (and spouse, if appropriate) that does not exceed such contribution and benefit base (twice such contribution and benefit base, in the case of a joint return) for the year of the earnings, multiplied by the rate of tax applicable to such earnings under section 3101(a) of title 26.

(3) Employment expense allowance

The employment expense allowance is equal to the following:

(A) If the student is married, such allowance is equal to the lesser of $4,000 or 35 percent of the couple's combined earned income (as adjusted by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(g) of this title).

(B) If the student is not married, the employment expense allowance is zero.

(c) Family's available assets

(1) In general

(A) Determination

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the family's available assets are equal to—

(i) the difference between the family's assets (as defined in section 1087vv(f) of this title) and the asset protection allowance (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); multiplied by

(ii) 20 percent.

(B) Not less than zero

The family's available assets under this subsection shall not be less than zero.

(2) Asset protection allowance

The asset protection allowance is calculated based on the following table (as revised by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(d) of this title):

Asset Protection Allowances for Families and Students
If the age of the student is—And the student is
marriedsingle
 
(1)then the allowance is—
25 or less  $  0    $0
26  $400  $100
27  $700  $300
28  $1,100  $400
29  $1,500  $600
30  $1,800  $700
31  $2,200  $800
32  $2,600  $1,000
33  $2,900  $1,100
34  $3,300  $1,300
35  $3,700  $1,400
36  $4,000  $1,500
37  $4,400  $1,700
38  $4,800  $1,800
39  $5,100  $2,000
40  $5,500  $2,100
41  $5,600  $2,200
42  $5,700  $2,200
43  $5,900  $2,300
44  $6,000  $2,300
45  $6,200  $2,400
46  $6,300  $2,400
47  $6,500  $2,500
48  $6,600  $2,500
49  $6,800  $2,600
50  $7,000  $2,700
51  $7,100  $2,700
52  $7,300  $2,800
53  $7,500  $2,900
54  $7,700  $2,900
55  $7,900  $3,000
56  $8,100  $3,100
57  $8,400  $3,100
58  $8,600  $3,200
59  $8,800  $3,300
60  $9,100  $3,400
61  $9,300  $3,500
62  $9,600  $3,600
63  $9,900  $3,700
64 $10,200  $3,800
65 or more $10,500  $3,900.

(d) Computations in case of separation, divorce, or death

In the case of a student who is divorced or separated, or whose spouse has died, the spouse's income and assets shall not be considered in determining the family's available income or assets.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to family contribution for independent students without dependents other than a spouse.

2007—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 110–84 amended cl. (iv) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iv) read as follows: "an income protection allowance of the following amount (or a successor amount prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title)—

"(I) $6,050 for single students;

"(II) $6,050 for married students where both are enrolled pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section; and

"(III) $9,700 for married students where one is enrolled pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section;".

2006—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 109–171, §8017(b)(1)(A), substituted "$6,050" for "$5,000" in subcls. (I) and (II) and "$9,700" for "$8,000" in subcl. (III).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 109–171, §8017(b)(1)(B), substituted "20" for "35".

1998—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–244, §474(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 105–244, §474(b)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted "allowance of the following amount (or a successor amount prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title)—" for "allowance of—".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv)(I), (II). Pub. L. 105–244, §474(b)(2), substituted "$5,000" for "$3,000".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv)(III). Pub. L. 105–244, §474(b)(3), substituted "$8,000" for "$6,000".

1997—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 105–78 added cl. (vi).

1993—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–208 added subsec. (d).

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to family contribution for independent students without dependents other than a spouse for provisions relating to family contribution for independent students without dependents (including a spouse).

1987—Subsec. (b)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(13)(B), (C), substituted subpar. (A) and introductory provisions of subpar. (B) for introductory provisions of former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "computing the student's available taxable income by deducting from the student's adjusted gross income—". Former subpar. (B) redesignated (C).

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(13)(B), redesignated subpar. (B) as (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (D).

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(15), which directed that subsec. (b)(1)(C) be amended by inserting "plus the amount of veterans' benefits paid during the award period under chapters 32, 34, and 35 of title 28", was executed to subpar. (D) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening redesignation of subpar. (C) as (D) by section 14(13)(B) of Pub. L. 100–50.

Pub. L. 100–50, §14(13)(A), (B), redesignated subpar. (C) as (D) and substituted "subparagraph (C)" for "subparagraph (B)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), (14), substituted "total income" for "total taxable income" and "section 1087rr of this title" for "section 1087ss of this title".

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(16)(A), substituted "$8,600" for "$8,900".

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(16), substituted "$8,600" for "$8,900" in two places and "$6,020" for "$6,230".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(17), substituted a semicolon for a period at end of subpar. (C) and inserted, after subpar. (C), provision that the student's income supplemental amount from assets not be less than zero.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(3), substituted "displaced homemaker" for "dislocated homemaker".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(4), added table and struck out former table which read as follows:

"Adjusted Net Worth of a Business or Farm
If the net worth of a business or farm is—Then the adjusted net worth is—
Less than $1 $0
$1–$65,000 40 percent of NW
$65,001–$195,000 $26,000 plus 50 percent of NW over $65,000
$195,001–$325,000 $91,000 plus 60 percent of NW over $195,000
$325,001 or more $169,000 plus 100 percent of NW over $325,000".

Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), substituted "section 1087rr of this title" for "section 1087ss of this title".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–84 effective July 1, 2009, see section 601(e) of Pub. L. 110–84, set out as a note under section 1087oo of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective July 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, see section 8001(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8017(b)(2), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 173, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to determinations of need for periods of enrollment beginning on or after July 1, 2007."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244, effective Oct. 7, 1998, and applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for academic years beginning on or after July 1, 2000, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–50 effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1087qq. Family contribution for independent students with dependents other than a spouse

(a) Computation of expected family contribution

For each independent student with dependents other than a spouse, the expected family contribution is equal to the amount determined by—

(1) computing adjusted available income by adding—

(A) the family's available income (determined in accordance with subsection (b)); and

(B) the family's contribution from assets (determined in accordance with subsection (c));


(2) assessing such adjusted available income in accordance with an assessment schedule set forth in subsection (d);

(3) dividing the assessment resulting under paragraph (2) by the number of family members who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment, on at least a half-time basis, in a degree, certificate, or other program leading to a recognized educational credential at an institution of higher education that is an eligible institution in accordance with the provisions of section 1094 of this title during the award period for which assistance under this subchapter is requested; and

(4) for periods of enrollment of less than 9 months, for purposes other than subpart 2 of part A—

(A) dividing the quotient resulting under paragraph (3) by 9; and

(B) multiplying the result by the number of months in the period of enrollment;


except that the amount determined under this subsection shall not be less than zero.

(b) Family's available income

(1) In general

The family's available income is determined by deducting from total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title)—

(A) Federal income taxes;

(B) an allowance for State and other taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (2);

(C) an allowance for social security taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (3);

(D) an income protection allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (4);

(E) an employment expense allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (5); and

(F) the amount of any tax credit taken under section 25A of title 26.

(2) Allowance for State and other taxes

The allowance for State and other taxes is equal to an amount determined by multiplying total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title) by a percentage determined according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Percentages for Computation of State and Other Tax Allowance
If student's State or territory of residence is—And family's total income is—
less than $15,000$15,000 or more
 
(1)then the percentage is—
Alaska, Puerto Rico, Wyoming  3  2
American Samoa, Guam, Louisiana, Nevada, Texas, Trust Territory, Virgin Islands  4  3
Florida, South Dakota, Tennessee, New Mexico  5  4
North Dakota, Washington  6  5
Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, West Virginia  7  6
Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky  8  7
California, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Canada, Mexico  9  8
Maine, New Jersey 10  9
District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, Oregon, Rhode Island 11 10
Michigan, Minnesota 12 11
Wisconsin 13 12
New York 14 13
Other  9  8

(3) Allowance for social security taxes

The allowance for social security taxes is equal to the amount estimated to be earned by the student (and spouse, if appropriate) multiplied by the social security withholding rate appropriate to the tax year preceding the award year, up to the maximum statutory social security tax withholding amount for that same tax year.

(4) Income protection allowance

The income protection allowance is determined by the tables described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title).

(A) Academic year 2009–2010

For academic year 2009–2010, the income protection allowance is determined by the following table:

Income Protection Allowance
Family SizeNumber in College
(including student)12345For each

additional

subtract:

2 $17,720 $14,690
3  22,060  19,050 $16,020
4  27,250  24,220  21,210 $18,170
5  32,150  29,120  26,100  23,070 $20,060
6  37,600  34,570  31,570  28,520  25,520  $3,020
For each additional add: 4,240 4,240 4,240 4,240 4,240

(B) Academic year 2010–2011

For academic year 2010–2011, the income protection allowance is determined by the following table:

Income Protection Allowance
Family SizeNumber in College
(including student)12345For each

additional

subtract:

2 $19,690 $16,330
3  24,510  21,160 $17,800
4  30,280  26,910  23,560 $20,190
5  35,730  32,350  29,000  25,640 $22,290
6  41,780  38,410  35,080  31,690  28,350 $3,350
For each additional add: 4,710 4,710 4,710 4,710 4,710

(C) Academic year 2011–2012

For academic year 2011–2012, the income protection allowance is determined by the following table:

Income Protection Allowance
Family SizeNumber in College
(including student)12345For each

additional

subtract:

2 $21,660 $17,960
3  26,960  23,280 $19,580
4  33,300  29,600  25,920 $22,210
5  39,300  35,590  31,900  28,200 $24,520
6  45,950  42,250  38,580  34,860  31,190 $3,690
For each additional add: 5,180 5,180 5,180 5,180 5,180

(D) Academic year 2012–2013

For academic year 2012–2013, the income protection allowance is determined by the following table:

Income Protection Allowance
Family SizeNumber in College
(including student)12345For each

additional

subtract:

2 $23,630 $19,590
3  29,420  25,400 $21,360
4  36,330  32,300  28,280 $24,230
5  42,870  38,820  34,800  30,770 $26,750
6  50,130  46,100  42,090  38,030  34,020 $4,020
For each additional add: 5,660 5,660 5,660 5,660 5,660

(5) Employment expense allowance

The employment expense allowance is determined as follows (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

(A) If the student is married and the student's spouse is employed in the year for which their income is reported, such allowance is equal to the lesser of $2,500 or 35 percent of the earned income of the student or spouse with the lesser earned income.

(B) If a student qualifies as a surviving spouse or as a head of household as defined in section 2 of title 26, such allowance is equal to the lesser of $2,500 or 35 percent of the student's earned income.

(c) Family's contribution from assets

(1) In general

The family's contribution from assets is equal to—

(A) the family net worth (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); minus

(B) the asset protection allowance (determined in accordance with paragraph (3)); multiplied by

(C) the asset conversion rate (determined in accordance with paragraph (4)), except that the result shall not be less than zero.

(2) Family net worth

The family net worth is calculated by adding—

(A) the current balance of checking and savings accounts and cash on hand;

(B) the net value of investments and real estate, excluding the net value in the principal place of residence; and

(C) the adjusted net worth of a business or farm, computed on the basis of the net worth of such business or farm (hereafter referred to as "NW"), determined in accordance with the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title), except as provided under section 1087vv(f) of this title:

Adjusted Net Worth of a Business or Farm
If the net worth of a business or farm is—Then the adjusted net worth is—
Less than $1 $0
$1–$75,000 40 percent of NW
$75,001–$225,000 $30,000 plus 50 percent of NW over $75,000
$225,001–$375,000 $105,000 plus 60 percent of NW over $225,000
$375,001 or more $195,000 plus 100 percent of NW over $375,000

(3) Asset protection allowance

The asset protection allowance is calculated according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Asset Protection Allowances for Families and Students
If the age of the student is—And the student is
marriedsingle
 
(1)then the allowance is—
25 or less  $  0    $0
26  2,200  1,600
27  4,300  3,200
28  6,500  4,700
29  8,600  6,300
30 10,800  7,900
31 13,000  9,500
32 15,100 11,100
33 17,300 12,600
34 19,400 14,200
35 21,600 15,800
36 23,800 17,400
37 25,900 19,000
38 28,100 20,500
39 30,200 22,100
40 32,400 23,700
41 33,300 24,100
42 34,100 24,700
43 35,000 25,200
44 35,700 25,800
45 36,600 26,300
46 37,600 26,900
47 38,800 27,600
48 39,800 28,200
49 40,800 28,800
50 41,800 29,500
51 43,200 30,200
52 44,300 31,100
53 45,700 31,800
54 47,100 32,600
55 48,300 33,400
56 49,800 34,400
57 51,300 35,200
58 52,900 36,200
59 54,800 37,200
60 56,500 38,100
61 58,500 39,200
62 60,300 40,300
63 62,400 41,500
64 64,600 42,800
65 or more 66,800 44,000

(4) Asset conversion rate

The asset conversion rate is 7 percent.

(d) Assessment schedule

The adjusted available income (as determined under subsection (a)(1) and hereafter referred to as "AAI") is assessed according to the following table (or a successor table prescribed by the Secretary under section 1087rr of this title):

Assessment From Adjusted Available Income (AAI)
If AAI is—Then the assessment is—
Less than −$3,409 −$750
−$3,409 to $9,400 22% of AAI
$9,401 to $11,800 $2,068 + 25% of AAI over $9,400
$11,801 to $14,200 $2,668 + 29% of AAI over $11,800
$14,201 to $16,600 $3,364 + 34% of AAI over $14,200
$16,601 to $19,000 $4,180 + 40% of AAI over $16,600
$19,001 or more $5,140 + 47% of AAI over $19,000

(e) Computations in case of separation, divorce, or death

In the case of a student who is divorced or separated, or whose spouse has died, the spouse's income and assets shall not be considered in determining the family's available income or assets.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §477, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1465; amended Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1)–(6), (8), (18), (19), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 349–351; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 597; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(2), (7), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2472; Pub. L. 105–78, title VI, §609(i), Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1524; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §475, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1730; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8017(c)(1), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §601(c), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(a)(3), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(f), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3147.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(f), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3147, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087qq. Student aid index for independent students with dependents other than a spouse

(a) Computation of student aid index

(1) In general

For each independent student with dependents other than a spouse, the student aid index is equal to the amount determined by—

(A) computing adjusted available income by adding—

(i) the family's available income (determined in accordance with subsection (b)); and

(ii) the family's available assets (determined in accordance with subsection (c));


(B) assessing such adjusted available income in accordance with an assessment schedule set forth in subsection (d); and

(C) considering such assessment resulting under subparagraph (B) as the amount determined under this subsection.

(2) Exception

If the sum determined under paragraph (1) with respect to an independent student with dependents other than a spouse is less than − $1,500, the student aid index for the independent student shall be − $1,500.

(b) Family's available income

(1) In general

The family's available income is determined by deducting from total income (as defined in section 1087vv of this title)—

(A) Federal income taxes;

(B) an allowance for payroll taxes, determined in accordance with paragraph (2);

(C) an income protection allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (3); and

(D) an employment expense allowance, determined in accordance with paragraph (4).

(2) Allowance for payroll taxes

The allowance for payroll taxes is equal to the sum of—

(A) the total amount earned by the student (and spouse, if appropriate), multiplied by the rate of tax under section 3101(b) of title 26; and

(B) the amount earned by the student (and spouse, if appropriate) that does not exceed such contribution and benefit base (twice such contribution and benefit base, in the case of a joint return) for the year of the earnings, multiplied by the rate of tax applicable to such earnings under section 3101(a) of title 26.

(3) Income protection allowance

The income protection allowance shall equal the amount determined in the following table, as adjusted by the Secretary pursuant to section 1078rr(b) of this title:

(A) In the case of a married independent student with dependents:

Income Protection Allowance (to be adjusted for 2023–2024 and succeeding years)
Family Size (including

student)

Amount
3 $46,140
4 $56,970
5 $67,230
6 $78,620
For each additional add $8,880.

(B) In the case of a single independent student with dependents:

Income Protection Allowance (to be adjusted for 2023–2024 and succeeding years)
Family Size (including

student)

Amount
2 $43,920
3 $54,690
4 $67,520
5 $79,680
6 $93,180
For each additional add $10,530.

(4) Employment expense allowance

The employment expense allowance is equal to the lesser of $4,000 or 35 percent of the student's earned income or the combined earned income of the student and the student's spouse, if applicable (as adjusted by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(g) of this title).

(c) Family's available assets

(1) In general

(A) Determination

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the family's available assets are equal to—

(i) the difference between the family's assets (as defined in 1087vv(f) of this title) and the asset protection allowance (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)); multiplied by

(ii) 7 percent.

(B) Not less than zero

The family's available assets under this subsection shall not be less than zero.

(2) Asset protection allowance

The asset protection allowance is calculated based on the following table (as revised by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(d) of this title):

Asset Protection Allowances for Families and Students
If the age of the student is—And the student is
marriedsingle
 
(1)then the allowance is—
25 or less  $  0    $0
26  $400  $100
27  $700  $300
28  $1,100  $400
29  $1,500  $600
30  $1,800  $700
31  $2,200  $800
32  $2,600  $1,000
33  $2,900  $1,100
34  $3,300  $1,300
35  $3,700  $1,400
36  $4,000  $1,500
37  $4,400  $1,700
38  $4,800  $1,800
39  $5,100  $2,000
40  $5,500  $2,100
41  $5,600  $2,200
42  $5,700  $2,200
43  $5,900  $2,300
44  $6,000  $2,300
45  $6,200  $2,400
46  $6,300  $2,400
47  $6,500  $2,500
48  $6,600  $2,500
49  $6,800  $2,600
50  $7,000  $2,700
51  $7,100  $2,700
52  $7,300  $2,800
53  $7,500  $2,900
54  $7,700  $2,900
55  $7,900  $3,000
56  $8,100  $3,100
57  $8,400  $3,100
58  $8,600  $3,200
59  $8,800  $3,300
60  $9,100  $3,400
61  $9,300  $3,500
62  $9,600  $3,600
63  $9,900  $3,700
64 $10,200  $3,800
65 or more $10,500  $3,900.

(d) Assessment schedule

The assessment of adjusted available income (as determined under subsection (a)(1) and hereafter in this subsection referred to as "AAI") is calculated based on the following table (as revised by the Secretary pursuant to section 1087rr(e) of this title):

Assessment From Adjusted Available Income
If AAI is—Then the assessment is—
Less than − $6,820 − $1,500
− $6,820 to $17,400 22% of AAI
$17,401 to $21,800 $3,828 + 25% of AAI over $17,400
$21,801 to $26,200 $4,928 + 29% of AAI over $21,800
$26,201 to $30,700 $6,204 + 34% of AAI over $26,200
$30,701 to $35,100 $7,734 + 40% of AAI over $30,700
$35,101 or more $9,494 + 47% of AAI over $35,100.

(e) Computations in case of separation, divorce, or death

In the case of a student who is divorced or separated, or whose spouse has died, the spouse's income and assets shall not be considered in determining the family's available income or assets.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to family contribution for independent students with dependents other than a spouse.

2009—Subsec. (b)(5)(B). Pub. L. 111–39 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 2 of title 26.

2007—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–84 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) consisted of a single table to be used to determine income protection allowances.

2006—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 109–171 substituted "7" for "12".

1998—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–244 added par. (4).

1997—Subsec. (b)(1)(F). Pub. L. 105–78 added subpar. (F).

1993—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(2), substituted "$9,510" for "9,510" in table.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(7), added subsec. (e).

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to family contribution for independent students with dependents other than a spouse for provisions relating to family contribution for independent students with dependents (including a spouse).

1987—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(18), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), substituted "section 1087rr of this title" for "section 1087ss of this title".

Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(19), substituted "$2,100" for "$2,000".

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(2), struck out "National" before "Center".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(3), substituted "displaced homemaker" for "dislocated homemaker".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), (4), substituted "section 1087rr of this title" for "section 1087ss of this title" in text, added table, and struck out former table which read as follows:

"Adjusted Net Worth of a Business or Farm
If the net worth of a business or farm is—Then the adjusted net worth is:
Less than $1 $0
$1–$65,000 40 percent of NW
$65,001–$195,000 $26,000 plus 50 percent of NW over $65,000
$195,001–$325,000 $91,000 plus 60 percent of NW over $195,000
$325,001 or more $169,000 plus 100 percent of NW over $325,000".

Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(5), substituted "$15,999" for "$15,000".

Subsec. (c)(4)(C). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(6), substituted "$16,000" for "$15,000" in three places.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(1), (8), substituted "section 1087rr of this title" for "section 1087ss of this title" in text and inserted a minus sign before "$3,409" in two places in table.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–84 effective July 1, 2009, see section 601(e) of Pub. L. 110–84, set out as a note under section 1087oo of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective July 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, see section 8001(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8017(c)(2), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 173, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to determinations of need for periods of enrollment beginning on or after July 1, 2007."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244, effective Oct. 7, 1998, and applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for academic years beginning on or after July 1, 2000, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–50 effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1087rr. Regulations; updated tables

(a) Authority to prescribe regulations restricted

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall not have the authority to prescribe regulations to carry out this part except—

(A) to prescribe updated tables in accordance with subsections (b) through (h) of this section; or

(B) to propose modifications in the need analysis methodology required by this part.


(2) Any regulation proposed by the Secretary that (A) updates tables in a manner that does not comply with subsections (b) through (h) of this section, or (B) that proposes modifications under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, shall not be effective unless approved by joint resolution of the Congress by May 1 following the date such regulations are published in the Federal Register in accordance with section 1089 of this title. If the Congress fails to approve such regulations by such May 1, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register in accordance with section 1089 of this title updated tables for the applicable award year that are prescribed in accordance with subsections (b) through (h) of this section.

(b) Income protection allowance

(1) Revised tables

(A) In general

For each academic year after academic year 2008–2009, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of income protection allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(c)(4) and 1087qq(b)(4) of this title, subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C).

(B) Table for independent students

(i) Academic years 2009–2010 through 2012–2013

For each of the academic years 2009–2010 through 2012–2013, the Secretary shall not develop a revised table of income protection allowances under section 1087qq(b)(4) of this title and the table specified for such academic year under subparagraphs (A) through (D) of such section shall apply.

(ii) Other academic years

For each academic year after academic year 2012–2013, the Secretary shall develop the revised table of income protection allowances by increasing each of the dollar amounts contained in the table of income protection allowances under section 1087qq(b)(4)(D) of this title by a percentage equal to the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined by the Secretary) between December 2011 and the December next preceding the beginning of such academic year, and rounding the result to the nearest $10.

(C) Table for parents

For each academic year after academic year 2008–2009, the Secretary shall develop the revised table of income protection allowances under section 1087oo(c)(4) of this title by increasing each of the dollar amounts contained in the table by a percentage equal to the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined by the Secretary) between December 1992 and the December next preceding the beginning of such academic year, and rounding the result to the nearest $10.

(2) Revised amounts

For each academic year after academic year 2007–2008, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register revised income protection allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(g)(2)(D) and 1087pp(b)(1)(A)(iv) of this title. Such revised allowances shall be developed for each academic year after academic year 2012–2013, by increasing each of the dollar amounts contained in such section for academic year 2012–2013 by a percentage equal to the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined by the Secretary) between December 2011 and the December next preceding the beginning of such academic year, and rounding the result to the nearest $10.

(c) Adjusted net worth of a farm or business

For each award year after award year 1993–1994, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of adjusted net worth of a farm or business for purposes of sections 1087oo(d)(2)(C), 1087pp(c)(2)(C), and 1087qq(c)(2)(C) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed—

(1) by increasing each dollar amount that refers to net worth of a farm or business by a percentage equal to the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined by the Secretary) between December 1992 and the December next preceding the beginning of such award year, and rounding the result to the nearest $5,000; and

(2) by adjusting the dollar amounts "$30,000", "$105,000", and "$195,000" to reflect the changes made pursuant to paragraph (1).

(d) Education savings and asset protection allowance

For each award year after award year 1993–1994, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(d)(3), 1087pp(c)(3), and 1087qq(c)(3) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed by determining the present value cost, rounded to the nearest $100, of an annuity that would provide, for each age cohort of 40 and above, a supplemental income at age 65 (adjusted for inflation) equal to the difference between the moderate family income (as most recently determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics), and the current average social security retirement benefits. For each age cohort below 40, the allowance shall be computed by decreasing the allowance for age 40, as updated, by one-fifteenth for each year of age below age 40 and rounding the result to the nearest $100. In making such determinations—

(1) inflation shall be presumed to be 6 percent per year;

(2) the rate of return of an annuity shall be presumed to be 8 percent; and

(3) the sales commission on an annuity shall be presumed to be 6 percent.

(e) Assessment schedules and rates

For each award year after award year 1993–1994, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of assessments from adjusted available income for the purpose of sections 1087oo(e) and 1087qq(d) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed—

(1) by increasing each dollar amount that refers to adjusted available income by a percentage equal to the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined by the Secretary) between December 1992 and the December next preceding the beginning of such academic year, rounded to the nearest $100; and

(2) by adjusting the other dollar amounts to reflect the changes made pursuant to paragraph (1).

(f) "Consumer Price Index" defined

As used in this section, the term "Consumer Price Index" means the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor. Each annual update of tables to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index shall be corrected for misestimation of actual changes in such Index in previous years.

(g) State and other tax allowance

For each award year after award year 1993–1994, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of State and other tax allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(c)(2), 1087oo(g)(3), 1087pp(b)(2), and 1087qq(b)(2) of this title. The Secretary shall develop such revised table after review of the Department of the Treasury's Statistics of Income file and determination of the percentage of income that each State's taxes represent.

(h) Employment expense allowance

For each award year after award year 1993–1994, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of employment expense allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(c)(5), 1087pp(b)(4), and 1087qq(b)(5) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed by increasing the dollar amount specified in sections 1087oo(c)(5)(A), 1087oo(c)(5)(B), 1087pp(b)(4)(A), 1087qq (b)(5)(A), and 1087qq(b)(5)(B) of this title to reflect increases in the amount and percent of the Bureau of Labor Statistics budget of the marginal costs for food away from home, apparel, transportation, and household furnishings and operations for a two-worker versus one-worker family.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §478, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1470; amended Pub. L. 100–50, §14(20)–(22), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 351, 352; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 602; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(8), (9), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2472; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §476, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1730; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8017(d), (e), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 173, 174; Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §601(d), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 803; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(g), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3150.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(g), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3150, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087rr. Regulations; updated tables

(a) Authority to prescribe regulations restricted

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall not have the authority to prescribe regulations to carry out this part except—

(1) to prescribe updated tables in accordance with subsections (b) through (g); and

(2) with respect to the definition of cost of attendance under section 1087ll of this title, excluding section 1087ll(a)(1) of this title.

(b) Income protection allowance adjustments

For award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register revised income protection allowances for the purposes of subsections (c)(3) and (g)(2)(C) of section 1087oo of this title, subclauses (I) and (II) of section 1087pp(b)(1)(A)(iii) of this title, and section 1087qq(b)(3) of this title, by increasing the income protection allowances in each of such provisions, by a percentage equal to the percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index, as defined in subsection (f), between April 2020 and the April in the year prior to the beginning of the award year and rounding the result to the nearest $10.

(c) Adjusted net worth of a farm or business

(1) Table

The table of the net worth of a farm or business for purposes of making determinations of assets as defined under section 1087vv(f) of this title is the following:

Farm/Business Net Worth Adjustment
If the net worth of a farm or business is—Then the adjusted net worth is—
Less than $1 $0
$1 to $140,000 40% of net worth of farm/business
$140,001 to $415,000 $56,000 + 50% of net worth over $140,000
$415,001 to $695,000 $193,500 + 60% of net worth over $415,000
$695,001 or more $361,500 + 100% of net worth over $695,000.

(2) Revised tables

For award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of the adjusted net worth of a farm or business for purposes of section 1087vv(f) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed—

(A) by increasing each dollar amount that refers to net worth of a farm or business by a percentage equal to the percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index between April 2020 and the April in the year prior to the beginning of such award year, and rounding the result to the nearest $5,000; and

(B) by adjusting the dollar amounts in the column referring to the adjusted net worth to reflect the changes made pursuant to subparagraph (A).

(d) Asset protection allowance

For award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(d)(2), 1087pp(c)(2), and 1087qq(c)(2) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed by determining the present value cost, rounded to the nearest $100, of an annuity that would provide, for each age cohort of 40 and above, a supplemental income at age 65 (adjusted for inflation) equal to the difference between the moderate family income (as most recently determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics), and the current average social security retirement benefits. For each age cohort below 40, the allowance shall be computed by decreasing the allowance for age 40, as updated, by one-fifteenth for each year of age below age 40 and rounding the result to the nearest $100. In making such determinations—

(1) the tables of allowances specified in sections 1087oo(d)(2), 1087pp(c)(2), and 1087qq(c)(2) of this title shall be considered to be for award year 2021–2022 for the purposes of calculating inflation;

(2) inflation shall be presumed to be 6 percent per year;

(3) the rate of return of an annuity shall be presumed to be 8 percent; and

(4) the sales commission on an annuity shall be presumed to be 6 percent.

(e) Assessment schedules and rates

For award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of assessments from adjusted available income for the purpose of sections 1087oo(e) and 1087qq(d) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed—

(1) by increasing each dollar amount that refers to adjusted available income by a percentage equal to the percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index between April 2020 and the April in the year prior to the beginning of such academic year, rounded to the nearest $100; and

(2) by adjusting the other dollar amounts to reflect the changes made pursuant to paragraph (1).

(f) Consumer price index defined

In this section, the term "Consumer Price Index" means the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Department of Labor. Each annual update of tables to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index shall be corrected for misestimation of actual changes in such Index in previous years.

(g) Employment expense allowance

For award year 2023–2024 and each succeeding award year, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a revised table of employment expense allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(c)(4), 1087pp(b)(3), and 1087qq(b)(4) of this title. Such revised table shall be developed by increasing the dollar amount specified in sections 1087oo(c)(4), 1087pp(b)(3), and 1087qq(b)(4) of this title by a percentage equal to the percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index, as defined in subsection (f), between April 2020 and the April in the year prior to the beginning of the award year and rounding the result to the nearest $10.

(h) Clarification for award year 2023–2024

For award year 2023–2024, the Secretary shall determine adjusted amounts and prescribe revised tables with respect to the income protection, employment expense, and asset protection allowances and the assessment schedules under sections 1087oo, 1087pp, and 1087qq of this title, pursuant to this section. The amounts and tables specified in sections 1087oo, 1087pp, and 1087qq of this title with respect to such allowances and schedules shall only be used by the Secretary as a baseline for adjustments and table revisions prescribed in accordance with this section.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to authority to update certain tables, including a revised table of State and other tax allowances, and authority to propose modifications in need analysis methodology.

2007—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–84, §601(d)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, par. (1) required the Secretary to publish in the Federal Register, for each academic year after academic year 1993–1994, a revised table of income protection allowances for the purpose of sections 1087oo(c)(4) and 1087qq(b)(4) of this title.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–84, §601(d)(2), substituted "shall be developed for each academic year after academic year 2012–2013, by increasing each of the dollar amounts contained in such section for academic year 2012–2013 by a percentage equal to the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined by the Secretary) between December 2011 and the December next preceding the beginning of such academic year, and rounding the result to the nearest $10." for "shall be developed by increasing each of the dollar amounts contained in such section by a percentage equal to the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined by the Secretary) between December 2006 and the December next preceding the beginning of such academic year, and rounding the result to the nearest $10."

2006—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–171, §8017(d)(1), inserted at end "For the 2007–2008 academic year, the Secretary shall revise the tables in accordance with this paragraph, except that the Secretary shall increase the amounts contained in the table in section 1087qq(b)(4) of this title by a percentage equal to the greater of the estimated percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index (as determined under the preceding sentence) or 5 percent."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–171, §8017(d)(2), substituted "2007–2008" for "2000–2001" and "2006" for "1999".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–171, §8017(e), struck out "1087pp(b)(4)(B)," after "1087pp(b)(4)(A)," and substituted "food away from home, apparel, transportation, and household furnishings and operations" for "meals away from home, apparel and upkeep, transportation, and housekeeping services".

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–244 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(8)(A), substituted "1993–1994" for "1992–1993".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(8), substituted "1993–1994" for "1992–1993" in introductory provisions and inserted "December" before "1992" in par. (1).

Subsecs. (d), (e), (g). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(8)(A), substituted "1993–1994" for "1992–1993".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(8)(A), (9), substituted "1993–1994" for "1992–1993" and "Bureau of Labor Statistics" for "Bureau of Labor Standards".

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, revising and restating as subsecs. (a) to (h) provisions formerly contained in subsecs. (a) to (f).

1987—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(21), substituted " '$24,000', '$84,000', and '$156,000' " for " '$26,000', '$91,000', and '$169,000' ".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(20), inserted ", rounded to the nearest $100," after "present value cost" and "of 40 and above" after "each age cohort" in second sentence and, after second sentence, inserted "For each age cohort below 40, the asset protection allowance shall be computed by decreasing the asset protection allowance for age 40, as updated, by one-fifteenth for each year of age below age 40 and rounding the result to the nearest $100."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(22), substituted "Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers" for "Consumer Price Index for Wage Earners and Clerical Workers".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–84 effective July 1, 2009, see section 601(e) of Pub. L. 110–84, set out as a note under section 1087oo of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective July 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, see section 8001(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 7, 1998, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–50 effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1087ss. Simplified needs test

(a) Simplified application section

(1) In general

The Secretary shall develop and use an easily identifiable simplified application section as part of the common financial reporting form prescribed under section 1090(a) of this title for families described in subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

(2) Reduced data requirements

The simplified application form shall—

(A) in the case of a family meeting the requirements of subsection (b)(1), permit such family to submit only the data elements required under subsection (b)(2) for the purposes of establishing eligibility for student financial aid under this part; and

(B) in the case of a family meeting the requirements of subsection (c), permit such family to be treated as having an expected family contribution equal to zero for purposes of establishing such eligibility and to submit only the data elements required to make a determination under subsection (c).

(b) Simplified needs test

(1) Eligibility

An applicant is eligible to file a simplified form containing the elements required by paragraph (2) if—

(A) in the case of an applicant who is a dependent student—

(i) the student's parents—

(I) file, or are eligible to file, a form described in paragraph (3);

(II) certify that the parents are not required to file a Federal income tax return;

(III) include at least one parent who is a dislocated worker; or

(IV) received, or the student received, benefits at some time during the previous 24-month period under a means-tested Federal benefit program as defined under subsection (d); and


(ii) the total adjusted gross income of the parents (excluding any income of the dependent student) is less than $50,000; or


(B) in the case of an applicant who is an independent student—

(i) the student (and the student's spouse, if any)—

(I) files, or is eligible to file, a form described in paragraph (3);

(II) certifies that the student (and the student's spouse, if any) is not required to file a Federal income tax return;

(III) is a dislocated worker or has a spouse who is a dislocated worker; or

(IV) received benefits at some time during the previous 24-month period under a means-tested Federal benefit program as defined under subsection (d); and


(ii) the adjusted gross income of the student (and the student's spouse, if any) is less than $50,000.

(2) Simplified test elements

The six elements to be used for the simplified needs analysis are—

(A) adjusted gross income,

(B) Federal taxes paid,

(C) untaxed income and benefits,

(D) the number of family members,

(E) the number of family members in postsecondary education, and

(F) an allowance (A) for State and other taxes, as defined in section 1087oo(c)(2) of this title for dependent students and in section 1087qq(b)(2) of this title for independent students with dependents other than a spouse, or (B) for State and other income taxes, as defined in section 1087pp(b)(2) of this title for independent students without dependents other than a spouse.

(3) Qualifying forms

In the case of an independent student, the student, or in the case of a dependent student, the family, files a form described in this subsection, or subsection (c), as the case may be, if the student or family, as appropriate, files—

(A) a form 1040A or 1040EZ (including any prepared or electronic version of such form) required pursuant to title 26;

(B) a form 1040 (including any prepared or electronic version of such form) required pursuant to title 26, except that such form shall be considered a qualifying form only if the student or family files such form in order to take a tax credit under section 25A of title 26, and would otherwise be eligible to file a form described in subparagraph (A); or

(C) an income tax return (including any prepared or electronic version of such return) required pursuant to the tax code of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, or Palau.

(c) Zero expected family contribution

The Secretary shall consider an applicant to have an expected family contribution equal to zero if—

(1) in the case of a dependent student—

(A) the student's parents—

(i) file, or are eligible to file, a form described in subsection (b)(3);

(ii) certify that the parents are not required to file a Federal income tax return;

(iii) include at least one parent who is a dislocated worker; or

(iv) received, or the student received, benefits at some time during the previous 24-month period under a means-tested Federal benefit program as defined under subsection (d); and


(B) the sum of the adjusted gross income of the parents is less than or equal to $23,000; or


(2) in the case of an independent student with dependents other than a spouse—

(A) the student (and the student's spouse, if any)—

(i) files, or is eligible to file, a form described in subsection (b)(3);

(ii) certifies that the student (and the student's spouse, if any) is not required to file a Federal income tax return;

(iii) is a dislocated worker or has a spouse who is a dislocated worker; or

(iv) received benefits at some time during the previous 24-month period under a means-tested Federal benefit program as defined under subsection (d); and


(B) the sum of the adjusted gross income of the student and spouse (if appropriate) is less than or equal to $23,000.


An individual is not required to qualify or file for the earned income credit in order to be eligible under this subsection. The Secretary shall annually adjust the income level necessary to qualify an applicant for the zero expected family contribution. The income level shall be adjusted according to increases in the Consumer Price Index, as defined in section 1087rr(f) of this title.

(d) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Dislocated worker

The term "dislocated worker" has the meaning given the term in section 3102 of title 29.

(2) Means-tested Federal benefit program

The term "means-tested Federal benefit program" means a mandatory spending program of the Federal Government, other than a program under this subchapter, in which eligibility for the program's benefits, or the amount of such benefits, are determined on the basis of income or resources of the individual or family seeking the benefit, and may include such programs as—

(A) the supplemental security income program under title XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.);

(B) the supplemental nutrition assistance program under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.);

(C) the free and reduced price school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.);

(D) the program of block grants for States for temporary assistance for needy families established under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.);

(E) the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children established by section 1786 of title 42; and

(F) other programs identified by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §479, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1472; amended Pub. L. 100–50, §14(23)–(25), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 100–369, §7(c), July 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 837; Pub. L. 102–26, §11, Apr. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 129; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(10)–(15), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2472; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §477, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1731; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8018(a), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 174; Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §602(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 804; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(N), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1095–1097; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(N), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(a)(4), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 112–74, div. F, title III, §309(b), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1100; Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §512(n)(2), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1710; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(h), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3152.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(h), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3152, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087ss. Eligible applicants exempt from asset reporting

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, this section shall be effective for each individual seeking to apply for Federal financial aid under this subchapter, as part of the simplified application for Federal student financial aid under section 1090 of this title, on or after July 1, 2023.

(b) Applicants exempt from asset reporting

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (3), in carrying out section 1090 of this title, the Secretary shall not use asset information from an eligible applicant or, as applicable, the parent or spouse of an eligible applicant.

(2) Eligible applicants

In this subsection, the term "eligible applicant" means an applicant who meets at least one of the following criteria:

(A) Is an applicant who qualifies for an automatic zero student aid index or negative student aid index under subsection (b) or (c) of section 1087mm of this title.

(B) Is an applicant who is a dependent student and the student's parents have a total adjusted gross income (excluding any income of the dependent student) that is less than $60,000 and do not file a Schedule A, B, D, E, F, or H (or equivalent successor schedules) with the Federal income tax return for the second preceding tax year, and—

(i) do not file a Schedule C (or the equivalent successor schedule) with the Federal income tax return for the second preceding tax year; or

(ii) file a Schedule C (or the equivalent successor schedule) with net business income of not more than a $10,000 loss or gain with the Federal income tax return for the second preceding tax year.


(C) Is an applicant who is an independent student and the student (including the student's spouse, if any) has a total adjusted gross income that is less than $60,000 and does not file a Schedule A, B, D, E, F, or H (or equivalent successor schedules), with the Federal income tax return for the second preceding tax year, and—

(i) does not file a Schedule C (or the equivalent successor schedule) with the Federal income tax return for the second preceding tax year; or

(ii) files a Schedule C (or the equivalent successor schedule) with net business income of not more than a $10,000 loss or gain with the Federal income tax return for the second preceding tax year.


(D) Is an applicant who, at any time during the previous 24-month period, received a benefit under a means-tested Federal benefit program (or whose parent or spouse received such a benefit, as applicable).

(3) Special rule

An eligible applicant shall not be exempt from asset reporting under this section if the applicant is a dependent student and the students' parents do not—

(A) reside in the United States or a United States territory; or

(B) file taxes in the United States or a United States territory, except if such nonfiling is due to not being required to file a Federal tax return for the applicable tax year due to a low income.

(4) Definitions

In this section:

(A) Schedule A

The term "Schedule A" means a form or information by a taxpayer to report itemized deductions.

(B) Schedule B

The term "Schedule B" means a form or information filed by a taxpayer to report interest and ordinary dividend income.

(C) Schedule C

The term "Schedule C" means a form or information filed by a taxpayer to report income or loss from a business operated or a profession practiced as a sole proprietor.

(D) Schedule D

The term "Schedule D" means a form or information filed by a taxpayer to report sales, exchanges or some involuntary conversions of capital assets, certain capital gain distributions, and nonbusiness bad debts.

(E) Schedule E

The term "Schedule E" means a form or information filed by a taxpayer to report income from rental properties, royalties, partnerships, S corporations, estates, trusts, and residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits.

(F) Schedule F

The term "Schedule F" means a form or information filed by a taxpayer to report farm income and expenses.

(G) Schedule H

The term "Schedule H" means a form or information filed by a taxpayer to report household employment taxes.

(H) Means-tested Federal benefit program

The term "means-tested Federal benefit program" means any of the following:

(i) The supplemental security income program under title XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.).

(ii) The supplemental nutrition assistance program under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), a nutrition assistance program carried out under section 19 of such Act (7 U.S.C. 2028), and a supplemental nutrition assistance program carried out under section 1841(c) of title 48.

(iii) The program of block grants for States for temporary assistance for needy families established under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).

(iv) The special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children established by section 1786 of title 42.

(v) The Medicaid program under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.).

(vi) Federal housing assistance programs, including tenant-based assistance under section 1437f(o) of title 42, and public housing, as defined in section 1437a(b)(1) of title 42.

(vii) Other means-tested programs determined by the Secretary to be approximately consistent with the income eligibility requirements of the means-tested programs under clauses (i) through (vi).

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(A), (D), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title XVI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XVI (§1381 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(C), is act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230, which is classified generally to chapter 13 (§1751 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1751 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to simplified needs test.

2014—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "The term 'dislocated worker' has the meaning given the term in section 3102 of title 29" for "The term 'dislocated worker' has the meaning given the term in section 2801 of title 29".

2011—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 112–74, §309(b)(1), substituted "$23,000" for "$30,000".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 112–74, §309(b)(2), substituted "$23,000" for "$30,000".

2009—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i)(III). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(4)(A)(i), amended subcl. (III) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (III) read as follows: "1 of whom is a dislocated worker; or".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i)(III). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(4)(A)(ii), amended subcl. (III) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (III) read as follows: "1 of whom is a dislocated worker; or".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(4)(B)(i), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: "1 of whom is a dislocated worker; or".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(4)(B)(ii), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: "1 of whom is a dislocated worker; or".

2008—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(N), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program" for "food stamp program" and "Food and Nutrition Act of 2008" for "Food Stamp Act of 1977".

2007—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i), (B)(i). Pub. L. 110–84, §602(a)(1), added subcl. (III), redesignated former subcl. (III) as (IV), and, in subcl. (IV), substituted "24-month" for "12-month".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–84, §602(a)(2)(C), inserted at end of concluding provisions "The Secretary shall annually adjust the income level necessary to qualify an applicant for the zero expected family contribution. The income level shall be adjusted according to increases in the Consumer Price Index, as defined in section 1087rr(f) of this title."

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 110–84, §602(a)(2)(A)(i), added cl. (iii), redesignated former cl. (iii) as (iv), and, in cl. (iv), substituted "24-month" for "12-month".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 110–84, §602(a)(2)(A)(ii), substituted "$30,000" for "$20,000".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–84, §602(a)(2)(B)(i), added cl. (iii), redesignated former cl. (iii) as (iv), and, in cl. (iv), substituted "24-month" for "12-month".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–84, §602(a)(2)(B)(ii), substituted "$30,000" for "$20,000".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–84, §602(a)(3), substituted "Definitions" for "Definition of means-tested Federal benefit program" in heading, added par. (1), designated existing provisions as par. (2) and substituted "The term" for "In this section, the term" in introductory provisions, redesignated former pars. (1) to (6) as subpars. (A) to (F), respectively, of par. (2), and realigned margins.

2006—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(1)(A)(i), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "the student's parents file or are eligible to file a form described in paragraph (3) or certify that they are not required to file an income tax return and the student files or is eligible to file such a form or certifies that the student is not required to file an income tax return; and".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(1)(A)(ii), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "the student (and the student's spouse, if any) files or is eligible to file a form described in paragraph (3) or certifies that the student (and the student's spouse, if any) is not required to file an income tax return; and".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(1)(B), in introductory provisions substituted "In the case of an independent student, the student, or in the case of a dependent student, the family, files a form described in this subsection, or subsection (c), as the case may be, if the student or family, as appropriate, files" for "A student or family files a form described in this subsection, or subsection (c) of this section, as the case may be, if the student or family, respectively, files".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(2)(A)(i), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "the student's parents file, or are eligible to file, a form described in subsection (b)(3) of this section, or certify that the parents are not required to file an income tax return and the student files, or is eligible to file, such a form, or certifies that the student is not required to file an income tax return; and".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(2)(A)(ii), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "the sum of the adjusted gross income of the parents is less than or equal to the maximum amount of income (rounded annually to the nearest thousand dollars) that may be earned in 1992 or the current year, whichever is higher, in order to claim the maximum Federal earned income credit; or".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(2)(B)(i), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "the student (and the student's spouse, if any) files, or is eligible to file, a form described in subsection (b)(3) of this section, or certifies that the student (and the student's spouse, if any) is not required to file an income tax return; and".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(2)(B)(ii), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "the sum of the adjusted gross income of the student and spouse (if appropriate) is less than or equal to the maximum amount of income (rounded annually to the nearest thousand dollars) that may be earned in 1992 or the current year, whichever is higher, in order to claim the maximum Federal earned income credit."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–171, §8018(a)(3), added subsec. (d).

1998—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–244, §477(1)(A), substituted "this subsection, or subsection (c) of this section, as the case may be," for "this paragraph" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–244, §477(1)(B), struck out "or" at end.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 105–244, §477(1)(C), (D), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–244, §477(2)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "the student's parents were not required to file an income tax return under section 6012(a)(1) of title 26; and".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–244, §477(2)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "the student (and the student's spouse, if any) was not required to file an income tax return under section 6012(a)(1) of title 26; and".

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(10), inserted "of" after "(c)".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(11), inserted "(and the student's spouse, if any)" after "student" in two places and struck out "such" before "an income tax return".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(12), (13), substituted "six elements" for "five elements" in introductory provisions and a comma for semicolon in subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(14)(A), inserted "(including any prepared or electronic version of such form)" before "required".

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(14)(B), inserted "(including any prepared or electronic version of such return)" before "required".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(15)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "the student's parents did not file, and were not required to file, a form 1040 required pursuant to title 26; and".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(15)(C), inserted "in 1992 or the current year, whichever is higher," after "that may be earned".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(15)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "the student (and the student's spouse, if any) did not file, and was not required to file, a form 1040 required pursuant to title 26; and".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(15)(C), inserted "in 1992 or the current year, whichever is higher," after "that may be earned".

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which related to: in subsec. (a), analysis applicable to all title IV programs; in subsec. (b), elements in tests; and in subsec. (c), simplified application form.

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–26 inserted before period at end ", or who file an income tax return pursuant to the tax code of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or who are not required to file pursuant to that tax code".

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–369 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(23), substituted "subsection (b) of this section" for "paragraph (2)", "families (1) who" for "families which", and "and (2) who file a form 1040A or 1040EZ pursuant to title 26, or are not required to file pursuant to such title" for "and which file a form 1040A pursuant to title 26".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(24)(A), struck out "and State" after "Federal".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(24)(B)–(D), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(25), added subsec. (c).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–128 effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3101 of Title 29, Labor.

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–74 effective July 1, 2012, see section 309(g) of Pub. L. 112–74, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted as part of amendments made by section 602(a) of Pub. L. 110–84 and effective July 1, 2009, see section 406(b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1087mm of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(N) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §602(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 805, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective on July 1, 2009."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective July 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, see section 8001(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 7, 1998, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–50 effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Evaluation of Simplified Needs Test

Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8018(b), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 175, provided that:

"(1) Eligibility guidelines.—The Secretary of Education shall regularly evaluate the impact of the eligibility guidelines in subsections (b)(1)(A)(i), (b)(1)(B)(i), (c)(1)(A), and (c)(2)(A) of section 479 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087ss(b)(1)(A)(i), (b)(1)(B)(i), (c)(1)(A), and (c)(2)(A)).

"(2) Means-tested federal benefit program.—For each 3-year period, the Secretary of Education shall evaluate the impact of including the receipt of benefits by a student or parent under a means-tested Federal benefit program (as defined in section 479(d) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087ss(d))[)] as a factor in determining eligibility under subsections (b) and (c) of section 479 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087ss(b) and (c))."

§1087tt. Discretion of student financial aid administrators

(a) In general

Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as limiting the authority of the financial aid administrator, on the basis of adequate documentation, to make adjustments on a case-by-case basis to the cost of attendance or the values of the data items required to calculate the expected student or parent contribution (or both) to allow for treatment of an individual eligible applicant with special circumstances. However, this authority shall not be construed to permit aid administrators to deviate from the contributions expected in the absence of special circumstances. Special circumstances may include tuition expenses at an elementary or secondary school, medical, dental, or nursing home expenses not covered by insurance, unusually high child care or dependent care costs, recent unemployment of a family member or an independent student, a student or family member who is a dislocated worker (as defined in section 3102 of title 29), the number of parents enrolled at least half-time in a degree, certificate, or other program leading to a recognized educational credential at an institution with a program participation agreement under section 1094 of this title, a change in housing status that results in an individual being homeless (as defined in section 11302 of title 42), or other changes in a family's income, a family's assets, or a student's status. Special circumstances shall be conditions that differentiate an individual student from a class of students rather than conditions that exist across a class of students. Adequate documentation for such adjustments shall substantiate such special circumstances of individual students. In addition, nothing in this subchapter shall be interpreted as limiting the authority of the student financial aid administrator in such cases (1) to request and use supplementary information about the financial status or personal circumstances of eligible applicants in selecting recipients and determining the amount of awards under this subchapter, or (2) to offer a dependent student financial assistance under section 1078–8 of this title or a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan without requiring the parents of such student to file the financial aid form prescribed under section 1090 of this title if the student financial aid administrator verifies that the parent or parents of such student have ended financial support of such student and refuse to file such form. No student or parent shall be charged a fee for collecting, processing, or delivering such supplementary information.

(b) Adjustments to assets taken into account

A student financial aid administrator shall be considered to be making a necessary adjustment in accordance with subsection (a) if—

(1) the administrator makes adjustments excluding from family income any proceeds of a sale of farm or business assets of a family if such sale results from a voluntary or involuntary foreclosure, forfeiture, or bankruptcy or an involuntary liquidation; or

(2) the administrator makes adjustments in the award level of a student with a disability so as to take into consideration the additional costs such student incurs as a result of such student's disability.

(c) Refusal or adjustment of loan certifications

On a case-by-case basis, an eligible institution may refuse to certify a statement that permits a student to receive a loan under part B or D, or may certify a loan amount or make a loan that is less than the student's determination of need (as determined under this part), if the reason for the action is documented and provided in written form to the student. No eligible institution shall discriminate against any borrower or applicant in obtaining a loan on the basis of race, national origin, religion, sex, marital status, age, or disability status.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §479A, as added Pub. L. 100–50, §14(26), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 352; amended Pub. L. 101–239, title II, §2009, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(16), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2473; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §478, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1731; Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §603(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 805; Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, §472(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3269; Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §512(n)(3), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1710; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(i), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3155.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(i), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3155, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087tt. Discretion of student financial aid administrators

(a) In general

(1) Authority of financial aid administrators

A financial aid administrator shall have the authority to, on the basis of adequate documentation, make adjustments to any or all of the following on a case-by-case basis:

(A) For an applicant with special circumstances under subsection (b) to—

(i) the cost of attendance;

(ii) the values of the data used to calculate the student aid index; or

(iii) the values of the data used to calculate the Federal Pell Grant award.


(B) For an applicant with unusual circumstances under subsection (c), to the dependency status of such applicant.

(2) Limitations on authority

(A) Use of authority

No institution of higher education or financial aid administrator shall maintain a policy of denying all requests for adjustments under this section.

(B) No additional fee

No student or parent shall be charged a fee for a documented interview of the student by the financial aid administrator or for the review of a student or parent's request for adjustments under this section including the review of any supplementary information or documentation of a student or parent's special circumstances or a student's unusual circumstances.

(C) Rule of construction

The authority to make adjustments under paragraph (1)(A) shall not be construed to permit financial aid administrators to deviate from the cost of attendance, the values of data used to calculate the student aid index or the values of data used to calculate the Federal Pell Grant award (or both) for awarding aid under this subchapter in the absence of special circumstances.

(3) Adequate documentation

Adequate documentation for adjustments under this section must substantiate the special circumstances or unusual circumstances of an individual student, and may include, to the extent relevant and appropriate—

(A) a documented interview between the student and the financial aid administrator;

(B) for the purposes of determining that a student qualifies for an adjustment under paragraph (1)(B)—

(i) submission of a court order or official Federal or State documentation that the student or the student's parents or legal guardians are incarcerated in any Federal or State penal institution;

(ii) a documented phone call or a written statement, which confirms the specific unusual circumstances with—

(I) a child welfare agency authorized by a State or county;

(II) a Tribal welfare authority or agency;

(III) an independent living case worker, such as a case worker who supports current and former foster youth with the transition to adulthood; or

(IV) a public or private agency, facility, or program servicing the victims of abuse, neglect, assault, or violence, which may include domestic violence;


(iii) a documented phone call or a written statement from an attorney, a guardian ad litem, or a court-appointed special advocate, or a person serving in a similar capacity which confirms the specific unusual circumstances and documents the person's relationship to the student;

(iv) a documented phone call or written statement from a representative under division 1 or 2 of subpart 2 of part A, which confirms the specific unusual circumstances and documents the representative's relationship to the student;

(v) documents, such as utility bills or health insurance documentation, that demonstrate a separation from parents or legal guardians; and

(vi) in the absence of documentation described in this subparagraph, other documentation the financial aid administrator determines is adequate to confirm the unusual circumstances, pursuant to section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title; and


(C) supplementary information, as necessary, about the financial status or personal circumstances of eligible applicants as it relates to the special circumstances or unusual circumstances based on which the applicant is requesting an adjustment.

(4) Special rule

In making adjustments under paragraph (1), a financial aid administrator may offer a dependent student financial assistance under a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan without requiring the parents of such student to provide their parent information on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid if the student does not qualify for, or does not choose to use, the unusual circumstance option described in section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title, and the financial aid administrator determines that the parents of such student ended financial support of such student or refuse to file such form.

(5) Public disclosure

Each institution of higher education shall make publicly available information that students applying for aid under this subchapter have the opportunity to pursue adjustments under this section.

(b) Adjustments for students with special circumstances

(1) Special circumstances for adjustments related to Pell Grants

Special circumstances for adjustments to calculate a Federal Pell Grant award—

(A) shall be conditions that differentiate an individual student from a group of students rather than conditions that exist across a group of students; and

(B) may include—

(i) recent unemployment of a family member or student;

(ii) a student or family member who is a dislocated worker (as defined in section 3102 of title 29);

(iii) a change in housing status that results in an individual being a homeless youth;

(iv) an unusual amount of claimed losses against income on the Federal tax return that substantially lower adjusted gross income, such as business, investment, or real estate losses;

(v) receipt of foreign income of permanent residents or United States citizens exempt from Federal taxation, or the foreign income for which a permanent resident or citizen received a foreign tax credit;

(vi) in the case of an applicant who does not qualify for the exemption from asset reporting under section 1087ss of this title, assets as defined in section 1087vv(f) of this title; or

(vii) other changes or adjustments in the income, assets, or size of a family, or a student's dependency status.

(2) Special circumstances for adjustments related to cost of attendance and student aid index

Special circumstances for adjustments to the cost of attendance or the values of the data used to calculate the student aid index—

(A) shall be conditions that differentiate an individual student from a group of students rather than conditions that exist across a group of students, except as provided in sections 1087uu and 1087uu–1 of this title; and

(B) may include—

(i) tuition expenses at an elementary school or secondary school;

(ii) medical, dental, or nursing home expenses not covered by insurance;

(iii) child care or dependent care costs not covered by the dependent care cost allowance calculated in accordance with section 1087ll of this title;

(iv) recent unemployment of a family member or student;

(v) a student or family member who is a dislocated worker (as defined in section 3102 of title 29);

(vi) the existence of additional family members enrolled in a degree, certificate, or other program leading to a recognized educational credential at an institution with a program participation agreement under section 1094 of this title;

(vii) a change in housing status that results in an individual being a homeless youth;

(viii) a condition of severe disability of the student, or in the case of a dependent student, the dependent student's parent or guardian, or in the case of an independent student, the independent student's dependent or spouse;

(ix) unusual amount of claimed losses against income on the Federal tax return that substantially lower adjusted gross income, such as business, investment, or real estate losses; or

(x) other changes or adjustments in the income, assets, or size of a family, or a student's dependency status.

(c) Unusual circumstances adjustments

(1) In general

Unusual circumstances for adjustments to the dependency status of an applicant shall be—

(A) conditions that differentiate an individual student from a group of students; and

(B) based on unusual circumstances, pursuant to section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title.

(2) Provisional independent students

(A) Requirements for the Secretary

The Secretary shall—

(i) enable each student who, based on an unusual circumstance described in section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title, may qualify for an adjustment under subsection (a)(1)(B) that will result in a determination of independence under this section or section 1087uu–2 of this title to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid as an independent student for the purpose of a provisional determination of the student's Federal financial aid award, with the final determination of the award subject to the documentation requirements of subsection (a)(3);

(ii) upon completion of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid provide an estimate of the student's Federal Pell Grant award, and other information as specified in section 1090(a)(3)(A) of this title, based on the assumption that the student is determined to be an independent student; and

(iii) specify, on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, the consequences under section 1097(a) of this title of knowingly and willfully completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid as an independent student under clause (i) without meeting the unusual circumstances to qualify for such a determination.

(B) Requirements for financial aid administrators

With respect to a student accepted for admission who completes the Free Application for Federal Student Aid as an independent student under subparagraph (A), a financial aid administrator shall—

(i) notify the student of the institutional process, requirements, and timeline for an adjustment under this section and section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title that will result in a review of the student's request for an adjustment and a determination of the student's dependency status under such sections within a reasonable time after the student completes the Free Application for Federal Student Aid;

(ii) provide the student a final determination of the student's dependency status and Federal financial aid award as soon as practicable after all requested documentation is provided;

(iii) retain all documents related to the adjustment under this section and section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title, including documented interviews, for at least the duration of the student's enrollment, and shall abide by all other record keeping requirements of this chapter; and

(iv) presume that any student who has obtained an adjustment under this section and section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title and a final determination of independence for any preceding award year at an institution of higher education to be independent for each subsequent award year at the same institution unless—

(I) the student informs the institution that circumstances have changed; or

(II) the institution has specific conflicting information about the student's independence.

(C) Eligibility

If a student pursues provisional independent student status and is not determined to be an independent student by a financial aid administrator, such student shall only be eligible for a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan for that award year unless such student subsequently completes the Free Application for Federal Student Aid as a dependent student.

(d) Adjustments to assets or income taken into account

A financial aid administrator shall be considered to be making a necessary adjustment in accordance with this section if—

(1) the administrator makes adjustments excluding from family income or assets any proceeds or losses from a sale of farm or business assets of a family if such sale results from a voluntary or involuntary foreclosure, forfeiture, or bankruptcy or a voluntary or involuntary liquidation; or

(2) the administrator makes adjustments for a condition of disability of a student, or in the case of a dependent student, the dependent student's parent or guardian, or in the case of an independent student, the independent student's dependent or spouse, so as to take into consideration the additional costs incurred as a result of such disability.

(e) Refusal or adjustment of loan certifications

On a case-by-case basis, an eligible institution may refuse to use the authority provided under this section, certify a statement that permits a student to receive a loan under part D, certify a loan amount, or make a loan that is less than the student's determination of need (as determined under this part), if the reason for the action is documented and provided in writing to the student. No eligible institution shall discriminate against any borrower or applicant in obtaining a loan on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, marital status, age, or disability status.

(f) Special rule regarding professional judgment during a disaster, emergency, or economic downturn

(1) In general

For the purposes of making a professional judgment under this section, financial aid administrators may, during a qualifying emergency—

(A) determine that the income earned from work for an applicant is zero, if the applicant can provide paper or electronic documentation of receipt of unemployment benefits or confirmation that an application for unemployment benefits was submitted; and

(B) make additional appropriate adjustments to the income earned from work for a student, parent, or spouse, as applicable, based on the totality of the family's situation, including consideration of unemployment benefits.

(2) Documentation

For the purposes of documenting unemployment under paragraph (1), documentation shall be accepted if such documentation is submitted not more than 90 days from the date on which such documentation was issued, except if a financial aid administrator knows that the student, parent, or spouse, as applicable, has already obtained other employment.

(3) Program reviews

The Secretary shall make adjustments to the model used to select institutions of higher education participating under this subchapter for program reviews in order to account for any rise in the use of professional judgment under this section during the award years applicable to the qualifying emergency, as determined by the Secretary.

(4) Qualifying emergency

In this subsection, the term "qualifying emergency" means—

(A) an event for which the President declared a major disaster or an emergency under section 5170 or 5191, respectively, of title 42;

(B) a national emergency related to the coronavirus declared by the President under section 1621 of title 50; or

(C) a period of recession or economic downturn as determined by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1087tt, Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §479A, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1472, related to discretion of student financial aid administrators under this part, prior to repeal by section 14(26) of Pub. L. 100–50.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to discretion of student financial aid administrators to take special circumstances into account and to make adjustments to cost of attendance or values of data items required to calculate expected student and/or parent contribution.

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "a dislocated worker (as defined in section 3102 of title 29)" for "a dislocated worker (as defined in section 2801 of title 29)".

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–315 substituted "medical, dental, or nursing home expenses" for "medical or dental expenses", inserted "or dependent care" after "child care" and "student or" before "family member who is a dislocated worker", and substituted "In addition, nothing in this subchapter shall be interpreted as limiting the authority of the student financial aid administrator in such cases (1) to request and use supplementary information about the financial status or personal circumstances of eligible applicants in selecting recipients and determining the amount of awards under this subchapter, or (2) to offer a dependent student financial assistance under section 1078–8 of this title or a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan without requiring the parents of such student to file the financial aid form prescribed under section 1090 of this title if the student financial aid administrator verifies that the parent or parents of such student have ended financial support of such student and refuse to file such form." for "In addition, nothing in this subchapter shall be interpreted as limiting the authority of the student financial aid administrator in such cases to request and use supplementary information about the financial status or personal circumstances of eligible applicants in selecting recipients and determining the amount of awards under this subchapter."

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–84, in third sentence, substituted "family member or an independent student, a family member who is a dislocated worker (as defined in section 2801 of title 29), the number of parents" for "family member, the number of parents" and inserted "a change in housing status that results in an individual being homeless (as defined in section 11302 of title 42)," after "under section 1094 of this title,".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–244, §478(1), inserted after second sentence "Special circumstances may include tuition expenses at an elementary or secondary school, medical or dental expenses not covered by insurance, unusually high child care costs, recent unemployment of a family member, the number of parents enrolled at least half-time in a degree, certificate, or other program leading to a recognized educational credential at an institution with a program participation agreement under section 1094 of this title, or other changes in a family's income, a family's assets, or a student's status."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–244, §478(2), amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to student financial aid administrators making adjustments for special circumstances.

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–208 added subsec. (c).

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, revising and restating provisions of subsecs. (a) and (b) and striking out former subsec. (c) which related to asset adjustment as example.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "Nothing in this subchapter shall be interpreted as limiting the authority of the student financial aid administrator, on the basis of adequate documentation, to make necessary adjustments to the cost of attendance and expected student or parent contribution (or both) to allow for treatment of individual students with special circumstances. In addition, nothing in this subchapter shall be interpreted as limiting the authority of the student financial aid administrator to use supplementary information about the financial status or personal circumstance of eligible applicants in selecting recipients and determining the amount of awards under subparts 1 and 2 of part A and parts B, C, and E of this subchapter."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–128 effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3101 of Title 29, Labor.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §603(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 806, as amended by Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, §472(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3270, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of the Higher Education Opportunity Act [Aug. 14, 2008]."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 7, 1998, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(a) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 1001 of this title.

§1087uu. Disregard of student aid in other Federal programs

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, student financial assistance received under this subchapter, or under Bureau of Indian Affairs student assistance programs, shall not be taken into account in determining the need or eligibility of any person for benefits or assistance, or the amount of such benefits or assistance, under any Federal, State, or local program financed in whole or in part with Federal funds.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §479B, as added Pub. L. 100–50, §14(27), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 353; amended Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 606; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(j), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3160.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(j), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3160, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087uu. Disregard of student aid in other programs

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, student financial assistance received under this subchapter, Bureau of Indian Education student assistance programs, and employment and training programs under section 3174 of title 29 shall not be taken into account in determining the need or eligibility of any person for benefits or assistance, or the amount of such benefits or assistance, under any Federal, State, or local program financed in whole or in part with Federal funds.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1087uu, Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §479B, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1472, related to exclusion of student financial assistance for attendance costs in determining student eligibility for assistance under any other program funded in whole or part with Federal funds, prior to repeal by section 14(27) of Pub. L. 100–50.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, student financial assistance received under this subchapter, or under Bureau of Indian Affairs student assistance programs, shall not be taken into account in determining the need or eligibility of any person for benefits or assistance, or the amount of such benefits or assistance, under any Federal, State, or local program financed in whole or in part with Federal funds."

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, revising and restating as a single paragraph provisions formerly contained in subsec. (a) which proscribed consideration of aid for attendance costs as income or resources, and in subsec. (b) which delineated elements of attendance costs.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 1001 of this title.

Section applicable with respect to financial assistance provided for any academic year beginning after Oct. 17, 1986, see section 406(b)(4) of Pub. L. 99–498, as amended, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

§1087uu–1. Native American students

In determining family contributions for Native American students, computations performed pursuant to this part shall exclude—

(1) any income and assets of $2,000 or less per individual payment received by the student (and spouse) and student's parents under Public Law 98–64 (25 U.S.C. 117a et seq.; 97 Stat. 365) (commonly known as the "Per Capita Act") or the Indian Tribal Judgment Funds Use or Distribution Act (25 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.); and

(2) any income received by the student (and spouse) and student's parents under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) or the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act of 1980 (25 U.S.C. 1721 et seq.).1

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §479C, as added Pub. L. 100–50, §14(27), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 353; amended Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 606; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(a)(5), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1949; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(k), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3160.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(k), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3160, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087uu–1. Native American students

(a) In general

In determining the student aid index for Native American students, computations performed pursuant to this part shall exclude—

(1) any income and assets of $2,000 or less per individual payment received by the student (and spouse) and student's parents under Public Law 98–64 (25 U.S.C. 117a et seq.; 97 Stat. 365) (commonly known as the "Per Capita Act") or the Indian Tribal Judgment Funds Use or Distribution Act (25 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.); and

(2) any income received by the student (and spouse) and student's parents under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) or the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act of 1980 (25 U.S.C. 1721 et seq.).

(b) Guidance

The Secretary shall develop guidance, in consultation with Tribal Colleges and Universities (as defined in section 1059c of this title) and the State higher education agency in Alaska and Maine, to implement the determination under subsection (a) without adding additional questions to the FAFSA, including through the use of the authority under section 1087tt of this title.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Public Law 98–64, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 98–64, Aug. 2, 1983, 97 Stat. 365, commonly known as the Per Capita Act, which enacted sections 117a to 117c of Title 25, Indians, and repealed section 117 of Title 25. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Indian Tribal Judgment Funds Use or Distribution Act, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 93–134, Oct. 19, 1973, 87 Stat. 466, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1401 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1401(c) of Title 25 and Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act of 1980, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 96–420, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1785, which was classified generally to subchapter II (§1721 et seq.) of chapter 19 of Title 25, Indians, and was omitted from the Code as being of special and not general application.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In determining family contributions for Native American students, computations performed pursuant to this part shall exclude—

"(1) any income and assets of $2,000 or less per individual payment received by the student (and spouse) and student's parents under Public Law 98–64 (25 U.S.C. 117a et seq.; 97 Stat. 365) (commonly known as the 'Per Capita Act') or the Indian Tribal Judgment Funds Use or Distribution Act (25 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.); and

"(2) any income received by the student (and spouse) and student's parents under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) or the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act of 1980 (25 U.S.C. 1721 et seq.)."

2009—Par. (1). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(5)(A), substituted "under Public Law 98–64 (25 U.S.C. 117a et seq.; 97 Stat. 365) (commonly known as the 'Per Capita Act') or the Indian Tribal Judgment Funds Use or Distribution Act (25 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.); and" for "under the Per Capita Act or the Distribution of Judgment Funds Act; and".

Par. (2). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(5)(B), substituted "Alaska" for "Alaskan" and inserted "(43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)" after "Native Claims Settlement Act" and "of 1980 (25 U.S.C. 1721 et seq.)" after "Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act".

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, reenacting provisions without change.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 1001 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1087uu–2. Special rules for independent students

(a) Determination process for unaccompanied homeless youth

In making a determination of independence under section 1087vv(d)(8) of this title, a financial aid administrator shall comply with the following:

(1) Consider documentation of the student's circumstance to be adequate in the absence of documented conflicting information, if such documentation is provided through a documented phone call, written statement, or verifiable electronic data match by—

(A) a local educational agency homeless liaison, designated pursuant to section 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii) of title 42 or a designee of the liaison;

(B) the director of an emergency or transitional shelter, street outreach program, homeless youth drop-in center, or other program serving individuals who are experiencing homelessness, or a designee of the director;

(C) the director of a project supported by a Federal TRIO program or a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate program grant under division 1 or 2 of subpart 2 of part A, or a designee of the director; or

(D) a financial aid administrator at another institution who documented the student's circumstance in a prior award year.


(2) If a student is unable to provide documentation from any individual described in paragraph (1), make a case-by-case determination, which shall be—

(A) based on a written statement from, or a documented interview with, the student that confirms that the student is an unaccompanied homeless youth, or unaccompanied, at risk of homelessness, and self-supporting; and

(B) made without regard to the reasons that the student is an unaccompanied homeless youth, or unaccompanied, at risk of homelessness, and self-supporting.


(3) Consider a determination made under this subsection as distinct from a determination of independence under section 1087vv(d)(9) of this title.

(b) Documentation process for foster care youth

If an institution requires that a student provide documentation that the student was in foster care when the student was age 13 or older, a financial aid administrator shall consider any of the following as adequate documentation, in the absence of documented conflicting information:

(1) Submission of a court order or official State documentation that the student received Federal or State support in foster care.

(2) A documented phone call, written statement, or verifiable electronic data match, which confirms the student was in foster care at an applicable age, from—

(A) a State, county, or tribal agency administering a program under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 621 et seq. and 670 et seq.);

(B) a State Medicaid agency; or

(C) a public or private foster care placing agency or foster care facility or placement.


(3) A documented phone call or a written statement from an attorney, a guardian ad litem, or a Court Appointed Special Advocate that confirms that the student was in foster care at an applicable age and documents the person's relationship to the student.

(4) Verification of the student's eligibility for an education and training voucher under the John H. Chafee Foster Care Program under section 477 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 677).

(5) A documented phone call or written statement from a financial aid administrator who documented the student's circumstance in a prior award year.

(c) Timing

A determination of independence under paragraph (2), (8), or (9) of section 1087vv(d) of this title for a student—

(1) shall be made as quickly as practicable;

(2) may be made as early as the year before the award year for which the student initially submits an application; and

(3) shall be made not later than 60 days after the date of the student's enrollment during the award year for which the student initially submits an application.

(d) Use of earlier determinations

(1) Earlier determination by the institution

Any student who is determined to be independent under paragraph (2), (8), or (9) of section 1087vv(d) of this title for a preceding award year at an institution shall be presumed to be independent for each subsequent award year at the same institution unless—

(A) the student informs the institution that circumstances have changed; or

(B) the institution has specific conflicting information about the student's independence and has informed the student of this information.

(2) Earlier determination by another institution

A financial aid administrator may make a determination of independence pursuant to section 1087tt(c) of this title, based upon a documented determination of independence that was previously made by another financial aid administrator under such paragraph in the same award year.

(e) Retention of documents

A financial aid administrator shall retain all documents related to any determination of independence, including documented interviews, for at least the duration of the student's enrollment and an additional period prescribed by the Secretary to enable a student to utilize the documents for the purposes of subsection (a)(1)(D), (b)(5), or (d) of this section.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §479D, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(l)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3161.)

Delayed Effective Date of Section

Section effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see Effective Date note below.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Parts B and E of title IV of the Act are classified generally to parts B (§620 et seq.) and E (§670 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as an Effective Date of 2020 Amendment note under section 1001 of this title.

§1087vv. Definitions

As used in this part:

(a) Total income

(1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) and paragraph (2), the term "total income" is equal to adjusted gross income plus untaxed income and benefits for the preceding tax year minus excludable income (as defined in subsection (e)).

(B) Notwithstanding section 1087rr(a) of this title, the Secretary may provide for the use of data from the second preceding tax year when and to the extent necessary to carry out the simplification of applications (including simplification for a subset of applications) used for the estimation and determination of financial aid eligibility. Such simplification may include the sharing of data between the Internal Revenue Service and the Department, pursuant to the consent of the taxpayer.

(2) No portion of any student financial assistance received from any program by an individual, no portion of veterans' education benefits received by an individual, no portion of a national service educational award or post-service benefit received by an individual under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12511 et seq.), no portion of any tax credit taken under section 25A of title 26, and no distribution from any qualified education benefit described in subsection (f)(3) that is not subject to Federal income tax, shall be included as income or assets in the computation of expected family contribution for any program funded in whole or in part under this chapter.

(b) Untaxed income and benefits

(1) The term "untaxed income and benefits" means—

(A) child support received;

(B) workman's compensation;

(C) veteran's benefits such as death pension, dependency, and indemnity compensation, but excluding veterans' education benefits as defined in subsection (c);

(D) interest on tax-free bonds;

(E) housing, food, and other allowances (excluding rent subsidies for low-income housing) for military, clergy, and others (including cash payments and cash value of benefits), except that the value of on-base military housing or the value of basic allowance for housing determined under section 403(b) of title 37 received by the parents, in the case of a dependent student, or the student or student's spouse, in the case of an independent student, shall be excluded;

(F) cash support or any money paid on the student's behalf, except, for dependent students, funds provided by the student's parents;

(G) untaxed portion of pensions;

(H) payments to individual retirement accounts and Keogh accounts excluded from income for Federal income tax purposes; and

(I) any other untaxed income and benefits, such as Black Lung Benefits, Refugee Assistance, or railroad retirement benefits, or benefits received through participation in employment and training activities under title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3111 et seq.].


(2) The term "untaxed income and benefits" shall not include—

(A) the amount of additional child tax credit claimed for Federal income tax purposes;

(B) welfare benefits, including assistance under a State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] and aid to dependent children;

(C) the amount of earned income credit claimed for Federal income tax purposes;

(D) the amount of credit for Federal tax on special fuels claimed for Federal income tax purposes;

(E) the amount of foreign income excluded for purposes of Federal income taxes; or

(F) untaxed social security benefits.

(c) Veteran and veterans' education benefits

(1) The term "veteran" means any individual who—

(A) has engaged in the active duty in the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, or Coast Guard; and

(B) was released under a condition other than dishonorable.


(2) The term "veterans' education benefits" means veterans' benefits the student will receive during the award year, including but not limited to benefits under the following provisions of law:

(A) Chapter 103 of title 10 (Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps).

(B) Chapter 106A of title 10 (Educational Assistance for Persons Enlisting for Active Duty).

(C) Chapter 1606 of title 10 (Selected Reserve Educational Assistance Program).

(D) Chapter 1607 of title 10 (Educational Assistance Program for Reserve Component Members Supporting Contingency Operations and Certain Other Operations).

(E) Chapter 30 of title 38 (All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program, also known as the "Montgomery GI Bill—active duty").

(F) Chapter 31 of title 38 (Training and Rehabilitation for Veterans with Service-Connected Disabilities).

(G) Chapter 32 of title 38 (Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program).

(H) Chapter 33 of title 38 (Post-9/11 Educational Assistance).

(I) Chapter 35 of title 38 (Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Program).

(J) Section 903 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1981 (10 U.S.C. 2141 note) (Educational Assistance Pilot Program).

(K) Section 156(b) of the "Joint Resolution making further continuing appropriations and providing for productive employment for the fiscal year 1983, and for other purposes" (42 U.S.C. 402 note) (Restored Entitlement Program for Survivors, also known as "Quayle benefits").

(L) The provisions of chapter 3 of title 37, related to subsistence allowances for members of the Reserve Officers Training Corps.

(d) Independent student

(1) Definition

The term "independent", when used with respect to a student, means any individual who—

(A) is 24 years of age or older by December 31 of the award year;

(B) is an orphan, in foster care, or a ward of the court, or was an orphan, in foster care, or a ward of the court at any time when the individual was 13 years of age or older;

(C) is, or was immediately prior to attaining the age of majority, an emancipated minor or in legal guardianship as determined by a court of competent jurisdiction in the individual's State of legal residence;

(D) is a veteran of the Armed Forces of the United States (as defined in subsection (c)(1)) or is currently serving on active duty in the Armed Forces for other than training purposes;

(E) is a graduate or professional student;

(F) is a married individual;

(G) has legal dependents other than a spouse;

(H) has been verified during the school year in which the application is submitted as either an unaccompanied youth who is a homeless child or youth (as such terms are defined in section 725 of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 11434a]), or as unaccompanied, at risk of homelessness, and self-supporting, by—

(i) a local educational agency homeless liaison, designated pursuant to section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii)];

(ii) the director of a program funded under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act [34 U.S.C. 11201 et seq.] or a designee of the director;

(iii) the director of a program funded under subtitle B of title IV of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 11371 et seq.] (relating to emergency shelter grants) or a designee of the director; or

(iv) a financial aid administrator; or


(I) is a student for whom a financial aid administrator makes a documented determination of independence by reason of other unusual circumstances.

(2) Simplifying the dependency override process

A financial aid administrator may make a determination of independence under paragraph (1)(I) based upon a documented determination of independence that was previously made by another financial aid administrator under such paragraph in the same award year.

(e) Excludable income

The term "excludable income" means—

(1) any student financial assistance awarded based on need as determined in accordance with the provisions of this part, including any income earned from work under part C of this subchapter;

(2) any income earned from work under a cooperative education program offered by an institution of higher education;

(3) any living allowance received by a participant in a program established under the National and Community Service Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12501 et seq.];

(4) child support payments made by the student or parent;

(5) payments made and services provided under part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.]; and

(6) special combat pay.

(f) Assets

(1) The term "assets" means cash on hand, including the amount in checking and savings accounts, time deposits, money market funds, trusts, stocks, bonds, other securities, mutual funds, tax shelters, qualified education benefits (except as provided in paragraph (3)), and the net value of real estate, income producing property, and business and farm assets.

(2) With respect to determinations of need under this subchapter, other than for subpart 4 of part A of this subchapter, the term "assets" shall not include the net value of—

(A) the family's principal place of residence;

(B) a family farm on which the family resides; or

(C) a small business with not more than 100 full-time or full-time equivalent employees (or any part of such a small business) that is owned and controlled by the family.


(3) A qualified education benefit shall be considered an asset of—

(A) the student if the student is an independent student; or

(B) the parent if the student is a dependent student, regardless of whether the owner of the account is the student or the parent.

(4) In determining the value of assets in a determination of need under this subchapter (other than for subpart 4 of part A of this subchapter), the value of a qualified education benefit shall be—

(A) the refund value of any tuition credits or certificates purchased under a qualified education benefit; and

(B) in the case of a program in which contributions are made to an account that is established for the purpose of meeting the qualified higher education expenses of the designated beneficiary of the account, the current balance of such account.


(5) In this subsection:

(A) The term "qualified education benefit" means—

(i) a qualified tuition program (as defined in section 529(b)(1)(A) of title 26) or other prepaid tuition plan offered by a State; and

(ii) a Coverdell education savings account (as defined in section 530(b)(1) of title 26).


(B) The term "qualified higher education expenses" has the meaning given the term in section 529(e) of title 26.

(g) Net assets

The term "net assets" means the current market value at the time of application of the assets (as defined in subsection (f)), minus the outstanding liabilities or indebtedness against the assets.

(h) Treatment of income taxes paid to other jurisdictions

(1) The tax on income paid to the Governments of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, or Palau under the laws applicable to those jurisdictions, or the comparable tax paid to the central government of a foreign country, shall be treated as Federal income taxes.

(2) References in this part to title 26, Federal income tax forms, and the Internal Revenue Service shall, for purposes of the tax described in paragraph (1), be treated as references to the corresponding laws, tax forms, and tax collection agencies of those jurisdictions, respectively, subject to such adjustments as the Secretary may provide by regulation.

(i) Current balance

The term "current balance of checking and savings accounts" does not include any funds over which an individual is barred from exercising discretion and control because of the actions of any State in declaring a bank emergency due to the insolvency of a private deposit insurance fund.

(j) Other financial assistance

(1) For purposes of determining a student's eligibility for funds under this subchapter, estimated financial assistance not received under this subchapter shall include all scholarships, grants, loans, or other assistance known to the institution at the time the determination of the student's need is made, including national service educational awards or post-service benefits under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12511 et seq.), but excluding veterans' education benefits as defined in subsection (c).

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a tax credit taken under section 25A of title 26, or a distribution that is not includable in gross income under section 529 of such title, under another prepaid tuition plan offered by a State, or under a Coverdell education savings account under section 530 of such title, shall not be treated as estimated financial assistance for purposes of section 1087kk(3) of this title.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) and section 1087ll of this title, assistance not received under this subchapter may be excluded from both estimated financial assistance and cost of attendance, if that assistance is provided by a State and is designated by such State to offset a specific component of the cost of attendance. If that assistance is excluded from either estimated financial assistance or cost of attendance, it shall be excluded from both.

(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), special combat pay shall not be treated as estimated financial assistance for purposes of section 1087kk(3) of this title.

(k) Dependents

(1) Except as otherwise provided, the term "dependent of the parent" means the student, dependent children of the student's parents, including those children who are deemed to be dependent students when applying for aid under this subchapter, and other persons who live with and receive more than one-half of their support from the parent and will continue to receive more than half of their support from the parent during the award year.

(2) Except as otherwise provided, the term "dependent of the student" means the student's dependent children and other persons (except the student's spouse) who live with and receive more than one-half of their support from the student and will continue to receive more than half of their support from the student during the award year.

(l) Family size

(1) In determining family size in the case of a dependent student—

(A) if the parents are not divorced or separated, family members include the student's parents, and the dependents of the student's parents including the student;

(B) if the parents are divorced or separated, family members include the parent whose income is included in computing available income and that parent's dependents, including the student; and

(C) if the parents are divorced and the parent whose income is so included is remarried, or if the parent was a widow or widower who has remarried, family members also include, in addition to those individuals referred to in subparagraph (B), the new spouse and any dependents of the new spouse if that spouse's income is included in determining the parents' adjusted available income.


(2) In determining family size in the case of an independent student—

(A) family members include the student, the student's spouse, and the dependents of the student; and

(B) if the student is divorced or separated, family members do not include the spouse (or ex-spouse), but do include the student and the student's dependents.

(m) Business assets

The term "business assets" means property that is used in the operation of a trade or business, including real estate, inventories, buildings, machinery, and other equipment, patents, franchise rights, and copyrights.

(n) Special combat pay

The term "special combat pay" means pay received by a member of the Armed Forces because of exposure to a hazardous situation.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, §480, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1472; amended Pub. L. 100–50, §14(28), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 353; Pub. L. 100–369, §7(b), July 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 837; Pub. L. 101–610, title I, §185(3), (4), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3168; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §471(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 606; Pub. L. 103–82, title I, §102(c)(4), (5), Sept. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 824; Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(17)–(20), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2474; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §110(h)(2), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2172; Pub. L. 105–78, title VI, §609(j), (k), Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1524; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, §479, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1732; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(15)(B), (f)(12)(B)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-421, 2681-431; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8019, Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 176; Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §604(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 806; Pub. L. 110–153, §1(a), Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1824; Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, §473(a)–(e), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3270, 3271; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(a)(6)–(8), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1949, 1950; Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §512(n)(4), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1710; Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §702(l)(2), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3163.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–260, div. FF, title VII, §§701(b), 702(l)(2), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3137, 3163, provided that, effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, this section is amended to read as follows:

§1087vv. Definitions

In this part:

(a) Total income

The term "total income" means the amount equal to adjusted gross income for the second preceding tax year plus untaxed income and benefits for the second preceding tax year minus excludable income for the second preceding tax year. The factors used to determine total income shall be derived from the Federal income tax return, if available, except for the applicant's ability to indicate a qualified rollover in the second preceding tax year as outlined in section 1090 of this title or foreign income described in subsection (b)(5).

(b) Untaxed income and benefits

The term "untaxed income and benefits" means—

(1) deductions and payments to self-employed SEP, SIMPLE, Keogh, and other qualified individual retirement accounts excluded from income for Federal tax purposes, except such term shall not include payments made to tax-deferred pension and retirement plans, paid directly or withheld from earnings, that are not delineated on the Federal tax return;

(2) tax-exempt interest income;

(3) untaxed portion of individual retirement account distributions;

(4) untaxed portion of pensions; and

(5) foreign income of permanent residents of the United States or United States citizens exempt from Federal taxation, or the foreign income for which such a permanent resident or citizen receives a foreign tax credit.

(c) Veterans and veterans' education benefits

(1) The term "veteran" has the meaning given the term in section 101(2) of title 38 and includes individuals who served in the United States Armed Forces as described in sections 101(21), 101(22), and 101(23) of title 38.

(2) The term "veterans' education benefits" means veterans' benefits under the following provisions of law:

(A) Chapter 103 of title 10 (Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps).

(B) Chapter 106A of title 10 (Educational Assistance for Persons Enlisting for Active Duty).

(C) Chapter 1606 of title 10 (Selected Reserve Educational Assistance Program).

(D) Chapter 1607 of title 10 (Educational Assistance Program for Reserve Component Members Supporting Contingency Operations and Certain Other Operations).

(E) Chapter 30 of title 38 (All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program, also known as the "Montgomery GI Bill—active duty").

(F) Chapter 31 of title 38 (Training and Rehabilitation for Veterans with Service-Connected Disabilities).

(G) Chapter 32 of title 38 (Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program).

(H) Chapter 33 of title 38 (Post-9/11 Educational Assistance).

(I) Chapter 35 of title 38 (Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Program).

(J) Section 903 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1981 (10 U.S.C. 2141 note) (Educational Assistance Pilot Program).

(K) Section 156(b) of the "Joint Resolution making further continuing appropriations and providing for productive employment for the fiscal year 1983, and for other purposes" (42 U.S.C. 402 note) (Restored Entitlement Program for Survivors, also known as "Quayle benefits").

(L) The provisions of chapter 3 of title 37, related to subsistence allowances for members of the Reserve Officers Training Corps.

(d) Independent students and determinations

The term "independent", when used with respect to a student, means any individual who—

(1) is 24 years of age or older by December 31 of the award year;

(2) is, or was at any time when the individual was 13 years of age or older—

(A) an orphan;

(B) a ward of the court; or

(C) in foster care;


(3) is, or was immediately prior to attaining the age of majority, an emancipated minor or in legal guardianship as determined by a court of competent jurisdiction in the individual's State of legal residence;

(4) is a veteran of the Armed Forces of the United States (as defined in subsection (c)) or is currently serving on active duty in the Armed Forces for other than training purposes;

(5) is a graduate or professional student;

(6) is married and not separated;

(7) has legal dependents other than a spouse;

(8) is an unaccompanied homeless youth or is unaccompanied, at risk of homelessness, and self-supporting, without regard to such individual's age; and

(9) is a student for whom a financial aid administrator makes a documented determination of independence by reason of other unusual circumstances pursuant to section 1087tt(c) of this title in which the student is unable to contact a parent or where contact with parents poses a risk to such student, which includes circumstances of—

(A) human trafficking, as described in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.);

(B) legally granted refugee or asylum status;

(C) parental abandonment or estrangement; or

(D) student or parental incarceration.

(e) Excludable income

The term "excludable income" means—

(1) an amount equal to the education credits described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 25A(a) of title 26;

(2) if an applicant elects to report it, college grant and scholarship aid included in gross income on a Federal tax return, including amounts attributable to grant and scholarship portions of fellowships and assistantships and any national service educational award or post-service benefit received by an individual under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12511 et seq.), including awards, living allowances, and interest accrual payments; and

(3) income earned from work under part C of this subchapter.

(f) Assets

(1) In general

The term "assets" means the amount in checking and savings accounts, time deposits, money market funds, investments, trusts, stocks, bonds, derivatives, securities, mutual funds, tax shelters, qualified education benefits (except as provided in paragraph (3)), the annual amount of child support received and the net value of real estate, vacation homes, income producing property, and business and farm assets, determined in accordance with section 1087rr(c) of this title.

(2) Exclusions

With respect to determinations of need under this subchapter, the term "assets" shall not include the net value of the family's principal place of residence.

(3) Consideration of qualified education benefit

A qualified education benefit shall be considered an asset of—

(A) the student if the student is an independent student; or

(B) the parent if the student is a dependent student and the account is designated for the student, regardless of whether the owner of the account is the student or the parent.

(4) Definition of qualified education benefit

In this subsection, the term "qualified education benefit" means—

(A) a qualified tuition program (as defined in section 529(b)(1)(A) of title 26) or other prepaid tuition plan offered by a State; and

(B) a Coverdell education savings account (as defined in section 530(b)(1) of title 26).

(g) Net value

The term "net value" means the market value at the time of application of the assets (as defined in subsection (f)), minus the outstanding liabilities or indebtedness against the assets.

(h) Treatment of income taxes paid to other jurisdictions

(1) The tax on income paid to the Governments of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, or Palau under the laws applicable to those jurisdictions, or the comparable tax paid to the central government of a foreign country, shall be treated as Federal income taxes.

(2) References in this part to title 26, Federal income tax forms, and the Internal Revenue Service shall, for purposes of the tax described in paragraph (1), be treated as references to the corresponding laws, tax forms, and tax collection agencies of those jurisdictions, respectively, subject to such adjustments as the Secretary may provide by regulation.

(i) Other financial assistance

(1) For purposes of determining a student's eligibility for funds under this subchapter, other financial assistance not received under this subchapter shall include all scholarships, grants, loans, or other assistance known to the institution at the time the determination of the student's need is made, including national service educational awards or post-service benefits under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12511 et seq.), but excluding veterans' education benefits.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a tax credit taken under section 25A of title 26, or a distribution that is not includable in gross income under section 529 of such title, under another prepaid tuition plan offered by a State, or under a Coverdell education savings account under section 530 of such title, shall not be treated as other financial assistance for purposes of section 1087kk(a)(3) of this title.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) and section 1087ll of this title, assistance not received under this subchapter may be excluded from both other financial assistance and cost of attendance, if that assistance is provided by a State and is designated by such State to offset a specific component of the cost of attendance. If that assistance is excluded from either other financial assistance or cost of attendance, it shall be excluded from both.

(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), payments made and services provided under part E of title IV of the Social Security Act to or on behalf of any child or youth over whom the State agency has responsibility for placement, care, or supervision, including the value of vouchers for education and training and amounts expended for room and board for youth who are not in foster care but are receiving services under section 477 of such Act, shall not be treated as other financial assistance for purposes of section 1087kk(a)(3) of this title.

(5) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), emergency financial assistance provided to the student for unexpected expenses that are a component of the student's cost of attendance, and not otherwise considered when the determination of the student's need is made, shall not be treated as other financial assistance for purposes of section 1087kk(a)(3) of this title.

(j) Dependents

(1) Except as otherwise provided, the term "dependent of the parent" means the student who is deemed to be a dependent student when applying for aid under this subchapter, and any other person who lives with and receives more than one-half of their support from the parent (or parents) and will continue to receive more than half of their support from the parent (or parents) during the award year.

(2) Except as otherwise provided, the term "dependent of the student" means the student's dependent children and other persons (except the student's spouse) who live with and receive more than one-half of their support from the student and will continue to receive more than half of their support from the student during the award year.

(k) Family size

(1) Dependent student

Except as provided in paragraph (3), in determining family size in the case of a dependent student—

(A) if the parents are not divorced or separated, family members include the student's parents, and any dependent (within the meaning of section 152 of title 26 or an eligible individual for purposes of the credit under section 24 of title 26) of the student's parents for the taxable year used in determining the amount of need of the student for financial assistance under this subchapter;

(B) if the parents are divorced or separated, family members include the parent whose income is included in computing available income and any dependent (within the meaning of section 152 of title 26 or an eligible individual for purposes of the credit under section 24 of title 26) of that parent for the taxable year used in determining the amount of need of the student for financial assistance under this subchapter;

(C) if the parents are divorced and the parents whose income is so included are remarried, or if the parent was a widow or widower who has remarried, family members also include, in addition to those individuals referred to in subparagraph (B), the new spouse and any dependent (within the meaning of section 152 of title 26 or an eligible individual for purposes of the credit under section 24 of title 26) of the new spouse for the taxable year used in determining the amount of need of the student for financial assistance under this subchapter, if that spouse's income is included in determining the parent's adjusted available income; and

(D) if the student is not considered as a dependent (within the meaning of section 152 of title 26 or an eligible individual for purposes of the credit under section 24 of title 26) of any parent, the parents' family size shall include the student and the family members applicable to the parents' situation under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).

(2) Independent student

Except as provided in paragraph (3), in determining family size in the case of an independent student—

(A) family members include the student, the student's spouse, and any dependent (within the meaning of section 152 of title 26 or an eligible individual for purposes of the credit under section 24 of title 26) of that student for the taxable year used in determining the amount of need of the student for financial assistance under this subchapter; and

(B) if the student is divorced or separated, family members do not include the spouse (or ex-spouse), but do include the student and any dependent (within the meaning of section 152 of title 26 or an eligible individual for purposes of the credit under section 24 of title 26) of that student for the taxable year used in determining the amount of need of the student for financial assistance under this subchapter.

(3) Procedures and modification

The Secretary shall provide procedures for determining family size in cases in which information for the taxable year used in determining the amount of need of the student for financial assistance under this subchapter has changed or does not accurately reflect the applicant's current household size, including when a divorce settlement only allows a parent to file for the Earned Income Tax Credit available under section 32 of title 26.

(l) Business assets

The term "business assets" means property that is used in the operation of a trade or business, including real estate, inventories, buildings, machinery, and other equipment, patents, franchise rights, and copyrights.

(m) Homeless youth

The term "homeless youth" has the meaning given the term "homeless children and youths" in section 11434a of title 42.

(n) Unaccompanied

The terms "unaccompanied", "unaccompanied youth", or "unaccompanied homeless youth" have the meaning given the term "unaccompanied youth" in section 11434a of title 42.

See 2020 Amendment note below.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The National and Community Service Act of 1990, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2), (e)(3), and (j)(1), is Pub. L. 101–610, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3127, which is classified principally to chapter 129 (§12501 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title I of the Act enacted subchapter I (§12511 et seq.) of chapter 129 of Title 42 and amended this section and section 1070a–6 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12501 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(I), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§3111 et seq.) of chapter 32 of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2)(B) and (e)(5), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Parts A and E of title IV of the Act are classified generally to parts A (§601 et seq.) and E (§670 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 903 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1981, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(J), is section 903 of Pub. L. 96–342, which is set out as a note under section 2141 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 156(b) of the "Joint Resolution making further continuing appropriations and providing for productive employment for the fiscal year 1983, and for other purposes", referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(K), is section 156(b) of Pub. L. 97–377, which is set out as a note under section 402 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(H)(ii), is title III of Pub. L. 93–415, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1129, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§11201 et seq.) of chapter 111 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1974 Act note set out under section 10101 of Title 34 and Tables.

The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(H)(iii), is Pub. L. 100–77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482. Subtitle B of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part B (§11371 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 119 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11301 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by section 2(g)(19) of Pub. L. 103–208 (which was effective as if included in Pub. L. 102–325) was executed to this section as amended by Pub. L. 102–325 and Pub. L. 103–82, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section provided definitions for this part, including current balance of checking and savings accounts and special combat pay.

2014—Subsec. (b)(1)(I). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "benefits received through participation in employment and training activities under title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act" for "benefits received through participation in employment and training activities under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.)".

2009—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(6), substituted "12511" for "12571".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(7), substituted "benefits under the following provisions of law" for "the following" in introductory provisions, added subpars. (A) to (L), and struck out former subpars. (A) to (J) which listed, respectively, the following provisions of law: title 10, chapter 2; title 10, chapter 106; title 10, chapter 107; title 37, chapter 2; title 38, chapter 30; title 38, chapter 31; title 38, chapter 32; title 38, chapter 35; Public Law 97–376, section 156; and Public Law 96–342, section 903.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 111–39, §406(a)(8), substituted "12511" for "12571".

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §473(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted "subparagraph (B) and" after "provided in", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §473(a)(2), inserted "no portion of veterans' education benefits received by an individual," after "any program by an individual,".

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–315, §473(b), inserted ", except that the value of on-base military housing or the value of basic allowance for housing determined under section 403(b) of title 37 received by the parents, in the case of a dependent student, or the student or student's spouse, in the case of an independent student, shall be excluded" before semicolon.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B), (C). Pub. L. 110–315, §473(c), added subpars. (B) and (C) and struck out former subpars. (B) and (C) which read as follows:

"(B) is an orphan, in foster care, or a ward of the court, at any time when the individual is 13 years of age or older;

"(C) is an emancipated minor or is in legal guardianship as determined by a court of competent jurisdiction in the individual's State of legal residence;".

Subsec. (e)(2) to (6). Pub. L. 110–315, §473(d), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) to (5) as (3) to (6), respectively.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §473(e), struck out "veterans' education benefits as defined in subsection (c) of this section, and" before "national service educational awards" and inserted ", but excluding veterans' education benefits as defined in subsection (c)" before period at end.

2007—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(1), substituted "no portion of any" for "and no portion of any" and inserted "and no distribution from any qualified education benefit described in subsection (f)(3) that is not subject to Federal income tax," after "section 25A of title 26,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which defined "untaxed income and benefits".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–153 added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "The term 'untaxed income and benefits' shall not include the amount of additional child tax credit claimed for Federal income tax purposes."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(3)(A), (B), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, redesignated former pars. (1), (2), (3) to (6), and (7) as subpars. (A), (B), (D) to (G), and (I), respectively, and realigned margins.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B), (C). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(3)(C), added subpars. (B) and (C) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "is an orphan or ward of the court or was a ward of the court until the individual reached the age of 18;".

Subsec. (d)(1)(H). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(3)(D), (E), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(3)(F), added par. (2).

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(4), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(5), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "A qualified education benefit shall not be considered an asset of a student for purposes of section 1087oo of this title."

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(6)(A), inserted ", or a distribution that is not includable in gross income under section 529 of such title, under another prepaid tuition plan offered by a State, or under a Coverdell education savings account under section 530 of such title," after "title 26".

Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(6)(B), added par. (4).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 110–84, §604(a)(7), added subsec. (n).

2006—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–171, §8019(a), inserted "or is currently serving on active duty in the Armed Forces for other than training purposes" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 109–171, §8019(b), inserted "qualified education benefits (except as provided in paragraph (3))," after "tax shelters,".

Subsec. (f)(2)(C). Pub. L. 109–171, §8019(c), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (f)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 109–171, §8019(d), added pars. (3) to (5).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–171, §8019(e)(1), struck out "; tuition prepayment plans" at end of heading.

Subsec. (j)(2), (3). Pub. L. 109–171, §8019(e)(2)–(4), struck out par. (2), redesignated par. (3) as (2), and added par. (3). Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows:

"(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), for purposes of determining a student's eligibility for funds under this subchapter, tuition prepayment plans shall reduce the cost of attendance (as determined under section 1087ll of this title) by the amount of the prepayment, and shall not be considered estimated financial assistance.

"(B) If the institutional expense covered by the prepayment must be part of the student's cost of attendance for accounting purposes, the prepayment shall be considered estimated financial assistance."

1998—Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(f)(12)(B)], struck out "Job Training Partnership Act noneducational benefits or" after "railroad retirement benefits, or".

Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(15)(B)], substituted "Job Training Partnership Act noneducational benefits or benefits received through participation in employment and training activities under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998" for "Job Training Partnership Act noneducational benefits".

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 105–244, §479(1), inserted before period at end ", and national service educational awards or post-service benefits under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990".

Subsec. (j)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–244, §479(2), (3), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a national service educational award or post-service benefit under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 shall not be treated as financial assistance for purposes of section 1087kk(3) of this title."

1997—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–78, §609(j), substituted "program by an individual, no" for "program by an individual, and no" and inserted "and no portion of any tax credit taken under section 25A of title 26," before "shall be included".

Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 105–78, §609(k), added par. (4).

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–193 substituted "assistance under a State program funded" for "aid to families with dependent children under a State plan approved".

1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–82, §102(c)(4), inserted ", and no portion of a national service educational award or post-service benefit received by an individual under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990," after "by an individual".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(17), made technical amendment to references to titles of the United States Code in subpars. (A) to (H).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(18), inserted before semicolon "or was a ward of the court until the individual reached the age of 18".

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(19), realigned margin. See Codification note above.

Pub. L. 103–82, §102(c)(5), added par. (3).

Subsecs. (k) to (m). Pub. L. 103–208, §2(g)(20), added subsecs. (k) to (m).

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, substituting subsecs. (a) to (j) for former subsecs. (a) to (i).

1990—Subsec. (d)(2)(F). Pub. L. 101–610, §185(4), inserted "and living allowances as a result of participation in a program established under the National and Community Service Act of 1990)" after "other than parents".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–610, §185(3), added par. (3).

1988—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–369 added subsec. (i).

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(28)(A), (B), substituted "paragraphs (2) through (4)" for "paragraphs (2) and (3)" and inserted "minus excludable income (as defined in subsection (f) of this section)" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(28)(C), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "The Secretary shall promulgate special regulations to permit, in the computation of family contributions for the programs under subpart 2 of part A and parts B, C, and E of this subchapter for any academic year the exclusion from family income of any proceeds of a sale of farm or business assets of that family if such sale results from a voluntary or involuntary foreclosure, forfeiture, liquidation, or bankruptcy."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(28)(D), added par. (4).

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(28)(E), substituted subsec. (b) consisting of pars. (1) to (14) for former subsec. (b) consisting of pars. (1) to (19), and substituted subsec. (c) consisting of pars. (1) to (14) for former subsec. (c) consisting of pars. (1) to (16).

Subsec. (d)(2)(F). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(28)(F), substituted "annual total resources (including all sources of resources other than parents)" for "an annual total income".

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 100–50, §14(28)(G), added subsecs. (f) to (h).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–260 effective July 1, 2023, except as otherwise expressly provided, and applicable with respect to award year 2023–2024 and each subsequent award year, as determined under this chapter, see section 701(b) of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–128 effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3101 of Title 29, Labor.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, §473(f), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3271, as amended by Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, §406(c), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1950, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2010, except that the amendments made in subsection (e) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2009."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–153, §1(b), Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1824, provided that: "This section [amending this section] and the amendment made by this section shall take effect on July 1, 2009."

Pub. L. 110–84, title VI, §604(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 808, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective on July 1, 2009."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective July 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, see section 8001(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 7, 1998, see section 480A of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Amendment by section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(15)(B)] of Pub. L. 105–277 effective Oct. 21, 1998, and amendment by section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(f)(12)(B)] of Pub. L. 105–277 effective July 1, 2000, see section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(g)(1), (2)(B)] of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 3502 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–208 effective as if included in the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. 102–325, except as otherwise provided, see section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–208, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–82 effective Oct. 1, 1993, see section 123 of Pub. L. 103–82, set out as a note under section 1701 of Title 16, Conservation.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 applicable with respect to determinations of need under this part for award years beginning on or after July 1, 1993, see section 471(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1087kk of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–50 effective as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–498, see section 27 of Pub. L. 100–50, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Definition of "Independent Student"; Application to Specified Periods of Enrollment

Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §406(b)(5), formerly §406(b)(4), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1475; renumbered §406(b)(5), Pub. L. 100–50, §22(e)(2), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 361, provided that: "The definition of independent student contained in section 480(d) of the Act [20 U.S.C. 1087vv(d)] as amended by subsection (a) of this section shall apply with respect to the determination of such need for periods of enrollment beginning on or after January 1, 1987, in the case of programs operated under part B of title IV of the Act [part B of this subchapter], or for periods of enrollment beginning on or after July 1, 1987, in the case of programs operated under subpart 2 of part A and parts C and E of such title [subpart 2 of part A of this subchapter and parts C and E of this subchapter]."

[References to subpart 2 of part A of title IV of Pub. L. 89–329 deemed, after July 23, 1992, to refer to subpart 3 of such part, see section 402(b) of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1070a–11 of this title.]