[USC02] 42 USC Ch. 85: AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
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42 USC Ch. 85: AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 85—AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL

SUBCHAPTER I—PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES

Part A—Air Quality and Emission Limitations

Sec.
7401.
Congressional findings and declaration of purpose.
7402.
Cooperative activities.
7403.
Research, investigation, training, and other activities.
7404.
Research relating to fuels and vehicles.
7405.
Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs.
7406.
Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations.
7407.
Air quality control regions.
7408.
Air quality criteria and control techniques.
7409.
National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards.
7410.
State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards.
7411.
Standards of performance for new stationary sources.
7412.
Hazardous air pollutants.
7413.
Federal enforcement.
7414.
Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry.
7415.
International air pollution.
7416.
Retention of State authority.
7417.
Advisory committees.
7418.
Control of pollution from Federal facilities.
7419.
Primary nonferrous smelter orders.
7420.
Noncompliance penalty.
7421.
Consultation.
7422.
Listing of certain unregulated pollutants.
7423.
Stack heights.
7424.
Assurance of adequacy of State plans.
7425.
Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment.
7426.
Interstate pollution abatement.
7427.
Public notification.
7428.
State boards.
7429.
Solid waste combustion.
7430.
Emission factors.
7431.
Land use authority.

        

Part B—Ozone Protection

7450 to 7459. Repealed.

        

Part C—Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality

subpart i—clean air

7470.
Congressional declaration of purpose.
7471.
Plan requirements.
7472.
Initial classifications.
7473.
Increments and ceilings.
7474.
Area redesignation.
7475.
Preconstruction requirements.
7476.
Other pollutants.
7477.
Enforcement.
7478.
Period before plan approval.
7479.
Definitions.

        

subpart ii—visibility protection

7491.
Visibility protection for Federal class I areas.
7492.
Visibility.

        

Part D—Plan Requirements for Nonattainment Areas

subpart 1—nonattainment areas in general

7501.
Definitions.
7502.
Nonattainment plan provisions in general.
7503.
Permit requirements.
7504.
Planning procedures.
7505.
Environmental Protection Agency grants.
7505a.
Maintenance plans.
7506.
Limitations on certain Federal assistance.
7506a.
Interstate transport commissions.
7507.
New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas.
7508.
Guidance documents.
7509.
Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain.
7509a.
International border areas.

        

subpart 2—additional provisions for ozone nonattainment areas

7511.
Classifications and attainment dates.
7511a.
Plan submissions and requirements.
7511b.
Federal ozone measures.
7511c.
Control of interstate ozone air pollution.
7511d.
Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain.
7511e.
Transitional areas.
7511f.
NOx and VOC study.

        

subpart 3—additional provisions for carbon monoxide nonattainment areas

7512.
Classification and attainment dates.
7512a.
Plan submissions and requirements.

        

subpart 4—additional provisions for particulate matter nonattainment areas

7513.
Classifications and attainment dates.
7513a.
Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions.
7513b.
Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance.

        

subpart 5—additional provisions for areas designated nonattainment for sulfur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, or lead

7514.
Plan submission deadlines.
7514a.
Attainment dates.

        

subpart 6—savings provisions

7515.
General savings clause.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—EMISSION STANDARDS FOR MOVING SOURCES

Part A—Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

7521.
Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines.
7522.
Prohibited acts.
7523.
Actions to restrain violations.
7524.
Civil penalties.
7525.
Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification.
7541.
Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use.
7542.
Information collection.
7543.
State standards.
7544.
State grants.
7545.
Regulation of fuels.
7546.
Renewable fuel.
7547.
Nonroad engines and vehicles.
7548.
Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles.
7549.
High altitude performance adjustments.
7550.
Definitions.
7551.
Omitted.
7552.
Motor vehicle compliance program fees.
7553.
Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline.
7554.
Urban bus standards.

        

Part B—Aircraft Emission Standards

7571.
Establishment of standards.
7572.
Enforcement of standards.
7573.
State standards and controls.
7574.
Definitions.

        

Part C—Clean Fuel Vehicles

7581.
Definitions.
7582.
Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles.
7583.
Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles.
7584.
Administration and enforcement as per California standards.
7585.
Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.).
7586.
Centrally fueled fleets.
7587.
Vehicle conversions.
7588.
Federal agency fleets.
7589.
California pilot test program.
7590.
General provisions.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL PROVISIONS

7601.
Administration.
7602.
Definitions.
7603.
Emergency powers.
7604.
Citizen suits.
7605.
Representation in litigation.
7606.
Federal procurement.
7607.
Administrative proceedings and judicial review.
7608.
Mandatory licensing.
7609.
Policy review.
7610.
Other authority.
7611.
Records and audit.
7612.
Economic impact analyses.
7613.
Repealed.
7614.
Labor standards.
7615.
Separability.
7616.
Sewage treatment grants.
7617.
Economic impact assessment.
7618.
Repealed.
7619.
Air quality monitoring.
7620.
Standardized air quality modeling.
7621.
Employment effects.
7622.
Employee protection.
7623.
Repealed.
7624.
Cost of vapor recovery equipment.
7625.
Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products.
7625–1.
Exemptions for certain territories.
7625a.
Statutory construction.
7626.
Authorization of appropriations.
7627.
Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities.
7628.
Demonstration grant program for local governments.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—NOISE POLLUTION

7641.
Noise abatement.
7642.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV–A—ACID DEPOSITION CONTROL

7651.
Findings and purposes.
7651a.
Definitions.
7651b.
Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units.
7651c.
Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements.
7651d.
Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements.
7651e.
Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu.
7651f.
Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program.
7651g.
Permits and compliance plans.
7651h.
Repowered sources.
7651i.
Election for additional sources.
7651j.
Excess emissions penalty.
7651k.
Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements.
7651l.
General compliance with other provisions.
7651m.
Enforcement.
7651n.
Clean coal technology regulatory incentives.
7651o.
Contingency guarantee, auctions, reserve.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—PERMITS

7661.
Definitions.
7661a.
Permit programs.
7661b.
Permit applications.
7661c.
Permit requirements and conditions.
7661d.
Notification to Administrator and contiguous States.
7661e.
Other authorities.
7661f.
Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROTECTION

7671.
Definitions.
7671a.
Listing of class I and class II substances.
7671b.
Monitoring and reporting requirements.
7671c.
Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances.
7671d.
Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances.
7671e.
Accelerated schedule.
7671f.
Exchange authority.
7671g.
National recycling and emission reduction program.
7671h.
Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners.
7671i.
Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons.
7671j.
Labeling.
7671k.
Safe alternatives policy.
7671l.
Federal procurement.
7671m.
Relationship to other laws.
7671n.
Authority of Administrator.
7671o.
Transfers among Parties to Montreal Protocol.
7671p.
International cooperation.
7671q.
Miscellaneous provisions.

        

Codification

Act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, known as the Clean Air Act, which was formerly classified to chapter 15B (§1857 et seq.) of this title, was completely revised by Pub. L. 95–95, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 685, and was reclassified to this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER I—PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES

Part A—Air Quality and Emission Limitations

Codification

Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §117(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 712, designated sections 7401 to 7428 of this title as part A.

§7401. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) Findings

The Congress finds—

(1) that the predominant part of the Nation's population is located in its rapidly expanding metropolitan and other urban areas, which generally cross the boundary lines of local jurisdictions and often extend into two or more States;

(2) that the growth in the amount and complexity of air pollution brought about by urbanization, industrial development, and the increasing use of motor vehicles, has resulted in mounting dangers to the public health and welfare, including injury to agricultural crops and livestock, damage to and the deterioration of property, and hazards to air and ground transportation;

(3) that air pollution prevention (that is, the reduction or elimination, through any measures, of the amount of pollutants produced or created at the source) and air pollution control at its source is the primary responsibility of States and local governments; and

(4) that Federal financial assistance and leadership is essential for the development of cooperative Federal, State, regional, and local programs to prevent and control air pollution.

(b) Declaration

The purposes of this subchapter are—

(1) to protect and enhance the quality of the Nation's air resources so as to promote the public health and welfare and the productive capacity of its population;

(2) to initiate and accelerate a national research and development program to achieve the prevention and control of air pollution;

(3) to provide technical and financial assistance to State and local governments in connection with the development and execution of their air pollution prevention and control programs; and

(4) to encourage and assist the development and operation of regional air pollution prevention and control programs.

(c) Pollution prevention

A primary goal of this chapter is to encourage or otherwise promote reasonable Federal, State, and local governmental actions, consistent with the provisions of this chapter, for pollution prevention.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §101, formerly §1, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 392; renumbered §101 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(2), (3), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 485; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §108(k), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2468.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857 of this title.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in a prior section 1857 of this title, act of July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §1, 69 Stat. 322, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88–206.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(k)(1), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "that the prevention and control of air pollution at its source is the primary responsibility of States and local governments; and".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(k)(2), inserted "prevention and" after "pollution".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(k)(3), added subsec. (c).

1967—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 90–148 inserted "and enhance the quality of" after "to protect".

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–272 substituted "this title" for "this Act", which for purposes of codification has been changed to "this subchapter".

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §711(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2684, provided that:

"(1) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990].

"(2) The Administrator's authority to assess civil penalties under section 205(c) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7524(c)], as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur or continue on or after the date of enactment of this Act. Civil penalties for violations that occur prior to such date and do not continue after such date shall be assessed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act.

"(3) The civil penalties prescribed under sections 205(a) and 211(d)(1) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7524(a), 7545(d)(1)], as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur on or after the date of enactment of this Act. Violations that occur prior to such date shall be subject to the civil penalty provisions prescribed in sections 205(a) and 211(d) of the Clean Air Act in effect immediately prior to the enactment of this Act. The injunctive authority prescribed under section 211(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act, as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur or continue on or after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(4) For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), where the date of a violation cannot be determined it will be assumed to be the date on which the violation is discovered."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment; Pending Actions; Continuation of Rules, Contracts, Authorizations, Etc.; Implementation Plans

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §406, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 795, as amended by Pub. L. 95–190, §14(b)(6), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1405, provided that:

"(a) No suit, action, or other proceeding lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under the Clean Air Act [this chapter], as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 7, 1977] shall abate by reason of the taking effect of the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below]. The court may, on its own motion or that of any party made at any time within twelve months after such taking effect, allow the same to be maintained by or against the Administrator or such officer or employee.

"(b) All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to the Clean Air Act [this chapter], as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 7, 1977], and pertaining to any functions, powers, requirements, and duties under the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act, and not suspended by the Administrator or the courts, shall continue in full force and effect after the date of enactment of this Act until modified or rescinded in accordance with the Clean Air Act as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below].

"(c) Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below] nor any action taken pursuant to this Act shall in any way affect any requirement of an approved implementation plan in effect under section 110 of the Clean Air Act [section 7410 of this title] or any other provision of the Act in effect under the Clean Air Act before the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 7, 1977] until modified or rescinded in accordance with the Clean Air Act [this chapter] as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below].

"(d)(1) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below] shall be effective on date of enactment [Aug. 7, 1977].

"(2) Except as otherwise expressly provided, each State required to revise its applicable implementation plan by reason of any amendment made by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below] shall adopt and submit to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Administration such plan revision before the later of the date—

"(A) one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 7, 1977], or

"(B) nine months after the date of promulgation by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Administration of any regulations under an amendment made by this Act which are necessary for the approval of such plan revision."

Short Title of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–40, §1, Aug. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 207, provided that: "This Act [amending section 7412 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 7412 of this title] may be cited as the 'Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–286, §1, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2773, provided that: "This Act [amending section 7511b of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 7511b of this title] may be cited as the 'Border Smog Reduction Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–549, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2399, is popularly known as the "Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990". See Tables for classification.

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–23, §1, July 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 139, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 7410 and 7413 of this title] may be cited as the 'Steel Industry Compliance Extension Act of 1981'."

Short Title of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–95, §1, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 685, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 4362, 7419 to 7428, 7450 to 7459, 7470 to 7479, 7491, 7501 to 7508, 7548, 7549, 7551, 7617 to 7625, and 7626 of this title, amending sections 7403, 7405, 7407 to 7415, 7417, 7418, 7521 to 7525, 7541, 7543, 7544, 7545, 7550, 7571, 7601 to 7605, 7607, 7612, 7613, and 7616 of this title, repealing section 1857c–10 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 7403, 7422, 7470, 7479, 7502, 7521, 7548, and 7621 of this title, and section 792 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977'."

Short Title of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–604, §1, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676, provided: "That this Act [amending this chapter generally] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Amendments of 1970'."

Short Title of 1967 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–148, §1, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 485, provided: "That this Act [amending this chapter generally] may be cited as the 'Air Quality Act of 1967'."

Short Title of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–675, §1, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 954, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 7405 and 7616 of this title and repealing section 1857f–8 of this title] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1966'."

Short Title

Act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §317, formerly §14, as added by Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 401; renumbered §307 by Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; renumbered §310 by Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 499; renumbered §317 by Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Act'."

Act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §201, as added by Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992, and amended by Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 499, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter II of this chapter] may be cited as the 'National Emission Standards Act'." Prior to its amendment by Pub. L. 90–148, title II of act June 14, 1955, was known as the "Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act".

Act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title IV, §401, as added by Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §14, 84 Stat. 1709, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter IV of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1970'."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §711(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2684, provided that: "Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Act [see Tables for classification], no suit, action, or other proceeding lawfully commenced by the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], shall abate by reason of the taking effect of the amendments made by this Act."

Transfer of Functions

Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §2(a)(3), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, transferred to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency functions vested by law in Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare or in Department of Health, Education, and Welfare which are administered through Environmental Health Service, including functions exercised by National Air Pollution Control Administration, and Environmental Control Administration's Bureau of Solid Waste Management, Bureau of Water Hygiene, and Bureau of Radiological Health, except insofar as functions carried out by Bureau of Radiological Health pertain to regulation of radiation from consumer products, including electronic product radiation, radiation as used in healing arts, occupational exposure to radiation, and research, technical assistance, and training related to radiation from consumer products, radiation as used in healing arts, and occupational exposure to radiation.

Impact on Small Communities

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §810, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2690, provided that: "Before implementing a provision of this Act [see Tables for classification], the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall consult with the Small Communities Coordinator of the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the impact of such provision on small communities, including the estimated cost of compliance with such provision."

Radon Assessment and Mitigation

Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §118(k), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1659, as amended by Pub. L. 105–362, title V, §501(i), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3284, provided that:

"(1) National assessment of radon gas.—No later than one year after the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986], the Administrator shall submit to the Congress a report which shall, to the extent possible—

"(A) identify the locations in the United States where radon is found in structures where people normally live or work, including educational institutions;

"(B) assess the levels of radon gas that are present in such structures;

"(C) determine the level of radon gas and radon daughters which poses a threat to human health and assess for each location identified under subparagraph (A) the extent of the threat to human health;

"(D) determine methods of reducing or eliminating the threat to human health of radon gas and radon daughters; and

"(E) include guidance and public information materials based on the findings or research of mitigating radon.

"(2) Radon mitigation demonstration program.—

"(A) Demonstration program.—The Administrator shall conduct a demonstration program to test methods and technologies of reducing or eliminating radon gas and radon daughters where it poses a threat to human health. The Administrator shall take into consideration any demonstration program underway in the Reading Prong of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York and at other sites prior to enactment. The demonstration program under this section shall be conducted in the Reading Prong, and at such other sites as the Administrator considers appropriate.

"(B) Liability.—Liability, if any, for persons undertaking activities pursuant to the radon mitigation demonstration program authorized under this subsection shall be determined under principles of existing law.

"(3) Construction of section.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the Administrator to carry out any regulatory program or any activity other than research, development, and related reporting, information dissemination, and coordination activities specified in this subsection. Nothing in paragraph (1) or (2) shall be construed to limit the authority of the Administrator or of any other agency or instrumentality of the United States under any other authority of law."

Spill Control Technology

Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §118(n), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1660, provided that:

"(1) Establishment of program.—Within 180 days of enactment of this subsection [Oct. 17, 1986], the Secretary of the United States Department of Energy is directed to carry out a program of testing and evaluation of technologies which may be utilized in responding to liquefied gaseous and other hazardous substance spills at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility that threaten public health or the environment.

"(2) Technology transfer.—In carrying out the program established under this subsection, the Secretary shall conduct a technology transfer program that, at a minimum—

"(A) documents and archives spill control technology;

"(B) investigates and analyzes significant hazardous spill incidents;

"(C) develops and provides generic emergency action plans;

"(D) documents and archives spill test results;

"(E) develops emergency action plans to respond to spills;

"(F) conducts training of spill response personnel; and

"(G) establishes safety standards for personnel engaged in spill response activities.

"(3) Contracts and grants.—The Secretary is directed to enter into contracts and grants with a nonprofit organization in Albany County, Wyoming, that is capable of providing the necessary technical support and which is involved in environmental activities related to such hazardous substance related emergencies.

"(4) Use of site.—The Secretary shall arrange for the use of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility to carry out the provisions of this subsection."

Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research

Pub. L. 99–499, title IV, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1758, provided that:

"SEC. 401. SHORT TITLE.

"This title may be cited as the 'Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research Act of 1986'.

"SEC. 402. FINDINGS.

"The Congress finds that:

"(1) High levels of radon gas pose a serious health threat in structures in certain areas of the country.

"(2) Various scientific studies have suggested that exposure to radon, including exposure to naturally occurring radon and indoor air pollutants, poses a public health risk.

"(3) Existing Federal radon and indoor air pollutant research programs are fragmented and underfunded.

"(4) An adequate information base concerning exposure to radon and indoor air pollutants should be developed by the appropriate Federal agencies.

"SEC. 403. RADON GAS AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH PROGRAM.

"(a) Design of Program.—The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall establish a research program with respect to radon gas and indoor air quality. Such program shall be designed to—

"(1) gather data and information on all aspects of indoor air quality in order to contribute to the understanding of health problems associated with the existence of air pollutants in the indoor environment;

"(2) coordinate Federal, State, local, and private research and development efforts relating to the improvement of indoor air quality; and

"(3) assess appropriate Federal Government actions to mitigate the environmental and health risks associated with indoor air quality problems.

"(b) Program Requirements.—The research program required under this section shall include—

"(1) research and development concerning the identification, characterization, and monitoring of the sources and levels of indoor air pollution, including radon, which includes research and development relating to—

"(A) the measurement of various pollutant concentrations and their strengths and sources,

"(B) high-risk building types, and

"(C) instruments for indoor air quality data collection;

"(2) research relating to the effects of indoor air pollution and radon on human health;

"(3) research and development relating to control technologies or other mitigation measures to prevent or abate indoor air pollution (including the development, evaluation, and testing of individual and generic control devices and systems);

"(4) demonstration of methods for reducing or eliminating indoor air pollution and radon, including sealing, venting, and other methods that the Administrator determines may be effective;

"(5) research, to be carried out in conjunction with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, for the purpose of developing—

"(A) methods for assessing the potential for radon contamination of new construction, including (but not limited to) consideration of the moisture content of soil, porosity of soil, and radon content of soil; and

"(B) design measures to avoid indoor air pollution; and

"(6) the dissemination of information to assure the public availability of the findings of the activities under this section.

"(c) Advisory Committees.—The Administrator shall establish a committee comprised of individuals representing Federal agencies concerned with various aspects of indoor air quality and an advisory group comprised of individuals representing the States, the scientific community, industry, and public interest organizations to assist him in carrying out the research program for radon gas and indoor air quality.

"(d) Implementation Plan.—Not later than 90 days after the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986], the Administrator shall submit to the Congress a plan for implementation of the research program under this section. Such plan shall also be submitted to the EPA Science Advisory Board, which shall, within a reasonable period of time, submit its comments on such plan to Congress.

"(e) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986], the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report respecting his activities under this section and making such recommendations as appropriate.

"SEC. 404. CONSTRUCTION OF TITLE.

"Nothing in this title shall be construed to authorize the Administrator to carry out any regulatory program or any activity other than research, development, and related reporting, information dissemination, and coordination activities specified in this title. Nothing in this title shall be construed to limit the authority of the Administrator or of any other agency or instrumentality of the United States under any other authority of law.

"SEC. 405. AUTHORIZATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the activities under this title and under section 118(k) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (relating to radon gas assessment and demonstration program) [section 118(k) of Pub. L. 99–499, set out as a note above] not to exceed $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1987, 1988, and 1989. Of such sums appropriated in fiscal years 1987 and 1988, two-fifths shall be reserved for the implementation of section 118(k)(2)."

Study of Odors and Odorous Emissions

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 792, directed Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a study and report to Congress not later than Jan. 1, 1979, on effects on public health and welfare of odors and odorous emissions, source of such emissions, technology or other measures available for control of such emissions and costs of such technology or measures, and costs and benefits of alternative measures or strategies to abate such emissions.

List of Chemical Contaminants From Environmental Pollution Found in Human Tissue

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 792, directed Administrator of EPA, not later than twelve months after Aug. 7, 1977, to publish throughout the United States a list of all known chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution which have been found in human tissue including blood, urine, breast milk, and all other human tissue, such list to be prepared for the United States and to indicate approximate number of cases, range of levels found, and mean levels found, directed Administrator, not later than eighteen months after Aug. 7, 1977, to publish in same manner an explanation of what is known about the manner in which chemicals entered the environment and thereafter human tissue, and directed Administrator, in consultation with National Institutes of Health, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Center for Health Services Research and Development, to, if feasible, conduct an epidemiological study to demonstrate the relationship between levels of chemicals in the environment and in human tissue, such study to be made in appropriate regions or areas of the United States in order to determine any different results in such regions or areas, and the results of such study to be reported, as soon as practicable, to appropriate committee of Congress.

Study on Regional Air Quality

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(d), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 793, directed Administrator of EPA to conduct a study of air quality in various areas throughout the country including the gulf coast region, such study to include analysis of liquid and solid aerosols and other fine particulate matter and contribution of such substances to visibility and public health problems in such areas, with Administrator to use environmental health experts from the National Institutes of Health and other outside agencies and organizations.

Railroad Emission Study

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 793, as amended by H. Res. 549, Mar. 25, 1980, directed Administrator of EPA to conduct a study and investigation of emissions of air pollutants from railroad locomotives, locomotive engines, and secondary power sources on railroad rolling stock, in order to determine extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States, technological feasibility and current state of technology for controlling such emissions, and status and effect of current and proposed State and local regulations affecting such emissions, and within one hundred and eighty days after commencing such study and investigation, Administrator to submit a report of such study and investigation, together with recommendations for appropriate legislation, to Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works and House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

Study and Report Concerning Economic Approaches to Controlling Air Pollution

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 794, directed Administrator, in conjunction with Council of Economic Advisors, to undertake a study and assessment of economic measures for control of air pollution which could strengthen effectiveness of existing methods of controlling air pollution, provide incentives to abate air pollution greater than that required by Clean Air Act, and serve as primary incentive for controlling air pollution problems not addressed by Clean Air Act, and directed that not later than 2 years after Aug. 7, 1977, Administrator and Council conclude study and submit a report to President and Congress.

National Industrial Pollution Control Council

For provisions relating to establishment of National Industrial Pollution Control Council, see Ex. Ord. No. 11523, Apr. 9, 1970, 35 F.R. 5993, set out as a note under section 4321 of this title.

Federal Compliance With Pollution Control Standards

For provisions relating to responsibility of head of each Executive agency for compliance with applicable pollution control standards, see Ex. Ord. No. 12088, Oct. 13, 1978, 43 F.R. 47707, set out as a note under section 4321 of this title.

Executive Order No. 10779

Ex. Ord. No. 10779, Aug. 21, 1958, 23 F.R. 6487, which related to cooperation of Federal agencies with State and local authorities, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11282, May 26, 1966, 31 F.R. 7663, formerly set out under section 7418 of this title.

Executive Order No. 11507

Ex. Ord. No. 11507, Feb. 4, 1970, 35 F.R. 2573, which provided for prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution at Federal facilities, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11752, Dec. 17, 1973, 38 F.R. 34793, formerly set out as a note under section 4331 of this title.

Promoting Domestic Manufacturing and Job Creation—Policies and Procedures Relating to Implementation of Air Quality Standards

Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 12, 2018, 83 F.R. 16761, provided:

Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Under the Clean Air Act (CAA), Public Law 88–206 [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for certain common air pollutants, often referred to as "criteria pollutants," which it must review every 5 years. Over the past four decades, EPA has revised these standards a number of times to increase their stringency, including revisions to the standards for ozone, particulate matter, and four other criteria pollutants. Since 1970, emissions of criteria pollutants have declined dramatically and air quality has improved significantly. At the same time, each new revision of the NAAQS triggers numerous new planning, permitting, and other requirements for affected States, localities, and regulated entities. In addition, each new revision can affect the planning for and availability of Federal funding for certain new transportation projects.

Under the CAA, States with areas that do not meet revised NAAQS must submit for approval to the Administrator of the EPA (Administrator) State Implementation Plans (SIPs) showing how they will comply with the revised standards. States that fail to submit a SIP or that submit an inadequate SIP risk the imposition of a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) that establishes a path to compliance. In addition, manufacturers and other applicants seeking preconstruction permits for new construction generally must demonstrate compliance with the new standards as soon as they go into effect. As the NAAQS have become more stringent, obtaining the air permits needed to construct new manufacturing and industrial facilities or to expand or modernize existing facilities has become increasingly difficult. In some areas, revised NAAQS are approaching what are considered to be "background levels" of pollution (i.e., levels associated with natural sources or emissions originating outside of the United States), leading to significant practical challenges for constructing or expanding manufacturing and industrial facilities. Those challenges range from difficulties in demonstrating compliance to costs and uncertainty associated with permitting delays and emissions-control requirements.

Under the CAA, EPA has also established a Regional Haze Program, which requires States to submit for the Administrator's approval plans that cover 10-year implementation periods and to demonstrate "reasonable progress" toward improving and maintaining visibility in certain national parks and wilderness areas. In recent years, States have spent significant time and resources developing Regional Haze Program SIPs. EPA, however, has rejected several of them, in whole or in part, and issued FIPs in their place, which often impose more costly and burdensome measures.

Given the national importance of successful and efficient implementation of air quality standards to promote public health, welfare, and economic growth, this memorandum directs the Administrator to take specific actions to ensure efficient and cost-effective implementation of the NAAQS program, including with regard to permitting decisions for new and expanded facilities, and with respect to the Regional Haze Program. These actions are intended to ensure that EPA carries out its core missions of protecting the environment and improving air quality in accord with statutory requirements, while reducing unnecessary impediments to new manufacturing and business expansion essential for a growing economy.

Accordingly, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby directed as follows:

Section 1. Timely Processing of State Implementation Plans. The Administrator shall, as practicable and consistent with law, endeavor in all cases to take final action on SIPs within 18 months of the date of the submission of a SIP. This goal applies to all SIPs and SIP revisions submitted pursuant to section 110 of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7410). The Administrator shall consider the expansion of existing performance goals related to the timely processing of SIPs starting with the Fiscal Year (FY) 2019 performance plan.

Sec. 2. Cooperative Engagement with States to Review Regional Haze Plans. The Administrator shall undertake a process to review all full or partial FIPs issued under the 2007 planning period of the Regional Haze Program and to develop options, at the request of affected States, consistent with law, to replace FIPs with approvable SIPs. The Administrator shall consider the expansion of existing performance goals related to the cooperative engagement with States in EPA's review of Regional Haze Plans starting with the FY 2019 performance plan.

Sec. 3. Timely Processing of Preconstruction Permit Applications. The Administrator shall endeavor to take final action on applications for preconstruction permits, as appropriate and consistent with law, within 1 year of the date of receiving a complete application. This 1-year goal applies to all completed applications for preconstruction permits for which EPA is the direct permitting authority under the CAA. The Administrator shall also seek to ensure that determinations relating to the completeness of an application are not unduly delayed. To the extent that a State is the direct permitting authority, EPA shall endeavor to provide prompt technical support, reviews, and determinations, as necessary and consistent with applicable law, in order to assist States in the timely issuance of preconstruction permits. The Administrator shall, starting with the FY 2019 performance plan, develop performance goals related to the timely processing of preconstruction permit applications.

Sec. 4. Demonstrations or Petitions Submitted Pursuant to Sections 319 and 179B of the CAA Relating to Emissions Beyond the Control of State and Local Air Agencies. The Administrator shall take the following actions with regard to demonstrations or petitions submitted pursuant to sections 319 and 179B of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7619, 7509a), in order to provide relief to State and local air agencies addressing emissions that are beyond their control:

(a) Timely Processing. With respect to all exceptional event demonstrations submitted pursuant to section 319 of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7619), and all demonstrations or petitions relating to international emissions submitted pursuant to section 179B of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7509a), the Administrator shall endeavor to take final action within 120 days of a complete submission, as appropriate and consistent with law. The Administrator shall also endeavor to use available monitoring data and modeling tools to assist States in identifying potential exceptional events and international emissions that may affect concentrations of criteria pollutants. The Administrator shall, starting with the FY 2019 performance plan, develop performance goals related to the timely processing of demonstrations or petitions.

(b) Policies Relating to International Emissions. The Administrator shall ensure that EPA continues to take into consideration a State's ability to meet and attain NAAQS that may be affected by international transport of criteria pollutants. With regard to all demonstrations or petitions submitted pursuant to section 179B of the CAA, the Administrator shall also seek to ensure, including through rulemakings or guidance and as appropriate and consistent with law, that EPA does not limit its consideration of demonstrations or petitions to those submitted by States located on the borders of the United States with Mexico or Canada, but rather considers section 179B demonstrations or petitions submitted by any State, including but not limited to those located in the Western United States. Additionally, with respect to section 179B demonstrations or petitions, the Administrator shall ensure that EPA does not limit its consideration to emissions emanating from Mexico or Canada, but rather considers, where appropriate, emissions that may emanate from any location outside the United States, including emissions from Asia.

(c) Continuing Assessment. In implementing section 179B of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7509a), section 319 of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7619), and section 182(h) of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7511a(h)), the Administrator shall ensure that EPA continues to assess background concentrations and sources of pollution outside of the control of State and local air agencies that may affect implementation or application of these provisions. Such assessment may include current and future trends in pollution from foreign sources; regional trends in exceptional events, including wildfires, stratospheric ozone intrusions, and volcanic seismic activities; and other events, as appropriate and consistent with law.

Sec. 5. Monitoring and Modeling Data. The Administrator shall take the following actions to ensure that monitoring and modeling data is used appropriately in designations, permitting decisions, and demonstrations:

(a) Designations. Given the significant planning, permitting, and other requirements for affected States, localities, and regulated entities associated with nonattainment designations, the Administrator's goal for future designations should be, to the extent feasible and permitted by law, to rely on data from EPA-approved air quality monitors for such designations.

(b) Permitting Decisions and Demonstrations.

(i) Where modeling is necessary for permitting decisions, for State plans, or for exceptional event or international emissions demonstrations, the Administrator shall seek to ensure that EPA's applicable modeling tools are sufficiently accurate for their intended application; and that the relevant State or local air agency, or permit applicant as applicable, is consulted regarding whether the use of modeling projections in lieu of monitored data is appropriate. The Administrator should also seek to streamline EPA's processes for considering and approving inputs to models and updates to modeling techniques, including updates to account for site-specific conditions. Where EPA-approved models are not representative of site conditions or planned activities, the Administrator shall seek, as appropriate and consistent with law, to streamline the process for approving alternative models and to provide for other methods that promote innovative State approaches.

(ii) The Administrator shall, consistent with law, continue to take actions, such as setting significant impact levels and related values, that enable EPA to clearly identify the types or classes of permitting and related decisions that do not require modeling or that can rely on streamlined modeling approaches. This requirement is especially important in areas for which EPA concludes that permits need to demonstrate compliance with NAAQS that have yet to be fully implemented. In developing significant impact levels, EPA should, as appropriate and consistent with law, allow for natural variability in meteorological conditions and industrial processes.

Sec. 6. Offsets. To the extent consistent with law and air quality improvement, the Administrator shall provide flexibility to States with regard to identifying and achieving offsets, including by allowing intrastate and regional inter-precursor trading. These efforts should include development and implementation of flexible offset policies in rural areas where few facilities exist to generate offsets, in order to promote their economic expansion. The Administrator shall examine steps to help regions and States benefit from flexibilities available in the permitting process for new facilities and projects.

Sec. 7. Future NAAQS Reviews. The Administrator shall evaluate whether EPA is complying fully with the requirements of section 109(d)(2)(C) of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7409(d)(2)(C)) relating to the scope and characterization of advice provided by its Clean Air Act Scientific Advisory Committee, including requirements that the Committee advise the Administrator regarding background concentrations and adverse public health or other effects that may result from implementation of revised air quality standards. In addition, the Administrator shall examine the current NAAQS review process and develop criteria to ensure transparency in the evaluation, assessment, and characterization of scientific evidence in such reviews. The Administrator shall also develop clear guidance for differentiating the role of science and policy considerations in establishing NAAQS.

Sec. 8. Timely Issuance of Implementing Regulations and Guidance. When issuing any final rule establishing or revising NAAQS, the Administrator shall, where appropriate and consistent with law, concurrently issue regulations and guidance necessary for implementing the new or revised standards. The regulations and guidance shall specify the information that is relevant to the submission and consideration of SIPs and preconstruction permit applications.

Sec. 9. Review of Rules, Guidance, Memoranda, and Procedures Relating to State Implementation Plans and Permitting. The Administrator shall evaluate EPA's existing rules, guidance, memoranda, and other public documents relating to the implementation of NAAQS, including documents that relate to the submission and consideration of preconstruction permit applications. The Administrator shall, consistent with law, determine whether any such documents should be revised or rescinded to ensure more timely permitting decisions under the NAAQS. Any resulting revisions or rescissions should seek, among other things, to provide States with additional implementation flexibility. The Administrator should also evaluate the adequacy of existing internal review procedures to determine whether they can be improved to ensure prompt evaluation and timely action on new and pending SIPs and permit applications.

Sec. 10. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(d) You are hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.      

§7402. Cooperative activities

(a) Interstate cooperation; uniform State laws; State compacts

The Administrator shall encourage cooperative activities by the States and local governments for the prevention and control of air pollution; encourage the enactment of improved and, so far as practicable in the light of varying conditions and needs, uniform State and local laws relating to the prevention and control of air pollution; and encourage the making of agreements and compacts between States for the prevention and control of air pollution.

(b) Federal cooperation

The Administrator shall cooperate with and encourage cooperative activities by all Federal departments and agencies having functions relating to the prevention and control of air pollution, so as to assure the utilization in the Federal air pollution control program of all appropriate and available facilities and resources within the Federal Government.

(c) Consent of Congress to compacts

The consent of the Congress is hereby given to two or more States to negotiate and enter into agreements or compacts, not in conflict with any law or treaty of the United States, for (1) cooperative effort and mutual assistance for the prevention and control of air pollution and the enforcement of their respective laws relating thereto, and (2) the establishment of such agencies, joint or otherwise, as they may deem desirable for making effective such agreements or compacts. No such agreement or compact shall be binding or obligatory upon any State a party thereto unless and until it has been approved by Congress. It is the intent of Congress that no agreement or compact entered into between States after November 21, 1967, which relates to the control and abatement of air pollution in an air quality control region, shall provide for participation by a State which is not included (in whole or in part) in such air quality control region.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §102, formerly §2, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 393; renumbered §102, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(3), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 485; Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1713.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857a of this title.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in the first clause of subsec. (a) of this section were contained in subsec. (b)(1) of a prior section 1857a, of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §2, 69 Stat. 322, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88–206.

Amendments

1970—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 91–604 substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

1967—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–148 inserted declaration that it is the intent of Congress that no agreement or compact entered into between States after the date of enactment of the Air Quality Act of 1967, which for purposes of codification was changed to November 21, 1967, the date of approval of such Act, relating to the control and abatement of air pollution in an air quality control region, shall provide for participation by a State which is not included (in whole or in part) in such air quality control region.

§7403. Research, investigation, training, and other activities

(a) Research and development program for prevention and control of air pollution

The Administrator shall establish a national research and development program for the prevention and control of air pollution and as part of such program shall—

(1) conduct, and promote the coordination and acceleration of, research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, surveys, and studies relating to the causes, effects (including health and welfare effects), extent, prevention, and control of air pollution;

(2) encourage, cooperate with, and render technical services and provide financial assistance to air pollution control agencies and other appropriate public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and individuals in the conduct of such activities;

(3) conduct investigations and research and make surveys concerning any specific problem of air pollution in cooperation with any air pollution control agency with a view to recommending a solution of such problem, if he is requested to do so by such agency or if, in his judgment, such problem may affect any community or communities in a State other than that in which the source of the matter causing or contributing to the pollution is located;

(4) establish technical advisory committees composed of recognized experts in various aspects of air pollution to assist in the examination and evaluation of research progress and proposals and to avoid duplication of research; and

(5) conduct and promote coordination and acceleration of training for individuals relating to the causes, effects, extent, prevention, and control of air pollution.

(b) Authorized activities of Administrator in establishing research and development program

In carrying out the provisions of the preceding subsection the Administrator is authorized to—

(1) collect and make available, through publications and other appropriate means, the results of and other information, including appropriate recommendations by him in connection therewith, pertaining to such research and other activities;

(2) cooperate with other Federal departments and agencies, with air pollution control agencies, with other public and private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and with any industries involved, in the preparation and conduct of such research and other activities;

(3) make grants to air pollution control agencies, to other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and to individuals, for purposes stated in subsection (a)(1) of this section;

(4) contract with public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and with individuals, without regard to section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41;

(5) establish and maintain research fellowships, in the Environmental Protection Agency and at public or nonprofit private educational institutions or research organizations;

(6) collect and disseminate, in cooperation with other Federal departments and agencies, and with other public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations having related responsibilities, basic data on chemical, physical, and biological effects of varying air quality and other information pertaining to air pollution and the prevention and control thereof;

(7) develop effective and practical processes, methods, and prototype devices for the prevention or control of air pollution; and

(8) construct facilities, provide equipment, and employ staff as necessary to carry out this chapter.


In carrying out the provisions of subsection (a), the Administrator shall provide training for, and make training grants to, personnel of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications and make grants to such agencies, to other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations for the purposes stated in subsection (a)(5). Reasonable fees may be charged for such training provided to persons other than personnel of air pollution control agencies but such training shall be provided to such personnel of air pollution control agencies without charge.

(c) Air pollutant monitoring, analysis, modeling, and inventory research

In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator shall conduct a program of research, testing, and development of methods for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling of air pollutants. Such program shall include the following elements:

(1) Consideration of individual, as well as complex mixtures of, air pollutants and their chemical transformations in the atmosphere.

(2) Establishment of a national network to monitor, collect, and compile data with quantification of certainty in the status and trends of air emissions, deposition, air quality, surface water quality, forest condition, and visibility impairment, and to ensure the comparability of air quality data collected in different States and obtained from different nations.

(3) Development of improved methods and technologies for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling to increase understanding of the sources of ozone percursors,1 ozone formation, ozone transport, regional influences on urban ozone, regional ozone trends, and interactions of ozone with other pollutants. Emphasis shall be placed on those techniques which—

(A) improve the ability to inventory emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that contribute to urban air pollution, including anthropogenic and natural sources;

(B) improve the understanding of the mechanism through which anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds react to form ozone and other oxidants; and

(C) improve the ability to identify and evaluate region-specific prevention and control options for ozone pollution.


(4) Submission of periodic reports to the Congress, not less than once every 5 years, which evaluate and assess the effectiveness of air pollution control regulations and programs using monitoring and modeling data obtained pursuant to this subsection.

(d) Environmental health effects research

(1) The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall conduct a research program on the short-term and long-term effects of air pollutants, including wood smoke, on human health. In conducting such research program the Administrator—

(A) shall conduct studies, including epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory and field studies, as necessary to identify and evaluate exposure to and effects of air pollutants on human health;

(B) may utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of existing Federal scientific laboratories and research centers; and

(C) shall consult with other Federal agencies to ensure that similar research being conducted in other agencies is coordinated to avoid duplication.


(2) In conducting the research program under this subsection, the Administrator shall develop methods and techniques necessary to identify and assess the risks to human health from both routine and accidental exposures to individual air pollutants and combinations thereof. Such research program shall include the following elements:

(A) The creation of an Interagency Task Force to coordinate such program. The Task Force shall include representatives of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the National Toxicology Program, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Science Foundation, the Surgeon General, and the Department of Energy. This Interagency Task Force shall be chaired by a representative of the Environmental Protection Agency and shall convene its first meeting within 60 days after November 15, 1990.

(B) An evaluation, within 12 months after November 15, 1990, of each of the hazardous air pollutants listed under section 7412(b) of this title, to decide, on the basis of available information, their relative priority for preparation of environmental health assessments pursuant to subparagraph (C). The evaluation shall be based on reasonably anticipated toxicity to humans and exposure factors such as frequency of occurrence as an air pollutant and volume of emissions in populated areas. Such evaluation shall be reviewed by the Interagency Task Force established pursuant to subparagraph (A).

(C) Preparation of environmental health assessments for each of the hazardous air pollutants referred to in subparagraph (B), beginning 6 months after the first meeting of the Interagency Task Force and to be completed within 96 months thereafter. No fewer than 24 assessments shall be completed and published annually. The assessments shall be prepared in accordance with guidelines developed by the Administrator in consultation with the Interagency Task Force and the Science Advisory Board of the Environmental Protection Agency. Each such assessment shall include—

(i) an examination, summary, and evaluation of available toxicological and epidemiological information for the pollutant to ascertain the levels of human exposure which pose a significant threat to human health and the associated acute, subacute, and chronic adverse health effects;

(ii) a determination of gaps in available information related to human health effects and exposure levels; and

(iii) where appropriate, an identification of additional activities, including toxicological and inhalation testing, needed to identify the types or levels of exposure which may present significant risk of adverse health effects in humans.

(e) Ecosystem research

In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator, in cooperation, where appropriate, with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall conduct a research program to improve understanding of the short-term and long-term causes, effects, and trends of ecosystems damage from air pollutants on ecosystems. Such program shall include the following elements:

(1) Identification of regionally representative and critical ecosystems for research.

(2) Evaluation of risks to ecosystems exposed to air pollutants, including characterization of the causes and effects of chronic and episodic exposures to air pollutants and determination of the reversibility of those effects.

(3) Development of improved atmospheric dispersion models and monitoring systems and networks for evaluating and quantifying exposure to and effects of multiple environmental stresses associated with air pollution.

(4) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on water quality, including assessments of the short-term and long-term ecological effects of acid deposition and other atmospherically derived pollutants on surface water (including wetlands and estuaries) and groundwater.

(5) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on forests, materials, crops, biological diversity, soils, and other terrestrial and aquatic systems exposed to air pollutants.

(6) Estimation of the associated economic costs of ecological damage which have occurred as a result of exposure to air pollutants.


Consistent with the purpose of this program, the Administrator may use the estuarine research reserves established pursuant to section 1461 of title 16 to carry out this research.

(f) Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility

(1) The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, shall oversee an experimental and analytical research effort, with the experimental research to be carried out at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility. In consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Administrator shall develop a list of chemicals and a schedule for field testing at the Facility. Analysis of a minimum of 10 chemicals per year shall be carried out, with the selection of a minimum of 2 chemicals for field testing each year. Highest priority shall be given to those chemicals that would present the greatest potential risk to human health as a result of an accidental release—

(A) from a fixed site; or

(B) related to the transport of such chemicals.


(2) The purpose of such research shall be to—

(A) develop improved predictive models for atmospheric dispersion which at a minimum—

(i) describe dense gas releases in complex terrain including man-made structures or obstacles with variable winds;

(ii) improve understanding of the effects of turbulence on dispersion patterns; and

(iii) consider realistic behavior of aerosols by including physicochemical reactions with water vapor, ground deposition, and removal by water spray;


(B) evaluate existing and future atmospheric dispersion models by—

(i) the development of a rigorous, standardized methodology for dense gas models; and

(ii) the application of such methodology to current dense gas dispersion models using data generated from field experiments; and


(C) evaluate the effectiveness of hazard mitigation and emergency response technology for fixed site and transportation related accidental releases of toxic chemicals.


Models pertaining to accidental release shall be evaluated and improved periodically for their utility in planning and implementing evacuation procedures and other mitigative strategies designed to minimize human exposure to hazardous air pollutants released accidentally.

(3) The Secretary of Energy shall make available to interested persons (including other Federal agencies and businesses) the use of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility to conduct research and other activities in connection with the activities described in this subsection.

(g) Pollution prevention and emissions control

In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator shall conduct a basic engineering research and technology program to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate nonregulatory strategies and technologies for air pollution prevention. Such strategies and technologies shall be developed with priority on those pollutants which pose a significant risk to human health and the environment, and with opportunities for participation by industry, public interest groups, scientists, and other interested persons in the development of such strategies and technologies. Such program shall include the following elements:

(1) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies for preventing or reducing multiple air pollutants, including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, heavy metals, PM–10 (particulate matter), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, from stationary sources, including fossil fuel power plants. Such strategies and technologies shall include improvements in the relative cost effectiveness and long-range implications of various air pollutant reduction and nonregulatory control strategies such as energy conservation, including end-use efficiency, and fuel-switching to cleaner fuels. Such strategies and technologies shall be considered for existing and new facilities.

(2) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies for reducing air emissions from area sources.

(3) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies for preventing, detecting, and correcting accidental releases of hazardous air pollutants.

(4) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies that dispose of tires in ways that avoid adverse air quality impacts.


Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the imposition on any person of air pollution control requirements. The Administrator shall consult with other appropriate Federal agencies to ensure coordination and to avoid duplication of activities authorized under this subsection.

(h) NIEHS studies

(1) The Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences may conduct a program of basic research to identify, characterize, and quantify risks to human health from air pollutants. Such research shall be conducted primarily through a combination of university and medical school-based grants, as well as through intramural studies and contracts.

(2) The Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences shall conduct a program for the education and training of physicians in environmental health.

(3) The Director shall assure that such programs shall not conflict with research undertaken by the Administrator.

(4) There are authorized to be appropriated to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(i) Coordination of research

The Administrator shall develop and implement a plan for identifying areas in which activities authorized under this section can be carried out in conjunction with other Federal ecological and air pollution research efforts. The plan, which shall be submitted to Congress within 6 months after November 15, 1990, shall include—

(1) an assessment of ambient monitoring stations and networks to determine cost effective ways to expand monitoring capabilities in both urban and rural environments;

(2) a consideration of the extent of the feasibility and scientific value of conducting the research program under subsection (e) to include consideration of the effects of atmospheric processes and air pollution effects; and

(3) a methodology for evaluating and ranking pollution prevention technologies, such as those developed under subsection (g), in terms of their ability to reduce cost effectively the emissions of air pollutants and other airborne chemicals of concern.


Not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990, and every 4 years thereafter, the Administrator shall report to Congress on the progress made in implementing the plan developed under this subsection, and shall include in such report any revisions of the plan.

(j) Continuation of national acid precipitation assessment program

(1) The acid precipitation research program set forth in the Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 [42 U.S.C. 8901 et seq.] shall be continued with modifications pursuant to this subsection.

(2) The Acid Precipitation Task Force shall consist of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and such additional members as the President may select. The President shall appoint a chairman for the Task Force from among its members within 30 days after November 15, 1990.

(3) The responsibilities of the Task Force shall include the following:

(A) Review of the status of research activities conducted to date under the comprehensive research plan developed pursuant to the Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 [42 U.S.C. 8901 et seq.], and development of a revised plan that identifies significant research gaps and establishes a coordinated program to address current and future research priorities. A draft of the revised plan shall be submitted by the Task Force to Congress within 6 months after November 15, 1990. The plan shall be available for public comment during the 60 day period after its submission, and a final plan shall be submitted by the President to the Congress within 45 days after the close of the comment period.

(B) Coordination with participating Federal agencies, augmenting the agencies' research and monitoring efforts and sponsoring additional research in the scientific community as necessary to ensure the availability and quality of data and methodologies needed to evaluate the status and effectiveness of the acid deposition control program. Such research and monitoring efforts shall include, but not be limited to—

(i) continuous monitoring of emissions of precursors of acid deposition;

(ii) maintenance, upgrading, and application of models, such as the Regional Acid Deposition Model, that describe the interactions of emissions with the atmosphere, and models that describe the response of ecosystems to acid deposition; and

(iii) analysis of the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the acid deposition control program.


(C) Publication and maintenance of a National Acid Lakes Registry that tracks the condition and change over time of a statistically representative sample of lakes in regions that are known to be sensitive to surface water acidification.

(D) Submission every two years of a unified budget recommendation to the President for activities of the Federal Government in connection with the research program described in this subsection.

(E) Beginning in 1992 and biennially thereafter, submission of a report to Congress describing the results of its investigations and analyses. The reporting of technical information about acid deposition shall be provided in a format that facilitates communication with policymakers and the public. The report shall include—

(i) actual and projected emissions and acid deposition trends;

(ii) average ambient concentrations of acid deposition percursors 2 and their transformation products;

(iii) the status of ecosystems (including forests and surface waters), materials, and visibility affected by acid deposition;

(iv) the causes and effects of such deposition, including changes in surface water quality and forest and soil conditions;

(v) the occurrence and effects of episodic acidification, particularly with respect to high elevation watersheds; and

(vi) the confidence level associated with each conclusion to aid policymakers in use of the information.


(F) Beginning in 1996, and every 4 years thereafter, the report under subparagraph (E) shall include—

(i) the reduction in deposition rates that must be achieved in order to prevent adverse ecological effects; and

(ii) the costs and benefits of the acid deposition control program created by subchapter IV–A of this chapter.

(k) Air pollution conferences

If, in the judgment of the Administrator, an air pollution problem of substantial significance may result from discharge or discharges into the atmosphere, the Administrator may call a conference concerning this potential air pollution problem to be held in or near one or more of the places where such discharge or discharges are occurring or will occur. All interested persons shall be given an opportunity to be heard at such conference, either orally or in writing, and shall be permitted to appear in person or by representative in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Administrator. If the Administrator finds, on the basis of the evidence presented at such conference, that the discharge or discharges if permitted to take place or continue are likely to cause or contribute to air pollution subject to abatement under this part, the Administrator shall send such findings, together with recommendations concerning the measures which the Administrator finds reasonable and suitable to prevent such pollution, to the person or persons whose actions will result in the discharge or discharges involved; to air pollution agencies of the State or States and of the municipality or municipalities where such discharge or discharges will originate; and to the interstate air pollution control agency, if any, in the jurisdictional area of which any such municipality is located. Such findings and recommendations shall be advisory only, but shall be admitted together with the record of the conference, as part of the proceedings under subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of section 7408 of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §103, formerly §3, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 394; renumbered §103 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §§101(3), 103, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992, 996; Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 486; Pub. L. 91–604, §§2(a), 4(2), 15(a)(2), (c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676, 1689, 1710, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §101(a), (b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 686, 687; Pub. L. 101–549, title IX, §901(a)–(c), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2700–2703.)

References in Text

The Acid Precipitation Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (j)(1), (3)(A), is title VII of Pub. L. 96–294, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 770, which is classified generally to chapter 97 (§8901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8901 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (b)(4), "section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529; 41 U.S.C. 5)" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, which Act enacted Title 31, Money and Finance, and Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857b of this title.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsec. (a)(3) of this section were contained in subsec. (a) of a prior section 1857b of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §3, 69 Stat. 322, as amended Oct. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–761, §2, 76 Stat. 760, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88–206.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in prior sections 1857a to 1857d of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §§2 to 5, 69 Stat. 322 (section 1857b as amended Oct. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–761, §2, 76 Stat. 760; section 1857d as amended Sept. 22, 1959, Pub. L. 86–365, §1, 73 Stat. 646 and Oct. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–761, §1, 76 Stat. 760), prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88–206.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §901(a)(1), inserted "(including health and welfare effects)" after "effects".

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 101–549, §901(a)(2), which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by adding par. (8) at end, was executed by adding par. (8) after par. (7) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsecs. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 101–549, §901(b), amended subsecs. (c) to (f) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which related to: in subsec. (c), results of other scientific studies; in subsec. (d), construction of facilities; in subsec. (e), potential air pollution problems, conferences, and findings and recommendations of the Administrator; and, in subsec. (f), accelerated research programs.

Subsecs. (g) to (k). Pub. L. 101–549, §901(c), added subsecs. (g) to (k).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–95, §101(b), struck out reference to "training" in par. (1) and added par. (5).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–95, §101(a), struck out par. (5) which provided for training and training grants to personnel of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications, redesignated pars. (6), (7), and (8) as (5), (6), and (7), respectively, and, following par. (7) as so redesignated, inserted provisions directing the Administrator, in carrying out subsec. (a), to provide training for, and make training grants to, personnel of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications and to make grants to such agencies, to other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations for the purposes stated in subsec. (a)(5) and allowing reasonable fees to be charged for such training provided to persons other than personnel of air pollution control agencies but requiring that such training be provided to such personnel of air pollution control agencies without charge.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" and "Environmental Protection Agency" for "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(a)(2), (c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" and "air pollutants" for "air pollution agents (or combinations of agents)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing, substituted "7415" for "7415(a)", and inserted references to subsecs. (b) and (c) of section 7415 of this title.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–604, §2(a), added subsec. (f).

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–148 substituted "establish technical advisory committees composed of recognized experts in various aspects of air pollution to assist in the examination and evaluation of research progress and proposals and to avoid duplication of research" for "initiate and conduct a program of research directed toward the development of improved, low-cost techniques for extracting sulfur from fuels" as cl. (4) and struck out cl. (5) which related to research programs relating to the control of hydrocarbon emissions from evaporation of gasoline and nitrogen and aldehyde oxide emission from gasoline and diesel powered vehicles and relating to the development of improved low-cost techniques to reduce emissions of oxides of sulfur produced by the combustion of sulfur-containing fuels.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–148 struck out provision for promulgation of criteria in the case of particular air pollution agents present in the air in certain quantities reflecting the latest scientific knowledge and allowing for availability and revision and provided for recommendation by Secretary of air quality criteria.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–148 substituted references to subsections (d), (e), and (f) of section 7415 of this title for references to subsections (c), (d), and (e) of section 7415 of this title in provision for admission of advisory findings and recommendations together with the record of the conference and made such findings and recommendations part of the proceedings of the conference, not merely part of the record of proceedings.

1965—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 89–272, §103(3), added par. (5).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 89–272, §103(4), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (i) of this section requiring quadrennial reports to Congress and of reporting provisions in subsec. (j)(3)(E) and (F) of this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 7th and 8th items on page 163 of House Document No. 103–7.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Pilot Design Programs

Pub. L. 106–246, div. B, title II, §2603, July 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 558, required the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to make grants to carry out a 2-year program to implement in five metropolitan areas pilot design programs and report to Congress on the results not later than 360 days from first day of the second year of the 2-year program.

National Acid Lakes Registry

Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, §405, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2632, provided that: "The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall create a National Acid Lakes Registry that shall list, to the extent practical, all lakes that are known to be acidified due to acid deposition, and shall publish such list within one year of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990]. Lakes shall be added to the registry as they become acidic or as data becomes available to show they are acidic. Lakes shall be deleted from the registry as they become nonacidic."

Assessment of International Air Pollution Control Technologies

Pub. L. 101–549, title IX, §901(e), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2706, directed Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a study that compares international air pollution control technologies of selected industrialized countries to determine if there exist air pollution control technologies in countries outside the United States that may have beneficial applications to this Nation's air pollution control efforts, including, with respect to each country studied, the topics of urban air quality, motor vehicle emissions, toxic air emissions, and acid deposition, and within 2 years after Nov. 15, 1990, submit to Congress a report detailing the results of such study.

Western States Acid Deposition Research

Pub. L. 101–549, title IX, §901(g), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2707, provided that:

"(1) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall sponsor monitoring and research and submit to Congress annual and periodic assessment reports on—

"(A) the occurrence and effects of acid deposition on surface waters located in that part of the United States west of the Mississippi River;

"(B) the occurrence and effects of acid deposition on high elevation ecosystems (including forests, and surface waters); and

"(C) the occurrence and effects of episodic acidification, particularly with respect to high elevation watersheds.

"(2) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall analyze data generated from the studies conducted under paragraph (1), data from the Western Lakes Survey, and other appropriate research and utilize predictive modeling techniques that take into account the unique geographic, climatological, and atmospheric conditions which exist in the western United States to determine the potential occurrence and effects of acid deposition due to any projected increases in the emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in that part of the United States located west of the Mississippi River. The Administrator shall include the results of the project conducted under this paragraph in the reports issued to Congress under paragraph (1)."

Consultation With and Transmission of Reports and Studies to Congressional Committee

Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §101(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 687, provided that: "The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall consult with the House Committee on Science and Technology [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] on the environmental and atmospheric research, development, and demonstration aspects of this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 7401 of this title]. In addition, the reports and studies required by this Act that relate to research, development, and demonstration issues shall be transmitted to the Committee on Science and Technology [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] at the same time they are made available to other committees of the Congress."

Study of Substances Discharged From Exhausts of Motor Vehicles

Pub. L. 86–493, June 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 162, directed Surgeon General of Public Health Service to conduct a thorough study for purposes of determining, with respect to the various substances discharged from exhausts of motor vehicles, the amounts and kinds of such substances which, from the standpoint of human health, it is safe for motor vehicles to discharge into the atmosphere under the various conditions under which such vehicles may operate, and, not later than two years after June 8, 1960, submit to Congress a report on results of the study, together with such recommendations, if any, based upon the findings made in such study, as he deemed necessary for the protection of the public health.

1 So in original. Probably should be "precursors,".

2 So in original. Probably should be "precursors".

§7404. Research relating to fuels and vehicles

(a) Research programs; grants; contracts; pilot and demonstration plants; byproducts research

The Administrator shall give special emphasis to research and development into new and improved methods, having industry-wide application, for the prevention and control of air pollution resulting from the combustion of fuels. In furtherance of such research and development he shall—

(1) conduct and accelerate research programs directed toward development of improved, cost-effective techniques for—

(A) control of combustion byproducts of fuels,

(B) removal of potential air pollutants from fuels prior to combustion,

(C) control of emissions from the evaporation of fuels,

(D) improving the efficiency of fuels combustion so as to decrease atmospheric emissions, and

(E) producing synthetic or new fuels which, when used, result in decreased atmospheric emissions.1


(2) provide for Federal grants to public or nonprofit agencies, institutions, and organizations and to individuals, and contracts with public or private agencies, institutions, or persons, for payment of (A) part of the cost of acquiring, constructing, or otherwise securing for research and development purposes, new or improved devices or methods having industrywide application of preventing or controlling discharges into the air of various types of pollutants; (B) part of the cost of programs to develop low emission alternatives to the present internal combustion engine; (C) the cost to purchase vehicles and vehicle engines, or portions thereof, for research, development, and testing purposes; and (D) carrying out the other provisions of this section, without regard to section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41: Provided, That research or demonstration contracts awarded pursuant to this subsection (including contracts for construction) may be made in accordance with, and subject to the limitations provided with respect to research contracts of the military departments in, section 2353 of title 10, except that the determination, approval, and certification required thereby shall be made by the Administrator; Provided further, That no grant may be made under this paragraph in excess of $1,500,000;

(3) determine, by laboratory and pilot plant testing, the results of air pollution research and studies in order to develop new or improved processes and plant designs to the point where they can be demonstrated on a large and practical scale;

(4) construct, operate, and maintain, or assist in meeting the cost of the construction, operation, and maintenance of new or improved demonstration plants or processes which have promise of accomplishing the purposes of this chapter; 2

(5) study new or improved methods for the recovery and marketing of commercially valuable byproducts resulting from the removal of pollutants.

(b) Powers of Administrator in establishing research and development programs

In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Administrator may—

(1) conduct and accelerate research and development of cost-effective instrumentation techniques to facilitate determination of quantity and quality of air pollutant emissions, including, but not limited to, automotive emissions;

(2) utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of existing Federal scientific laboratories;

(3) establish and operate necessary facilities and test sites at which to carry on the research, testing, development, and programming necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section;

(4) acquire secret processes, technical data, inventions, patent applications, patents, licenses, and an interest in lands, plants, and facilities, and other property or rights by purchase, license, lease, or donation; and

(5) cause on-site inspections to be made of promising domestic and foreign projects, and cooperate and participate in their development in instances in which the purposes of the chapter will be served thereby.

(c) Clean alternative fuels

The Administrator shall conduct a research program to identify, characterize, and predict air emissions related to the production, distribution, storage, and use of clean alternative fuels to determine the risks and benefits to human health and the environment relative to those from using conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. The Administrator shall consult with other Federal agencies to ensure coordination and to avoid duplication of activities authorized under this subsection.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 487; amended Pub. L. 91–137, Dec. 5, 1969, 83 Stat. 283; Pub. L. 91–604, §§2(b), (c), 13(a), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676, 1677, 1709, 1713; Pub. L. 93–15, §1(a), Apr. 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 11; Pub. L. 93–319, §13(a), June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 265; Pub. L. 101–549, title IX, §901(d), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2706.)

Codification

In subsec. (a)(2)(D), "section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529; 41 U.S.C. 5)" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, which Act enacted Title 31, Money and Finance, and Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857b–1 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 104 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 105 by Pub. L. 90–148 and is classified to section 7405 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §901(d)(1), substituted "cost-effective" for "low-cost".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–549, §901(d)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "For the purposes of this section there are authorized to be appropriated $75,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, $125,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, $150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, and $150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, and $150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this subsection shall remain available until expended."

1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–319 authorized appropriation of $150,000,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1975.

1973—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–15 authorized appropriation of $150,000,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1974.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–604, §2(b), inserted provisions authorizing research programs directed toward development of techniques for improving the efficiency of fuels combustion so as to decrease atmospheric emissions, and producing synthetic or new fuels which result in decreased atmospheric emissions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–604, §2(c), added cls. (B) and (C) and redesignated former cl. (B) as (D).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, §13(a), substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending June 30, 1971, 1972, and 1973, for provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending June 30, 1968 and 1969.

1969—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–137 authorized appropriation of $45,000,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1970.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Study and Test Program

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §807, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689, provided that: "The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy, shall conduct a study and test program on the development of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle. The study and test program shall determine how best to transfer existing NASA hydrogen fuel cell technology into the form of a mass-producible, cost effective hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. Such study and test program shall include at a minimum a feasibility-design study, the construction of a prototype, and a demonstration. This study and test program should be completed and a report submitted to Congress within 3 years after the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990]. This study and test program should be performed in the university or universities which are best exhibiting the facilities and expertise to develop such a fuel cell vehicle."

Combustion of Contaminated Used Oil in Ships

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §813, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2693, provided that: "Within 2 years after the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall complete a study and submit a report to Congress evaluating the health and environmental impacts of the combustion of contaminated used oil in ships, the reasons for using such oil for such purposes, the alternatives to such use, the costs of such alternatives, and other relevant factors and impacts. In preparing such study, the Administrator shall obtain the view and comments of all interested persons and shall consult with the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating."

Extension to Aug. 31, 1970 of Authorization Period for Fiscal Year 1970

Pub. L. 91–316, July 10, 1970, 84 Stat. 416, provided in part that the authorization contained in section 104(c) of the Clean Air Act [subsec. (c) of this section] for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, should remain available through Aug. 31, 1970, notwithstanding any provisions of this section.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

2 So in original. The word "and" probably should appear.

§7405. Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

(a) Amounts; limitations; assurances of plan development capability

(1)(A) The Administrator may make grants to air pollution control agencies, within the meaning of paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 7602 of this title, in an amount up to three-fifths of the cost of implementing programs for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards. For the purpose of this section, "implementing" means any activity related to the planning, developing, establishing, carrying-out, improving, or maintaining of such programs.

(B) Subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, an air pollution control agency which receives a grant under subparagraph (A) and which contributes less than the required two-fifths minimum shall have 3 years following November 15, 1990, in which to contribute such amount. If such an agency fails to meet and maintain this required level, the Administrator shall reduce the amount of the Federal contribution accordingly.

(C) With respect to any air quality control region or portion thereof for which there is an applicable implementation plan under section 7410 of this title, grants under subparagraph (A) may be made only to air pollution control agencies which have substantial responsibilities for carrying out such applicable implementation plan.

(2) Before approving any grant under this subsection to any air pollution control agency within the meaning of sections 7602(b)(2) and 7602(b)(4) of this title, the Administrator shall receive assurances that such agency provides for adequate representation of appropriate State, interstate, local, and (when appropriate) international, interests in the air quality control region.

(3) Before approving any planning grant under this subsection to any air pollution control agency within the meaning of sections 7602(b)(2) and 7602(b)(4) of this title, the Administrator shall receive assurances that such agency has the capability of developing a comprehensive air quality plan for the air quality control region, which plan shall include (when appropriate) a recommended system of alerts to avert and reduce the risk of situations in which there may be imminent and serious danger to the public health or welfare from air pollutants and the various aspects relevant to the establishment of air quality standards for such air quality control region, including the concentration of industries, other commercial establishments, population and naturally occurring factors which shall affect such standards.

(b) Terms and conditions; regulations; factors for consideration; State expenditure limitations

(1) From the sums available for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section for any fiscal year, the Administrator shall from time to time make grants to air pollution control agencies upon such terms and conditions as the Administrator may find necessary to carry out the purpose of this section. In establishing regulations for the granting of such funds the Administrator shall, so far as practicable, give due consideration to (A) the population, (B) the extent of the actual or potential air pollution problem, and (C) the financial need of the respective agencies.

(2) Not more than 10 per centum of the total of funds appropriated or allocated for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section shall be granted for air pollution control programs in any one State. In the case of a grant for a program in an area crossing State boundaries, the Administrator shall determine the portion of such grant that is chargeable to the percentage limitation under this subsection for each State into which such area extends. Subject to the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, no State shall have made available to it for application less than one-half of 1 per centum of the annual appropriation for grants under this section for grants to agencies within such State.

(c) Maintenance of effort

(1) No agency shall receive any grant under this section during any fiscal year when its expenditures of non-Federal funds for recurrent expenditures for air pollution control programs will be less than its expenditures were for such programs during the preceding fiscal year. In order for the Administrator to award grants under this section in a timely manner each fiscal year, the Administrator shall compare an agency's prospective expenditure level to that of its second preceding fiscal year. The Administrator shall revise the current regulations which define applicable nonrecurrent and recurrent expenditures, and in so doing, give due consideration to exempting an agency from the limitations of this paragraph and subsection (a) due to periodic increases experienced by that agency from time to time in its annual expenditures for purposes acceptable to the Administrator for that fiscal year.

(2) The Administrator may still award a grant to an agency not meeting the requirements of paragraph (l) 1 of this subsection if the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, determines that a reduction in expenditures is attributable to a non-selective reduction in the expenditures in the programs of all Executive branch agencies of the applicable unit of Government. No agency shall receive any grant under this section with respect to the maintenance of a program for the prevention and control of air pollution unless the Administrator is satisfied that such a grant will be so used to supplement and, to the extent practicable, increase the level of State, local, or other non-Federal funds. No grants shall be made under this section until the Administrator has consulted with the appropriate official as designated by the Governor or Governors of the State or States affected.

(d) Reduction of payments; availability of reduced amounts; reduced amount as deemed paid to agency for purpose of determining amount of grant

The Administrator, with the concurrence of any recipient of a grant under this section, may reduce the payments to such recipient by the amount of the pay, allowances, traveling expenses, and any other costs in connection with the detail of any officer or employee to the recipient under section 7601 of this title, when such detail is for the convenience of, and at the request of, such recipient and for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this chapter. The amount by which such payments have been reduced shall be available for payment of such costs by the Administrator, but shall, for the purpose of determining the amount of any grant to a recipient under subsection (a) of this section, be deemed to have been paid to such agency.

(e) Notice and opportunity for hearing when affected by adverse action

No application by a State for a grant under this section may be disapproved by the Administrator without prior notice and opportunity for a public hearing in the affected State, and no commitment or obligation of any funds under any such grant may be revoked or reduced without prior notice and opportunity for a public hearing in the affected State (or in one of the affected States if more than one State is affected).

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §105, formerly §4, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 395; renumbered §104 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(2)–(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 89–675, §3, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 954; renumbered §105 and amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 489; Pub. L. 91–604, §§3(a), (b)(1), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1677, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §102, title III, §305(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 687, 776; Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §802(a)–(e), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2687, 2688.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 105 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 108 by Pub. L. 90–148 and is classified to section 7415 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section were contained in a prior section 1857d of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §5, 69 Stat. 322, as amended Sept. 22, 1959, Pub. L. 86–365, §1, 73 Stat. 646; Oct. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–761, §1, 76 Stat. 760, prior to the general amendment by Pub. L. 88–206.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 101–549, §802(a), amended subpars. (A) and (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (A) and (B) read as follows:

"(A) The Administrator may make grants to air pollution control agencies in an amount up to two-thirds of the cost of planning, developing, establishing, or improving, and up to one-half of the cost of maintaining, programs for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementation of national primary and secondry [sic] ambient air quality standards.

"(B) Subject to subparagraph (C), the Administrator may make grants to air pollution control agencies within the meaning of paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of section 7602(b) of this title in an amount up to three-fourths of the cost of planning, developing, establishing, or improving, and up to three-fifths of the cost of maintaining, any program for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards in an area that includes two or more municipalities, whether in the same or different States."

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 101–549, §802(b), substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "subparagraph (B)".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §802(c), designated existing provisions of subsec. (b) as par. (1), redesignated former cls. (1) to (3) as cls. (A) to (C), respectively, and struck out at end "No agency shall receive any grant under this section during any fiscal year when its expenditures of non-Federal funds for other than nonrecurrent expenditures for air pollution control programs will be less than its expenditures were for such programs during the preceding fiscal year, unless the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, determines that a reduction in expenditures is attributable to a nonselective reduction in expenditures in the programs of all executive branch agencies of the applicable unit of Government; and no agency shall receive any grant under this section with respect to the maintenance of a program for the prevention and control of air pollution unless the Administrator is satisfied that such grant will be so used to supplement and, to the extent practicable, increase the level of State, local, or other non-Federal funds that would in the absence of such grant be made available for the maintenance of such program, and will in no event supplant such State, local, or other non-Federal funds. No grant shall be made under this section until the Administrator has consulted with the appropriate official as designated by the Governor or Governors of the State or States affected."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, §802(d), redesignated subsec. (c) as subsec. (b)(2) and substituted "Subject to the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, no State shall have made available to it for application less than one-half of 1 per centum of the annual appropriation for grants under this section for grants to agencies within such State." for "In fiscal year 1978 and subsequent fiscal years, subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, no State shall receive less than one-half of 1 per centum of the annual appropriation for grants under this section for grants to agencies within such State."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–549, §802(e), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b)(2).

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–95, §102(a), inserted ", unless the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines that a reduction in expenditures is attributable to a nonselective reduction in expenditures in the programs of all executive branch agencies of the applicable unit of Government" after "will be less than its expenditures were for such programs during the preceding fiscal year".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–95, §102(b), provided that in fiscal year 1978 and subsequent fiscal years, subject to provisions of subsec. (b) of this section, no State shall receive less than one-half of 1 per centum of the annual appropriation for grants under this section for grants to agencies within such State.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–95, §305(b), added subsec. (e).

1970—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–604, §3(a), substituted provisions authorizing the Administrator to make grants, for provisions authorizing the Secretary to make grants, and provisions authorizing grants for programs implementing national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, for provisions authorizing grants for programs implementing air quality standards authorized by this subchapter, and inserted the provision requiring grants to air pollution control agencies be made to agencies having substantial responsibilities for carrying out the applicable implementation plan with respect to the air quality control region or portion thereof.

Subsecs. (a)(2), (3), (b), (c). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–604, §3(b)(1), added subsec. (d).

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–148 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "regional air quality control program" for "regional air pollution control program," added planning to list of authorized activities, and added programs for implementation of air quality standards authorized by this chapter to list of authorized programs, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–148 made minor changes in the order of provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–148 reduced percentage limitation on portion of total funds which might be granted for air pollution control programs in any one State from 12½ per centum to 10 per centum.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–675, §3(a)(1), struck out provisions limiting available funds to 20 per centum of sums appropriated annually for purpose of this subchapter, inserted provisions allowing grants to air pollution control agencies up to one-half of cost of maintaining programs for prevention and control of air pollution, and authorized Secretary to make grants of up to three-fifths of cost of maintaining regional air pollution control programs.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–675, §3(a)(2), substituted "for the purpose of" for "under", permitted grantees to reduce annual expenditures to the extent that nonrecurrent costs are involved for purposes of application of the provision that no agency may receive grants during any fiscal year when its expenditures of non-Federal funds for air pollution control programs are less than its expenditures for such programs during the preceding year, and inserted provisions insuring that Federal funds will in no event be used to supplant State or local government funds in maintaining air pollution control programs.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–675, §3(b), substituted "total of funds appropriated or allocated for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section shall be granted for air pollution control programs" for "grant funds available under subsection (a) of this section shall be expended" and authorized the Secretary to determine the portion of grants to interstate agencies to be charged against the twelve and one-half percent limitation of grant funds to any one State.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–272 substituted "this title" for "this Act", which for purposes of codification has been changed to "this subchapter", and "section 302(b)(2) and (4)" for "section 9(b)(2) and (4)", which for purposes of codification has been changed to "section 7602(b)(2) and (4) of this title".

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be paragraph "(1)".

§7406. Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

For the purpose of developing implementation plans for any interstate air quality control region designated pursuant to section 7407 of this title or of implementing section 7506a of this title (relating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 7511c of this title (relating to control of interstate ozone pollution), the Administrator is authorized to pay, for two years, up to 100 per centum of the air quality planning program costs of any commission established under section 7506a of this title (relating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 7511c of this title (relating to control of interstate ozone pollution) or any agency designated by the Governors of the affected States, which agency shall be capable of recommending to the Governors plans for implementation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards and shall include representation from the States and appropriate political subdivisions within the air quality control region. After the initial two-year period the Administrator is authorized to make grants to such agency or such commission in an amount up to three-fifths of the air quality implementation program costs of such agency or commission.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 490; amended Pub. L. 91–604, §3(c), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1677; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §102(f)(2), title VIII, §802(f), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2420, 2688.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c–1 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 106 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 117 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7417 of this title.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–549, §102(f)(2)(A), inserted "or of implementing section 7506a of this title (relating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 7511c of this title (relating to control of interstate ozone pollution)" after "section 7407 of this title".

Pub. L. 101–549, §102(f)(2)(B), which directed insertion of "any commission established under section 7506a of this title (relating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 7511c of this title (relating to control of interstate ozone pollution) or" after "program costs of", was executed by making the insertion after that phrase the first place it appeared to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 101–549, §102(f)(2)(C), which directed insertion of "or such commission" after "such agency" in last sentence, was executed by making insertion after "such agency" the first place it appeared in the last sentence to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 101–549, §§102(f)(2)(D), 802(f), substituted "three-fifths of the air quality implementation program costs of such agency or commission" for "three-fourths of the air quality planning program costs of such agency".

1970Pub. L. 91–604 struck out designation "(a)", substituted provisions authorizing Federal grants for the purpose of developing implementation plans and provisions requiring the designated State agency to be capable of recommending plans for implementation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, for provisions authorizing Federal grants for the purpose of expediting the establishment of air quality standards and provisions requiring the designated State agency to be capable of recommending standards of air quality and plans for implementation thereof, respectively, and struck out subsec. (b) which authorized establishment of air quality planning commissions.

§7407. Air quality control regions

(a) Responsibility of each State for air quality; submission of implementation plan

Each State shall have the primary responsibility for assuring air quality within the entire geographic area comprising such State by submitting an implementation plan for such State which will specify the manner in which national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards will be achieved and maintained within each air quality control region in such State.

(b) Designated regions

For purposes of developing and carrying out implementation plans under section 7410 of this title

(1) an air quality control region designated under this section before December 31, 1970, or a region designated after such date under subsection (c), shall be an air quality control region; and

(2) the portion of such State which is not part of any such designated region shall be an air quality control region, but such portion may be subdivided by the State into two or more air quality control regions with the approval of the Administrator.

(c) Authority of Administrator to designate regions; notification of Governors of affected States

The Administrator shall, within 90 days after December 31, 1970, after consultation with appropriate State and local authorities, designate as an air quality control region any interstate area or major intrastate area which he deems necessary or appropriate for the attainment and maintenance of ambient air quality standards. The Administrator shall immediately notify the Governors of the affected States of any designation made under this subsection.

(d) Designations

(1) Designations generally

(A) Submission by Governors of initial designations following promulgation of new or revised standards

By such date as the Administrator may reasonably require, but not later than 1 year after promulgation of a new or revised national ambient air quality standard for any pollutant under section 7409 of this title, the Governor of each State shall (and at any other time the Governor of a State deems appropriate the Governor may) submit to the Administrator a list of all areas (or portions thereof) in the State, designating as—

(i) nonattainment, any area that does not meet (or that contributes to ambient air quality in a nearby area that does not meet) the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant,

(ii) attainment, any area (other than an area identified in clause (i)) that meets the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant, or

(iii) unclassifiable, any area that cannot be classified on the basis of available information as meeting or not meeting the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant.


The Administrator may not require the Governor to submit the required list sooner than 120 days after promulgating a new or revised national ambient air quality standard.

(B) Promulgation by EPA of designations

(i) Upon promulgation or revision of a national ambient air quality standard, the Administrator shall promulgate the designations of all areas (or portions thereof) submitted under subparagraph (A) as expeditiously as practicable, but in no case later than 2 years from the date of promulgation of the new or revised national ambient air quality standard. Such period may be extended for up to one year in the event the Administrator has insufficient information to promulgate the designations.

(ii) In making the promulgations required under clause (i), the Administrator may make such modifications as the Administrator deems necessary to the designations of the areas (or portions thereof) submitted under subparagraph (A) (including to the boundaries of such areas or portions thereof). Whenever the Administrator intends to make a modification, the Administrator shall notify the State and provide such State with an opportunity to demonstrate why any proposed modification is inappropriate. The Administrator shall give such notification no later than 120 days before the date the Administrator promulgates the designation, including any modification thereto. If the Governor fails to submit the list in whole or in part, as required under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall promulgate the designation that the Administrator deems appropriate for any area (or portion thereof) not designated by the State.

(iii) If the Governor of any State, on the Governor's own motion, under subparagraph (A), submits a list of areas (or portions thereof) in the State designated as nonattainment, attainment, or unclassifiable, the Administrator shall act on such designations in accordance with the procedures under paragraph (3) (relating to redesignation).

(iv) A designation for an area (or portion thereof) made pursuant to this subsection shall remain in effect until the area (or portion thereof) is redesignated pursuant to paragraph (3) or (4).

(C) Designations by operation of law

(i) Any area designated with respect to any air pollutant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(A), (B), or (C) of this subsection (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) is designated, by operation of law, as a nonattainment area for such pollutant within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(i).

(ii) Any area designated with respect to any air pollutant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(E) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) is designated by operation of law, as an attainment area for such pollutant within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(ii).

(iii) Any area designated with respect to any air pollutant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(D) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) is designated, by operation of law, as an unclassifiable area for such pollutant within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(iii).

(2) Publication of designations and redesignations

(A) The Administrator shall publish a notice in the Federal Register promulgating any designation under paragraph (1) or (5), or announcing any designation under paragraph (4), or promulgating any redesignation under paragraph (3).

(B) Promulgation or announcement of a designation under paragraph (1), (4) or (5) shall not be subject to the provisions of sections 553 through 557 of title 5 (relating to notice and comment), except nothing herein shall be construed as precluding such public notice and comment whenever possible.

(3) Redesignation

(A) Subject to the requirements of subparagraph (E), and on the basis of air quality data, planning and control considerations, or any other air quality-related considerations the Administrator deems appropriate, the Administrator may at any time notify the Governor of any State that available information indicates that the designation of any area or portion of an area within the State or interstate area should be revised. In issuing such notification, which shall be public, to the Governor, the Administrator shall provide such information as the Administrator may have available explaining the basis for the notice.

(B) No later than 120 days after receiving a notification under subparagraph (A), the Governor shall submit to the Administrator such redesignation, if any, of the appropriate area (or areas) or portion thereof within the State or interstate area, as the Governor considers appropriate.

(C) No later than 120 days after the date described in subparagraph (B) (or paragraph (1)(B)(iii)), the Administrator shall promulgate the redesignation, if any, of the area or portion thereof, submitted by the Governor in accordance with subparagraph (B), making such modifications as the Administrator may deem necessary, in the same manner and under the same procedure as is applicable under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(B), except that the phrase "60 days" shall be substituted for the phrase "120 days" in that clause. If the Governor does not submit, in accordance with subparagraph (B), a redesignation for an area (or portion thereof) identified by the Administrator under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall promulgate such redesignation, if any, that the Administrator deems appropriate.

(D) The Governor of any State may, on the Governor's own motion, submit to the Administrator a revised designation of any area or portion thereof within the State. Within 18 months of receipt of a complete State redesignation submittal, the Administrator shall approve or deny such redesignation. The submission of a redesignation by a Governor shall not affect the effectiveness or enforceability of the applicable implementation plan for the State.

(E) The Administrator may not promulgate a redesignation of a nonattainment area (or portion thereof) to attainment unless—

(i) the Administrator determines that the area has attained the national ambient air quality standard;

(ii) the Administrator has fully approved the applicable implementation plan for the area under section 7410(k) of this title;

(iii) the Administrator determines that the improvement in air quality is due to permanent and enforceable reductions in emissions resulting from implementation of the applicable implementation plan and applicable Federal air pollutant control regulations and other permanent and enforceable reductions;

(iv) the Administrator has fully approved a maintenance plan for the area as meeting the requirements of section 7505a of this title; and

(v) the State containing such area has met all requirements applicable to the area under section 7410 of this title and part D.


(F) The Administrator shall not promulgate any redesignation of any area (or portion thereof) from nonattainment to unclassifiable.

(4) Nonattainment designations for ozone, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM–10)

(A) Ozone and carbon monoxide

(i) Within 120 days after November 15, 1990, each Governor of each State shall submit to the Administrator a list that designates, affirms or reaffirms the designation of, or redesignates (as the case may be), all areas (or portions thereof) of the Governor's State as attainment, nonattainment, or unclassifiable with respect to the national ambient air quality standards for ozone and carbon monoxide.

(ii) No later than 120 days after the date the Governor is required to submit the list of areas (or portions thereof) required under clause (i) of this subparagraph, the Administrator shall promulgate such designations, making such modifications as the Administrator may deem necessary, in the same manner, and under the same procedure, as is applicable under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(B), except that the phrase "60 days" shall be substituted for the phrase "120 days" in that clause. If the Governor does not submit, in accordance with clause (i) of this subparagraph, a designation for an area (or portion thereof), the Administrator shall promulgate the designation that the Administrator deems appropriate.

(iii) No nonattainment area may be redesignated as an attainment area under this subparagraph.

(iv) Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C)(ii) of this subsection, if an ozone or carbon monoxide nonattainment area located within a metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area (as established by the Bureau of the Census) is classified under part D of this subchapter as a Serious, Severe, or Extreme Area, the boundaries of such area are hereby revised (on the date 45 days after such classification) by operation of law to include the entire metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area, as the case may be, unless within such 45-day period the Governor (in consultation with State and local air pollution control agencies) notifies the Administrator that additional time is necessary to evaluate the application of clause (v). Whenever a Governor has submitted such a notice to the Administrator, such boundary revision shall occur on the later of the date 8 months after such classification or 14 months after November 15, 1990, unless the Governor makes the finding referred to in clause (v), and the Administrator concurs in such finding, within such period. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, a boundary revision under this clause or clause (v) shall apply for purposes of any State implementation plan revision required to be submitted after November 15, 1990.

(v) Whenever the Governor of a State has submitted a notice under clause (iv), the Governor, in consultation with State and local air pollution control agencies, shall undertake a study to evaluate whether the entire metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area should be included within the nonattainment area. Whenever a Governor finds and demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administrator, and the Administrator concurs in such finding, that with respect to a portion of a metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area, sources in the portion do not contribute significantly to violation of the national ambient air quality standard, the Administrator shall approve the Governor's request to exclude such portion from the nonattainment area. In making such finding, the Governor and the Administrator shall consider factors such as population density, traffic congestion, commercial development, industrial development, meteorological conditions, and pollution transport.

(B) PM–10 designations

By operation of law, until redesignation by the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (3)—

(i) each area identified in 52 Federal Register 29383 (Aug. 7, 1987) as a Group I area (except to the extent that such identification was modified by the Administrator before November 15, 1990) is designated nonattainment for PM–10;

(ii) any area containing a site for which air quality monitoring data show a violation of the national ambient air quality standard for PM–10 before January 1, 1989 (as determined under part 50, appendix K of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations) is hereby designated nonattainment for PM–10; and

(iii) each area not described in clause (i) or (ii) is hereby designated unclassifiable for PM–10.


Any designation for particulate matter (measured in terms of total suspended particulates) that the Administrator promulgated pursuant to this subsection (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) shall remain in effect for purposes of implementing the maximum allowable increases in concentrations of particulate matter (measured in terms of total suspended particulates) pursuant to section 7473(b) of this title, until the Administrator determines that such designation is no longer necessary for that purpose.

(5) Designations for lead

The Administrator may, in the Administrator's discretion at any time the Administrator deems appropriate, require a State to designate areas (or portions thereof) with respect to the national ambient air quality standard for lead in effect as of November 15, 1990, in accordance with the procedures under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1), except that in applying subparagraph (B)(i) of paragraph (1) the phrase "2 years from the date of promulgation of the new or revised national ambient air quality standard" shall be replaced by the phrase "1 year from the date the Administrator notifies the State of the requirement to designate areas with respect to the standard for lead".

(6) Designations

(A) Submission

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, not later than February 15, 2004, the Governor of each State shall submit designations referred to in paragraph (1) for the July 1997 PM2.5 national ambient air quality standards for each area within the State, based on air quality monitoring data collected in accordance with any applicable Federal reference methods for the relevant areas.

(B) Promulgation

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, not later than December 31, 2004, the Administrator shall, consistent with paragraph (1), promulgate the designations referred to in subparagraph (A) for each area of each State for the July 1997 PM2.5 national ambient air quality standards.

(7) Implementation plan for regional haze

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, not later than 3 years after the date on which the Administrator promulgates the designations referred to in paragraph (6)(B) for a State, the State shall submit, for the entire State, the State implementation plan revisions to meet the requirements promulgated by the Administrator under section 7492(e)(1) of this title (referred to in this paragraph as "regional haze requirements").

(B) No preclusion of other provisions

Nothing in this paragraph precludes the implementation of the agreements and recommendations stemming from the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission Report dated June 1996, including the submission of State implementation plan revisions by the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, or Wyoming by December 31, 2003, for implementation of regional haze requirements applicable to those States.

(e) Redesignation of air quality control regions

(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2), the Governor of each State is authorized, with the approval of the Administrator, to redesignate from time to time the air quality control regions within such State for purposes of efficient and effective air quality management. Upon such redesignation, the list under subsection (d) shall be modified accordingly.

(2) In the case of an air quality control region in a State, or part of such region, which the Administrator finds may significantly affect air pollution concentrations in another State, the Governor of the State in which such region, or part of a region, is located may redesignate from time to time the boundaries of so much of such air quality control region as is located within such State only with the approval of the Administrator and with the consent of all Governors of all States which the Administrator determines may be significantly affected.

(3) No compliance date extension granted under section 7413(d)(5) 1 of this title (relating to coal conversion) shall cease to be effective by reason of the regional limitation provided in section 7413(d)(5) 1 of this title if the violation of such limitation is due solely to a redesignation of a region under this subsection.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §107, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §103, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 687; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2399; Pub. L. 108–199, div. G, title IV, §425(a), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 417.)

References in Text

Section 7413 of this title, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §701, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, and, as so amended, subsec. (d) of section 7413 no longer relates to final compliance orders.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c–2 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 107 of act July 14, 1955, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 490, related to air quality control regions and was classified to section 1857c–2 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 91–604.

Another prior section 107 of act July 14, 1955, as added Dec. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–206, §1, 77 Stat. 399, was renumbered section 111 by Pub. L. 90–148 and is classified to section 7411 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (d)(6), (7). Pub. L. 108–199 added pars. (6) and (7).

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–549 amended subsec. (d) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which required States to submit lists of regions not in compliance on Aug. 7, 1977, with certain air quality standards to be submitted to the Administrator, and which authorized States to revise and resubmit such lists from time to time.

1977—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 95–95 added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Ozone and Particulate Matter Standards

Pub. L. 108–199, div. G, title IV, §425(b), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 417, provided that: "Except as provided in paragraphs (6) and (7) of section 107(d) of the Clean Air Act [subsec. (d)(6), (7) of this section] (as added by subsection (a)), section 6101, subsections (a) and (b) of section 6102, and section 6103 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century [Pub. L. 105–178] (42 U.S.C. 7407 note; 112 Stat. 463), as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 23, 2004], shall remain in effect."

Pub. L. 105–178, title VI, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 463, as amended by Pub. L. 109–59, title VI, §6012(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1882, provided that:

"SEC. 6101. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

"(a) The Congress finds that—

"(1) there is a lack of air quality monitoring data for fine particle levels, measured as PM2.5, in the United States and the States should receive full funding for the monitoring efforts;

"(2) such data would provide a basis for designating areas as attainment or nonattainment for any PM2.5 national ambient air quality standards pursuant to the standards promulgated in July 1997;

"(3) the President of the United States directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (referred to in this title as the 'Administrator') in a memorandum dated July 16, 1997, to complete the next periodic review of the particulate matter national ambient air quality standards by July 2002 in order to determine 'whether to revise or maintain the standards';

"(4) the Administrator has stated that 3 years of air quality monitoring data for fine particle levels, measured as PM2.5 and performed in accordance with any applicable Federal reference methods, is appropriate for designating areas as attainment or nonattainment pursuant to the July 1997 promulgated standards; and

"(5) the Administrator has acknowledged that in drawing boundaries for attainment and nonattainment areas for the July 1997 ozone national air quality standards, Governors would benefit from considering implementation guidance from EPA on drawing area boundaries.

"(b) The purposes of this title are—

"(1) to ensure that 3 years of air quality monitoring data regarding fine particle levels are gathered for use in the determination of area attainment or nonattainment designations respecting any PM2.5 national ambient air quality standards;

"(2) to ensure that the Governors have adequate time to consider implementation guidance from EPA on drawing area boundaries prior to submitting area designations respecting the July 1997 ozone national ambient air quality standards;

"(3) to ensure that the schedule for implementation of the July 1997 revisions of the ambient air quality standards for particulate matter and the schedule for the Environmental Protection Agency's visibility regulations related to regional haze are consistent with the timetable for implementation of such particulate matter standards as set forth in the President's Implementation Memorandum dated July 16, 1997.

"SEC. 6102. PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING PROGRAM.

"(a) Through grants under section 103 of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7403] the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall use appropriated funds no later than fiscal year 2000 to fund 100 percent of the cost of the establishment, purchase, operation and maintenance of a PM2.5 monitoring network necessary to implement the national ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 under section 109 of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7409]. This implementation shall not result in a diversion or reprogramming of funds from other Federal, State or local Clean Air Act activities. Any funds previously diverted or reprogrammed from section 105 Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7405] grants for PM2.5 monitors must be restored to State or local air programs in fiscal year 1999.

"(b) EPA and the States, consistent with their respective authorities under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], shall ensure that the national network (designated in subsection (a)) which consists of the PM2.5 monitors necessary to implement the national ambient air quality standards is established by December 31, 1999.

"(c)(1) The Governors shall be required to submit designations referred to in section 107(d)(1) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7407(d)(1)] for each area following promulgation of the July 1997 PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard within 1 year after receipt of 3 years of air quality monitoring data performed in accordance with any applicable Federal reference methods for the relevant areas. Only data from the monitoring network designated in subsection (a) and other Federal reference method PM2.5 monitors shall be considered for such designations. Nothing in the previous sentence shall be construed as affecting the Governor's authority to designate an area initially as nonattainment, and the Administrator's authority to promulgate the designation of an area as nonattainment, under section 107(d)(1) of the Clean Air Act, based on its contribution to ambient air quality in a nearby nonattainment area.

"(2) For any area designated as nonattainment for the July 1997 PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in accordance with the schedule set forth in this section, notwithstanding the time limit prescribed in paragraph (2) of section 169B(e) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7492(e)(2)], the Administrator shall require State implementation plan revisions referred to in such paragraph (2) to be submitted at the same time as State implementation plan revisions referred to in section 172 of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7502] implementing the revised national ambient air quality standard for fine particulate matter are required to be submitted. For any area designated as attainment or unclassifiable for such standard, the Administrator shall require the State implementation plan revisions referred to in such paragraph (2) to be submitted 1 year after the area has been so designated. The preceding provisions of this paragraph shall not preclude the implementation of the agreements and recommendations set forth in the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission Report dated June 1996.

"(d) The Administrator shall promulgate the designations referred to in section 107(d)(1) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7407(d)(1)] for each area following promulgation of the July 1997 PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard by the earlier of 1 year after the initial designations required under subsection (c)(1) are required to be submitted or December 31, 2005.

"(e) Field Study.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the SAFETEA–LU [Aug. 10, 2005], the Administrator shall—

"(1) conduct a field study of the ability of the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method to differentiate those particles that are larger than 2.5 micrometers in diameter;

"(2) develop a Federal reference method to measure directly particles that are larger than 2.5 micrometers in diameter without reliance on subtracting from coarse particle measurements those particles that are equal to or smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter;

"(3) develop a method of measuring the composition of coarse particles; and

"(4) submit a report on the study and responsibilities of the Administrator under paragraphs (1) through (3) to—

"(A) the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives; and

"(B) the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate.

"SEC. 6103. OZONE DESIGNATION REQUIREMENTS.

"(a) The Governors shall be required to submit the designations referred to in section 107(d)(1) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7407(d)(1)] within 2 years following the promulgation of the July 1997 ozone national ambient air quality standards.

"(b) The Administrator shall promulgate final designations no later than 1 year after the designations required under subsection (a) are required to be submitted.

"SEC. 6104. ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS.

"Nothing in sections 6101 through 6103 shall be construed by the Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency or any court, State, or person to affect any pending litigation or to be a ratification of the ozone or PM2.5 standards."

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§7408. Air quality criteria and control techniques

(a) Air pollutant list; publication and revision by Administrator; issuance of air quality criteria for air pollutants

(1) For the purpose of establishing national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, the Administrator shall within 30 days after December 31, 1970, publish, and shall from time to time thereafter revise, a list which includes each air pollutant—

(A) emissions of which, in his judgment, cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare;

(B) the presence of which in the ambient air results from numerous or diverse mobile or stationary sources; and

(C) for which air quality criteria had not been issued before December 31, 1970 but for which he plans to issue air quality criteria under this section.


(2) The Administrator shall issue air quality criteria for an air pollutant within 12 months after he has included such pollutant in a list under paragraph (1). Air quality criteria for an air pollutant shall accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air, in varying quantities. The criteria for an air pollutant, to the extent practicable, shall include information on—

(A) those variable factors (including atmospheric conditions) which of themselves or in combination with other factors may alter the effects on public health or welfare of such air pollutant;

(B) the types of air pollutants which, when present in the atmosphere, may interact with such pollutant to produce an adverse effect on public health or welfare; and

(C) any known or anticipated adverse effects on welfare.

(b) Issuance by Administrator of information on air pollution control techniques; standing consulting committees for air pollutants; establishment; membership

(1) Simultaneously with the issuance of criteria under subsection (a), the Administrator shall, after consultation with appropriate advisory committees and Federal departments and agencies, issue to the States and appropriate air pollution control agencies information on air pollution control techniques, which information shall include data relating to the cost of installation and operation, energy requirements, emission reduction benefits, and environmental impact of the emission control technology. Such information shall include such data as are available on available technology and alternative methods of prevention and control of air pollution. Such information shall also include data on alternative fuels, processes, and operating methods which will result in elimination or significant reduction of emissions.

(2) In order to assist in the development of information on pollution control techniques, the Administrator may establish a standing consulting committee for each air pollutant included in a list published pursuant to subsection (a)(1), which shall be comprised of technically qualified individuals representative of State and local governments, industry, and the academic community. Each such committee shall submit, as appropriate, to the Administrator information related to that required by paragraph (1).

(c) Review, modification, and reissuance of criteria or information

The Administrator shall from time to time review, and, as appropriate, modify, and reissue any criteria or information on control techniques issued pursuant to this section. Not later than six months after August 7, 1977, the Administrator shall revise and reissue criteria relating to concentrations of NO2 over such period (not more than three hours) as he deems appropriate. Such criteria shall include a discussion of nitric and nitrous acids, nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamines, and other carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic derivatives of oxides of nitrogen.

(d) Publication in Federal Register; availability of copies for general public

The issuance of air quality criteria and information on air pollution control techniques shall be announced in the Federal Register and copies shall be made available to the general public.

(e) Transportation planning and guidelines

The Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, and after providing public notice and opportunity for comment, and with State and local officials, within nine months after November 15, 1990,1 and periodically thereafter as necessary to maintain a continuous transportation-air quality planning process, update the June 1978 Transportation-Air Quality Planning Guidelines and publish guidance on the development and implementation of transportation and other measures necessary to demonstrate and maintain attainment of national ambient air quality standards. Such guidelines shall include information on—

(1) methods to identify and evaluate alternative planning and control activities;

(2) methods of reviewing plans on a regular basis as conditions change or new information is presented;

(3) identification of funds and other resources necessary to implement the plan, including interagency agreements on providing such funds and resources;

(4) methods to assure participation by the public in all phases of the planning process; and

(5) such other methods as the Administrator determines necessary to carry out a continuous planning process.

(f) Information regarding processes, procedures, and methods to reduce or control pollutants in transportation; reduction of mobile source related pollutants; reduction of impact on public health

(1) The Administrator shall publish and make available to appropriate Federal, State, and local environmental and transportation agencies not later than one year after November 15, 1990, and from time to time thereafter—

(A) information prepared, as appropriate, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, and after providing public notice and opportunity for comment, regarding the formulation and emission reduction potential of transportation control measures related to criteria pollutants and their precursors, including, but not limited to—

(i) programs for improved public transit;

(ii) restriction of certain roads or lanes to, or construction of such roads or lanes for use by, passenger buses or high occupancy vehicles;

(iii) employer-based transportation management plans, including incentives;

(iv) trip-reduction ordinances;

(v) traffic flow improvement programs that achieve emission reductions;

(vi) fringe and transportation corridor parking facilities serving multiple occupancy vehicle programs or transit service;

(vii) programs to limit or restrict vehicle use in downtown areas or other areas of emission concentration particularly during periods of peak use;

(viii) programs for the provision of all forms of high-occupancy, shared-ride services;

(ix) programs to limit portions of road surfaces or certain sections of the metropolitan area to the use of non-motorized vehicles or pedestrian use, both as to time and place;

(x) programs for secure bicycle storage facilities and other facilities, including bicycle lanes, for the convenience and protection of bicyclists, in both public and private areas;

(xi) programs to control extended idling of vehicles;

(xii) programs to reduce motor vehicle emissions, consistent with subchapter II, which are caused by extreme cold start conditions;

(xiii) employer-sponsored programs to permit flexible work schedules;

(xiv) programs and ordinances to facilitate non-automobile travel, provision and utilization of mass transit, and to generally reduce the need for single-occupant vehicle travel, as part of transportation planning and development efforts of a locality, including programs and ordinances applicable to new shopping centers, special events, and other centers of vehicle activity;

(xv) programs for new construction and major reconstructions of paths, tracks or areas solely for the use by pedestrian or other non-motorized means of transportation when economically feasible and in the public interest. For purposes of this clause, the Administrator shall also consult with the Secretary of the Interior; and

(xvi) program to encourage the voluntary removal from use and the marketplace of pre-1980 model year light duty vehicles and pre-1980 model light duty trucks.2


(B) information on additional methods or strategies that will contribute to the reduction of mobile source related pollutants during periods in which any primary ambient air quality standard will be exceeded and during episodes for which an air pollution alert, warning, or emergency has been declared;

(C) information on other measures which may be employed to reduce the impact on public health or protect the health of sensitive or susceptible individuals or groups; and

(D) information on the extent to which any process, procedure, or method to reduce or control such air pollutant may cause an increase in the emissions or formation of any other pollutant.


(2) In publishing such information the Administrator shall also include an assessment of—

(A) the relative effectiveness of such processes, procedures, and methods;

(B) the potential effect of such processes, procedures, and methods on transportation systems and the provision of transportation services; and

(C) the environmental, energy, and economic impact of such processes, procedures, and methods.

(g) Assessment of risks to ecosystems

The Administrator may assess the risks to ecosystems from exposure to criteria air pollutants (as identified by the Administrator in the Administrator's sole discretion).

(h) RACT/BACT/LAER clearinghouse

The Administrator shall make information regarding emission control technology available to the States and to the general public through a central database. Such information shall include all control technology information received pursuant to State plan provisions requiring permits for sources, including operating permits for existing sources.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §108, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §§104, 105, title IV, §401(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 689, 790; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §§108(a)–(c), (o), 111, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2465, 2466, 2469, 2470; Pub. L. 105–362, title XV, §1501(b), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3294.)

Codification

November 15, 1990, referred to in subsec. (e), was in the original "enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989", and was translated as meaning the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 101–549, popularly known as the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c–3 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 108 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 115 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7415 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (f)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–362 struck out par. (3), which required reports by the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator to be submitted to Congress by Jan. 1, 1993, and every 3 years thereafter, reviewing and analyzing existing State and local air quality related transportation programs, evaluating achievement of goals, and recommending changes to existing programs, and par. (4), which required that in each report after the first report the Secretary of Transportation include a description of the actions taken to implement the changes recommended in the preceding report.

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(a), inserted first sentence and struck out former first sentence which read as follows: "The Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and State and local officials and within 180 days after August 7, 1977, and from time to time thereafter, publish guidelines on the basic program elements for the planning process assisted under section 7505 of this title."

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(b), in introductory provisions, substituted present provisions for provisions relating to Federal agencies, States, and air pollution control agencies within either 6 months or one year after Aug. 7, 1977.

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(b), substituted present provisions for provisions relating to information prepared in cooperation with Secretary of Transportation, regarding processes, procedures, and methods to reduce certain pollutants.

Subsec. (f)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–549, §111, added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(o), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(c), added subsec. (h).

1977—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–95, §401(a), substituted "emissions of which, in his judgment, cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare" for "which in his judgment has an adverse effect on public health or welfare".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, §104(a), substituted "cost of installation and operation, energy requirements, emission reduction benefits, and environmental impact of the emission control technology" for "technology and costs of emission control".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–95, §104(b), inserted provision directing the Administrator, not later than six months after Aug. 7, 1977, to revise and reissue criteria relating to concentrations of NO2 over such period (not more than three hours) as he deems appropriate, with the criteria to include a discussion of nitric and nitrous acids, nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamines, and other carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic derivatives of oxides of nitrogen.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 95–95, §105, added subsecs. (e) and (f).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 See Codification note below.

2 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

§7409. National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

(a) Promulgation

(1) The Administrator—

(A) within 30 days after December 31, 1970, shall publish proposed regulations prescribing a national primary ambient air quality standard and a national secondary ambient air quality standard for each air pollutant for which air quality criteria have been issued prior to such date; and

(B) after a reasonable time for interested persons to submit written comments thereon (but no later than 90 days after the initial publication of such proposed standards) shall by regulation promulgate such proposed national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards with such modifications as he deems appropriate.


(2) With respect to any air pollutant for which air quality criteria are issued after December 31, 1970, the Administrator shall publish, simultaneously with the issuance of such criteria and information, proposed national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for any such pollutant. The procedure provided for in paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall apply to the promulgation of such standards.

(b) Protection of public health and welfare

(1) National primary ambient air quality standards, prescribed under subsection (a) shall be ambient air quality standards the attainment and maintenance of which in the judgment of the Administrator, based on such criteria and allowing an adequate margin of safety, are requisite to protect the public health. Such primary standards may be revised in the same manner as promulgated.

(2) Any national secondary ambient air quality standard prescribed under subsection (a) shall specify a level of air quality the attainment and maintenance of which in the judgment of the Administrator, based on such criteria, is requisite to protect the public welfare from any known or anticipated adverse effects associated with the presence of such air pollutant in the ambient air. Such secondary standards may be revised in the same manner as promulgated.

(c) National primary ambient air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide

The Administrator shall, not later than one year after August 7, 1977, promulgate a national primary ambient air quality standard for NO2 concentrations over a period of not more than 3 hours unless, based on the criteria issued under section 7408(c) of this title, he finds that there is no significant evidence that such a standard for such a period is requisite to protect public health.

(d) Review and revision of criteria and standards; independent scientific review committee; appointment; advisory functions

(1) Not later than December 31, 1980, and at five-year intervals thereafter, the Administrator shall complete a thorough review of the criteria published under section 7408 of this title and the national ambient air quality standards promulgated under this section and shall make such revisions in such criteria and standards and promulgate such new standards as may be appropriate in accordance with section 7408 of this title and subsection (b) of this section. The Administrator may review and revise criteria or promulgate new standards earlier or more frequently than required under this paragraph.

(2)(A) The Administrator shall appoint an independent scientific review committee composed of seven members including at least one member of the National Academy of Sciences, one physician, and one person representing State air pollution control agencies.

(B) Not later than January 1, 1980, and at five-year intervals thereafter, the committee referred to in subparagraph (A) shall complete a review of the criteria published under section 7408 of this title and the national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards promulgated under this section and shall recommend to the Administrator any new national ambient air quality standards and revisions of existing criteria and standards as may be appropriate under section 7408 of this title and subsection (b) of this section.

(C) Such committee shall also (i) advise the Administrator of areas in which additional knowledge is required to appraise the adequacy and basis of existing, new, or revised national ambient air quality standards, (ii) describe the research efforts necessary to provide the required information, (iii) advise the Administrator on the relative contribution to air pollution concentrations of natural as well as anthropogenic activity, and (iv) advise the Administrator of any adverse public health, welfare, social, economic, or energy effects which may result from various strategies for attainment and maintenance of such national ambient air quality standards.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §109, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1679; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §106, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 691.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c–4 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 109 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 116 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7416 of this title.

Amendments

1977—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–95, §106(b), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–95, §106(a), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Role of Secondary Standards

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §817, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2697, provided that:

"(a) Report.—The Administrator shall request the National Academy of Sciences to prepare a report to the Congress on the role of national secondary ambient air quality standards in protecting welfare and the environment. The report shall:

"(1) include information on the effects on welfare and the environment which are caused by ambient concentrations of pollutants listed pursuant to section 108 [42 U.S.C. 7408] and other pollutants which may be listed;

"(2) estimate welfare and environmental costs incurred as a result of such effects;

"(3) examine the role of secondary standards and the State implementation planning process in preventing such effects;

"(4) determine ambient concentrations of each such pollutant which would be adequate to protect welfare and the environment from such effects;

"(5) estimate the costs and other impacts of meeting secondary standards; and

"(6) consider other means consistent with the goals and objectives of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] which may be more effective than secondary standards in preventing or mitigating such effects.

"(b) Submission to Congress; Comments; Authorization.—(1) The report shall be transmitted to the Congress not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990].

"(2) At least 90 days before issuing a report the Administrator shall provide an opportunity for public comment on the proposed report. The Administrator shall include in the final report a summary of the comments received on the proposed report.

"(3) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section."

§7410. State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

(a) Adoption of plan by State; submission to Administrator; content of plan; revision; new sources; indirect source review program; supplemental or intermittent control systems

(1) Each State shall, after reasonable notice and public hearings, adopt and submit to the Administrator, within 3 years (or such shorter period as the Administrator may prescribe) after the promulgation of a national primary ambient air quality standard (or any revision thereof) under section 7409 of this title for any air pollutant, a plan which provides for implementation, maintenance, and enforcement of such primary standard in each air quality control region (or portion thereof) within such State. In addition, such State shall adopt and submit to the Administrator (either as a part of a plan submitted under the preceding sentence or separately) within 3 years (or such shorter period as the Administrator may prescribe) after the promulgation of a national ambient air quality secondary standard (or revision thereof), a plan which provides for implementation, maintenance, and enforcement of such secondary standard in each air quality control region (or portion thereof) within such State. Unless a separate public hearing is provided, each State shall consider its plan implementing such secondary standard at the hearing required by the first sentence of this paragraph.

(2) Each implementation plan submitted by a State under this chapter shall be adopted by the State after reasonable notice and public hearing. Each such plan shall—

(A) include enforceable emission limitations and other control measures, means, or techniques (including economic incentives such as fees, marketable permits, and auctions of emissions rights), as well as schedules and timetables for compliance, as may be necessary or appropriate to meet the applicable requirements of this chapter;

(B) provide for establishment and operation of appropriate devices, methods, systems, and procedures necessary to—

(i) monitor, compile, and analyze data on ambient air quality, and

(ii) upon request, make such data available to the Administrator;


(C) include a program to provide for the enforcement of the measures described in subparagraph (A), and regulation of the modification and construction of any stationary source within the areas covered by the plan as necessary to assure that national ambient air quality standards are achieved, including a permit program as required in parts C and D;

(D) contain adequate provisions—

(i) prohibiting, consistent with the provisions of this subchapter, any source or other type of emissions activity within the State from emitting any air pollutant in amounts which will—

(I) contribute significantly to nonattainment in, or interfere with maintenance by, any other State with respect to any such national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard, or

(II) interfere with measures required to be included in the applicable implementation plan for any other State under part C to prevent significant deterioration of air quality or to protect visibility,


(ii) insuring compliance with the applicable requirements of sections 7426 and 7415 of this title (relating to interstate and international pollution abatement);


(E) provide (i) necessary assurances that the State (or, except where the Administrator deems inappropriate, the general purpose local government or governments, or a regional agency designated by the State or general purpose local governments for such purpose) will have adequate personnel, funding, and authority under State (and, as appropriate, local) law to carry out such implementation plan (and is not prohibited by any provision of Federal or State law from carrying out such implementation plan or portion thereof), (ii) requirements that the State comply with the requirements respecting State boards under section 7428 of this title, and (iii) necessary assurances that, where the State has relied on a local or regional government, agency, or instrumentality for the implementation of any plan provision, the State has responsibility for ensuring adequate implementation of such plan provision;

(F) require, as may be prescribed by the Administrator—

(i) the installation, maintenance, and replacement of equipment, and the implementation of other necessary steps, by owners or operators of stationary sources to monitor emissions from such sources,

(ii) periodic reports on the nature and amounts of emissions and emissions-related data from such sources, and

(iii) correlation of such reports by the State agency with any emission limitations or standards established pursuant to this chapter, which reports shall be available at reasonable times for public inspection;


(G) provide for authority comparable to that in section 7603 of this title and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority;

(H) provide for revision of such plan—

(i) from time to time as may be necessary to take account of revisions of such national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard or the availability of improved or more expeditious methods of attaining such standard, and

(ii) except as provided in paragraph (3)(C), whenever the Administrator finds on the basis of information available to the Administrator that the plan is substantially inadequate to attain the national ambient air quality standard which it implements or to otherwise comply with any additional requirements established under this chapter;


(I) in the case of a plan or plan revision for an area designated as a nonattainment area, meet the applicable requirements of part D (relating to nonattainment areas);

(J) meet the applicable requirements of section 7421 of this title (relating to consultation), section 7427 of this title (relating to public notification), and part C (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality and visibility protection);

(K) provide for—

(i) the performance of such air quality modeling as the Administrator may prescribe for the purpose of predicting the effect on ambient air quality of any emissions of any air pollutant for which the Administrator has established a national ambient air quality standard, and

(ii) the submission, upon request, of data related to such air quality modeling to the Administrator;


(L) require the owner or operator of each major stationary source to pay to the permitting authority, as a condition of any permit required under this chapter, a fee sufficient to cover—

(i) the reasonable costs of reviewing and acting upon any application for such a permit, and

(ii) if the owner or operator receives a permit for such source, the reasonable costs of implementing and enforcing the terms and conditions of any such permit (not including any court costs or other costs associated with any enforcement action),


until such fee requirement is superseded with respect to such sources by the Administrator's approval of a fee program under subchapter V; and

(M) provide for consultation and participation by local political subdivisions affected by the plan.


(3)(A) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(d)(1), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.

(B) As soon as practicable, the Administrator shall, consistent with the purposes of this chapter and the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 [15 U.S.C. 791 et seq.], review each State's applicable implementation plans and report to the State on whether such plans can be revised in relation to fuel burning stationary sources (or persons supplying fuel to such sources) without interfering with the attainment and maintenance of any national ambient air quality standard within the period permitted in this section. If the Administrator determines that any such plan can be revised, he shall notify the State that a plan revision may be submitted by the State. Any plan revision which is submitted by the State shall, after public notice and opportunity for public hearing, be approved by the Administrator if the revision relates only to fuel burning stationary sources (or persons supplying fuel to such sources), and the plan as revised complies with paragraph (2) of this subsection. The Administrator shall approve or disapprove any revision no later than three months after its submission.

(C) Neither the State, in the case of a plan (or portion thereof) approved under this subsection, nor the Administrator, in the case of a plan (or portion thereof) promulgated under subsection (c), shall be required to revise an applicable implementation plan because one or more exemptions under section 7418 of this title (relating to Federal facilities), enforcement orders under section 7413(d) 1 of this title, suspensions under subsection (f) or (g) (relating to temporary energy or economic authority), orders under section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelters), or extensions of compliance in decrees entered under section 7413(e) 1 of this title (relating to iron- and steel-producing operations) have been granted, if such plan would have met the requirements of this section if no such exemptions, orders, or extensions had been granted.

(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(d)(2), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.

(5)(A)(i) Any State may include in a State implementation plan, but the Administrator may not require as a condition of approval of such plan under this section, any indirect source review program. The Administrator may approve and enforce, as part of an applicable implementation plan, an indirect source review program which the State chooses to adopt and submit as part of its plan.

(ii) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no plan promulgated by the Administrator shall include any indirect source review program for any air quality control region, or portion thereof.

(iii) Any State may revise an applicable implementation plan approved under this subsection to suspend or revoke any such program included in such plan, provided that such plan meets the requirements of this section.

(B) The Administrator shall have the authority to promulgate, implement and enforce regulations under subsection (c) respecting indirect source review programs which apply only to federally assisted highways, airports, and other major federally assisted indirect sources and federally owned or operated indirect sources.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "indirect source" means a facility, building, structure, installation, real property, road, or highway which attracts, or may attract, mobile sources of pollution. Such term includes parking lots, parking garages, and other facilities subject to any measure for management of parking supply (within the meaning of subsection (c)(2)(D)(ii)), including regulation of existing off-street parking but such term does not include new or existing on-street parking. Direct emissions sources or facilities at, within, or associated with, any indirect source shall not be deemed indirect sources for the purpose of this paragraph.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph the term "indirect source review program" means the facility-by-facility review of indirect sources of air pollution, including such measures as are necessary to assure, or assist in assuring, that a new or modified indirect source will not attract mobile sources of air pollution, the emissions from which would cause or contribute to air pollution concentrations—

(i) exceeding any national primary ambient air quality standard for a mobile source-related air pollutant after the primary standard attainment date, or

(ii) preventing maintenance of any such standard after such date.


(E) For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (2)(B), the term "transportation control measure" does not include any measure which is an "indirect source review program".

(6) No State plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of this section unless such plan provides that in the case of any source which uses a supplemental, or intermittent control system for purposes of meeting the requirements of an order under section 7413(d) 1 of this title or section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelter orders), the owner or operator of such source may not temporarily reduce the pay of any employee by reason of the use of such supplemental or intermittent or other dispersion dependent control system.

(b) Extension of period for submission of plans

The Administrator may, wherever he determines necessary, extend the period for submission of any plan or portion thereof which implements a national secondary ambient air quality standard for a period not to exceed 18 months from the date otherwise required for submission of such plan.

(c) Preparation and publication by Administrator of proposed regulations setting forth implementation plan; transportation regulations study and report; parking surcharge; suspension authority; plan implementation

(1) The Administrator shall promulgate a Federal implementation plan at any time within 2 years after the Administrator—

(A) finds that a State has failed to make a required submission or finds that the plan or plan revision submitted by the State does not satisfy the minimum criteria established under subsection (k)(1)(A), or

(B) disapproves a State implementation plan submission in whole or in part,


unless the State corrects the deficiency, and the Administrator approves the plan or plan revision, before the Administrator promulgates such Federal implementation plan.

(2)(A) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(d)(3)(A), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.

(B) No parking surcharge regulation may be required by the Administrator under paragraph (1) of this subsection as a part of an applicable implementation plan. All parking surcharge regulations previously required by the Administrator shall be void upon June 22, 1974. This subparagraph shall not prevent the Administrator from approving parking surcharges if they are adopted and submitted by a State as part of an applicable implementation plan. The Administrator may not condition approval of any implementation plan submitted by a State on such plan's including a parking surcharge regulation.

(C) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(d)(3)(B), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) The term "parking surcharge regulation" means a regulation imposing or requiring the imposition of any tax, surcharge, fee, or other charge on parking spaces, or any other area used for the temporary storage of motor vehicles.

(ii) The term "management of parking supply" shall include any requirement providing that any new facility containing a given number of parking spaces shall receive a permit or other prior approval, issuance of which is to be conditioned on air quality considerations.

(iii) The term "preferential bus/carpool lane" shall include any requirement for the setting aside of one or more lanes of a street or highway on a permanent or temporary basis for the exclusive use of buses or carpools, or both.


(E) No standard, plan, or requirement, relating to management of parking supply or preferential bus/carpool lanes shall be promulgated after June 22, 1974, by the Administrator pursuant to this section, unless such promulgation has been subjected to at least one public hearing which has been held in the area affected and for which reasonable notice has been given in such area. If substantial changes are made following public hearings, one or more additional hearings shall be held in such area after such notice.

(3) Upon application of the chief executive officer of any general purpose unit of local government, if the Administrator determines that such unit has adequate authority under State or local law, the Administrator may delegate to such unit the authority to implement and enforce within the jurisdiction of such unit any part of a plan promulgated under this subsection. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Administrator from implementing or enforcing any applicable provision of a plan promulgated under this subsection.

(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(d)(3)(C), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.

(5)(A) Any measure in an applicable implementation plan which requires a toll or other charge for the use of a bridge located entirely within one city shall be eliminated from such plan by the Administrator upon application by the Governor of the State, which application shall include a certification by the Governor that he will revise such plan in accordance with subparagraph (B).

(B) In the case of any applicable implementation plan with respect to which a measure has been eliminated under subparagraph (A), such plan shall, not later than one year after August 7, 1977, be revised to include comprehensive measures to:

(i) establish, expand, or improve public transportation measures to meet basic transportation needs, as expeditiously as is practicable; and

(ii) implement transportation control measures necessary to attain and maintain national ambient air quality standards,


and such revised plan shall, for the purpose of implementing such comprehensive public transportation measures, include requirements to use (insofar as is necessary) Federal grants, State or local funds, or any combination of such grants and funds as may be consistent with the terms of the legislation providing such grants and funds. Such measures shall, as a substitute for the tolls or charges eliminated under subparagraph (A), provide for emissions reductions equivalent to the reductions which may reasonably be expected to be achieved through the use of the tolls or charges eliminated.

(C) Any revision of an implementation plan for purposes of meeting the requirements of subparagraph (B) shall be submitted in coordination with any plan revision required under part D.

(d), (e) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(d)(4), (5), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409

(f) National or regional energy emergencies; determination by President

(1) Upon application by the owner or operator of a fuel burning stationary source, and after notice and opportunity for public hearing, the Governor of the State in which such source is located may petition the President to determine that a national or regional energy emergency exists of such severity that—

(A) a temporary suspension of any part of the applicable implementation plan or of any requirement under section 7651j of this title (concerning excess emissions penalties or offsets) may be necessary, and

(B) other means of responding to the energy emergency may be inadequate.


Such determination shall not be delegable by the President to any other person. If the President determines that a national or regional energy emergency of such severity exists, a temporary emergency suspension of any part of an applicable implementation plan or of any requirement under section 7651j of this title (concerning excess emissions penalties or offsets) adopted by the State may be issued by the Governor of any State covered by the President's determination under the condition specified in paragraph (2) and may take effect immediately.

(2) A temporary emergency suspension under this subsection shall be issued to a source only if the Governor of such State finds that—

(A) there exists in the vicinity of such source a temporary energy emergency involving high levels of unemployment or loss of necessary energy supplies for residential dwellings; and

(B) such unemployment or loss can be totally or partially alleviated by such emergency suspension.


Not more than one such suspension may be issued for any source on the basis of the same set of circumstances or on the basis of the same emergency.

(3) A temporary emergency suspension issued by a Governor under this subsection shall remain in effect for a maximum of four months or such lesser period as may be specified in a disapproval order of the Administrator, if any. The Administrator may disapprove such suspension if he determines that it does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2).

(4) This subsection shall not apply in the case of a plan provision or requirement promulgated by the Administrator under subsection (c) of this section, but in any such case the President may grant a temporary emergency suspension for a four month period of any such provision or requirement if he makes the determinations and findings specified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(5) The Governor may include in any temporary emergency suspension issued under this subsection a provision delaying for a period identical to the period of such suspension any compliance schedule (or increment of progress) to which such source is subject under section 1857c–10 1 of this title, as in effect before August 7, 1977, or section 7413(d) 1 of this title, upon a finding that such source is unable to comply with such schedule (or increment) solely because of the conditions on the basis of which a suspension was issued under this subsection.

(g) Governor's authority to issue temporary emergency suspensions

(1) In the case of any State which has adopted and submitted to the Administrator a proposed plan revision which the State determines—

(A) meets the requirements of this section, and

(B) is necessary (i) to prevent the closing for one year or more of any source of air pollution, and (ii) to prevent substantial increases in unemployment which would result from such closing, and


which the Administrator has not approved or disapproved under this section within 12 months of submission of the proposed plan revision, the Governor may issue a temporary emergency suspension of the part of the applicable implementation plan for such State which is proposed to be revised with respect to such source. The determination under subparagraph (B) may not be made with respect to a source which would close without regard to whether or not the proposed plan revision is approved.

(2) A temporary emergency suspension issued by a Governor under this subsection shall remain in effect for a maximum of four months or such lesser period as may be specified in a disapproval order of the Administrator. The Administrator may disapprove such suspension if he determines that it does not meet the requirements of this subsection.

(3) The Governor may include in any temporary emergency suspension issued under this subsection a provision delaying for a period identical to the period of such suspension any compliance schedule (or increment of progress) to which such source is subject under section 1857c–10 1 of this title as in effect before August 7, 1977, or under section 7413(d) 1 of this title upon a finding that such source is unable to comply with such schedule (or increment) solely because of the conditions on the basis of which a suspension was issued under this subsection.

(h) Publication of comprehensive document for each State setting forth requirements of applicable implementation plan

(1) Not later than 5 years after November 15, 1990, and every 3 years thereafter, the Administrator shall assemble and publish a comprehensive document for each State setting forth all requirements of the applicable implementation plan for such State and shall publish notice in the Federal Register of the availability of such documents.

(2) The Administrator may promulgate such regulations as may be reasonably necessary to carry out the purpose of this subsection.

(i) Modification of requirements prohibited

Except for a primary nonferrous smelter order under section 7419 of this title, a suspension under subsection (f) or (g) (relating to emergency suspensions), an exemption under section 7418 of this title (relating to certain Federal facilities), an order under section 7413(d) 1 of this title (relating to compliance orders), a plan promulgation under subsection (c), or a plan revision under subsection (a)(3); no order, suspension, plan revision, or other action modifying any requirement of an applicable implementation plan may be taken with respect to any stationary source by the State or by the Administrator.

(j) Technological systems of continuous emission reduction on new or modified stationary sources; compliance with performance standards

As a condition for issuance of any permit required under this subchapter, the owner or operator of each new or modified stationary source which is required to obtain such a permit must show to the satisfaction of the permitting authority that the technological system of continuous emission reduction which is to be used at such source will enable it to comply with the standards of performance which are to apply to such source and that the construction or modification and operation of such source will be in compliance with all other requirements of this chapter.

(k) Environmental Protection Agency action on plan submissions

(1) Completeness of plan submissions

(A) Completeness criteria

Within 9 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate minimum criteria that any plan submission must meet before the Administrator is required to act on such submission under this subsection. The criteria shall be limited to the information necessary to enable the Administrator to determine whether the plan submission complies with the provisions of this chapter.

(B) Completeness finding

Within 60 days of the Administrator's receipt of a plan or plan revision, but no later than 6 months after the date, if any, by which a State is required to submit the plan or revision, the Administrator shall determine whether the minimum criteria established pursuant to subparagraph (A) have been met. Any plan or plan revision that a State submits to the Administrator, and that has not been determined by the Administrator (by the date 6 months after receipt of the submission) to have failed to meet the minimum criteria established pursuant to subparagraph (A), shall on that date be deemed by operation of law to meet such minimum criteria.

(C) Effect of finding of incompleteness

Where the Administrator determines that a plan submission (or part thereof) does not meet the minimum criteria established pursuant to subparagraph (A), the State shall be treated as not having made the submission (or, in the Administrator's discretion, part thereof).

(2) Deadline for action

Within 12 months of a determination by the Administrator (or a determination deemed by operation of law) under paragraph (1) that a State has submitted a plan or plan revision (or, in the Administrator's discretion, part thereof) that meets the minimum criteria established pursuant to paragraph (1), if applicable (or, if those criteria are not applicable, within 12 months of submission of the plan or revision), the Administrator shall act on the submission in accordance with paragraph (3).

(3) Full and partial approval and disapproval

In the case of any submittal on which the Administrator is required to act under paragraph (2), the Administrator shall approve such submittal as a whole if it meets all of the applicable requirements of this chapter. If a portion of the plan revision meets all the applicable requirements of this chapter, the Administrator may approve the plan revision in part and disapprove the plan revision in part. The plan revision shall not be treated as meeting the requirements of this chapter until the Administrator approves the entire plan revision as complying with the applicable requirements of this chapter.

(4) Conditional approval

The Administrator may approve a plan revision based on a commitment of the State to adopt specific enforceable measures by a date certain, but not later than 1 year after the date of approval of the plan revision. Any such conditional approval shall be treated as a disapproval if the State fails to comply with such commitment.

(5) Calls for plan revisions

Whenever the Administrator finds that the applicable implementation plan for any area is substantially inadequate to attain or maintain the relevant national ambient air quality standard, to mitigate adequately the interstate pollutant transport described in section 7506a of this title or section 7511c of this title, or to otherwise comply with any requirement of this chapter, the Administrator shall require the State to revise the plan as necessary to correct such inadequacies. The Administrator shall notify the State of the inadequacies, and may establish reasonable deadlines (not to exceed 18 months after the date of such notice) for the submission of such plan revisions. Such findings and notice shall be public. Any finding under this paragraph shall, to the extent the Administrator deems appropriate, subject the State to the requirements of this chapter to which the State was subject when it developed and submitted the plan for which such finding was made, except that the Administrator may adjust any dates applicable under such requirements as appropriate (except that the Administrator may not adjust any attainment date prescribed under part D, unless such date has elapsed).

(6) Corrections

Whenever the Administrator determines that the Administrator's action approving, disapproving, or promulgating any plan or plan revision (or part thereof), area designation, redesignation, classification, or reclassification was in error, the Administrator may in the same manner as the approval, disapproval, or promulgation revise such action as appropriate without requiring any further submission from the State. Such determination and the basis thereof shall be provided to the State and public.

(l) Plan revisions

Each revision to an implementation plan submitted by a State under this chapter shall be adopted by such State after reasonable notice and public hearing. The Administrator shall not approve a revision of a plan if the revision would interfere with any applicable requirement concerning attainment and reasonable further progress (as defined in section 7501 of this title), or any other applicable requirement of this chapter.

(m) Sanctions

The Administrator may apply any of the sanctions listed in section 7509(b) of this title at any time (or at any time after) the Administrator makes a finding, disapproval, or determination under paragraphs (1) through (4), respectively, of section 7509(a) of this title in relation to any plan or plan item (as that term is defined by the Administrator) required under this chapter, with respect to any portion of the State the Administrator determines reasonable and appropriate, for the purpose of ensuring that the requirements of this chapter relating to such plan or plan item are met. The Administrator shall, by rule, establish criteria for exercising his authority under the previous sentence with respect to any deficiency referred to in section 7509(a) of this title to ensure that, during the 24-month period following the finding, disapproval, or determination referred to in section 7509(a) of this title, such sanctions are not applied on a statewide basis where one or more political subdivisions covered by the applicable implementation plan are principally responsible for such deficiency.

(n) Savings clauses

(1) Existing plan provisions

Any provision of any applicable implementation plan that was approved or promulgated by the Administrator pursuant to this section as in effect before November 15, 1990, shall remain in effect as part of such applicable implementation plan, except to the extent that a revision to such provision is approved or promulgated by the Administrator pursuant to this chapter.

(2) Attainment dates

For any area not designated nonattainment, any plan or plan revision submitted or required to be submitted by a State—

(A) in response to the promulgation or revision of a national primary ambient air quality standard in effect on November 15, 1990, or

(B) in response to a finding of substantial inadequacy under subsection (a)(2) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990),


shall provide for attainment of the national primary ambient air quality standards within 3 years of November 15, 1990, or within 5 years of issuance of such finding of substantial inadequacy, whichever is later.

(3) Retention of construction moratorium in certain areas

In the case of an area to which, immediately before November 15, 1990, the prohibition on construction or modification of major stationary sources prescribed in subsection (a)(2)(I) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) applied by virtue of a finding of the Administrator that the State containing such area had not submitted an implementation plan meeting the requirements of section 7502(b)(6) of this title (relating to establishment of a permit program) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) or 7502(a)(1) of this title (to the extent such requirements relate to provision for attainment of the primary national ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides by December 31, 1982) as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990, no major stationary source of the relevant air pollutant or pollutants shall be constructed or modified in such area until the Administrator finds that the plan for such area meets the applicable requirements of section 7502(c)(5) of this title (relating to permit programs) or subpart 5 of part D (relating to attainment of the primary national ambient air quality standard for sulfur dioxide), respectively.

(o) Indian tribes

If an Indian tribe submits an implementation plan to the Administrator pursuant to section 7601(d) of this title, the plan shall be reviewed in accordance with the provisions for review set forth in this section for State plans, except as otherwise provided by regulation promulgated pursuant to section 7601(d)(2) of this title. When such plan becomes effective in accordance with the regulations promulgated under section 7601(d) of this title, the plan shall become applicable to all areas (except as expressly provided otherwise in the plan) located within the exterior boundaries of the reservation, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent and including rights-of-way running through the reservation.

(p) Reports

Any State shall submit, according to such schedule as the Administrator may prescribe, such reports as the Administrator may require relating to emission reductions, vehicle miles traveled, congestion levels, and any other information the Administrator may deem necessary to assess the development 2 effectiveness, need for revision, or implementation of any plan or plan revision required under this chapter.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §110, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1680; amended Pub. L. 93–319, §4, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 256; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §§107, 108, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 691, 693; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(1)–(6), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 97–23, §3, July 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §§101(b)–(d), 102(h), 107(c), 108(d), title IV, §412, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2404–2408, 2422, 2464, 2466, 2634.)

References in Text

The Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B), is Pub. L. 93–319, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 246, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 16C (§791 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 791 of Title 15 and Tables.

Section 7413 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(C), (6), (f)(5), (g)(3), and (i), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §701, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, and, as so amended, subsecs. (d) and (e) of section 7413 no longer relates to final compliance orders and steel industry compliance extension, respectively.

Section 1857c–10 of this title, as in effect before August 7, 1977, referred to in subsecs. (f)(5) and (g)(3), was in the original "section 119, as in effect before the date of the enactment of this paragraph", meaning section 119 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, as added June 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–319, §3, 88 Stat. 248, (which was classified to section 1857c–10 of this title) as in effect prior to the enactment of subsecs. (f)(5) and (g)(3) of this section by Pub. L. 95–95, §107, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 691, effective Aug. 7, 1977. Section 112(b)(1) of Pub. L. 95–95 repealed section 119 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, as added by Pub. L. 93–319, and provided that all references to such section 119 in any subsequent enactment which supersedes Pub. L. 93–319 shall be construed to refer to section 113(d) of the Clean Air Act and to paragraph (5) thereof in particular which is classified to section 7413(d)(5) of this title. Section 7413 of this title was subsequently amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §701, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, see note above. Section 117(b) of Pub. L. 95–95 added a new section 119 of act July 14, 1955, which is classified to section 7419 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c–5 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 110 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 117 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7417 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(8), substituted "3 years (or such shorter period as the Administrator may prescribe)" for "nine months" in two places.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(b), amended par. (2) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions setting the time within which the Administrator was to approve or disapprove a plan or portion thereof and listing the conditions under which the plan or portion thereof was to be approved after reasonable notice and hearing.

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(1), struck out subpar. (A) which directed Administrator to approve any revision of an implementation plan if it met certain requirements and had been adopted by the State after reasonable notice and public hearings.

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(1), struck out subpar. (D) which directed that certain implementation plans be revised to include comprehensive measures and requirements.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(2), struck out par. (4) which set forth requirements for review procedure.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §102(h), amended par. (1) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to preparation and publication of regulations setting forth an implementation plan, after opportunity for a hearing, upon failure of a State to make required submission or revision.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(3)(A), struck out subpar. (A) which required a study and report on necessity of parking surcharge, management of parking supply, and preferential bus/carpool lane regulations to achieve and maintain national primary ambient air quality standards.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(3)(B), struck out subpar. (C) which authorized suspension of certain regulations and requirements relating to management of parking supply.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(3)(C), struck out par. (4) which permitted Governors to temporarily suspend measures in implementation plans relating to retrofits, gas rationing, and reduction of on-street parking.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(3)(D), struck out "(including the written evidence required by part D)," after "include comprehensive measures".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(4), struck out subsec. (d) which defined an applicable implementation plan for purposes of this chapter.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(5), struck out subsec. (e) which permitted an extension of time for attainment of a national primary ambient air quality standard.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §412, inserted "or of any requirement under section 7651j of this title (concerning excess emissions penalties or offsets)" in subpar. (A) and in last sentence.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(6), substituted "12 months of submission of the proposed plan revision" for "the required four month period" in closing provisions.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(7), substituted "5 years after November 15, 1990, and every three years thereafter" for "one year after August 7, 1977, and annually thereafter" and struck out at end "Each such document shall be revised as frequently as practicable but not less often than annually."

Subsecs. (k) to (n). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(c), added subsecs. (k) to (n).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 101–549, §107(c), added subsec. (o).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(d), added subsec. (p).

1981—Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 97–23 inserted reference to extensions of compliance in decrees entered under section 7413(e) of this title (relating to iron- and steel-producing operations).

1977—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(a)(1), substituted "(A) except as may be provided in subparagraph (I)(i) in the case of a plan" for "(A)(i) in the case of a plan".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(a)(2), substituted "transportation controls, air quality maintenance plans, and preconstruction review of direct sources of air pollution as provided in subparagraph (D)" for "land use and transportation controls".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(a)(3), substituted "it includes a program to provide for the enforcement of emission limitations and regulation of the modification, construction, and operation of any stationary source, including a permit program as required in parts C and D and a permit or equivalent program for any major emitting facility, within such region as necessary to assure (i) that national ambient air quality standards are achieved and maintained, and (ii) a procedure" for "it includes a procedure".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(a)(4), substituted "it contains adequate provisions (i) prohibiting any stationary source within the State from emitting any air pollutant in amounts which will (I) prevent attainment or maintenance by any other State of any such national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard, or (II) interfere with measures required to be included in the applicable implementation plan for any other State under part C to prevent significant deterioration of air quality or to protect visibility, and (ii) insuring compliance with the requirements of section 7426 of this title, relating to interstate pollution abatement" for "it contains adequate provisions for intergovernmental cooperation, including measures necessary to insure that emissions of air pollutants from sources located in any air quality control region will not interfere with the attainment or maintenance of such primary or secondary standard in any portion of such region outside of such State or in any other air quality control region".

Subsec. (a)(2)(F). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(a)(5), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (a)(2)(H). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(1), substituted "1977;" for "1977".

Pub. L. 95–95, §108(a)(6), inserted "except as provided in paragraph (3)(C)," after "or (ii)" and "or to otherwise comply with any additional requirements established under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977" after "to achieve the national ambient air quality primary or secondary standard which it implements".

Subsec. (a)(2)(I). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(b), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (a)(2)(J). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(2), substituted "; and" for ", and".

Pub. L. 95–95, §108(b), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (a)(2)(K). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(b) added subpar. (K).

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(c), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(4), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(e), added par. (5).

Subsec. (a)(5)(D). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(3), struck out "preconstruction or premodification" before "review".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(e), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(d)(1), (2), substituted "plan which meets the requirements of this section" for "plan for any national ambient air quality primary or secondary standard within the time prescribed" in subpar. (A) and, in provisions following subpar. (C), directed that any portion of a plan relating to any measure described in first sentence of 7421 of this title (relating to consultation) or the consultation process required under such section 7421 of this title not be required to be promulgated before the date eight months after such date required for submission.

Subsec. (c)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(d)(3), added pars. (3) to (5).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(f), substituted "and which implements the requirements of this section" for "and which implements a national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard in a State".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–95, §107(a), substituted provisions relating to the handling of national or regional energy emergencies for provisions relating to the postponement of compliance by stationary sources or classes of moving sources with any requirement of applicable implementation plans.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–95, §108(g), added subsec. (g) relating to publication of comprehensive document.

Pub. L. 95–95, §107(b), added subsec. (g) relating to Governor's authority to issue temporary emergency suspensions.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (g), added by Pub. L. 95–95, §108(g), as (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (h), added by Pub. L. 95–95, §108(g), as (i). Former subsec. (i) redesignated (j) and amended.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–190 §14(a)(5), (6), redesignated subsec. (i), added by Pub. L. 95–95, §108(g), as (j) and in subsec. (j) as so redesignated, substituted "will enable such source" for "at such source will enable it".

1974—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 93–319, §4(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–319, §4(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and existing pars. (1), (2), and (3) as subpars. (A), (B), and (C), respectively, of such redesignated par. (1), and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Implementation Plans Approved and In Effect Prior to Aug. 7, 1977

Nothing in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 [Pub. L. 95–95] to affect any requirement of an approved implementation plan under this section or any other provision in effect under this chapter before Aug. 7, 1977, until modified or rescinded in accordance with this chapter as amended by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, see section 406(c) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 91–604, §16, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1713, provided that:

"(a)(1) Any implementation plan adopted by any State and submitted to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, or to the Administrator pursuant to the Clean Air Act [this chapter] prior to enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 1970] may be approved under section 110 of the Clean Air Act [this section] (as amended by this Act) [Pub. L. 91–604] and shall remain in effect, unless the Administrator determines that such implementation plan, or any portion thereof, is not consistent with applicable requirements of the Clean Air Act [this chapter] (as amended by this Act) and will not provide for the attainment of national primary ambient air quality standards in the time required by such Act. If the Administrator so determines, he shall, within 90 days after promulgation of any national ambient air quality standards pursuant to section 109(a) of the Clean Air Act [section 7409(a) of this title], notify the State and specify in what respects changes are needed to meet the additional requirements of such Act, including requirements to implement national secondary ambient air quality standards. If such changes are not adopted by the State after public hearings and within six months after such notification, the Administrator shall promulgate such changes pursuant to section 110(c) of such Act [subsec. (c) of this section].

"(2) The amendments made by section 4(b) [amending sections 7403 and 7415 of this title] shall not be construed as repealing or modifying the powers of the Administrator with respect to any conference convened under section 108(d) of the Clean Air Act [section 7415 of this title] before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 1970].

"(b) Regulations or standards issued under this title II of the Clean Air Act [subchapter II of this chapter] prior to the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 1970] shall continue in effect until revised by the Administrator consistent with the purposes of such Act [this chapter]."

Federal Energy Administrator

"Federal Energy Administrator", for purposes of this chapter, to mean Administrator of Federal Energy Administration established by Pub. L. 93–275, May 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 97, which is classified to section 761 et seq. of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, but with the term to mean any officer of the United States designated as such by the President until Federal Energy Administrator takes office and after Federal Energy Administration ceases to exist, see section 798 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Federal Energy Administration terminated and functions vested by law in Administrator thereof transferred to Secretary of Energy (unless otherwise specifically provided) by sections 7151(a) and 7293 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§7411. Standards of performance for new stationary sources

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) The term "standard of performance" means a standard for emissions of air pollutants which reflects the degree of emission limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emission reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any nonair quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) the Administrator determines has been adequately demonstrated.

(2) The term "new source" means any stationary source, the construction or modification of which is commenced after the publication of regulations (or, if earlier, proposed regulations) prescribing a standard of performance under this section which will be applicable to such source.

(3) The term "stationary source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant. Nothing in subchapter II of this chapter relating to nonroad engines shall be construed to apply to stationary internal combustion engines.

(4) The term "modification" means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a stationary source which increases the amount of any air pollutant emitted by such source or which results in the emission of any air pollutant not previously emitted.

(5) The term "owner or operator" means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a stationary source.

(6) The term "existing source" means any stationary source other than a new source.

(7) The term "technological system of continuous emission reduction" means—

(A) a technological process for production or operation by any source which is inherently low-polluting or nonpolluting, or

(B) a technological system for continuous reduction of the pollution generated by a source before such pollution is emitted into the ambient air, including precombustion cleaning or treatment of fuels.


(8) A conversion to coal (A) by reason of an order under section 2(a) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 [15 U.S.C. 792(a)] or any amendment thereto, or any subsequent enactment which supersedes such Act [15 U.S.C. 791 et seq.], or (B) which qualifies under section 7413(d)(5)(A)(ii) 1 of this title, shall not be deemed to be a modification for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (4) of this subsection.

(b) List of categories of stationary sources; standards of performance; information on pollution control techniques; sources owned or operated by United States; particular systems; revised standards

(1)(A) The Administrator shall, within 90 days after December 31, 1970, publish (and from time to time thereafter shall revise) a list of categories of stationary sources. He shall include a category of sources in such list if in his judgment it causes, or contributes significantly to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.

(B) Within one year after the inclusion of a category of stationary sources in a list under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall publish proposed regulations, establishing Federal standards of performance for new sources within such category. The Administrator shall afford interested persons an opportunity for written comment on such proposed regulations. After considering such comments, he shall promulgate, within one year after such publication, such standards with such modifications as he deems appropriate. The Administrator shall, at least every 8 years, review and, if appropriate, revise such standards following the procedure required by this subsection for promulgation of such standards. Notwithstanding the requirements of the previous sentence, the Administrator need not review any such standard if the Administrator determines that such review is not appropriate in light of readily available information on the efficacy of such standard. Standards of performance or revisions thereof shall become effective upon promulgation. When implementation and enforcement of any requirement of this chapter indicate that emission limitations and percent reductions beyond those required by the standards promulgated under this section are achieved in practice, the Administrator shall, when revising standards promulgated under this section, consider the emission limitations and percent reductions achieved in practice.

(2) The Administrator may distinguish among classes, types, and sizes within categories of new sources for the purpose of establishing such standards.

(3) The Administrator shall, from time to time, issue information on pollution control techniques for categories of new sources and air pollutants subject to the provisions of this section.

(4) The provisions of this section shall apply to any new source owned or operated by the United States.

(5) Except as otherwise authorized under subsection (h), nothing in this section shall be construed to require, or to authorize the Administrator to require, any new or modified source to install and operate any particular technological system of continuous emission reduction to comply with any new source standard of performance.

(6) The revised standards of performance required by enactment of subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) and (ii) 1 shall be promulgated not later than one year after August 7, 1977. Any new or modified fossil fuel fired stationary source which commences construction prior to the date of publication of the proposed revised standards shall not be required to comply with such revised standards.

(c) State implementation and enforcement of standards of performance

(1) Each State may develop and submit to the Administrator a procedure for implementing and enforcing standards of performance for new sources located in such State. If the Administrator finds the State procedure is adequate, he shall delegate to such State any authority he has under this chapter to implement and enforce such standards.

(2) Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the Administrator from enforcing any applicable standard of performance under this section.

(d) Standards of performance for existing sources; remaining useful life of source

(1) The Administrator shall prescribe regulations which shall establish a procedure similar to that provided by section 7410 of this title under which each State shall submit to the Administrator a plan which (A) establishes standards of performance for any existing source for any air pollutant (i) for which air quality criteria have not been issued or which is not included on a list published under section 7408(a) of this title or emitted from a source category which is regulated under section 7412 of this title but (ii) to which a standard of performance under this section would apply if such existing source were a new source, and (B) provides for the implementation and enforcement of such standards of performance. Regulations of the Administrator under this paragraph shall permit the State in applying a standard of performance to any particular source under a plan submitted under this paragraph to take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful life of the existing source to which such standard applies.

(2) The Administrator shall have the same authority—

(A) to prescribe a plan for a State in cases where the State fails to submit a satisfactory plan as he would have under section 7410(c) of this title in the case of failure to submit an implementation plan, and

(B) to enforce the provisions of such plan in cases where the State fails to enforce them as he would have under sections 7413 and 7414 of this title with respect to an implementation plan.


In promulgating a standard of performance under a plan prescribed under this paragraph, the Administrator shall take into consideration, among other factors, remaining useful lives of the sources in the category of sources to which such standard applies.

(e) Prohibited acts

After the effective date of standards of performance promulgated under this section, it shall be unlawful for any owner or operator of any new source to operate such source in violation of any standard of performance applicable to such source.

(f) New source standards of performance

(1) For those categories of major stationary sources that the Administrator listed under subsection (b)(1)(A) before November 15, 1990, and for which regulations had not been proposed by the Administrator by November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall—

(A) propose regulations establishing standards of performance for at least 25 percent of such categories of sources within 2 years after November 15, 1990;

(B) propose regulations establishing standards of performance for at least 50 percent of such categories of sources within 4 years after November 15, 1990; and

(C) propose regulations for the remaining categories of sources within 6 years after November 15, 1990.


(2) In determining priorities for promulgating standards for categories of major stationary sources for the purpose of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall consider—

(A) the quantity of air pollutant emissions which each such category will emit, or will be designed to emit;

(B) the extent to which each such pollutant may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare; and

(C) the mobility and competitive nature of each such category of sources and the consequent need for nationally applicable new source standards of performance.


(3) Before promulgating any regulations under this subsection or listing any category of major stationary sources as required under this subsection, the Administrator shall consult with appropriate representatives of the Governors and of State air pollution control agencies.

(g) Revision of regulations

(1) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to specify in regulations under subsection (f)(1) any category of major stationary sources required to be specified under such regulations, the Administrator shall revise such regulations to specify any such category.

(2) Upon application of the Governor of a State, showing that any category of stationary sources which is not included in the list under subsection (b)(1)(A) contributes significantly to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare (notwithstanding that such category is not a category of major stationary sources), the Administrator shall revise such regulations to specify such category of stationary sources.

(3) Upon application of the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to apply properly the criteria required to be considered under subsection (f)(2), the Administrator shall revise the list under subsection (b)(1)(A) to apply properly such criteria.

(4) Upon application of the Governor of a State showing that—

(A) a new, innovative, or improved technology or process which achieves greater continuous emission reduction has been adequately demonstrated for any category of stationary sources, and

(B) as a result of such technology or process, the new source standard of performance in effect under this section for such category no longer reflects the greatest degree of emission limitation achievable through application of the best technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) has been adequately demonstrated,


the Administrator shall revise such standard of performance for such category accordingly.

(5) Unless later deadlines for action of the Administrator are otherwise prescribed under this section, the Administrator shall, not later than three months following the date of receipt of any application by a Governor of a State, either—

(A) find that such application does not contain the requisite showing and deny such application, or

(B) grant such application and take the action required under this subsection.


(6) Before taking any action required by subsection (f) or by this subsection, the Administrator shall provide notice and opportunity for public hearing.

(h) Design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard; alternative emission limitation

(1) For purposes of this section, if in the judgment of the Administrator, it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce a standard of performance, he may instead promulgate a design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or combination thereof, which reflects the best technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) the Administrator determines has been adequately demonstrated. In the event the Administrator promulgates a design or equipment standard under this subsection, he shall include as part of such standard such requirements as will assure the proper operation and maintenance of any such element of design or equipment.

(2) For the purpose of this subsection, the phrase "not feasible to prescribe or enforce a standard of performance" means any situation in which the Administrator determines that (A) a pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such pollutant, or that any requirement for, or use of, such a conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State, or local law, or (B) the application of measurement methodology to a particular class of sources is not practicable due to technological or economic limitations.

(3) If after notice and opportunity for public hearing, any person establishes to the satisfaction of the Administrator that an alternative means of emission limitation will achieve a reduction in emissions of any air pollutant at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of such air pollutant achieved under the requirements of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall permit the use of such alternative by the source for purposes of compliance with this section with respect to such pollutant.

(4) Any standard promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be promulgated in terms of standard of performance whenever it becomes feasible to promulgate and enforce such standard in such terms.

(5) Any design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or any combination thereof, described in this subsection shall be treated as a standard of performance for purposes of the provisions of this chapter (other than the provisions of subsection (a) and this subsection).

(i) Country elevators

Any regulations promulgated by the Administrator under this section applicable to grain elevators shall not apply to country elevators (as defined by the Administrator) which have a storage capacity of less than two million five hundred thousand bushels.

(j) Innovative technological systems of continuous emission reduction

(1)(A) Any person proposing to own or operate a new source may request the Administrator for one or more waivers from the requirements of this section for such source or any portion thereof with respect to any air pollutant to encourage the use of an innovative technological system or systems of continuous emission reduction. The Administrator may, with the consent of the Governor of the State in which the source is to be located, grant a waiver under this paragraph, if the Administrator determines after notice and opportunity for public hearing, that—

(i) the proposed system or systems have not been adequately demonstrated,

(ii) the proposed system or systems will operate effectively and there is a substantial likelihood that such system or systems will achieve greater continuous emission reduction than that required to be achieved under the standards of performance which would otherwise apply, or achieve at least an equivalent reduction at lower cost in terms of energy, economic, or nonair quality environmental impact,

(iii) the owner or operator of the proposed source has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the proposed system will not cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety in its operation, function, or malfunction, and

(iv) the granting of such waiver is consistent with the requirements of subparagraph (C).


In making any determination under clause (ii), the Administrator shall take into account any previous failure of such system or systems to operate effectively or to meet any requirement of the new source performance standards. In determining whether an unreasonable risk exists under clause (iii), the Administrator shall consider, among other factors, whether and to what extent the use of the proposed technological system will cause, increase, reduce, or eliminate emissions of any unregulated pollutants; available methods for reducing or eliminating any risk to public health, welfare, or safety which may be associated with the use of such system; and the availability of other technological systems which may be used to conform to standards under this section without causing or contributing to such unreasonable risk. The Administrator may conduct such tests and may require the owner or operator of the proposed source to conduct such tests and provide such information as is necessary to carry out clause (iii) of this subparagraph. Such requirements shall include a requirement for prompt reporting of the emission of any unregulated pollutant from a system if such pollutant was not emitted, or was emitted in significantly lesser amounts without use of such system.

(B) A waiver under this paragraph shall be granted on such terms and conditions as the Administrator determines to be necessary to assure—

(i) emissions from the source will not prevent attainment and maintenance of any national ambient air quality standards, and

(ii) proper functioning of the technological system or systems authorized.


Any such term or condition shall be treated as a standard of performance for the purposes of subsection (e) of this section and section 7413 of this title.

(C) The number of waivers granted under this paragraph with respect to a proposed technological system of continuous emission reduction shall not exceed such number as the Administrator finds necessary to ascertain whether or not such system will achieve the conditions specified in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A).

(D) A waiver under this paragraph shall extend to the sooner of—

(i) the date determined by the Administrator, after consultation with the owner or operator of the source, taking into consideration the design, installation, and capital cost of the technological system or systems being used, or

(ii) the date on which the Administrator determines that such system has failed to—

(I) achieve at least an equivalent continuous emission reduction to that required to be achieved under the standards of performance which would otherwise apply, or

(II) comply with the condition specified in paragraph (1)(A)(iii),


and that such failure cannot be corrected.


(E) In carrying out subparagraph (D)(i), the Administrator shall not permit any waiver for a source or portion thereof to extend beyond the date—

(i) seven years after the date on which any waiver is granted to such source or portion thereof, or

(ii) four years after the date on which such source or portion thereof commences operation,


whichever is earlier.

(F) No waiver under this subsection shall apply to any portion of a source other than the portion on which the innovative technological system or systems of continuous emission reduction is used.

(2)(A) If a waiver under paragraph (1) is terminated under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(D), the Administrator shall grant an extension of the requirements of this section for such source for such minimum period as may be necessary to comply with the applicable standard of performance under this section. Such period shall not extend beyond the date three years from the time such waiver is terminated.

(B) An extension granted under this paragraph shall set forth emission limits and a compliance schedule containing increments of progress which require compliance with the applicable standards of performance as expeditiously as practicable and include such measures as are necessary and practicable in the interim to minimize emissions. Such schedule shall be treated as a standard of performance for purposes of subsection (e) of this section and section 7413 of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §111, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1683; amended Pub. L. 92–157, title III, §302(f), Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §109(a)–(d)(1), (e), (f), title IV, §401(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 697–703, 791; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(7)–(9), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 95–623, §13(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3457; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §108(e)–(g), title III, §302(a), (b), title IV, §403(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2467, 2574, 2631.)

References in Text

Such Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), means Pub. L. 93–319, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 246, as amended, known as the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, which is classified principally to chapter 16C (§791 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 791 of Title 15 and Tables.

Section 7413 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §701, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, and, as so amended, subsec. (d) of section 7413 no longer relates to final compliance orders.

Subsection (a)(1) of this section, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §403(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2631, and, as so amended, no longer contains subpars.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c–6 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 111 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 118 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7418 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §403(a), amended par. (1) generally, substituting provisions defining "standard of performance" with respect to any air pollutant for provisions defining such term with respect to subsec. (b) fossil fuel fired and other stationary sources and subsec. (d) particular sources.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(f), inserted at end "Nothing in subchapter II of this chapter relating to nonroad engines shall be construed to apply to stationary internal combustion engines."

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(e)(1), substituted "Within one year" for "Within 120 days", "within one year" for "within 90 days", and "every 8 years" for "every four years", inserted before last sentence "Notwithstanding the requirements of the previous sentence, the Administrator need not review any such standard if the Administrator determines that such review is not appropriate in light of readily available information on the efficacy of such standard.", and inserted at end "When implementation and enforcement of any requirement of this chapter indicate that emission limitations and percent reductions beyond those required by the standards promulgated under this section are achieved in practice, the Administrator shall, when revising standards promulgated under this section, consider the emission limitations and percent reductions achieved in practice."

Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(a), which directed the substitution of "7412(b)" for "7412(b)(1)(A)", could not be executed, because of the prior amendment by Pub. L. 101–549, §108(g), see below.

Pub. L. 101–549, §108(g), substituted "or emitted from a source category which is regulated under section 7412 of this title" for "or 7412(b)(1)(A)".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(e)(2), amended par. (1) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring the Administrator to promulgate regulations listing the categories of major stationary sources not on the required list by Aug. 7, 1977, and regulations establishing standards of performance for such categories.

Subsec. (g)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(b), redesignated par. (7) as (5) and struck out "or section 7412 of this title" after "this section", redesignated par. (8) as (6), and struck out former pars. (5) and (6) which read as follows:

"(5) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to list any air pollutant which causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness as a hazardous air pollutant under section 7412 of this title the Administrator shall revise the list of hazardous air pollutants under such section to include such pollutant.

"(6) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that any category of stationary sources of a hazardous air pollutant listed under section 7412 of this title is not subject to emission standards under such section, the Administrator shall propose and promulgate such emission standards applicable to such category of sources."

1978—Subsecs. (d)(1)(A)(ii), (g)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–623, §13(a)(2), substituted "under this section" for "under subsection (b) of this section".

Subsec. (h)(5). Pub. L. 95–623, §13(a)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–623, §13(a)(3), substituted in pars. (1)(A) and (2)(A) "standards under this section" and "under this section" for "standards under subsection (b) of this section" and "under subsection (b) of this section", respectively.

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(c)(1)(A), added subpars. (A), (B), and (C), substituted "For the purpose of subparagraphs (A)(i) and (ii) and (B), a standard of performance shall reflect" for "a standard for emissions of air pollutants which reflects", "and the percentage reduction achievable" for "achievable", and "technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any nonair quality health and environment impact and energy requirements)" for "system of emission reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction)" in existing provisions, and inserted provision that, for the purpose of subparagraph (1)(A)(ii), any cleaning of the fuel or reduction in the pollution characteristics of the fuel after extraction and prior to combustion may be credited, as determined under regulations promulgated by the Administrator, to a source which burns such fuel.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(c)(1)(B), added par. (7) defining "technological system of continuous emission reduction".

Pub. L. 95–95, §109(f), added par. (7) directing that under certain circumstances a conversion to coal not be deemed a modification for purposes of pars. (2) and (4).

Subsec. (a)(7), (8). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(7), redesignated second par. (7) as (8).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–95, §401(b), substituted "such list if in his judgment it causes, or contributes significantly to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger" for "such list if he determines it may contribute significantly to air pollution which causes or contributes to the endangerment of".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(c)(2), substituted "shall, at least every four years, review and, if appropriate," for "may, from time to time,".

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(c)(3), added pars. (5) and (6).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(d)(1), struck out "(except with respect to new sources owned or operated by the United States)" after "implement and enforce such standards".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(b)(1), substituted "standards of performance" for "emission standards" and inserted provisions directing that regulations of the Administrator permit the State, in applying a standard of performance to any particular source under a submitted plan, to take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful life of the existing source to which the standard applies.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(b)(2), provided that, in promulgating a standard of performance under a plan, the Administrator take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful lives of the sources in the category of sources to which the standard applies.

Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 95–95, §109(a), added subsecs. (f) to (i).

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(8), (9), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j) and, as so redesignated, substituted "(B)" for "(8)" as designation for second subpar. in par. (2). Former subsec. (j), added by Pub. L. 95–95, §109(e), which related to compliance with applicable standards of performance, was struck out.

Pub. L. 95–95, §109(e), added subsec. (k).

1971—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 92–157 substituted in first sentence "publish proposed" for "propose".

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, §403(b), (c), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2631, provided that:

"(b) Revised Regulations.—Not later than three years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator shall promulgate revised regulations for standards of performance for new fossil fuel fired electric utility units commencing construction after the date on which such regulations are proposed that, at a minimum, require any source subject to such revised standards to emit sulfur dioxide at a rate not greater than would have resulted from compliance by such source with the applicable standards of performance under this section [amending sections 7411 and 7479 of this title] prior to such revision.

"(c) Applicability.—The provisions of subsections (a) [amending this section] and (b) apply only so long as the provisions of section 403(e) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7651b(e)] remain in effect."

Transfer of Functions

Enforcement functions of Administrator or other official in Environmental Protection Agency related to compliance with new source performance standards under this section with respect to pre-construction, construction, and initial operation of transportation system for Canadian and Alaskan natural gas transferred to Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, until first anniversary of date of initial operation of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1979, eff. July 1, 1979, §§102(a), 203(a), 44 F.R. 33663, 33666, 93 Stat. 1373, 1376, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System abolished and functions and authority vested in Inspector transferred to Secretary of Energy by section 3012(b) of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as an Abolition of Office of Federal Inspector note under section 719e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Functions and authority vested in Secretary of Energy subsequently transferred to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects by section 720d(f) of Title 15.

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

Memorandum of President of the United States, June 25, 2013, 78 F.R. 39535, which related to carbon pollution standards for power plants, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13783, §3(a)(ii), Mar. 28, 2017, 82 F.R. 16094, set out as a note under section 13201 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§7412. Hazardous air pollutants

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section, except subsection (r)—

(1) Major source

The term "major source" means any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit considering controls, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants. The Administrator may establish a lesser quantity, or in the case of radionuclides different criteria, for a major source than that specified in the previous sentence, on the basis of the potency of the air pollutant, persistence, potential for bioaccumulation, other characteristics of the air pollutant, or other relevant factors.

(2) Area source

The term "area source" means any stationary source of hazardous air pollutants that is not a major source. For purposes of this section, the term "area source" shall not include motor vehicles or nonroad vehicles subject to regulation under subchapter II.

(3) Stationary source

The term "stationary source" shall have the same meaning as such term has under section 7411(a) of this title.

(4) New source

The term "new source" means a stationary source the construction or reconstruction of which is commenced after the Administrator first proposes regulations under this section establishing an emission standard applicable to such source.

(5) Modification

The term "modification" means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major source which increases the actual emissions of any hazardous air pollutant emitted by such source by more than a de minimis amount or which results in the emission of any hazardous air pollutant not previously emitted by more than a de minimis amount.

(6) Hazardous air pollutant

The term "hazardous air pollutant" means any air pollutant listed pursuant to subsection (b).

(7) Adverse environmental effect

The term "adverse environmental effect" means any significant and widespread adverse effect, which may reasonably be anticipated, to wildlife, aquatic life, or other natural resources, including adverse impacts on populations of endangered or threatened species or significant degradation of environmental quality over broad areas.

(8) Electric utility steam generating unit

The term "electric utility steam generating unit" means any fossil fuel fired combustion unit of more than 25 megawatts that serves a generator that produces electricity for sale. A unit that cogenerates steam and electricity and supplies more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 megawatts electrical output to any utility power distribution system for sale shall be considered an electric utility steam generating unit.

(9) Owner or operator

The term "owner or operator" means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a stationary source.

(10) Existing source

The term "existing source" means any stationary source other than a new source.

(11) Carcinogenic effect

Unless revised, the term "carcinogenic effect" shall have the meaning provided by the Administrator under Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment as of the date of enactment.1 Any revisions in the existing Guidelines shall be subject to notice and opportunity for comment.

(b) List of pollutants

(1) Initial list

The Congress establishes for purposes of this section a list of hazardous air pollutants as follows:

 
CAS numberChemical name
75070 Acetaldehyde
60355 Acetamide
75058 Acetonitrile
98862 Acetophenone
53963 2-Acetylaminofluorene
107028 Acrolein
79061 Acrylamide
79107 Acrylic acid
107131 Acrylonitrile
107051 Allyl chloride
92671 4-Aminobiphenyl
62533 Aniline
90040 o-Anisidine
1332214 Asbestos
71432 Benzene (including benzene from gasoline)
92875 Benzidine
98077 Benzotrichloride
100447 Benzyl chloride
92524 Biphenyl
117817 Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)
542881 Bis(chloromethyl)ether
75252 Bromoform
106990 1,3-Butadiene
156627 Calcium cyanamide
105602 Caprolactam
133062 Captan
63252 Carbaryl
75150 Carbon disulfide
56235 Carbon tetrachloride
463581 Carbonyl sulfide
120809 Catechol
133904 Chloramben
57749 Chlordane
7782505 Chlorine
79118 Chloroacetic acid
532274 2-Chloroacetophenone
108907 Chlorobenzene
510156 Chlorobenzilate
67663 Chloroform
107302 Chloromethyl methyl ether
126998 Chloroprene
1319773 Cresols/Cresylic acid (isomers and mixture)
95487 o-Cresol
108394 m-Cresol
106445 p-Cresol
98828 Cumene
94757 2,4-D, salts and esters
3547044 DDE
334883 Diazomethane
132649 Dibenzofurans
96128 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
84742 Dibutylphthalate
106467 1,4-Dichlorobenzene(p)
91941 3,3-Dichlorobenzidene
111444 Dichloroethyl ether (Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether)
542756 1,3-Dichloropropene
62737 Dichlorvos
111422 Diethanolamine
121697 N,N-Diethyl aniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline)
64675 Diethyl sulfate
119904 3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine
60117 Dimethyl aminoazobenzene
119937 3,3′-Dimethyl benzidine
79447 Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride
68122 Dimethyl formamide
57147 1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine
131113 Dimethyl phthalate
77781 Dimethyl sulfate
534521 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol, and salts
51285 2,4-Dinitrophenol
121142 2,4-Dinitrotoluene
123911 1,4-Dioxane (1,4-Diethyleneoxide)
122667 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine
106898 Epichlorohydrin (l-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane)
106887 1,2-Epoxybutane
140885 Ethyl acrylate
100414 Ethyl benzene
51796 Ethyl carbamate (Urethane)
75003 Ethyl chloride (Chloroethane)
106934 Ethylene dibromide (Dibromoethane)
107062 Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)
107211 Ethylene glycol
151564 Ethylene imine (Aziridine)
75218 Ethylene oxide
96457 Ethylene thiourea
75343 Ethylidene dichloride (1,1-Dichloroethane)
50000 Formaldehyde
76448 Heptachlor
118741 Hexachlorobenzene
87683 Hexachlorobutadiene
77474 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
67721 Hexachloroethane
822060 Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate
680319 Hexamethylphosphoramide
110543 Hexane
302012 Hydrazine
7647010 Hydrochloric acid
7664393 Hydrogen fluoride (Hydrofluoric acid)
123319 Hydroquinone
78591 Isophorone
58899 Lindane (all isomers)
108316 Maleic anhydride
67561 Methanol
72435 Methoxychlor
74839 Methyl bromide (Bromomethane)
74873 Methyl chloride (Chloromethane)
71556 Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane)
78933 Methyl ethyl ketone (2-Butanone)
60344 Methyl hydrazine
74884 Methyl iodide (Iodomethane)
108101 Methyl isobutyl ketone (Hexone)
624839 Methyl isocyanate
80626 Methyl methacrylate
1634044 Methyl tert butyl ether
101144 4,4-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)
75092 Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane)
101688 Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)
101779 4,4′-Methylenedianiline
91203 Naphthalene
98953 Nitrobenzene
92933 4-Nitrobiphenyl
100027 4-Nitrophenol
79469 2-Nitropropane
684935 N-Nitroso-N-methylurea
62759 N-Nitrosodimethylamine
59892 N-Nitrosomorpholine
56382 Parathion
82688 Pentachloronitrobenzene (Quintobenzene)
87865 Pentachlorophenol
108952 Phenol
106503 p-Phenylenediamine
75445 Phosgene
7803512 Phosphine
7723140 Phosphorus
85449 Phthalic anhydride
1336363 Polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclors)
1120714 1,3-Propane sultone
57578 beta-Propiolactone
123386 Propionaldehyde
114261 Propoxur (Baygon)
78875 Propylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloropropane)
75569 Propylene oxide
75558 1,2-Propylenimine (2-Methyl aziridine)
91225 Quinoline
106514 Quinone
100425 Styrene
96093 Styrene oxide
1746016 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
79345 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
127184 Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene)
7550450 Titanium tetrachloride
108883 Toluene
95807 2,4-Toluene diamine
584849 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate
95534 o-Toluidine
8001352 Toxaphene (chlorinated camphene)
120821 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
79005 1,1,2-Trichloroethane
79016 Trichloroethylene
95954 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
88062 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
121448 Triethylamine
1582098 Trifluralin
540841 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
108054 Vinyl acetate
593602 Vinyl bromide
75014 Vinyl chloride
75354 Vinylidene chloride (1,1-Dichloroethylene)
1330207 Xylenes (isomers and mixture)
95476 o-Xylenes
108383 m-Xylenes
106423 p-Xylenes
0 Antimony Compounds
0 Arsenic Compounds (inorganic including arsine)
0 Beryllium Compounds
0 Cadmium Compounds
0 Chromium Compounds
0 Cobalt Compounds
0 Coke Oven Emissions
0 Cyanide Compounds 1
0 Glycol ethers 2
0 Lead Compounds
0 Manganese Compounds
0 Mercury Compounds
0 Fine mineral fibers 3
0 Nickel Compounds
0 Polycylic Organic Matter 4
0 Radionuclides (including radon) 5
0 Selenium Compounds

NOTE: For all listings above which contain the word "compounds" and for glycol ethers, the following applies: Unless otherwise specified, these listings are defined as including any unique chemical substance that contains the named chemical (i.e., antimony, arsenic, etc.) as part of that chemical's infrastructure.

1 X′CN where X = H′ or any other group where a formal dissociation may occur. For example KCN or Ca(CN)2.

2 Includes mono- and di- ethers of ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol R–(OCH2CH2)n–OR′ where

   n = 1, 2, or 3

   R = alkyl or aryl groups

   R′ = R, H, or groups which, when removed, yield glycol ethers with the structure: R–(OCH2CH)n–OH. Polymers are excluded from the glycol category.

3 Includes mineral fiber emissions from facilities manufacturing or processing glass, rock, or slag fibers (or other mineral derived fibers) of average diameter 1 micrometer or less.

4 Includes organic compounds with more than one benzene ring, and which have a boiling point greater than or equal to 100°C.

5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay.

(2) Revision of the list

The Administrator shall periodically review the list established by this subsection and publish the results thereof and, where appropriate, revise such list by rule, adding pollutants which present, or may present, through inhalation or other routes of exposure, a threat of adverse human health effects (including, but not limited to, substances which are known to be, or may reasonably be anticipated to be, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, which cause reproductive dysfunction, or which are acutely or chronically toxic) or adverse environmental effects whether through ambient concentrations, bioaccumulation, deposition, or otherwise, but not including releases subject to regulation under subsection (r) as a result of emissions to the air. No air pollutant which is listed under section 7408(a) of this title may be added to the list under this section, except that the prohibition of this sentence shall not apply to any pollutant which independently meets the listing criteria of this paragraph and is a precursor to a pollutant which is listed under section 7408(a) of this title or to any pollutant which is in a class of pollutants listed under such section. No substance, practice, process or activity regulated under subchapter VI of this chapter shall be subject to regulation under this section solely due to its adverse effects on the environment.

(3) Petitions to modify the list

(A) Beginning at any time after 6 months after November 15, 1990, any person may petition the Administrator to modify the list of hazardous air pollutants under this subsection by adding or deleting a substance or, in case of listed pollutants without CAS numbers (other than coke oven emissions, mineral fibers, or polycyclic organic matter) removing certain unique substances. Within 18 months after receipt of a petition, the Administrator shall either grant or deny the petition by publishing a written explanation of the reasons for the Administrator's decision. Any such petition shall include a showing by the petitioner that there is adequate data on the health or environmental defects 2 of the pollutant or other evidence adequate to support the petition. The Administrator may not deny a petition solely on the basis of inadequate resources or time for review.

(B) The Administrator shall add a substance to the list upon a showing by the petitioner or on the Administrator's own determination that the substance is an air pollutant and that emissions, ambient concentrations, bioaccumulation or deposition of the substance are known to cause or may reasonably be anticipated to cause adverse effects to human health or adverse environmental effects.

(C) The Administrator shall delete a substance from the list upon a showing by the petitioner or on the Administrator's own determination that there is adequate data on the health and environmental effects of the substance to determine that emissions, ambient concentrations, bioaccumulation or deposition of the substance may not reasonably be anticipated to cause any adverse effects to the human health or adverse environmental effects.

(D) The Administrator shall delete one or more unique chemical substances that contain a listed hazardous air pollutant not having a CAS number (other than coke oven emissions, mineral fibers, or polycyclic organic matter) upon a showing by the petitioner or on the Administrator's own determination that such unique chemical substances that contain the named chemical of such listed hazardous air pollutant meet the deletion requirements of subparagraph (C). The Administrator must grant or deny a deletion petition prior to promulgating any emission standards pursuant to subsection (d) applicable to any source category or subcategory of a listed hazardous air pollutant without a CAS number listed under subsection (b) for which a deletion petition has been filed within 12 months of November 15, 1990.

(4) Further information

If the Administrator determines that information on the health or environmental effects of a substance is not sufficient to make a determination required by this subsection, the Administrator may use any authority available to the Administrator to acquire such information.

(5) Test methods

The Administrator may establish, by rule, test measures and other analytic procedures for monitoring and measuring emissions, ambient concentrations, deposition, and bioaccumulation of hazardous air pollutants.

(6) Prevention of significant deterioration

The provisions of part C (prevention of significant deterioration) shall not apply to pollutants listed under this section.

(7) Lead

The Administrator may not list elemental lead as a hazardous air pollutant under this subsection.

(c) List of source categories

(1) In general

Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall publish, and shall from time to time, but no less often than every 8 years, revise, if appropriate, in response to public comment or new information, a list of all categories and subcategories of major sources and area sources (listed under paragraph (3)) of the air pollutants listed pursuant to subsection (b). To the extent practicable, the categories and subcategories listed under this subsection shall be consistent with the list of source categories established pursuant to section 7411 of this title and part C. Nothing in the preceding sentence limits the Administrator's authority to establish subcategories under this section, as appropriate.

(2) Requirement for emissions standards

For the categories and subcategories the Administrator lists, the Administrator shall establish emissions standards under subsection (d), according to the schedule in this subsection and subsection (e).

(3) Area sources

The Administrator shall list under this subsection each category or subcategory of area sources which the Administrator finds presents a threat of adverse effects to human health or the environment (by such sources individually or in the aggregate) warranting regulation under this section. The Administrator shall, not later than 5 years after November 15, 1990, and pursuant to subsection (k)(3)(B), list, based on actual or estimated aggregate emissions of a listed pollutant or pollutants, sufficient categories or subcategories of area sources to ensure that area sources representing 90 percent of the area source emissions of the 30 hazardous air pollutants that present the greatest threat to public health in the largest number of urban areas are subject to regulation under this section. Such regulations shall be promulgated not later than 10 years after November 15, 1990.

(4) Previously regulated categories

The Administrator may, in the Administrator's discretion, list any category or subcategory of sources previously regulated under this section as in effect before November 15, 1990.

(5) Additional categories

In addition to those categories and subcategories of sources listed for regulation pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (3), the Administrator may at any time list additional categories and subcategories of sources of hazardous air pollutants according to the same criteria for listing applicable under such paragraphs. In the case of source categories and subcategories listed after publication of the initial list required under paragraph (1) or (3), emission standards under subsection (d) for the category or subcategory shall be promulgated within 10 years after November 15, 1990, or within 2 years after the date on which such category or subcategory is listed, whichever is later.

(6) Specific pollutants

With respect to alkylated lead compounds, polycyclic organic matter, hexachlorobenzene, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofurans and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the Administrator shall, not later than 5 years after November 15, 1990, list categories and subcategories of sources assuring that sources accounting for not less than 90 per centum of the aggregate emissions of each such pollutant are subject to standards under subsection (d)(2) or (d)(4). Such standards shall be promulgated not later than 10 years after November 15, 1990. This paragraph shall not be construed to require the Administrator to promulgate standards for such pollutants emitted by electric utility steam generating units.

(7) Research facilities

The Administrator shall establish a separate category covering research or laboratory facilities, as necessary to assure the equitable treatment of such facilities. For purposes of this section, "research or laboratory facility" means any stationary source whose primary purpose is to conduct research and development into new processes and products, where such source is operated under the close supervision of technically trained personnel and is not engaged in the manufacture of products for commercial sale in commerce, except in a de minimis manner.

(8) Boat manufacturing

When establishing emissions standards for styrene, the Administrator shall list boat manufacturing as a separate subcategory unless the Administrator finds that such listing would be inconsistent with the goals and requirements of this chapter.

(9) Deletions from the list

(A) Where the sole reason for the inclusion of a source category on the list required under this subsection is the emission of a unique chemical substance, the Administrator shall delete the source category from the list if it is appropriate because of action taken under either subparagraphs (C) or (D) of subsection (b)(3).

(B) The Administrator may delete any source category from the list under this subsection, on petition of any person or on the Administrator's own motion, whenever the Administrator makes the following determination or determinations, as applicable:

(i) In the case of hazardous air pollutants emitted by sources in the category that may result in cancer in humans, a determination that no source in the category (or group of sources in the case of area sources) emits such hazardous air pollutants in quantities which may cause a lifetime risk of cancer greater than one in one million to the individual in the population who is most exposed to emissions of such pollutants from the source (or group of sources in the case of area sources).

(ii) In the case of hazardous air pollutants that may result in adverse health effects in humans other than cancer or adverse environmental effects, a determination that emissions from no source in the category or subcategory concerned (or group of sources in the case of area sources) exceed a level which is adequate to protect public health with an ample margin of safety and no adverse environmental effect will result from emissions from any source (or from a group of sources in the case of area sources).


The Administrator shall grant or deny a petition under this paragraph within 1 year after the petition is filed.

(d) Emission standards

(1) In general

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing emission standards for each category or subcategory of major sources and area sources of hazardous air pollutants listed for regulation pursuant to subsection (c) in accordance with the schedules provided in subsections (c) and (e). The Administrator may distinguish among classes, types, and sizes of sources within a category or subcategory in establishing such standards except that, there shall be no delay in the compliance date for any standard applicable to any source under subsection (i) as the result of the authority provided by this sentence.

(2) Standards and methods

Emissions standards promulgated under this subsection and applicable to new or existing sources of hazardous air pollutants shall require the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of the hazardous air pollutants subject to this section (including a prohibition on such emissions, where achievable) that the Administrator, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable for new or existing sources in the category or subcategory to which such emission standard applies, through application of measures, processes, methods, systems or techniques including, but not limited to, measures which—

(A) reduce the volume of, or eliminate emissions of, such pollutants through process changes, substitution of materials or other modifications,

(B) enclose systems or processes to eliminate emissions,

(C) collect, capture or treat such pollutants when released from a process, stack, storage or fugitive emissions point,

(D) are design, equipment, work practice, or operational standards (including requirements for operator training or certification) as provided in subsection (h), or

(E) are a combination of the above.


None of the measures described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) shall, consistent with the provisions of section 7414(c) of this title, in any way compromise any United States patent or United States trademark right, or any confidential business information, or any trade secret or any other intellectual property right.

(3) New and existing sources

The maximum degree of reduction in emissions that is deemed achievable for new sources in a category or subcategory shall not be less stringent than the emission control that is achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source, as determined by the Administrator. Emission standards promulgated under this subsection for existing sources in a category or subcategory may be less stringent than standards for new sources in the same category or subcategory but shall not be less stringent, and may be more stringent than—

(A) the average emission limitation achieved by the best performing 12 percent of the existing sources (for which the Administrator has emissions information), excluding those sources that have, within 18 months before the emission standard is proposed or within 30 months before such standard is promulgated, whichever is later, first achieved a level of emission rate or emission reduction which complies, or would comply if the source is not subject to such standard, with the lowest achievable emission rate (as defined by section 7501 of this title) applicable to the source category and prevailing at the time, in the category or subcategory for categories and subcategories with 30 or more sources, or

(B) the average emission limitation achieved by the best performing 5 sources (for which the Administrator has or could reasonably obtain emissions information) in the category or subcategory for categories or subcategories with fewer than 30 sources.

(4) Health threshold

With respect to pollutants for which a health threshold has been established, the Administrator may consider such threshold level, with an ample margin of safety, when establishing emission standards under this subsection.

(5) Alternative standard for area sources

With respect only to categories and subcategories of area sources listed pursuant to subsection (c), the Administrator may, in lieu of the authorities provided in paragraph (2) and subsection (f), elect to promulgate standards or requirements applicable to sources in such categories or subcategories which provide for the use of generally available control technologies or management practices by such sources to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants.

(6) Review and revision

The Administrator shall review, and revise as necessary (taking into account developments in practices, processes, and control technologies), emission standards promulgated under this section no less often than every 8 years.

(7) Other requirements preserved

No emission standard or other requirement promulgated under this section shall be interpreted, construed or applied to diminish or replace the requirements of a more stringent emission limitation or other applicable requirement established pursuant to section 7411 of this title, part C or D, or other authority of this chapter or a standard issued under State authority.

(8) Coke ovens

(A) Not later than December 31, 1992, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing emission standards under paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection for coke oven batteries. In establishing such standards, the Administrator shall evaluate—

(i) the use of sodium silicate (or equivalent) luting compounds to prevent door leaks, and other operating practices and technologies for their effectiveness in reducing coke oven emissions, and their suitability for use on new and existing coke oven batteries, taking into account costs and reasonable commercial door warranties; and

(ii) as a basis for emission standards under this subsection for new coke oven batteries that begin construction after the date of proposal of such standards, the Jewell design Thompson non-recovery coke oven batteries and other non-recovery coke oven technologies, and other appropriate emission control and coke production technologies, as to their effectiveness in reducing coke oven emissions and their capability for production of steel quality coke.


Such regulations shall require at a minimum that coke oven batteries will not exceed 8 per centum leaking doors, 1 per centum leaking lids, 5 per centum leaking offtakes, and 16 seconds visible emissions per charge, with no exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing oven doors. Notwithstanding subsection (i), the compliance date for such emission standards for existing coke oven batteries shall be December 31, 1995.

(B) The Administrator shall promulgate work practice regulations under this subsection for coke oven batteries requiring, as appropriate—

(i) the use of sodium silicate (or equivalent) luting compounds, if the Administrator determines that use of sodium silicate is an effective means of emissions control and is achievable, taking into account costs and reasonable commercial warranties for doors and related equipment; and

(ii) door and jam cleaning practices.


Notwithstanding subsection (i), the compliance date for such work practice regulations for coke oven batteries shall be not later than the date 3 years after November 15, 1990.

(C) For coke oven batteries electing to qualify for an extension of the compliance date for standards promulgated under subsection (f) in accordance with subsection (i)(8), the emission standards under this subsection for coke oven batteries shall require that coke oven batteries not exceed 8 per centum leaking doors, 1 per centum leaking lids, 5 per centum leaking offtakes, and 16 seconds visible emissions per charge, with no exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing doors. Notwithstanding subsection (i), the compliance date for such emission standards for existing coke oven batteries seeking an extension shall be not later than the date 3 years after November 15, 1990.

(9) Sources licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

No standard for radionuclide emissions from any category or subcategory of facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or an Agreement State) is required to be promulgated under this section if the Administrator determines, by rule, and after consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, that the regulatory program established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] for such category or subcategory provides an ample margin of safety to protect the public health. Nothing in this subsection shall preclude or deny the right of any State or political subdivision thereof to adopt or enforce any standard or limitation respecting emissions of radionuclides which is more stringent than the standard or limitation in effect under section 7411 of this title or this section.

(10) Effective date

Emission standards or other regulations promulgated under this subsection shall be effective upon promulgation.

(e) Schedule for standards and review

(1) In general

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing emission standards for categories and subcategories of sources initially listed for regulation pursuant to subsection (c)(1) as expeditiously as practicable, assuring that—

(A) emission standards for not less than 40 categories and subcategories (not counting coke oven batteries) shall be promulgated not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990;

(B) emission standards for coke oven batteries shall be promulgated not later than December 31, 1992;

(C) emission standards for 25 per centum of the listed categories and subcategories shall be promulgated not later than 4 years after November 15, 1990;

(D) emission standards for an additional 25 per centum of the listed categories and subcategories shall be promulgated not later than 7 years after November 15, 1990; and

(E) emission standards for all categories and subcategories shall be promulgated not later than 10 years after November 15, 1990.

(2) Priorities

In determining priorities for promulgating standards under subsection (d), the Administrator shall consider—

(A) the known or anticipated adverse effects of such pollutants on public health and the environment;

(B) the quantity and location of emissions or reasonably anticipated emissions of hazardous air pollutants that each category or subcategory will emit; and

(C) the efficiency of grouping categories or subcategories according to the pollutants emitted, or the processes or technologies used.

(3) Published schedule

Not later than 24 months after November 15, 1990, and after opportunity for comment, the Administrator shall publish a schedule establishing a date for the promulgation of emission standards for each category and subcategory of sources listed pursuant to subsection (c)(1) and (3) which shall be consistent with the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2). The determination of priorities for the promulgation of standards pursuant to this paragraph is not a rulemaking and shall not be subject to judicial review, except that, failure to promulgate any standard pursuant to the schedule established by this paragraph shall be subject to review under section 7604 of this title.

(4) Judicial review

Notwithstanding section 7607 of this title, no action of the Administrator adding a pollutant to the list under subsection (b) or listing a source category or subcategory under subsection (c) shall be a final agency action subject to judicial review, except that any such action may be reviewed under such section 7607 of this title when the Administrator issues emission standards for such pollutant or category.

(5) Publicly owned treatment works

The Administrator shall promulgate standards pursuant to subsection (d) applicable to publicly owned treatment works (as defined in title II of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1281 et seq.]) not later than 5 years after November 15, 1990.

(f) Standard to protect health and environment

(1) Report

Not later than 6 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall investigate and report, after consultation with the Surgeon General and after opportunity for public comment, to Congress on—

(A) methods of calculating the risk to public health remaining, or likely to remain, from sources subject to regulation under this section after the application of standards under subsection (d);

(B) the public health significance of such estimated remaining risk and the technologically and commercially available methods and costs of reducing such risks;

(C) the actual health effects with respect to persons living in the vicinity of sources, any available epidemiological or other health studies, risks presented by background concentrations of hazardous air pollutants, any uncertainties in risk assessment methodology or other health assessment technique, and any negative health or environmental consequences to the community of efforts to reduce such risks; and

(D) recommendations as to legislation regarding such remaining risk.

(2) Emission standards

(A) If Congress does not act on any recommendation submitted under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall, within 8 years after promulgation of standards for each category or subcategory of sources pursuant to subsection (d), promulgate standards for such category or subcategory if promulgation of such standards is required in order to provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health in accordance with this section (as in effect before November 15, 1990) or to prevent, taking into consideration costs, energy, safety, and other relevant factors, an adverse environmental effect. Emission standards promulgated under this subsection shall provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health in accordance with this section (as in effect before November 15, 1990), unless the Administrator determines that a more stringent standard is necessary to prevent, taking into consideration costs, energy, safety, and other relevant factors, an adverse environmental effect. If standards promulgated pursuant to subsection (d) and applicable to a category or subcategory of sources emitting a pollutant (or pollutants) classified as a known, probable or possible human carcinogen do not reduce lifetime excess cancer risks to the individual most exposed to emissions from a source in the category or subcategory to less than one in one million, the Administrator shall promulgate standards under this subsection for such source category.

(B) Nothing in subparagraph (A) or in any other provision of this section shall be construed as affecting, or applying to the Administrator's interpretation of this section, as in effect before November 15, 1990, and set forth in the Federal Register of September 14, 1989 (54 Federal Register 38044).

(C) The Administrator shall determine whether or not to promulgate such standards and, if the Administrator decides to promulgate such standards, shall promulgate the standards 8 years after promulgation of the standards under subsection (d) for each source category or subcategory concerned. In the case of categories or subcategories for which standards under subsection (d) are required to be promulgated within 2 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall have 9 years after promulgation of the standards under subsection (d) to make the determination under the preceding sentence and, if required, to promulgate the standards under this paragraph.

(3) Effective date

Any emission standard established pursuant to this subsection shall become effective upon promulgation.

(4) Prohibition

No air pollutant to which a standard under this subsection applies may be emitted from any stationary source in violation of such standard, except that in the case of an existing source—

(A) such standard shall not apply until 90 days after its effective date, and

(B) the Administrator may grant a waiver permitting such source a period of up to 2 years after the effective date of a standard to comply with the standard if the Administrator finds that such period is necessary for the installation of controls and that steps will be taken during the period of the waiver to assure that the health of persons will be protected from imminent endangerment.

(5) Area sources

The Administrator shall not be required to conduct any review under this subsection or promulgate emission limitations under this subsection for any category or subcategory of area sources that is listed pursuant to subsection (c)(3) and for which an emission standard is promulgated pursuant to subsection (d)(5).

(6) Unique chemical substances

In establishing standards for the control of unique chemical substances of listed pollutants without CAS numbers under this subsection, the Administrator shall establish such standards with respect to the health and environmental effects of the substances actually emitted by sources and direct transformation byproducts of such emissions in the categories and subcategories.

(g) Modifications

(1) Offsets

(A) A physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major source which results in a greater than de minimis increase in actual emissions of a hazardous air pollutant shall not be considered a modification, if such increase in the quantity of actual emissions of any hazardous air pollutant from such source will be offset by an equal or greater decrease in the quantity of emissions of another hazardous air pollutant (or pollutants) from such source which is deemed more hazardous, pursuant to guidance issued by the Administrator under subparagraph (B). The owner or operator of such source shall submit a showing to the Administrator (or the State) that such increase has been offset under the preceding sentence.

(B) The Administrator shall, after notice and opportunity for comment and not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, publish guidance with respect to implementation of this subsection. Such guidance shall include an identification, to the extent practicable, of the relative hazard to human health resulting from emissions to the ambient air of each of the pollutants listed under subsection (b) sufficient to facilitate the offset showing authorized by subparagraph (A). Such guidance shall not authorize offsets between pollutants where the increased pollutant (or more than one pollutant in a stream of pollutants) causes adverse effects to human health for which no safety threshold for exposure can be determined unless there are corresponding decreases in such types of pollutant(s).

(2) Construction, reconstruction and modifications

(A) After the effective date of a permit program under subchapter V in any State, no person may modify a major source of hazardous air pollutants in such State, unless the Administrator (or the State) determines that the maximum achievable control technology emission limitation under this section for existing sources will be met. Such determination shall be made on a case-by-case basis where no applicable emissions limitations have been established by the Administrator.

(B) After the effective date of a permit program under subchapter V in any State, no person may construct or reconstruct any major source of hazardous air pollutants, unless the Administrator (or the State) determines that the maximum achievable control technology emission limitation under this section for new sources will be met. Such determination shall be made on a case-by-case basis where no applicable emission limitations have been established by the Administrator.

(3) Procedures for modifications

The Administrator (or the State) shall establish reasonable procedures for assuring that the requirements applying to modifications under this section are reflected in the permit.

(h) Work practice standards and other requirements

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, if it is not feasible in the judgment of the Administrator to prescribe or enforce an emission standard for control of a hazardous air pollutant or pollutants, the Administrator may, in lieu thereof, promulgate a design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or combination thereof, which in the Administrator's judgment is consistent with the provisions of subsection (d) or (f). In the event the Administrator promulgates a design or equipment standard under this subsection, the Administrator shall include as part of such standard such requirements as will assure the proper operation and maintenance of any such element of design or equipment.

(2) Definition

For the purpose of this subsection, the phrase "not feasible to prescribe or enforce an emission standard" means any situation in which the Administrator determines that—

(A) a hazardous air pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such pollutant, or that any requirement for, or use of, such a conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State or local law, or

(B) the application of measurement methodology to a particular class of sources is not practicable due to technological and economic limitations.

(3) Alternative standard

If after notice and opportunity for comment, the owner or operator of any source establishes to the satisfaction of the Administrator that an alternative means of emission limitation will achieve a reduction in emissions of any air pollutant at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of such pollutant achieved under the requirements of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall permit the use of such alternative by the source for purposes of compliance with this section with respect to such pollutant.

(4) Numerical standard required

Any standard promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be promulgated in terms of an emission standard whenever it is feasible to promulgate and enforce a standard in such terms.

(i) Schedule for compliance

(1) Preconstruction and operating requirements

After the effective date of any emission standard, limitation, or regulation under subsection (d), (f) or (h), no person may construct any new major source or reconstruct any existing major source subject to such emission standard, regulation or limitation unless the Administrator (or a State with a permit program approved under subchapter V) determines that such source, if properly constructed, reconstructed and operated, will comply with the standard, regulation or limitation.

(2) Special rule

Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (1), a new source which commences construction or reconstruction after a standard, limitation or regulation applicable to such source is proposed and before such standard, limitation or regulation is promulgated shall not be required to comply with such promulgated standard until the date 3 years after the date of promulgation if—

(A) the promulgated standard, limitation or regulation is more stringent than the standard, limitation or regulation proposed; and

(B) the source complies with the standard, limitation, or regulation as proposed during the 3-year period immediately after promulgation.

(3) Compliance schedule for existing sources

(A) After the effective date of any emissions standard, limitation or regulation promulgated under this section and applicable to a source, no person may operate such source in violation of such standard, limitation or regulation except, in the case of an existing source, the Administrator shall establish a compliance date or dates for each category or subcategory of existing sources, which shall provide for compliance as expeditiously as practicable, but in no event later than 3 years after the effective date of such standard, except as provided in subparagraph (B) and paragraphs (4) through (8).

(B) The Administrator (or a State with a program approved under subchapter V) may issue a permit that grants an extension permitting an existing source up to 1 additional year to comply with standards under subsection (d) if such additional period is necessary for the installation of controls. An additional extension of up to 3 years may be added for mining waste operations, if the 4-year compliance time is insufficient to dry and cover mining waste in order to reduce emissions of any pollutant listed under subsection (b).

(4) Presidential exemption

The President may exempt any stationary source from compliance with any standard or limitation under this section for a period of not more than 2 years if the President determines that the technology to implement such standard is not available and that it is in the national security interests of the United States to do so. An exemption under this paragraph may be extended for 1 or more additional periods, each period not to exceed 2 years. The President shall report to Congress with respect to each exemption (or extension thereof) made under this paragraph.

(5) Early reduction

(A) The Administrator (or a State acting pursuant to a permit program approved under subchapter V) shall issue a permit allowing an existing source, for which the owner or operator demonstrates that the source has achieved a reduction of 90 per centum or more in emissions of hazardous air pollutants (95 per centum in the case of hazardous air pollutants which are particulates) from the source, to meet an alternative emission limitation reflecting such reduction in lieu of an emission limitation promulgated under subsection (d) for a period of 6 years from the compliance date for the otherwise applicable standard, provided that such reduction is achieved before the otherwise applicable standard under subsection (d) is first proposed. Nothing in this paragraph shall preclude a State from requiring reductions in excess of those specified in this subparagraph as a condition of granting the extension authorized by the previous sentence.

(B) An existing source which achieves the reduction referred to in subparagraph (A) after the proposal of an applicable standard but before January 1, 1994, may qualify under subparagraph (A), if the source makes an enforceable commitment to achieve such reduction before the proposal of the standard. Such commitment shall be enforceable to the same extent as a regulation under this section.

(C) The reduction shall be determined with respect to verifiable and actual emissions in a base year not earlier than calendar year 1987, provided that, there is no evidence that emissions in the base year are artificially or substantially greater than emissions in other years prior to implementation of emissions reduction measures. The Administrator may allow a source to use a baseline year of 1985 or 1986 provided that the source can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Administrator that emissions data for the source reflects verifiable data based on information for such source, received by the Administrator prior to November 15, 1990, pursuant to an information request issued under section 7414 of this title.

(D) For each source granted an alternative emission limitation under this paragraph there shall be established by a permit issued pursuant to subchapter V an enforceable emission limitation for hazardous air pollutants reflecting the reduction which qualifies the source for an alternative emission limitation under this paragraph. An alternative emission limitation under this paragraph shall not be available with respect to standards or requirements promulgated pursuant to subsection (f) and the Administrator shall, for the purpose of determining whether a standard under subsection (f) is necessary, review emissions from sources granted an alternative emission limitation under this paragraph at the same time that other sources in the category or subcategory are reviewed.

(E) With respect to pollutants for which high risks of adverse public health effects may be associated with exposure to small quantities including, but not limited to, chlorinated dioxins and furans, the Administrator shall by regulation limit the use of offsetting reductions in emissions of other hazardous air pollutants from the source as counting toward the 90 per centum reduction in such high-risk pollutants qualifying for an alternative emissions limitation under this paragraph.

(6) Other reductions

Notwithstanding the requirements of this section, no existing source that has installed—

(A) best available control technology (as defined in section 7479(3) of this title), or

(B) technology required to meet a lowest achievable emission rate (as defined in section 7501 of this title),


prior to the promulgation of a standard under this section applicable to such source and the same pollutant (or stream of pollutants) controlled pursuant to an action described in subparagraph (A) or (B) shall be required to comply with such standard under this section until the date 5 years after the date on which such installation or reduction has been achieved, as determined by the Administrator. The Administrator may issue such rules and guidance as are necessary to implement this paragraph.

(7) Extension for new sources

A source for which construction or reconstruction is commenced after the date an emission standard applicable to such source is proposed pursuant to subsection (d) but before the date an emission standard applicable to such source is proposed pursuant to subsection (f) shall not be required to comply with the emission standard under subsection (f) until the date 10 years after the date construction or reconstruction is commenced.

(8) Coke ovens

(A) Any coke oven battery that complies with the emission limitations established under subsection (d)(8)(C), subparagraph (B), and subparagraph (C), and complies with the provisions of subparagraph (E), shall not be required to achieve emission limitations promulgated under subsection (f) until January 1, 2020.

(B)(i) Not later than December 31, 1992, the Administrator shall promulgate emission limitations for coke oven emissions from coke oven batteries. Notwithstanding paragraph (3) of this subsection, the compliance date for such emission limitations for existing coke oven batteries shall be January 1, 1998. Such emission limitations shall reflect the lowest achievable emission rate as defined in section 7501 of this title for a coke oven battery that is rebuilt or a replacement at a coke oven plant for an existing battery. Such emission limitations shall be no less stringent than—

(I) 3 per centum leaking doors (5 per centum leaking doors for six meter batteries);

(II) 1 per centum leaking lids;

(III) 4 per centum leaking offtakes; and

(IV) 16 seconds visible emissions per charge,


with an exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing oven doors (or the total mass emissions equivalent). The rulemaking in which such emission limitations are promulgated shall also establish an appropriate measurement methodology for determining compliance with such emission limitations, and shall establish such emission limitations in terms of an equivalent level of mass emissions reduction from a coke oven battery, unless the Administrator finds that such a mass emissions standard would not be practicable or enforceable. Such measurement methodology, to the extent it measures leaking doors, shall take into consideration alternative test methods that reflect the best technology and practices actually applied in the affected industries, and shall assure that the final test methods are consistent with the performance of such best technology and practices.

(ii) If the Administrator fails to promulgate such emission limitations under this subparagraph prior to the effective date of such emission limitations, the emission limitations applicable to coke oven batteries under this subparagraph shall be—

(I) 3 per centum leaking doors (5 per centum leaking doors for six meter batteries);

(II) 1 per centum leaking lids;

(III) 4 per centum leaking offtakes; and

(IV) 16 seconds visible emissions per charge,


or the total mass emissions equivalent (if the total mass emissions equivalent is determined to be practicable and enforceable), with no exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing oven doors.

(C) Not later than January 1, 2007, the Administrator shall review the emission limitations promulgated under subparagraph (B) and revise, as necessary, such emission limitations to reflect the lowest achievable emission rate as defined in section 7501 of this title at the time for a coke oven battery that is rebuilt or a replacement at a coke oven plant for an existing battery. Such emission limitations shall be no less stringent than the emission limitation promulgated under subparagraph (B). Notwithstanding paragraph (2) of this subsection, the compliance date for such emission limitations for existing coke oven batteries shall be January 1, 2010.

(D) At any time prior to January 1, 1998, the owner or operator of any coke oven battery may elect to comply with emission limitations promulgated under subsection (f) by the date such emission limitations would otherwise apply to such coke oven battery, in lieu of the emission limitations and the compliance dates provided under subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph. Any such owner or operator shall be legally bound to comply with such emission limitations promulgated under subsection (f) with respect to such coke oven battery as of January 1, 2003. If no such emission limitations have been promulgated for such coke oven battery, the Administrator shall promulgate such emission limitations in accordance with subsection (f) for such coke oven battery.

(E) Coke oven batteries qualifying for an extension under subparagraph (A) shall make available not later than January 1, 2000, to the surrounding communities the results of any risk assessment performed by the Administrator to determine the appropriate level of any emission standard established by the Administrator pursuant to subsection (f).