[USC02] 10 USC Ch. 148: NATIONAL DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL BASE, DEFENSE REINVESTMENT, AND DEFENSE CONVERSION
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10 USC Ch. 148: NATIONAL DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL BASE, DEFENSE REINVESTMENT, AND DEFENSE CONVERSION
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART IV—SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT

CHAPTER 148—NATIONAL DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL BASE, DEFENSE REINVESTMENT, AND DEFENSE CONVERSION

Subchapter
Sec.
I.
Definitions
2500
II.
Policies and Planning
2501
III.
Programs for Development, Application, and Support of Dual-Use Technologies
2511
IV.
Manufacturing Technology
2521
V.
Miscellaneous Technology Base Policies and Programs
2531
VI.
Defense Export Loan Guarantees
2540
VII.
Critical Infrastructure Protection Loan Guarantees
2541

        

Prior Provisions

A prior chapter 148, comprised of section 2501 et seq., relating to defense industrial base, was repealed, except for sections 2504 to 2507, by Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4202(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2659. Sections 2504 to 2507 of that chapter were renumbered sections 2531 to 2534, respectively, of this chapter by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1033(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-260, added item for subchapter VII.

1998Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1069(a)(4), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2136, substituted "2500" for "2491" in item for subchapter I and struck out "and Dual-Use Assistance Extension Programs" after "Technology" in item for subchapter IV.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, §1321(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 477, added item for subchapter VI.

SUBCHAPTER I—DEFINITIONS

Sec.
2500.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title III, §371(c)(4), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1705, renumbered item 2491 as 2500.

§2500. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) The term "national technology and industrial base" means the persons and organizations that are engaged in research, development, production, integration, services, or information technology activities conducted within the United States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Australia, and Canada.

(2) The term "dual-use" with respect to products, services, standards, processes, or acquisition practices, means products, services, standards, processes, or acquisition practices, respectively, that are capable of meeting requirements for military and nonmilitary applications.

(3) The term "dual-use critical technology" means a critical technology that has military applications and nonmilitary applications.

(4) The term "technology and industrial base sector" means a group of public or private persons and organizations that engage in, or are capable of engaging in, similar research, development, production, integration, services, or information technology activities.

(5) The terms "Federal laboratory" and "laboratory" have the meaning given the term "laboratory" in section 12(d)(2) of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a(d)(2)), except that such terms include a federally funded research and development center sponsored by a Federal agency.

(6) The term "critical technology" means a technology that is—

(A) a national critical technology; or

(B) a defense critical technology.


(7) The term "national critical technology" means a technology that appears on the list of national critical technologies contained in the most recent biennial report on national critical technologies submitted to Congress by the President pursuant to section 603(d) 1 of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6683(d)).

(8) The term "defense critical technology" means a technology that is identified under section 2505 of this title as critical for attaining the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title.

(9) The term "eligible firm" means a company or other business entity that, as determined by the Secretary of Commerce—

(A) conducts a significant level of its research, development, engineering, manufacturing, integration, services, and information technology activities in the United States; and

(B) is a company or other business entity the majority ownership or control of which is by United States citizens or is a company or other business of a parent company that is incorporated in a country the government of which—

(i) encourages the participation of firms so owned or controlled in research and development consortia to which the government of that country provides funding directly or provides funding indirectly through international organizations or agreements; and

(ii) affords adequate and effective protection for the intellectual property rights of companies incorporated in the United States.


Such term includes a consortium of such companies or other business entities, as determined by the Secretary of Commerce.

(10) The term "manufacturing technology" means techniques and processes designed to improve manufacturing quality, productivity, and practices, including quality control, shop floor management, inventory management, and worker training, as well as manufacturing equipment and software.

(11) The term "Small Business Innovation Research Program" means the program established under the following provisions of section 9 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638):

(A) Paragraphs (4) through (7) of subsection (b).

(B) Subsections (e) through (l).


(12) The term "Small Business Technology Transfer Program" means the program established under the following provisions of such section:

(A) Paragraphs (4) through (7) of subsection (b).

(B) Subsections (e) and (n) through (p).


(13) The term "significant equity percentage" means—

(A) a level of contribution and participation sufficient, when compared to the other non-Federal participants in the partnership or other cooperative arrangement involved, to demonstrate a comparable long-term financial commitment to the product or process development involved; and

(B) any other criteria the Secretary may consider necessary to ensure an appropriate equity mix among the participants.


(14) The term "person of a foreign country" has the meaning given such term in section 3502(d) of the Primary Dealers Act of 1988 (22 U.S.C. 5342(d)).

(15) The term "integration" means the process of providing systems engineering and technical direction for a system for the purpose of achieving capabilities that satisfy program requirements.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4203(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2661, §2491; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(a)(9), title XIII, §1315(f), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1771, 1788; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §§1113(d), 1115(e), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2866, 2869; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(h), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 455; renumbered §2500 and amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title III, §371(b)(3), title X, §1073(a)(53), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1705, 1903; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §895(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4313; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §881(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2316.)

References in Text

Section 603 of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976, referred to in par. (7), was classified to section 6683 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and was omitted from the Code.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former sections 2511 and 2521 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Amendments

2016—Par. (1). Pub. L. 114–328 inserted ", the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Australia," after "United States".

2011—Par. (1). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(a)(1), substituted "integration, services, or information technology" for "or maintenance".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(a)(2), substituted "production, integration, services, or information technology" for "or production".

Par. (9)(A). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(a)(3), substituted "manufacturing, integration, services, and information technology" for "and manufacturing".

Par. (15). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(a)(4), added par. (15).

1997Pub. L. 105–85, §371(b)(3), renumbered section 2491 of this title as this section.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 105–85, §1073(a)(53), substituted "that is identified under section 2505 of this title as critical for attaining the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title." for "that appears on the list of critical technologies contained, pursuant to subsection (b)(4) of section 2505 of this title, in the most recent national technology and industrial base assessment submitted to Congress by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 2506(e) of this title."

1996—Pars. (11) to (16). Pub. L. 104–106 redesignated pars. (13) to (16) as (11) to (14), respectively, and struck out former pars. (11) and (12) which read as follows:

"(11) The term 'manufacturing extension program' means a public or private, nonprofit program for the improvement of the quality, productivity, and performance of United States-based small manufacturing firms in the United States.

"(12) The term 'United States-based small manufacturing firm' means a company or other business entity that, as determined by the Secretary of Commerce—

"(A) engages in manufacturing;

"(B) has less than 500 employees; and

"(C) is an eligible firm."

1994—Par. (5). Pub. L. 103–337, §1113(d), inserted before period at end ", except that such terms include a federally funded research and development center sponsored by a Federal agency".

Par. (16). Pub. L. 103–337, §1115(e), added par. (16).

1993—Par. (2). Pub. L. 103–160, §1182(a)(9)(A), substituted "nonmilitary applications" for "nonmilitary application".

Par. (8). Pub. L. 103–160, §1182(a)(9)(B), substituted "subsection (b)(4)" for "subsection (f)".

Pars. (13) to (15). Pub. L. 103–160, §1315(f), added pars. (13) to (15).

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1101, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2862, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 2519 and 2520 of this title, amending this section, sections 1151, 1152, 2391, 2511 to 2513, and 2524 of this title, and sections 1662d and 1662d–1 of Title 29, Labor, and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under section 2501 of this title] may be cited as the 'Defense Conversion, Reinvestment, and Transition Assistance Amendments of 1994'."

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1301, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1783, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1152 and 1153 of this title and sections 1279d, 1279e, and 1280a of the Appendix to Title 46, Shipping, amending this section, sections 1142, 1151, 1598, 2410j, 2501, 2502, 2511 to 2513, 2523, and 2524 of this title, sections 1551 and 1662d–1 of Title 29, Labor, section 31326 of Title 46, and sections 1271, 1273, 1274, and 1274a of the Appendix to Title 46, repealing section 2504 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1143, 1151, 2501, 2511, 2701, and 5013 of this title, section 1662d–1 of Title 29, and sections 1279b and 1279d of the Appendix to Title 46, amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1143, 2391, and 2501 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2701 of this title] may be cited as the 'Defense Conversion, Reinvestment, and Transition Assistance Amendments of 1993'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, §4001, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2658, provided that: "This division [div. D (§§4001–4501) of Pub. L. 102–484, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Defense Conversion, Reinvestment, and Transition Assistance Act of 1992'."

Treatment of Interagency and State and Local Purchases When the Department of Defense Acts as Contract Intermediary for the General Services Administration

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §897, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 954, provided that: "Contracts executed by the Department of Defense as a result of the transfer of contracts from the General Services Administration or for which the Department serves as an item manager for products on behalf of the General Services Administration shall not be subject to requirements under chapter 148 of title 10, United States Code, to the extent such contracts are for purchases of products by other Federal agencies or State or local governments."

Application of 1993 Amendments to Existing Technology Reinvestment Projects

Amendment by section 1315(f) of Pub. L. 103–160 not to alter financial commitment requirements in effect on the day before Nov. 30, 1993, for non-Federal Government participants in a project funded under section 2511, 2512, 2513, 2523, or 2524 of this title, using funds appropriated for a fiscal year beginning before Oct. 1, 1993, see section 1315(g) of Pub. L. 103–160, set out as a note under section 2511 of this title.

Congressional Findings on Military Significance of Collapse of Communism

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLI, §4101, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2658, which set out congressional findings concerning the effects the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the dissolution of the Soviet Union have had on the military requirements of the United States, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(54), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1850.

Purposes of Title XLII of Pub. L. 102–484

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4201, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2659, provided that: "The purposes of this title [see Tables for classification] are to consolidate, revise, clarify, and reenact policies and requirements, and to enact additional policies and requirements, relating to the national technology and industrial base, defense reinvestment, and defense conversion programs that further national security objectives."

Transition Provision; "Defense Critical Technology" Defined

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4203(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2662, provided that until first national technology and industrial base assessment was submitted to Congress by Secretary of Defense pursuant to former section 2506(e) of this title, the term "defense critical technology" for purposes of this chapter, would have meaning given such term in section 2521 of this title, as in effect on day before Oct. 23, 1992.

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER II—POLICIES AND PLANNING

Sec.
2501.
National security strategy for national technology and industrial base.
2502.
National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council.
2503.
National defense program for analysis of the technology and industrial base.
2504.
Annual report to Congress.
2504a.
Unfunded priorities of the national technology and industrial base: annual report.
2505.
National technology and industrial base: periodic defense capability assessments.
2506.
Department of Defense technology and industrial base policy guidance.
2507.
Data collection authority of President.
2508.
Industrial Base Fund
2509.
Modernization of acquisition processes to ensure integrity of industrial base.

        

Amendments

2019Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §§845(b), 846(c)(2), Dec. 19, 2019, 133 Stat. 1503, 1505, added items 2504a and 2509.

2017Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(g)(2), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, amended directory language of Pub. L. 111–383, §896(b)(2). See 2011 Amendment note below.

2013Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XVI, §1603(a)(2), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2063, substituted "National security strategy for national technology and industrial base" for "National security objectives concerning national technology and industrial base" in item 2501.

2011Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §896(b)(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4316, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(g)(2), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, added item 2508.

1996Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(g), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2614, added item 2504 and substituted "Department of Defense technology and industrial base policy guidance" for "National technology and industrial base: periodic defense capability plan" in item 2506.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(i)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 455, substituted "National security objectives concerning national technology and industrial base" for "Congressional defense policy concerning national technology and industrial base, reinvestment, and conversion" in item 2501.

1993Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1312(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1786, struck out item 2504 "Center for the Study of Defense Economic Adjustment".

§2501. National security strategy for national technology and industrial base

(a) National Security Strategy for National Technology and Industrial Base.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop a national security strategy for the national technology and industrial base. The Secretary shall submit such strategy to Congress not later than 180 days after the date of submission of the national security strategy report required under section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3043). Such strategy shall be based on a prioritized assessment of risks and challenges to the defense supply chain and shall ensure that the national technology and industrial base is capable of achieving the following national security objectives:

(1) Supplying, equipping, and supporting the force structure of the armed forces that is necessary to achieve—

(A) the objectives set forth in the national security strategy report submitted to Congress by the President pursuant to section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3043);

(B) the policy guidance of the Secretary of Defense provided pursuant to section 113(g) of this title; and

(C) the future-years defense program submitted to Congress by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 221 of this title.


(2) Sustaining production, maintenance, repair, logistics, and other activities in support of military operations of various durations and intensity.

(3) Maintaining advanced research and development activities to provide the armed forces with systems capable of ensuring technological superiority over potential adversaries.

(4) Reconstituting within a reasonable period the capability to develop, produce, and support supplies and equipment, including technologically advanced systems, in sufficient quantities to prepare fully for a war, national emergency, or mobilization of the armed forces before the commencement of that war, national emergency, or mobilization.

(5) Providing for the development, manufacture, and supply of items and technologies critical to the production and sustainment of advanced military weapon systems within the national technology and industrial base.

(6) Providing for the generation of services capabilities that are not core functions of the armed forces and that are critical to military operations within the national technology and industrial base.

(7) Providing for the development, production, and integration of information technology within the national technology and industrial base.

(8) Maintaining critical design skills to ensure that the armed forces are provided with systems capable of ensuring technological superiority over potential adversaries.

(9) Ensuring reliable sources of materials that are critical to national security, such as specialty metals, essential minerals, armor plate, and rare earth elements.

(10) Reducing, to the maximum extent practicable, the presence of counterfeit parts in the supply chain and the risk associated with such parts.


(b) Civil-Military Integration Policy.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the United States attains the national technology and industrial base objectives set forth in subsection (a) through acquisition policy reforms that have the following objectives:

(1) Relying, to the maximum extent practicable, upon the commercial national technology and industrial base that is required to meet the national security needs of the United States.

(2) Reducing the reliance of the Department of Defense on technology and industrial base sectors that are economically dependent on Department of Defense business.

(3) Reducing Federal Government barriers to the use of commercial products, processes, and standards.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4211, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2662; amended Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(c)(7), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 98; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(a)(10), title XIII, §1313, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1771, 1786; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 452; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2612; Pub. L. 111–23, title III, §303(a), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1731; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §895(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4314; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XVI, §1603(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2062; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(c)(2), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3508; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §882, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2316; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §846(a), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1503.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2501, added Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §821(b)(1)(B), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2014, related to centralized guidance, analysis, and planning, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Another prior section 2501 was renumbered section 2533 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–92 inserted "The Secretary shall submit such strategy to Congress not later than 180 days after the date of submission of the national security strategy report required under section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3043)." after first sentence.

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–328, in introductory provisions, substituted "The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the United States attains" for "It is the policy of Congress that the United States attain".

2014—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3043)" for "(50 U.S.C. 404a)".

2013Pub. L. 112–239, §1603(a)(1)(A), substituted "strategy for" for "objectives concerning" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239, §1603(a)(1)(B)(i), (ii), substituted "Strategy" for "Objectives" in heading and "The Secretary of Defense shall develop a national security strategy for the national technology and industrial base. Such strategy shall be based on a prioritized assessment of risks and challenges to the defense supply chain and shall ensure that the national technology and industrial base is capable of achieving the following national security objectives:" for "It is the policy of Congress that the national technology and industrial base be capable of meeting the following national security objectives:" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(9), (10). Pub. L. 112–239, §1603(a)(1)(B)(iii), added pars. (9) and (10).

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(b)(1), substituted "Supplying, equipping, and supporting" for "Supplying and equipping" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(b)(2), substituted "logistics, and other activities in support of" for "and logistics for".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(b)(3), substituted ", produce, and support" for "and produce".

Subsec. (a)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 111–383, §895(b)(4), added pars. (6) and (7) and redesignated former par. (6) as (8).

2009—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 111–23 added par. (6).

1996Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(a)(2), substituted "National security objectives concerning national technology and industrial base" for "Congressional defense policy concerning national technology and industrial base, reinvestment, and conversion" as section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(a)(1)(A)(i), substituted "National Security" for "Defense Policy" in heading.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–201 added par. (5).

Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(a)(1)(A)(ii), struck out par. (5) which read as follows: "Furthering the missions of the Department of Defense through the support of policy objectives and programs relating to the defense reinvestment, diversification, and conversion objectives specified in subsection (b)."

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(a)(1)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which stated policy objectives of Congress relating to defense reinvestment, diversification, and conversion.

1993—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–35 substituted "section 108" for "section 104".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103–160, §1313, added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–160, §1182(a)(10), substituted "that, by reducing the public sector demand for capital, increases the amount of capital available" for "and thereby free up capital".

Support for Defense Manufacturing Communities To Support the Defense Industrial Base

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §846, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1881, provided that:

"(a) Program Authorized.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense may, in coordination with the Secretary of Commerce and working in coordination with the defense manufacturing institutes, establish within the Department of Defense a program to make long-term investments in critical skills, facilities, research and development, and small business support in order to strengthen the national security innovation base by designating and supporting consortiums as defense manufacturing communities.

"(2) Designation.—The program authorized by this section shall be known as the 'Defense Manufacturing Community Support Program' (in this section referred to as the 'Program').

"(b) Designation of Defense Manufacturing Communities Complementary to Defense Manufacturing Institutes.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense may designate eligible consortiums as defense manufacturing communities through a competitive process, and in coordination with the defense manufacturing institutes.

"(2) Eligible consortiums.—The Secretary may establish eligibility criteria for a consortium to participate in the Program. In developing such criteria, the Secretary may consider the merits of—

"(A) including members from academia, defense industry, commercial industry, and State and local government organizations;

"(B) supporting efforts in geographical regions that have capabilities in key technologies or industrial base supply chains that are determined critical to national security;

"(C) optimal consortium composition and size to promote effectiveness, collaboration, and efficiency; and

"(D) complementarity with defense manufacturing institutes.

"(3) Duration.—Each designation under paragraph (1) shall be for a period of five years.

"(4) Renewal.—

"(A) In general.—The Secretary may renew a designation made under paragraph (1) for up to two additional two-year periods. Any designation as a defense manufacturing community or renewal of such designation that is in effect before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018] shall count toward the limit set forth in this subparagraph.

"(B) Evaluation for renewal.—The Secretary shall establish criteria for the renewal of a consortium. In establishing such criteria, the Secretary may consider—

"(i) the performance of the consortium in meeting the established goals of the Program;

"(ii) the progress the consortium has made with respect to project-specific metrics, particularly with respect to those metrics that were designed to help communities track their own progress;

"(iii) whether any changes to the composition of the eligible consortium or revisions of the plan for the consortium would improve the capabilities of the defense industrial base;

"(iv) the effectiveness of coordination with defense manufacturing institutes; and

"(v) such other criteria as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(5) Application for designation.—An eligible consortium seeking a designation under paragraph (1) shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may require. In developing such procedures, the Secretary may consider the inclusion of—

"(A) a description of the regional boundaries of the consortium, and the defense manufacturing capacity of the region;

"(B) an evidence-based plan for enhancing the defense industrial base through the efforts of the consortium;

"(C) the investments the consortium proposes and the strategy of the consortium to address gaps in the defense industrial base;

"(D) a description of the outcome-based metrics, benchmarks, and milestones that will track and the evaluation methods that will be used to gauge performance of the consortium;

"(E) how the initiatives will complement defense manufacturing institutes; and

"(F) such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(c) Financial and Technical Assistance.—

"(1) In general.—Under the Program, the Secretary of Defense may award financial or technical assistance to a member of a consortium designated as a defense manufacturing community under the Program as appropriate for purposes of the Program.

"(2) Use of funds.—A recipient of financial or technical assistance under the Program may use such financial or technical assistance to support an investment that will improve the defense industrial base.

"(3) Investments supported.—Investments supported under this subsection may include activities not already provided for by defense manufacturing institutes on—

"(A) equipment or facility upgrades;

"(B) workforce training, retraining, or recruitment and retention, including that of women and underrepresented minorities;

"(C) business incubators;

"(D) advanced research and commercialization, including with Federal laboratories and depots;

"(E) supply chain development; and

"(F) small business assistance.

"(d) Receipt of Transferred Funds.—The Secretary of Defense may accept amounts transferred to the Secretary from the head of another agency or a State or local governmental organization to carry out this section."

Enhanced Analytical and Monitoring Capability of the Defense Industrial Base

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1071, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1582, provided that:

"(a) Process.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall establish a process, or designate an existing process, for enhancing the ability of the Department of Defense to analyze, assess, and monitor the vulnerabilities of, and concentration of purchases in, the defense industrial base.

"(2) Elements.—The process required by subsection (a) shall include the following elements:

"(A) Designation of a senior official responsible for overseeing the development and implementation of the process.

"(B) Development or integration of tools to support commercial due diligence and business intelligence or to otherwise analyze and monitor commercial activity to understand business relationships affecting the defense industrial base.

"(C) Development of risk profiles of products, services, or entities based on business intelligence, commercial due diligence tools and data services.

"(D) As the Secretary determines necessary, integration with intelligence sources to develop threat profiles of entities attempting transactions with a defense industrial base companies [sic].

"(E) Other matters as the Secretary deems necessary.

"(3) Notification.—Not later than 90 days after establishing or designating the process required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives notice in writing that such process has been established or otherwise designated. Such notification shall include the following:

"(A) Identification of the official required to be designated under paragraph (2)(A).

"(B) Identification of the tools described in paragraph (2)(B) that are currently available to [the] Department of Defense and any other tools available commercially or otherwise that might contribute to enhancing the analytic capability of the process.

"(C) Identification of, or recommendations for, any statutory changes needed to improve the effectiveness of the process.

"(D) Projected resources necessary to purchase any commercially available tools identified under subparagraph (B) and to carry out any statutory changes identified under subparagraph (C).

"(b) Reporting.—

"(1) Consolidated report on vulnerabilities of, and concentration of purchases in, the defense industrial base.—

"(A) Report required.—For each of fiscal years 2018 through 2023, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a consolidated report that combines all of the reports required to be provided to Congress for that fiscal year on the adequacy of, vulnerabilities of, and concentration of purchases in the defense industrial sector. Such consolidated report shall include each of the following:

"(i) The report required under section 721(m) of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 4565(m)) (relating to concentrations of purchases of the defense industrial base).

"(ii) The report required under section 723(a) of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 4568(a)) (relating to offsets in defense production).

"(iii) The report required under section 2504 of title 10, United States Code (relating to annual industrial capabilities).

"(iv) Any other reports the Secretary determines appropriate.

"(B) Deadline.—A consolidated report under subparagraph (A) shall be submitted by not later than March 31 of the fiscal year following the fiscal year for which the report is submitted.

"(2) Review of technology protection policy.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report describing any need for reforms of policies governing the export of technology or related intellectual property, along with any proposed legislative changes the Secretary believes are necessary.

"(3) Form of reports.—Each report submitted under this subsection shall be in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex.

"(4) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Financial Services, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives; and

"(B) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate."

[For termination, effective Dec. 30, 2021, of reporting requirements in section 1071(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out above, see section 1702(a), (b), of Pub. L. 116–92, set out as a Termination of Reporting Requirements note under section 111 of this title.]

Greater Integration of the National Technology and Industrial Base

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §881, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2315, provided that:

"(a) Plan Required.—Not later than January 1, 2018, the Secretary of Defense shall develop a plan to reduce the barriers to the seamless integration between the persons and organizations that comprise the national technology and industrial base (as defined in section 2500 of title 10, United States Code). The plan shall include at a minimum the following elements:

"(1) A description of the various components of the national technology and industrial base, including government entities, universities, nonprofit research entities, nontraditional and commercial item contractors, and private contractors that conduct commercial and military research, produce commercial items that could be used by the Department of Defense, and produce items designated and controlled under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778] (also known as the 'United States Munitions List').

"(2) Identification of the barriers to the seamless integration of the transfer of knowledge, goods, and services among the persons and organizations of the national technology and industrial base.

"(3) Identification of current authorities that could contribute to further integration of the persons and organizations of the national technology and industrial base, and a plan to maximize the use of those authorities.

"(4) Identification of changes in export control rules, procedures, and laws that would enhance the civil-military integration policy objectives set forth in section 2501(b) of title 10, United States Code, for the national technology and industrial base to increase the access of the Armed Forces to commercial products, services, and research and create incentives necessary for nontraditional and commercial item contractors, universities, and nonprofit research entities to modify commercial products or services to meet Department of Defense requirements.

"(5) Recommendations for increasing integration of the national technology and industrial base that supplies defense articles to the Armed Forces and enhancing allied interoperability of forces through changes to the text or the implementation of—

"(A) section 126.5 of title 22, Code of Federal Regulations (relating to exemptions that are applicable to Canada under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations);

"(B) the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Sydney on September 5, 2007;

"(C) the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington and London on June 21 and 26, 2007; and

"(D) any other agreements among the countries comprising the national technology and industrial base.

"(b) Amendment to Definition of National Technology and Industrial Base.—[Amended section 2500 of this title.]

"(c) Reporting Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense shall report on the progress of implementing the plan in subsection (a) in the report required under section 2504 of title 10, United States Code."

Department of Defense Technology Offset Program To Build and Maintain the Military Technological Superiority of the United States

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title II, §218, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 772, provided that:

"(a) Program Established.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a technology offset program to build and maintain the military technological superiority of the United States by—

"(A) accelerating the fielding of offset technologies that would help counter technological advantages of potential adversaries of the United States, including directed energy, low-cost, high-speed munitions, autonomous systems, undersea warfare, cyber technology, and intelligence data analytics, developed using research funding of the Department of Defense and accelerating the commercialization of such technologies; and

"(B) developing and implementing new policies and acquisition and business practices.

"(2) Guidelines.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], the Secretary shall issue guidelines for the operation of the program established under paragraph (1), including—

"(A) criteria for an application for funding by a military department, Defense Agency, or a combatant command;

"(B) the purposes for which such a department, agency, or command may apply for funds and appropriate requirements for technology development or commercialization to be supported using program funds;

"(C) the priorities, if any, to be provided to field or commercialize offset technologies developed by certain types of research funding of the Department; and

"(D) criteria for evaluation of an application for funding or changes to policies or acquisition and business practices by such a department, agency, or command for purposes of the program.

"(b) Applications for Funding.—

"(1) In general.—Under the program established under subsection (a)(1), not less frequently than annually, the Secretary shall solicit from the heads of the military departments, the Defense Agencies, and the combatant commands applications for funding to be used to enter into contracts, cooperative agreements, or other transaction agreements entered into pursuant to section 2371b of title 10, United States Code, as added by section 815, with appropriate entities for the fielding or commercialization of technologies.

"(2) Treatment pursuant to certain congressional rules.—Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to require any official of the Department of Defense to provide funding under this section to any Congressional earmark as defined pursuant to clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the House of Representatives or any congressionally directed spending item as defined pursuant to paragraph 5 of rule XLIV of the Standing Rules of the Senate.

"(c) Funding.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to the availability of appropriations for such purpose, of the funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2016 for research, development, test, and evaluation, Defense-wide, not more than $300,000,000 may be used for each such fiscal year for the program established under subsection (a)(1).

"(2) Amount for directed energy.—Of the funds specified in paragraph (1) for any of fiscal years 2016 through 2020, not more than $150,000,000 may be used for each such fiscal year for activities in the field of directed energy.

"(d) Transfer Authority.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary may transfer funds available for the program established under subsection (a)(1) to the research, development, test, and evaluation accounts of a military department, Defense Agency, or a combatant command pursuant to an application, or any part of an application, that the Secretary determines would support the purposes of the program.

"(2) Supplement not supplant.—The transfer authority provided in paragraph (1) is in addition to any other transfer authority available to the Secretary of Defense.

"(e) Termination.—

"(1) In general.—The authority to carry out the program under subsection (a)(1) shall terminate on September 30, 2020.

"(2) Transfer after termination.—Any amounts made available for the program that remain available for obligation on the date on which the program terminates may be transferred under subsection (d) during the 180-day period beginning on the date of the termination of the program."

Expansion of the Industrial Base

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §891, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4310, provided that:

"(a) Program To Expand Industrial Base Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a program to expand the industrial base of the Department of Defense to increase the Department's access to innovation and the benefits of competition.

"(b) Identifying and Communicating With Firms That Are Not Traditional Suppliers.—The program established under subsection (a) shall use tools and resources available within the Federal Government and available from the private sector to provide a capability for identifying and communicating with firms that are not traditional suppliers, including commercial firms and firms of all business sizes, that are engaged in markets of importance to the Department of Defense in which such firms can make a significant contribution.

"(c) Outreach to Local Firms Near Defense Installations.—The program established under subsection (a) shall include outreach, using procurement technical assistance centers, to firms of all business sizes in the vicinity of Department of Defense installations regarding opportunities to obtain contracts and subcontracts to perform work at such installations.

"(d) Industrial Base Review.—The program established under subsection (a) shall include a continuous effort to review the industrial base supporting the Department of Defense, including the identification of markets of importance to the Department of Defense in which firms that are not traditional suppliers can make a significant contribution.

"(e) Firms That Are Not Traditional Suppliers.—For purposes of this section, a firm is not a traditional supplier of the Department of Defense if it does not currently have contracts and subcontracts to perform work for the Department of Defense with a total combined value in excess of $500,000.

"(f) Procurement Technical Assistance Center.—In this section, the term 'procurement technical assistance center' means a center operating under a cooperative agreement with the Defense Logistics Agency to provide procurement technical assistance pursuant to the authority provided in chapter 142 of title 10, United States Code."

Executive Agent for Printed Circuit Board Technology

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title II, §256, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4404, provided that:

"(a) Executive Agent.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall designate a senior official of the Department of Defense to act as the executive agent for printed circuit board technology.

"(b) Roles, Responsibilities, and Authorities.—

"(1) Establishment.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008], and in accordance with Directive 5101.1, the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe the roles, responsibilities, and authorities of the executive agent designated under subsection (a).

"(2) Specification.—The roles and responsibilities of the executive agent designated under subsection (a) shall include each of the following:

"(A) Development and maintenance of a printed circuit board and interconnect technology roadmap that ensures that the Department of Defense has access to the manufacturing capabilities and technical expertise necessary to meet future military requirements regarding such technology.

"(B) Development of recommended funding strategies necessary to meet the requirements of the roadmap developed under subparagraph (A).

"(C) Assessment of the vulnerabilities, trustworthiness, and diversity of the printed circuit board supply chain, including the development of trustworthiness requirements for printed circuit boards used in defense systems, and to develop strategies to address matters that are identified as a result of such assessment.

"(D) Such other roles and responsibilities as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate.

"(c) Support Within Department of Defense.—In accordance with Directive 5101.1, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the military departments, Defense Agencies, and other components of the Department of Defense provide the executive agent designated under subsection (a) with the appropriate support and resources needed to perform the roles, responsibilities, and authorities of the executive agent.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'Directive 5101.1' means Department of Defense Directive 5101.1, or any successor directive relating to the responsibilities of an executive agent of the Department of Defense.

"(2) The term 'executive agent' has the meaning given the term 'DoD Executive Agent' in Directive 5101.1."

Requirement for Separate Reports on Technology Area Review and Assessment Summaries

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title II, §253(c), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3180, provided that whenever the Secretary of Defense provided for the conduct of a study referred to as a Technology Area Review and Assessment, the Secretary, not later than March 1 of the year following the year in which that study was conducted, was to submit to the Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report containing a summary of each such Technology Area Review and Assessment conducted during that year, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title II, §236, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 47.

Essential Items Identification and Domestic Production Capabilities Improvement Program

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, subtitle B, part I, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1542, as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §841, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2335; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §846, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2420; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1062(g)(2), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(5)(A), (d)(1)(C), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3506, 3509, provided that:

"SEC. 811. CONSISTENCY WITH UNITED STATES OBLIGATIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS.

"No provision of this subtitle [subtitle B (§§811–828) of title VIII of div. A of Pub. L. 108–136, enacting section 2436 of this title, amending sections 2533a and 2534 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2436, 2505, 2521, and 2534 of this title] or any amendment made by this subtitle shall apply to the extent the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the United States Trade Representative, and the Secretary of State, determines that it is inconsistent with United States obligations under an international agreement.

"SEC. 812. ASSESSMENT AND ANNUAL REPORT OF UNITED STATES DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE CAPABILITIES AND ACQUISITIONS OF ARTICLES, MATERIALS, AND SUPPLIES MANUFACTURED OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES.

"(a) Assessment Program.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish a program to assess—

"(A) the degree to which the United States is dependent on foreign sources of supply; and

"(B) the capabilities of the United States defense industrial base to produce military systems necessary to support the national security objectives set forth in section 2501 of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) For purposes of the assessment program, the Secretary shall use existing data, as required under subsection (b), and submit an annual report, as required under subsection (c).

"(b) Use of Existing Data.—(1) At a minimum, with respect to each prime contract with a value greater than $25,000 for the procurement of defense items and components, the following information from existing sources shall be used for purposes of the assessment program:

"(A) Whether the contractor is a United States or foreign contractor.

"(B) The principal place of business of the contractor and the principal place of performance of the contract.

"(C) Whether the contract was awarded on a sole source basis or after receipt of competitive offers.

"(D) The dollar value of the contract.

"(2) The Federal Procurement Data System described in section 1122(a)(4)(A) of title 41, United States Code, or any successor system, shall collect from contracts described in paragraph (1) the information specified in that paragraph.

"(3) Information obtained in the implementation of this section is subject to the same limitations on disclosure, and penalties for violation of such limitations, as is provided under section 2507 of title 10, United States Code. Such information also shall be exempt from release under section 552 of title 5, United States Code.

"(4) For purposes of meeting the requirements set forth in this section, the Secretary of Defense may not require the provision of information beyond the information that is currently provided to the Department of Defense through existing data collection systems by non-Federal entities with respect to contracts and subcontracts with the Department of Defense or any military department.

"[(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1062(g)(2), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1585.]

"(d) Public Availability.—The Secretary of Defense shall make the report submitted under subsection (c) publicly available to the maximum extent practicable.

"(e) Applicability.—This section shall not apply to acquisitions made by an agency, or component thereof, that is an element of the intelligence community as set forth in or designated under section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003(4)).

"[SEC. 813. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §846, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2420.]

"SEC. 814. PRODUCTION CAPABILITIES IMPROVEMENT FOR CERTAIN ESSENTIAL ITEMS USING DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE CAPABILITIES FUND.

"(a) Establishment of Fund.—There is established in the Treasury of the United States a separate fund to be known as the Defense Industrial Base Capabilities Fund (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Fund').

"(b) Moneys in Fund.—There shall be credited to the Fund amounts appropriated to it.

"(c) Use of Fund.—The Secretary of Defense is authorized to use all amounts in the Fund, subject to appropriation, for the purposes of enhancing or reconstituting United States industrial capability to produce items on the military system essential item breakout list (as described in section 812(b)) or items subject to section 2534 of title 10, United States Code, in the quantity and of the quality necessary to achieve national security objectives.

"(d) Limitation on Use of Fund.—Before the obligation of any amounts in the Fund, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report describing the Secretary's plans for implementing the Fund established in subsection (a), including the priorities for the obligation of amounts in the Fund, the criteria for determining the recipients of such amounts, and the mechanisms through which such amounts may be provided to the recipients.

"(e) Availability of Funds.—Amounts in the Fund shall remain available until expended.

"(f) Fund Manager.—The Secretary of Defense shall designate a Fund manager. The duties of the Fund manager shall include—

"(1) ensuring the visibility and accountability of transactions engaged in through the Fund; and

"(2) reporting to Congress each year regarding activities of the Fund during the previous fiscal year."

Air Force Science and Technology Planning

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title II, subtitle D, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1041, provided that:

"SEC. 251. SHORT TITLE.

"This subtitle may be cited as the 'Air Force Science and Technology for the 21st Century Act'.

"SEC. 252. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING.

"(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of the Air Force should carry out each of the following:

"(1) Continue and improve efforts to ensure that—

"(A) the Air Force science and technology community is represented, and the recommendations of that community are considered, at all levels of program planning and budgetary decisionmaking within the Air Force;

"(B) advocacy for science and technology development is institutionalized across all levels of Air Force management in a manner that is not dependent on individuals; and

"(C) the value of Air Force science and technology development is made increasingly apparent to the warfighters, by linking the needs of those warfighters with decisions on science and technology development.

"(2) Complete and adopt a policy directive that provides for changes in how the Air Force makes budgetary and nonbudgetary decisions with respect to its science and technology development programs and how it carries out those programs.

"(3) At least once every five years, conduct a review of the long-term challenges and short-term objectives of the Air Force science and technology programs that is consistent with the review specified in section 252 of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (as enacted into law by Public Law 106–398; 114 Stat. 1654A–46 [set out as a note below]).

"(4) Ensure that development and science and technology planning and investment activities are carried out for future space warfighting systems and for future nonspace warfighting systems in an integrated manner.

"(5) Elevate the position within the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force that has primary responsibility for budget and policy decisions for science and technology programs.

"(b) Reinstatement of Development Planning.—(1) The Secretary of the Air Force shall reinstate and implement a revised development planning process that provides for each of the following:

"(A) Coordinating the needs of Air Force warfighters with decisions on science and technology development.

"(B) Giving input into the establishment of priorities among science and technology programs.

"(C) Analyzing Air Force capability options for the allocation of Air Force resources.

"(D) Developing concepts for technology, warfighting systems, and operations with which the Air Force can achieve its critical future goals.

"(E) Evaluating concepts for systems and operations that leverage technology across Air Force organizational boundaries.

"(F) Ensuring that a 'system-of-systems' approach is used in carrying out the various Air Force capability planning exercises.

"(G) Utilizing existing analysis capabilities within the Air Force product centers in a collaborative and integrated manner.

"(2) Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2001], the Secretary of the Air Force shall submit to Congress a report on the implementation of the planning process required by paragraph (1). The report shall include the annual amount that the Secretary considers necessary to carry out paragraph (1).

"SEC. 253. STUDY AND REPORT ON EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR FORCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM CHANGES.

"(a) Requirement.—The Secretary of the Air Force, in cooperation with the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, shall carry out a study to determine how the changes to the Air Force science and technology program implemented during the past two years affect the future capabilities of the Air Force.

"(b) Matters Studied.—(1) The study shall review and assess whether such changes as a whole are sufficient to ensure the following:

"(A) That the concerns about the management of the science and technology program that have been raised by Congress, the Defense Science Board, the Air Force Science Advisory Board, and the Air Force Association have been adequately addressed.

"(B) That appropriate and sufficient technology is available to ensure the military superiority of the United States and counter future high-risk threats.

"(C) That the science and technology investments are balanced to meet the near-, mid-, and long-term needs of the Air Force.

"(D) That technologies are made available that can be used to respond flexibly and quickly to a wide range of future threats.

"(E) That the Air Force organizational structure provides for a sufficiently senior level advocate of science and technology to ensure an ongoing, effective presence of the science and technology community during the budget and planning process.

"(2) In addition, the study shall assess the specific changes to the Air Force science and technology program as follows:

"(A) Whether the biannual science and technology summits provide sufficient visibility into, and understanding and appreciation of, the value of the science and technology program to the senior level of Air Force budget and policy decisionmakers.

"(B) Whether the applied technology councils are effective in contributing the input of all levels beneath the senior leadership into the coordination, focus, and content of the science and technology program.

"(C) Whether the designation of the commander of the Air Force Materiel Command as the science and technology budget advocate is effective to ensure that an adequate Air Force science and technology budget is requested.

"(D) Whether the revised development planning process is effective to aid in the coordination of the needs of the Air Force warfighters with decisions on science and technology investments and the establishment of priorities among different science and technology programs.

"(E) Whether the implementation of section 252 of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (as enacted into law by Public Law 106–398; 114 Stat. 1654A–46 [set out as a note below]) is effective to identify the basis for the appropriate science and technology program funding level and investment portfolio.

"(c) Report.—Not later than May 1, 2003, the Secretary of the Air Force shall submit to Congress the results of the study."

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title II, §252], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-46, provided that:

"(a) Requirement for Review.—The Secretary of the Air Force shall conduct a review of the long-term challenges and short-term objectives of the Air Force science and technology programs. The Secretary shall complete the review not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000].

"(b) Matters To Be Reviewed.—The review shall include the following:

"(1) An assessment of the budgetary resources that are being used for fiscal year 2001 for addressing the long-term challenges and the short-term objectives of the Air Force science and technology programs.

"(2) The budgetary resources that are necessary to address those challenges and objectives adequately.

"(3) A course of action for each projected or ongoing Air Force science and technology program that does not address either the long-term challenges or the short-term objectives.

"(4) The matters required under subsection (c)(5) and (d)(6).

"(c) Long-Term Challenges.—(1) The Secretary of the Air Force shall establish an integrated product team to identify high-risk, high-payoff challenges that will provide a long-term focus and motivation for the Air Force science and technology programs over the next 20 to 50 years following the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]. The integrated product team shall include representatives of the Office of Scientific Research and personnel from the Air Force Research Laboratory.

"(2) The team shall solicit views from the entire Air Force science and technology community on the matters under consideration by the team.

"(3) The team—

"(A) shall select for consideration science and technology challenges that involve—

"(i) compelling requirements of the Air Force;

"(ii) high-risk, high-payoff areas of exploration; and

"(iii) very difficult, but probably achievable, results; and

"(B) should not select a linear extension of any ongoing Air Force science and technology program for consideration as a science and technology challenge under subparagraph (A).

"(4) The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering shall designate a technical coordinator and a management coordinator for each science and technology challenge identified pursuant to this subsection. Each technical coordinator shall have sufficient expertise in fields related to the challenge to be able to identify other experts in such fields and to affirm the credibility of the challenge. The coordinator for a science and technology challenge shall conduct workshops within the relevant scientific and technological community to obtain suggestions for possible approaches to addressing the challenge and to identify ongoing work that addresses the challenge, deficiencies in current work relating to the challenge, and promising areas of research.

"(5) In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of the Air Force shall review the science and technology challenges identified pursuant to this subsection and, for each such challenge, at a minimum—

"(A) consider the results of the workshops conducted pursuant to paragraph (4); and

"(B) identify any work not currently funded by the Air Force that should be performed to meet the challenge.

"(d) Short-Term Objectives.—(1) The Secretary of the Air Force shall establish a task force to identify short-term technological objectives of the Air Force science and technology programs. The task force shall be chaired by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering and shall include representatives of the Chief of Staff of the Air Force and the specified combatant commands of the Air Force.

"(2) The task force shall solicit views from the entire Air Force requirements community, user community, and acquisition community.

"(3) The task force shall select for consideration short-term objectives that involve—

"(A) compelling requirements of the Air Force;

"(B) support in the user community; and

"(C) likely attainment of the desired benefits within a five-year period.

"(4) The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering shall establish an integrated product team for each short-term objective identified pursuant to this subsection. Each integrated product team shall include representatives of the requirements community, the user community, and the science and technology community with relevant expertise.

"(5) The integrated product team for a short-term objective shall be responsible for—

"(A) identifying, defining, and prioritizing the enabling capabilities that are necessary for achieving the objective;

"(B) identifying deficiencies in the enabling capabilities that must be addressed if the short-term objective is to be achieved; and

"(C) working with the Air Force science and technology community to identify science and technology projects and programs that should be undertaken to eliminate each deficiency in an enabling capability.

"(6) In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of the Air Force shall review the short-term science and technology objectives identified pursuant to this subsection and, for each such objective, at a minimum—

"(A) consider the work of the integrated product team conducted pursuant to paragraph (5); and

"(B) identify the science and technology work of the Air Force that should be undertaken to eliminate each deficiency in enabling capabilities that is identified by the integrated product team pursuant to subparagraph (B) of that paragraph.

"(e) Comptroller General Review.—(1) Not later than 90 days after the Secretary of the Air Force completes the review required by subsection (a), the Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the review. The report shall include the Comptroller General's assessment regarding the extent to which the review was conducted in compliance with the requirements of this section.

"(2) Immediately upon completing the review required by subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall notify the Comptroller General of the completion of the review. For the purposes of paragraph (1), the date of the notification shall be considered the date of the completion of the review."

Report by Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title II, §243, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 551, required the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics to submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the actions necessary to promote the research base and technological development needed for ensuring that the Armed Forces had the military capabilities necessary for meeting national security requirements over the next two to three decades.

Sense of Congress on Defense Science and Technology Program

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title II, §212, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 542, as amended by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(h)(1), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1604; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title II, §217, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2125, which provided the sense of Congress as to funding objectives for the Defense Science and Technology Program, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title II, §213, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2226.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title II, §214, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1948, provided that:

"(a) Funding Requirements for the Defense Science and Technology Program Budget.—It is the sense of Congress that, for each of the fiscal years 2000 through 2008, it should be an objective of the Secretary of Defense to increase the budget for the Defense Science and Technology Program for the fiscal year over the budget for that program for the preceding fiscal year by a percent that is at least two percent above the rate of inflation as determined by the Office of Management and Budget.

"(b) Guidelines for the Defense Science and Technology Program.—

"(1) Relationship of defense science and technology program to university research.—It is the sense of Congress that the following should be key objectives of the Defense Science and Technology Program:

"(A) The sustainment of research capabilities in scientific and engineering disciplines critical to the Department of Defense.

"(B) The education and training of the next generation of scientists and engineers in disciplines that are relevant to future defense systems, particularly through the conduct of basic research.

"(C) The continued support of the Defense Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research and research programs at historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions.

"(2) Relationship of the defense science and technology program to commercial research and technology.—(A) It is the sense of Congress that, in supporting projects within the Defense Science and Technology Program, the Secretary of Defense should attempt to leverage commercial research, technology, products, and processes for the benefit of the Department of Defense.

"(B) It is the sense of Congress that funds made available for projects and programs of the Defense Science and Technology Program should be used only for the benefit of the Department of Defense, which includes—

"(i) the development of technology that has only military applications;

"(ii) the development of militarily useful, commercially viable technology; and

"(iii) the adaptation of commercial technology, products, or processes for military purposes.

"(3) Synergistic management of research and development.—It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Defense should have the flexibility to allocate a combination of funds available for the Department of Defense for basic and applied research and for advanced development to support any individual project or program within the Defense Science and Technology Program, but such flexibility should not change the allocation of funds in any fiscal year among basic and applied research and advanced development.

"(4) Management of science and technology.—It is the sense of Congress that—

"(A) management and funding for the Defense Science and Technology Program for each military department should receive a level of priority and leadership attention equal to the level received by program acquisition, and the Secretary of each military department should ensure that a senior official in the department holds the appropriate title and responsibility to ensure effective oversight and emphasis on science and technology;

"(B) to ensure an appropriate long-term focus for investments, a sufficient percentage of science and technology funds should be directed toward new technology areas, and annual reviews should be conducted for ongoing research areas to ensure that those funded initiatives are either integrated into acquisition programs or discontinued when appropriate;

"(C) the Secretary of each military department should take appropriate steps to ensure that sufficient numbers of officers and civilian employees in the department hold advanced degrees in technical fields; and

"(D) of particular concern, the Secretary of the Air Force should take appropriate measures to ensure that sufficient numbers of scientists and engineers are maintained to address the technological challenges faced in the areas of air, space, and information technology.

"(c) Study.—

"(1) Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense, in cooperation with the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, shall conduct a study on the technology base of the Department of Defense.

"(2) Matters covered.—The study shall—

"(A) result in recommendations on the minimum requirements for maintaining a technology base that is sufficient, based on both historical developments and future projections, to project superiority in air and space weapons systems and in information technology;

"(B) address the effects on national defense and civilian aerospace industries and information technology of reducing funding below the goal described in subsection (a); and

"(C) result in recommendations on the appropriate levels of staff with baccalaureate, masters, and doctorate degrees, and the optimal ratio of civilian and military staff holding such degrees, to ensure that science and technology functions of the Department of Defense remain vital.

"(3) Report.—Not later than 120 days after the date on which the study required under paragraph (1) is completed, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the study.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'Defense Science and Technology Program' means basic and applied research and advanced development.

"(2) The term 'basic and applied research' means work funded in program elements for defense research and development under Department of Defense category 6.1 or 6.2.

"(3) The term 'advanced development' means work funded in program elements for defense research and development under Department of Defense category 6.3."

Biennial Joint Warfighting Science and Technology Plan

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title II, §270, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2469, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title II, §242, title X, §1067(5), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 551, 774; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title II, §253(a), (b), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3179, 3180, which required biennial submission to Congress by the Secretary of Defense of a plan for ensuring that the science and technology program of the Department of Defense supported the development of the future joint warfighting capabilities identified as priority requirements for the Armed Forces, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title II, §241, Oct 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2237.

Cost Reimbursement Rules for Indirect Costs Attributable to Private Sector Work of Defense Contractors

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title VIII, §808, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 393, authorized Secretary of Defense to enter into agreements with defense contractors under which certain cost reimbursement rules would be applied and required submission of report to congressional defense committees not later than one year after Feb. 10, 1996, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1027(d), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1880. See section 7315 of this title.

Documentation for Awards for Cooperative Agreements or Other Transactions Under Defense Technology Reinvestment Programs

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1118, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2870, provided that: "At the time of the award for a cooperative agreement or other transaction under a program carried out under chapter 148 of title 10, United States Code, the head of the agency concerned shall include in the file pertaining to such agreement or transaction a brief explanation of the manner in which the award advances and enhances a particular national security objective set forth in section 2501(a) of such title or a particular policy objective set forth in [former] section 2501(b) of such title."

Reports on Defense Conversion, Reinvestment, and Transition Assistance Programs

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1303, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1784, provided that during each of the fiscal years 1994, 1995, and 1996, the Secretary of Defense was to prepare a report that assessed the effectiveness of all defense conversion, reinvestment, and transition assistance programs, as defined in section 1302 of Pub. L. 103–160, 107 Stat. 1783, during the preceding fiscal year.

National Shipbuilding Initiative

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §§1351–1354, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1809, 1810, as amended by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1073(e)(1)(F), (2)(B), (3), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2658, provided that:

"SEC. 1351. SHORT TITLE.

"This subtitle [subtitle D, §§1351–1363 of title XIII of div. A of Pub. L. 103–160, enacting sections 1279d, 1279e, and 1280a of the Appendix to Title 46, Shipping, amending section 31326 of Title 46 and sections 1271, 1273, 1274, and 1274a of the Appendix to Title 46, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1279b and 1279d of the Appendix to Title 46] may be cited as the 'National Shipbuilding and Shipyard Conversion Act of 1993'.

"SEC. 1352. NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING INITIATIVE.

"(a) Establishment of Program.—There shall be a National Shipbuilding Initiative program, to be carried out to support the industrial base for national security objectives by assisting in the reestablishment of the United States shipbuilding industry as a self-sufficient, internationally competitive industry.

"(b) Administering Departments.—The program shall be carried out—

"(1) by the Secretary of Defense, with respect to programs under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense; and

"(2) by the Secretary of Transportation, with respect to programs under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Transportation.

"(c) Program Elements.—The National Shipbuilding Initiative shall consist of the following program elements:

"(1) Financial incentives program.—A financial incentives program to provide loan guarantees to initiate commercial ship construction for domestic and export sales, encourage shipyard modernization, and support increased productivity.

"(2) Technology development program.—A technology development program, to be carried out within the Department of Defense by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, to improve the technology base for advanced shipbuilding technologies and related dual-use technologies through activities including a development program for innovative commercial ship design and production processes and technologies.

"(3) Navy's affordability through commonality program.—Enhanced support by the Secretary of Defense for the shipbuilding program of the Department of the Navy known as the Affordability Through Commonality (ATC) program, to include enhanced support (A) for the development of common modules for military and commercial ships, and (B) to foster civil-military integration into the next generation of Naval surface combatants.

"(4) Navy's manufacturing technology and technology base programs.—Enhanced support by the Secretary of Defense for, and strengthened funding for, that portion of the Manufacturing Technology program of the Navy, and that portion of the Technology Base program of the Navy, that are in the areas of shipbuilding technologies and ship repair technologies.

"SEC. 1353. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAM MANAGEMENT THROUGH DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY.

"The Secretary of Defense shall designate the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense as the lead agency of the Department of Defense for activities of the Department of Defense which are part of the National Shipbuilding Initiative program. Those activities shall be carried out as part of defense conversion activities of the Department of Defense.

"SEC. 1354. DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY FUNCTIONS AND MINIMUM FINANCIAL COMMITMENT OF NON-FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPANTS.

"(a) DARPA Functions.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, shall carry out the following functions with respect to the National Shipbuilding Initiative program:

"(1) Consultation with the Maritime Administration, the Office of Economic Adjustment, the National Economic Council, the National Shipbuilding Research Project, the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, appropriate naval commands and activities, and other appropriate Federal agencies on—

"(A) development and transfer to the private sector of dual-use shipbuilding technologies, ship repair technologies, and shipbuilding management technologies;

"(B) assessments of potential markets for maritime products; and

"(C) recommendation of industrial entities, partnerships, joint ventures, or consortia for short- and long-term manufacturing technology investment strategies.

"(2) Funding and program management activities to develop innovative design and production processes and the technologies required to implement those processes.

"(3) Facilitation of industry and Government technology development and technology transfer activities (including education and training, market assessments, simulations, hardware models and prototypes, and national and regional industrial base studies).

"(4) Integration of promising technology advances made in the Technology Reinvestment Program of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency into the National Shipbuilding Initiative to effect full defense conversion potential.

"(b) Financial Commitment of Non-Federal Government Participants.—

"(1) Maximum department of defense share.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the amount of funds provided by the Secretary to a non-Federal government participant does not exceed 50 percent of the total cost of technology development and technology transfer activities.

"(2) Regulations.—The Secretary may prescribe regulations to provide for consideration of in-kind contributions by non-Federal Government participants in a partnership for the purpose of calculating the share of the partnership costs that has been or is being undertaken by such participants. In prescribing the regulations, the Secretary may determine that a participant that is a small business concern may use funds received under the Small Business Innovation Research Program or the Small Business Technology Transfer Program to help pay the costs of partnership activities. Any such funds so used may be included in calculating the amount of the financial commitment undertaken by the non-Federal Government participants unless the Secretary determines that the small business concern has not made a significant equity contribution in the program from non-Federal sources."

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Armament Retooling and Manufacturing Support Initiative

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title I, §§191–195, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2347–2349, as amended by Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §202(a)(1), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1141(a), (b), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2879; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title I, §143, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2449; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title I, §115, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1939; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title I, §116, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 533, known as the "Armament Retooling and Manufacturing Support Act of 1992", authorized the Secretary of the Army, during fiscal years 1993 through 2001, to carry out the Armament Retooling and Manufacturing Support Initiative, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §344(d)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-71.

Implementation of Requirements for Assessment, Planning, and Analysis

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4218, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2671, related to collection of information, completion of assessments, and issuance of plans required by this subchapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(h), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2614.

Industrial Diversification Planning for Defense Contractors

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4239, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2694, provided that: "Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992], the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to encourage defense contractors to engage in industrial diversification planning."

Notice to Contractors and Employees Upon Proposed and Actual Termination or Substantial Reduction in Major Defense Programs

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, §4471, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2753, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1372, Nov. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 1817; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1142, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2881; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §824, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2610; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(d)(2)(C), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1905; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(7)(C), (f)(6)(C)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-419, 2681-430, provided that:

"(a) Notice Requirement After Enactment of Appropriations Act.—Each year, not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of an Act appropriating funds for the military functions of the Department of Defense, the Secretary of Defense, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary—

"(1) shall identify each contract (if any) under major defense programs of the Department of Defense that will be terminated or substantially reduced as a result of the funding levels provided in that Act; and

"(2) shall ensure that notice of the termination of, or substantial reduction in, the funding of the contract is provided—

"(A) directly to the prime contractor under the contract; and

"(B) directly to the Secretary of Labor.

"(b) Notice to Subcontractors.—Not later than 60 days after the date on which the prime contractor for a contract under a major defense program receives notice under subsection (a), the prime contractor shall—

"(1) provide notice of that termination or substantial reduction to each person that is a first-tier subcontractor under that prime contract for subcontracts in an amount not less than $500,000; and

"(2) require that each such subcontractor—

"(A) provide such notice to each of its subcontractors for subcontracts in an amount in excess of $100,000; and

"(B) impose a similar notice and pass through requirement to subcontractors in an amount in excess of $100,000 at all tiers.

"(c) Contractor Notice to Employees and State Dislocated Worker Unit.—Not later than two weeks after a defense contractor receives notice under subsection (a), the contractor shall provide notice of such termination or substantial reduction to—

"(1)(A) each representative of employees whose work is directly related to the defense contract under such program and who are employed by the defense contractor; or

"(B) if there is no such representative at that time, each such employee; and

"(2) the State or entity designated by the State to carry out rapid response activities under [former] section 134(a)(2)(A) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2864(a)(2)(A)], and the chief elected official of the unit of general local government within which the adverse effect may occur.

"(d) Constructive Notice.—The notice of termination of, or substantial reduction in, a defense contract provided under subsection (c)(1) to an employee of a contractor shall have the same effect as a notice of termination to such employee for the purposes of determining whether such employee is eligible to participate in employment and training activities carried out under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.], except in a case in which the employer has specified that the termination of, or substantial reduction in, the contract is not likely to result in plant closure or mass layoff.

"(e) Loss of Eligibility.—An employee who receives a notice of withdrawal or cancellation of the termination of, or substantial reduction in, contract funding shall not be eligible, on the basis of any related reduction in funding under the contract, to participate in employment and training activities under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.], beginning on the date on which the employee receives the notice.

"(f) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

"(1) The term 'major defense program' means a program that is carried out to produce or acquire a major system (as defined in section 2302(5) of title 10, United States Code).

"(2) The terms 'substantial reduction' and 'substantially reduced', with respect to a defense contract under a major defense program, mean a reduction of 25 percent or more in the total dollar value of the funds obligated by the contract."

§2502. National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council

(a) Establishment.—There is a National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council.

(b) Composition.—The Council is composed of the following members:

(1) The Secretary of Defense, who shall serve as chairman.

(2) The Secretary of Energy.

(3) The Secretary of Commerce.

(4) The Secretary of Labor.

(5) Such other officials as may be determined by the President.


(c) Responsibilities.—The Council shall have the responsibility to ensure effective cooperation among departments and agencies of the Federal Government, and to provide advice and recommendations to the President, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Labor, concerning—

(1) the capabilities of the national technology and industrial base to meet the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title;

(2) programs for achieving such national security objectives; and

(3) changes in acquisition policy that strengthen the national technology and industrial base.


(d) Alternative Performance of Responsibilities.—Notwithstanding subsection (c), the President may assign the responsibilities of the Council to another interagency organization of the executive branch that includes among its members the officials specified in paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection (b).

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4212(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2664; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1312(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1786; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(a)(12), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2856; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 452; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(c)(2), formerly §829(c)(2), (3), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2613, renumbered Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(7)(B), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1904; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(7)(A), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1904.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2502, added Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §821(b)(1)(B), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2015, related to defense industrial base policies, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Another prior section 2502 was renumbered section 2534 of this title.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–85, §1073(c)(7)(A), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 104–201, §829(c)(2). See 1996 Amendment note below.

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201, §829(c)(2), formerly §829(c)(2), (3), as renumbered and amended by Pub. L. 105–85, substituted "the responsibility to ensure effective cooperation" for "the following responsibilities:", struck out "(1) To ensure the effective cooperation" before "among departments", struck out par. (2), redesignated subpars. (A), (B), and (C) as pars. (1), (2), and (3), respectively, and adjusted margins of such pars. Prior to repeal, par. (2) read as follows: "To prepare the periodic assessment and the periodic plan required by sections 2505 and 2506 of this title, respectively."

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(b)(1), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "programs for achieving, during a period of reduction in defense expenditures, the defense reinvestment, diversification, and conversion objectives set forth in section 2501(b) of this title; and".

Subsec. (c)(2), (3). Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(b)(2), (3), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "To provide overall policy guidance to ensure effective implementation by agencies of the Federal Government of defense reinvestment and conversion activities during a period of reduction in defense expenditures."

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "executive" for "Executive".

1993—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–160 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(c), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1904, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Sept. 23, 1996, and as if included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Pub. L. 104–201, as enacted.

§2503. National defense program for analysis of the technology and industrial base

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a program for analysis of the national technology and industrial base.

(b) Supervision of Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out the program through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment. In carrying out the program, the Under Secretaries shall consult with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Labor.

(c) Functions.—The functions of the program shall include, with respect to the national technology and industrial base, the following:

(1) The assembly of timely and authoritative information.

(2) Initiation of studies and analyses.

(3) Provision of technical support and assistance to—

(A) the Secretary of Defense for the preparation of the periodic assessments required by section 2505 of this title;

(B) the defense acquisition university structure and its elements; and

(C) other departments and agencies of the Federal Government in accordance with guidance established by the Council.


(4) Dissemination, through the National Technical Information Service of the Department of Commerce, of unclassified information and assessments for further dissemination within the Federal Government and to the private sector.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4213(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2665; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2612; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(b)(4), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1225; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title IX, §902(74), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1552.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2503, added Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §821(b)(1)(B), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2016; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §842(a), (b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1514, 1515; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(f)(4), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 115; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(32), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2501, established defense industrial base office, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116–92 substituted "the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment" for "the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics" and "the Under Secretaries shall" for "the Under Secretary shall".

2001—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–201, §829(b)(1), substituted "The Secretary of Defense" for "(1) The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council," and struck out pars. (2) to (4) which read as follows:

"(2) As determined by the Secretary of Defense, the program shall be administered by one of the following:

"(A) An existing federally funded research and development center.

"(B) A consortium of existing federally funded research and development centers and other nonprofit entities.

"(C) A private sector entity (other than a federally funded research and development center).

"(D) The National Defense University.

"(3) A contract may be awarded under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (2) only through the use of competitive procedures.

"(4) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that there is appropriate coordination between the program and the Critical Technologies Institute."

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 104–201, §829(b)(2), substituted "the Secretary of Defense for" for "the National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council in" and struck out "and the periodic plans required by section 2506 of this title" after "section 2505 of this title".

Deadline for Establishing Program

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4213(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2666, required the Secretary of Defense to establish the program required by this section not later than six months after Oct. 23, 1992.

§2504. Annual report to Congress

The Secretary of Defense shall transmit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives by March 1 of each year a report which shall include the following information:

(1) A description of the departmental guidance prepared pursuant to section 2506 of this title.

(2) A description of the assessments prepared pursuant to section 2505 of this title and other analyses used in developing the budget submission of the Department of Defense for the next fiscal year.

(3) Based on the strategy required by section 2501 of this title and on the assessments prepared pursuant to Executive order or section 2505 of this title

(A) a map of the industrial base;

(B) a prioritized list of gaps or vulnerabilities in the national technology and industrial base, including—

(i) a description of mitigation strategies necessary to address such gaps or vulnerabilities;

(ii) the identification of the Secretary concerned or the head of the Defense Agency responsible for addressing such gaps or vulnerabilities; and

(iii) a proposed timeline for action to address such gaps or vulnerabilities; and


(C) any other steps necessary to foster and safeguard the national technology and industrial base.


(4) Identification of each program designed to sustain specific essential technological and industrial capabilities and processes of the national technology and industrial base.

(Added Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(e), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2614; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XVI, §1603(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2063; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §846(b), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1503.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2504, added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4214(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2666, established Center for Study of Defense Economic Adjustment, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1312(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1786.

Another prior section 2504 was renumbered section 2531 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Par. (3). Pub. L. 116–92, §846(b)(1), inserted "Executive order or" after "pursuant to".

Par. (3)(A). Pub. L. 116–92, §846(b)(2), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "a description of any mitigation strategies necessary to address any gaps or vulnerabilities in the national technology and industrial base; and".

Par. (3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 116–92, §846(b)(3), (4), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

2013—Pars. (2), (3). Pub. L. 112–239 added par. (3), redesignated former par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "A description of the methods and analyses being undertaken by the Department of Defense alone or in cooperation with other Federal agencies, to identify and address concerns regarding technological and industrial capabilities of the national technology and industrial base."

1999Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security" in introductory provisions.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective Dec. 31, 2021, of provisions of this section requiring submittal of annual report to Congress, see section 1061 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 111 of this title.

Strategy For Securing the Defense Supply Chain and Industrial Base

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §852, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1517, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XVI, §1603(d), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2063, which required a report on the sector-by-sector, tier-by-tier assessment of the industrial base undertaken by the Department of Defense, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(55), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1850.

§2504a. Unfunded priorities of the national technology and industrial base: annual report

(a) Annual Report.—Not later than 10 days after the date on which the budget of the President for a fiscal year is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment shall submit to the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the congressional defense committees a report on the unfunded priorities to address gaps or vulnerabilities in the national technology and industrial base.

(b) Elements.—

(1) In general.—Each report under subsection (a) shall specify, for each unfunded priority covered by such report, the following:

(A) A summary description of such priority, including the objectives to be achieved if such priority is funded (whether in whole or in part).

(B) The additional amount of funds recommended in connection with the objectives under subparagraph (A).

(C) Account information with respect to such priority, including the following (as applicable):

(i) Line Item Number (LIN) for applicable procurement accounts.

(ii) Program Element (PE) number for applicable research, development, test, and evaluation accounts.

(iii) Sub-activity group (SAG) for applicable operation and maintenance accounts.


(2) Prioritization of priorities.—Each report shall present the unfunded priorities covered by such report in order of urgency of priority.


(c) Unfunded Priority Defined.—In this section, the term "unfunded priority", in the case of a fiscal year, means a program, activity, or mission requirement of the national technology and industrial base that—

(1) is not funded in the budget of the President for the fiscal year as submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31;

(2) is necessary to address gaps or vulnerabilities in the national technology and industrial base; and

(3) would have been recommended for funding through the budget referred to in paragraph (1) if—

(A) additional resources had been available for the budget to fund the program, activity, or mission requirement; or

(B) the program, activity, or mission requirement had emerged before the budget was formulated.

(Added Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §846(c)(1), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1504.)

§2505. National technology and industrial base: periodic defense capability assessments

(a) Periodic Assessment.—Each fiscal year, the Secretary of Defense shall prepare selected assessments of the capability of the national technology and industrial base to attain the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title. The Secretary of Defense shall prepare such assessments in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of Energy.

(b) Assessment Process.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that technology and industrial capability assessments—

(1) describe sectors or capabilities, their underlying infrastructure and processes;

(2) analyze present and projected financial performance of industries supporting the sectors or capabilities in the assessment;

(3) determine the extent to which the requirements associated with defense acquisition programs can be satisfied by the present and projected performance capacities of industries supporting the sectors or capabilities in the assessment, evaluate the reasons for any variance from applicable preceding determinations, and identify the extent to which those industries are comprised of only one potential source in the national technology and industrial base or have multiple potential sources;

(4) determine the extent to which the requirements associated with defense acquisition programs can be satisfied by the present and projected performance capacities of industries that do not actively support Department of Defense acquisition programs and identify the barriers to the participation of those industries;

(5) identify technological and industrial capabilities and processes for which there is potential for the national industrial and technology base not to be able to support the achievement of national security objectives; and

(6) consider the effects of the termination of major defense acquisition programs (as the term is defined in section 2430 of this title) or major automated information system programs (as defined in section 2445a 1 of this title) in the previous fiscal year on the sectors and capabilities in the assessment.


(c) Assessment of Extent of Dependency on Foreign Source Items.—Each assessment under subsection (a) shall include a separate discussion and presentation regarding the extent to which the national technology and industrial base is dependent on items for which the source of supply, manufacture, or technology is outside of the United States and Canada and for which there is no immediately available source in the United States or Canada. The discussion and presentation regarding foreign dependency shall—

(1) identify cases that pose an unacceptable risk of foreign dependency, as determined by the Secretary; and

(2) present actions being taken or proposed to be taken to remedy the risk posed by the cases identified under paragraph (1), including efforts to develop a domestic source for the item in question.


(d) Assessment of Extent of Effects of Foreign Boycotts.—Each assessment under subsection (a) shall include an examination of the extent to which the national technology and industrial base is affected by foreign boycotts. If it is determined that a foreign boycott (other than a boycott addressed in a previous assessment) is subjecting the national technology and industrial base to significant harm, the assessment shall include a separate discussion and presentation regarding that foreign boycott that shall, at a minimum—

(1) identify the sectors that are subject to such harm;

(2) describe the harm resulting from such boycott; and

(3) identify actions necessary to minimize the effects of such boycott on the national technology and industrial base.


(e) Integrated Process.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that consideration of the technology and industrial base assessments is integrated into the overall budget, acquisition, and logistics support decision processes of the Department of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4215, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2667; amended Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(g)(7), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(c)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2612; Pub. L. 111–23, title III, §303(b), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1731; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §895(c), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4314; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XVI, §1602, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2062; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §876, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 941.)

References in Text

Section 2445a of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), was repealed by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §846(1), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2292, effective Sept. 30, 2017.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2505 was renumbered section 2532 of this title.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(3) to (6). Pub. L. 114–92 added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (5) and (6), respectively.

2013—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 112–239 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

2011—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 111–383 inserted "or major automated information system programs (as defined in section 2445a of this title)" after "section 2430 of this title)".

2009—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 111–23 added par. (4).

1996Pub. L. 104–201 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) providing for National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council to prepare, at least annually through fiscal year 1997 and biennially thereafter, a comprehensive assessment of capability of the national technology and industrial base to attain national security objectives.

1993Pub. L. 103–35 substituted "capability" for "capabilty" in section catchline.

Pilot Program on Strengthening Manufacturing in the Defense Industrial Base

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVII, §1711, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1811, provided that:

"(a) Pilot Program Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a pilot program to assess the feasibility and advisability of increasing the capability of the defense industrial base to support—

"(1) production needs to meet military requirements; and

"(2) manufacturing and production of emerging defense and commercial technologies.

"(b) Authorities.—The Secretary shall carry out the pilot program under the following:

"(1) Chapters 137 and 139 and sections 2371, 2371b, and 2373 of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) Such other legal authorities as the Secretary considers applicable to carrying out the pilot program.

"(c) Activities.—Activities under the pilot program may include the following:

"(1) Use of contracts, grants, or other transaction authorities to support manufacturing and production capabilities in small- and medium-sized manufacturers.

"(2) Purchases of goods or equipment for testing and certification purposes.

"(3) Incentives, including purchase commitments and cost sharing with nongovernmental sources, for the private sector to develop manufacturing and production capabilities in areas of national security interest.

"(4) Issuing loans or providing loan guarantees to small- and medium-sized manufacturers to support manufacturing and production capabilities in areas of national security interest.

"(5) Giving awards to third party entities to support investments in small- and medium-sized manufacturers working in areas of national security interest, including debt and equity investments that would benefit missions of the Department of Defense.

"(6) Such other activities as the Secretary determines necessary.

"(d) Termination.—The pilot program shall terminate on the date that is four years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017].

"(e) Briefing Required.—No later than January 31, 2022, the Secretary of Defense shall provide a briefing to the Committees on Armed Services in the Senate and the House of Representatives on the results of the pilot program."

Study of Beryllium Industrial Base

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §824, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1547, required the Secretary of Defense to conduct a study of the adequacy of the industrial base of the United States to meet defense requirements of the United States for beryllium and to submit a report on the results of the study to Congress not later than Mar. 31, 2005.

Implementing Regulations Concerning National Technology and Industrial Base Periodic Assessment

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4219, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2671, as amended by Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §202(a)(14), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 101, set forth requirements for the initial regulations prescribed to implement this section, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(h), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2614.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2506. Department of Defense technology and industrial base policy guidance

(a) Departmental Guidance.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe departmental guidance for the attainment of each of the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title.

(b) Purpose of Guidance.—The guidance prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) shall provide for technological and industrial capability considerations to be integrated into the strategy, management, budget allocation, acquisition, and logistics support decision processes.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4216(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2668; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(d), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §895(d), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4314; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1051(a)(18), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1561.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2506 was renumbered section 2533 of this title.

Amendments

2017Pub. L. 115–91 designated second sentence of subsec. (a) as subsec. (b) and inserted heading, substituted "The guidance prescribed pursuant to subsection (a)" for "Such guidance" in subsec. (b), and struck out former subsec. (b) which required the Secretary of Defense to report on the implementation of the departmental guidance in the annual report to Congress.

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "strategy, management, budget allocation," for "budget allocation, weapons".

1996Pub. L. 104–201 substituted "Department of Defense technology and industrial base policy guidance" for "National technology and industrial base: periodic defense capability plan" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of subsecs. (a) to (e) providing for the National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council to prepare, at least annually through fiscal year 1997 and biennially thereafter, a multiyear plan for ensuring that the policies and programs of the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and other Federal departments and agencies were planned, coordinated, funded, and implemented in a manner designed to attain national security objectives.

Implementing Regulations Concerning National Technology and Industrial Base Periodic Plan

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4220, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2675, set forth requirements for the initial regulations prescribed to implement this section, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(h), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2614.

§2507. Data collection authority of President

(a) Authority.—The President shall be entitled, by regulation, subpoena, or otherwise, to obtain such information from, require such reports and the keeping of such records by, make such inspection of the books, records, and other writings, premises or property of, and take the sworn testimony of, and administer oaths and affirmations to, any person as may be necessary or appropriate, in the President's discretion, to the enforcement or the administration of this chapter and the regulations issued under this chapter.

(b) Condition for Use of Authority.—The President shall issue regulations insuring that the authority of this section will be used only after the scope and purpose of the investigation, inspection, or inquiry to be made have been defined by competent authority and it is assured that no adequate and authoritative data are available from any Federal or other responsible agency.

(c) Penalty for Noncompliance.—Any person who willfully performs any act prohibited or willfully fails to perform any act required by the provisions of subsection (a), or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(d) Limitations on Disclosure of Information.—Information obtained under subsection (a) which the President deems confidential or with reference to which a request for confidential treatment is made by the person furnishing such information shall not be published or disclosed unless the President determines that the withholding thereof is contrary to the interest of the national defense. Any person who willfully violates this subsection shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(e) Regulations.—The President may make such rules, regulations, and orders as he considers necessary or appropriate to carry out the provisions of this section. Any regulation or order under this section may be established in such form and manner, may contain such classification and differentiations, and may provide for such adjustments and reasonable exceptions as in the judgment of the President are necessary or proper to effectuate the purposes of this section, or to prevent circumvention or evasion, or to facilitate enforcement of this section, or any rule, regulation, or order issued under this section.

(f) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "person" includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, or any other organized group of persons, or legal successor or representative of the foregoing, and includes the United States or any agency thereof, or any other government, or any of its political subdivisions, or any agency of any of the foregoing, except that no punishment provided by this section shall apply to the United States, or to any such government, political subdivision, or government agency.

(2) The term "national defense" means programs for military and atomic energy production or construction, military assistance to any foreign nation, stockpiling, space, and directly related activity.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4217, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2670; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(b)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1772; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1056(c)(5), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3439.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2507 was renumbered section 2534 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "subsection (a)" for "section (a)".

1993Pub. L. 103–160 inserted headings in subsecs. (a) to (f).

§2508. Industrial Base Fund

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish an Industrial Base Fund (in this section referred to as the "Fund").

(b) Control of Fund.—The Fund shall be under the control of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, acting through the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy.

(c) Amounts in Fund.—The Fund shall consist of amounts appropriated or otherwise made available to the Fund.

(d) Use of Fund.—Subject to subsection (e), the Fund shall be used—

(1) to support the monitoring and assessment of the industrial base required by this chapter;

(2) to address critical issues in the industrial base relating to urgent operational needs;

(3) to support efforts to expand the industrial base; and

(4) to address supply chain vulnerabilities.


(e) Use of Fund Subject to Appropriations.—The authority of the Secretary of Defense to use the Fund under this section in any fiscal year is subject to the availability of appropriations for that purpose.

(f) Expenditures.—The Secretary shall establish procedures for expending monies in the Fund in support of the uses identified in subsection (d), including the following:

(1) Direct obligations from the Fund.

(2) Transfers of monies from the Fund to relevant appropriations of the Department of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §896(b)(1), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4315; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(g)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title IX, §902(75), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1552.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2508 was renumbered section 2522 of this title and subsequently repealed.

A prior section 2509, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §825(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1604; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(34), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2501, required submission of defense industrial base annual reports, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

A prior section 2510, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §826(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1605, related to defense industrial base for textile and apparel products, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116–92 substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics".

2017Pub. L. 115–91, §1081(g)(1), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 111–383, §896(b)(1), which added this section.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(g), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, provided that the amendment made by section 1081(g)(1) is effective as of Jan. 7, 2011, and as if included in Pub. L. 111–383 as enacted.

§2509. Modernization of acquisition processes to ensure integrity of industrial base

(a) Digitization and Modernization.—The Secretary of Defense shall streamline and digitize the existing Department of Defense approach for identifying and mitigating risks to the defense industrial base across the acquisition process, creating a continuous model that uses digital tools, technologies, and approaches designed to ensure the accessibility of data to key decision-makers in the Department.

(b) Analytical Framework.—(1) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, in coordination with the Director of the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency and the heads of other elements of the Department of Defense as appropriate, shall develop an analytical framework for risk mitigation across the acquisition process.

(2) The analytical framework required under paragraph (1) shall include the following elements:

(A) Characterization and monitoring of supply chain risks, including—

(i) material sources and fragility, including the extent to which sources, items, materials, and articles are mined, produced, or manufactured within or outside the United States;

(ii) telecommunications services or equipment (other than optical transmission components);

(iii) counterfeit parts;

(iv) cybersecurity of contractors;

(v) video surveillance services or equipment;

(vi) vendor vetting in contingency or operational environments;

(vii) other electronic or information technology products and services; and

(viii) other risk areas as determined appropriate.


(B) Characterization and monitoring of risks posed by contractor behavior that constitute violations of laws or regulations, including those relating to—

(i) fraud;

(ii) ownership structures;

(iii) trafficking in persons;

(iv) workers' health and safety;

(v) affiliation with the enemy;

(vi) foreign influence; and

(vii) other risk areas as deemed appropriate.


(C) Characterization and assessment of the acquisition processes and procedures of the Department of Defense, including—

(i) market research;

(ii) responsibility determinations, including consideration of the need for special standards of responsibility to address the risks described in subparagraphs (A) and (B);

(iii) facilities clearances;

(iv) the development of contract requirements;

(v) the technical evaluation of offers and contract awards;

(vi) contractor mobilization, including hiring, training, and establishing facilities;

(vii) contract administration, contract management, and oversight;

(viii) contract audit for closeout;

(ix) suspension and debarment activities and administrative appeals activities;

(x) contractor business system reviews; and

(xi) other relevant processes and procedures.


(D) Characterization and monitoring of the health and activities of the defense industrial base, including those relating to—

(i) balance sheets, revenues, profitability, and debt;

(ii) investment, innovation, and technological and manufacturing sophistication;

(iii) finances, access to capital markets, and cost of raising capital within those markets;

(iv) corporate governance, leadership, and culture of performance; and

(v) history of performance on past Department of Defense and government contracts.


(c) Roles and Responsibilities.—The Secretary of Defense shall designate the roles and responsibilities of organizations and individuals to execute activities under this section, including—

(1) the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, including the Office of Defense Pricing and Contracting and the Office of Industrial Policy;

(2) service acquisition executives;

(3) program offices and procuring contracting officers;

(4) administrative contracting officers within the Defense Contract Management Agency and the Supervisor of Shipbuilding;

(5) the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency;

(6) the Defense Contract Audit Agency;

(7) each element of the Department of Defense which own or operate systems containing data relevant to contractors of the Department;

(8) the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering;

(9) the suspension and debarment official of the Department;

(10) the Chief Information Officer; and

(11) other relevant organizations and individuals.


(d) Enabling Data, Tools, and Systems.—(1)(A) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, in consultation with the Chief Data Officer of the Department of Defense and the Director of the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency, shall assess the extent to which existing systems of record relevant to risk assessments and contracting are producing, exposing, and timely maintaining valid and reliable data for the purposes of the Department's continuous assessment and mitigation of risks in the defense industrial base.

(B) The assessment required under subparagraph (A) shall include the following elements:

(i) Identification of the necessary source data, to include data from contractors, intelligence and security activities, program offices, and commercial research entities.

(ii) A description of the modern data infrastructure, tools, and applications and what changes would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of mitigating the risks described in subsection (b)(2).

(iii) An assessment of the following systems owned or operated outside of the Department of Defense that the Department depends upon or to which it provides data:

(I) The Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS).

(II) The System for Award Management (SAM).

(III) The Federal Procurement Data System–Next Generation (FPDS–NG).

(IV) The Electronic Data Management Information System.

(V) Other systems the Secretary of Defense determines appropriate.


(iv) An assessment of systems owned or operated by the Department of Defense, including the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency and other defense agencies and field activities used to capture and analyze the status and performance (including past performance) of vendors and contractors.


(2) Based on the findings pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary of Defense shall develop a unified set of activities to modernize the systems of record, data sources and collection methods, and data exposure mechanisms. The unified set of activities should feature—

(A) the ability to continuously collect data on, assess, and mitigate risks;

(B) data analytics and business intelligence tools and methods; and

(C) continuous development and continuous delivery of secure software to implement the activities.


(e) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or modify any other procurement policy, procedure, requirement, or restriction provided by law.

(f) Implementation and Reporting Requirements.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out the implementation phases set forth in, and submit to the congressional defense committees the items of information required by, the following paragraphs:

(1) Phase 1: implementation plan.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this section, an implementation plan and schedule for carrying out the framework established pursuant to subsection (b), including—

(A) a discussion and recommendations for any changes to, or exemptions from, laws necessary for effective implementation, including updating the definitions in section 2339a(e) of this title relating to covered procurement, covered system, and covered item of supply, and any similar terms defined in other law or regulation; and

(B) a process for an entity to contact the Department after the entity has taken steps to remediate, mitigate, or otherwise address the risks identified by the Department in conducting activities under subsection (b).


(2) Phase 2: implementation of framework.—Not later than one year after the date of the submission of the implementation plan and schedule required under paragraph (1), a report on the actions taken to implement the framework established pursuant to subsection (b).


(g) Comptroller General Reviews.—

(1) Briefing.—Not later than February 15, 2020, the Comptroller General of the United States shall brief the congressional defense committees on Department of Defense efforts over the previous 5 years to continuously assess and mitigate risks to the defense industrial base across the acquisition process, and a summary of current and planned efforts.

(2) Periodic assessments.—The Comptroller General shall submit to the congressional defense committees three periodic assessments of Department of Defense progress in implementing the framework required under subsection (b), to be provided not later than October 15, 2020, March 15, 2022, and March 15, 2024.

(Added Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §845(a), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1500.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 116–92, which was approved Dec. 20, 2019.

Mitigating Risks Related to Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence of Department of Defense Contractors or Subcontractors

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §847, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1505, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Beneficial owner; beneficial ownership.—The terms 'beneficial owner' and 'beneficial ownership' shall be determined in a manner that is not less stringent than the manner set forth in section 240.13d–3 of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2019]).

"(2) Company.—The term 'company' means any corporation, company, limited liability company, limited partnership, business trust, business association, or other similar entity.

"(3) Covered contractor or subcontractor.—The term 'covered contractor or subcontractor' means a company that is an existing or prospective contractor or subcontractor of the Department of Defense on a contract or subcontract with a value in excess of $5,000,000, except as provided in subsection (c).

"(4) Foreign ownership, control, or influence; foci.—The terms 'foreign ownership, control, or influence' and 'FOCI' have the meanings given those terms in the National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (DOD 5220.22–M), or a successor document.

"(b) Improved Assessment and Mitigation of Risks Related to Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence.—

"(1) In general.—In developing and implementing the analytical framework for mitigating risk relating to ownership structures, as required by section 2509 of title 10, United States Code, as added by section 845 of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall improve the process and procedures for the assessment and mitigation of risks related to foreign ownership, control, or influence (FOCI) of contractors and subcontractors doing business with the Department of Defense.

"(2) Elements.—The process and procedures for the assessment and mitigation of risk relating to ownership structures referred to in paragraph (1) shall include the following elements:

"(A) Assessment of foci.—(i) A requirement for covered contractors and subcontractors to disclose to the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency, or its successor organization, their beneficial ownership and whether they are under FOCI.

"(ii) A requirement to update such disclosures when changes occur to information previously provided, consistent with or similar to the procedures for updating FOCI information under the National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (DOD 5220.22–M), or a successor document.

"(iii) A requirement for covered contractors and subcontractors determined to be under FOCI to disclose contact information for each of its foreign owners that is a beneficial owner.

"(iv) A requirement that, at a minimum, the disclosures required by this paragraph be provided at the time the contract or subcontract is awarded, amended, or renewed, but in no case later than one year after the Secretary prescribes regulations to carry out this subsection.

"(B) Responsibility determination.—Consistent with section 2509 of title 10, United States Code, as added by section 845 of this Act, consideration of FOCI risks as part of responsibility determinations, including—

"(i) whether to establish a special standard of responsibility relating to FOCI risks for covered contractors or subcontractors, and the extent to which the policies and procedures consistent with or similar to those relating to FOCI under the National Industrial Security Program shall be applied to covered contractors or subcontractors;

"(ii) procedures for contracting officers making responsibility determinations regarding whether covered contractors and subcontractors may be under foreign ownership, control, or influence and for determining whether there is reason to believe that such foreign ownership, control, or influence would pose a risk or potential risk to national security or potential compromise because of sensitive data, systems, or processes, such as personally identifiable information, cybersecurity, or national security systems involved with the contract or subcontract; and

"(iii) modification of policies, directives, and practices to provide that an assessment that a covered contractor or subcontractor is under FOCI may be a sufficient basis for a contracting officer to determine that a contractor or subcontractor is not responsible.

"(C) Contract requirements, administration, and oversight relating to foci.—

"(i) Requirements for contract clauses providing for and enforcing disclosures related to changes in FOCI or beneficial ownership during performance of the contract or subcontract, consistent with subparagraph (A), and necessitating the effective mitigation of risks related to FOCI throughout the duration of the contract or subcontract.

"(ii) Pursuant to section 831(c) [sic, no section 831(c) of Pub. L. 116–92 was enacted. Prior to enactment as Pub. L. 116–92, S. 1790 of the 116th Cong., 1st Sess., as introduced in the Senate, contained a section 831 very similar to 10 U.S.C. 2509.], designation of the appropriate Department of Defense official responsible to approve and to take actions relating to award, modification, termination of a contract, or direction to modify or terminate a subcontract due to an assessment by the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency, or its successor organization, that a covered contractor or subcontractor under FOCI poses a risk to national security or potential risk of compromise.

"(iii) A requirement for the provision of additional information regarding beneficial ownership and control of any covered contractor or subcontractor on the contract or subcontract.

"(iv) Other measures as necessary to be consistent with other relevant practices, policies, regulations, and actions, including those under the National Industrial Security Program.

"(c) Applicability to Contracts and Subcontracts for Commercial Products and Services and Other Forms of Acquisition Agreements.—

"(1) Commercial products and services.—The requirements under subsection [sic] (b)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(C) shall not apply to a contract or subcontract for commercial products or services, unless a designated senior Department of Defense official specifically requires the applicability of subsections [sic] (b)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(C) based on a determination by the designated senior official that the contract or subcontract involves a risk or potential risk to national security or potential compromise because of sensitive data, systems, or processes, such as personally identifiable information, cybersecurity, or national security systems.

"(2) Research and development and procurement activities.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the requirements of this section are applied to research and development and procurement activities, including for the delivery of services, established through any means including those under section 2358(b) of title 10, United States Code.

"(d) Availability of Resources.—The Secretary shall ensure that sufficient resources, including subject matter expertise, are allocated to execute the functions necessary to carry out this section, including the assessment, mitigation, contract administration, and oversight functions.

"(e) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or modify any other procurement policy, procedure, requirement, or restriction provided by law, including section 721 of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 4565), as amended by the Foreign Interference Risk Review Modernization Act of 2018 (subtitle A of title XVII of Public Law 115–232).

"(f) Availability of Beneficial Ownership Data.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall establish a process to update systems of record to improve the assessment and mitigation of risks associated with FOCI through the inclusion and updating of all appropriate associated uniquely identifying information about the contracts and contractors and subcontracts and subcontractors in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), administered by the General Services Administration, and the Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) database, administered by the Defense Logistics Agency.

"(2) Limited availability of information.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the information required to be disclosed pursuant to this section is—

"(A) not made public;

"(B) made available via the FAPIIS and CAGE databases; and

"(C) made available to appropriate government departments or agencies."

SUBCHAPTER III—PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT, APPLICATION, AND SUPPORT OF DUAL-USE TECHNOLOGIES

Sec.
2511.
Defense dual-use critical technology program.
[2512, 2513. Repealed.]
2514.
Encouragement of technology transfer.
[2515 to 2517. Repealed.]
2518.
Overseas foreign critical technology monitoring and assessment financial assistance program.
2519.
Federal Defense Laboratory Diversification Program.
[2520.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §811(b)(2), (c)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1845, struck out items 2515 "Office of Technology Transition" and 2517 "Office for Foreign Defense Critical Technology Monitoring and Assessment".

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(i)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 455, substituted "program" for "partnerships" in item 2511 and struck out items 2512 "Commercial-military integration partnerships", 2513 "Regional technology alliances assistance program", 2516 "Military-Civilian Integration and Technology Transfer Advisory Board", and 2520 "Navy Reinvestment Program".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1113(c), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2866, added items 2519 and 2520.

§2511. Defense dual-use critical technology program

(a) Establishment of Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a program to further the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title by encouraging and providing for research, development, and application of dual-use critical technologies. The Secretary may make grants, enter into contracts, or enter into cooperative agreements and other transactions pursuant to section 2371 of this title in furtherance of the program. The Secretary shall identify projects to be conducted as part of the program.

(b) Assistance Authorized.—The Secretary of Defense may provide technical and other assistance to facilitate the achievement of the purposes of projects conducted under the program. In providing such assistance, the Secretary shall make available, as appropriate for the work to be performed, equipment and facilities of Department of Defense laboratories (including the scientists and engineers at those laboratories) for purposes of projects selected by the Secretary.

(c) Financial Commitment of Non-Federal Government Participants.—(1) The total amount of funds provided by the Federal Government for a project conducted under the program may not exceed 50 percent of the total cost of the project. However, the Secretary of Defense may agree to a project in which the total amount of funds provided by the Federal Government exceeds 50 percent if the Secretary determines the project is particularly meritorious, but the project would not otherwise have sufficient non-Federal funding or in-kind contributions.

(2) The Secretary may prescribe regulations to provide for consideration of in-kind contributions by non-Federal Government participants in a project conducted under the program for the purpose of calculating the share of the project costs that has been or is being undertaken by such participants. In such regulations, the Secretary may authorize a participant that is a small business concern to use funds received under the Small Business Innovation Research Program or the Small Business Technology Transfer Program to help pay the costs of project activities. Any such funds so used may be considered in calculating the amount of the financial commitment undertaken by the non-Federal Government participants unless the Secretary determines that the small business concern has not made a significant equity percentage contribution in the project from non-Federal sources.

(3) The Secretary shall consider a project proposal submitted by a small business concern without regard to the ability of the small business concern to immediately meet its share of the anticipated project costs. Upon the selection of a project proposal submitted by a small business concern, the small business concern shall have a period of not less than 120 days in which to arrange to meet its financial commitment requirements under the project from sources other than a person of a foreign country. If the Secretary determines upon the expiration of that period that the small business concern will be unable to meet its share of the anticipated project costs, the Secretary shall revoke the selection of the project proposal submitted by the small business concern.

(d) Selection Process.—Competitive procedures shall be used in the conduct of the program.

(e) Selection Criteria.—The criteria for the selection of projects under the program shall include the following:

(1) The extent to which the proposed project advances and enhances the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title.

(2) The technical excellence of the proposed project.

(3) The qualifications of the personnel proposed to participate in the research activities of the proposed project.

(4) An assessment of timely private sector investment in activities to achieve the goals and objectives of the proposed project other than through the project.

(5) The potential effectiveness of the project in the further development and application of each technology proposed to be developed by the project for the national technology and industrial base.

(6) The extent of the financial commitment of eligible firms to the proposed project.

(7) The extent to which the project does not unnecessarily duplicate projects undertaken by other agencies.


(f) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations for the purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4221(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2677; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §§1315(a), 1317(c), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1787, 1789; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1115(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2868; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(c), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 452.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2511, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1600; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §824(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1438, defined "manufacturing technology", "manufacturing extension program", and "United States-based small manufacturing firm" for purposes of former chapter 149 of this title, prior to repeal and restatement in section 2491 of this title by Pub. L. 102–484, §§4202(a), 4203(a).

Another prior section 2511 was renumbered section 2540 of this title and subsequently repealed.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 2523 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "program" for "partnerships" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text related to program for establishment of cooperative arrangements between Department of Defense and eligible entities.

1994—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–337 added par. (3).

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–160, §1315(a), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that, to the maximum extent he determines to be practicable, the amount of the funds provided by the Federal Government under a partnership does not exceed the total amount provided by non-Federal Government participants in that partnership."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–160, §1317(c), struck out ", except that procedures other than competitive procedures may be used in any case in which an exception set out in section 2304(c) of this title applies" after "partnerships".

Dual-Use Science and Technology Program

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title II, §203, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1655, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §811(h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1846, provided that:

"(a) Funding 1998.—Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated by section 201 [111 Stat. 1655], $75,000,000 is authorized for dual-use projects.

"(b) Goals.—(1) Subject to paragraph (3), it shall be the objective of the Secretary of each military department to obligate for dual-use projects in each fiscal year referred to in paragraph (2), out of the total amount authorized to be appropriated for such fiscal year for the applied research programs of the military department, the percent of such amount that is specified for that fiscal year in paragraph (2).

"(2) The objectives for fiscal years under paragraph (1) are as follows:

"(A) For fiscal year 1998, 5 percent.

"(B) For fiscal year 1999, 7 percent.

"(C) For fiscal year 2000, 10 percent.

"(D) For fiscal year 2001, 15 percent.

"(3) The Secretary of Defense may establish for a military department for a fiscal year an objective different from the objective set forth in paragraph (2) if the Secretary—

"(A) determines that compelling national security considerations require the establishment of the different objective; and

"(B) notifies Congress of the determination and the reasons for the determination.

"[(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §811(h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1846.]

"(d) Financial Commitment of Non-Federal Government Participants.—The total amount of funds provided by a military department for a dual-use project entered into by the Secretary of that department shall not exceed 50 percent of the total cost of the project. In the case of a dual-use project initiated after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997], the Secretary may consider in-kind contributions by non-Federal participants only to the extent such contributions constitute 50 percent or less of the share of the project costs by such participants.

"(e) Use of Competitive Procedures.—Funds obligated for a dual-use project may be counted toward meeting an objective under subsection (a) only if the funds are obligated for a contract, grant, cooperative agreement, or other transaction that was entered into through the use of competitive procedures.

"(f) Report.—(1) Not later than March 1 of each of 1998, 1999, and 2000, the Secretary of Defense shall submit a report to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] on the progress made by the Department of Defense in meeting the objectives set forth in subsection (b) during the preceding fiscal year.

"(2) The report for a fiscal year shall contain, at a minimum, the following:

"(A) The aggregate value of all contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or other transactions entered into during the fiscal year for which funding is counted toward meeting an objective under this section, expressed in relationship to the total amount appropriated for the applied research programs in the Department of Defense for that fiscal year.

"(B) For each military department, the value of all contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or other transactions entered into during the fiscal year for which funding is counted toward meeting an objective under this section, expressed in relationship to the total amount appropriated for the applied research program of the military department for that fiscal year.

"(C) A summary of the cost-sharing arrangements in dual-use projects that were initiated during the fiscal year and are counted toward reaching an objective under this section.

"(D) A description of the regulations, directives, or other procedures that have been issued by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department to increase the percentage of the total value of the dual-use projects undertaken to meet or exceed an objective under this section.

"(E) Any recommended legislation to facilitate achievement of objectives under this section.

"(g) Commercial Operations and Support Savings Initiative.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish a Commercial Operations and Support Savings Initiative (in this subsection referred to as the 'Initiative') to develop commercial products and processes that the military departments can incorporate into operational military systems to reduce costs of operations and support.

"(2) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated by section 201, $50,000,000 is authorized for the Initiative.

"(3) Projects and participants in the Initiative shall be selected through the use of competitive procedures.

"(4) The budget submitted to Congress by the President for fiscal year 1999 and each fiscal year thereafter pursuant to section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, shall set forth separately the funding request for the Initiative.

"(h) Repeal of Superseded Authority.—[Repealed section 203 of Pub. L. 104–201, 110 Stat. 2451.]

"(i) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'applied research program' means a program of a military department which is funded under the 6.2 Research, Development, Test and Evaluation account of that department.

"(2) The term 'dual-use project' means a project under a program of a military department or a defense agency under which research or development of a dual-use technology is carried out and the costs of which are shared by the Department of Defense and non-Government entities."

Application of 1993 Amendments to Existing Technology Reinvestment Projects

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1315(g), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1789, provided that in the case of projects funded under section 2511, 2512, 2513, 2523, or 2524 of this title with funds appropriated for a fiscal year beginning before Oct. 1, 1993, the amendments made by section 1315 of Pub. L. 103–160 would not alter the financial commitment requirements in effect on Nov. 30, 1993, for the non-Federal Government participants in the project.

[§§2512, 2513. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 454]

Section 2512, added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4222(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2679; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §1315(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1787; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1115(b), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2868, related to commercial-military integration partnerships.

A prior section 2512, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1600, related to responsibility of Secretary of Defense to provide management and planning, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Section 2513, added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1428, §2524; renumbered §2513 and amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4223(a)–(f), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2681; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(d)(3), (e)(1), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(g)(2), title XIII, §§1315(c), 1316, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1774, 1787, 1789; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1115(c), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2868, related to regional technology alliances assistance program.

A prior section 2513, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1601; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title II, §203(c), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1314, required annual National Defense Manufacturing Technology Plan, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

§2514. Encouragement of technology transfer

(a) Encouragement of Transfer Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall encourage, to the extent consistent with national security objectives, the transfer of technology between laboratories and research centers of the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies, State and local governments, colleges and universities, and private persons in cases that are likely to result in accomplishing the objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title.

(b) Examination and Implementation of Methods To Encourage Transfer.—The Secretary shall examine and implement methods, in addition to the encouragement referred to in subsection (a) and the program described in subsection (c), that are consistent with national security objectives and will enable Department of Defense personnel to promote technology transfer.

(c) Program To Encourage Diversification of Defense Laboratories.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish and implement a program to be known as the Federal Defense Laboratory Diversification Program (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "Program"). The purpose of the Program shall be to encourage greater cooperation in research and production activities carried out by defense laboratories and by private industry of the United States in order to enhance and improve the products of such research and production activities.

(2) Under the Program, the defense laboratories, in coordination with the Office of Technology Transfer in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, shall carry out cooperative activities with private industry in order to promote (by the use or exchange of patents, licenses, cooperative research and development agreements and other cooperative agreements, and the use of symposia, meetings, and other similar mechanisms) the transfer of defense or dual-use technologies from the defense laboratories to private industry, and the development and application of such technologies by the defense laboratories and private industry, for the purpose of the commercial utilization of such technologies by private industry.

(3) The Secretary of Defense shall develop and annually update a plan for each defense laboratory that participates in the Program under which plan the laboratory shall carry out cooperative activities with private industry to promote the transfers described in subsection (b).

(4) In this subsection, the term "defense laboratory" means any laboratory owned or operated by the Department of Defense that carries out research in fiscal year 1993 in an amount in excess of $50,000,000.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4224(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2682; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §829(f), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2614.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2514, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1601, directed Secretary of Defense to enhance research relating to manufacturing technology, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section were contained in section 2363 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §§4224(c), 4271(a)(2).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 104–201 struck out par. (5) which read as follows: "The Secretary shall coordinate the Program with the National Defense Technology and Industrial Base Council."

National Action Plan on Advanced Superconductivity Research and Development

Superconductivity research and development activities by Secretary of Defense and by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, see section 5207 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Pilot Program To Improve Incentives for Technology Transfer From Department of Defense Laboratories

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title II, §233, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1339, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a pilot program to assess the feasibility and advisability of distributing royalties and other payments as described in this section. Under the pilot program, except as provided in subsections (b) and (d), any royalties or other payments received by a Federal agency from the licensing and assignment of inventions under agreements entered into by Department of Defense laboratories, and from the licensing of inventions of Department of Defense laboratories, shall be retained by the laboratory which produced the invention and shall be disposed of as follows:

"(1)(A) The laboratory director shall pay each year the first $2,000, and thereafter at least 20 percent, of the royalties or other payments, other than payments of patent costs as delineated by a license or assignment agreement, to the inventor or coinventors, if the inventor's or coinventor's rights are directly assigned to the United States.

"(B) A laboratory director may provide appropriate incentives, from royalties or other payments, to laboratory employees who are not an inventor of such inventions but who substantially increased the technical value of the inventions.

"(C) The laboratory shall retain the royalties and other payments received from an invention until the laboratory makes payments to employees of a laboratory under subparagraph (A) or (B).

"(2) The balance of the royalties or other payments shall be transferred by the agency to its laboratories, with the majority share of the royalties or other payments from any invention going to the laboratory where the invention occurred. The royalties or other payments so transferred to any laboratory may be used or obligated by that laboratory during the fiscal year in which they are received or during the 2 succeeding fiscal years—

"(A) to reward scientific, engineering, and technical employees of the laboratory, including developers of sensitive or classified technology, regardless of whether the technology has commercial applications;

"(B) to further scientific exchange among the laboratories of the agency;

"(C) for education and training of employees consistent with the research and development missions and objectives of the agency or laboratory, and for other activities that increase the potential for transfer of the technology of the laboratories of the agency;

"(D) for payment of expenses incidental to the administration and licensing of intellectual property by the agency or laboratory with respect to inventions made at that laboratory, including the fees or other costs for the services of other agencies, persons, or organizations for intellectual property management and licensing services; or

"(E) for scientific research and development consistent with the research and development missions and objectives of the laboratory.

"(3) All royalties or other payments retained by the laboratory after payments have been made pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) that are unobligated and unexpended at the end of the second fiscal year succeeding the fiscal year in which the royalties and other payments were received shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States.

"(b) Treatment of Payments to Employees.—

"(1) In general.—Any payment made to an employee under the pilot program shall be in addition to the regular pay of the employee and to any other awards made to the employee, and shall not affect the entitlement of the employee to any regular pay, annuity, or award to which the employee is otherwise entitled or for which the employee is otherwise eligible or limit the amount thereof. Any payment made to an inventor as such shall continue after the inventor leaves the laboratory.

"(2) Cumulative payments.—(A) Cumulative payments made under the pilot program while the inventor is still employed at the laboratory shall not exceed $500,000 per year to any one person, unless the Secretary concerned (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10, United States Code) approves a larger award.

"(B) Cumulative payments made under the pilot program after the inventor leaves the laboratory shall not exceed $150,000 per year to any one person, unless the head of the agency approves a larger award (with the excess over $150,000 being treated as an agency award to a former employee under section 4505 of title 5, United States Code).

"(c) Invention Management Services.—Under the pilot program, a laboratory receiving royalties or other payments as a result of invention management services performed for another Federal agency or laboratory under section 207 of title 35, United States Code, may retain such royalties or payments to the extent required to offset payments to inventors under subparagraph (A) of subsection (a)(1), costs and expenses incurred under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(2), and the cost of foreign patenting and maintenance for any invention of the other agency. All royalties and other payments remaining after offsetting the payments to inventors, costs, and expenses described in the preceding sentence shall be transferred to the agency for which the services were performed, for distribution in accordance with subsection (a)(2).

"(d) Certain Assignments.—Under the pilot program, if the invention involved was one assigned to the laboratory—

"(1) by a contractor, grantee, or participant, or an employee of a contractor, grantee, or participant, in an agreement or other arrangement with the agency; or

"(2) by an employee of the agency who was not working in the laboratory at the time the invention was made,

the agency unit that was involved in such assignment shall be considered to be a laboratory for purposes of this section.

"(e) Sunset.—The pilot program under this section shall terminate 5 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017]."

Enhanced Transfer of Technology Developed at Department of Defense Laboratories

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title VIII, §801, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 802, as amended by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §818, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2273, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—As used in this section:

"(1) The term 'military department' has the meaning provided in section 101 of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'DOD laboratory' or 'laboratory' means any facility or group of facilities that—

"(A) is owned, leased, operated, or otherwise used by the Department of Defense; and

"(B) meets the definition of 'laboratory' as provided in subsection (d)(2) of section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a).

"(b) Authority.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of a military department each may authorize the heads of DOD laboratories to grant nonexclusive, exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses, royalty free or for royalties or for rights to other intellectual property, for computer software and its related documentation developed at a DOD laboratory, but only if—

"(A) the computer software and related documentation would be a trade secret under the meaning of section 552(b)(4) of title 5, United States Code, if the information had been obtained from a non-Federal party;

"(B) the public is notified of the availability of the software and related documentation for licensing and interested parties have a fair opportunity to submit applications for licensing;

"(C) such licensing activities and licenses comply with the requirements under section 209 of title 35, United States Code; and

"(D) the software originally was developed to meet the military needs of the Department of Defense.

"(2) Protections against unauthorized disclosure.—The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of a military department each shall provide appropriate precautions against the unauthorized disclosure of any computer software or documentation covered by paragraph (1)(A), including exemption from section 552 of title 5, United States Code, for a period of up to 5 years after the development of the computer software by the DOD laboratory.

"(c) Royalties.—

"(1) Use of royalties.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), any royalties or other payments received by the Department of Defense or a military department from licensing computer software or documentation under paragraph (b)(1) shall be retained by the Department of Defense or the military department and shall be disposed of as follows:

"(A)(i) The Department of Defense or the military department shall pay each year the first $2,000, and thereafter at least 15 percent, of the royalties or other payments, to be divided among the employees who developed the computer software.

"(ii) The Department of Defense or the military department may provide appropriate lesser incentives, from the royalties or other payments, to laboratory employees who are not developers of such computer software but who substantially increased the technical value of the software.

"(iii) The Department of Defense or the military department shall retain the royalties and other payments received until it makes payments to employees of a DOD laboratory under clause (i) or (ii).

"(iv) The Department of Defense or the military department may retain an amount reasonably necessary to pay expenses incidental to the administration and distribution of royalties or other payments under this section by an organizational unit of the Department of Defense or military department other than its laboratories.

"(B) The balance of the royalties or other payments shall be transferred by the Department of Defense or the military department to its laboratories, with the majority share of the royalties or other payments going to the laboratory where the development occurred. The royalties or other payments so transferred to any DOD laboratory may be used or obligated by that laboratory during the fiscal year in which they are received or during the 2 succeeding fiscal years—

"(i) to reward scientific, engineering, and technical employees of the DOD laboratory, including developers of sensitive or classified technology, regardless of whether the technology has commercial applications;

"(ii) to further scientific exchange among the laboratories of the agency;

"(iii) for education and training of employees consistent with the research and development missions and objectives of the Department of Defense, military department, or DOD laboratory, and for other activities that increase the potential for transfer of the technology of the DOD laboratory;

"(iv) for payment of expenses incidental to the administration and licensing of computer software or other intellectual property made at the DOD laboratory, including the fees or other costs for the services of other agencies, persons, or organizations for intellectual property management and licensing services; or

"(v) for scientific research and development consistent with the research and development missions and objectives of the DOD laboratory.

"(C) All royalties or other payments retained by the Department of Defense, military department, or DOD laboratory after payments have been made pursuant to subparagraphs (A) and (B) that are unobligated and unexpended at the end of the second fiscal year succeeding the fiscal year in which the royalties and other payments were received shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States.

"(2) Exception.—If, after payments under paragraph (1)(A), the balance of the royalties or other payments received by the Department of Defense or the military department in any fiscal year exceed 5 percent of the funds received for use by the DOD laboratory for research, development, engineering, testing, and evaluation or other related administrative, processing, or value-added activities for that year, 75 percent of such excess shall be paid to the Treasury of the United States and the remaining 25 percent may be used or obligated under paragraph (1)(B). Any funds not so used or obligated shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States.

"(3) Status of payments to employees.—Any payment made to an employee under this section shall be in addition to the regular pay of the employee and to any other awards made to the employee, and shall not affect the entitlement of the employee to any regular pay, annuity, or award to which the employee is otherwise entitled or for which the employee is otherwise eligible or limit the amount thereof except that the monetary value of an award for the same project or effort shall be deducted from the amount otherwise available under this paragraph. Payments, determined under the terms of this paragraph and made to an employee developer as such, may continue after the developer leaves the DOD laboratory or the Department of Defense or military department. Payments made under this section shall not exceed $75,000 per year to any one person, unless the President approves a larger award (with the excess over $75,000 being treated as a Presidential award under section 4504 of title 5, United States Code).

"(d) Information in Report.—The report required by [former] section 2515(d) of title 10, United States Code, shall include information regarding the implementation and effectiveness of this section.

"(e) Expiration.—The authority provided in this section shall expire on December 31, 2021."

Technology Transfer to Private Sector

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title II, §218(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1053, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(f), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717, provided that:

"(1) The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, shall take appropriate action to ensure that high-temperature superconductivity technology resulting from the research activities of the Department of Defense is transferred to the private sector. Such transfer shall be made in accordance with section 10(e) of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710(e)), other applicable provisions of law, and Executive Order Number 12591, dated April 10, 1987 [set out as a note under 15 U.S.C. 3710].

"(2) The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, shall ensure that the national laboratories of the Department of Energy participate, to the maximum appropriate extent, in the transfer to the private sector of technology developed under the Department of Defense superconductivity program in the national laboratories."

[§2515. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §811(b)(1), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1845]

Section, added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4225(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2683; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(22), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 505; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(a)(23), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1598; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title X, §1084(b)(3), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2060; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1061(18), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1584, established an Office of Technology Transition within the Office of the Secretary of Defense and set out its purpose and duties.

A prior section 2515, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1602, related to computer-integrated manufacturing technology, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

[§2516. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(g), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 455]

Section, added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4226(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2684; amended Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(g)(8), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 100, related to Military-Civilian Integration and Technology Transfer Advisory Board.

A prior section 2516, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1602, related to enhancement of concurrent engineering practices in design and development of weapon systems, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

[§2517. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §811(c)(1), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1845]

Section, added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1430, §2525; renumbered §2517 and amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4227, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2685; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title IX, §901(j)(4), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4324, established the Office for Foreign Defense Critical Technology Monitoring and Assessment and set out its responsibilities.

A prior section 2517 was renumbered section 2523 of this title and subsequently repealed.

§2518. Overseas foreign critical technology monitoring and assessment financial assistance program

(a) Establishment and Purpose of Program.—The Secretary of Defense may establish a foreign critical technology monitoring and assessment program. Under the program, the Secretary may enter into cooperative arrangements with one or more eligible not-for-profit organizations in order to provide financial assistance for the establishment of foreign critical technology monitoring and assessment offices in Europe, Pacific Rim countries, and such other countries as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(b) Eligible Organizations.—Any not-for-profit industrial or professional organization that has economic and scientific interests in research, development, and applications of dual-use critical technologies is eligible to enter into a cooperative arrangement referred to in subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1431, §2526; renumbered §2518, Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4228, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2685.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2518 was renumbered section 2522 of this title and subsequently repealed.

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–484 renumbered section 2526 of this title as this section.

§2519. Federal Defense Laboratory Diversification Program

(a) Establishment of Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a program in accordance with this section for the purpose of promoting cooperation between Department of Defense laboratories and industry on research and development of dual-use technologies in order to further the national security objectives set forth in section 2501(a) of this title.

(b) Partnerships.—(1) The Secretary shall provide for the establishment under the program of cooperative arrangements (hereinafter in this section referred to as "partnerships") between a Department of Defense laboratory and eligible firms and nonprofit research corporations. A partnership may also include one or more additional Federal laboratories, institutions of higher education, agencies of State and local governments, and other entities, as determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(2) For purposes of this section, a federally funded research and development center shall be considered a Department of Defense laboratory if the center is sponsored by the Department of Defense.

(c) Assistance Authorized.—(1) The Secretary may make grants, enter into contracts, enter into cooperative agreements and other transactions pursuant to section 2371 of this title, and enter into cooperative research and development agreements under section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a) in order to establish partnerships.

(2) Subject to subsection (d), the Secretary may provide a partnership with technical and other assistance in order to facilitate the achievement of the purpose of this section.

(d) Financial Commitment of Non-Federal Government Participants.—(1) The Secretary shall ensure that the non-Federal Government participants in a partnership make a substantial contribution to the total cost of partnership activities. The amount of the contribution shall be commensurate with the risk undertaken by such participants and the potential benefits of the activities for such participants.

(2) The regulations prescribed pursuant to section 2511(c)(2) of this title shall apply to in-kind contributions made by non-Federal Government participants in a partnership.

(e) Selection Process.—Competitive procedures shall be used in the establishment of partnerships.

(f) Selection Criteria.—The criteria for the selection of a proposed partnership for establishment under this section shall include the criteria set forth in section 2511(e) of this title.

(g) Regulations.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for the purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1113(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2864; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(d), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 454.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(d)(1), struck out "referred to in section 2511(b) of this title" after "corporations".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(d)(2), substituted "section 2511(e)" for "section 2511(f)".

[§2520. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 454]

Section, added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XI, §1113(b), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2865, related to Navy Reinvestment Program.

SUBCHAPTER IV—MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Sec.
2521.
Manufacturing Technology Program.
2522.
Armament retooling and manufacturing.
[2523, 2524. Repealed.]
[2525.
Renumbered.]

        

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §344(c)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-71, redesignated item 2525 as 2521 and added item 2522.

1998Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1069(a)(5), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2136, struck out "AND DUAL-USE ASSISTANCE EXTENSION PROGRAMS" after "TECHNOLOGY" in subchapter heading.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title II, §276(b), title X, §1081(i)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 242, 455, struck out items 2521 "National Defense Manufacturing Technology Program", 2522 "Defense Advanced Manufacturing Technology Partnerships", 2523 "Manufacturing extension programs", and 2524 "Defense dual-use assistance extension program" and substituted "Manufacturing Technology Program" for "Manufacturing Science and Technology Program" in item 2525.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title II, §256(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2704, substituted "Manufacturing Science and" for "Industrial Preparedness Manufacturing" in item 2525.

1993Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §801(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1701, added item 2525.

§2521. Manufacturing Technology Program

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a Manufacturing Technology Program to further the national security objectives of section 2501(a) of this title through the development and application of advanced manufacturing technologies and processes that will reduce the acquisition and supportability costs of defense weapon systems and reduce manufacturing and repair cycle times across the life cycles of such systems. The Secretary shall use the joint planning process of the directors of the Department of Defense laboratories in establishing the program. The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall administer the program.

(b) Purpose of Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall use the program—

(1) to provide centralized guidance and direction (including goals, milestones, and priorities) to the military departments and the Defense Agencies on all matters relating to manufacturing technology;

(2) to direct the development and implementation of Department of Defense plans, programs, projects, activities, and policies that promote the development and application of advanced technologies to manufacturing processes, tools, and equipment;

(3) to improve the manufacturing quality, productivity, technology, and practices of businesses and workers providing goods and services to the Department of Defense;

(4) to focus Department of Defense support for the development and application of advanced manufacturing technologies and processes for use to meet manufacturing requirements that are essential to the national defense, as well as for repair and remanufacturing in support of the operations of systems commands, depots, air logistics centers, and shipyards;

(5) to disseminate information concerning improved manufacturing improvement concepts, including information on such matters as best manufacturing practices, product data exchange specifications, computer-aided acquisition and logistics support, and rapid acquisition of manufactured parts;

(6) to sustain and enhance the skills and capabilities of the manufacturing work force;

(7) to promote high-performance work systems (with development and dissemination of production technologies that build upon the skills and capabilities of the work force), high levels of worker education and training; and

(8) to ensure appropriate coordination between the manufacturing technology programs and industrial preparedness programs of the Department of Defense and similar programs undertaken by other departments and agencies of the Federal Government or by the private sector.


(c) Execution.—(1) The Secretary may carry out projects under the program through the Secretaries of the military departments and the heads of the Defense Agencies.

(2) In the establishment and review of requirements for an advanced manufacturing technology or process, the Secretary shall ensure the participation of those prospective technology users that are expected to be the users of that technology or process.

(3) The Secretary shall ensure that each project under the program for the development of an advanced manufacturing technology or process includes an implementation plan for the transition of that technology or process to the prospective technology users that will be the users of that technology or process.

(4) In the periodic review of a project under the program, the Secretary shall ensure participation by those prospective technology users that are the expected users for the technology or process being developed under the project.

(5) In order to promote increased dissemination and use of manufacturing technology throughout the national defense technology and industrial base, the Secretary shall seek, to the maximum extent practicable, the participation of manufacturers of manufacturing equipment in the projects under the program.

(6) In this subsection, the term "prospective technology users" means the following officials and elements of the Department of Defense:

(A) Program and project managers for defense weapon systems.

(B) Systems commands.

(C) Depots.

(D) Air logistics centers.

(E) Shipyards.


(d) Competition and Cost Sharing.—(1) In accordance with the policy stated in section 2374 of this title, competitive procedures shall be used for awarding all grants and entering into all contracts, cooperative agreements, and other transactions under the program.

(2) Under the competitive procedures used, the factors to be considered in the evaluation of each proposed grant, contract, cooperative agreement, or other transaction for a project under the program shall include the extent to which that proposed transaction provides for the proposed recipient to share in the cost of the project. For a project for which the Government receives an offer from only one offeror, the contracting officer shall negotiate the ratio of contract recipient cost to Government cost that represents the best value to the Government.

(e) Joint Defense Manufacturing Technology Panel.—(1) There is in the Department of Defense the Joint Defense Manufacturing Technology Panel.

(2)(A) The Chair of the Joint Defense Manufacturing Technology Panel shall be the head of the Panel. The Chair shall be appointed, on a rotating basis, from among the appropriate personnel of the military departments and Defense Agencies with manufacturing technology programs.

(B) The Panel shall be composed of at least one individual from among appropriate personnel of each military department and Defense Agency with manufacturing technology programs. The Panel may include as ex-officio members such individuals from other government organizations, academia, and industry as the Chair considers appropriate.

(3) The purposes of the Panel shall be as follows:

(A) To identify and integrate requirements for the program.

(B) To conduct joint planning for the program.

(C) To develop joint strategies for the program.


(4) In carrying out the purposes specified in paragraph (3), the Panel shall perform the functions as follows:

(A) Conduct comprehensive reviews and assessments of defense-related manufacturing issues being addressed by the manufacturing technology programs and related activities of the Department of Defense.

(B) Execute strategic planning to identify joint planning opportunities for increased cooperation in the development and implementation of technological products and the leveraging of funding for such purposes with the private sector and other government agencies.

(C) Ensure the integration and coordination of requirements and programs under the program with the Office of the Secretary of Defense and other national-level initiatives, including the establishment of information exchange processes with other government agencies, private industry, academia, and professional associations.

(D) Conduct such other functions as the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall specify.


(5) The Panel shall report to and receive direction from one or more individuals designated by the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering for purposes of this paragraph on manufacturing technology issues of multi-service concern and application.

(6) The administrative expenses of the Panel shall be borne by each military department and Defense Agency with manufacturing technology programs in such manner as the Panel shall provide.

(f) Five-Year Strategic Plan.—(1) The Secretary shall develop a plan for the program that includes the following:

(A) The overall manufacturing technology goals, milestones, priorities, and investment strategy for the program.

(B) The objectives of, and funding for, the program for each military department and each Defense Agency that shall participate in the program during the period of the plan.


(2) The Secretary shall include in the plan mechanisms for assessing the effectiveness of the program under the plan.

(3) The Secretary shall update the plan not less frequently than once every four years.

(4) Each plan, and each update to the plan, shall cover a period of five fiscal years.

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §801(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1700, §2525; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title II, §256(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2704; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title II, §276(a), title X, §1081(e), title XV, §1503(a)(28), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 241, 454, 512; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title II, §211(a), (b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1657; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title II, §213, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1947; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title II, §216, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 543; renumbered §2521, Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §344(c)(1)(A)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-71; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(b)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1225; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title II, §213, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2481; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(a)(24), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1598; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title II, §238(a), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 48; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title II, §212, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(c)(2)(A)(i), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1949; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title II, §212, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3325; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title IX, §902(76), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1552.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2521, added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4231(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2686, related to National Defense Manufacturing Technology Program, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 454.

Another prior section 2521, added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1426, defined terms for purposes of former chapter 150 of this title, prior to repeal and restatement in section 2491 [now 2500] of this title by Pub. L. 102–484, §§4202(a), 4203(a).

Another prior section 2521 was renumbered section 2540 of this title and subsequently repealed.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–92, §902(76)(A), substituted "The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering" for "The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics".

Subsec. (e)(4)(D). Pub. L. 116–92, §902(76)(B), substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics".

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 116–92, §902(76)(C), substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics".

2014—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 113–291, §212(a), substituted "one or more individuals designated by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics for purposes of this paragraph" for "the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 113–291, §212(b), substituted "not less frequently than once every four years" for "on a biennial basis".

2013—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering" for "Director of Defense Research and Engineering".

2009—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 111–84 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

2008—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–181 added subsec. (e).

2003—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–136 struck out heading and text of subsec. (e) which related to preparation and maintenance of a five-year plan for the Manufacturing Technology Program by the Secretary of Defense.

2002—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–314, §213(a), substituted "prepare and maintain a five-year plan for the program." for "prepare a five-year plan for the program which establishes—

"(A) the overall manufacturing technology goals, milestones, priorities, and investment strategy for the program; and

"(B) for each of the five fiscal years covered by the plan, the objectives of, and funding for the program by, each military department and each Defense Agency participating in the program."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 107–314, §213(a), substituted "establish" for "include" in introductory provisions and amended subpars. (A) and (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(A) An assessment of the effectiveness of the program, including a description of all completed projects and status of implementation.

"(B) An assessment of the extent to which the costs of projects are being shared by the following:

"(i) Commercial enterprises in the private sector.

"(ii) Department of Defense program offices, including weapon system program offices.

"(iii) Departments and agencies of the Federal Government outside the Department of Defense.

"(iv) Institutions of higher education.

"(v) Other institutions not operated for profit.

"(vi) Other sources."

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 107–314, §213(b), substituted "biennially" for "annually" and "for each even-numbered fiscal year" for "for a fiscal year".

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology".

2000Pub. L. 106–398 renumbered section 2525 of this title as this section.

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–65, §216(a), in first sentence, inserted "through the development and application of advanced manufacturing technologies and processes that will reduce the acquisition and supportability costs of defense weapon systems and reduce manufacturing and repair cycle times across the life cycles of such systems" after "title".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–65, §216(b), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "to promote dual-use manufacturing processes;".

Subsec. (c)(2) to (6). Pub. L. 106–65, §216(c), added pars. (2) to (4), redesignated former par. (2) as (5), and added par. (6).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–65, §216(d), struck out "(A)" before "In accordance with" in par. (1), redesignated par. (1)(B) as par. (2), substituted "Under the competitive procedures used, the factors to be considered in the evaluation of each proposed grant, contract, cooperative agreement, or other transaction for a project under the program shall include the extent to which that proposed transaction provides for the proposed recipient to share in the cost of the project." for "For each grant awarded and each contract, cooperative agreement, or other transaction entered into on a cost-share basis under the program, the ratio of contract recipient cost to Government cost shall be determined by competitive procedures.", and struck out former pars. (2) and (3) which required grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, and other transactions to be awarded or entered into on a cost-sharing basis unless the Secretary of Defense made certain determinations and specified as a goal that at least 25 percent of the funds available for the program for each fiscal year be used for grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, and other transactions on a cost-share basis under which the ratio of recipient cost to Government cost was two to one.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 106–65, §216(e)(1), inserted ", including a description of all completed projects and status of implementation" before period at end.

Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 106–65, §216(e)(2), added subpar. (C).

1998—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §213(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted "In accordance with the policy stated in section 2374 of this title, competitive" for "Competitive", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §213(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (C) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–261, §213(c)(2), substituted "As a goal, at least" for "At least" and "should" for "shall" and inserted at end "The Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretaries of the military departments and upon recommendation of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, shall establish annual objectives to meet such goal."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 105–261, §213(c)(1), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "If the requirement of paragraph (3) cannot be met by July 15 of a fiscal year, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology may waive the requirement and obligate the balance of the funds available for the program for that fiscal year on a cost-share basis under which the ratio of recipient cost to Government cost is less than two to one. Before implementing any such waiver, the Under Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives the reasons for the waiver."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §213(d), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The plan shall include an assessment of the effectiveness of the program."

1997—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–85, §211(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The Secretary shall seek, to the extent practicable, the participation of manufacturers of manufacturing equipment in the projects under the program."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–85, §211(b), added subsec. (e).

1996Pub. L. 104–106, §276(a)(1), amended section catchline, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, §§1503(a)(28), 1506, by striking out "Science and" after "Manufacturing".

Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(28), substituted "Science and Technology Program" for "science and technology program" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106, §276(a)(2), struck out "Science and" after "Manufacturing" and inserted after first sentence "The Secretary shall use the joint planning process of the directors of the Department of Defense laboratories in establishing the program."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106, §1081(e), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Purpose.—The purpose of the program is to enhance the capability of industry to meet the manufacturing needs of the Department of Defense."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §276(a)(3), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–106, §276(a)(4)(A), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 104–106, §276(a)(4)(B), added pars. (3) and (4).

1994Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Manufacturing science and technology program" for "Industrial Preparedness Manufacturing Technology Program" as section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense shall establish an Industrial Preparedness Manufacturing Technology program to enhance the capability of industry to meet the manufacturing needs of the Department of Defense."

Administration of Manufacturing Innovation Institutes Funded by the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, §227, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1270, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall make such changes to the administration of covered institutes so as—

"(1) to encourage covered institutes to leverage existing workforce development programs across the Federal Government and State governments in order to build successful workforce development programs;

"(2) to develop metrics to evaluate the workforce development performed by the covered institutes, including metrics on job quality, career pathways, wages and benefits, and efforts to support veterans, and progress in aligning workforce skillsets with the current and long-term needs of the Department of Defense and the defense industrial base;

"(3) to allow metrics to vary between covered institutes and be updated and evaluated continuously in order to more accurately evaluate covered institutes with different goals and missions;

"(4) to encourage covered institutes to consider developing technologies that were previously funded by Federal Government investment for early-stage research and development and expand cross-government coordination and collaboration to achieve this goal;

"(5) to provide an opportunity for increased Department of Defense input and oversight from senior-level military and civilian personnel on future technology roadmaps produced by covered institutes;

"(6) to reduce the barriers to collaboration between and among multiple covered institutes;

"(7) to use contracting vehicles that can increase flexibility, reduce barriers for contracting with subject-matter experts and small and medium enterprises, enhance partnerships between covered institutes, and reduce the time to award contracts at covered institutes; and

"(8) to overcome barriers to the adoption of manufacturing processes and technologies developed by the covered institutes by the defense and commercial industrial base, particularly small and medium enterprises, by engaging with public and private sector partnerships and appropriate government programs and activities, including the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership.

"(b) Coordination With Other Activities.—The Secretary shall carry out this section in coordination with activities undertaken under—

"(1) the Manufacturing Technology Program established under section 2521 of title 10, United States Code;

"(2) the Manufacturing Engineering Education Program established under section 2196 of such title;

"(3) the Defense Manufacturing Community Support Program established under section 846 of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115–232) [10 U.S.C. 2501 note];

"(4) manufacturing initiatives of the Secretary of Commerce, the head of the National Office of the Manufacturing USA Network, the Secretary of Energy, and such other government and private sector organizations as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate; and

"(5) such other activities as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(c) Definition of Covered Institute.—In this section, the term 'covered institute' means a manufacturing innovation institute that is funded by the Department of Defense."

Advanced Manufacturing Activities

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title II, §229, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1688, provided that:

"(a) Designation.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment and the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall jointly, in coordination with Secretaries of the military departments, establish at least one activity per military service to demonstrate advanced manufacturing techniques and capabilities at depot-level activities or military arsenal facilities of the military departments.

"(b) Purposes.—The activities established pursuant to subsection (a) shall—

"(1) support efforts to implement advanced manufacturing techniques and capabilities;

"(2) identify improvements to sustainment methods for component parts and other logistics needs;

"(3) identify and implement appropriate information security protections to ensure security of advanced manufacturing;

"(4) aid in the procurement of advanced manufacturing equipment and support services;

"(5) enhance partnerships between the defense industrial base and Department of Defense laboratories, academic institutions, and industry; and

"(6) to the degree practicable, include an educational or training component to build an advanced manufacturing workforce.

"(c) Cooperative Agreements and Partnerships.—

"(1) In general.—The Under Secretaries may enter into a cooperative agreement and use public-private and public-public partnerships to facilitate development of advanced manufacturing techniques in support of the defense industrial base.

"(2) Requirements.—A cooperative agreement entered into under paragraph (1) and a partnership used under such paragraph shall facilitate—

"(A) development and implementation of advanced manufacturing techniques and capabilities;

"(B) appropriate sharing of information in the adaptation of advanced manufacturing, including technical data rights;

"(C) implementation of appropriate information security protections into advanced manufacturing tools and techniques; and

"(D) support of necessary workforce development.

"(d) Authorities.—In carrying out this section, the Under Secretaries may use the following authorities:

"(1) Section 2196 of title 10, United States Code, relating to the Manufacturing Engineering Education Program.

"(2) Section 2368 of such title, relating to centers for science, technology, and engineering partnership.

"(3) Section 2374a of such title, relating to prizes for advanced technology achievements.

"(4) Section 2474 of such title, relating to centers of industrial and technical excellence.

"(5) Section 2521 of such title, relating to the Manufacturing Technology Program.

"(6) Section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a) and section 6305 of title 31, United States Code, relating to cooperative research and development agreements.

"(7) Such other authorities as the Under Secretaries considers appropriate."

Limitation on Use of Funds for Defense-Wide Manufacturing Science and Technology Program

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title II, §214, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 36, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title IX, §901(l)(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4326; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(c)(2)(F), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1950, provided that: "No funds available to the Office of the Secretary of Defense for any fiscal year may be obligated or expended for the defense-wide manufacturing science and technology program unless the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering ensures each of the following:

"(1) A component of the Department of Defense has requested and evaluated—

"(A) competitive proposals, for each project under the program that is not a project covered by subparagraph (B); and

"(B) proposals from as many sources as is practicable under the circumstances, for a project under the program if the disclosure of the needs of the Department of Defense with respect to that project would compromise the national security.

"(2) Each project under the program is carried out—

"(A) in accordance with the statutory requirements of the Manufacturing Technology Program established by section 2521 of title 10, United States Code; and

"(B) in compliance with all requirements of any directive that applies to manufacturing technology.

"(3) An implementation plan has been developed."

[Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title IX, §901(l)(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4326, which directed amendment of section 214 of Pub. L. 110–181, set out above, by substituting "Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering" for "Director of Defense Research and Engineering", was executed by making the substitution for "Director, Defense Research and Engineering," to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

Initial Development and Submission of Plan

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title II, §238(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 48, provided that:

"(1) Development.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop the strategic plan required by subsection (e) [now (f)] of section 2521 of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a) of this section), so that the plan goes into effect at the beginning of fiscal year 2009.

"(2) Submission.—Not later than the date on which the budget of the President for fiscal year 2010 is submitted to Congress under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives the plan specified in paragraph (1)."

High-Performance Defense Manufacturing Technology Research and Development

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title II, subtitle D, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3175, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(c)(2)(A)(ii), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1949, provided that:

"SEC. 241. PILOT PROGRAM FOR IDENTIFICATION AND TRANSITION OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES.

"(a) Pilot Program Required.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall conduct a pilot program under the authority of section 2521 of title 10, United States Code, to identify and transition advanced manufacturing processes and technologies the utilization of which would achieve significant productivity and efficiency gains in the defense manufacturing base.

"(b) Consideration of Defense Priorities.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Under Secretary shall take into consideration the defense priorities established in the most current Joint Warfighting Science and Technology plan, as required under section 270 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104–201; 10 U.S.C. 2501 note).

"(c) Identification for Transition.—In identifying manufacturing processes and technologies for transition to the defense manufacturing base under the pilot program, the Under Secretary shall select the most promising transformational technologies and manufacturing processes, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, the Joint Defense Manufacturing Technology Panel, and other such entities as may be appropriate, including the Director of the Small Business Innovation Research Program.

"SEC. 242. TRANSITION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES TO DEFENSE MANUFACTURING BASE.

"(a) Prototypes and Test Beds.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall undertake the development of prototypes and test beds to validate the manufacturing processes and technologies selected for transition under the pilot program under section 241.

"(b) Diffusion of Enhancements.—The Under Secretary shall seek the cooperation of industry in adopting such manufacturing processes and technologies through the following:

"(1) The Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program.

"(2) The identification of incentives for industry to incorporate and utilize such manufacturing processes and technologies.

"SEC. 243. MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES.

"(a) In General.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics may—

"(1) identify an area of technology where the development of an industry-prepared roadmap for new manufacturing and technology processes applicable to defense manufacturing requirements would be beneficial to the Department of Defense; and

"(2) establish a task force, and act in cooperation, with the private sector to map the strategy for the development of manufacturing processes and technologies needed to support technology development in the area identified under paragraph (1).

"(b) Commencement of Roadmapping.—The Under Secretary shall commence any roadmapping identified pursuant to subsection (a)(1) not later than January 2007.

"SEC. 244. REPORT.

"(a) In General.—Not later than December 31, 2007, the Under Secretary of the Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the actions undertaken by the Under Secretary under this subtitle during fiscal year 2006.

"(b) Elements.—The report under subsection (a) shall include—

"(1) a comprehensive description of the actions undertaken under this subtitle during fiscal year 2006;

"(2) an assessment of effectiveness of such actions in enhancing research and development on manufacturing technologies and processes, and the implementation of such within the defense manufacturing base; and

"(3) such recommendations as the Under Secretary considers appropriate for additional actions to be undertaken in order to increase the effectiveness of the actions undertaken under this subtitle in enhancing manufacturing activities within the defense manufacturing base.

"SEC. 245. DEFINITIONS.

"In this subtitle:

"(1) Defense manufacturing base.—The term 'defense manufacturing base' includes any supplier of the Department of Defense, including a supplier of raw materials.

"(2) Manufacturing extension partnership program.—The term 'Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program' means the Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program of the Department of Commerce.

"(3) Small business innovation research program.—The term 'Small Business Innovation Research Program' has the meaning given that term in section 2500(11) of title 10, United States Code."

Technical Assistance Relating to Machine Tools

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §823, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1547, which required the Secretary to publish in the Federal Register information on Government contracting for purposes of assisting machine tool companies in the United States and users of machine tools, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(56), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1850.

Participation in Manufacturing Extension Program

Pub. L. 108–87, title VIII, §8062, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1086, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Naval shipyards of the United States shall be eligible to participate in any manufacturing extension program financed by funds appropriated in this or any other Act or hereafter in any other Act."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 107–248, title VIII, §8063, Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1550.

Pub. L. 107–117, div. A, title VIII, §8068, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2262.

Pub. L. 106–259, title VIII, §8067, Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 689.

Pub. L. 106–79, title VIII, §8070, Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1245.

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8070, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2312.

Pub. L. 105–56, title VIII, §8076, Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1236.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8085], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009-105.

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8064, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 664.

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8071, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2635.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8083A, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1459.

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9112, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1929.

§2522. Armament retooling and manufacturing

The Secretary of the Army is authorized by chapter 764 of this title to carry out programs for the support of armaments retooling and manufacturing in the national defense industrial and technology base.

(Added Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §344(c)(1)(B)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-71; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1840.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2522, added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1435, §2518; renumbered §2522 and amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4232(a), (b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2687, related to defense advanced manufacturing technology partnerships, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 454.

Another prior section 2522, added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §841(b)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1512, §2508; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1597; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(g)(3), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 115; renumbered §2522, Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §821(b)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1431, required an annual defense critical technologies plan, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "chapter 764" for "chapter 434".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Feb. 1, 2019, with provision for the coordination of amendments and special rule for certain redesignations, see section 800 of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

[§§2523, 2524. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1081(f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 454]

Section 2523, added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §823(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1602, §2517; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §824(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1436; renumbered §2523 and amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4233(a), (b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2687; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(d)(1), title XI, §1182(b)(2), title XIII, §1315(d), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1728, 1772, 1787, related to manufacturing extension programs.

A prior section 2523, added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1427, related to defense dual-use critical technology partnerships, prior to repeal and restatement in section 2511 of this title by Pub. L. 102–484, §§4202(a), 4221(a).

Section 2524, added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4234(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2687; amended Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(g)(9), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, §§1314, 1315(e), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1786, 1788; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(b)(10), title XI, §§1114(b), (c), 1115(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2857, 2867-2869; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1503(a)(27), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 512, related to defense dual-use assistance extension program.

A prior section 2524 was renumbered section 2513 of this title.

[§2525. Renumbered §2521]

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2525 was renumbered section 2517 of this title.

A prior section 2526 was renumbered section 2518 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCELLANEOUS TECHNOLOGY BASE POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

Sec.
2531.
Defense memoranda of understanding and related agreements.
2532.
Offset policy; notification.
2533.
Determinations of public interest under chapter 83 of title 41.
2533a.
Requirement to buy certain articles from American sources; exceptions.
2533b.
Requirement to buy strategic materials critical to national security from American sources; exceptions.
2533c.
Prohibition on acquisition of sensitive materials from non-allied foreign nations.
2534.
Miscellaneous limitations on the procurement of goods other than United States goods.
2535.
Defense Industrial Reserve.
2536.
Award of certain contracts to entities controlled by a foreign government: prohibition.
2537.
Improved national defense control of technology diversions overseas.
2538.
Industrial mobilization: orders; priorities; possession of manufacturing plants; violations.
2539.
Industrial mobilization: plants; lists.
2539a.
Industrial mobilization: Board on Mobilization of Industries Essential for Military Preparedness.
2539b.
Availability of samples, drawings, information, equipment, materials, and certain services.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §871(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1905, added item 2533c.

2011Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(36), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3845, substituted "chapter 83 of title 41" for "the Buy American Act" in item 2533.

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(c)(8), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 323, amended directory language of Pub. L. 109–364, §842(a)(2). See 2006 Amendment note below.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §842(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2337, as amended by Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(c)(8), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 323, added item 2533b.

2001Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §832(a)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1190, added item 2533a.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(2), title X, §1070(a)(13)(B), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2816, 2856, substituted "Determinations of public interest under the Buy American Act" for "Limitation on use of funds: procurement of goods which are other than American goods" in item 2533 and renumbered items 2540 and 2541 as 2539a and 2539b, respectively.

1993Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §§828(c)(5), 842(c)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1714, 1719, substituted "Award of certain contracts to entities controlled by a foreign government: prohibition" for "Prohibition on award of certain Department of Defense and Department of Energy contracts to companies owned by an entity controlled by a foreign government" in item 2536 and added items 2538 to 2541.

1992Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §§836(a)(2), 838(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2463, 2466, added items 2536 and 2537.

§2531. Defense memoranda of understanding and related agreements

(a) Considerations in Making and Implementing MOUs and Related Agreements.—In the negotiation, renegotiation, and implementation of any existing or proposed memorandum of understanding, or any existing or proposed agreement related to a memorandum of understanding, between the Secretary of Defense, acting on behalf of the United States, and one or more foreign countries (or any instrumentality of a foreign country) relating to research, development, or production of defense equipment, or to the reciprocal procurement of defense items, the Secretary of Defense shall—

(1) consider the effects of such existing or proposed memorandum of understanding or related agreement on the defense technology and industrial base of the United States; and

(2) regularly solicit and consider comments and recommendations from the Secretary of Commerce with respect to the commercial implications of such memorandum of understanding or related agreement and the potential effects of such memorandum of understanding or related agreement on the international competitive position of United States industry.


(b) Inter-Agency Review of Effects on United States Industry.—Whenever the Secretary of Commerce has reason to believe that an existing or proposed memorandum of understanding or related agreement has, or threatens to have, a significant adverse effect on the international competitive position of United States industry, the Secretary may request an inter-agency review of the memorandum of understanding or related agreement. If, as a result of the review, the Secretary determines that the commercial interests of the United States are not being served or would not be served by adhering to the terms of such existing memorandum or related agreement or agreeing to such proposed memorandum or related agreement, as the case may be, the Secretary shall recommend to the President the renegotiation of the existing memorandum or related agreement or any modification to the proposed memorandum of understanding or related agreement that he considers necessary to ensure an appropriate balance of interests.

(c) Limitation on Entering into MOUs and Related Agreements.—A memorandum of understanding or related agreement referred to in subsection (a) may not be entered into or implemented if the President, taking into consideration the results of the inter-agency review, determines that such memorandum of understanding or related agreement has or is likely to have a significant adverse effect on United States industry that outweighs the benefits of entering into or implementing such memorandum or agreement.

(Added Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §824, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2019, §2504; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §815(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1500; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1453, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1694; renumbered §2531 and amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §§4202(a), 4271(c), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2659, 2696.)

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a), renumbered section 2504 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–484, §4271(c), substituted "defense technology and industrial base" for "defense industrial base".

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–510 inserted "or to the reciprocal procurement of defense items," after "defense equipment," in introductory provisions.

1989Pub. L. 101–189 inserted "and related agreements" after "understanding" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the negotiation and renegotiation of each memorandum of understanding between the Secretary of Defense, acting on behalf of the United States, and one or more foreign countries (or any instrumentality of a foreign country) relating to research, development, or production of defense equipment, the Secretary of Defense shall—

"(1) consider the effect of such proposed memorandum of understanding on the defense industrial base of the United States; and

"(2) regularly solicit and consider information or recommendations from the Secretary of Commerce with respect to the effect on the United States industrial base of such memorandum of understanding."

Defense Trade Reciprocity

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §831, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2017, provided that:

"(a) Policy.—It is the policy of Congress that procurement regulations used in the conduct of trade in defense articles and defense services should be based on the principle of fair trade and reciprocity consistent with United States national security, including the need to ensure comprehensive manufacturing capability in the United States defense industrial base.

"(b) Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense shall make every effort to ensure that the policies and practices of the Department of Defense reflect the goal of establishing an equitable trading relationship between the United States and its foreign defense trade partners, including ensuring that United States firms and United States employment in the defense sector are not disadvantaged by unilateral procurement practices by foreign governments, such as the imposition of offset agreements in a manner that undermines the United States defense industrial base. In pursuing this goal, the Secretary shall—

"(1) develop a comprehensive defense acquisition trade policy that provides the necessary guidance and incentives for the elimination of any adverse effects of offset agreements in defense trade; and

"(2) review and make necessary modifications to existing acquisition policies and strategies, and review and seek to make necessary modifications to existing memoranda of understanding, cooperative project agreements, or related agreements with foreign defense trade partners, to reflect this goal.

"(c) Regulations.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to implement this section in the Department of Defense supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'foreign defense trade partner' means a foreign country with respect to which there is—

"(A) a memorandum of understanding or related agreement described in section 2531(a) of title 10, United States Code; or

"(B) a cooperative project agreement described in section 27 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2767).

"(2) The term 'offset agreement' has the meaning provided that term by section 36(e) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2776(e)).

"(3) The terms 'defense article' and 'defense service' have the meanings provided those terms by section 47(7) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2794(7))."

§2532. Offset policy; notification

(a) Establishment of Offset Policy.—The President shall establish, consistent with the requirements of this section, a comprehensive policy with respect to contractual offset arrangements in connection with the purchase of defense equipment or supplies which addresses the following:

(1) Transfer of technology in connection with offset arrangements.

(2) Application of offset arrangements, including cases in which United States funds are used to finance the purchase by a foreign government.

(3) Effects of offset arrangements on specific subsectors of the industrial base of the United States and for preventing or ameliorating any serious adverse effects on such subsectors.


(b) Technology Transfer.—(1) No official of the United States may enter into a memorandum of understanding or other agreement with a foreign government that would require the transfer of United States defense technology to a foreign country or a foreign firm in connection with a contract that is subject to an offset arrangement if the implementation of such memorandum or agreement would significantly and adversely affect the defense industrial base of the United States and would result in a substantial financial loss to a United States firm.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of a memorandum of understanding or agreement described in paragraph (1) if the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of State, determines that a transfer of United States defense technology pursuant to such understanding or agreement will result in strengthening the national security of the United States and so certifies to Congress.

(3) If a United States firm is required under the terms of a memorandum of understanding, or other agreement entered into by the United States with a foreign country, to transfer defense technology to a foreign country, the United States firm may protest the determination to the Secretary of Defense on the grounds that the transfer of such technology would adversely affect the defense industrial base of the United States and would result in substantial financial loss to the protesting firm. The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of State, shall make the final determination of the validity of the protesting firm's claim.

(c) Notification Regarding Offsets.—If at any time a United States firm enters into a contract for the sale of a weapon system or defense-related item to a foreign country or foreign firm and such contract is subject to an offset arrangement exceeding $50,000,000 in value, such firm shall notify the Secretary of Defense of the proposed sale. Notification shall be made under this subsection in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce.

(d) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "United States firm" means a business entity that performs substantially all of its manufacturing, production, and research and development activities in the United States.

(2) The term "foreign firm" means a business entity other than a United States firm.

(Added Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §825(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2020, §2505; renumbered §2532, Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4202(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2659.)

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–484 renumbered section 2505 of this title as this section.

Review of Offset Arrangements by Secretary of Defense

Pub. L. 108–87, title VIII, §8138, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1106, directed the Secretary of Defense to review contractual offset arrangements to which the policy established under this section applied, memoranda of understanding and related agreements to which the limitation in section 2531(c) of this title applied that had been entered into with a country with respect to which such contractual offset arrangements had been entered into, and waivers granted with respect to a foreign country under section 2534(d)(3) of this title; determine the effects of the use of such arrangements, memoranda of understanding, agreements, and waivers on the national technology and industrial base; and submit a report on the results of the review to Congress not later than Mar. 1, 2005.

Contractual Offset Arrangements; Congressional Statement of Findings

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §825(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2019, provided that: "Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) Many contracts entered into by United States firms for the supply of weapon systems or defense-related items to foreign countries and foreign firms are subject to contractual arrangements under which United States firms must agree—

"(A) to have a specified percentage of work under, or monetary amount of, the contract performed by one or more foreign firms;

"(B) to purchase a specified amount or quantity of unrelated goods or services from domestic sources of such foreign countries; or

"(C) to invest a specified amount in domestic businesses of such foreign countries.

Such contractual arrangements, known as 'offsets', are a component of international trade and could have an impact on United States defense industry opportunities in domestic and foreign markets.

"(2) Some United States contractors and subcontractors may be adversely affected by such contractual arrangements.

"(3) Many contracts which provide for or are subject to offset arrangements require, in connection with such arrangements, the transfer of United States technology to foreign firms.

"(4) The use of such transferred technology by foreign firms in conjunction with foreign trade practices permitted under the trade policies of the countries of such firms can give foreign firms a competitive advantage against United States firms in world markets for products using such technology.

"(5) A purchase of defense equipment pursuant to an offset arrangement may increase the cost of the defense equipment to the purchasing country and may reduce the amount of defense equipment that a country may purchase.

"(6) The exporting of defense equipment produced in the United States is important to maintain the defense industrial base of the United States, lower the unit cost of such equipment to the Department of Defense, and encourage the standardized utilization of United States equipment by the allies of the United States."

Negotiations With Countries Requiring Offset Arrangements

Section 825(c) of Pub. L. 100–456, as amended by Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §816, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1501, provided that:

"(1) The President shall enter into negotiations with foreign countries that have a policy of requiring an offset arrangement in connection with the purchase of defense equipment or supplies from the United States. The negotiations should be conducted with a view to achieving an agreement with the countries concerned that would limit the adverse effects that such arrangements have on the defense industrial base of each such country. Every effort shall be made to achieve such agreements within two years after September 29, 1988.

"(2) In the negotiation or renegotiation of any memorandum of understanding between the United States and one or more foreign countries relating to the reciprocal procurement of defense equipment and supplies or research and development, the President shall make every effort to achieve an agreement with the country or countries concerned that would limit the adverse effects that offset arrangements have on the defense industrial base of the United States."

[For delegation of functions of President under section 825(c) of Pub. L. 100–456 to Secretary of Defense and United States Trade Representative, see section 5–201 of Ex. Ord. No. 12661, 54 F.R. 779, set out as a note under section 2901 of Title 19, Customs Duties.]

Report to Congress on Offset Arrangements Required by Foreign Countries and Firms; Discussion of Policy Options

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §825(d), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2021, provided that, not later than Nov. 15, 1988, the President was to submit to Congress a comprehensive report on contractual offset arrangements required of United States firms for the supply of weapon systems or defense-related items to foreign countries or foreign firms, and, not later than Mar. 15, 1990, the President was to transmit to Congress a report containing a discussion of appropriate actions to be taken by the United States with respect to purchases from United States firms by a foreign country (or a firm of that country) when that country or firm required an offset arrangement in connection with the purchase of defense equipment or supplies in favor of such country.

§2533. Determinations of public interest under chapter 83 of title 41

(a) In determining under section 8302 of title 41 whether application of chapter 83 of such title is inconsistent with the public interest, the Secretary of Defense shall consider the following:

(1) The bids or proposals of small business firms in the United States which have offered to furnish American goods.

(2) The bids or proposals of all other firms in the United States which have offered to furnish American goods.

(3) The United States balance of payments.

(4) The cost of shipping goods which are other than American goods.

(5) Any duty, tariff, or surcharge which may enter into the cost of using goods which are other than American goods.

(6) A need to ensure that the Department of Defense has access to advanced, state-of-the-art commercial technology.

(7) The need to protect the national technology and industrial base, to preserve and enhance the national technology employment base, and to provide for a defense mobilization base.

(8) A need to ensure that application of different rules of origin for United States end items and foreign end items does not result in an award to a firm other than a firm providing a product produced in the United States.

(9) Any need—

(A) to maintain the same source of supply for spare and replacement parts for an end item that qualifies as an American good; or

(B) to maintain the same source of supply for spare and replacement parts in order not to impair integration of the military and commercial industrial base.


(10) The national security interests of the United States.


(b) In this section, the term "goods which are other than American goods" means—

(1) an end product that is not mined, produced, or manufactured in the United States; or

(2) an end product that is manufactured in the United States but which includes components mined, produced, or manufactured outside the United States the aggregate cost of which exceeds the aggregate cost of the components of such end product that are mined, produced, or manufactured in the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 100–370, §3(a)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 855, §2501; renumbered §2506, Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §821(b)(1)(A), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2014; renumbered §2533, Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4202(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2659; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title VIII, §812(a), (b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2815, 2816; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(b)(20), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(54), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1903; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(37), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3845; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(a)(9), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3505.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Section is based on Pub. L. 93–365, title VII, §707, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 406.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "chapter 83 of such title" for "such Act" in introductory provisions.

2011Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(37)(A), substituted "chapter 83 of title 41" for "the Buy American Act" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(37)(B), substituted "section 8302 of title 41" for "section 2 of the Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10a)" in introductory provisions.

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted "(41 U.S.C. 10a)" for "(41 U.S.C. 10a))".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "the Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10a)) whether application of such Act" for "title III of the Act of March 3, 1993 (41 U.S.C. 10a), popularly known as the 'Buy American Act', whether application of title III of such Act".

1994Pub. L. 103–337, §812(b)(1), substituted "Determinations of public interest under the Buy American Act" for "Limitation on use of funds: procurement of goods which are other than American goods" as section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §812(a)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: "Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may not be obligated under a contract for procurement of goods which are other than American goods (as defined in subsection (c)) unless adequate consideration is given to the following:

"(1) The bids or proposals of firms located in labor surplus areas in the United States (as designated by the Department of Labor) which have offered to furnish American goods.

"(2) The bids or proposals of small business firms in the United States which have offered to furnish American goods.

"(3) The bids or proposals of all other firms in the United States which have offered to furnish American goods.

"(4) The United States balance of payments.

"(5) The cost of shipping goods which are other than American goods.

"(6) Any duty, tariff, or surcharge which may enter into the cost of using goods which are other than American goods."

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 103–337, §812(a), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: "Consideration of the matters referred to in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (a) shall be given under regulations of the Secretary of Defense and subject to the determinations and exceptions contained in title III of the Act of March 3, 1933 (41 U.S.C. 10a, 10b), popularly known as the 'Buy American Act'."

1992Pub. L. 102–484 renumbered section 2506 of this title as this section.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 104–106, see section 4401 of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

§2533a. Requirement to buy certain articles from American sources; exceptions

(a) Requirement.—Except as provided in subsections (c) through (h), funds appropriated or otherwise available to the Department of Defense may not be used for the procurement of an item described in subsection (b) if the item is not grown, reprocessed, reused, or produced in the United States.

(b) Covered Items.—An item referred to in subsection (a) is any of the following:

(1) An article or item of—

(A) food;

(B) clothing and the materials and components thereof, other than sensors, electronics, or other items added to, and not normally associated with, clothing (and the materials and components thereof);

(C) tents (and the structural components thereof), tarpaulins, or covers;

(D) cotton and other natural fiber products, woven silk or woven silk blends, spun silk yarn for cartridge cloth, synthetic fabric or coated synthetic fabric (including all textile fibers and yarns that are for use in such fabrics), canvas products, or wool (whether in the form of fiber or yarn or contained in fabrics, materials, or manufactured articles); or

(E) any item of individual equipment manufactured from or containing such fibers, yarns, fabrics, or materials.


(2) Hand or measuring tools.

(3) Stainless steel flatware.

(4) Dinnerware.


(c) Availability Exception.—Subsection (a) does not apply to the extent that the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that satisfactory quality and sufficient quantity of any such article or item described in subsection (b) grown, reprocessed, reused, or produced in the United States cannot be procured as and when needed at United States market prices.

(d) Exception for Certain Procurements.—Subsection (a) does not apply to the following:

(1) Procurements outside the United States in support of combat operations or procurements of any item listed in subsection (b)(1)(A) or (b)(2) in support of contingency operations.

(2) Procurements by vessels in foreign waters.

(3) Emergency procurements or procurements of perishable foods by, or for, an establishment located outside the United States for the personnel attached to such establishment.

(4) Procurements of any item listed in subsection (b)(1)(A) or (b)(2) for which the use of procedures other than competitive procedures has been approved on the basis of section 2304(c)(2) of this title, relating to unusual and compelling urgency of need.


(e) Exception for Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing.—Subsection (a) does not preclude the procurement of chemical warfare protective clothing produced outside the United States if—

(1) such procurement is necessary—

(A) to comply with agreements with foreign governments requiring the United States to purchase supplies from foreign sources for the purposes of offsetting sales made by the United States Government or United States firms under approved programs serving defense requirements; or

(B) in furtherance of agreements with foreign governments in which both such governments agree to remove barriers to purchases of supplies produced in the other country or services performed by sources of the other country; and


(2) any such agreement with a foreign government complies, where applicable, with the requirements of section 36 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2776) and with section 2457 of this title.


(f) Exceptions for Certain Other Commodities and Items.—Subsection (a) does not preclude the procurement of the following:

(1) Foods manufactured or processed in the United States.

(2) Waste and byproducts of cotton and wool fiber for use in the production of propellants and explosives.


(g) Exception for Commissaries, Exchanges, and Other Nonappropriated Fund Instrumentalities.—Subsection (a) does not apply to items purchased for resale purposes in commissaries, exchanges, or nonappropriated fund instrumentalities operated by the Department of Defense.

(h) Exception for Small Purchases.—Subsection (a) does not apply to purchases for amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold referred to in section 2304(g) of this title.

(i) Applicability to Contracts and Subcontracts for Procurement of Commercial Products.—This section is applicable to contracts and subcontracts for the procurement of commercial products notwithstanding section 1906 of title 41.

(j) Geographic Coverage.—In this section, the term "United States" includes the possessions of the United States.

(k) Notification Required Within 7 Days After Contract Award If Certain Exceptions Applied.—In the case of any contract for the procurement of an item described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D), or (E) of subsection (b)(1), if the Secretary of Defense or of the military department concerned applies an exception set forth in subsection (c) or (e) with respect to that contract, the Secretary shall, not later than 7 days after the award of the contract, post a notification that the exception has been applied on the Internet site maintained by the General Services Administration known as FedBizOpps.gov (or any successor site).

(Added Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §832(a)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1189; amended Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §§826, 827, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1548; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §§831, 833, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3388; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §842(a)(3), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2337; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(38), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3845; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §847, title X, §1075(b)(38), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4286, 4371; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §821, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1502; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(f)(29), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1953; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §837(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1875; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §854(a)(1), (3), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1512.)

Repeal of Subsection (b)(3) and (4)

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §854(a)(3), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1512, provided that, effective Sept. 30, 2023, paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (b) of this section are repealed. See 2019 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 116–92, §854(a)(3), struck out pars. (3) and (4) which added stainless steel flatware and dinnerware to the list of covered items.

Pub. L. 116–92, §854(a)(1), added pars. (3) and (4).

2018—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "Products" for "Items" in heading and "commercial products" for "commercial items" in text.

2013—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "FedBizOpps.gov" for "FedBizOps.gov".

2011—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 112–81 inserted "(and the structural components thereof)" after "tents".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–383, §847, substituted "subsection (b)" for "subsection (b)(1)".

Subsec. (d)(1), (4). Pub. L. 111–383, §1075(b)(38), substituted "(b)(1)(A) or (b)(2)" for "(b)(1)(A), (b)(2), or (b)(3)".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "section 1906 of title 41" for "section 34 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 430)".

2006—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–163, §833(b), inserted before semicolon "and the materials and components thereof, other than sensors, electronics, or other items added to, and not normally associated with, clothing (and the materials and components thereof)".

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 109–364, §842(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Specialty metals, including stainless steel flatware."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–364, §842(a)(3)(B), struck out "or specialty metals (including stainless steel flatware)" after "subsection (b)(1)".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–163, §831, inserted ", or for," after "perishable foods by".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–364, §842(a)(3)(C), struck out "Specialty Metals and" after "Exception for" in heading and "specialty metals or" after "procurement of" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 109–163, §833(a), added subsec. (k).

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–136, §826(1), struck out "Outside the United States" after "Procurements" in heading.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 108–136, §826(2), inserted "or procurements of any item listed in subsection (b)(1)(A), (b)(2), or (b)(3) in support of contingency operations" after "combat operations".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 108–136, §826(3), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–136, §827, substituted "Exceptions for Certain Other Commodities and Items.—Subsection (a) does not preclude the procurement of the following:

"(1) Foods"

for "Exception for Certain Foods.—Subsection (a) does not preclude the procurement of foods", and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2019 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §854(a)(2), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1512, provided that: "Paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 2533a(b) of title 10, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), shall apply with respect to contracts entered into on or after the date occurring 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2019]."

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §854(a)(3), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1512, provided that the amendment made by section 854(a)(3) is effective Sept. 30, 2023.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §842(a)(4)(B), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2337, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (3) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date occurring 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006]."

Short Title

This section is popularly known as the "Berry Amendment".

Periodic Audits of Contracting Compliance by Inspector General of Department of Defense

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVI, §1601, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 941, provided that:

"(a) Requirement for Periodic Audits of Contracting Compliance.—The Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall conduct periodic audits of contracting practices and policies related to procurement under section 2533a of title 10, United States Code.

"(b) Requirement for Additional Information in Semiannual Reports.—The Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall ensure that findings and other information resulting from audits conducted pursuant to subsection (a) are included in the semiannual report transmitted to congressional committees under section 8(f)(1) of the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.)."

Fire Resistant Rayon Fiber

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §821(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4268, provided that: "No solicitation issued before January 1, 2015, by the Department of Defense may include a requirement that proposals submitted pursuant to such solicitation must include the use of fire resistant rayon fiber."

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §829, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 229, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4267; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §822, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1502, provided that:

"(a) Authority To Procure.—The Secretary of Defense may procure fire resistant rayon fiber for the production of uniforms that is manufactured in a foreign country referred to in subsection (d) if the Secretary determines either of the following:

"(1) That fire resistant rayon fiber for the production of uniforms is not available from sources within the national technology and industrial base.

"(2) That—

"(A) procuring fire resistant rayon fiber manufactured from suppliers within the national technology and industrial base would result in sole-source contracts or subcontracts for the supply of fire resistant rayon fiber; and

"(B) such sole-source contracts or subcontracts would not be in the best interests of the Government or consistent with the objectives of section 2304 of title 10, United States Code.

"(b) Submission to Congress.—Not later than 30 days after making a determination under subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit to Congress a copy of the determination.

"(c) Applicability to Subcontracts.—The authority under subsection (a) applies with respect to subcontracts under Department of Defense contracts as well as to such contracts.

"(d) Foreign Countries Covered.—The authority under subsection (a) applies with respect to a foreign country that—

"(1) is a party to a defense memorandum of understanding entered into under section 2531 of title 10, United States Code; and

"(2) does not discriminate against defense items produced in the United States to a greater degree than the United States discriminates against defense items produced in that country.

"(e) National Technology and Industrial Base Defined.—In this section, the term 'national technology and industrial base' has the meaning given that term in section 2500 of title 10, United States Code."

Training for Defense Acquisition Workforce on the Requirements of the Berry Amendment

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §832, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3388, provided that:

"(a) Training During Fiscal Year 2006.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that each member of the defense acquisition workforce who participates personally and substantially in the acquisition of textiles on a regular basis receives training during fiscal year 2006 on the requirements of section 2533a of title 10, United States Code (commonly referred to as the 'Berry Amendment'), and the regulations implementing that section.

"(b) Inclusion of Information in New Training Programs.—The Secretary shall ensure that any training program developed or implemented after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006] for members of the defense acquisition workforce who participate personally and substantially in the acquisition of textiles on a regular basis includes comprehensive information on the requirements described in subsection (a)."

Application of Exception to Seafood Products

Pub. L. 108–287, title VIII, §8118, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 998, as amended by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(4), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3506, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, section 2533a(f) of title 10, United States Code, shall hereafter not apply to any fish, shellfish, or seafood product. This section applies to contracts and subcontracts for the procurement of commercial items notwithstanding section 1906 of title 41, United States Code."

§2533b. Requirement to buy strategic materials critical to national security from American sources; exceptions

(a) Requirement.—Except as provided in subsections (b) through (m), the acquisition by the Department of Defense of the following items is prohibited:

(1) The following types of end items, or components thereof, containing a specialty metal not melted or produced in the United States: aircraft, missile and space systems, ships, tank and automotive items, weapon systems, or ammunition.

(2) A specialty metal that is not melted or produced in the United States and that is to be purchased directly by the Department of Defense or a prime contractor of the Department.


(b) Availability Exception.—(1) Subsection (a) does not apply to the extent that the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that compliant specialty metal of satisfactory quality and sufficient quantity, and in the required form, cannot be procured as and when needed. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "compliant specialty metal" means specialty metal melted or produced in the United States.

(2) This subsection applies to prime contracts and subcontracts at any tier under such contracts.

(c) Exception for Certain Acquisitions.—Subsection (a) does not apply to the following:

(1) Acquisitions outside the United States in support of combat operations or in support of contingency operations.

(2) Acquisitions for which the use of procedures other than competitive procedures has been approved on the basis of section 2304(c)(2) of this title, relating to unusual and compelling urgency of need.


(d) Exception Relating to Agreements With Foreign Governments.—Subsection (a)(1) does not preclude the acquisition of a specialty metal if—

(1) the acquisition is necessary—

(A) to comply with agreements with foreign governments requiring the United States to purchase supplies from foreign sources for the purposes of offsetting sales made by the United States Government or United States firms under approved programs serving defense requirements; or

(B) in furtherance of agreements with foreign governments in which both such governments agree to remove barriers to purchases of supplies produced in the other country or services performed by sources of the other country; and


(2) any such agreement with a foreign government complies, where applicable, with the requirements of section 36 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2776) and with section 2457 of this title.


(e) Exception for Commissaries, Exchanges, and Other Nonappropriated Fund Instrumentalities.—Subsection (a) does not apply to items purchased for resale purposes in commissaries, exchanges, and nonappropriated fund instrumentalities operated by the Department of Defense.

(f) Exception for Small Purchases.—Subsection (a) does not apply to acquisitions in amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold referred to in section 2304(g) of this title.

(g) Exception for Purchases of Electronic Components.—Subsection (a) does not apply to acquisitions of electronic components, unless the Secretary of Defense, upon the recommendation of the Strategic Materials Protection Board pursuant to section 187 of this title, determines that the domestic availability of a particular electronic component is critical to national security.

(h) Applicability to Acquisitions of Commercial Products.—(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), this section applies to acquisitions of commercial produ