[USC05] 30 USC CHAPTER 26, SUBCHAPTER III: ENFORCEMENT AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

30 USC CHAPTER 26, SUBCHAPTER III: ENFORCEMENT AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
From Title 30—MINERAL LANDS AND MININGCHAPTER 26—DEEP SEABED HARD MINERAL RESOURCES

SUBCHAPTER III—ENFORCEMENT AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§1461. Prohibited acts

It is unlawful for any person who is a United States citizen, or a foreign national on board a vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States, or subject to the jurisdiction of the United States under a reciprocating state agreement negotiated under section 1428(e) of this title

(1) to violate any provision of this chapter, any regulation issued under this chapter, or any term, condition, or restriction of any license or permit issued to such person under this chapter;

(2) to engage in exploration or commercial recovery after the revocation, or during the period of suspension, of an applicable license or permit issued under this chapter, to engage in a particular exploration or commercial recovery activity during the period such activity has been suspended under this chapter, or to fail to modify a particular exploration or commercial recovery activity for which modification was required under this chapter;

(3) to refuse to permit any Federal officer or employee authorized to monitor or enforce the provisions of this chapter, as provided in sections 1424 and 1464 of this title, to board a vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States, or any vessel for which such boarding is authorized by a treaty or executive agreement, for purposes of conducting any search or inspection in connection with the monitoring or enforcement of this chapter or any regulation, term, condition, or restriction referred to in paragraph (1);

(4) to forcibly assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with any such authorized officer or employee in the conduct of any search or inspection described in paragraph (3);

(5) to resist a lawful arrest for any act prohibited by this section;

(6) to ship, transport, offer for sale, sell, purchase, import, export, or have custody, control, or possession of any hard mineral resource recovered, processed, or retained in violation of this chapter or any regulation, term, condition, or restriction referred to in paragraph (1); or

(7) to interfere with, delay, or prevent, by any means, the apprehension or arrest of any other person subject to this section knowing that such other person has committed any act prohibited by this section.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §301, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 577.)

§1462. Civil penalties

(a) Assessment of penalty

Any person subject to section 1461 of this title who is found by the Administrator, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5, to have committed any act prohibited by section 1461 of this title shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty. The amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed $25,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate offense. The amount of such civil penalty shall be assessed by the Administrator by written notice. In determining the amount of such penalty, the Administrator shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited act committed and, with respect to the violator, any history of prior offenses, good faith demonstrated in attempting to achieve timely compliance after being cited for the violation, and such other matters as justice may require.

(b) Review of civil penalty

Any person subject to section 1461 of this title against whom a civil penalty is assessed under subsection (a) may obtain review thereof in an appropriate district court of the United States by filing a notice of appeal in such court within 30 days from the date of such order and by simultaneously sending a copy of such notice by certified mail to the Administrator. The Administrator shall promptly file in such court a certified copy of the record upon which the particular violation was found and such penalty was imposed, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. The findings and order of the Administrator shall be set aside by such court if they are not found to be supported by substantial evidence, as provided in section 706(2)(E) of title 5.

(c) Action upon failure to pay assessment

If any person subject to section 1461 of this title fails to pay a civil penalty assessed against such person after the penalty has become final, or after the appropriate court has entered final judgment in favor of the Administrator, the Administrator shall refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United States, who shall recover the civil penalty assessed in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.

(d) Compromise or other action by the Administrator

The Administrator may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which is subject to imposition or which has been imposed under this section unless an action brought under subsection (b) or (c) is pending in a court of the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §302, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 577.)

§1463. Criminal offenses

(a) Offense

A person subject to section 1461 of this title is guilty of an offense if such person willfully and knowingly commits any act prohibited by section 1461 of this title.

(b) Punishment

Any offense described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (6) of section 1461 of this title is punishable by a fine of not more than $75,000 for each day during which the violation continues. Any offense described in paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (7) of section 1461 of this title is punishable by a fine of not more than $75,000 or imprisonment for not more than six months, or both. If, in the commission of any offense, the person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States uses a dangerous weapon, engages in conduct that causes bodily injury to any Federal officer or employee, or places any such Federal officer or employee in fear of imminent bodily injury, the offense is punishable by a fine of not more than $100,000 or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §303, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 578.)

§1464. Enforcement

(a) Responsibility

Subject to the other provisions of this subsection, the Administrator shall enforce the provisions of this chapter. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall exercise such other enforcement responsibilities with respect to vessels subject to the provisions of this chapter as are authorized under other provisions of law and may, upon the specific request of the Administrator, assist the Administrator in the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall have the exclusive responsibility for enforcement measures which affect the safety of life and property at sea. The Administrator and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may, by agreement, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, utilize the personnel, services, equipment, including aircraft and vessels, and facilities of any other Federal agency or department, and may authorize officers or employees of other departments or agencies to provide assistance as necessary in carrying out subsection (b). While providing such assistance, these officers and employees shall be under the control, authority, and supervision of the Coast Guard. The Administrator and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may issue regulations jointly or severally as may be necessary and appropriate to carry out their duties under this section.

(b) Powers of authorized officers

To enforce this chapter on board any vessel subject to the provisions of this chapter, any officer who is authorized by the Administrator or by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may—

(1) board and inspect any vessel which is subject to the provisions of this chapter;

(2) search any such vessel if the officer has reasonable cause to believe that the vessel has been used or employed in the violation of any provision of this chapter;

(3) arrest any person subject to section 1461 of this title if the officer has reasonable cause to believe that the person has committed a criminal offense under section 1463 of this title;

(4) seize any such vessel together with its gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo, used or employed in, or with respect to which it reasonably appears that such vessel was used or employed in, the violation of any provision of this chapter if such seizure is necessary to prevent evasion of the enforcement of this chapter;

(5) seize any hard mineral resource recovered or processed in violation of any provision of this chapter;

(6) seize any other evidence related to any violation of any provision of this chapter;

(7) execute any warrant or other process issued by any court of competent jurisdiction; and

(8) exercise any other lawful authority.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the term "provisions of this chapter" or "provision of this chapter" means (1) any provision of subchapter I or II or this subchapter, (2) any regulation issued under subchapter I, subchapter II, or this subchapter, and (3) any term, condition, or restriction of any license or permit issued under subchapter I.

(d) Proprietary information

Proprietary and privileged information seized or maintained under this subchapter concerning a person or vessel engaged in exploration or commercial recovery shall not be made available for general or public use or inspection. The Administrator and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall issue regulations to insure the confidentiality of privileged and proprietary information.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §304, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 578.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§1465. Liability of vessels

Any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States (except a public vessel engaged in noncommercial activities) which is used in any violation of this chapter, any regulation issued under this chapter, or any term, condition, or restriction of any license or permit issued under subchapter I shall be liable in rem for any civil penalty assessed or criminal fine imposed and may be proceeded against in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §305, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 579.)

§1466. Civil forfeitures

(a) In general

Any vessel subject to the provisions of sections 1464 and 1465 of this title, including its gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo, which is used, in any manner, in connection with or as a result of the commission of any act prohibited by section 1461 of this title and any hard mineral resource which is recovered, processed, or retained, in any manner, in connection with or as a result of the commission of any such act, shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States. All or part of such vessel, and all such hard mineral resources, may be forfeited to the United States pursuant to a civil proceeding under this section. All provisions of law relating to the seizure, judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of a vessel or cargo for violation of the customs laws, and the disposition of the vessel, cargo, or proceeds from the sale thereof and the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred or alleged to have been incurred under the provisions of this section insofar as such provisions of law are applicable and not inconsistent with this chapter.

(b) Jurisdiction of courts

Any district court of the United States which has jurisdiction under section 1467 of this title shall have jurisdiction, upon application by the Attorney General on behalf of the United States, to order any forfeiture authorized under subsection (a) and any action provided for under subsection (d).

(c) Judgment

If a judgment is entered for the United States in a civil forfeiture proceeding under this section, the Attorney General may seize any property or other interest declared forfeited to the United States which has not previously been seized pursuant to this chapter or for which security has not previously been obtained under subsection (d).

(d) Procedure

Any officer authorized to serve any process in rem which is issued by a court having jurisdiction under section 1467 of this title shall stay the execution of such process, or discharge any property seized pursuant to such process, upon the receipt of a satisfactory bond or other security from any person subject to section 1461 of this title claiming such property. Such bond or other security shall be conditioned upon such person (1) delivering such property to the appropriate court upon order thereof, without any impairment of its value; or (2) paying the monetary value of such property pursuant to any order of such court. Judgment shall be recoverable on such bond or other security against both the principal and any sureties in the event that any condition thereof is breached, as determined by such court.

(e) Rebuttable presumption

For purposes of this section, it shall be a rebuttable presumption that all hard mineral resources found on board a vessel subject to the provisions of sections 1464 and 1465 of this title which is seized in connection with an act prohibited by section 1461 of this title were recovered, processed, or retained in violation of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §306, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 580.)

§1467. Jurisdiction of courts

The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction over any case or controversy arising under the provisions of this chapter. These courts may, at any time—

(1) enter restraining orders or prohibitions;

(2) issue warrants, process in rem, or other process;

(3) prescribe and accept satisfactory bonds or other security; and

(4) take such other actions as are in the interest of justice.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §307, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 580.)

§1468. Regulations

(a) Proposed regulations

Not later than 270 days after June 28, 1980, the Administrator shall solicit the views of the agency heads referred to in section 1419(b) of this title and of interested persons, and issue, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, such proposed regulations as are required by or are necessary and appropriate to implement subchapters I and II and this subchapter. The Administrator shall hold at least one public hearing on such proposed regulations.

(b) Final regulations

Not later than 180 days after the date on which proposed regulations are issued pursuant to subsection (a), the Administrator shall solicit the views of the agency heads referred to in section 1419(b) of this title and of interested persons, consider the comments received during the public hearing required in subsection (a) and any written comments on the proposed regulations received by the Administrator, and issue, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, such regulations as are required by or are necessary and appropriate to implement subchapters I and II and this subchapter.

(c) Amendments

The Administrator may at any time amend regulations issued pursuant to subsection (b) as the Administrator determines to be necessary and appropriate in order to provide for the conservation of natural resources within the meaning of section 1420 of this title, protection of the environment, and the safety of life and property at sea. Such amended regulations shall apply to all exploration or commercial recovery activities conducted under any license or permit issued or maintained pursuant to this chapter; except that any such amended regulations which provide for conservation of natural resources shall apply to exploration or commercial recovery conducted under an existing license or permit during the present term of such license or permit only if the Administrator determines that such amended regulations providing for conservation of natural resources will not impose serious or irreparable economic hardship on the licensee or permittee. Any amendment to regulations under this subsection shall be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing.

(d) Consistency

This chapter and the regulations issued under this chapter shall not be deemed to supersede any other Federal laws or treaties or regulations issued thereunder.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §308, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 581.)

§1469. Omitted


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §309, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 581, which required the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to submit a biennial report to Congress on the administration of this chapter, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 54 of House Document No. 103–7.

§1470. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator, for purposes of carrying out the provisions of subchapters I and II and this subchapter, such sums as may be necessary for the fiscal years ending September 30, 1981, and September 30, 1982, and $1,469,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, $2,150,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1985, and September 30, 1986, $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1987, September 30, 1988, and September 30, 1989, and $1,525,000 for each of the fiscal years 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §310, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 582; Pub. L. 97–416, Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2084; Pub. L. 98–623, title IV, §403, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3408; Pub. L. 99–507, §2, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1847; Pub. L. 101–178, §1, Nov. 28, 1989, 103 Stat. 1297.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–178 inserted provisions authorizing appropriations of $1,525,000 for each of fiscal years 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994.

1986Pub. L. 99–507 inserted provisions authorizing appropriations of $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1987, Sept. 30, 1988, and Sept. 30, 1989.

1984Pub. L. 98–623 inserted provisions authorizing appropriations of $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1985, and Sept. 30, 1986.

1983Pub. L. 97–416 inserted provisions authorizing appropriations of $1,469,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1983, and $2,150,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1984.

§1471. Severability

If any provision of this chapter or any application thereof is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the chapter, or any other application, shall not be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title III, §311, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 582.)

§1472. Deep Seabed Revenue Sharing Trust Fund; establishment

(a) Creation of Trust Fund

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the "Deep Seabed Revenue Sharing Trust Fund" (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Trust Fund"), consisting of such amounts as may be appropriated or credited to the Trust Fund as provided in this section.

(b) Transfer to Trust Fund of amounts equivalent to certain taxes

(1) In general

There are hereby appropriated to the Trust Fund amounts determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be equivalent to the amounts of the taxes received in the Treasury under section 4495 1 of title 26.

(2) Method of transfer

The amounts appropriated by paragraph (1) shall be transferred at least quarterly from the general fund of the Treasury to the Trust Fund on the basis of estimates made by the Secretary of the Treasury of the amounts referred to in paragraph (1) received in the Treasury. Proper adjustments shall be made in the amounts subsequently transferred to the extent prior estimates were in excess of or less than the amount required to be transferred.

(c) Management of Trust Fund

(1) Report

It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to hold the Trust Fund, and to report to the Congress for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980, and each fiscal year thereafter on the financial condition and the results of the operations of the Trust Fund during the preceding year and on its expected condition and operations during the fiscal year and the next five fiscal years after the fiscal year. Such report shall be printed as a House document of the session of the Congress to which the report is made.

(2) Investment

(A) In general

It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to invest such portion of the Trust Fund as is not, in his judgment, required to meet current withdrawals. Such investments may be made only in interest-bearing obligations of the United States. For such purpose, such obligations may be acquired (i) on original issue at the issue price, or (ii) by purchase of outstanding obligations at the market price.

(B) Sale of obligations

Any obligation acquired by the Trust Fund may be sold by the Secretary at the market price.

(C) Interest on certain proceeds

The interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, any obligations held in the Trust Fund shall be credited to and form a part of the Trust Fund.

(d) Expenditures from Trust Fund

If an international deep seabed treaty is ratified by and in effect with respect to the United States on or before the date ten years after June 28, 1980, amounts in the Trust Fund shall be available, as provided by appropriations Acts, for making contributions required under such treaty for purposes of the sharing among nations of the revenues from deep seabed mining. Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to authorize any program or other activity not otherwise authorized by law.

(e) Use of funds

If an international deep seabed treaty is not in effect with respect to the United States on or before the date ten years after June 28, 1980, amounts in the Trust Fund shall be available for such purposes as Congress may hereafter provide by law.

(f) International deep seabed treaty

For purposes of this section, the term "international deep seabed treaty" has the meaning given to such term by section 4498(b) 1 of title 26.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title IV, §403, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 584; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

References in Text

Sections 4495 and 4498 of title 26, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1) and (f), were repealed by Pub. L. 105–34, title XIV, §1432(b)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1050.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of title IV of Pub. L. 96–283, and not as part of title III of Pub. L. 96–283, which comprises this subchapter.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (c)(1) of this section relating to the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to report annually to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 143 of House Document No. 103–7.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1473. Revenue and customs or tariff treatment of deep seabed mining unaffected

Except as otherwise provided in sections 4495 to 4498 1 of title 26, nothing in this chapter shall affect the application of title 26. Nothing in this chapter shall affect the application of the customs or tariff laws of the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–283, title IV, §404, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Sections 4495 to 4498 of title 26, referred to in text, were in the original "section 402", meaning section 402 of Pub. L. 96–283, title IV, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 582, which enacted sections 4495 to 4498 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and enacted a provision set out as a note under section 4495 of Title 26. Sections 4495 to 4498 of title 26 were repealed by Pub. L. 105–34, title XIV, §1432(b)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1050.

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–283, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 553, as amended, known as the Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1401 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1401 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of title IV of Pub. L. 96–283, and not as part of title III of Pub. L. 96–283 which comprises this subchapter.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

1 See References in Text note below.