15 USC Ch. 67: ARCTIC RESEARCH AND POLICY
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15 USC Ch. 67: ARCTIC RESEARCH AND POLICY
From Title 15—COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 67—ARCTIC RESEARCH AND POLICY

Sec.
4101.
Congressional findings and declaration of purposes.
4102.
Arctic Research Commission.
4103.
Duties of Commission; publication of guidelines; report to Congress.
4104.
Cooperation with Commission.
4105.
Administration.
4106.
Implementation of Arctic research policy.
4107.
Duties of Interagency Committee; report to Congress.
4108.
Arctic research plan.
4109.
Coordination and review of budget requests; Office of Science and Technology Policy; Office of Management and Budget.
4110.
Authorization of appropriations; new spending authority.
4111.
"Arctic" defined.

        

§4101. Congressional findings and declaration of purposes

(a) The Congress finds and declares that—

(1) the Arctic, onshore and offshore, contains vital energy resources that can reduce the Nation's dependence on foreign oil and improve the national balance of payments;

(2) the Arctic is critical to national defense;

(3) the renewable resources of the Arctic, specifically fish and other seafood, represent one of the Nation's greatest commercial assets;

(4) Arctic conditions directly affect global weather patterns and must be understood in order to promote better agricultural management throughout the United States;

(5) industrial pollution not originating in the Arctic region collects in the polar air mass, has the potential to disrupt global weather patterns, and must be controlled through international cooperation and consultation;

(6) the Arctic is a natural laboratory for research into human health and adaptation, physical and psychological, to climates of extreme cold and isolation and may provide information crucial for future defense needs;

(7) atmospheric conditions peculiar to the Arctic make the Arctic a unique testing ground for research into high latitude communications, which is likely to be crucial for future defense needs;

(8) Arctic marine technology is critical to cost-effective recovery and transportation of energy resources and to the national defense;

(9) the United States has important security, economic, and environmental interests in developing and maintaining a fleet of icebreaking vessels capable of operating effectively in the heavy ice regions of the Arctic;

(10) most Arctic-rim countries possess Arctic technologies far more advanced than those currently available in the United States;

(11) Federal Arctic research is fragmented and uncoordinated at the present time, leading to the neglect of certain areas of research and to unnecessary duplication of effort in other areas of research;

(12) improved logistical coordination and support for Arctic research and better dissemination of research data and information is necessary to increase the efficiency and utility of national Arctic research efforts;

(13) a comprehensive national policy and program plan to organize and fund currently neglected scientific research with respect to the Arctic is necessary to fulfill national objectives in Arctic research;

(14) the Federal Government, in cooperation with State and local governments, should focus its efforts on the collection and characterization of basic data related to biological, materials, geophysical, social, and behavioral phenomena in the Arctic;

(15) research into the long-range health, environmental, and social effects of development in the Arctic is necessary to mitigate the adverse consequences of that development to the land and its residents;

(16) Arctic research expands knowledge of the Arctic, which can enhance the lives of Arctic residents, increase opportunities for international cooperation among Arctic-rim countries, and facilitate the formulation of national policy for the Arctic; and

(17) the Alaskan Arctic provides an essential habitat for marine mammals, migratory waterfowl, and other forms of wildlife which are important to the Nation and which are essential to Arctic residents.


(b) The purposes of this chapter are—

(1) to establish national policy, priorities, and goals and to provide a Federal program plan for basic and applied scientific research with respect to the Arctic, including natural resources and materials, physical, biological and health sciences, and social and behavioral sciences;

(2) to establish an Arctic Research Commission to promote Arctic research and to recommend Arctic research policy;

(3) to designate the National Science Foundation as the lead agency responsible for implementing Arctic research policy; and

(4) to establish an Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee to develop a national Arctic research policy and a five year plan to implement that policy.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §102, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1242; Pub. L. 103–199, title VI, §601, Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2327.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–199, §601(1), struck out "as the Nation's only common border with the Soviet Union," before "the Arctic".

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 103–199, §601(2), struck out ", particularly the Soviet Union," after "countries".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Short Title

Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §102, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1242, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984'."


Executive Documents

Ex. Ord. No. 12501. Arctic Research

Ex. Ord. No. 12501, Jan. 28, 1985, 50 F.R. 4191, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §45, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10627, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (Title I of Public Law 98–373) ("the Act") [15 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of Arctic Research Commission. There is established the Arctic Research Commission.

Sec. 2. Membership of the Commission. (a) The Commission shall be composed of five members appointed by the President, as follows:

(1) three members appointed from among individuals from academic or other research institutions with expertise in areas of research relating to the Arctic, including the physical, biological, health, environmental, social, and behavioral sciences;

(2) one member appointed from among indigenous residents of the Arctic who are representative of the needs and interests of Arctic residents and who live in areas directly affected by Arctic resources development; and

(3) one member appointed from individuals familiar with the Arctic and representative of the needs and interests of private industry undertaking resource development in the Arctic.

The Director of the National Science Foundation shall serve as a nonvoting ex officio member of the Commission. The President shall designate a Chairperson from among the five voting members of the Commission.

(b) In making initial appointments to the Commission, the President shall designate one member to serve for a term of two years, two members to serve for terms of three years, and two members to serve for terms of four years as provided by Section 103(c) of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4102(c)]. Upon the expiration of these initial terms of office, the term of office of each member of the Commission shall be four years.

(c) Each of the Federal agencies represented on the Interagency Committee established by Section 7 of this Order may designate a representative to participate as an observer with the Commission. These representatives shall report to and advise the Commission on the activities of their agencies relating to Arctic research.

Sec. 3. Meetings of the Commission. The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman or a majority of its members. The Commission annually shall conduct at least one public meeting in the State of Alaska.

Sec. 4. Functions of the Commission. (a) The Commission shall:

(1) develop and recommend an integrated national Arctic research policy;

(2) assist, in cooperation with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee established by Section 7 of this Order, in establishing a national Arctic research program plan to implement the Arctic research policy;

(3) facilitate cooperation between the Federal government and State and local governments with respect to Arctic research;

(4) review Federal research programs in the Arctic and suggest improvements in coordination among programs;

(5) recommend methods to improve logistical planning and support for Arctic research as may be appropriate;

(6) suggest methods for improving efficient sharing and dissemination of data and information on the Arctic among interested public and private institutions;

(7) offer other recommendations and advice to the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee as it may find appropriate; and

(8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska, and with agencies and organizations of that State which the Governor may designate, with respect to the formulation of Arctic research policy.

(b) Not later than January 31 of each year, the Commission shall:

(1) submit to the President and Congress a report describing the activities and accomplishments of the Commission during the immediately preceding fiscal year; and

(2) publish a statement of goals and objectives with respect to Arctic research to guide the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee in the performance of its duties.

Sec. 5. Responsibilities of Federal Agencies. (a) The heads of Executive agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, and in accordance with Section 105 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4104], provide the Commission such information as it may require for purposes of carrying out its functions.

(b) The heads of Executive agencies shall, upon reimbursement to be agreed upon by the Commission and the agency head, permit the Commission to utilize their facilities and services to the extent that the facilities and services are needed for the establishment and development of an Arctic research policy. The Commission shall take every feasible step to avoid duplication of effort.

(c) All Federal agencies shall consult with the Commission before undertaking major Federal actions relating to Arctic research.

Sec. 6. Administration of the Commission. Members of the Commission who are otherwise employed for compensation shall serve without compensation for their work on the Commission, but may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in the government service. Members of the Commission who are not otherwise employed for compensation shall be compensated for each day the member is engaged in actual performance of duties as a member, not to exceed 90 days of service each calendar year, at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the rate for GS–16 of the General Schedule.

Sec. 7. Establishment of Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee. There is established the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (the "Interagency Committee"). The National Science Foundation shall serve as lead agency on the Interagency Committee and shall be responsible for implementing Arctic research policy.

Sec. 8. Membership of the Interagency Committee. The Interagency Committee shall be composed of representatives of the following Federal agencies or their designees:

(a) National Science Foundation;

(b) Department of Commerce;

(c) Department of Defense;

(d) Department of Energy;

(e) Department of the Interior;

(f) Department of State;

(g) Department of Transportation;

(h) Department of Health and Human Services;

(i) Department of Homeland Security;

(j) National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

(k) Environmental Protection Agency;

(l) Office of Science and Technology Policy; and

(m) any other Executive agency that the Director of the National Science Foundation shall deem appropriate. The Director of the National Science Foundation or his designee shall serve as Chairperson of the Interagency Committee.

Sec. 9. Functions of the Interagency Committee. (a) The Interagency Committee shall:

(1) survey Arctic research conducted by Federal, State, and local agencies, universities, and other public and private institutions to help determine priorities for future Arctic research, including natural resources and materials, physical and biological sciences, and social and behavioral sciences;

(2) work with the Commission to develop and establish an integrated national Arctic research policy that will guide Federal agencies in developing and implementing their research programs in the Arctic;

(3) consult with the Commission on:

(a) the development of the national Arctic research policy and the 5-year plan implementing the policy;

(b) Arctic research programs of Federal agencies;

(c) recommendations of the Commission on future Arctic research; and

(d) guidelines for Federal agencies for awarding and administering Arctic research grants;

(4) develop a 5-year plan to implement the national policy, as provided in section 109 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4108];

(5) provide the necessary coordination, data, and assistance for the preparation of a single integrated, coherent, and multi-agency budget request for Arctic research, as provided in section 110 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4109];

(6) facilitate cooperation between the Federal government and State and local governments in Arctic research, and recommend the undertaking of neglected areas of research;

(7) coordinate and promote cooperative Arctic scientific research programs with other nations, subject to the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State;

(8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Act; and

(9) promote Federal interagency coordination of all Arctic research activities, including:

(a) logistical planning and coordination; and

(b) the sharing of data and information associated with Arctic research, subject to section 552 of title 5, United States Code.

(b) Not later than January 31, 1986, and biennially thereafter, the Interagency Committee shall submit to the Congress through the President a report concerning:

(1) its activities and accomplishments since its last report; and

(2) the activities of the Commission, detailing with particularity the recommendations of the Commission with respect to Federal activities in Arctic research.

Sec. 10. Public Participation. The Interagency Committee will provide public notice of its meetings and an opportunity for the public to participate in the development and implementation of national Arctic research policy.

Sec. 11. Administration of Interagency Committee. Each agency represented on the Committee shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of funds, provide the Committee with such administrative services, facilities, staff, and other support services as may be necessary for effective performance of its functions.

Ex. Ord. No. 13689. Enhancing Coordination of National Efforts in the Arctic

Ex. Ord. No. 13689, Jan. 21, 2015, 80 F.R. 4191, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to prepare the Nation for a changing Arctic and enhance coordination of national efforts in the Arctic, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. The Arctic has critical long-term strategic, ecological, cultural, and economic value, and it is imperative that we continue to protect our national interests in the region, which include: national defense; sovereign rights and responsibilities; maritime safety; energy and economic benefits; environmental stewardship; promotion of science and research; and preservation of the rights, freedoms, and uses of the sea as reflected in international law.

Over the past 60 years, climate change has caused the Alaskan Arctic to warm twice as rapidly as the rest of the United States, and will continue to transform the Arctic as its consequences grow more severe. Over the past several decades, higher atmospheric temperatures have led to a steady and dramatic reduction in Arctic sea ice, widespread glacier retreat, increasing coastal erosion, more acidic oceans, earlier spring snowmelt, thawing permafrost, drier landscapes, and more extensive insect outbreaks and wildfires, thus changing the accessibility and natural features of this remote region. As a global leader, the United States has the responsibility to strengthen international cooperation to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions driving climate change, understand more fully and manage more effectively the adverse effects of climate change, protect life and property, develop and manage resources responsibly, enhance the quality of life of Arctic inhabitants, and serve as stewards for valuable and vulnerable ecosystems. In doing so, we must rely on science-based decisionmaking and respect the value and utility of the traditional knowledge of Alaska Native peoples. As the United States assumes the Chairmanship of the Arctic Council, it is more important than ever that we have a coordinated national effort that takes advantage of our combined expertise and efforts in the Arctic region to promote our shared values and priorities.

As the Arctic has changed, the number of Federal working groups created to address the growing strategic importance and accessibility of this critical region has increased. Although these groups have made significant progress and achieved important milestones, managing the broad range of interagency activity in the Arctic requires coordinated planning by the Federal Government, with input by partners and stakeholders, to facilitate Federal, State, local, and Alaska Native tribal government and similar Alaska Native organization, as well as private and nonprofit sector, efforts in the Arctic.

Sec. 2. Arctic Executive Steering Committee. (a) Establishment. There is established an Arctic Executive Steering Committee (Steering Committee), which shall provide guidance to executive departments and agencies (agencies) and enhance coordination of Federal Arctic policies across agencies and offices, and, where applicable, with State, local, and Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations, academic and research institutions, and the private and nonprofit sectors.

(b) Membership. The Steering Committee shall consist of:

(i) the heads, or their designees, of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Council on Environmental Quality, the Domestic Policy Council, and the National Security Council;

(ii) the Executive Officer of the Steering Committee, who shall be designated by the Chair of the Steering Committee (Chair); and

(iii) the Deputy Secretary or equivalent officer from the Departments of State, Defense, Justice, the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Transportation, Energy, and Homeland Security; the Office of the Director of National Intelligence; the Environmental Protection Agency; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the National Science Foundation; the Arctic Research Commission; and the Office of Management and Budget; the Assistant to the President for Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs, or his or her designee; and other agencies or offices as determined appropriate by the Chair.

(c) Administration.

(i) The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, or his or her designee, shall be the Chair of the Executive Steering Committee. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, or his or her designee, shall be the Vice Chair. Under the leadership of the Chair, the Steering Committee will meet quarterly, or as appropriate, to shape priorities, establish strategic direction, oversee implementation, and ensure coordination of Federal activities in the Arctic.

(ii) The Steering Committee shall coordinate with existing working groups established by Executive Order or statute.

(iii) As appropriate, the Chair of the Steering Committee may establish subcommittees and working groups, consisting of representatives from relevant agencies, to focus on specific key issues and assist in carrying out its responsibilities.

(iv) Agencies shall provide administrative support and additional resources, as appropriate, to support their participation in the Steering Committee to the extent permitted by law and within existing appropriations. Each agency shall bear its own expenses for supporting its participation in the Steering Committee and associated working groups.

(v) Each member of the Steering Committee shall provide the Executive Officer with a single point of contact for coordinating efforts with interagency partners, collaborating with State, local, and Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations, and assisting in carrying out the functions and duties assigned by the Steering Committee.

Sec. 3. Responsibilities of the Arctic Executive Steering Committee. The Steering Committee, in coordination with the heads of relevant agencies and under the direction of the Chair, shall:

(a) provide guidance and coordinate efforts to implement the priorities, objectives, activities, and responsibilities identified in National Security Presidential Directive 66/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 25, Arctic Region Policy, the National Strategy for the Arctic Region and its Implementation Plan, and related agency plans;

(b) provide guidance on prioritizing Federal activities, consistent with agency authorities, while the United States is Chair of the Arctic Council, including, where appropriate, recommendations for resources to use in carrying out those activities; and

(c) establish a working group to provide a report to the Steering Committee by May 1, 2015, that:

(i) identifies potential areas of overlap between and within agencies with respect to implementation of Arctic policy and strategic priorities and provides recommendations to increase coordination and reduce any duplication of effort, which may include ways to increase the effectiveness of existing groups; and

(ii) provides recommendations to address any potential gaps in implementation.

Sec. 4. Duties of the Executive Officer. The Executive Officer shall be responsible for facilitating interagency coordination efforts related to implementing the guidance and strategic priorities developed by the Steering Committee. The Executive Officer shall coordinate with the Chair and the Special Advisor on Arctic Science and Policy at the Department of State to provide regular reports to the Steering Committee on agency implementation and planning efforts for the Arctic region.

Sec. 5. Engagement with the State of Alaska, Alaska Native Tribal Governments, as well as other United States Stakeholders. It is in the best interest of the Nation for the Federal Government to maximize transparency and promote collaboration where possible with the State of Alaska, Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations, and local, private-sector, and nonprofit-sector stakeholders. To facilitate consultation and partnerships with the State of Alaska and Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations, the Steering Committee shall:

(a) develop a process to improve coordination and the sharing of information and knowledge among Federal, State, local, and Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations, and private-sector and nonprofit-sector groups on Arctic issues;

(b) establish a process to ensure tribal consultation and collaboration, consistent with my memorandum of November 5, 2009 (Tribal Consultation). This process shall ensure meaningful consultation and collaboration with Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations in the development of Federal policies that have Alaska Native implications, as applicable, and provide feedback and recommendations to the Steering Committee;

(c) identify an appropriate Federal entity to be the point of contact for Arctic matters with the State of Alaska and with Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations to support collaboration and communication; and

(d) invite members of State, local, and Alaska Native tribal governments and similar Alaska Native organizations, and academic and research institutions to consult on issues or participate in discussions, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law.

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department, agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13754. Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience

Ex. Ord. No. 13754, Dec. 9, 2016, 81 F.R. 90669, revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13795, §4(c), Apr. 28, 2017, 82 F.R. 20816, reinstated by Ex. Ord. No. 13990, §4(b), Jan. 20, 2021, 86 F.R. 7039, provided:

By the authority vested in me as the President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq., it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Purpose. As recognized in Executive Order 13689 of January 21, 2015, (Enhancing Coordination of National Efforts in the Arctic) [set out above], Arctic environmental stewardship is in the national interest. In furtherance of this principle, and as articulated in the March 10, 2016, U.S.-Canada Joint Statement on Climate, Energy, and Arctic Leadership, the United States has resolved to confront the challenges of a changing Arctic by working to conserve Arctic biodiversity; support and engage Alaska Native tribes; incorporate traditional knowledge into decisionmaking; and build a sustainable Arctic economy that relies on the highest safety and environmental standards, including adherence to national climate goals. The United States is committed to achieving these goals in partnership with indigenous communities and through science-based decisionmaking. This order carries forth that vision in the northern Bering Sea region.

The Bering Sea and Bering Strait are home to numerous subsistence communities, rich indigenous cultures, and unique marine ecosystems, each of which plays an important role in maintaining regional resilience. The changing climate and rising average temperatures are reducing the occurrence of sea ice; changing the conditions for fishing, hunting, and subsistence whaling; and opening new navigable routes to increased ship traffic. The preservation of a healthy and resilient Bering ecosystem, including its migratory pathways, habitat, and breeding grounds, is essential for the survival of marine mammals, fish, seabirds, other wildlife, and the subsistence communities that depend on them. These communities possess a unique understanding of the Arctic ecosystem, and their traditional knowledge should serve as an important resource to inform Federal decisionmaking.

Sec. 2. Policy. It shall be the policy of the United States to enhance the resilience of the northern Bering Sea region by conserving the region's ecosystem, including those natural resources that provide important cultural and subsistence value and services to the people of the region. For the purpose of carrying out the specific directives provided herein, this order delineates an area hereafter referred to as the "Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area," in which the exercise of relevant authorities shall be coordinated among all executive departments and agencies (agencies). All agencies charged with regulating, overseeing, or conducting activities in the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area shall do so with attention to the rights, needs, and knowledge of Alaska Native tribes; the delicate and unique ecosystem; the protection of marine mammals, fish, seabirds, and other wildlife; and with appropriate coordination with the State of Alaska.

The boundary of the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area includes waters within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone bounded to the north by the seaward boundary of the Bering Straits Native Corporation established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act; to the south by the southern boundaries of the Northern Bering Sea Research Area, the St. Matthew Habitat Conservation Area, and the Nunivak-Kuskokwim Habitat Conservation Area; and to the west by the maritime boundary delimited by the Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Maritime Boundary, signed at Washington, June 1, 1990.

Sec. 3. Withdrawal. Under the authority granted to me in section 12(a) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 43 U.S.C. 1341(a), I hereby withdraw from disposition by leasing for a time period without specific expiration the following areas of the Outer Continental Shelf: (1) the area currently designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as the Norton Basin Planning Area; and (2) the Outer Continental Shelf lease blocks within the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management's St. Matthew-Hall Planning Area lying within 25 nautical miles of St. Lawrence Island. The boundaries of the withdrawn areas are more specifically delineated in the attached map and, with respect to the St. Matthew-Hall Planning Area, the accompanying table of withdrawn Outer Continental Shelf lease blocks. Both the map and table form a part of this order, with the table governing the withdrawal and withdrawal boundaries within the St. Matthew-Hall Planning Area. This withdrawal prevents consideration of these areas for future oil or gas leasing for purposes of exploration, development, or production. This withdrawal furthers the principles of responsible public stewardship entrusted to this office and takes due consideration of the importance of the withdrawn area to Alaska Native tribes, wildlife, and wildlife habitat, and the need for regional resiliency in the face of climate change. Nothing in this withdrawal affects rights under existing leases in the withdrawn areas.

Sec. 4. Task Force on the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area. (a) There is established a Task Force on the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area (Bering Task Force), under the Arctic Executive Steering Committee (AESC) established in Executive Order 13689, to be co-chaired by an office of the Department of the Interior, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard.

(b) The membership of the Bering Task Force (member agencies) shall include, in addition to the Co-Chairs, designated senior-level representatives from:

(i) the Department of State;

(ii) the Department of Defense;

(iii) the Department of Transportation;

(iv) the Environmental Protection Agency;

(v) the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers;

(vi) the U.S. Arctic Research Commission;

(vii) the National Science Foundation; and

(viii) such agencies and offices as the Co-Chairs may designate.

(c) Consistent with the authorities and responsibilities of its member agencies, the Bering Task Force, with the purpose of advancing the United States policy in the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area as set forth in section 2 of this order, shall:

(i) Establish and provide regular opportunities to consult with the Bering Intergovernmental Tribal Advisory Council as described in section 5 of this order;

(ii) Coordinate activities of member agencies, including regulatory, policy, and research activities, affecting the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area and its value for subsistence and cultural purposes;

(iii) Consider the need for additional actions or strategies to advance the policies established in section 2 of this order and provide recommendations as appropriate to the President through the AESC;

(iv) Consider and make recommendations with respect to the impacts of shipping on the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area including those described in sections 7 and 8 of this order; and

(v) In developing and implementing recommendations, coordinate or consult as appropriate with existing AESC working groups, the State of Alaska, regional and local governments, Alaska Native tribal governments, Alaska Native corporations and organizations, the private sector, other relevant organizations, and academia.

Sec. 5. The Bering Intergovernmental Tribal Advisory Council. (a) The Bering Task Force, within 6 months of the date of this order [Dec. 9, 2016], and after considering recommendations from Alaska Native tribal governments, shall, in accordance with existing law, establish a Bering Intergovernmental Tribal Advisory Council, for the purpose of providing input to the Bering Task Force and facilitating effective consultation with Alaska Native tribal governments.

(b) The Bering Intergovernmental Tribal Advisory Council shall be charged with providing input and recommendations on activities, regulations, guidance, or policy that may affect actions or conditions in the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area, with attention given to climate resilience; the rights, needs, and knowledge of Alaska Native tribes; the delicate and unique ecosystem; and the protection of marine mammals and other wildlife.

(c) The Bering Intergovernmental Tribal Advisory Council should include between 9 and 11 elected officials or their designees representing Alaska Native tribal governments with a breadth of interests in the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area, and may include such additional Federal officials and State and local government elected officials as the Bering Task Force deems appropriate. The Bering Intergovernmental Tribal Advisory Council will adopt such procedures as it deems necessary to govern its activities.

Sec. 6. Traditional Knowledge in Decisionmaking. It shall be the policy of the United States to recognize and value the participation of Alaska Native tribal governments in decisions affecting the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area and for all agencies to consider traditional knowledge in decisions affecting the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area. Specifically, all agencies shall consider applicable information from the Bering Intergovernmental Tribal Advisory Council in the exercise of existing agency authorities. Such input may be received through existing agency procedures and consultation processes.

Sec. 7. Pollution from Vessels. The Bering Task Force, within 9 months of the date of this order and after coordination as needed with existing working groups within the AESC, shall provide the AESC with recommendations on:

(a) Actions to ensure or support implementation of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters, as adopted by the International Maritime Organization, especially with respect to limitations on discharges from vessels in the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area; and

(b) Any additional measures necessary to achieve the policies established in section 2 of this order, such as the potential identification of zero-discharge zones, assessments of the pollution risks posed by increased vessel traffic, or noise reduction measures associated with sensitive ecological and cultural areas within the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area.

Sec. 8. Shipping Routing Measures. (a) In recognition of the United States commitment to reduce the impact of shipping within the Bering Sea and the Bering Strait and the many environmental factors in the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area that inform the best routes for navigation, safety, and the marine environment, the U.S. Coast Guard should conclude its ongoing port access route study for the Chukchi Sea, Bering Strait, and Bering Sea (Bering Sea PARS) pursuant to the Ports and Waterways Safety Act, 33 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.

(b) In designation of routes and any areas to be avoided, and consistent with existing authorities, consideration should be given to the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area, including the effects of shipping and vessel pollution on the marine environment, fishery resources, the seabed and subsoil of the Outer Continental Shelf, marine mammal migratory pathways and other biologically important areas, and subsistence whaling, hunting, and fishing.

(c) In recognition of the value of participation of Alaska Native tribal governments in decisions affecting the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area, the U.S. Coast Guard should consider traditional knowledge, including with respect to marine mammal, waterfowl, and seabird migratory pathways and feeding and breeding grounds, in the development of the Bering Sea PARS, establishment of routing measures and any areas to be avoided, and subsequent rulemaking and management decisions.

(d) No later than December 30, 2016, the U.S. Coast Guard shall publish preliminary findings for the Bering Sea PARS in the Federal Register, including information related to its status, potential routing measures, and its projected schedule. The U.S. Coast Guard should also consider using this opportunity to provide notice of any new information or proposed measures resulting from its ongoing consultation process.

(e) Upon completion of the Bering Sea PARS, the U.S. Coast Guard shall promptly issue a notice of proposed rulemaking for any designation contemplated on the basis of the study. The U.S. Coast Guard shall coordinate as appropriate with the Department of State and other coastal nations and submit any proposed routing measures to the International Maritime Organization by 2018 for the purpose of their adoption and implementation.

Sec. 9. Oil Spill Preparedness. The U.S. Coast Guard, in coordination with all relevant agencies and the State of Alaska, shall update the Area Contingency plans, the Subarea Response Plans, and the Geographic Response Strategies relevant to the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area. These plans and strategies shall be consistent with the National Contingency Plan, and shall include appropriate measures to improve local response capacity and preparedness such as spill response training opportunities for local communities, including Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response training for Village Public Safety Officers and other first responders.

Sec. 10. Continuity of Existing Habitat Protection. The area included in the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area is currently closed to commercial non-pelagic trawl gear under rules implementing the Fishery Management Plans of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area and the Arctic Management Area. Consistent with existing law, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in coordination with the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, shall take such actions as are necessary to support the policy set forth in section 2 of this order, including actions to maintain the existing prohibitions on the use of commercial non-pelagic trawl gear.

Sec. 11. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(1) the authority granted by law to a department, agency, or the head thereof; or

(2) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistently with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(d) The policies set forth in this order are consistent with existing U.S. obligations under international law and nothing in this order shall be construed to derogate from obligations under applicable international law.

[Barack Obama.]      

§4102. Arctic Research Commission

(a) Establishment

The President shall establish an Arctic Research Commission (hereafter referred to as the "Commission").

(b) Membership

(1) The Commission shall be composed of seven members appointed by the President, with the Director of the National Science Foundation serving as a nonvoting, ex officio member. The members appointed by the President shall include—

(A) four members appointed from among individuals from academic or other research institutions with expertise in areas of research relating to the Arctic, including the physical, biological, health, environmental, social, and behavioral sciences;

(B) one member appointed from among indigenous residents of the Arctic who are representative of the needs and interests of Arctic residents and who live in areas directly affected by Arctic resource development; and

(C) two members appointed from among individuals familiar with the Arctic and representative of the needs and interests of private industry undertaking resource development in the Arctic.


(2) The President shall designate one of the appointed members of the Commission to be chairperson of the Commission.

(c) Terms of office; vacancies; hold-over status

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the term of office of each member of the Commission appointed under subsection (b)(1) shall be four years.

(2) Of the members of the Commission originally appointed under subsection (b)(1)—

(A) one shall be appointed for a term of two years;

(B) two shall be appointed for a term of three years; and

(C) two shall be appointed for a term of four years.


(3) Any vacancy occurring in the membership of the Commission shall be filled, after notice of the vacancy is published in the Federal Register, in the manner provided by the preceding provisions of this section, for the remainder of the unexpired term.

(4) A member may serve after the expiration of the member's term of office until the President appoints a successor.

(5) A member may serve consecutive terms beyond the member's original appointment.

(d) Compensation and travel expenses; Federal employee status; meetings; observer-designees

(1) Members of the Commission may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5. A member of the Commission not presently employed for compensation shall be compensated at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the rate for GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5 for each day the member is engaged in the actual performance of his duties as a member of the Commission, not to exceed 90 days of service each year. Except for the purposes of chapter 81 of title 5 (relating to compensation for work injuries) and chapter 171 of title 28 (relating to tort claims), a member of the Commission shall not be considered an employee of the United States for any purpose.

(2) The Commission shall meet at the call of its Chairman or a majority of its members.

(3) Each Federal agency referred to in section 4106(b) of this title may designate a representative to participate as an observer with the Commission. These representatives shall report to and advise the Commission on the activities relating to Arctic research of their agencies.

(4) The Commission shall conduct at least one public meeting in the State of Alaska annually.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §103, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1243; Pub. L. 101–609, §§2, 3, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3125.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–609, §2, in introductory provisions, substituted "seven" for "five", in subpar. (A), substituted "four" for "three", and in subpar. (C), substituted "two members" for "one member".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–609, §3, substituted "GS–18" for "GS–16".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§4103. Duties of Commission; publication of guidelines; report to Congress

(a) The Commission shall—

(1) develop and recommend an integrated national Arctic research policy;

(2) in cooperation with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee established under section 4106 of this title, assist in establishing a national Arctic research program plan to implement the Arctic research policy;

(3) facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government and State and local governments with respect to Arctic research;

(4) review Federal research programs in the Arctic and recommend improvements in coordination among programs;

(5) recommend methods to improve logistical planning and support for Arctic research as may be appropriate and in accordance with the findings and purposes of this chapter;

(6) recommend methods for improving efficient sharing and dissemination of data and information on the Arctic among interested public and private institutions;

(7) offer other recommendations and advice to the Interagency Committee established under section 4106 of this title as it may find appropriate;

(8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska and with agencies and organizations of that State which the Governor may designate with respect to the formulation of Arctic research policy;

(9) recommend to the Interagency Committee the means for developing international scientific cooperation in the Arctic; and

(10) not later than January 31, 1991, and every 2 years thereafter, publish a statement of goals and objectives with respect to Arctic research to guide the Interagency Committee established under section 4106 of this title in the performance of its duties.


(b) Not later than January 31 of each year, the Commission shall submit to the President and to the Congress a report describing the activities and accomplishments of the Commission during the immediately preceding fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §104, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1244; Pub. L. 101–609, §4, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3125.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(4), (6). Pub. L. 101–609, §4(a)(1), (2), substituted "recommend" for "suggest".

Subsec. (a)(9), (10). Pub. L. 101–609, §4(a)(3)–(5), added pars. (9) and (10).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–609, §4(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Not later than January 31 of each year, the Commission shall—

"(1) publish a statement of goals and objectives with respect to Arctic research to guide the Interagency Committee established under section 4106 of this title in the performance of its duties; and

"(2) submit to the President and to the Congress a report describing the activities and accomplishments of the Commission during the immediately preceding fiscal year."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (b) of this section relating to submitting annual report to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 155 of House Document No. 103–7.

§4104. Cooperation with Commission

(a) Acquisition of information from Federal agencies; withholding authorization

(1) The Commission may acquire from the head of any Federal agency unclassified data, reports, and other nonproprietary information with respect to Arctic research in the possession of the agency which the Commission considers useful in the discharge of its duties.

(2) Each agency shall cooperate with the Commission and furnish all data, reports, and other information requested by the Commission to the extent permitted by law; except that no agency need furnish any information which it is permitted to withhold under section 552 of title 5.

(b) Utilization of facilities and services; reimbursement; avoidance of duplication

With the consent of the appropriate agency head, the Commission may utilize the facilities and services of any Federal agency to the extent that the facilities and services are needed for the establishment and development of an Arctic research policy, upon reimbursement to be agreed upon by the Commission and the agency head and taking every feasible step to avoid duplication of effort.

(c) Consultations with Commission prior to major Federal actions

All Federal agencies shall consult with the Commission before undertaking major Federal actions relating to Arctic research.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §105, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1245.)

§4105. Administration

The Commission may—

(1) in accordance with the civil service laws and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, appoint and fix the compensation of an Executive Director and necessary additional staff personnel, but not to exceed a total of seven compensated personnel;

(2) procure temporary and intermittent services as authorized by section 3109 of title 5;

(3) enter into contracts and procure supplies, services, and personal property;

(4) enter into agreements with the General Services Administration for the procurement of necessary financial and administrative services, for which payment shall be made by reimbursement from funds of the Commission in amounts to be agreed upon by the Commission and the Administrator of the General Services Administration; and

(5) appoint, and accept without compensation the services of, scientists and engineering specialists to be advisors to the Commission. Each advisor may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5. Except for the purposes of chapter 81 of title 5 (relating to compensation for work injuries) and chapter 171 of title 28 (relating to tort claims), an advisor appointed under this paragraph shall not be considered an employee of the United States for any purpose.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §106, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 101–609, §5, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3125.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1990—Par. (5). Pub. L. 101–609 added par. (5).

§4106. Implementation of Arctic research policy

(a) National Science Foundation and Director; functions

The National Science Foundation is designated as the lead agency responsible for implementing Arctic research policy, and the Director of the National Science Foundation shall insure that the requirements of section 4107 of this title are fulfilled.

(b) Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee; establishment; represented agencies; Chairperson

(1) The President shall establish an Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (hereinafter referred to as the "Interagency Committee").

(2) The Interagency Committee shall be composed of representatives of the following Federal agencies or offices:

(A) the National Science Foundation;

(B) the Department of Commerce;

(C) the Department of Defense;

(D) the Department of Energy;

(E) the Department of the Interior;

(F) the Department of State;

(G) the Department of Transportation;

(H) the Department of Health and Human Services;

(I) the Department of Homeland Security;

(J) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

(K) the Environmental Protection Agency; and

(L) any other agency or office deemed appropriate.


(3) The representative of the National Science Foundation shall serve as the Chairperson of the Interagency Committee.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §107, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1246; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §902(g), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 567.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(2)(I) to (L). Pub. L. 109–241 added subpar. (I) and redesignated former subpars. (I) to (K) as (J) to (L), respectively.


Executive Documents

Designation of the National Science and Technology Council to Coordinate Certain Activities Under the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984

Memorandum of President of the United States, July 22, 2010, 75 F.R. 44063, provided:

Memorandum for the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (Title I of Public Law 98–373) (the "Act"), I hereby assign to the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) responsibility to coordinate activities assigned in sections 107 and 108 of the Act to the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, including through committees of the NSTC.

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§4107. Duties of Interagency Committee; report to Congress

(a) The Interagency Committee shall—

(1) survey Arctic research conducted by Federal, State, and local agencies, universities, and other public and private institutions to help determine priorities for future Arctic research, including natural resources and materials, physical and biological sciences, and social and behavioral sciences;

(2) work with the Commission to develop and establish an integrated national Arctic research policy that will guide Federal agencies in developing and implementing their research programs in the Arctic;

(3) consult with the Commission on—

(A) the development of the national Arctic research policy and the 5-year plan implementing the policy;

(B) Arctic research programs of Federal agencies;

(C) recommendations of the Commission on future Arctic research; and

(D) guidelines for Federal agencies for awarding and administering Arctic research grants;


(4) develop a 5-year plan to implement the national policy, as provided for in section 4108 of this title;

(5) provide the necessary coordination, data, and assistance for the preparation of a single integrated, coherent, and multiagency budget request for Arctic research as provided for in section 4109 of this title;

(6) facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government and State and local governments in Arctic research, and recommend the undertaking of neglected areas of research in accordance with the findings and purposes of this chapter;

(7) coordinate and promote cooperative Arctic scientific research programs with other nations, subject to the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State;

(8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska in fulfilling its responsibilities under this chapter;

(9) promote Federal interagency coordination of all Arctic research activities, including—

(A) logistical planning and coordination; and

(B) the sharing of data and information associated with Arctic research, subject to section 552 of title 5; and


(10) provide public notice of its meetings and an opportunity for the public to participate in the development and implementation of national Arctic research policy.


(b) Not later than January 31, 1986, and biennially thereafter, the Interagency Committee shall submit to the Congress through the President, a brief, concise report containing—

(1) a statement of the activities and accomplishments of the Interagency Committee since its last report; and

(2) a statement detailing with particularity the recommendations of the Commission with respect to Federal interagency activities in Arctic research and the disposition and responses to those recommendations.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §108, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1246; Pub. L. 101–609, §6, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3126.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–609 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "a description of the activities of the Commission, detailing with particularity the recommendations of the Commission with respect to Federal activities in Arctic research."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which the requirement, under subsec. (b) of this section, to submit a biennial report to Congress is listed on page 174), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, and section 1(a)(4) [div. A, §1402] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out as notes under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.


Executive Documents

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to the National Science and Technology Council, see Memorandum of President of the United States, July 22, 2010, 75 F.R. 44063, set out as a note under section 4106 of this title.

Delegation of Reporting Authority

Memorandum of President of the United States, Feb. 17, 2005, 70 F.R. 9841, provided:

Memorandum for the Director of the National Science Foundation

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by Public Law 98–373 (15 U.S.C. 4107(b) and 4108(a)), to provide the specified report and plan to the Congress.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

George W. Bush.      

§4108. Arctic research plan

(a) The Interagency Committee, in consultation with the Commission, the Governor of the State of Alaska, the residents of the Arctic, the private sector, and public interest groups, shall prepare a comprehensive 5-year program plan (hereinafter referred to as the "Plan") for the overall Federal effort in Arctic research. The Plan shall be prepared and submitted to the President for transmittal to the Congress within one year after July 31, 1984, and shall be revised biennially thereafter.

(b) The Plan shall contain but need not be limited to the following elements:

(1) an assessment of national needs and problems regarding the Arctic and the research necessary to address those needs or problems;

(2) a statement of the goals and objectives of the Interagency Committee for national Arctic research;

(3) a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs relating to Arctic research, including the existing goals, funding levels for each of the 5 following fiscal years, and the funds currently being expended to conduct the programs;

(4) recommendations for necessary program changes and other proposals to meet the requirements of the policy and goals as set forth by the Commission and in the Plan as currently in effect; and

(5) a description of the actions taken by the Interagency Committee to coordinate the budget review process in order to ensure interagency coordination and cooperation in (A) carrying out Federal Arctic research programs, and (B) eliminating unnecessary duplication of effort among these programs.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §109, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1247.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which the biennial revision required under subsec. (a) of this section is listed on page 174), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, and section 1(a)(4) [div. A, §1402] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out as notes under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.


Executive Documents

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (a) delegated to Director of the National Science Foundation, see Memorandum of President of the United States, Feb. 17, 2005, 70 F.R. 9841, set out as a note under section 4107 of this title.

§4109. Coordination and review of budget requests; Office of Science and Technology Policy; Office of Management and Budget

(a) The Office of Science and Technology Policy shall—

(1) review all agency and department budget requests related to the Arctic transmitted pursuant to section 4107(a)(5) of this title, in accordance with the national Arctic research policy and the 5-year program under section 4107(a)(2) and section 4108 of this title, respectively; and

(2) consult closely with the Interagency Committee and the Commission to guide the Office of Science and Technology Policy's efforts.


(b)(1) The Office of Management and Budget shall consider all Federal agency requests for research related to the Arctic as one integrated, coherent, and multiagency request which shall be reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget prior to submission of the President's annual budget request for its adherence to the Plan. The Commission shall, after submission of the President's annual budget request, review the request and report to Congress on adherence to the Plan.

(2) The Office of Management and Budget shall seek to facilitate planning for the design, procurement, maintenance, deployment, and operations of icebreakers needed to provide a platform for Arctic research by allocating all funds necessary to support icebreaking operations, except for recurring incremental costs associated with specific projects, to the Coast Guard.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §110, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1248.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which the review of the President's annual budget request and report to Congress under subsec. (b)(1) of this section is listed on page 155), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§4110. Authorization of appropriations; new spending authority

(a) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for carrying out this chapter.

(b) Any new spending authority (within the meaning of section 651 of title 2) which is provided under this chapter shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as may be provided in appropriation Acts.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §111, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1248.)

§4111. "Arctic" defined

As used in this chapter, the term "Arctic" means all United States and foreign territory north of the Arctic Circle and all United States territory north and west of the boundary formed by the Porcupine, Yukon, and Kuskokwim Rivers; all contiguous seas, including the Arctic Ocean and the Beaufort, Bering, and Chukchi Seas; and the Aleutian chain.

(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, §112, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1248.)