[USC02] 16 USC CHAPTER 38, SUBCHAPTER V: FISHERY MONITORING AND RESEARCH
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

16 USC CHAPTER 38, SUBCHAPTER V: FISHERY MONITORING AND RESEARCH
From Title 16—CONSERVATIONCHAPTER 38—FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

SUBCHAPTER V—FISHERY MONITORING AND RESEARCH

§1881. Registration and information management

(a) Standardized fishing vessel registration and information management system

The Secretary shall, in cooperation with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the States, the Councils, and Marine Fisheries Commissions, develop recommendations for implementation of a standardized fishing vessel registration and information management system on a regional basis. The recommendations shall be developed after consultation with interested governmental and nongovernmental parties and shall—

(1) be designed to standardize the requirements of vessel registration and information collection systems required by this chapter, the Marine Mammal Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and any other marine resource law implemented by the Secretary, and, with the permission of a State, any marine resource law implemented by such State;

(2) integrate information collection programs under existing fishery management plans into a non-duplicative information collection and management system;

(3) avoid duplication of existing State, tribal, or Federal systems and shall utilize, to the maximum extent practicable, information collected from existing systems;

(4) provide for implementation of the system through cooperative agreements with appropriate State, regional, or tribal entities and Marine Fisheries Commissions;

(5) provide for funding (subject to appropriations) to assist appropriate State, regional, or tribal entities and Marine Fisheries Commissions in implementation;

(6) establish standardized units of measurement, nomenclature, and formats for the collection and submission of information;

(7) minimize the paperwork required for vessels registered under the system;

(8) include all species of fish within the geographic areas of authority of the Councils and all fishing vessels including charter fishing vessels, but excluding recreational fishing vessels;

(9) require United States fish processors, and fish dealers and other first ex-vessel purchasers of fish that are subject to the proposed system, to submit information (other than economic information) which may be necessary to meet the goals of the proposed system; and

(10) include procedures necessary to ensure—

(A) the confidentiality of information collected under this section in accordance with section 1881a(b) of this title; and

(B) the timely release or availability to the public of information collected under this section consistent with section 1881a(b) of this title.

(b) Fishing vessel registration

The proposed registration system should, at a minimum, obtain the following information for each fishing vessel—

(1) the name and official number or other identification, together with the name and address of the owner or operator or both;

(2) gross tonnage, vessel capacity, type and quantity of fishing gear, mode of operation (catcher, catcher processor, or other), and such other pertinent information with respect to vessel characteristics as the Secretary may require; and

(3) identification (by species, gear type, geographic area of operations, and season) of the fisheries in which the fishing vessel participates.

(c) Fishery information

The proposed information management system should, at a minimum, provide basic fisheries performance information for each fishery, including—

(1) the number of vessels participating in the fishery including charter fishing vessels;

(2) the time period in which the fishery occurs;

(3) the approximate geographic location or official reporting area where the fishery occurs;

(4) a description of fishing gear used in the fishery, including the amount and type of such gear and the appropriate unit of fishing effort; and

(5) other information required under subsection 1 1853(a)(5) of this title or requested by the Council under section 1881a of this title.

(d) Use of registration

Any registration recommended under this section shall not be considered a permit for the purposes of this chapter, and the Secretary may not propose to revoke, suspend, deny, or impose any other conditions or restrictions on any such registration or the use of such registration under this chapter.

(e) Public comment

Within one year after October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register for a 60-day public comment period a proposal that would provide for implementation of a standardized fishing vessel registration and information collection system that meets the requirements of subsections (a) through (c). The proposal shall include—

(1) a description of the arrangements of the Secretary for consultation and cooperation with the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the States, the Councils, Marine Fisheries Commissions, the fishing industry and other interested parties; and

(2) any proposed regulations or legislation necessary to implement the proposal.

(f) Congressional transmittal

Within 60 days after the end of the comment period and after consideration of comments received under subsection (e), the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives a recommended proposal for implementation of a national fishing vessel registration system that includes—

(1) any modifications made after comment and consultation;

(2) a proposed implementation schedule, including a schedule for the proposed cooperative agreements required under subsection (a)(4); and

(3) recommendations for any such additional legislation as the Secretary considers necessary or desirable to implement the proposed system.

(g) Recreational fisheries

(1) Federal program

The Secretary shall establish and implement a regionally based registry program for recreational fishermen in each of the 8 fishery management regions. The program, which shall not require a fee before January 1, 2011, shall provide for—

(A) the registration (including identification and contact information) of individuals who engage in recreational fishing—

(i) in the Exclusive Economic Zone;

(ii) for anadromous species; or

(iii) for Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone; and


(B) if appropriate, the registration (including the ownership, operator, and identification of the vessel) of vessels used in such fishing.

(2) State programs

The Secretary shall exempt from registration under the program recreational fishermen and charter fishing vessels licensed, permitted, or registered under the laws of a State if the Secretary determines that information from the State program is suitable for the Secretary's use or is used to assist in completing marine recreational fisheries statistical surveys, or evaluating the effects of proposed conservation and management measures for marine recreational fisheries.

(3) Data collection

(A) Improvement of the marine recreational fishery statistics survey

Within 24 months after January 12, 2007, the Secretary, in consultation with representatives of the recreational fishing industry and experts in statistics, technology, and other appropriate fields, shall establish a program to improve the quality and accuracy of information generated by the Marine Recreational Fishery Statistics Survey, with a goal of achieving acceptable accuracy and utility for each individual fishery.

(B) NRC report recommendations

The program shall take into consideration and, to the extent feasible, implement the recommendations of the National Research Council in its report Review of Recreational Fisheries Survey Methods (2006), including—

(i) redesigning the Survey to improve the effectiveness and appropriateness of sampling and estimation procedures, its applicability to various kinds of management decisions, and its usefulness for social and economic analyses; and

(ii) providing for ongoing technical evaluation and modification as needed to meet emerging management needs.

(C) Methodology

Unless the Secretary determines that alternate methods will achieve this goal more efficiently and effectively, the program shall, to the extent possible, include—

(i) an adequate number of intercepts to accurately estimate recreational catch and effort;

(ii) use of surveys that target anglers registered or licensed at the State or Federal level to collect participation and effort data;

(iii) collection and analysis of vessel trip report data from charter fishing vessels;

(iv) development of a weather corrective factor that can be applied to recreational catch and effort estimates; and

(v) an independent committee composed of recreational fishermen, academics, persons with expertise in stock assessments and survey design, and appropriate personnel from the National Marine Fisheries Service to review the collection estimates, geographic, and other variables related to dockside intercepts and to identify deficiencies in recreational data collection, and possible correction measures.

(D) Deadline

The Secretary shall complete the program under this paragraph and implement the improved Marine Recreational Fishery Statistics Survey not later than January 1, 2009.

(4) Federal-State partnerships

(A) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a partnership with a State to develop best practices for implementing the State program established under paragraph (2).

(B) Guidance

The Secretary shall develop guidance, in cooperation with the States, that details best practices for administering State programs pursuant to paragraph (2), and provide such guidance to the States.

(C) Biennial report

The Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress and publish biennial reports that include—

(i) the estimated accuracy of—

(I) the information provided under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1) for each registry program established under that paragraph; and

(II) the information from each State program that is used to assist in completing surveys or evaluating effects of conservation and management measures under paragraph (2);


(ii) priorities for improving recreational fishing data collection; and

(iii) an explanation of any use of information collected by such State programs and by the Secretary.

(D) States grant program

(i) In general

The Secretary may make grants to States to—

(I) improve implementation of State programs consistent with this subsection; and

(II) assist such programs in complying with requirements related to changes in recreational data collection under paragraph (3).

(ii) Use of funds

Any funds awarded through such grants shall be used to support data collection, quality assurance, and outreach to entities submitting such data. The Secretary shall prioritize such grants based on the ability of the grant to improve the quality and accuracy of such programs.

(5) Report

Within 24 months after establishment of the program, the Secretary shall submit a report to Congress that describes the progress made toward achieving the goals and objectives of the program.

(h) Action by Secretary

The Secretary shall—

(1) within 90 days after December 31, 2018, enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate, in the form of a report—

(A) how the design of the Marine Recreational Information Program, for the purposes of stock assessment and the determination of stock management reference points, can be improved to better meet the needs of in-season management of annual catch limits under section 1853(a)(15) of this title; and

(B) what actions the Secretary, Councils, and States could take to improve the accuracy and timeliness of data collection and analysis to improve the Marine Recreational Information Program and facilitate in-season management; and


(2) within 6 months after receiving the report under paragraph (1), submit to Congress recommendations regarding—

(A) changes to be made to the Marine Recreational Information Program to make the program better meet the needs of in-season management of annual catch limits and other requirements under such section; and

(B) alternative management approaches that could be applied to recreational fisheries for which the Marine Recreational Information Program is not meeting the needs of in-season management of annual catch limits, consistent with other requirements of this chapter, until such time as the changes in subparagraph (A) are implemented.

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §401, as added Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §202, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3605; amended Pub. L. 109–479, title II, §201, Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3611; Pub. L. 115–405, §202, Dec. 31, 2018, 132 Stat. 5359.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (d) and (h)(2)(B), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, known as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

The Marine Mammal Protection Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), probably means the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, Pub. L. 92–522, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 1027, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 31 (§1361 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1361 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1881, Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §401, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 359, related to authority to amend regulations to conform to Law of the Sea Treaty, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–659, title I, §110, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3715.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (g)(4), (5). Pub. L. 115–405, §202(1), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–405, §202(2), added subsec. (h).

2007—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–479 added subsec. (g) and struck out former subsec. (g) which required a report to Congress.

Change of Name

Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

NAS Report Recommendations

Pub. L. 115–405, §201(b), Dec. 31, 2018, 132 Stat. 5358, provided that: "The Secretary of Commerce shall take into consideration and, to the extent feasible, implement the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences in the report entitled 'Review of the Marine Recreational Information Program (2017)', and shall submit, every 2 years following the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2018], a report to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives] detailing progress made implementing those recommendations. Recommendations considered shall include—

"(1) prioritizing the evaluation of electronic data collection, including smartphone applications, electronic diaries for prospective data collection, and an internet website option for panel members or for the public;

"(2) evaluating whether the design of the Marine Recreational Information Program for the purposes of stock assessment and the determination of stock management reference points is compatible with the needs of in-season management of annual catch limits; and

"(3) if the Marine Recreational Information Program is incompatible with the needs of in-season management of annual catch limits, determining an alternative method for in-season management."

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§1881a. Information collection

(a) Collection programs

(1) Council requests

If a Council determines that additional information would be beneficial for developing, implementing, or revising a fishery management plan or for determining whether a fishery is in need of management, the Council may request that the Secretary implement an information collection program for the fishery which would provide the types of information specified by the Council. The Secretary shall undertake such an information collection program if he determines that the need is justified, and shall promulgate regulations to implement the program within 60 days after such determination is made. If the Secretary determines that the need for an information collection program is not justified, the Secretary shall inform the Council of the reasons for such determination in writing. The determinations of the Secretary under this paragraph regarding a Council request shall be made within a reasonable period of time after receipt of that request.

(2) Secretarial initiation

If the Secretary determines that additional information is necessary for developing, implementing, revising, or monitoring a fishery management plan, or for determining whether a fishery is in need of management, the Secretary may, by regulation, implement an information collection or observer program requiring submission of such additional information for the fishery.

(b) Confidentiality of information

(1) Any information submitted to the Secretary, a State fishery management agency, or a marine fisheries commission by any person in compliance with the requirements of this chapter shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed except—

(A) to Federal employees and Council employees who are responsible for fishery management plan development, monitoring, or enforcement;

(B) to State or Marine Fisheries Commission employees as necessary to further the Department's mission, subject to a confidentiality agreement that prohibits public disclosure of the identity of business of any person;

(C) to State employees who are responsible for fishery management plan enforcement, if the States employing those employees have entered into a fishery enforcement agreement with the Secretary and the agreement is in effect;

(D) when required by court order;

(E) when such information is used by State, Council, or Marine Fisheries Commission employees to verify catch under a limited access program, but only to the extent that such use is consistent with subparagraph (B);

(F) when the Secretary has obtained written authorization from the person submitting such information to release such information to persons for reasons not otherwise provided for in this subsection, and such release does not violate other requirements of this chapter;

(G) when such information is required to be submitted to the Secretary for any determination under a limited access program; or

(H) in support of homeland and national security activities, including the Coast Guard's homeland security missions as defined in section 468(a)(2) of title 6.


(2) Any observer information shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed, except in accordance with the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (H) of paragraph (1), or—

(A) as authorized by a fishery management plan or regulations under the authority of the North Pacific Council to allow disclosure to the public of weekly summary bycatch information identified by vessel or for haul-specific bycatch information without vessel identification;

(B) when such information is necessary in proceedings to adjudicate observer certifications; or

(C) as authorized by any regulations issued under paragraph (3) allowing the collection of observer information, pursuant to a confidentiality agreement between the observers, observer employers, and the Secretary prohibiting disclosure of the information by the observers or observer employers, in order—

(i) to allow the sharing of observer information among observers and between observers and observer employers as necessary to train and prepare observers for deployments on specific vessels; or

(ii) to validate the accuracy of the observer information collected.


(3) The Secretary shall, by regulation, prescribe such procedures as may be necessary to preserve the confidentiality of information submitted in compliance with any requirement or regulation under this chapter, except that the Secretary may release or make public any such information in any aggregate or summary form which does not directly or indirectly disclose the identity or business of any person who submits such information. Nothing in this subsection shall be interpreted or construed to prevent the use for conservation and management purposes by the Secretary, or with the approval of the Secretary, the Council, of any information submitted in compliance with any requirement or regulation under this chapter or the use, release, or publication of bycatch information pursuant to paragraph (2)(A).

(c) Restriction on use of certain information

(1) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations to restrict the use, in civil enforcement or criminal proceedings under this chapter, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), of information collected by voluntary fishery data collectors, including sea samplers, while aboard any vessel for conservation and management purposes if the presence of such a fishery data collector aboard is not required by any of such chapter or Acts or regulations thereunder.

(2) The Secretary may not require the submission of a Federal or State income tax return or statement as a prerequisite for issuance of a permit until such time as the Secretary has promulgated regulations to ensure the confidentiality of information contained in such return or statement, to limit the information submitted to that necessary to achieve a demonstrated conservation and management purpose, and to provide appropriate penalties for violation of such regulations.

(d) Contracting authority

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may provide a grant, contract, or other financial assistance on a sole-source basis to a State, Council, or Marine Fisheries Commission for the purpose of carrying out information collection or other programs if—

(1) the recipient of such a grant, contract, or other financial assistance is specified by statute to be, or has customarily been, such State, Council, or Marine Fisheries Commission; or

(2) the Secretary has entered into a cooperative agreement with such State, Council, or Marine Fisheries Commission.

(e) Resource assessments

(1) The Secretary may use the private sector to provide vessels, equipment, and services necessary to survey the fishery resources of the United States when the arrangement will yield statistically reliable results.

(2) The Secretary, in consultation with the appropriate Council and the fishing industry—

(A) may structure competitive solicitations under paragraph (1) so as to compensate a contractor for a fishery resources survey by allowing the contractor to retain for sale fish harvested during the survey voyage;

(B) in the case of a survey during which the quantity or quality of fish harvested is not expected to be adequately compensatory, may structure those solicitations so as to provide that compensation by permitting the contractor to harvest on a subsequent voyage and retain for sale a portion of the allowable catch of the surveyed fishery; and

(C) may permit fish harvested during such survey to count toward a vessel's catch history under a fishery management plan if such survey was conducted in a manner that precluded a vessel's participation in a fishery that counted under the plan for purposes of determining catch history.


(3) The Secretary shall undertake efforts to expand annual fishery resource assessments in all regions of the Nation.

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §402, as added Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §203, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3607; amended Pub. L. 109–479, §3(d)(1)(A), title II, §§202, 203(a), Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3578, 3612, 3613.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1), (3) and (c)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, known as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 92–522, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 1027, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 31 (§1361 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1361 of this title and Tables.

The Endangered Species Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), probably means the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93–205, Dec. 28, 1973, 87 Stat. 884, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1531 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1531 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 402 of Pub. L. 94–265 repealed former sections 1081 to 1086 and 1091 to 1094 of this title, prior to being amended generally by Pub. L. 104–297.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–479, §202, substituted "Collection programs" for "Council requests" in heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, realigned margins, in first sentence, struck out "(other than information that would disclose proprietary or confidential commercial or financial information regarding fishing operations or fish processing operations)" after "additional information" and "types of information", in last sentence, substituted "paragraph" for "subsection", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–479, §203(a)(1), (2), added pars. (1) and (2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and realigned margins, and struck out former par. (1) which related to confidentiality of information submitted to the Secretary and exceptions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 109–479, §3(d)(1)(A), substituted "a limited access privilege" for "an individual fishing quota".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–479, §203(a)(3), substituted "(2)(A)." for "(1)(E)."

§1881b. Observers

(a) Guidelines for carrying observers

Within one year after October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations, after notice and opportunity for public comment, for fishing vessels that carry observers. The regulations shall include guidelines for determining—

(1) when a vessel is not required to carry an observer on board because the facilities of such vessel for the quartering of an observer, or for carrying out observer functions, are so inadequate or unsafe that the health or safety of the observer or the safe operation of the vessel would be jeopardized; and

(2) actions which vessel owners or operators may reasonably be required to take to render such facilities adequate and safe.

(b) Training

The Secretary, in cooperation with the appropriate States and the National Sea Grant College Program, shall—

(1) establish programs to ensure that each observer receives adequate training in collecting and analyzing the information necessary for the conservation and management purposes of the fishery to which such observer is assigned;

(2) require that an observer demonstrate competence in fisheries science and statistical analysis at a level sufficient to enable such person to fulfill the responsibilities of the position;

(3) ensure that an observer has received adequate training in basic vessel safety; and

(4) make use of university and any appropriate private nonprofit organization training facilities and resources, where possible, in carrying out this subsection.

(c) Observer status

An observer on a vessel and under contract to carry out responsibilities under this chapter or the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) shall be deemed to be a Federal employee for the purpose of compensation under the Federal Employee Compensation Act (5 U.S.C. 8101 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §403, as added Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §204, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3609.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, known as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 92–522, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 1027, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 31 (§1361 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1361 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Employee Compensation Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 458, 39 Stat. 742, as amended, which was repealed and the provisions thereof were reenacted as subchapter I (§8101 et seq.) of chapter 81 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 403 of Pub. L. 94–265 amended sections 1972 and 1973 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and enacted provisions formerly set out as notes under sections 1972 and 1973 of Title 22, prior to being amended generally by Pub. L. 104–297.

§1881c. Fisheries research

(a) In general

The Secretary shall initiate and maintain, in cooperation with the Councils, a comprehensive program of fishery research to carry out and further the purposes, policy, and provisions of this chapter. Such program shall be designed to acquire knowledge and information, including statistics, on fishery conservation and management and on the economics and social characteristics of the fisheries.

(b) Strategic plan

Within one year after October 11, 1996, and at least every 3 years thereafter, the Secretary shall develop and publish in the Federal Register a strategic plan for fisheries research for the 5 years immediately following such publication. The plan shall—

(1) identify and describe a comprehensive program with a limited number of priority objectives for research in each of the areas specified in subsection (c);

(2) indicate goals and timetables for the program described in paragraph (1);

(3) provide a role for commercial fishermen in such research, including involvement in field testing;

(4) provide for collection and dissemination, in a timely manner, of complete and accurate information concerning fishing activities, catch, effort, stock assessments, and other research conducted under this section; and

(5) be developed in cooperation with the Councils and affected States, and provide for coordination with the Councils, affected States, and other research entities.

(c) Areas of research

Areas of research are as follows:

(1) Research to support fishery conservation and management, including but not limited to, biological research concerning the abundance and life history parameters of stocks of fish, the interdependence of fisheries or stocks of fish, the identification of essential fish habitat, the impact of pollution on fish populations, the impact of wetland and estuarine degradation, and other factors affecting the abundance and availability of fish.

(2) Conservation engineering research, including the study of fish behavior and the development and testing of new gear technology and fishing techniques to minimize bycatch and any adverse effects on essential fish habitat and promote efficient harvest of target species.

(3) Research on the fisheries, including the social, cultural, and economic relationships among fishing vessel owners, crew, United States fish processors, associated shoreside labor, seafood markets and fishing communities.

(4) Information management research, including the development of a fishery information base and an information management system that will permit the full use of information in the support of effective fishery conservation and management.

(d) Public notice

In developing the plan required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consult with relevant Federal, State, and international agencies, scientific and technical experts, and other interested persons, public and private, and shall publish a proposed plan in the Federal Register for the purpose of receiving public comment on the plan. The Secretary shall ensure that affected commercial fishermen are actively involved in the development of the portion of the plan pertaining to conservation engineering research. Upon final publication in the Federal Register, the plan shall be submitted by the Secretary to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives.

(e) Improving data collection and analysis

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after December 31, 2018, the Secretary shall develop, in consultation with the science and statistical committees of the Councils established under section 1852(g) of this title and the Marine Fisheries Commissions, and submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives a report on facilitating greater incorporation of data, analysis, stock assessments, and surveys from State agencies and nongovernmental sources described in paragraph (2), to the extent such information is consistent with section 1851(a)(2) of this title, into fisheries management decisions.

(2) Content

In developing the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) identify types of data and analysis, especially concerning recreational fishing, that can be used for purposes of this chapter as the basis for establishing conservation and management measures as required by section 1853(a)(1) of this title, including setting standards for the collection and use of that data and analysis in stock assessments and surveys and for other purposes;

(B) provide specific recommendations for collecting data and performing analyses identified as necessary to reduce uncertainty in and improve the accuracy of future stock assessments, including whether such data and analysis could be provided by nongovernmental sources; and

(C) consider the extent to which the acceptance and use of data and analyses identified in the report in fishery management decisions is practicable and compatible with the requirements of section 1851(a)(2) of this title.

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §404, as added Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §205, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3609; amended Pub. L. 109–479, title II, §203(b), Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3614; Pub. L. 115–405, §201(a), Dec. 31, 2018, 132 Stat. 5358.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (e)(2)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, known as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 404 of Pub. L. 94–265, amended section 1362 of this title and enacted provisions formerly set out as a note under section 1362 of this title, prior to being amended generally by Pub. L. 104–297.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–405 added subsec. (e).

2007—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 109–479 struck out "under section 1881 of this title" after "system".

Change of Name

Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Study of Contribution of Bycatch to Charitable Organizations

Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §208, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3614, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(a) [title II, §211(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009-41, provided that the Secretary of Commerce was to conduct a study, to be submitted to Congress by 1 year after Oct. 11, 1996, of the contribution of bycatch to charitable organizations by commercial fishermen, including determinations of the amount contributed each year, the economic benefits to commercial fishermen from those contributions, and the impact on fisheries of the availability of those benefits.

§1881d. Incidental harvest research

(a) Collection of information

Within nine months after October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall, after consultation with the Gulf Council and South Atlantic Council, conclude the collection of information in the program to assess the impact on fishery resources of incidental harvest by the shrimp trawl fishery within the authority of such Councils. Within the same time period, the Secretary shall make available to the public aggregated summaries of information collected prior to June 30, 1994 under such program.

(b) Identification of stock

The program concluded pursuant to subsection (a) shall provide for the identification of stocks of fish which are subject to significant incidental harvest in the course of normal shrimp trawl fishing activity.

(c) Collection and assessment of specific stock information

For stocks of fish identified pursuant to subsection (b), with priority given to stocks which (based upon the best available scientific information) are considered to be overfished, the Secretary shall conduct—

(1) a program to collect and evaluate information on the nature and extent (including the spatial and temporal distribution) of incidental mortality of such stocks as a direct result of shrimp trawl fishing activities;

(2) an assessment of the status and condition of such stocks, including collection of information which would allow the estimation of life history parameters with sufficient accuracy and precision to support sound scientific evaluation of the effects of various management alternatives on the status of such stocks; and

(3) a program of information collection and evaluation for such stocks on the magnitude and distribution of fishing mortality and fishing effort by sources of fishing mortality other than shrimp trawl fishing activity.

(d) Bycatch reduction program

Not later than 12 months after October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall, in cooperation with affected interests, and based upon the best scientific information available, complete a program to—

(1) develop technological devices and other changes in fishing operations necessary and appropriate to minimize the incidental mortality of bycatch in the course of shrimp trawl activity to the extent practicable, taking into account the level of bycatch mortality in the fishery on November 28, 1990;

(2) evaluate the ecological impacts and the benefits and costs of such devices and changes in fishing operations; and

(3) assess whether it is practicable to utilize bycatch which is not avoidable.

(e) Report to Congress

The Secretary shall, within one year of completing the programs required by this section, submit a detailed report on the results of such programs to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives.

(f) Implementation criteria

To the extent practicable, any conservation and management measure implemented under this chapter to reduce the incidental mortality of bycatch in the course of shrimp trawl fishing shall be consistent with—

(1) measures applicable to fishing throughout the range in United States waters of the bycatch species concerned; and

(2) the need to avoid any serious adverse environmental impacts on such bycatch species or the ecology of the affected area.

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §405, as added Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §206, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3611.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, known as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 405 of Pub. L. 94–265, amended section 971 of this title and enacted provisions formerly set out as a note under section 971 of this title, prior to being amended generally by Pub. L. 104–297.

Change of Name

Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

§1882. Fisheries systems research

(a) Establishment of panel

Not later than 180 days after October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall establish an advisory panel under this chapter to develop recommendations to expand the application of ecosystem principles in fishery conservation and management activities.

(b) Panel membership

The advisory panel shall consist of not more than 20 individuals and include—

(1) individuals with expertise in the structures, functions, and physical and biological characteristics of ecosystems; and

(2) representatives from the Councils, States, fishing industry, conservation organizations, or others with expertise in the management of marine resources.

(c) Recommendations

Prior to selecting advisory panel members, the Secretary shall, with respect to panel members described in subsection (b)(1), solicit recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences.

(d) Report

Within 2 years after October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a completed report of the panel established under this section, which shall include—

(1) an analysis of the extent to which ecosystem principles are being applied in fishery conservation and management activities, including research activities;

(2) proposed actions by the Secretary and by the Congress that should be undertaken to expand the application of ecosystem principles in fishery conservation and management; and

(3) such other information as may be appropriate.

(e) Procedural matter

The advisory panel established under this section shall be deemed an advisory panel under section 1852(g) of this title.

(f) Regional ecosystem research

(1) Study

Within 180 days after January 12, 2007, the Secretary, in consultation with the Councils, shall undertake and complete a study on the state of the science for advancing the concepts and integration of ecosystem considerations in regional fishery management. The study should build upon the recommendations of the advisory panel and include—

(A) recommendations for scientific data, information and technology requirements for understanding ecosystem processes, and methods for integrating such information from a variety of federal,1 state,1 and regional sources;

(B) recommendations for processes for incorporating broad stake holder participation;

(C) recommendations for processes to account for effects of environmental variation on fish stocks and fisheries; and

(D) a description of existing and developing council efforts to implement ecosystem approaches, including lessons learned by the councils.

(2) Agency technical advice and assistance, regional pilot programs

The Secretary is authorized to provide necessary technical advice and assistance, including grants, to the Councils for the development and design of regional pilot programs that build upon the recommendations of the advisory panel and, when completed, the study.

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §406, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 361; Pub. L. 95–354, §1, Aug. 28, 1978, 92 Stat. 519; Pub. L. 96–61, §1, Aug. 15, 1979, 93 Stat. 407; Pub. L. 97–453, §14(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2492; Pub. L. 99–659, title I, §111(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3715; Pub. L. 101–627, title I, §119, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4459; Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §207(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3612; Pub. L. 109–479, title II, §210, Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3617.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, known as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Codification

October 11, 1996, referred to in subsec. (d), was in the original "the date of enactment of this Act", which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–297, which amended this section generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–479 added subsec. (f).

1996Pub. L. 104–297 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, section authorized appropriations to carry out this chapter for fiscal year ending June 30, 1976 to fiscal year ending September 30, 1993.

1990—Pars. (16) to (19). Pub. L. 101–627 added pars. (16) to (19).

1986—Pars. (12) to (15). Pub. L. 99–659 added pars. (12) to (15).

1983—Pars. (9) to (11). Pub. L. 97–453 added pars. (9) to (11).

1979—Pars. (6) to (8). Pub. L. 96–61 added pars. (6) to (8).

1978—Par. (5). Pub. L. 95–354 added par. (5).

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§1883. Gulf of Mexico red snapper research

(a) Independent peer review

(1) Within 30 days of October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall initiate an independent peer review to evaluate—

(A) the accuracy and adequacy of fishery statistics used by the Secretary for the red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico to account for all commercial, recreational, and charter fishing harvests and fishing effort on the stock;

(B) the appropriateness of the scientific methods, information, and models used by the Secretary to assess the status and trends of the Gulf of Mexico red snapper stock and as the basis for the fishery management plan for the Gulf of Mexico red snapper fishery;

(C) the appropriateness and adequacy of the management measures in the fishery management plan for red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico for conserving and managing the red snapper fishery under this chapter; and

(D) the costs and benefits of all reasonable alternatives to a limited access privilege program for the red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico.


(2) The Secretary shall ensure that commercial, recreational, and charter fishermen in the red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico are provided an opportunity to—

(A) participate in the peer review under this subsection; and

(B) provide information to the Secretary concerning the review of fishery statistics under this subsection without being subject to penalty under this chapter or other applicable law for any past violation of a requirement to report such information to the Secretary.


(3) The Secretary shall submit a detailed written report on the findings of the peer review conducted under this subsection to the Gulf Council no later than one year after October 11, 1996.

(b) Prohibition

In addition to the restrictions under section 1853(d)(1)(A) of this title, the Gulf Council may not, prior to October 1, 2002, undertake or continue the preparation of any fishery management plan, plan amendment or regulation under this chapter for the Gulf of Mexico commercial red snapper fishery that creates an individual fishing quota program or that authorizes the consolidation of licenses, permits, or endorsements that result in different trip limits for vessels in the same class.

(c) Referendum

(1) On or after October 1, 2002, the Gulf Council may prepare and submit a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation for the Gulf of Mexico commercial red snapper fishery that creates a limited access privilege program or that authorizes the consolidation of licenses, permits, or endorsements that result in different trip limits for vessels in the same class, only if the preparation of such plan, amendment, or regulation is approved in a referendum conducted under paragraph (2) and only if the submission to the Secretary of such plan, amendment, or regulation is approved in a subsequent referendum conducted under paragraph (2).

(2) The Secretary, at the request of the Gulf Council, shall conduct referendums under this subsection. Only a person who held an annual vessel permit with a red snapper endorsement for such permit on September 1, 1996 (or any person to whom such permit with such endorsement was transferred after such date) and vessel captains who harvested red snapper in a commercial fishery using such endorsement in each red snapper fishing season occurring between January 1, 1993, and such date may vote in a referendum under this subsection. The referendum shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast. The Secretary shall develop a formula to weigh votes based on the proportional harvest under each such permit and endorsement and by each such captain in the fishery between January 1, 1993, and September 1, 1996. Prior to each referendum, the Secretary, in consultation with the Council, shall—

(A) identify and notify all such persons holding permits with red snapper endorsements and all such vessel captains; and

(B) make available to all such persons and vessel captains information about the schedule, procedures, and eligibility requirements for the referendum and the proposed individual fishing quota program.

(d) Catch limits

Any fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation submitted by the Gulf Council for the red snapper fishery after October 11, 1996, shall contain conservation and management measures that—

(1) establish separate quotas for recreational fishing (which, for the purposes of this subsection shall include charter fishing) and commercial fishing that, when reached, result in a prohibition on the retention of fish caught during recreational fishing and commercial fishing, respectively, for the remainder of the fishing year; and

(2) ensure that such quotas reflect allocations among such sectors and do not reflect any harvests in excess of such allocations.

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §407, as added Pub. L. 104–297, title II, §207(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3612; amended Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title I, §144(a)(3), (4)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-238; Pub. L. 109–479, §3(d)(1)(B), Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3578.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(C), (2)(B) and (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, known as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsecs. (a)(1)(D), (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–479 substituted "a limited access privilege" for "an individual fishing quota".

2000—Subsecs. (b), (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted "October 1, 2002," for "October 1, 2000,".

§1884. Deep sea coral research and technology program

(a) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with appropriate regional fishery management councils and in coordination with other federal 1 agencies and educational institutions, shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, establish a program—

(1) to identify existing research on, and known locations of, deep sea corals and submit such information to the appropriate Councils;

(2) to locate and map locations of deep sea corals and submit such information to the Councils;

(3) to monitor activity in locations where deep sea corals are known or likely to occur, based on best scientific information available, including through underwater or remote sensing technologies and submit such information to the appropriate Councils;

(4) to conduct research, including cooperative research with fishing industry participants, on deep sea corals and related species, and on survey methods;

(5) to develop technologies or methods designed to assist fishing industry participants in reducing interactions between fishing gear and deep sea corals; and

(6) to prioritize program activities in areas where deep sea corals are known to occur, and in areas where scientific modeling or other methods predict deep sea corals are likely to be present.

(b) Reporting

Beginning 1 year after January 12, 2007, the Secretary, in consultation with the Councils, shall submit biennial reports to Congress and the public on steps taken by the Secretary to identify, monitor, and protect deep sea coral areas, including summaries of the results of mapping, research, and data collection performed under the program.

(Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, §408, as added Pub. L. 109–479, title II, §211, Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3618.)

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§1885. Seafood import monitoring program

Not later than 30 days after March 23, 2018, the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) shall lift the stay on the effective date of the final rule for the seafood import monitoring program published by the Secretary on December 9, 2016, (81 Fed. Reg. 88975 et seq.) for the species described in section 300.324(a)(3) of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations: Provided, That the compliance date for the species described in section 300.324(a)(3) of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations, shall occur not later than December 31, 2018: Provided further, That not later than December 31, 2018, the Secretary shall establish a traceability program for United States inland, coastal, and marine aquaculture of shrimp and abalone from point of production to entry into United States commerce: Provided further, That the Secretary shall promulgate such regulations as are necessary and appropriate to establish and implement the program: Provided further, That information collected pursuant to a regulation promulgated under this section shall be confidential and not be disclosed except for the information disclosed under section 401(b)(1) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1881a(b)(1)): Provided further, That any regulations promulgated under this section shall be enforced as if this section were a provision of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) and the regulations were promulgated under such Act.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. B, title V, §539, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 445.)

References in Text

The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2018, and also as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, and not as part of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act which comprises this chapter.